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Sample records for polyoma jc virus

  1. Human polyoma viruses and disease with emphasis on clinical BK and JC.

    PubMed

    Boothpur, Raghavender; Brennan, Daniel C

    2010-04-01

    Polyoma viruses are ubiquitous infecting many different mammalian species including humans. There are five known human polyoma viruses. JC virus and BK virus are two polyoma viruses identified nearly three decades ago. Recently WU, KI and Merkel cell polyoma viruses have been isolated from humans. The exact role of these three newly discovered viruses in human disease is not known. Most human polyoma disease is caused by BK and JC viruses which are usually acquired in childhood. Approximately 50-80% of humans have seropositivity to these viruses. Clinically apparent diseases in immunocompetent hosts are extremely rare. These viruses remain latent possibly in the lymphoid organs, neuronal tissue, and kidney and under the circumstances of severe immunosuppression both these viruses reactivate. Neurotropic JC virus reaches the brain and causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a high mortality rate. BK virus is urotheliotropic and its reactivation causes a form of interstitial nephritis, known as BK or polyoma virus associated nephropathy which is associated with high graft loss if not recognized early. There are no known effective antiviral agents for any of the polyoma viruses.

  2. Hypothesis: {open_quotes}Rogue cell{close_quotes}-type chromosomal damage in lymphocytes is associated with infection with the JC human polyoma virus and has implications for oncopenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Glover, T.; Burgess, A.

    1996-04-02

    The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the JC and BK polyoma viruses (JCV and BKV, respectively) are significantly elevated in individuals exhibiting {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} cells among their cultured lymphocytes. However, the elevation is so much greater with respect to JCV that the BKV elevation could readily be explained by cross reactivity to the capsid protein of these two closely related viruses. The JCV exhibits highly sequence homology with the simian papovavirus, simian virus 40 (SV40), and inoculation of human fetal brain cells with JCV produces polyploidy and chromosomal damage very similar to that produced by SV40. We suggest, by analogy with the effects of SV40, that these changes are due to the action of the viral large tumor antigen, a pluripotent DNA binding protein that acts in both transcription and replication. The implications of these findings for oncogenesis are briefly discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. BK and JC virus: a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Michelle; Dobson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are ubiquitous, species-specific viruses belonging to the family Papovaviridae. The two most commonly known human polyomaviruses, BK virus and JC virus were first described in the 1970s. Newer human polyomaviruses, namely KI polyoma virus, WU polyoma virus and Merkel cell polyoma virus were identified in the last five years. Most humans encounter BK and JC virus during childhood, causing mild illness. However, when reactivated or acquired in the immunocompromised host, BK and JC virus have been implicated in a number of human clinical disease states. BK is most commonly associated with renal involvement, such as ureteral stenosis, hemorrhagic cystitis and nephropathy. Less commonly, it is associated with pneumonitis, retinitis, liver disease and meningoencephalitis. JC virus is most well known for its association with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and is possibly implicated in the development of various human neoplasms. The following chapter will outline the basic virology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of BK and JC virus and discuss relevant diagnostic and treatment options.

  4. Herpes and polyoma family viruses in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    STAMATIOU, DIMITRIS P.; DERDAS, STAVROS P.; ZORAS, ODYSSEAS L.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.

    2016-01-01

    virus families, the herpes and polyoma family viruses, and we discuss their potential role as causative agents in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:26998055

  5. Distinct transformation phenotypes induced by polyoma virus and simian virus 40 in rat fibroblasts and their control by an early viral gene function.

    PubMed Central

    Perbal, B; Rassoulzadegan, M

    1980-01-01

    Several transformed cell lines established from Fisher rat cells (FR 3T3) infected with wild-type polyoma virus or simian virus 40 or early temperature-sensitive mutants (polyoma tsa and simian virus 40 tsA30) were studied for their transformation phenotypes. The distinct patterns which were obtained for polyoma and simian virus 40 transformants led to the conclusion that these two viruses express different transforming abilities in rat cells. The results obtained with temperature-sensitive mutant-derived transformants indicate that all of the transformation characteristics studied so far may be under the control of a viral function in polyoma tsa-transformed cells. Images PMID:6251242

  6. Dissociation of polyoma virus by the chelation of calcium ions found associated with purified virions.

    PubMed

    Brady, J N; Winston, V D; Consigli, R A

    1977-09-01

    Analysis of polyoma virions by X-ray fluorometry demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+) was associated with the purified virion. Treatment of purified virions with ethyleneglycol-bis-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), which chelates Ca2+, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol caused the virions to dissociate. Electron microscopy revealed that the virions were dissociated to the capsomere level. Incubation of polyoma virions with 150 mM NaCl, 10 mM EGTA, and 3 mM dithiothreitol was optimum for the dissociation reaction. The pH for the dissociation reaction ranged from 7.5 to 10.5. Cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation indicated that both EGTA and dithiothreitol were necessary for dissociation to occur; neither reagent alone dissociated the virus. The major protein product of the dissociated viral particles sedimented at 12S. Relationships between these experiments and the alkaline carbonate-bicarbonate dissociation of polyoma are discussed. PMID:197269

  7. Human Cytomegalovirus Induces JC Virus DNA Replication in Human Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronn, Regine; Albrecht, Ingrid; Stephan, Sonja; Burkle, Alexander; Zur Hausen, Harald

    1993-12-01

    JC virus, a human papovavirus, is the causative agent of the demyelinating brain disease progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but fatal disease which develops as a complication of severe immunosuppression. Latent JC virus is harbored by many asymptomatic carriers and is transiently reactivated from the latent state upon immunosuppression. JC virus has a very restricted host range, with human glial cells being the only tissue in which it can replicate at reasonable efficiency. Evidence that latent human cytomegalovirus is harbored in the kidney similar to latent JC virus led to the speculation that during episodes of impaired immunocompetence, cytomegalovirus might serve as helper virus for JC virus replication in otherwise nonpermissive cells. We show here that cytomegalovirus infection indeed leads to considerable JC virus DNA replication in cultured human fibroblasts that are nonpermissive for the replication of JC virus alone. Cytomegalovirus-mediated JC virus replication is dependent on the JC virus origin of replication and T antigen. Ganciclovir-induced inhibition of cytomegalovirus replication is associated with a concomitant inhibition of JC virus replication. These results suggest that reactivation of cytomegalovirus during episodes of immunosuppression might lead to activation of latent JC virus, which would enhance the probability of subsequent PML development. Ganciclovir-induced repression of both cytomegalovirus and JC virus replication may form the rational basis for the development of an approach toward treatment or prevention of PML.

  8. Hydronephrosis Resulting from Bilateral Ureteral Stenosis: A Late Complication of Polyoma BK Virus Cystitis?

    PubMed Central

    Basara, N.; Rasche, F.-M.; Schwalenberg, T.; Wickenhauser, C.; Maier, M.; Ivovic, J.; Niederwieser, D.; Lindner, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    We report here a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission presenting a late-onset bilateral hydronephrosis probably due to polyoma BK virus-induced proliferation of bladder endothelium on both ostii. The diagnosis was made virologically by BK virus Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection in the absence of any other bladder disease. Awareness of this late complication is necessary not only in patients after renal transplantation but also in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched unrelated donor. PMID:20936157

  9. Genetic Economy of Polyoma Virus: Capsid Proteins Are Cleavage Products of Same Viral Gene

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Theodore

    1974-01-01

    Two-dimensional tryptic peptide maps of the nonhistone proteins of purified polyoma virus show marked similarities. Protein P1 is a nondisaggregated, possibly covalent, dimer of the major capsid protein P2, whereas P3 and P4 share several new peptides as well as many of the peptides derived from P2. Extensive use of this kind of processing of viral proteins during the biosynthesis of DNA-containing animal viruses has not been reported previously. Images PMID:4360936

  10. Integration site of polyoma virus DNA in the inducible LPT line of polyoma-transformed rat cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, E; Baran, N; Neer, A; Manor, H

    1982-01-01

    The structure of the polyoma virus (Py) integration site in the inducible LPT line of Py-transformed rat cells was determined by biochemical methods of gene mapping. LPT cell DNA was digested with various restriction enzymes. The digestion products were electrophoresed in agarose gels and transferred onto nitrocellulose sheets by Southern blotting. Fragments containing viral or cell DNA sequences, or both, were identified by hybridization with Py DNA or with a cloned flanking cell DNA probe. Cleavage of LPT DNA with enzymes that restrict the Py genome once generated linear Py DNA molecules and two fragments containing both cell and viral DNA sequences. Cleavage of LPT DNA with enzymes which do not restrict Py DNA generated series of fragments whose lengths were found to differ by increments of a whole Py genome; the smallest fragment in each series was found to be longer than the viral genome. These data indicate that LPT cultures contain Py insertions of various lengths integrated into the same chromosomal site in all the cells. The length heterogeneity of the viral insertions is due to the presence of 0, 1, 2, 3. . . Py genomes arranged in a direct tandem repeat within invariable sequences of viral DNA. Double-digestion experiments were also carried out with the above enzymes and with enzymes that cleave the Py genome at multiple sites. The data obtained in these experiments were used to construct a physical map of the integration site. This map showed that the early region of the virus remained intact even in the smallest insertion (which contains no whole duplicated genomes), whereas the late region was partially duplicated and split during integration. The smallest insertion is colinear with the Py physical map over a region including the entire Py genome and at least a part of the duplicated segment. This structure could give rise to nondefective circular viral DNA molecules by single homologous recombination events. Similar recombination events may occur at

  11. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study.

  12. Ludwik Gross, Sarah Stewart, and the 1950s discoveries of Gross murine leukemia virus and polyoma virus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gregory J

    2014-12-01

    The Polish-American scientist Ludwik Gross made two important discoveries in the early 1950s. He showed that two viruses - murine leukemia virus and parotid tumor virus - could cause cancer when they were injected into susceptible animals. At first, Gross's discoveries were greeted with skepticism: it seemed implausible that viruses could cause a disease as complex as cancer. Inspired by Gross's initial experiments, similar results were obtained by Sarah Stewart and Bernice Eddy who later renamed the parotid tumor virus SE polyoma virus after finding it could cause many different types of tumors in mice, hamsters, and rats. Eventually the "SE" was dropped and virologists adopted the name "polyoma virus." After Gross's work was published, additional viruses capable of causing solid tumors or blood-borne tumors in mice were described by Arnold Graffi, Charlotte Friend, John Moloney and others. By 1961, sufficient data had been accumulated for Gross to confidently publish an extensive monograph--Oncogenic Viruses--the first history of tumor virology, which became a standard reference work and marked the emergence of tumor virology as a distinct, legitimate field of study. PMID:25223721

  13. Polyoma virus early-late switch: regulation of late RNA accumulation by DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Carmichael, G G

    1993-09-15

    Early in infection of permissive mouse cells, messages from the early region of the polyoma virus genome accumulate preferentially over those from the late region. After initiation of DNA replication, the balance between early and late gene expression is reversed in favor of the late products. In previous work from our laboratory, we showed that viral early proteins do not activate the polyoma late promoter in the absence of DNA replication. Here we show that activation of the late genes in replication-incompetent viral genomes can occur if actively replicating genomes are present in the same cell. A low level of DNA replication, however, is insufficient to induce the early-late switch. Furthermore, replication-competent genomes that fail to accumulate late RNA molecules are defective in the transactivation of replication-incompetent genomes. We suggest that titration of an unknown diffusible factor(s) after DNA replication relieves the block to late RNA accumulation seen in the early phase, with most of this titration being attributable to late-strand RNA molecules themselves.

  14. Polyoma (BK) virus associated urothelial carcinoma originating within a renal allograft five years following resolution of polyoma virus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Steven P; Myers-Gurevitch, Patricia M; Chu, Stacy; Robinson, Brian D; Dadhania, Darshana; Seshan, Surya V

    2016-03-01

    A direct role for BK polyomavirus infection in malignant tumors of renal allografts and urinary tract is emerging. Case reports suggest a link between BK virus (BKV) reactivation and development of malignancy in renal allograft recipients. Herein we describe the first case of BKV positive invasive urothelial carcinoma within the renal allograft, presenting with chronic diarrhea and weight loss 5 years following resolution of BK viremia/nephropathy (BKVN). Unique to our case was the remote history of BK viremia/BKVN, rising titer of anti-HLA antibody and presence of renal limited urothelial carcinoma with microinvasion of malignant cells staining positive for SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag). These findings suggest that persistence of subclinical BKV infection within the renal allograft may play a role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. Patients with history of BKVN may be at risk for kidney and urinary tract malignancy despite resolution of BK viremia/BKVN.

  15. Polyoma (BK) virus associated urothelial carcinoma originating within a renal allograft five years following resolution of polyoma virus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Steven P; Myers-Gurevitch, Patricia M; Chu, Stacy; Robinson, Brian D; Dadhania, Darshana; Seshan, Surya V

    2016-03-01

    A direct role for BK polyomavirus infection in malignant tumors of renal allografts and urinary tract is emerging. Case reports suggest a link between BK virus (BKV) reactivation and development of malignancy in renal allograft recipients. Herein we describe the first case of BKV positive invasive urothelial carcinoma within the renal allograft, presenting with chronic diarrhea and weight loss 5 years following resolution of BK viremia/nephropathy (BKVN). Unique to our case was the remote history of BK viremia/BKVN, rising titer of anti-HLA antibody and presence of renal limited urothelial carcinoma with microinvasion of malignant cells staining positive for SV40 large T antigen (T-Ag). These findings suggest that persistence of subclinical BKV infection within the renal allograft may play a role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. Patients with history of BKVN may be at risk for kidney and urinary tract malignancy despite resolution of BK viremia/BKVN. PMID:26709521

  16. Protection against polyoma virus-induced tumors is perforin-independent

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, Anthony M.; Hadley, Annette; Lukacher, Aron E. . E-mail: alukach@emory.edu

    2007-02-20

    CD8 T cells are necessary for controlling tumors induced by mouse polyoma virus (PyV), but the effector mechanism(s) responsible have not been determined. We examined the PyV tumorigenicity in C57BL/6 mice mutated in Fas or carrying targeted disruptions in the perforin gene or in both TNF receptor type I and type II genes. Surprisingly, none of these mice developed tumors. Perforin/Fas double-deficient radiation bone marrow chimeric mice were also resistant to PyV-induced tumors. Anti-PyV CD8 T cells in perforin-deficient mice were found not to differ from wild type mice with respect to phenotype, capacity to produce cytokines or maintenance of memory T cells, indicating that perforin does not modulate the PyV-specific CD8 T cell response. In addition, virus was cleared and persisted to similar extents in wild type and perforin-deficient mice. In summary, perforin/granzyme exocytosis is not an essential effector pathway for protection against PyV infection or tumorigenesis.

  17. Differences in regulatory sequences of naturally occurring JC virus variants.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J D; King, D M; Slauch, J M; Frisque, R J

    1985-01-01

    The regulatory region was sequenced for DNAs representative of seven independent isolates of JC virus, the probable agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The isolates included an oncogenic variant (MAD-4), an antigenic variant (MAD-11), and two different isolates derived from the urine (MAD-7) and from the brain (MAD-8) of the same patient. The representative DNAs were molecularly cloned directly from diseased brain tissue and from human fetal glial cells infected with the corresponding isolated viruses. The regulatory sequences of these DNAs were compared with those of the prototype isolate, MAD-1, sequenced previously (R. J. Frisque, J. Virol. 46:170-176, 1983). We found that the regulatory region of JC viral DNA is highly variable due to complex alterations of the previously described 98-base-pair repeat of MAD-1 DNA. On the basis of these alterations, there are two general types of JC virus. There were no consistent alterations in regulatory sequences which could distinguish brain tissue DNAs from tissue culture DNAs. Furthermore, for each isolate except MAD-1 (R. J. Frisque, J. Virol. 46:170-176, 1983), the regulatory regions of brain tissue and tissue culture DNAs were not identical. The arrangement, sequence, or both of potential regulatory elements (TATA sequence, GGGXGGPuPu, tandem repeats) of JC viral DNAs are sufficiently different from those in other viral and eucaryotic systems that they may effect the unique properties of this slow virus. PMID:2981353

  18. JC Virus PCR Detection Is Not Infallible: A Fulminant Case of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy with False-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Studies despite Progressive Clinical Course and Radiological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Babi, Mohamed-Ali; Pendlebury, William; Braff, Steven; Waheed, Waqar

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case with a false-negative PCR-based analysis for JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a patient with clinical and radiological findings suggestive of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) who was on chronic immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Our patient developed rapidly progressive global decline with clinical and radiographic findings suggestive of PML, but JC virus PCR in CSF was negative. The patient passed away 3 months from the onset of her neurological symptoms. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PML with presence of JC-polyoma virus by immunohistochemical staining. This case highlights the potential of false-negative JC virus PCR in CSF when radiographic and clinical features are suggestive of “possible PML.” We review the plausible causes of potential false-negative CSF results and suggest that when the clinical presentation is suspicious for PML repeat CSF analysis utilizing ultrasensitive PCR assay and subsequent brain biopsy should be considered if CSF remains negative. Additionally, appropriate exclusion of other neurologic conditions is essential. PMID:25861493

  19. Expression and amplification in transgenic mice of a polyoma virus mutant regulatory region.

    PubMed Central

    Krippl, B; Griep, A E; Mahon, K A; Böhnlein, E; Gruss, P; Westphal, H

    1988-01-01

    Two hybrid gene constructs consisting of wild-type and mutant polyoma regulatory regions fused to a bacterial reporter gene were inserted in the mouse germline. Both transgenes were expressed in a large number of different organs. However, marker gene expression controlled by the polyoma wild-type regulatory region was not detectable in the early embryo and remained low throughout the life of the animal while expression controlled by the polyoma F9-1 mutation was detectable in blastocysts and was significantly higher at later stages of development. The F9-1 hybrid gene was also amplifiable when large T-antigen was supplied in trans to mice or to kidney cells derived from these transgenic mice. Amplification resulted in the appearance of several hundred copies of episomal transgenes and a marked increase of marker gene RNA and protein. Our results suggest that the F9-1 mutation does not alter the target spectrum of gene expression in vivo but does create a more efficient enhancer element in the polyoma early control region. Transgene amplification based upon use of the polyoma regulatory elements may be a means of increasing expression of genes in transgenic mice. Images PMID:2845362

  20. Individuals infected with JC polyomavirus do not present detectable JC virus DNA in oropharyngeal fluids.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana; Duque, Vitor; Luxo, Cristina; Meliço-Silvestre, António; Major, Eugene O

    2012-04-01

    JC virus (JCV) is ubiquitous in the human population. Primary infection normally occurs during childhood and is followed by a lifelong persistent infection. The main mode of transmission remains unknown. Several authors have hypothesized that JCV transmission occurs through the respiratory route, and that respiratory secretions could represent a possible source of viral particles. The present study intended to evaluate oropharyngeal fluids from patients infected with JCV, in order to ascertain if respiratory secretions could indeed constitute a source of exposure to this polyomavirus. Oropharyngeal washing samples from 25 patients co-infected with JCV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were evaluated for the presence of JCV DNA. Regardless of the titre of antibodies or the presence of viral urinary excretion, JCV genome was not detected in oropharyngeal samples collected from any of the patients infected with JCV included in this study, which may suggest that oropharyngeal fluids are an unlikely source for JCV infection.

  1. Primary polyoma virus-induced murine thymic epithelial tumors. A tumor model of thymus physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hoot, G. P.; Kettman, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Thymic tumors were induced in C3'/Bittner mice by neonatal inoculation with polyoma virus. The objective of this study was to identify the phenotypes of the cells within the tumors and to attempt to determine the origin of the neoplastic cell population(s). At the ultrastructural level, the neoplastic cells resembled normal thymic epithelium with tonofilaments and desmosomes. Immunoperoxidase staining demonstrated the presence of cytokeratin, Iak, -beta 2-microglobulin, -asialo-GM1, the thymic cortical epithelial marker ER-TR4, and the medullary epithelial marker ER-TR5. Islands of normal cortical thymocytes supported by residual normal cortical epithelium and acid phosphatase-positive cortical macrophages were interspersed in the tumors. Residual islands of normal medullary architecture with nonspecific esterase-positive IDCs were rarely identified in tumors. Most lymphocytes in the tumors were normal immature cortical thymocytes with the phenotype Tdt+, PNA+, Thy 1.2bright, Ly-1dull, H-2Kkdull, ThB+, J11d+, and Lyt-2+L3T4+. Lymphocytes in the tumors were steroid-sensitive like normal thymocytes. The proportions of Lyt-2+L3T4- and Lyt-2-L3T4+ cells were generally larger in the tumors than in normal thymus and reflected the higher frequency of lymphocytes in the tumors capable of proliferating in vitro in response to Con A plus IL-2. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that the neoplasia originates from thymic epithelium that is interspersed with normal, developing thymic lymphocytes. Images Figure 4 p[688]-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 p687-a Figure 7 PMID:2552813

  2. Inhibitory interactions between BK and JC virus among kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xingxing S; Bohl, Daniel L; Storch, Gregory A; Ryschkewitsch, Caroline; Gaudreault-Keener, Monique; Major, Eugene O; Randhawa, Parmjeet; Hardinger, Karen L; Brennan, Daniel C

    2011-05-01

    BK and JC polyomaviruses can reactivate after transplantation, causing renal dysfunction and graft loss. The incidence of JC reactivation after renal transplant is not well understood. Here, we characterized JC reactivation using samples collected during the first year after transplantation from 200 kidney recipients. We detected BK and JC viruses in the urine of 35 and 16% of transplant recipients, respectively. The median viral load in the urine was 400 times higher for BK virus than JC virus. The presence of BK viruria made concurrent JC viruria less likely: JC viruria was detected in 22% of non-BK viruric recipients compared with 4% of BK viruric recipients (P=0.001). The co-detection rate was 1.5%, which is less than the expected 5.6% if reactivation of each virus was independent (P=0.001). We did not observe JC viremia, JC nephropathy, or progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The onset of JC viruria was associated with donor, but not recipient, JC-specific antibody in a titer-dependent fashion and inversely associated with donor and recipient BK-specific antibody. Donor and recipient JC seropositivity did not predict BK viruria or viremia. In conclusion, among renal transplant recipients, infection with one polyomavirus inversely associates with infection with the other.

  3. In Vivo siRNA Delivery Using JC Virus-like Particles Decreases the Expression of RANKL in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel B; Böker, Kai O; Schneider, Stefan; Eckermann-Felkl, Ellen; Schuder, Angelina; Komrakova, Marina; Sehmisch, Stephan; Gruber, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between formation and resorption. This complex process involves numerous factors that orchestrate a multitude of biochemical events. Among these factors are hormones, growth factors, vitamins, cytokines, and, most notably, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in shifting the RANKL/OPG balance toward excessive RANKL, resulting in osteoclastogenesis, which in turn initiates bone resorption, which is frequently associated with osteoporosis. Rebalancing RANKL/OPG levels may be achieved through either upregulation of OPG or through transient silencing of RANKL by means of RNA interference. Here, we describe the utilization of a viral capsid-based delivery system for in vivo and in vitro RNAi using synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in rat osteoblasts. Polyoma JC virus-derived virus-like particles are capable of delivering siRNAs to target RANKL in osteoblast cells both in vitro and in a rat in vivo system. Expression levels were monitored using quantitative real-time polymerase reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after single and repeated injections over a 14-day period. Our data indicate that this is an efficient and safe route for in vivo delivery of gene modulatory tools to study important molecular factors in a rat osteoporosis model. PMID:27003757

  4. In Vivo siRNA Delivery Using JC Virus-like Particles Decreases the Expression of RANKL in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Daniel B; Böker, Kai O; Schneider, Stefan; Eckermann-Felkl, Ellen; Schuder, Angelina; Komrakova, Marina; Sehmisch, Stephan; Gruber, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between formation and resorption. This complex process involves numerous factors that orchestrate a multitude of biochemical events. Among these factors are hormones, growth factors, vitamins, cytokines, and, most notably, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in shifting the RANKL/OPG balance toward excessive RANKL, resulting in osteoclastogenesis, which in turn initiates bone resorption, which is frequently associated with osteoporosis. Rebalancing RANKL/OPG levels may be achieved through either upregulation of OPG or through transient silencing of RANKL by means of RNA interference. Here, we describe the utilization of a viral capsid-based delivery system for in vivo and in vitro RNAi using synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules in rat osteoblasts. Polyoma JC virus-derived virus-like particles are capable of delivering siRNAs to target RANKL in osteoblast cells both in vitro and in a rat in vivo system. Expression levels were monitored using quantitative real-time polymerase reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after single and repeated injections over a 14-day period. Our data indicate that this is an efficient and safe route for in vivo delivery of gene modulatory tools to study important molecular factors in a rat osteoporosis model. PMID:27003757

  5. Confronting JC virus and Homo sapiens biological signatures.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Guglielmo

    2013-01-01

    The present report describes the peptide commonality between JC virus (JCV) and the human proteome at the heptamer level. In total, 53 viral heptapeptides occur in functionally important human proteins with potential consequences for host functions and JCV pathogenesis. A paradigmatic example of a crucial peptide match is the SGKTTLA sequence, shared by JCV LT antigen and human nicotinamide/nicotinic acid riboside kinase, an enzyme involved in myelination processes. In general, the JCV-versus-host heptapeptide overlap may result in a competition between viral sequences and identical motifs in host enzymic active sites, adhesive domains, regulatory signaling motifs, etc., thus interfering with essential reactions and posing disadvantages to the cell. Overall, this study provides a starting point for investigating the role of peptide commonality in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23276955

  6. JC virus Reactivation During Prolonged Natalizumab Monotherapy for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chalkias, Spyridon; Dang, Xin; Bord, Evelyn; Stein, Marion C.; Kinkel, R. Philip; Sloane, Jacob A.; Donnelly, Maureen; Ionete, Carolina; Houtchens, Maria K.; Buckle, Guy J.; Batson, Stephanie; Koralnik, Igor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of JC virus (JCV) reactivation and JCV-specific cellular immune response during prolonged natalizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We enrolled 43 JCV-seropositive MS patients, including 32 on natalizumab monotherapy>18 months, 6 on interferon β-1a monotherapy>36 months and 5 untreated controls. We performed QPCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood and urine for JCV DNA and we determined JCV-specific T cell responses using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays, ex vivo and after in vitro stimulation with JCV peptides. Results JCV DNA was detected in the CSF of 2/27 (7.4%) natalizumab-treated MS patients who had no symptoms or MRI lesions consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. JCV DNA was detected in blood of 12/43 (27.9%) and in urine of 11/43 (25.6%) subjects without difference between natalizumab-treated patients and controls. JC viral load was higher in CD34+ cells and in monocytes compared to other subpopulations. ICS was more sensitive than ELISpot, and JCV-specific T cell responses, mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, were detected more frequently after in vitro stimulation. JCV-specific CD4+ T-cells were detected ex vivo more frequently in MS patients with JCV DNA in CD34+ (p=0.05) and B cells (p=0.03). Interpretation Asymptomatic JCV reactivation may occur in CSF of natalizumab-treated MS patients. JCV DNA load is higher in circulating CD34+ cells and monocytes compared to other mononuclear cells, and JCV in blood might trigger a JCV-specific CD4+ T-cell response. JCV-specific cellular immune response is highly prevalent in all JCV-seropositive MS patients, regardless of treatment. PMID:24687904

  7. Immune surveillance and response to JC virus infection and PML

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Sarah; Gordon, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) is the established etiological agent of the debilitating and often fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Most healthy individuals have been infected with JCV and generate an immune response to the virus, yet remain persistently infected at subclinical levels. The onset of PML is rare in the general population, but has become an increasing concern in immunocompromised patients, where reactivation of JCV leads to uncontrolled replication in the CNS. Understanding viral persistence and the normal immune response to JCV provides insight into the circumstances which could lead to viral resurgence. Further, clues on the potential mechanisms of reactivation may be gleaned from the crosstalk among JCV and HIV-1, as well as the impact of monoclonal antibody therapies used for the treatment of autoimmune disorders, including multiple sclerosis, on the development of PML. In this review, we will discuss what is known about viral persistence and the immune response to JCV replication in immunocompromised individuals to elucidate the deficiencies in viral containment that permit viral reactivation and spread. PMID:24297501

  8. Reining in polyoma virus associated nephropathy: design and characterization of a template mimicking BK viral coat protein cellular binding.

    PubMed

    Audu, Christopher O; O'Hara, Bethany; Pellegrini, Maria; Wang, Lei; Atwood, Walter J; Mierke, Dale F

    2012-10-16

    The BK polyoma virus is a leading cause of chronic post kidney transplantation rejection. One target for therapeutic intervention is the initial association of the BK virus with the host cell. We hypothesize that the rate of BKV infection can be curbed by competitively preventing viral binding to cells. The X-ray structures of homologous viruses complexed with N-terminal glycoproteins suggest that the BC and HI loops of the viral coat are determinant for binding and thereby infection of the host cell. The large size of the viral coat precludes it from common biophysical and small molecule screening studies. Hence, we sought to develop a smaller protein template incorporating the identified binding loops of the BK viral coat in a manner that adequately mimics the binding characteristics of the BK virus coat protein to cells. Such a mimic may serve as a tool for the identification of inhibitors of BK viral progression. Herein, we report the design and characterization of a reduced-size and soluble template derived from a four-helix protein-TM1526 of Thermatoga maritima archaea bacteria-which maintains the topological display of the BC and HI loops as found in the viral coat protein, VP1, of BKV. We demonstrate that the GT1b and GD1b sialogangliosides, which bind to the VP1 of BKV, also associate with our BKV template. Employing a GFP-tagged template, we show host cell association that is dose dependent and that can be reduced by neuraminidase treatment. These data demonstrate that the BKV template mimics the host cell binding observed for the wild-type virus coat protein VP1.

  9. Viral proteomics: a promising approach for understanding JC virus tropism.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Veerasamy; Major, Eugene O

    2006-10-01

    The human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) is responsible for the CNS demyelination observed in cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The JCV regulatory region (promoter) is a hypervariable, noncoding, nucleotide sequence positioned between the early and late protein-coding regions in the viral genome. Selective binding of cellular transcription factors to this promoter region participates in the control of viral tropism. Hence, further study of these proteins might provide new insights into JCV tropism and associated pathogenesis. This review gives an overview of viral proteomics - the study of all proteins expressed from the viral gene transcripts, and all the cellular proteins that play a role in JCV tropism. It also describes a new biochemical approach for studying relevant JCV promoter-binding proteins, which is an anchored-JCV transcriptional promoter (ATP) assay. An ATP assay utilizes the product of PCR-amplified JCV promoter sequences coupled with Sepharose beads in order to capture and isolate cellular nuclear proteins with specific promoter-binding affinity for analysis. Proteins that bind to JCV-ATPs can be eluted and subjected to proteomic analysis. Insights from this approach may improve the understanding of viral and cellular parameters that control JCV tropism.

  10. Early growth response-1 protein is induced by JC virus infection and binds and regulates the JC virus promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Romagnoli, Luca; Sariyer, Ilker K.; Tung, Jacqueline; Feliciano, Mariha; Sawaya, Bassel E.; Del Valle, Luis; Ferrante, Pasquale; Khalili, Kamel; Safak, Mahmut; White, Martyn K.

    2008-06-05

    JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that can emerge from a latent state to cause the cytolytic destruction of oligodendrocytes in the brain resulting in the fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Previous studies described a cis-acting transcriptional regulatory element in the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR) that is involved in the response of JCV to cytokines. This consists of a 23 base pair GGA/C rich sequence (GRS) near the replication origin (5112 to + 4) that contains potential binding sites for Sp1 and Egr-1. Gel shift analysis showed that Egr-1, but not Sp1, bound to GRS. Evidence is presented that the GRS gel shift seen on cellular stimulation is due to Egr-1. Thus, TPA-induced GRS gel shift could be blocked by antibody to Egr-1. Further, the TPA-induced GRS DNA/protein complex was isolated and found to contain Egr-1 by Western blot. No other Egr-1 sites were found in the JCV NCCR. Functionally, Egr-1 was found to stimulate transcription of JCV late promoter but not early promoter reporter constructs. Mutation of the Egr-1 site abrogated Egr-1 binding and virus with the mutated Egr-1 site showed markedly reduced VP1 expression and DNA replication. Infection of primary astrocytes by wild-type JCV induced Egr-1 nuclear expression that was maximal at 5-10 days post-infection. Finally, upregulation of Egr-1 was detected in PML by immunohistochemistry. These data suggest that Egr-1 induction may be important in the life cycle of JCV and PML pathogenesis.

  11. Down-regulation of cytokeratin 14 mRNA in polyoma virus middle T-transformed rat liver epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Royal, I; Gourdeau, H; Blouin, R; Marceau, N

    1992-09-01

    We have recently shown that rat liver nonparenchymal epithelial cells, such as T51B cells, selectively express cytokeratin (CK) 14 as a partner of CK8 in their intermediate filaments, and we proposed CK14 as a unique cell lineage marker of the liver epithelial cell population (R. Blouin, M-J. Blouin, I. Royal, A. Grenier, A. Loranger, D. R. Roop, and N. Marceau, Differentiation, submitted for publication, 1992). In the present study, T51B-261A (spontaneously transformed) and T51B-261B (aflatoxin B1-treated) clones and clones derived from T51B cells transfected with SV40 large T (LT) and polyoma virus middle T (MT) were used to investigate CK gene expression in nontransformed and transformed liver epithelial cells. T51B-261A, T51B-261B, MT-T51B, and LT/MT-T51B clones all grew in calcium-deficient medium and formed colonies in soft agar, whereas LT-T51B clones did not grow at all in either one of these assays. T51B-261A and T51B-261B clones formed small, slow growing tumors when injected into newborn syngenic rats, whereas the MT-T51B and LT/MT-T51B clones produced rapidly forming, large tumors. There was no effect of cell transformation on CK expression, except in the clones expressing MT, where the CK intermediate filaments were completely lost. Analyses of [35S]methionine incorporation into the Triton-resistant cytoskeleton and of total proteins confirmed that CKs were absent. In contrast, vimentin intermediate filaments remained unaffected in all of the clones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Pathogenesis and molecular biology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the JC virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Major, E O; Amemiya, K; Tornatore, C S; Houff, S A; Berger, J R

    1992-01-01

    Studies of the pathogenesis and molecular biology of JC virus infection over the last two decades have significantly changed our understanding of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, which can be described as a subacute viral infection of neuroglial cells that probably follows reactivation of latent infection rather than being the consequence of prolonged JC virus replication in the brain. There is now sufficient evidence to suggest that JC virus latency occurs in kidney and B cells. However, JC virus isolates from brain or kidney differ in the regulatory regions of their viral genomes which are controlled by host cell factors for viral gene expression and replication. DNA sequences of noncoding regions of the viral genome display a certain heterogeneity among isolates from brain and kidney. These data suggest that an archetypal strain of JC virus exists whose sequence is altered during replication in different cell types. The JC virus regulatory region likely plays a significant role in establishing viral latency and must be acted upon for reactivation of the virus. A developing hypothesis is that reactivation takes place from latently infected B lymphocytes that are activated as a result of immune suppression. JC virus enters the brain in the activated B cell. Evidence for this mechanism is the detection of JC virus DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes and infected B cells in the brains of patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Once virus enters the brain, astrocytes as well as oligodendrocytes support JC virus multiplication. Therefore, JC virus infection of neuroglial cells may impair other neuroglial functions besides the production and maintenance of myelin. Consequently our increased understanding of the pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy suggests new ways to intervene in JC virus infection with immunomodulation therapies. Perhaps along with trials of nucleoside analogs or interferon administration, this fatal

  13. BK polyoma virus infection and renal disease in non-renal solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kuppachi, Sarat; Kaur, Deepkamal; Holanda, Danniele G.; Thomas, Christie P.

    2016-01-01

    BK virus (BKV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus of the polyomaviridae family that causes an interstitial nephritis in immunosuppressed patients. BKV nephropathy is now a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and early allograft failure following kidney transplantation. It is also known to cause renal disease with a progressive decline in kidney function in non-renal solid organ transplant (NRSOT) recipients, although the disease may not be recognized nor its impact appreciated in this patient population. In this report, we review the existing literature to highlight our current understanding of its incidence in NRSOT populations, the approaches to diagnosis and the potential treatment options. PMID:26985385

  14. Structural optimization of a retrograde trafficking inhibitor that protects cells from infections by human polyoma- and papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Carney, Daniel W; Nelson, Christian D S; Ferris, Bennett D; Stevens, Julia P; Lipovsky, Alex; Kazakov, Teymur; DiMaio, Daniel; Atwood, Walter J; Sello, Jason K

    2014-09-01

    Human polyoma- and papillomaviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause severe pathologies and mortalities. Under circumstances of immunosuppression, JC polyomavirus causes a fatal demyelinating disease called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and the BK polyomavirus is the etiological agent of polyomavirus-induced nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis. Human papillomavirus type 16, another non-enveloped DNA virus, is associated with the development of cancers in tissues like the uterine cervix and oropharynx. Currently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat or prevent polyomavirus infections. We recently discovered that the small molecule Retro-2(cycl), an inhibitor of host retrograde trafficking, blocked infection by several human and monkey polyomaviruses. Here, we report diversity-oriented syntheses of Retro-2(cycl) and evaluation of the resulting analogs using an assay of human cell infections by JC polyomavirus. We defined structure-activity relationships and also discovered analogs with significantly improved potency as suppressors of human polyoma- and papillomavirus infection in vitro. Our findings represent an advance in the development of drug candidates that can broadly protect humans from non-enveloped DNA viruses and toxins that exploit retrograde trafficking as a means for cell entry.

  15. JC polyomavirus nephropathy confirmed by using an in-house polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Querido, S; Jorge, C; Sousa, H; Birne, R; Matias, P; Weigert, A; Adragão, T; Bruges, M; Ramos, S; Santos, M; Paixão, P; Curran, M D; Machado, D

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of an isolated JC virus (JCV) infection, without co-infection by polyoma BK virus (BKV), associated with nephropathy 4 years after kidney transplantation. Clinical suspicion followed the observation of a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and a renal allograft biopsy revealing polyomavirus-associated tubulointerstitial nephritis and positivity for SV40. An in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, targeting the presence of JCV and the absence of BKV in biopsy tissue, confirmed diagnosis. Thirteen months after diagnosis, and following therapeutic measures, eGFR remains stable. PMID:26215933

  16. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

    PubMed

    Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Pena, Giselle Priscila Dos Anjos; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215bp) and IG (610bp) regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2); in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only) and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV) subjects regarding their TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27266589

  17. IV immunoglobulin confounds JC virus antibody serostatus determination

    PubMed Central

    Kuesters, Geoffrey; Chamot, Eric; Omari, Mirza; Dontas, Kim; Yarussi, Mary; Subramanyam, Meena; Herbert, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of therapeutic infusion of IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) on John Cunningham virus antibody (JCV Ab) serostatus and level in serum. Methods: We carried out a retrospective analysis of serum levels of JCV Ab among STRATIFY-2 trial enrollees from 2 multiple sclerosis centers who were exposed to IVIg during the trial. For the subset of eligible patients, we estimated mean linear trends while on IVIg and after stopping IVIg with a linear mixed-effects model. Results: The JCV Ab seropositivity rate in the group of patients that was recently exposed to IVIg was 100%, which is significantly higher than in the IVIg-naive population (58%, p < 0.001). The seropositivity rate in the patient group with remote IVIg exposure was similar to that in the IVIg-naive population (67%, p = 0.68, Fisher exact test). The slope of the linear trend line after stopping IVIg decreased significantly by −0.310 units per 100 days (95% confidence interval, −0.611 to −0.008; p = 0.04). Conclusions: Recent IVIg exposure is invariably associated with JCV Ab seropositivity. After stopping IVIg, JCV Ab levels tend to decrease with time, and seroreversion to innately Ab-negative status can occur. PMID:25340081

  18. Opportunistic DNA Recombination With Epstein-Barr Virus at Sites of Control Region Rearrangements Mediating JC Virus Neurovirulence.

    PubMed

    Wortman, Margaret J; Lundberg, Patric S; Dagdanova, Ayuna V; Venkataraman, Pranav; Daniel, Dianne C; Johnson, Edward M

    2016-05-01

    We document a unique DNA recombination between polyomavirus JC (JC virus [JCV]) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) at sequences of JCV found infecting the brain. Archetype JCV is present in bone marrow and uroepithelial cells of most adults. During immunosuppression, JCV can infect the brain, causing a demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Rearrangements in the archetype noncoding control region are necessary for neurovirulence. Two NCCR deletions and a duplication occur at sequences of homology with EBV, present latently in B cells, which may be coinfected with both viruses. Recombination between JCV and EBV occurs in B lymphoblasts at a sequence essential for JCV neurovirulence and in cerebrospinal fluid of immunosuppressed patients with multiple sclerosis, those susceptible to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Interviral recombination is a model for conferring advantages on JCV in the brain. It can alter a critical noncoding control region sequence and potentially facilitate use of EBV DNA abilities to transfer among different cell types.

  19. A fatal case of JC virus meningitis presenting with hydrocephalus in an HIV-seronegative patient

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Shruti P.; Wuthrich, Christian; Dang, Xin; Nauen, David; Karimi, Reza; Viscidi, Raphael; Bord, Evelyn; Batson, Stephanie; Troncoso, Juan; Koralnik, Igor J.

    2014-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JCV granule cell neuronopathy and JCV encephalopathy. Whether JCV can also cause meningitis, has not yet been demonstrated. We report a case of aseptic meningitis resulting in symptomatic hydrocephalus in an HIV-seronegative patient. Brain imaging showed enlargement of ventricles but no parenchymal lesion. She had a very high JC viral load in the CSF and developed progressive cognitive dysfunction despite ventricular drainage. She was diagnosed with pancytopenia and passed away after 5 ½ months. Post-mortem exam revealed productive JCV infection of leptomeningeal and choroid plexus cells, and limited parenchymal involvement. Sequencing of JCV CSF strain showed an archetype-like regulatory region. Further studies of the role of JCV in aseptic meningitis and in idiopathic hydrocephalus are warranted. PMID:24895208

  20. Molecular characterization of BK and JC viruses circulating among potential kidney donors in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Chehadeh, Wassim; Kurien, Susan Silpi; Nampoory, Mangalathillam Raman

    2013-01-01

    BK and JC polyomaviruses can be associated with nephropathy following renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, load, and genotypes of BK and JC viruses circulated in potential kidney donors in Kuwait. The detection of polyomavirus DNA was carried out in serum and urine samples of 165 potential kidney donors. Seventy (42%) individuals were tested positive for polyomavirus DNA, of whom 20 (12%) had detectable polyomavirus DNA in their serum samples, 40 (24%) in their urine samples, and 10 (6%) in both serum and urine samples. In the group of polyomavirus-positive patients, JC DNA could be detected in 78% of urine samples and 11% of serum samples, whereas BK DNA could be detected in 7% of urine samples and 3% of serum samples. The median polyomaviral load was low. The detected BK sequences in Kuwaiti adults formed new clusters sharing common ancestor with subgroups Ib1 and IVc, which are prevalent in Asia and Europe. Additionally, around half of the detected JCV sequences in Kuwaiti adults formed new clusters within the African subtype 3. Our results suggest high rate of polyomavirus shedding among healthy adults in Kuwait that can jeopardize their suitability for kidney donation.

  1. A fatal case of JC virus meningitis presenting with hydrocephalus in a human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative patient.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Shruti P; Wuthrich, Christian; Dang, Xin; Nauen, David; Karimi, Reza; Viscidi, Raphael; Bord, Evelyn; Batson, Stephanie; Troncoso, Juan; Koralnik, Igor J

    2014-07-01

    JC virus (JCV) is the etiologic agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JCV granule cell neuronopathy, and JCV encephalopathy. Whether JCV can also cause meningitis has not yet been demonstrated. We report a case of aseptic meningitis resulting in symptomatic hydrocephalus in a human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative patient. Brain imaging showed enlargement of ventricles but no parenchymal lesion. She had a very high JC viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and developed progressive cognitive dysfunction despite ventricular drainage. She was diagnosed with pancytopenia and passed away after 5.5 months. Postmortem examination revealed productive JCV infection of leptomeningeal and choroid plexus cells, and limited parenchymal involvement. Sequencing of JCV CSF strain showed an archetype-like regulatory region. Further studies of the role of JCV in aseptic meningitis and in idiopathic hydrocephalus are warranted.

  2. Functional comparison of PML-type and archetype strains of JC virus.

    PubMed

    Sock, E; Renner, K; Feist, D; Leger, H; Wegner, M

    1996-03-01

    Isolates of the human polyomavirus JC can be grouped as either PML-type or archetype strains primarily on the basis of divergence in their regulatory regions. Only PML-type viruses have so far been found to be associated with the human demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Here we have compared the functional properties of archetype and PML-type regulatory regions with regard to DNA replication and viral gene expression. No significant differences could be detected between archetype and PML-type regions in their ability to direct episomal DNA replication in the presence of JC virus T antigen. When viral gene expression was examined, early- and late-gene promoters from all PML-type strains exhibited a significantly higher activity in glial than in nonglial cells. Surprisingly, archetype strain promoters were also preferentially active in glial cells, although this effect was less pronounced than in PML-type strains. Furthermore, all promoters from archetype strains reacted to the presence of viral T antigen or the glial transcription factor Tst-1/Oct6 in a manner similar to the promoters of the PML-type viral strain Mad-1. Interestingly, T antigen and Tst-1/Oct6 were found to function in a species-specific and cell-type-specific manner, respectively. We concluded from our experiments that the differences in the regulatory regions cannot account for the different biology of archetype and PML-type viral strains.

  3. Safety, anxiety and natalizumab continuation in JC virus-seropositive MS patients.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Johannis A; Vennegoor, Anke; Balk, Lisanne; Uitdehaag, Bernard M; Polman, Chris H; Killestein, Joep

    2014-01-01

    The use of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis has been restricted by the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JC virus carriership, duration of natalizumab treatment and past immunosuppression are known risk factors. This has allowed for calculated risk assessment for individual patients to be implemented. Not much data are available about the effect of JCV carriership on patient willingness to continue natalizumab. Here, we evaluated the impact of JCV seropositivity on safety feelings, anxiety and treatment continuation for patients treated with natalizumab, using a visual analog scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a decisional conflict scale. Seropositivity led to an elevated anxiety level for PML (p = 0.004). However, so far only 3% of patients have discontinued natalizumab because of JCV positivity in our cohort.

  4. An association, in adult Japanese, between the occurrence of rogue cells among cultured lymphocytes (JC virus activity) and the frequency of "simple" chromosomal damage among the lymphocytes of persons exhibiting these rogue cells.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V

    1998-01-01

    Data from a previous study of the cytogenetic effects, in cultured lymphocytes, of exposure to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima have been reanalyzed to determine the relationship between the occurrence of "rogue" cells in an individual and the frequency of "simple" chromosomal damage in the nonrogue cells of the same individual. Rogue cells are cells with complex chromosomal damage, currently believed to be a manifestation of the activity of a human polyoma virus termed "JC." Among a total of 1,835 persons examined, there were 45 exhibiting rogue cells. A total of 179,599 cells were scored for simple chromosomal damage. In both the exposed and the control populations, there was an absolute increase of approximately 1.5% in the frequency of simple chromosomal damage in the nonrogue cells of those exhibiting rogue cells, when compared with the frequencies observed in those not exhibiting rogue cells, which is a statistically significant difference. It is argued that this phenomenon, occurring not only in lymphocytes but possibly also in other cells/tissues, may play a contributory role in the origin of malignancies characterized by clonal chromosome abnormalities. Unexpectedly, among those exhibiting rogue cells, there was a disproportionately greater representation of persons who had received relatively high radiation exposures from the bomb. The reason for this is unclear, but it is tempting to relate the finding to some lingering effect of the exposure (or the circumstances surrounding the exposure) on immunocompetence. PMID:9683586

  5. Activity of JC virus archetype and PML-type regulatory regions in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Ault, G S

    1997-01-01

    Sequence variations are seen in the JC virus promoter/enhancer in virus taken from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) brains and it has been hypothesized that the variations arise in the host at some point in the development of PML. These rearrangements may be adaptations for enhanced growth in glial cells; if so, transcription or replication levels should differ between archetypal and rearranged PML-type promoters. The archetype and four PML-type promoters were analysed in human glial cells for early and late transcriptional activity in the absence or presence of virus T antigen, and for DNA replication. CAT reporter expression differed within a fivefold range and the archetype was intermediate in strength to the PML-type regulatory regions. The archetype differed from rearranged promoters in that the late promoter was less responsive to T antigen and the shift from early to late activity with T antigen was less pronounced. All five regulatory regions demonstrated similar levels of DNA replicating activity. Rearrangement of the archetype was not required for activity in glial cells, but the potential for differences in the regulation of the late capsid genes was found.

  6. Lessons from polyoma middle T antigen on signaling and transformation: A DNA tumor virus contribution to the war on cancer.

    PubMed

    Schaffhausen, Brian S; Roberts, Thomas M

    2009-02-20

    Middle T antigen (MT) is the principal oncogene of murine polyomavirus. Its study has led to the discovery of the roles of tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in mammalian growth control and transformation. MT is necessary for viral transformation in tissue culture cells and tumorigenesis in animals. When expressed alone as a transgene, MT causes tumors in a wide variety of tissues. It has no known catalytic activity, but rather acts by assembling cellular signal transduction molecules. Protein phosphatase 2A, protein tyrosine kinases of the src family, PI3K, phospholipase Cgamma1 as well as the Shc/Grb2 adaptors are all assembled on MT. Their activation sets off a series of signaling cascades. Analyses of virus mutants as well as transgenic animals have demonstrated that the effects of a given signal depend not only tissue type, but on the genetic background of the host animal. There remain many opportunities as we seek a full molecular understanding of MT and apply some of its lessons to human cancer. PMID:19022468

  7. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J.; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert; Gagnon, David; Gjoerup, Ole; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2014-11-15

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. - Highlights: • Development of a high-throughput screening assay for JCV DNA replication using C33A cells. • Evidence that T-ag fails to accumulate in the nuclei of established glioma cell lines. • Evidence that NF-1 directly promotes JCV DNA replication in C33A cells. • Proof-of-concept that the HTS assay can be used to identify pharmacological inhibitor of JCV DNA replication.

  8. Prevalence of Polyoma BK Virus (BKPyV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Oropharyngeal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Polz-Gruszka, Dorota; Morshed, Kamal; Jarzyński, Adrian; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK virus, Human Papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in oropharyngeal cancer, and to test our hypothesis that BKV/HPV/EBV co-infection plays a role in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The correlation between viral infection, OSCC, anatomic location, pre-treatment staging, evidence of metastases to lymph nodes, and grading was also investigated. The examination samples were collected from 62 patients from paraffin tissue blocks. Males (90.3%) with, smoking (83.9%) and alcohol abuse (67.7%) problems prevailed in the studied group. G2 histological type was recognized in 80.6% cases. T4 (77.4%) and N2 (56.5%) traits occurred in the majority of patients. No cases of metastasis were observed (M0 100%). HPV - 24.2%, EBV - 27.4% and BKV 17.7% were detected in the studied samples. We observed co-infection EBV/BKV in 8% of cases, HPV/BKV in 4.8%, and HPV/EBV in 9% cases. Only in two cases co-infection of all three viruses was found.

  9. Transformation phenotype of polyoma virus-transformed rat fibroblasts: plasminogen activator production is modulated by the growth state of the cells and regulated by the expression of an early viral gene function.

    PubMed Central

    Perbal, B

    1980-01-01

    The expression of two transformation parameters, namely, ability to grow in agar and plasminogen activator production, was studied in several rat fibroblasts transformed by either wild-type or thermo-sensitive (tsa and ts25) polyoma viruses. The production of plasminogen activator was found to be dependent upon the growth state of the infected cells during a period of several days after infection. The analysis of the transformed phenotype of 25 tsa transformants and of 19 ts25 transformants independently isolated under various growth conditions led to the conclusion that there is no correlation between the regulation processes involved in plasminogen activator production and ability to grow without anchorage. The results obtained also suggested that the production of plasminogen activator is under the control of a functional large T antigen. PMID:6255182

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid JC Virus Antibody Index for Diagnosis of Natalizumab-Associated Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Warnke, Clemens; von Geldern, Gloria; Markwerth, Philipp; Dehmel, Thomas; Hoepner, Robert; Gold, Ralf; Pawlita, Michael; Kümpfel, Tania; Mäurer, Mathias; Stangel, Martin; Wegner, Florian; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Straeten, Vera; Limmroth, Volker; Weber, Thomas; Hermsen, Derik; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Wattjes, Mike P.; Anders, Svenningson; Major, Eugene; Olsson, Tomas; Kieseier, Bernd C.; Adams, Ortwin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), caused by JC virus (JCV), can occur in patients receiving natalizumab for multiple sclerosis (MS). JCV detection by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or brain biopsy, is required for probable or definite diagnosis of PML. However, in some patients only low levels of JCV DNA (<100 copies/ml) are present in CSF, making the diagnosis challenging. Our objective was to assess the complementary value of a CSF JCV antibody index (AIJCV) in the diagnosis of natalizumab-associated PML. Methods AIJCV was assessed in 37 cases of natalizumab-associated PML and 89 MS-patients treated with natalizumab without PML. Sera and CSF were tested in a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using JCV-VP1 fused to glutathione S-transferase as antigen. Albumin levels and total immunoglobulin G concentration were determined by immunonephelometry, and the AIJCV was calculated as published. Results Twenty-six of 37 (70%) patients with natalizumab-associated PML exhibited an AIJCV > 1.5, whereas this was seen in none of the controls (p < 0.0001). At time of the first positive qPCR for JCV DNA, 11 of 20 (55%) patients with natalizumab-associated PML had an AIJCV > 1.5. JCV DNA levels of <100 copies/ml were seen in 14 (70%) of these 20 patients, of whom 8 (57%) demonstrated an AIJCV > 1.5. Interpretation Determination of the AIJCV could be an added tool in the diagnostic workup for PML and should be included in the case definition of natalizumab-associated PML. PMID:24729444

  11. Genetic diversity of JC virus in the Saami and the Finns: implications for their population history.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Zheng, Huai-Ying; Saukko, Pekka J; Varesmaa-Korhonen, Leena; Hovi, Tapani; Vesikari, Timo; Suganami, Hideki; Takasaka, Tomokazu; Sugimoto, Chie; Ohasi, Yasuo; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Yogo, Yoshiaki

    2005-09-01

    The JC virus (JCV) genotyping method was used to gain insights into the population history of the Saami and the Finns, both speaking Finno-Ugric languages and living in close geographic proximity. Urine samples from Saami and Finns, collected in northern and southern Finland, respectively, were used to amplify a 610-bp JCV-DNA region containing abundant type-specific mutations. Based on restriction site polymorphisms in the amplified fragments, we classified JCV isolates into one of the three superclusters of JCV, type A, B, or C. All 15 Saami isolates analyzed and 41 of 43 Finnish isolates analyzed were classified as type A, the European type, and two samples from Finns were classified as type B, the African/Asian type. We then amplified and sequenced a 583-bp JCV-DNA region from the type A isolates of Saami and Finns. According to type-determining nucleotides within the region, we classified type A isolates into EU-a1, -a2, or -b. Most type A isolates from Saami were classified as EU-a1, while type A isolates from Finns were distributed among EU-a1, EU-a2, and EU-b. This trend in the JCV-genotype distribution was statistically significant. On a phylogenetic tree based on complete sequences, most of the type A isolates from Saami were clustered in a single clade within EU-a1, while those from Finns were distributed throughout EU-a1, EU-a2, and EU-b. These findings are discussed in the context of the population history of the Saami and the Finns. This study provides new complete JCV DNA sequences derived from populations of anthropological interest.

  12. Archetype JC virus efficiently replicates in COS-7 cells, simian cells constitutively expressing simian virus 40 T antigen.

    PubMed

    Hara, K; Sugimoto, C; Kitamura, T; Aoki, N; Taguchi, F; Yogo, Y

    1998-07-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCV), the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), is ubiquitous in humans, infecting children asymptomatically and then persisting in the kidney. Renal JCV is not latent but replicates to excrete progeny in the urine. The renal-urinary JCV DNAs carry the archetype regulatory region that generates various rearranged regulatory regions occurring in JCVs derived from the brains of PML patients. Tissue cultures that support the efficient growth of archetype JCV have not been reported. We studied whether archetype JCV could replicate in COS-7 cells, simian cells transformed with an origin-defective mutant of simian virus 40 (SV40). Efficient JCV replication, as detected by a hemagglutination assay, was observed in cultures transfected with five of the six archetype DNAs. The progeny JCVs could be passaged to fresh COS-7 cells. However, when the parental cells of COS-7 not expressing T antigen were transfected with archetype JCV DNAs, no viral replication was detected, indicating that SV40 T antigen is essential for the growth of JCV in COS-7 cells. The archetype regulatory region was conserved during viral growth in COS-7 cells, although a small proportion of JCV DNAs underwent rearrangements outside the regulatory region. We then attempted to recover archetype JCV from urine by viral culture in COS-7 cells. Efficient JCV production was observed in COS-7 cells infected with five of the six JCV-positive urine samples examined. Thus, COS-7 cells should be of use not only for the production of archetype JCV on a large scale but also for the isolation of archetype JCV from urine.

  13. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with bilateral middle cerebellar peduncle lesions confirmed by repeated CSF-JC virus tests and coexistence of JC virus granule cell neuronopathy. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Yasui, Keizo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Takahashi, Akira

    2016-07-28

    A 65 year-old woman with small lymphocytic leukemia presented with subacute cerebellar ataxia. Six months after rituximab chemotherapy, a cranial MRI revealed lesions in the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles. Both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) JC virus (JCV)-DNA PCR test on three occasions and brain biopsy were negative. CSF tests were repeated. The fourth test performed 6 months after the onset showed positive JCV-DNA, and a definite diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was made. Neuroimaging of cerebellar atrophy was considered to be coexistence of granule cell neuronopathy. Medication with mirtazapine and mefloquine was temporarily effective for several months. Little are known solitary bilateral MRI lesions of the middle cerebellar peduncle in PML. JCV-PCR test of CSF may be negative at an earlier stage of PML. Repeated CSF tests should be essential to confirming the diagnosis in such cases. PMID:27356732

  14. Detection of archetype and rearranged variants of JC virus in multiple tissues from a pediatric PML patient.

    PubMed

    Newman, J T; Frisque, R J

    1997-07-01

    JC virus (JCV) establishes persistent infections in its human host, and in some immunocompromised individuals, the virus causes the fatal brain disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Two forms of the virus, archetype and rearranged, have been isolated, with the latter being derived from the archetype form by deletion and duplication of sequences within the viral transcriptional control region (TCR). We have used the PCR technique to amplify JCV TCR sequences present within multiple tissues of a pediatric PML patient and have cloned and sequenced the PCR products. Archetype JCV was readily detected in kidney tissue; this form of JCV was also identified for the first time in brain and lymph node tissue by employing archetype-specific PCR primers. In addition, several archetype-like variants containing small deletions within their regulatory regions were isolated from cardiac muscle and lung. Different, but related rearranged forms were detected in most of the tissue examined. Each of the rearranged TCRs lacked portions of a 66 base pair (bp) region found within the archetype promoter-enhancer but retained a 23 bp region that is deleted in the prototype (Mad 1) rearranged form of JCV. Although several rearranged forms of JCV were identified in this patient, the TCRs could be assigned to one of two groups based upon the deletion boundaries generated during the adaptation from archetype to rearranged JCV. This study is the first to characterize multiple JCV variants present in different tissues from a patient likely to have succumbed to PML during a primary infection.

  15. Sequences within the early and late promoters of archetype JC virus restrict viral DNA replication and infectivity.

    PubMed

    Daniel, A M; Swenson, J J; Mayreddy, R P; Khalili, K; Frisque, R J

    1996-02-01

    Two forms of JC virus (JCV) have been isolated from its human host, an archetype found in kidney tissue and urine of nonimmunocompromised individuals and a rearranged type detected in lymphocytes and brain tissue of patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. To investigate the hypothesis that alterations to the archetype transcriptional control region yield rearranged forms of the virus exhibiting new tissue tropic and pathogenic potentials, attempts were made to propagate archetype JCV in human renal and glial cell cultures. Although rearranged forms of JCV multiplied in these cells, archetype JCV failed to do so. Through the use of chimeric and mutant viral genomes, and a cell line that constitutively expresses viral T protein, we demonstrated that archetype's inactivity relative to that of rearranged forms was due to differences in the promoter-enhancer and not in the protein coding regions or origin of DNA replication. Additional analyses revealed that the absence of a large tandem duplication and the presence of a 23- and a 66-base pair sequence in the archetype transcriptional control region were responsible for this restricted lytic behavior. We discuss the possibility that deletion and duplication events within the archetype promoter-enhancer might yield more active viral variants via the loss of a negative, or the creation of a positive, transcriptional control signal(s).

  16. Recombined sequences between the non-coding control regions of JC and BK viruses found in the urine of a renal transplantation patient.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Yu-Ching; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Fang, Chiung-Yao; Ou, Wei-Chih; Chen, Pei-Lain; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Lin, Mien-Chun; Chang, Deching; Wang, Meilin

    2012-12-01

    Kidney cells are the common host for JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV). Reactivation of JCV and/or BKV in patients after organ transplantation, such as renal transplantation, may cause hemorrhagic cystitis and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy. Furthermore, JCV and BKV may be shed in the urine after reactivation in the kidney. Rearranged as well as archetypal non-coding control regions (NCCRs) of JCV and BKV have been frequently identified in human samples. In this study, three JC/BK recombined NCCR sequences were identified in the urine of a patient who had undergone renal transplantation. They were designated as JC-BK hybrids 1, 2, and 3. The three JC/BK recombinant NCCRs contain up-stream JCV as well as down-stream BKV sequences. Deletions of both JCV and BKV sequences were found in these recombined NCCRs. Recombination of DNA sequences between JCV and BKV may occur during co-infection due to the relatively high homology of the two viral genomes.

  17. Molecular Biology, Epidemiology, and Pathogenesis of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, the JC Virus-Induced Demyelinating Disease of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ferenczy, Michael W.; Marshall, Leslie J.; Nelson, Christian D. S.; Atwood, Walter J.; Nath, Avindra; Khalili, Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a debilitating and frequently fatal central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV), for which there is currently no effective treatment. Lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain leads to their eventual destruction and progressive demyelination, resulting in multiple foci of lesions in the white matter of the brain. Before the mid-1980s, PML was a relatively rare disease, reported to occur primarily in those with underlying neoplastic conditions affecting immune function and, more rarely, in allograft recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. However, with the onset of the AIDS pandemic, the incidence of PML has increased dramatically. Approximately 3 to 5% of HIV-infected individuals will develop PML, which is classified as an AIDS-defining illness. In addition, the recent advent of humanized monoclonal antibody therapy for the treatment of autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn's disease has also led to an increased risk of PML as a side effect of immunotherapy. Thus, the study of JCV and the elucidation of the underlying causes of PML are important and active areas of research that may lead to new insights into immune function and host antiviral defense, as well as to potential new therapies. PMID:22763635

  18. Interferon-beta treatment and active replication of the JC virus in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lafuente, R; García-Montojo, M; De Las Heras, V; Bartolomé, M; Arroyo, R

    2007-02-01

    We analyzed the effect of beta-interferon (beta-IFN) treatment over the active replication of JC virus (JCV) through the evaluation of JCV DNA prevalence and viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum samples, and mRNA prevalence and viral load, in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. DNA extracted from PBMCs and serum, and mRNA extracted from PBMCs were analyzed in 146 RRMS patients (73 treated with beta-IFN, and 73 untreated patients), and 73 matched healthy blood donors for the presence of JCV genomes by quantitative real-time PCR assay. We found the same DNA prevalence in PBMC samples in RRMS patients treated with beta-IFN and in untreated ones: 6.8% (5/73). When we analyzed the viral active replication in both groups through the analysis of DNA prevalence in serum samples and the mRNA extracted from PBMCs, we did not find any positive sample. Regarding the viral load of those positive samples, we did not find any statistical significant difference between treated and untreated RRMS patients: 28.6 +/- 7.2 and 32.3 +/- 8.4 copies/microg of DNA, respectively. These results lead us to conclude that beta-IFN treatment in monotherapy has not any effect on JCV active replication.

  19. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R. . E-mail: nerurkar@pbrc.hawaii.edu

    2006-02-20

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML.

  20. Differential Selection of Specific Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1/JC499 Variants after Mucosal and Parenteral Inoculation of Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing; Fultz, Patricia N.

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of the route of transmission, it is generally accepted that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) quasispecies transmitted from an infected individual to an uninfected individual is genetically homogeneous. This finding and the observation that HIV-1 genotypes in recipients are minor variants in the donors suggest strongly that selection for specific variants occurs. However, most analyses have been limited to the V3 region of env. In addition, the exact time at which most new infections occurred was not known, making it almost impossible to analyze virus populations present in donor-recipient pairs at the time of HIV-1 transmission. To circumvent this problem, three chimpanzees were inoculated with a genetically defined stock of cell-free HIV-1/JC499 by one of three routes: intravenously or via the cervical or penile mucosa. PCR products of the C2-to-V5 region of env were amplified from both proviral DNA and virion RNA in blood samples collected soon after infection and were screened by heteroduplex analysis (HDA). Those PCR products with distinct HDA banding patterns were cloned and sequenced. In all three animals, transmitted variants encoded one of two V3-loop populations identified in the inoculum, indicating relative homogeneity in this region. However, different virus populations, defined by combinations of specific V4 and V5 sequences, were found when variants in the animal inoculated intravenously (at least 13 V4-plus-V5 combinations) were compared with those in the two animals inoculated by the mucosal routes (limited to only four V4-plus-V5 combinations). The only V4-plus-V5 population in variants found in all three chimpanzees was the major population in the inoculum, which contained viruses with more than 30 different V4-plus-V5 combinations. That the majority of the V4-plus-V5 genotypes in variants transmitted to all three animals were minor populations in the inoculum indicated that selective transmission defined by the V4-plus

  1. Inhibition of BK virus replication in human kidney cells by BK virus large tumor antigen-specific shRNA delivered by JC virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mien-Chun; Wang, Meilin; Fang, Chiung-Yao; Chen, Pei-Lain; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Deching

    2014-03-01

    Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) due to lytic infection by the BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) remains an important cause of allograft dysfunction and graft loss in renal transplant recipients. PVAN is commonly treated by reducing the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs and adding adjuvant antiviral agents, but the outcomes have been less than satisfactory. The BKPyV early protein large tumor antigen (LT) is indispensable for viral genome replication and viral late protein expression. Therefore, suppressing LT expression may be a way to inhibit BKPyV replication without harming the host human kidney cells. Previous studies have shown that JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) virus-like particles (VLPs), which have tropism for the human kidney, can package and transfer exogenous genes into human kidney cells for expression. In this study, we constructed an expression plasmid for a BKPyV LT-specific shRNA (shLT) and used JCPyV VLPs as a delivery vehicle to transduce the shLT plasmid into BKPyV-infected human kidney cells. The expression of BKPyV early (LT) and late (VP1) proteins was examined after transduction by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. We found that transduction with the shLT plasmid decreased the proportions of BKPyV LT- and VP1-expressing cells by 73% and 82%, respectively, relative to control. The viral genomes were also decreased by 56%. These results point to the promising possibility of developing shLT-transducing JCPyV VLPs as a specific anti-BKPyV approach for PVAN treatment.

  2. Archetype JC virus efficiently propagates in kidney-derived cells stably expressing HIV-1 Tat.

    PubMed

    Nukuzuma, Souichi; Kameoka, Masanori; Sugiura, Shigeki; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Nukuzuma, Chiyoko; Miyoshi, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenic JCV with rearranged regulatory regions (PML-type) causes PML, a demyelinating disease, in the brains of immunocompromised patients. On the other hand, archetype JCV persistently infecting the kidney is thought to be converted to PML-type virus during JCV replication in the infected host under immunosuppressed conditions. In addition, Tat protein, encoded by HIV-1, markedly enhances the expression of a reporter gene under control of the JCV late promoter. In order to examine the influence of Tat on JCV propagation, we used kidney-derived COS-7 cells, which only permit archetype JCV, and established COS-tat cells, which express HIV-1 Tat stably. We found that the extent of archetype JCV propagation in COS-tat cells is significantly greater than in COS-7 cells. On the other hand, COS-7 cells express SV40 T antigen, which is a strong stimulator of archetype JCV replication. The expression of SV40 T antigen was enhanced by HIV-1 Tat slightly according to real-time RT-PCR, this was not closely related to JCV replication in COS-tat cells. The efficiency of JCV propagation depended on the extent of expression of functional Tat. To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased production of archetype JCV in a culture system using cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 Tat. We propose here that COS-tat cells are a useful tool for studying the role of Tat in archetype JCV replication in the development of PML.

  3. Anti-JC virus antibodies in rituximab-treated patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Hyun, Jae-Won; Jeong, In Hye; Joung, AeRan; Yeon, Joung-Lim; Dehmel, Thomas; Adams, Ortwin; Kieseier, Bernd C; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-03-01

    Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody, has been proposed to be effective for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). A concern for developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which is caused by John Cunningham virus (JCV), has been suggested particularly in patients treated long term with rituximab. In this study, using a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with glutathione S-transferase-tagged VP1 as the antigen, we investigated the seroprevalence of anti-JCV antibodies among 78 Korean patients with NMOSD and the change in anti-JCV antibody serostatus following long-term rituximab treatment. The overall seroprevalence of anti-JCV antibodies was 69 % prior to rituximab administration. Over a mean of 4 years of repeated treatment with rituximab, no patient developed PML. Of 24 initially seronegative patients, none converted into seropositive, whereas six (11 %) of 54 initially seropositive patients converted into seronegative. Our results might support the safety of long-term rituximab treatment in patients with NMOSD with regard to the risk of developing PML. PMID:25559683

  4. Inter- and Intralaboratory Comparison of JC Polyomavirus Antibody Testing Using Two Different Virus-Like Particle-Based Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Piotr; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Weissbach, Fabian H.; Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Auvinen, Eeva; Hedman, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a debilitating, often fatal brain disease in immunocompromised patients. JCPyV-seropositive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab have a 2- to 10-fold increased risk of developing PML. Therefore, JCPyV serology has been recommended for PML risk stratification. However, different antibody tests may not be equivalent. To study intra- and interlaboratory variability, sera from 398 healthy blood donors were compared in 4 independent enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) measurements generating >1,592 data points. Three data sets (Basel1, Basel2, and Basel3) used the same basic protocol but different JCPyV virus-like particle (VLP) preparations and introduced normalization to a reference serum. The data sets were also compared with an independent method using biotinylated VLPs (Helsinki1). VLP preadsorption reducing ≥35% activity was used to identify seropositive sera. The results indicated that Basel1, Basel2, Basel3, and Helsinki1 were similar regarding overall data distribution (P = 0.79) and seroprevalence (58.0, 54.5, 54.8, and 53.5%, respectively; P = 0.95). However, intra-assay intralaboratory comparison yielded 3.7% to 12% discordant results, most of which were close to the cutoff (0.080 < optical density [OD] < 0.250) according to Bland-Altman analysis. Introduction of normalization improved overall performance and reduced discordance. The interlaboratory interassay comparison between Basel3 and Helsinki1 revealed only 15 discordant results, 14 (93%) of which were close to the cutoff. Preadsorption identified specificities of 99.44% and 97.78% and sensitivities of 99.54% and 95.87% for Basel3 and Helsinki1, respectively. Thus, normalization to a preferably WHO-approved reference serum, duplicate testing, and preadsorption for samples around the cutoff may be necessary for reliable JCPyV serology and PML risk stratification. PMID:25253664

  5. Reconstructing population history using JC virus: Amerinds, Spanish, and Africans in the ancestry of modern Puerto Ricans.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Cobo, M; Jobes, D V; Yanagihara, R; Nerurkar, V R; Yamamura, Y; Ryschkewitsch, C F; Stoner, G L

    2001-06-01

    The roots of the Hispanic populations of the Caribbean Islands and Central and South America go back to three continents of the Old World. In Puerto Rico major genetic contributions have come from (1) Asians in the form of the aboriginal Taino population, an Arawak tribe, present when Columbus arrived on the Island, (2) Europeans, largely Spanish explorers, settlers, government administrators, and soldiers, and (3) Africans who came as part of the slave trade. Since JC virus (JCV) genotypes characteristic of Asia, Europe, and Africa have been identified, and excretion of JCV in urine has been proposed as a marker for human migrations, we sought to characterize the JCV strains present in a Caribbean Hispanic population. We found that the strains of JCV present today in Puerto Rico are those derived from the Old World populations represented there: Types 1B and 4 from Spain, Types 3A, 3B, and 6 from Africa, and Type 2A from Asia. The Type 2A genotype represents the indigenous Taino people. This JCV genotype was represented much more frequently (61%) than would be predicted by the trihybrid model of genetic admixture. This might be attributable to characteristics of JCV Type 2A itself, as well as to the nature of the early relationships between Spanish men and native women. These findings indicate that the JCV strains carried by the Taino Indians can be found in today's Puerto Rican population despite the apparent demise of these people more than two centuries ago. Therefore, molecular characterization of JCV provides a tool to supplement genetic techniques for reconstructing population histories including admixed populations.

  6. Correlation between DNA methyltransferases expression and Epstein-Barr virus, JC polyomavirus and Helicobacter pylori infections in gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ksiaa, F; Ziadi, S; Gacem, R B; Dhiab, M B; Trimeche, M

    2014-01-01

    It' is accepted that aberrant expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is responsible for hypermethylation in genes. However, there are limited data related to factors inducing aberrant expression of DNMTs. A total of 43 surgically resected gastrc carcinomas (GC) samples were analysed. Using immunohistochemistry assay we have determined expression level of DNMT1 and 3b. The presence of H.pylori was evaluated by histology, whereas JC polyomavirus (JCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) detection were carried out by PCR and in situ hybridization techniques, respectively. High expression of DNMT1 and 3b were detected in 46.5% and 53.5% of GC cases, respectively. Co-expression of DNMT1 and 3b were found in 37.2% of cases. Using different techniques, H. pylori, JCV and EBV were detected in 55.8%, 32.6% and 9%, respectively. Moreover, in 37% of cases, we noted the presence of JCV and/or EBV infections. H.pylori co-infection was found in 64.3% (9/14) of JCV positive cases and in 50% of EBV positive GC, without a reliable significant relationship. Correlation analyses have showed a marked increase in DNMT1 expression in EBV associated GC (P= 0.02). Also, co-expression of DNMT1 and 3b was significantly associated with EBV infection in GC (P=0.05). Similarly, JCV associated GC mostly displayed DNMT1 positive status, but the difference did not reach the significant threshold. Nevertheless, infection with JCV and/or EBV was significantly correlated with increased expression of DNMT1 in GC (P= 0.05). Our study suggests that EBV and JCV infections in GC correlated with deregulation of DNA methyltransferases. PMID:25341997

  7. Trans-activation of the JC virus late promoter by the tat protein of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus in glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, Hiroomi; Lashgari, M.; Amini, S.; Khalili, K. ); Rappaport, J.; Wong-Staal, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the JC virus (JCV), a human papovavirus. PML is a relatively rare disease seen predominantly in immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent complication observed in AIDS patients. The significantly higher incidence of PML in AIDS patients than in other immunosuppressive disorders has suggested that the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain may directly or indirectly contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. In the present study the authors have examined the expression of the JCV genome in both glial and non-glial cells in the presence of HIV-1 regulatory proteins. They find that the HIV-1-encoded trans-regulatory protein tat increases the basal activity of the JCV late promoter, JCV{sub L}, in glial cells. They conclude that the presence of the HIV-1-encoded tat protein may positively affect the JCV lytic cycle in glial cells by stimulating JCV gene expression. The results suggest a mechanism for the relatively high incidence of PML in AIDS patients than in other immunosuppressive disorders. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the HIV-1 regulatory protein tat may stimulate other viral and perhaps cellular promoters, in addition to its own.

  8. Locomotory behavior, contact inhibition, and pattern formation of 3T3 and polyoma virus-transformed 3T3 cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Bell, PB

    1977-01-01

    The social behavior of 3T3 cells and their polynoma virus-transformed derivative (Py3T3 cells) was examined by time-lapse cinemicrography in order to determine what factors are responsible for the marked differences in the patterns formed by the two cell lines in culture. Contrary to expectations, both cell types have been found to exhibit contact inhibition of cell locomotion. Therefore, the tendency of 3T3 cells to form monolayers and of Py3T3 cells to form crisscrossed multilayers cannot be explained on the basis of the presence versus the absence of contact inhibition. Morevover, with the exception of cell division control, the social behavior of the two cell types is qualitively similar. Both exhibit cell underlapping and, after contact between lamelliopodia, both show inhibition of locomotory activity and adhesion formation. Neither cell type was observed to migrate over the surface of another cell. The two cell types do show quantitative differences in the frequency of underlapping, the frequency with which contact results in inhibition of locomotion, and the proportion of the cell margin that adheres to the substratum. The increased frequency pf Py3T3 underlapping is correlated with the reduced frequency of substratum adhesions, which in turn favors underlapping. On the basis of these observations, it is concluded that the differences in culture patterns are the result of differences in the shapes of the individual cells, such that underlapping, and hence crisscrossing, is favored in Py3T3 cell interactions and discouraged in 3T3 cells. PMID:198414

  9. Polyoma Viral DNA Replicated as a Nucleoprotein Complex in Close Association with the Host Cell Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Seebeck, Thomas; Weil, Roger

    1974-01-01

    Polyoma viral DNA is shown to be replicated in close association with the mouse cell chromatin. Two virus-specific nucleoprotein complexes, designated complex A and B, can be dissociated from the isolated chromatin by gentle homogenization in 0.5 M NaCl. Complex A contains only replicating polyoma (Py) DNA whereas complex B contains only mature Py DNA I. The results show, furthermore, that complex A, containing viral DNA in different stages of replication, and complex B are both nucleoproteins with the same buoyant density. The data presently available suggest that newly synthesized stretches of Py DNA are immediately complexed with mouse cell histones and that complex B becomes the “core” of progeny Py virions. These results suggested that Py-induced replication of the mouse cell chromatin may be necessary to provide replicating Py DNA with histones. PMID:4362862

  10. MicroRNA miR-J1-5p as a potential Biomarker for JC Virus Infection in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Link, Alexander; Balaguer, Francesc; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction JC virus (JCV), a human polyomavirus that causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), has been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, determination of JCV infection and its role in carcinogenesis has been challenging, highlighting the need for better diagnostic strategies for this virus. JCV-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified and shown to negatively regulate oncogenic JCV T-Ag. Herein, we determined the pattern of JCV miRNA expression in clinical specimens from healthy subjects and CRC patients. Material and Methods JCV miRNA expression was validated in CRC cell lines transfected with the JCV T-Ag. Results were confirmed using CRC tissues that were expressed T-Ag. Expression of JCV-specific miR-J1-5p was measured in fresh stool samples from healthy volunteers, and samples from fecal occult blood test kits from healthy subject, and patients with colorectal neoplasms. Results JCV miR-J1-5p was detected in JCV-transfected, but not vector-transfected, CRC cells, and was stable between cell passages. MiR-J1-5p was present in all six JCV T-Ag+ CRC samples. Surprisingly, JCV miRNA was detectable in all normal tissues, but the expression was much lower in CRC tissues. Similarly, miR-J1-5p expression was present in all fecal samples, but expression was lower in CRCs compared to controls or adenoma patients. Conclusion JC virus-specific miR-J1-5p miRNA is a potential biomarker for viral infection, and the lower expression in patients with colonic neoplasia highlights its biological role regulating oncogenic T-Ag expression in CRC. Impact JCV-specific miRNA is a candidate for the development of a non-invasive screening test, as well as therapeutic intervention for JCV-associated diseases. PMID:24932487

  11. Plasmidal maintenance of composite DNA derived from polyoma related plasmid, L factor.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Uehara, H; Kusano, T; Oishi, M

    1987-01-01

    Recently, we reported a multicopy mammalian plasmid with a structure related to polyoma. The plasmid, named L factor, was found at a high copy number (5,000 or more per cell) in a subclone derived from mouse L cells. We attempted to utilize L factor as a plasmid vector for mammalian cells. A series of composite DNA consisting of L factor and a foreign (herpes simplex virus tk) were constructed. These DNA could be established as plasmids after transfection to several mouse cell lines, although the copy number of the re-established plasmids was considerably less than that observed for the original subclone. The composite DNA maintained the structure of the original DNA after prolonged culture and the copy number remained constant even with no selective pressure. A composite DNA, with no DNA sequence corresponding to polyoma T antigen, could also be established as a plasmid in a mouse L cell line in which polyoma T antigen is expressed. The potential use of the plasmid is discussed. Images PMID:2825120

  12. Efficient in vitro Expansion of JC virus-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses by JCV peptide-stimulated Dendritic Cells from patients with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Marzocchetti, Angela; Lima, Marco; Tompkins, Troy; Kavanagh, Daniel.G.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; O'Neill, David W.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Koralnik, Igor J.

    2009-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by JC virus (JCV) for which there is no cure. PML patients who have JCV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in their blood have a better clinical outcome. We compared JCV-specific CTL responses in vitro elicited either by JCV peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DC) or by direct peptide stimulation of lymphocytes from 20 HLA A*0201+ healthy controls, HIV+ and PML patients. JCV peptide-loaded DC elicited a stronger CTL expansion in 13/15 responders. DC can induce potent JCV-specific CTL response in vitro, and may constitute a promising approach for PML immunotherapy. PMID:19062062

  13. JC virus promoter/enhancers contain TATA box-associated Spi-B-binding sites that support early viral gene expression in primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Leslie J; Moore, Lisa D; Mirsky, Matthew M; Major, Eugene O

    2012-03-01

    JC virus (JCV) is the aetiological agent of the demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, an AIDS defining illness and serious complication of mAb therapies. Initial infection probably occurs in childhood. In the working model of dissemination, virus persists in the kidney and lymphoid tissues until immune suppression/modulation causes reactivation and trafficking to the brain where JCV replicates in oligodendrocytes. JCV infection is regulated through binding of host factors such as Spi-B to, and sequence variation in the non-coding control region (NCCR). Although NCCR sequences differ between sites of persistence and pathogenesis, evidence suggests that the virus that initiates infection in the brain disseminates via B-cells derived from latently infected haematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow. Spi-B binds adjacent to TATA boxes in the promoter/enhancer of the PML-associated JCV Mad-1 and Mad-4 viruses but not the non-pathogenic, kidney-associated archetype. The Spi-B-binding site of Mad-1/Mad-4 differs from that of archetype by a single nucleotide, AAAAGGGAAGGGA to AAAAGGGAAGGTA. Point mutation of the Mad-1 Spi-B site reduced early viral protein large T-antigen expression by up to fourfold. Strikingly, the reverse mutation in the archetype NCCR increased large T-antigen expression by 10-fold. Interestingly, Spi-B protein binds the NCCR sequence flanking the viral promoter/enhancer, but these sites are not essential for early viral gene expression. The effect of mutating Spi-B-binding sites within the JCV promoter/enhancer on early viral gene expression strongly suggests a role for Spi-B binding to the viral promoter/enhancer in the activation of early viral gene expression.

  14. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Development Is Associated With Mutations in JC Virus Capsid Protein VP1 That Change Its Receptor Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Carl; Testa, Manuela; Brickelmaier, Margot; Bossolasco, Simona; Pazzi, Annamaria; Bestetti, Arabella; Carmillo, Paul; Wilson, Ewa; McAuliffe, Michele; Tonkin, Christopher; Carulli, John P.; Lugovskoy, Alexey; Lazzarin, Adriano; Sunyaev, Shamil; Simon, Kenneth; Cinque, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease caused by JC virus (JCV) infection of oligodendrocytes, may develop in patients with immune disorders following reactivation of chronic benign infection. Mutations of JCV capsid viral protein 1 (VP1), the capsid protein involved in binding to sialic acid cell receptors, might favor PML onset. Cerebrospinal fluid sequences from 37/40 PML patients contained one of several JCV VP1 amino acid mutations, which were also present in paired plasma but not urine sequences despite the same viral genetic background. VP1-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying these mutations lost hemagglutination ability, showed different ganglioside specificity, and abolished binding to different peripheral cell types compared with wild-type VLPs. However, mutants still bound brain-derived cells, and binding was not affected by sialic acid removal by neuraminidase. JCV VP1 substitutions are acquired intrapatient and might favor JCV brain invasion through abrogation of sialic acid binding with peripheral cells, while maintaining sialic acid–independent binding with brain cells. PMID:21628664

  15. Regional distribution of two related Northeast Asian genotypes of JC virus, CY-a and -b: implications for the dispersal of Northeast Asians.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-Ying; Zhao, Pengyun; Suganami, Hideki; Ohasi, Yasuo; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Kim, Jung-Chul; Sugimoto, Chie; Takasaka, Tomokazu; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Yogo, Yoshiaki

    2004-05-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a useful marker to trace human dispersal. Two genotypes of JCV (MY and CY) are mainly distributed in Northeast Asia. The population history of people carrying MY has been studied in some detail but that of people carrying CY remains poorly understood. To gain insights into the population history of Northeast Asians carrying CY we analyzed the genetic variation in CY isolates. We constructed a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree from 28 complete CY DNA sequences: on the resultant tree the CY DNA sequences diverged into two clades, designated CY-a and -b, each clustered with a high bootstrap probability. The split into CY-a and -b was estimated to have occurred about 10 000 years ago, based on K(s) values (synonymous substitutions per synonymous site) and the suggested rate of synonymous nucleotide substitutions. Comparison of the 28 complete CY sequences revealed six nucleotide mismatches between CY-a and -b, one of which showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We then PCR-amplified a region of the genome containing this polymorphic site from many CY isolates in various Northeast Asian populations and classified the isolates into CY-a or -b according to the RFLP analysis. CY-a was more abundant than CY-b in various Chinese and Japanese populations but CY-b was more abundant than CY-a in South Koreans. On the basis of the present findings we inferred the population history in East Asians carrying CY.

  16. Risk of Biologic Therapy-Associated Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Use of the JC Virus Antibody Assay in the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Sandborn, William J.

    2012-01-01

    For treatment of moderate-to-severe active Crohn’s disease, clinicians generally rely on immunosuppressants (including azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine), corticosteroids, and antibodies against tumor necrosis factor α. However, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to these therapies, lose response over time, or are intolerant to these therapies. In such cases, one of the only remaining pharmacologic treatment options is natalizumab, an α4 integrin-targeted antibody. Unfortunately, 3 cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) were reported in natalizumab-treated patients in 2005, shortly after natalizumab’s approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Natalizumab was subsequently withdrawn from the market but was then reintroduced in 2006 under close supervision by the FDA. Careful review of postmarketing data revealed 3 major risk factors for the development of natalizumab-associated PML, the most significant of which is prior exposure to the JC virus (JCV). To help identify patients who may be at higher risk for developing natalizumab-associated PML, a JCV antibody assay was developed that can detect anti-JCV antibodies in patients’ blood. Clinicians can now consider a patient’s anti-JCV antibody status together with the other major risk factors for natalizumab-associated PML—duration of natalizumab therapy and prior immunosuppressant use—to more accurately gauge the risks and benefits of natalizumab therapy in a particular patient. PMID:24847181

  17. Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports viral activity.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Leslie J; Dunham, Lisa; Major, Eugene O

    2010-12-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often fatal demyelinating disease caused by lytic infection of oligodendrocytes with JC virus (JCV). The development of PML in non-immunosuppressed individuals is a growing concern with reports of mortality in patients treated with mAb therapies. JCV can persist in the kidneys, lymphoid tissue and bone marrow. JCV gene expression is restricted by non-coding viral regulatory region sequence variation and cellular transcription factors. Because JCV latency has been associated with cells undergoing haematopoietic development, transcription factors previously reported as lymphoid specific may regulate JCV gene expression. This study demonstrates that one such transcription factor, Spi-B, binds to sequences present in the JCV promoter/enhancer and may affect early virus gene expression in cells obtained from human brain tissue. We identified four potential Spi-B-binding sites present in the promoter/enhancer elements of JCV sequences from PML variants and the non-pathogenic archetype. Spi-B sites present in the promoter/enhancers of PML variants alone bound protein expressed in JCV susceptible brain and lymphoid-derived cell lines by electromobility shift assays. Expression of exogenous Spi-B in semi- and non-permissive cells increased early viral gene expression. Strikingly, mutation of the Spi-B core in a binding site unique to the Mad-4 variant was sufficient to abrogate viral activity in progenitor-derived astrocytes. These results suggest that Spi-B could regulate JCV gene expression in susceptible cells, and may play an important role in JCV activity in the immune and nervous systems.

  18. JC virus inclusions in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: scaffolding promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies grow with cell cycle transition through an S-to-G2-like state in enlarging oligodendrocyte nuclei.

    PubMed

    Shishido-Hara, Yukiko; Yazawa, Takuya; Nagane, Motoo; Higuchi, Kayoko; Abe-Suzuki, Shiho; Kurata, Morito; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Kamma, Hiroshi; Uchihara, Toshiki

    2014-05-01

    In progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus-infected oligodendroglia display 2 distinct patterns of intranuclear viral inclusions: full inclusions in which progeny virions are present throughout enlarged nuclei and dot-shaped inclusions in which virions are clustered in subnuclear domains termed "promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies" (PML-NBs). Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies may serve a scaffolding role in viral progeny production. We analyzed the formation process of intranuclear viral inclusions by morphometry and assessed PML-NB alterations in the brains of 2 patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. By immunohistochemistry, proliferating cell nuclear antigen was most frequently detected in smaller nuclei; cyclin A was detected in larger nuclei. This suggests an S-to-G2 cell cycle transition in infected cells associated with nuclear enlargement. Sizes of PML-NBs were variable, but they were usually either small speckles 200 to 400 nm in diameter or distinct spherical shells with a diameter of 1 μm or more. By confocal microscopy, JC virus capsid proteins were associated with both small and large PML-NBs, but disruption of large PML-NBs was observed by ground-state depletion fluorescence nanoscopy. Clusters of progeny virions were also detected by electron microscopy. Our data suggest that, in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, JC virus produces progeny virions in enlarging oligodendrocyte nuclei in association with growing PML-NBs and with cell cycle transition through an S-to-G2-like state.

  19. Early events of polyoma infection: adsorption, penetration and nuclear transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consigli, R. A.; Haynes, J. I. Jr; Chang, D.; Grenz, L.; Richter, D.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Polyoma virions have different attachment proteins which are responsible for hemagglutination of erythrocytes and attachment to cultured mouse kidney cells (MKC). Virion binding studies demonstrated that MKC possess specific (productive infection) and nonspecific (nonproductive) receptors. Empty polyoma capsids have hemagglutination activity and bind to non-specific MKC receptors, but they are not capable of competing for specific virion cell receptors or preventing productive infection. Isoelectric focusing of the virion major capsid protein, VP1, separated this protein into six species (A through F). These species had identical amino acid sequences, but differed in degree of modification (phosphorylation, acetylation, sulfation and hydroxylation). Evidence based upon precipitation with specific antisera supports the view that VP1 species E is required for specific adsorption and that D and F are required for hemagglutination. The virion attachment domain has been localized to an 18 kilodalton fragment of the C-terminal region of VP1. Monopinocytotic vesicles containing 125I-labeled polyoma virions were isolated from infected MKC. A crosslinker was used to bind the MKC cell receptor(s) covalently to VP1 attachment protein, and a new 120 kilodalton band was identified by SDS-PAGE. An anti-idiotype antibody prepared against a neutralizing polyoma monoclonal antiody was used to identify a putative 50 kilodalton receptor protein from a detergent extract of MKC, as well as from MKC membrane preparation.

  20. Gene Therapy for Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Using a Suicide Gene Driven by a Lung-Specific Promoter Delivered by JC Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chiung-Yao; Chen, Pei-Lain; Chang, Deching; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed type of lung cancer, has a poor prognosis even with combined surgery, chemotherapy, or molecular targeted therapies. Most patients are diagnosed with an in-operable advanced or metastatic disease, both pointing to the necessity of developing effective therapies for lung adenocarcinoma. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) has been found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that human lung adenocarcinoma cells are susceptible to the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infection. Therefore, we designed that the JCPyV virus-like particle (VLP) packaged with an SP-B promoter–driven thymidine kinase suicide gene (pSPB-tk) for possible gene therapy of human lung adenocarcinoma. Plasmids expressing the GFP (pSPB-gfp) or thymidine kinase gene (pSPB-tk) under the control of the human SP-B promoter were constructed. The promoter’s tissue specificity was tested by transfection of pSPB-gfp into A549, CH27, and H460 human lung carcinoma cells and non-lung cells. The JCPyV VLP’s gene transfer efficiency and the selective cytotoxicity of pSPB-tk combined with ganciclovir (GCV) were tested in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. In the current study, we found that SP-B promoter–driven GFP was specifically expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and large cell carcinoma (H460) cells. JCPyV VLPs were able to deliver a GFP reporter gene into A549 cells for expression. Selective cytotoxicity was observed in A549 but not non-lung cells that were transfected with pSPB-tk or infected with pSPB-tk–carrying JCPyV VLPs. In mice injected with pSPB-tk–carrying JCPyV VLPs through the tail vein and treated with ganciclovir (GCV), a potent 80% inhibition of growth of human lung adenocarcinoma nodules resulted. The JCPyV VLPs combined with the use of SP-B promoter demonstrates effectiveness as a potential gene therapy against human lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27322500

  1. Gene Therapy for Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Using a Suicide Gene Driven by a Lung-Specific Promoter Delivered by JC Virus-Like Particles.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chun-Nun; Lin, Mien-Chun; Fang, Chiung-Yao; Chen, Pei-Lain; Chang, Deching; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Wang, Meilin

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed type of lung cancer, has a poor prognosis even with combined surgery, chemotherapy, or molecular targeted therapies. Most patients are diagnosed with an in-operable advanced or metastatic disease, both pointing to the necessity of developing effective therapies for lung adenocarcinoma. Surfactant protein B (SP-B) has been found to be overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. In addition, it has also been demonstrated that human lung adenocarcinoma cells are susceptible to the JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infection. Therefore, we designed that the JCPyV virus-like particle (VLP) packaged with an SP-B promoter-driven thymidine kinase suicide gene (pSPB-tk) for possible gene therapy of human lung adenocarcinoma. Plasmids expressing the GFP (pSPB-gfp) or thymidine kinase gene (pSPB-tk) under the control of the human SP-B promoter were constructed. The promoter's tissue specificity was tested by transfection of pSPB-gfp into A549, CH27, and H460 human lung carcinoma cells and non-lung cells. The JCPyV VLP's gene transfer efficiency and the selective cytotoxicity of pSPB-tk combined with ganciclovir (GCV) were tested in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. In the current study, we found that SP-B promoter-driven GFP was specifically expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and large cell carcinoma (H460) cells. JCPyV VLPs were able to deliver a GFP reporter gene into A549 cells for expression. Selective cytotoxicity was observed in A549 but not non-lung cells that were transfected with pSPB-tk or infected with pSPB-tk-carrying JCPyV VLPs. In mice injected with pSPB-tk-carrying JCPyV VLPs through the tail vein and treated with ganciclovir (GCV), a potent 80% inhibition of growth of human lung adenocarcinoma nodules resulted. The JCPyV VLPs combined with the use of SP-B promoter demonstrates effectiveness as a potential gene therapy against human lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27322500

  2. Relationship of BK polyoma virus (BKV) in the urine with hemorrhagic cystitis and renal function in recipients of T Cell-depleted peripheral blood and cord blood stem cell transplantations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Zheng, Junting; Kolitsopoulos, Yovanna; Chung, Dick; Amigues, Isabelle; Son, Tammy; Choo, Kathleen; Hester, Jeff; Giralt, Sergio A; Glezerman, Ilya G; Jakubowski, Ann A; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A

    2014-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at significant risk for BK virus (BKV) reactivation, hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), and renal dysfunction. We prospectively monitored 98 patients who had received HSCT by serial BKV PCR in the urine through day (D) +100 to analyze the relationship between BK viruria and HC, serum creatinine (Cr), and creatinine clearance (CrCl) through D +180 or death. Patients, median age 52 years (range, 20 to 73), received T cell-depleted (50%) or cord blood allografts (21%). Median pre-HSCT BKV IgG titers were 1:10,240. Incremental increase in BKV IgG titers correlated with developing BK viruria ≥ 10(7) copies/mL. By D +100, 53 (54%) patients had BK viruria. BKV load in the urine increased at engraftment and persisted throughout D +100. HC developed in 10 patients (10%); 7 of 10 with BK viruria. In competing risk analyses, BK viruria ≥ 10(7) copies/mL, older age, cytomegalovirus reactivation, and foscarnet use were risk factors for HC. Cr and CrCl at 2, 3, and 6 months after HSCT were similar between patients with and without BK viruria.

  3. Asian genotypes of JC virus in Native Americans and in a Pacific Island population: Markers of viral evolution and human migration

    PubMed Central

    Agostini, Hansjürgen T.; Yanagihara, Richard; Davis, Victor; Ryschkewitsch, Caroline F.; Stoner, Gerald L.

    1997-01-01

    The human polyomavirus JC (JCV) causes the central nervous system demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Previously, we showed that 40% of Caucasians in the United States excrete JCV in the urine as detected by PCR. We have now studied 68 Navaho from New Mexico, 25 Flathead from Montana, and 29 Chamorro from Guam. By using PCR amplification of a fragment of the VP1 gene, JCV DNA was detected in the urine of 45 (66%) Navaho, 14 (56%) Flathead, and 20 (69%) Chamorro. Genotyping of viral DNAs in these cohorts by cycle sequencing showed predominantly type 2 (Asian), rather than type 1 (European). Type 1 is the major type in the United States and Hungary. Type 2 can be further subdivided into 2A, 2B, and 2C. Type 2A is found in China and Japan. Type 2B is a subtype related to the East Asian type, and is now found in Europe and the United States. The large majority (56–89%) of strains excreted by Native Americans and Pacific Islanders were the type 2A subtype, consistent with the origin of these strains in Asia. These findings indicate that JCV infection of Native Americans predates contact with Europeans, and likely predates migration of Amerind ancestors across the Bering land bridge around 12,000–30,000 years ago. If JCV had already differentiated into stable modern genotypes and subtypes prior to first settlement, the origin of JCV in humans may date from 50,000 to 100,000 years ago or more. We conclude that JCV may have coevolved with the human species, and that it provides a convenient marker for human migrations in both prehistoric and modern times. PMID:9405649

  4. Association between the JC polyomavirus infection and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Comar, Manola; Zanotta, Nunzia; Croci, Eleonora; Murru, Immacolata; Marci, Roberto; Pancaldi, Cecilia; Dolcet, Ornella; Luppi, Stefania; Martinelli, Monica; Giolo, Elena; Ricci, Giuseppe; Tognon, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the incidence of male infertility has increased. Many risk factors have been taken into consideration, including viral infections. Investigations into viral agents and male infertility have mainly been focused on human papillomaviruses, while no reports have been published on polyomaviruses and male infertility. The aim of this study was to verify whether JC virus and BK virus are associated with male infertility. Matched semen and urine samples from 106 infertile males and 100 fertile males, as controls, were analyzed. Specific PCR analyses were carried out to detect and quantify large T (Tag) coding sequences of JCV and BKV. DNA sequencing, carried out in Tag JCV-positive samples, was addressed to viral protein 1 (VP1) coding sequences. The prevalence of JCV Tag sequences in semen and urine samples from infertile males was 34% (72/212), whereas the BKV prevalence was 0.94% (2/212). Specifically, JCV Tag sequences were detected in 24.5% (26/106) of semen and 43.4% (46/106) of urine samples from infertile men. In semen and urine samples from controls the prevalence was 11% and 28%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in JCV prevalence was disclosed in semen and urine samples of cases vs. controls. A higher JC viral DNA load was detected in samples from infertile males than in controls. In samples from infertile males the JC virus type 2 strain, subtype 2b, was more prevalent than ubiquitous type 1. JCV type 2 strain infection has been found to be associated with male infertility. These data suggest that the JC virus should be taken into consideration as an infectious agent which is responsible for male infertility.

  5. Genome Sequence of a Central Chimpanzee-Associated Polyomavirus Related to BK and JC Polyomaviruses, Pan troglodytes troglodytes Polyomavirus 1.

    PubMed

    Madinda, Nadège F; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2015-09-03

    We amplified and sequenced the genome of a polyomavirus infecting a central chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). This virus, which is closely related to BK and JC polyomaviruses, may help shed a new light on these human pathogens' evolutionary history.

  6. Elevated levels of a specific class of nuclear phosphoproteins in cells transformed with v-ras and v-mos oncogenes and by cotransfection with c-myc and polyoma middle T genes.

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, V; Pani, B; D'Andrea, P; Berlingieri, M T; Di Fiore, P P; Fusco, A; Vecchio, G; Philp, R; Crane-Robinson, C; Nicolas, R H

    1987-01-01

    Transformation of a rat thyroid epithelial cell line (FRTL5-C12) with Kirsten and Harvey murine sarcoma viruses (carrying the ras oncogenes) results in elevated levels of three perchloric acid-soluble nuclear phosphoproteins. These three proteins are also induced to high levels in the PC-C13 thyroid epithelial cell line when transformed by the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (carrying the v-mos oncogene) and when transformed by transfection with the c-myc proto-oncogene followed by infection with the polyoma leukaemia virus (PyMuLV) carry the polyoma middle T antigen gene. Neither c-myc or PyMuLV alone induced high levels of the three nuclear proteins. Untransformed thyroid fibroblasts have high levels of two of the three proteins and can be transformed by PyMuLV alone resulting in the appearance of the third protein. Transformation with Harvey sarcoma virus also results in the induction of the third protein. The three phosphoproteins have been purified by h.p.l.c. and shown to be related to the HeLa protein HMGI already described. The results of these studies indicate that elevated levels of these HMGI-like proteins are associated with neoplastic transformation and/or with an undifferentiated phenotype. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2820715

  7. Molecular cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding polyoma medium tumor antigen-associated 61-kDa protein.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, G; Ferre, F; Espiritu, O; Carbone-Wiley, A

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus medium tumor antigen forms specific complexes with several cellular proteins; among these is a protein of approximately 61 kDa. With antibodies directed against medium tumor antigen, the 61-kDa protein was purified from human 293 cells that were infected with a hybrid adenovirus and overexpressed medium tumor antigen. The purified 61-kDa protein was partially digested with protease V8, and one of the protease V8 fragments was isolated and partially sequenced. The amino acid sequence information was used to design mixed oligonucleotide probes for screening a cDNA library from human placenta. A clone was isolated that hybridized with two separate probes; the clone contained an insert with an open reading frame for 589 amino acids. By in vitro translation of the transcript from this insert, a protein was generated that had the same size and yielded the same pattern of protease V8 fragments as the original 61-kDa protein. Its amino acid sequence reveals 15 repeats, the majority of which are 39 amino acids long. This protein bears no resemblance to proteins in the data bank that was searched. Images PMID:2554323

  8. Radio Observations of SN 2006jc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderberg, Alicia

    2006-10-01

    "I observed the Type Ib SN 2006jc (CBET 666) with the Very Large Array on Oct 14.7 and Oct 15.7 UT as part of an ongoing program to study the radio properties of Type Ibc supernovae. SN 2006jc is not detected at 4.9, 8.5 or 22.5 GHz. At a distance of 24 Mpc, the radio luminosity of SN 2006jc is at least a factor of 100 lower than that of SN 1998bw at a similar epoch (Kulkarni et al., 1998, Nature, 395, 663).

  9. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  10. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  11. JC polyomavirus mutants escape antibody-mediated neutralization.

    PubMed

    Ray, Upasana; Cinque, Paola; Gerevini, Simonetta; Longo, Valeria; Lazzarin, Adriano; Schippling, Sven; Martin, Roland; Buck, Christopher B; Pastrana, Diana V

    2015-09-23

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) persistently infects the urinary tract of most adults. Under conditions of immune impairment, JCV causes an opportunistic brain disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV strains found in the cerebrospinal fluid of PML patients contain distinctive mutations in surface loops of the major capsid protein, VP1. We hypothesized that VP1 mutations might allow the virus to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Consistent with this hypothesis, neutralization serology revealed that plasma samples from PML patients neutralized wild-type JCV strains but failed to neutralize patient-cognate PML-mutant JCV strains. This contrasted with serological results for healthy individuals, most of whom robustly cross-neutralized all tested JCV variants. Mice administered a JCV virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine initially showed neutralizing "blind spots" (akin to those observed in PML patients) that closed after booster immunization. A PML patient administered an experimental JCV VLP vaccine likewise showed markedly increased neutralizing titer against her cognate PML-mutant JCV. The results indicate that deficient humoral immunity is a common aspect of PML pathogenesis and that vaccination may overcome this humoral deficiency. Thus, vaccination with JCV VLPs might prevent the development of PML.

  12. Viruses of lower vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, S; Ahne, W

    2001-08-01

    Viruses of lower vertebrates recently became a field of interest to the public due to increasing epizootics and economic losses of poikilothermic animals. These were reported worldwide from both wildlife and collections of aquatic poikilothermic animals. Several RNA and DNA viruses infecting fish, amphibians and reptiles have been studied intensively during the last 20 years. Many of these viruses induce diseases resulting in important economic losses of lower vertebrates, especially in fish aquaculture. In addition, some of the DNA viruses seem to be emerging pathogens involved in the worldwide decline in wildlife. Irido-, herpes- and polyomavirus infections may be involved in the reduction in the numbers of endangered amphibian and reptile species. In this context the knowledge of several important RNA viruses such as orthomyxo-, paramyxo-, rhabdo-, retro-, corona-, calici-, toga-, picorna-, noda-, reo- and birnaviruses, and DNA viruses such as parvo-, irido-, herpes-, adeno-, polyoma- and poxviruses, is described in this review. PMID:11550762

  13. Diagnostic Assays for Polyomavirus JC and Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    White, Martyn K.; Sariyer, Ilker K.; Gordon, Jennifer; Delbue, Serena; Pietropaolo, Valeria; Berger, Joseph R.; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a devastating and often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) for which effective therapies are lacking. It is caused by the replication of polyomavirus JC (JCV) in the oligodendrocytes and astrocytes leading to their cytolytic death and loss of myelin from the subcortical white matter. While the virus is very common in human populations worldwide, the incidence of the disease is very low and confined almost exclusively to individuals with some form of immunological dysfunction. However, the number of people who constitute the at-risk population is growing larger and includes individuals with HIV-1/AIDS and patients receiving immunomodulatory therapies such as multiple sclerosis patients treated with natalizumab. Further adding to the public health significance of this disease are the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of PML and the lack of useful biomarkers for PML progression. In this review, we examine the diagnostic assays that are available for different aspects of the JCV life cycle, their usefulness and drawbacks, and the prospects for improvements. PMID:26663440

  14. A case of primary JC polyomavirus infection-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, I; Jahnukainen, T; Kardas, P; Lohi, J; Auvinen, E; Mannonen, L; Dumoulin, A; Hirsch, H H; Jalanko, H

    2014-12-01

    A 15-year-old boy with a posterior urethral valve received a deceased donor kidney transplant (KT) in March 2011. Basiliximab induction followed by tacrolimus-based triple medication was used as immunosuppression. Eleven months after KT, the graft function deteriorated and the biopsy demonstrated interstitial nephritis suggestive of acute rejection. BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) surveillance in urine and plasma was negative. The patient received methylprednisolone pulses and anti-thymocyte globulin. Immunohistochemistry was positive for simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen (LTag) in the biopsies, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) indicated high viral loads in urine and borderline levels in plasma. Immunosuppression was reduced and follow-up biopsies showed tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Two years after KT, antibody-mediated rejection resulted in graft loss and return to hemodialysis. Retrospective serologic work-up indicated a primary JCPyV infection with seroconversion first for IgM, followed by IgG, but no indication of BKPyV infection. In the SV40 LTag positive biopsies, JCPyV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) with archetype noncoding control region was detected, while BKPyV DNA was undetectable. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary JCPyV infection as the cause of PyV-associated nephropathy in KT. PMID:25359127

  15. Visualization of angiogenesis during cancer development in the polyoma middle T breast cancer model: molecular imaging with (R)-[11C]PAQ

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a crucial mediator of tumour angiogenesis. High expression levels of the receptor have been correlated to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Reliable imaging biomarkers for stratifying patients for anti-angiogenic therapy could therefore be valuable for increasing treatment success rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and angiogenesis imaging abilities of the VEGFR2-targeting positron emission tomography (PET) tracer (R)-[11C]PAQ. Methods (R)-[11C]PAQ was evaluated in the mouse mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T (MMTV-PyMT) model of metastatic breast cancer. Mice at different stages of disease progression were imaged with (R)-[11C]PAQ PET, and results were compared to those obtained with [18 F]FDG PET and magnetic resonance imaging. (R)-[11C]PAQ uptake levels were also compared to ex vivo immunofluorescence analysis of tumour- and angiogenesis-specific biomarkers. Additional pharmacokinetic studies were performed in rat and mouse. Results A heterogeneous uptake of (R)-[11C]PAQ was observed in the tumorous mammary glands. Ex vivo analysis confirmed the co-localization of areas with high radioactivity uptake and areas with elevated levels of VEGFR2. In some animals, a high focal uptake was observed in the lungs. The lung uptake correlated to metastatic and angiogenic activity, but not to uptake of [18 F]FDG PET. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed a limited metabolism and excretion during the 1-h scan and a distribution of radioactivity mainly to the liver, kidneys and lungs. In rat, a high uptake was additionally observed in adrenal and parathyroid glands. Conclusion The results indicate that (R)-[11C]PAQ is a promising imaging biomarker for visualization of angiogenesis, based on VEGFR2 expression, in primary tumours and during metastasis development. PMID:24670127

  16. JC Virus T-Antigen Expression in Anal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Sonia; Deveraj, Bikash; Miyai, Katsumi; Luo, Linda; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay; Carethers, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Anal carcinoma is thought driven by HPV infection through interrupting function of cell regulatory proteins such as p53 and pRb. JCV expresses a T-antigen (T-Ag) that causes malignant transformation through development of aneuploidy and interaction with some of the same regulatory proteins as HPV. JCV T-Ag is present in brain, gastric and colon malignancies, but has not been evaluated in anal cancers. We examined a cohort of anal cancers for JCV T-Ag and correlated this with clinicopathologic data. Methods Archived anal carcinomas were analyzed for JCV T-Ag expression. DNA from tumor and normal tissue was sequenced for JCV with viral copies determined by qPCR and Southern blotting. HPV and MSI status was correlated with JCV T-Ag expression. Results Of 21 cases of anal cancer (mean age 49 years, 38% female), 12 (57%) were in HIV-positive individuals. All 21 cancers expressed JCV T-Ag, including 9 HPV-negative specimens. More JCV copies were present in cancer vs. surrounding normal tissue (mean 32.54 copies/μg DNA vs. 2.98 copies/μg DNA, P=0.0267). There was no correlation between disease stage and viral copies, nor between viral copies and HIV-positive or -negative status (28.7 vs. 36.34 copies/μg DNA, respectively, P=0.7804). In subset analysis, we found no association between JCV T-Ag expression and HPV or MSI status. Conclusions Anal carcinomas uniformly express JCV T-Ag and contain more viral copies compared to surrounding normal tissue. JCV and its T-Ag oncogenic protein, presumably through interruption of cell regulatory proteins, may play a role in anal cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24048785

  17. Comparative Inactivation of Murine Norovirus, Human Adenovirus, and Human JC Polyomavirus by Chlorine in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu Corrêa, Adriana; Carratala, Anna; Barardi, Celia Regina Monte; Calvo, Miquel; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2012-01-01

    Viruses excreted by humans affect the commercial and recreational use of coastal water. Shellfish produced in contaminated waters have been linked to many episodes and outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis, as well as other food-borne diseases worldwide. The risk can be reduced by appropriate treatment following harvesting and by depuration. The kinetics of inactivation of murine norovirus 1 and human adenovirus 2 in natural and artificial seawater by free available chlorine was studied by quantifying genomic copies (GC) using quantitative PCR and infectious viral particles (PFU). Human JC polyomavirus Mad4 kinetics were evaluated by quantitative PCR. DNase or RNase were used to eliminate free genomes and assess potential viral infectivity when molecular detection was performed. At 30 min of assay, human adenovirus 2 showed 2.6- and 2.7-log10 GC reductions and a 2.3- and 2.4-log10 PFU reductions in natural and artificial seawater, respectively, and infectious viral particles were still observed at the end of the assay. When DNase was used prior to the nucleic acid extraction the kinetic of inactivation obtained by quantitative PCR was statistically equivalent to the one observed by infectivity assays. For murine norovirus 1, 2.5, and 3.5-log10 GC reductions were observed in natural and artificial seawater, respectively, while no viruses remained infectious after 30 min of contact with chlorine. Regarding JC polyomavirus Mad4, 1.5- and 1.1-log10 GC reductions were observed after 30 min of contact time. No infectivity assays were conducted for this virus. The results obtained provide data that might be applicable to seawater used in shellfish depuration. PMID:22773637

  18. BK virus nephropathy in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Jamboti, Jagadish S

    2016-08-01

    BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) occurs in up to 10% of renal transplant recipients and can result in graft loss. The reactivation of BK virus in renal transplant recipients is largely asymptomatic, and routine surveillance especially in the first 12-24 months after transplant is necessary for early recognition and intervention. Reduced immunosuppression and anti-viral treatment in the early stages may be effective in stopping BK virus replication. Urinary decoy cells, although highly specific, lack sensitivity to diagnose BKVN. Transplant biopsy remains the gold standard to diagnose BKVN, good surrogate markers for surveillance using quantitative urinary decoy cells, urinary SV40 T immunochemical staining or polyoma virus-Haufen bodies are offered by recent studies. Advanced BKVN results in severe tubulo-interstitial damage and graft failure. Retransplantation after BKVN is associated with good outcomes. Newer treatment modalities are emerging.

  19. Efficient uptake of blood-borne BK and JC polyomavirus-like particles in endothelial cells of liver sinusoids and renal vasa recta.

    PubMed

    Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; Rinaldo, Christine Hanssen; Kardas, Piotr; Li, Ruomei; Malovic, Ivana; Elvevold, Kjetil; McCourt, Peter; Smedsrød, Bård; Hirsch, Hans H; Sørensen, Karen Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are specialized scavenger cells that mediate high-capacity clearance of soluble waste macromolecules and colloid material, including blood-borne adenovirus. To explore if LSECs function as a sink for other viruses in blood, we studied the fate of virus-like particles (VLPs) of two ubiquitous human DNA viruses, BK and JC polyomavirus, in mice. Like complete virions, VLPs specifically bind to receptors and enter cells, but unlike complete virions, they cannot replicate. 125I-labeled VLPs were used to assess blood decay, organ-, and hepatocellular distribution of ligand, and non-labeled VLPs to examine cellular uptake by immunohisto- and -cytochemistry. BK- and JC-VLPs rapidly distributed to liver, with lesser uptake in kidney and spleen. Liver uptake was predominantly in LSECs. Blood half-life (∼1 min), and tissue distribution of JC-VLPs and two JC-VLP-mutants (L55F and S269F) that lack sialic acid binding affinity, were similar, indicating involvement of non-sialic acid receptors in cellular uptake. Liver uptake was not mediated by scavenger receptors. In spleen, the VLPs localized to the red pulp marginal zone reticuloendothelium, and in kidney to the endothelial lining of vasa recta segments, and the transitional epithelium of renal pelvis. Most VLP-positive vessels in renal medulla did not express PV-1/Meca 32, suggesting location to the non-fenestrated part of vasa recta. The endothelial cells of these vessels also efficiently endocytosed a scavenger receptor ligand, formaldehyde-denatured albumin, suggesting high endocytic activity compared to other renal endothelia. We conclude that LSECs very effectively cleared a large fraction of blood-borne BK- and JC-VLPs, indicating a central role of these cells in early removal of polyomavirus from the circulation. In addition, we report the novel finding that a subpopulation of endothelial cells in kidney, the main organ of polyomavirus persistence, showed selective and

  20. Efficient Uptake of Blood-Borne BK and JC Polyomavirus-Like Particles in Endothelial Cells of Liver Sinusoids and Renal Vasa Recta

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Santamaria, Jaione; Rinaldo, Christine Hanssen; Kardas, Piotr; Li, Ruomei; Malovic, Ivana; Elvevold, Kjetil; McCourt, Peter; Smedsrød, Bård

    2014-01-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are specialized scavenger cells that mediate high-capacity clearance of soluble waste macromolecules and colloid material, including blood-borne adenovirus. To explore if LSECs function as a sink for other viruses in blood, we studied the fate of virus-like particles (VLPs) of two ubiquitous human DNA viruses, BK and JC polyomavirus, in mice. Like complete virions, VLPs specifically bind to receptors and enter cells, but unlike complete virions, they cannot replicate. 125I-labeled VLPs were used to assess blood decay, organ-, and hepatocellular distribution of ligand, and non-labeled VLPs to examine cellular uptake by immunohisto- and -cytochemistry. BK- and JC-VLPs rapidly distributed to liver, with lesser uptake in kidney and spleen. Liver uptake was predominantly in LSECs. Blood half-life (∼1 min), and tissue distribution of JC-VLPs and two JC-VLP-mutants (L55F and S269F) that lack sialic acid binding affinity, were similar, indicating involvement of non-sialic acid receptors in cellular uptake. Liver uptake was not mediated by scavenger receptors. In spleen, the VLPs localized to the red pulp marginal zone reticuloendothelium, and in kidney to the endothelial lining of vasa recta segments, and the transitional epithelium of renal pelvis. Most VLP-positive vessels in renal medulla did not express PV-1/Meca 32, suggesting location to the non-fenestrated part of vasa recta. The endothelial cells of these vessels also efficiently endocytosed a scavenger receptor ligand, formaldehyde-denatured albumin, suggesting high endocytic activity compared to other renal endothelia. We conclude that LSECs very effectively cleared a large fraction of blood-borne BK- and JC-VLPs, indicating a central role of these cells in early removal of polyomavirus from the circulation. In addition, we report the novel finding that a subpopulation of endothelial cells in kidney, the main organ of polyomavirus persistence, showed selective and

  1. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Khademi, Mohsen; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Link, Jenny; Alfredsson, Lars; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Hillert, Jan; Oturai, Annette B.; Hemme, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50–60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP) kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10−15) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10−5). In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006), and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10−5). The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10−4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes). HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and lays

  2. JC polyomavirus infection is strongly controlled by human leucocyte antigen class II variants.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Khademi, Mohsen; Lima Bomfim, Izaura; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Link, Jenny; Alfredsson, Lars; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Hillert, Jan; Oturai, Annette B; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hemme, Bernhard; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP) kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15)) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5)). In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006), and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10(-5)). The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10(-4) and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes). HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and lays the

  3. Local Rule-Based Theory of Virus Shell Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Bonnie; Shor, Peter W.; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; King, Jonathan

    1994-08-01

    A local rule-based theory is developed which shows that the self-assembly of icosahedral virus shells may depend on only the lower-level interactions of a protein subunit with its neighbors-i.e., on local rules rather than on larger structural building blocks. The local rule theory provides a framework for understanding the assembly of icosahedral viruses. These include both viruses that fall in the quasiequivalence theory of Caspar and Klug and the polyoma virus structure, which violates quasi-equivalence and has puzzled researchers since it was first observed. Local rules are essentially templates for energetically favorable arrangements. The tolerance margins for these rules are investigated through computer simulations. When these tolerance margins are exceeded in a particular way, the result is a "spiraling" malformation that has been observed in nature.

  4. Incidence of hepatotropic viruses in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Rauschenfels, Stefan; Krassmann, Miriam; Al-Masri, Ahmed N; Verhagen, Willem; Leonhardt, Johannes; Kuebler, Joachim F; Petersen, Claus

    2009-04-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the most frequent indication for paediatric liver transplantation. We tested the hypothesis of a viral aetiology of this disease by screening liver samples of a large number of BA patients for the common human hepatotropic viruses. Moreover, we correlated our findings to the expression of Mx protein, which has been shown to be significantly up-regulated during viral infections. Seventy-four liver biopsies (taken during Kasai portoenterostomy) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for DNA viruses (herpes simplex virus [HSV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], varicella zoster virus [VZV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], adenovirus, parvovirus B19 and polyoma BK) and RNA viruses (enteroviruses, rotavirus and reovirus 3). Mx protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Virus DNA/RNA was found in less than half of the biopsies (8/74 CMV, 1/74 adenovirus; 21/64 reovirus, 1/64 enterovirus). A limited number presented with double infection. Patients that had detectable viral RNA/DNA in their liver biopsies were significantly older than virus-free patients (P = 0.037). The majority (54/59) of the liver biopsies showed expression of Mx proteins in hepatocytes, bile ducts and epithelium. Our data suggest that the known hepatotropic viruses do not play a major role in the aetiology and progression of BA. Their incidence appears to be, rather, a secondary phenomenon. Nonetheless, the inflammatory response in the livers of BA patients mimics that observed during viral infections.

  5. BK and JC polyomavirus infections in Tunisian renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Boukoum, Hanen; Nahdi, Imen; Sahtout, Wissal; Skiri, Habib; Aloui, Sabra; Achour, Abdelatif; Segondy, Michel; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the rate of BK (BKPyV) and JC (JCPyV) polyomavirus infections and their influence on allograft function in Tunisian renal transplant recipients. A total of 72 renal transplant recipients were studied. BKPyV and JCPyV were detected and quantified by real-time PCR in urine and plasma. Demographic and laboratory characteristics were collected for each patient. Polyomavirus DNAuria was detected in 54 (75%) of renal transplant recipients: 26 (36%) had BKPyV DNAuria, 20 (28%) had JCPyV DNAuria, and 8 (11%) had a dual BKPyV/JCPyV DNAuria. BKPyV DNAemia was detected in four (5.5%) patients, whereas no patient had JCPyV viremia. More than 70% of BKPyV and JCPyV infections started within the first 3 months post-transplant. The risk for positive DNAemia was observed in patients with DNAuria level >10(7) copies/ml. BK Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (BKPyVAN) was observed in two patients. This study highlights the high frequency of BKPyV and JCPyV viruria during the first year post-transplant with the highest incidence observed in the third month. We identified several risk factors that were associated with BKV DNAuria including age, sex of patients, and the use of tacrolimus instead of cyclosporine A at month 3. The use of cyclosporine A instead of tacrolimus was identified as risk factor for JCV viruria in month 3. No statistical difference in the allograft function was found between BKPyV and/or JCPyV infected and uninfected patients.

  6. Efficient propagation of archetype BK and JC polyomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Broekema, Nicole M; Imperiale, Michael J

    2012-01-20

    BKPyV and JCPyV are closely related, ubiquitous human pathogens that cause disease in immunocompromised patients. The DNA sequence of the regulatory regions distinguishes two forms of these viruses, designated archetype and rearranged. Although cell culture systems exist for rearranged BKPyV and JCPyV, currently there is no robust cell culture system to study the archetype viruses. Large T antigen (TAg) is a virally encoded protein required to initiate viral DNA synthesis. Because archetype virus produces undetectable levels of TAg, we hypothesized that TAg overexpression would stimulate archetype virus replication. Efficient propagation of the archetype forms of BKPyV and JCPyV was observed in 293TT cells, human embryonic kidney cells overexpressing SV40 TAg. Importantly, the archetypal structure of the regulatory region was maintained during viral growth. Significant replication was not observed for Merkel cell, KI, or WU polyomaviruses. 293TT cells provide a means of propagating archetype BKPyV and JCPyV for detailed study.

  7. Detection of viruses and virus-like particles in four species of wild and farmed bivalve molluscs in Alaska, U.S.A., from 1987 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Theodore R; Burton, Tamara; Evans, Wally; Starkey, Norman

    2009-12-22

    The U.S. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has regulatory oversight of the mariculture industry that is partially administered through a statewide shellfish health policy. Possession and transport of bivalve molluscs require development of indigenous pathogen histories from diagnostic examinations of wild and farmed populations. These examinations have resulted in the detection of various infectious agents and parasites including viruses: an aquareovirus and aquabirna-like virus isolated by fish cell culture, and papilloma- or polyoma- and herpes-like virus particles within bivalve cell intranuclear inclusion bodies observed by electron microscopy. This study summarizes these results in samples examined from 1987 to 2009 and is the first description of poikilothermic viruses from Alaskan waters isolated from or observed within the tissues of 4 species of bivalve molluscs: geoduck clam Panope abrupta, native littleneck clam Protothaca staminea, purple-hinged rock scallop Crassadoma gigantea and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

  8. Detection of viruses and virus-like particles in four species of wild and farmed bivalve molluscs in Alaska, U.S.A., from 1987 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Theodore R; Burton, Tamara; Evans, Wally; Starkey, Norman

    2009-12-22

    The U.S. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has regulatory oversight of the mariculture industry that is partially administered through a statewide shellfish health policy. Possession and transport of bivalve molluscs require development of indigenous pathogen histories from diagnostic examinations of wild and farmed populations. These examinations have resulted in the detection of various infectious agents and parasites including viruses: an aquareovirus and aquabirna-like virus isolated by fish cell culture, and papilloma- or polyoma- and herpes-like virus particles within bivalve cell intranuclear inclusion bodies observed by electron microscopy. This study summarizes these results in samples examined from 1987 to 2009 and is the first description of poikilothermic viruses from Alaskan waters isolated from or observed within the tissues of 4 species of bivalve molluscs: geoduck clam Panope abrupta, native littleneck clam Protothaca staminea, purple-hinged rock scallop Crassadoma gigantea and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. PMID:20183960

  9. J.C. Nalle Community School: A Study of a School Turnaround Effort. Publication #2015-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Zakia; Princiotta, Daniel; Stratford, Brandon; Caal, Selma; Li, Weilin; Murphy, Kelly; Coffey, Amelia; Carrington, Nicholas; Carney, Rachel; Oster, Maryjo; Horton, Susannah

    2015-01-01

    J.C. Nalle is a Community School located in the Marshall Heights neighborhood of Ward 7 in Washington, D.C. The community in which J.C. Nalle is located, historically one of the more economically disadvantaged areas of the city, has experienced a number of changes in recent years. This report of evaluation findings begins with an introduction to…

  10. Modulation of a Pore in the Capsid of JC Polyomavirus Reduces Infectivity and Prevents Exposure of the Minor Capsid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian D. S.; Ströh, Luisa J.; Gee, Gretchen V.; O'Hara, Bethany A.; Stehle, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) infection of immunocompromised individuals results in the fatal demyelinating disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The viral capsid of JCPyV is composed primarily of the major capsid protein virus protein 1 (VP1), and pentameric arrangement of VP1 monomers results in the formation of a pore at the 5-fold axis of symmetry. While the presence of this pore is conserved among polyomaviruses, its functional role in infection or assembly is unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the 5-fold pore in assembly and infection of JCPyV by generating a panel of mutant viruses containing amino acid substitutions of the residues lining this pore. Multicycle growth assays demonstrated that the fitness of all mutants was reduced compared to that of the wild-type virus. Bacterial expression of VP1 pentamers containing substitutions to residues lining the 5-fold pore did not affect pentamer assembly or prevent association with the VP2 minor capsid protein. The X-ray crystal structures of selected pore mutants contained subtle changes to the 5-fold pore, and no other changes to VP1 were observed. Pore mutant pseudoviruses were not deficient in assembly, packaging of the minor capsid proteins, or binding to cells or in transport to the host cell endoplasmic reticulum. Instead, these mutant viruses were unable to expose VP2 upon arrival to the endoplasmic reticulum, a step that is critical for infection. This study demonstrated that the 5-fold pore is an important structural feature of JCPyV and that minor modifications to this structure have significant impacts on infectious entry. IMPORTANCE JCPyV is an important human pathogen that causes a severe neurological disease in immunocompromised individuals. While the high-resolution X-ray structure of the major capsid protein of JCPyV has been solved, the importance of a major structural feature of the capsid, the 5-fold pore, remains poorly understood. This pore is conserved across

  11. JC Polyomavirus Abundance and Distribution in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) Brain Tissue Implicates Myelin Sheath in Intracerebral Dissemination of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Keith A.; Quigley, Catherine; Themeles, Marian; Dunstan, Robert W.; Doyle, Kathryn; Cahir-McFarland, Ellen; Wei, Jing; Buko, Alex; Reid, Carl E.; Sun, Chao; Carmillo, Paul; Sur, Gargi; Carulli, John P.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Fox, Robert J.; Meier, Werner; Goelz, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Over half of adults are seropositive for JC polyomavirus (JCV), but rare individuals develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating JCV infection of the central nervous system. Previously, PML was primarily seen in immunosuppressed patients with AIDS or certain cancers, but it has recently emerged as a drug safety issue through its association with diverse immunomodulatory therapies. To better understand the relationship between the JCV life cycle and PML pathology, we studied autopsy brain tissue from a 70-year-old psoriasis patient on the integrin alpha-L inhibitor efalizumab following a ~2 month clinical course of PML. Sequence analysis of lesional brain tissue identified PML-associated viral mutations in regulatory (non-coding control region) DNA, capsid protein VP1, and the regulatory agnoprotein, as well as 9 novel mutations in capsid protein VP2, indicating rampant viral evolution. Nine samples, including three gross PML lesions and normal-appearing adjacent tissues, were characterized by histopathology and subject to quantitative genomic, proteomic, and molecular localization analyses. We observed a striking correlation between the spatial extent of demyelination, axonal destruction, and dispersion of JCV along white matter myelin sheath. Our observations in this case, as well as in a case of PML-like disease in an immunocompromised rhesus macaque, suggest that long-range spread of polyomavirus and axonal destruction in PML might involve extracellular association between virus and the white matter myelin sheath. PMID:27191595

  12. Human polyomavirus JC replication and non-coding control region analysis in multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab treatment.

    PubMed

    Pietropaolo, Valeria; Bellizzi, Anna; Anzivino, Elena; Iannetta, Marco; Zingaropoli, Maria Antonella; Rodio, Donatella Maria; Morreale, Manuela; Pontecorvo, Simona; Francia, Ada; Vullo, Vincenzo; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Ciardi, Maria Rosa

    2015-12-01

    In the last years, the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with natalizumab has been associated with the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by human polyomavirus JC (JCV). Here, we have shown a significant correlation between patients with JC viruria and positive JC-specific antibody response and patients without JCV-specific antibodies after 1 year of natalizumab (p = 0.0006). Furthermore, JCV-specific quantitative PCR on urine and plasma samples, collected at the enrollment (t0) and every 4 months (t1, t2, t3) in the first year and at two time points (t4 and t5) in the second year of natalizumab treatment, indicated the prevalence of JC viremia rather than JC viruria only in the second year of treatment (p = 0.04). Moreover, the analysis of JCV non-coding control region (NCCR) sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with JC-specific antibodies after 12 natalizumab infusions (t3) revealed the presence of rearranged sequences, whereas the prevalence of genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4 was detected in these patients by VP1 sequence analysis. In summary, JC viruria evaluation seems to be useful to identify early those patients who do not already develop a humoral immune response against JCV. It may also be interesting to study the JCV NCCR rearrangements since they could give us new insights on the onset of neuro-invasive viral variants. PMID:25930159

  13. Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart; Yutin, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    Diverse eukaryotes including animals and protists are hosts to a broad variety of viruses with double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, from the largest known viruses, such as pandoraviruses and mimiviruses, to tiny polyomaviruses. Recent comparative genomic analyses have revealed many evolutionary connections between dsDNA viruses of eukaryotes, bacteriophages, transposable elements, and linear DNA plasmids. These findings provide an evolutionary scenario that derives several major groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses, including the proposed order "Megavirales," adenoviruses, and virophages from a group of large virus-like transposons known as Polintons (Mavericks). The Polintons have been recently shown to encode two capsid proteins, suggesting that these elements lead a dual lifestyle with both a transposon and a viral phase and should perhaps more appropriately be named polintoviruses. Here, we describe the recently identified evolutionary relationships between bacteriophages of the family Tectiviridae, polintoviruses, adenoviruses, virophages, large and giant DNA viruses of eukaryotes of the proposed order "Megavirales," and linear mitochondrial and cytoplasmic plasmids. We outline an evolutionary scenario under which the polintoviruses were the first group of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses that evolved from bacteriophages and became the ancestors of most large DNA viruses of eukaryotes and a variety of other selfish elements. Distinct lines of origin are detectable only for herpesviruses (from a different bacteriophage root) and polyoma/papillomaviruses (from single-stranded DNA viruses and ultimately from plasmids). Phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses provides compelling evidence of their independent origins from smaller members of the putative order "Megavirales," refuting the speculations on the evolution of these viruses from an extinct fourth domain of cellular life.

  14. Evolution of double-stranded DNA viruses of eukaryotes: from bacteriophages to transposons to giant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart; Yutin, Natalya

    2015-01-01

    Diverse eukaryotes including animals and protists are hosts to a broad variety of viruses with double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, from the largest known viruses, such as pandoraviruses and mimiviruses, to tiny polyomaviruses. Recent comparative genomic analyses have revealed many evolutionary connections between dsDNA viruses of eukaryotes, bacteriophages, transposable elements, and linear DNA plasmids. These findings provide an evolutionary scenario that derives several major groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses, including the proposed order “Megavirales,” adenoviruses, and virophages from a group of large virus-like transposons known as Polintons (Mavericks). The Polintons have been recently shown to encode two capsid proteins, suggesting that these elements lead a dual lifestyle with both a transposon and a viral phase and should perhaps more appropriately be named polintoviruses. Here, we describe the recently identified evolutionary relationships between bacteriophages of the family Tectiviridae, polintoviruses, adenoviruses, virophages, large and giant DNA viruses of eukaryotes of the proposed order “Megavirales,” and linear mitochondrial and cytoplasmic plasmids. We outline an evolutionary scenario under which the polintoviruses were the first group of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses that evolved from bacteriophages and became the ancestors of most large DNA viruses of eukaryotes and a variety of other selfish elements. Distinct lines of origin are detectable only for herpesviruses (from a different bacteriophage root) and polyoma/papillomaviruses (from single-stranded DNA viruses and ultimately from plasmids). Phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses provides compelling evidence of their independent origins from smaller members of the putative order “Megavirales,” refuting the speculations on the evolution of these viruses from an extinct fourth domain of cellular life. PMID:25727355

  15. Du Pont Classification of ASASSN-16jc as a Young SN Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Prieto, J. L.; Rich, J.; Seibert, M.; Madore, B.; Poetrodjojo, Henry; D'Agostino, Joshua

    2016-08-01

    We report optical spectroscopy (range 370-910 nm) of ASASSN-16jc discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48) using the du Pont 2.5-m telescope (+ WFCCD) at Las Campanas Observatory on Aug. 24 2016 UT. We performed a cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J. 666, 1024).

  16. Isolation and application of Gordonia sp. JC11 for removal of boat lubricants.

    PubMed

    Chanthamalee, Jirapat; Luepromchai, Ekawan

    2012-01-01

    Boat lubricants are continuously released into the marine environment and thereby cause chronic oil pollution. This study aims to isolate lubricant-degrading microorganisms from Thai coastal areas as well as to apply a selected strain for removal of boat lubricants. Ten microorganisms in the genera of Gordonia, Microbacterium, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Brucella, Enterococcus and Candida were initially isolated by crude oil enrichment culture techniques. The lubricant-removal activity of these isolates was investigated with mineral-based lubricants that had been manufactured for the 4-stroke diesel engines of fishing boats. Gordonia sp. JC11, the most effective strain was able to degrade 25-55% of 1,000 mg L(-1) total hydrocarbons in six tested lubricants, while only 0-15% of the lubricants was abiotically removed. The bacterium had many characteristics that promoted lubricant degradation such as hydrocarbon utilization ability, emulsification activity and cell surface hydrophobicity. For bioaugmentation treatment of lubricant contaminated seawater, the inoculum of Gordonia sp. JC11 was prepared by immobilizing the bacterium on polyurethane foam (PUF). PUF-immobilized Gordonia sp. JC11 was able to remove 42-56% of 100-1,000 mg L(-1) waste lubricant No. 2 within 5 days. This lubricant removal efficiency was higher than those of free cells and PUF without bacterial cells. The bioaugmentation treatment significantly increased the number of lubricant-degrading microorganisms in the fishery port seawater microcosm and resulted in rapid removal of waste lubricant No. 2.

  17. Improved Jc-B properties of MgB2 multifilamentary wires and tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengduo; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Xianping; Yao, Chao; Wang, Chunlei; Ma, Yanwei; Oguro, Hidetoshi; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2012-12-01

    MgB2 multifilamentary wires and tapes were fabricated by the in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) process using acetone doped milled precursor powders. The critical current density of MgB2 is strongly enhanced by high energy milling and acetone doping. Furthermore, the liquid acetone can restrain the agglomeration of milled powder, which is beneficial to the fabrication of MgB2 multifilamentary wires. At 4.2 K and 10 T, the Jc of the 80 h doped Fe/Cu wire is 2.9 × 103 A cm-2, 20 times larger than that of the 1 h pure one (the ‘1 h’ and ‘80 h’, refer to ball milling times). The Jc of 80 h doped Fe/Monel tape is up to 9.2 × 103 A cm-2 at 4.2 K and 10 T. The Jc values of Nb barrier wires are comparable to those of the Fe barrier MgB2 wires. These results indicate that the addition of liquid C-containing material during high energy milling may be an effective way to get excellent properties of MgB2 for practical applications.

  18. Thickness dependence of Jc (0) in MgB2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2016-06-01

    MgB2 superconducting films, whose thicknesses range from 10 nm to 8 μm, have been fabricated on SiC substrates by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method. It is the first time that the Tc and the Jc of MgB2 films are studied on such a large scale. It is found that with the increasing of thickness, Tc elevates first and then keeps roughly stable except for some slight fluctuations, while Jc (5 K, 0 T) experiences a sharp increase followed by a relatively slow fall. The maximum Jc (5 K, 0 T) = 2.3 × 108 A cm-2 is obtained for 100 nm films, which is the experimental evidence for preparing high-quality MgB2 films by HPCVD method. Thus, this work may provide guidance on choosing the suitable thickness for applications. Meanwhile, the films prepared by us cover ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, so the study on them will bring a comprehensive understanding of MgB2 films.

  19. Ectopic Expression of JcWRKY Transcription Factor Confers Salinity Tolerance via Salicylic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Parinita; Dabi, Mitali; Sapara, Komal K.; Joshi, Priyanka S.; Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants, being sessile, have developed intricate signaling network to specifically respond to the diverse environmental stress. The plant-specific WRKY TFs form one of the largest TF family and are involved in diverse plant processes, involving growth, development and stress signaling through auto and cross regulation with different genes and TFs. Here, we report the functional characterization of a salicylic acid -inducible JcWRKY TF. The JcWRKY overexpression confers salinity tolerance in transgenic tobacco, as was evident by increased chlorophyll content and seed germination potential. The transgenic plants showed increased soluble sugar, membrane stability, reduced electrolyte leakage and generation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2•-) as compared to the wild type. Furthermore, the low SA treatment along with salinity improved the tolerance potential of the transgenics by maintaining ROS homeostasis and high K+/Na+ ratio. The transcript expression of SA biosynthetic gene ICS1 and antioxidative enzymes (CAT and SOD) showed upregulation during stress. Thus, the present study reflects that JcWRKY is working in co-ordination with SA signaling to orchestrate the different biochemical and molecular pathways to maneuvre salt stress tolerance of the transgenic plants. PMID:27799936

  20. Comparison of Jc characteristics in PIT wires based on BaFe2As2 with different substitutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamegai, T.; Pyon, S.; Ding, Q. P.; Inoue, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Sun, Y.; Kajitani, H.; Koizumi, N.

    2014-05-01

    Three kinds of superconducting wires based on BaFe2As2 with different substitutions are fabricated using powder-in-tube method and characterized including magneto-optical imaging. In the case of (Ba,K)Fe2As2 wires processed by hot isostatic press, critical current density (Jc) of 32 kA/cm2 has been achieved at 4.2 K under self-field. Wires fabricated in a similar way with Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 resulted in much lower Jc of 7.8 kA/cm2 at 4.2 K under self-field. In the case of BaFe2(As,P)2, Jc of ambient-pressure processed wire has Jc of only 1.0 kA/cm2 at 4.2 K under self-field. Origins of these differences are discussed.

  1. JC Polyomavirus Infection of Primary Human Renal Epithelial Cells Is Controlled by a Type I IFN-Induced Response

    PubMed Central

    Assetta, Benedetta; De Cecco, Marco; O’Hara, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The JC and BK human polyomaviruses (JCPyV and BKPyV, respectively) establish lifelong persistent infections in the kidney. In immunosuppressed individuals, JCPyV causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, and BKPyV causes polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVN). In this study, we compared JCPyV and BKPyV infections in primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial (HRPTE) cells. JCPyV established a persistent infection, but BKPyV killed the cells in 15 days. To identify the cellular factors responsible for controlling JCPyV infection and promoting viral persistence, we profiled the transcriptomes of JCPyV- and BKPyV-infected cells at several time points postinfection. We found that infection with both viruses induced interferon production but that interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were only activated in the JCPyV-infected cells. Phosphorylated STAT1 and IRF9, which are responsible for inducing ISGs, translocated to the nucleus of JCPyV-infected cells but did not in BKPyV-infected cells. In BKPyV-infected cells, two critical suppressors of cytokine signaling, SOCS3 and SOCS1, were induced. Infection with BKPyV but not JCPyV caused reorganization of PML bodies that are associated with inactivating antiviral responses. Blockade of the interferon receptor and neutralization of soluble interferon alpha (IFN-α) and IFN-β partially alleviated the block to JCPyV infection, leading to enhanced infectivity. Our results show that a type I IFN response contributes to the establishment of persistent infection by JCPyV in HRPTE cells. PMID:27381292

  2. Broadly neutralizing human monoclonal JC polyomavirus VP1-specific antibodies as candidate therapeutics for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jelcic, Ivan; Combaluzier, Benoit; Jelcic, Ilijas; Faigle, Wolfgang; Senn, Luzia; Reinhart, Brenda J; Ströh, Luisa; Nitsch, Roger M; Stehle, Thilo; Sospedra, Mireia; Grimm, Jan; Martin, Roland

    2015-09-23

    In immunocompromised individuals, JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) may mutate and gain access to the central nervous system resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), an often fatal opportunistic infection for which no treatments are currently available. Despite recent progress, the contribution of JCPyV-specific humoral immunity to controlling asymptomatic infection throughout life and to eliminating JCPyV from the brain is poorly understood. We examined antibody responses against JCPyV major capsid protein VP1 (viral protein 1) variants in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy donors (HDs), JCPyV-positive multiple sclerosis patients treated with the anti-VLA-4 monoclonal antibody natalizumab (NAT), and patients with NAT-associated PML. Before and during PML, CSF antibody responses against JCPyV VP1 variants show "recognition holes"; however, upon immune reconstitution, CSF antibody titers rise, then recognize PML-associated JCPyV VP1 variants, and may be involved in elimination of the virus. We therefore reasoned that the memory B cell repertoire of individuals who recovered from PML could be a source for the molecular cloning of broadly neutralizing antibodies for passive immunization. We generated a series of memory B cell-derived JCPyV VP1-specific human monoclonal antibodies from HDs and a patient with NAT-associated PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). These antibodies exhibited diverse binding affinity, cross-reactivity with the closely related BK polyomavirus, recognition of PML-causing VP1 variants, and JCPyV neutralization. Almost all antibodies with exquisite specificity for JCPyV, neutralizing activity, recognition of all tested JCPyV PML variants, and high affinity were derived from one patient who had recovered from PML. These antibodies are promising drug candidates for the development of a treatment of PML. PMID:26400911

  3. JcTI-I: a novel trypsin inhibitor from Jatropha curcas seed cake with potential for bacterial infection treatment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Helen P. S.; Oliveira, Jose T. A.; Sousa, Daniele O. B.; Morais, Janne K. S.; Moreno, Frederico B.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O.; Viegas, Ricardo A.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is a low-value by-product resulting from biodiesel production. The seed cake is highly toxic, but it has great potential for biotechnology applications as it is a repository of biomolecules that could be important in agriculture, medicine, and industry. To explore this potential, a novel trypsin inhibitor called JcTI-I was purified by fractionation of the crude extract with trichloroacetic acid (2.5%, v/v) followed by affinity chromatography (Trypsin-Sepharose 4B) and molecular exclusion (Sephacryl S-200). Non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration showed that JcTI-I has approximately 20.0~kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the intact molecular mass of JcTI-I is 10.252~kDa. Moreover, JcTI-I is a glycoprotein with 6.4% (m/m) carbohydrates, pI of 6.6, N-terminal sequence similarity around 60% to plant albumins and high stability to heat, pH, and salinity. JcTI-I presented antibacterial activity against the human pathogenic bacteria Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration less than 5~μg/mL. Furthermore, JcTI-I did have inhibitory activity against the serine proteases from the tested bacteria. Otherwise, no hemolytic activity of human erythrocytes and signs of acute toxicity to mice were observed for JcTI-I. The results demonstrate the benefits of J. curcas seed cake as a source of trypsin inhibitor with potential for biotechnological application as a new antimicrobial agent against human pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24523715

  4. n value and Jc distribution dependence of AC transport current losses in HTS conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Jun; Sawai, Yusuke; Nakayama, Haruki; Tsukamoto, Osami; Miyagi, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    Compared with LTS materials, HTS materials have some peculiarities affecting AC loss characteristics of the conductors. We measured the AC transport current losses in YBCO thin film coated conductors and a Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape. Comparing the measured data with analytical calculations, the dependence of the AC transport current losses on the n value and critical current density distributions are studied. It is shown that, considering the n values and Jc distributions, the peculiarities in the HTS materials can be taken into consideration and the transport current losses in HTS conductors can be calculated by the same analytical method used for LTS.

  5. Increase Jc by Improving the Array of Nb3Sn strands for Fusion Application

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xuan

    2012-12-17

    During Phase I, our efforts were focusing on improving the array of subelement in the tube type strands by hardening the Sn core and the subelement matrix to effectively increase the Jc of the strands. Below is a summary of the results. 1) We were unsuccessful in improving the array using a Cu-Sn matrix approach. 2) We slightly improved the array using Sn with 1.5at%Ti doped core, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down without any breakage. 3) We greatly improved the array using the Glidcop Al-15 to replace the pure Cu sheath in the subelement, and a 217-subelement restacked strand was made and drawn down. Both strands have very good drawability and the array showed good improvement. 4) We also improved the array using improved wire drawing techniques using Hyper Tech's new caterpillar wire drawing machines to enable straight wire drawing for the entire wire drawing process. 5) The 919-subelement restack strand shows its non-Cu Jc over 2100 A/mm2 at 12 T/4.2 K and AC loss of 508 mJ/cm3.

  6. Increasing the Jc of Tube-Type Nb3Sn Strands

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Xuan

    2012-12-17

    In this Phase I, we successfully made strands with better Cu/Sn ratio to reduce the coarse Nb3Sn grain region, thereby providing the potential of increasing the non-Cu Jc in the Phase II and scaling up to 2 billets with 331 subelements. In order to improve the strandÃ's high field properties, we successfully doped low amount of Ti in the subelements and made a 217-subelement wire which has been drawn down to 0.7 mm without any breakage. This strand gave subelement size of 35m. We will scale up the Ti-doped billet to 271-subelement in 1.5 billet in this proposed Phase II. The hexagonal shaped subelements with round Nb-Sn have been developed for a 61-subelement restack. Thus the results indicated that for 217-subelement restack in a billet we have the potential to draw down this type of construction without problems while maintaining a good array to react more Nb to get higher non-Cu Jc in the Phase II.

  7. Overexpression of the Jatropha curcas JcERF1 gene coding an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor increases tolerance to salt in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Yu, Chuan; Yan, Jun; Wang, Xuehua; Chen, Fang; Zhao, Yun; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01

    The JcERF1 gene, which is related to the ERF family (ethylene responsive factor coding genes), was isolated and characterized from the oil tree Jatropha curcas. The JcERF1 protein contains conserved an AP2/EREBP DNA-binding domain of 58 amino acid residues. The JcERF1 gene could be induced by abscisic acid, high salinity, hormones, and osmotic stress, suggesting that JcERF1 is regulated by certain components of the stress-signaling pathway. The full-length and C-terminus of JcERF1 driven by the GAL4 promoter functioned effectively as a transactivator in yeast, while its N-terminus was completely inactive. Transient expression analysis using a JcERF1-mGFP fusion gene in onion epidermal cells revealed that the JcERF1 protein is targeted to the nucleus. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying CaMV35S::JcERF1 fragments were shown to be much more salt tolerant compared to wild-type plants. Our results indicate that JcERF1 is a new member of the ERF transcription factors family that may play an important role in tolerance to environmental stress. PMID:25540008

  8. [BK virus nephropathy after kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Bröcker, V; Schwarz, A; Becker, J U

    2011-09-01

    JC and BK viruses are strains of the polyomavirus group with pathogenic potential in humans. BK is the most frequent pathogenic agent of polyomavirus nephropathy (BKVN) in kidney transplant patients, which is only exceptionally caused by JC virus. Asymptomatic BK virus infection is often acquired in childhood and the virus persists in urothelium and kidneys of healthy individuals, where it can be reactivated under immunosuppression. Up to 10% of transplanted kidneys are affected by BKVN, while the risk of transplant failure due to BKVN exceeds 50% in some publications. In kidney biopsies BKVN leads to tubulointerstitial nephritis, which may be difficult to distinguish from acute cellular rejection without additional use of immunohistochemistry for a polyomavirus antigen. Typical hallmarks of BKVN include cytopathic effects caused by the virus with cell lysis, denudation of tubular basement membranes and nuclear inclusion bodies. An early diagnosis is essential for transplant survival, making screening of blood and urine for BK virus after kidney transplantation part of the standard care of renal transplant patients today. In the case of significant viremia or biopsy-proven BKVN immunosuppression is reduced to allow clearing of the virus.

  9. Vortex flux pinning mechanism and enhancement of in-field Jc in succinic acid doped MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, S. R.; Darini, M.; Wang, X. L.; Hossain, M. S. A.; Dou, S. X.

    2013-08-01

    The field dependence of the resistivity and the critical current density, Jc(B), of MgB2 doped with 10 wt% wet and dry succinic acid have been investigated by magnetic measurements. The dry succinic acid significantly enhanced the upper critical field, the irreversibility field, and the Jc(B) compared to the wet succinic acid doped MgB2 and the pure MgB2. The field dependence of Jc(B) was analyzed within the collective pinning model. The observed temperature dependence of the crossover field, Bsb(T), from the single vortex to the small vortex bundle pinning regime shows that flux pinning arising from variation in the critical temperature, δTc, is the dominant mechanism for the wet sample over the whole studied temperature range, while there is a competition between δTc pinning and the pinning from variation in the mean free path, δl, for the dry sample.

  10. Correlation of irradiation-induced transition temperature increases from C sub v and K sub Jc /K sub Ic data

    SciTech Connect

    Hiser, A.L. )

    1990-03-01

    Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) surveillance capsules contain Charpy-V (C{sub v}) specimens, but many do not contain fracture toughness specimens; accordingly, the radiation-induced shift (increase) in the brittle-to-ductile transition region ({Delta}T) is based upon the {Delta}T determined from notch ductility (C{sub v}) tests. Since the ASME K{sub Ic} and K{sub IR} reference fracture toughness curves are shifted by the {Delta}T from C{sub v}, assurance that this {Delta}T does not underestimate {Delta}T associated with the actual irradiated fracture toughness is required to provide confidence that safety margins do not fall below assumed levels. To assess this behavior, comparisons of {Delta}T's defined by elastic-plastic fracture toughness and C{sub v} tests have been made using data from RPV base and weld metals in which irradiations were made under test reactor conditions. Using as-measure'' fracture toughness values (K{sub Jc}), average comparisons between {Delta}T(C{sub v}) and {Delta}T(K{sub Jc}) are: (a) All data: {Delta}T(K{sub Jc} 100 MPa{radical}{bar m}) = {Delta}T(C{sub v} 41 J) +10{degree}C; (b) Plates only: {Delta}T(K{sub Jc} 100 MPa{radical}{bar m}) = {Delta}T(C{sub v} 41 J) +15{degree}C; and (c) Welds only: {Delta}T(K{sub Jc} 100 MPa{radical}{bar m}) = {Delta}T(C{sub v} 41 J) {minus}1{degree}C. Fluence rate is found to have no significant effect on the relationship between {Delta}T(C{sub v}) and {Delta}T(K{sub Jc}). 12 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Influence of twisting and bending on the Jc and n-value of multifilamentary MgB2 strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Li, G.; Susner, M.; Sumption, M. D.; Rindfleisch, M.; Tomsic, M.; Collings, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    The influences of strand twisting and bending (applied at room temperature) on the critical current densities, Jc, and n-values of MgB2 multifilamentary strands were evaluated at 4.2 K as function of applied field strength, B. Three types of MgB2 strand were evaluated: (i) advanced internal magnesium infiltration (AIMI)-processed strands with 18 filaments (AIMI-18), (ii) powder-in-tube (PIT) strands processed using a continuous tube forming and filling (CTFF) technique with 36 filaments (PIT-36) and (iii) CTFF processed PIT strands with 54 filaments (PIT-54). Transport measurements of Jc(B) and n-value at 4.2 K in fields of up to 10 T were made on: (i) PIT-54 after it was twisted (at room temperature) to twist pitch values, Lp, of 10-100 mm. Transport measurements of Jc(B) and n-value were performed at 4.2 K; (ii) PIT-36 and AIMI-18 after applying bending strains up to 0.6% at room temperature. PIT-54 twisted to pitches of 100 mm down to 10 mm exhibited no degradation in Jc(B) and only small changes in n-value. Both the Jc(B) and n-value of PIT-36 were seen to be tolerant to bending strain of up to 0.4%. On the other hand, AIMI-18 showed ±10% changes in Jc(B) and significant scatter in n-value over the bending strain range of 0-0.6%.

  12. Quantizing remote sensing radiation field research based on J-C model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Ming; Bi, Siwen

    2014-03-01

    Remote sensing provides a powerful tool for human to explore the environment around us from multidimensional perspective and macroscopic view. As marrow of remote sensing, remote sensing information is about the message of light or electromagnetic wave obtained by remote sensing platform. Quantum remote sensing reveals remote sensing theories and methods in quantum level. Quantum remote sensing information is about how to express and transmit information by quantum state. Quantizing remote sensing radiation field is its main basis. Based on J-C model, which describes interaction between single mode light field and a two-level atom, expressions of operators correlated with light field can be obtained through state vector of atom-light field coupling system and Schrodinger equation. Both analysis and calculations show that quantum fluctuation of the light field can be squeezed. Numerical simulation is used to study the variation of quantum fluctuation, which deepens our understanding of quantum remote sensing information.

  13. Molecular characterization of the Jatropha curcas JcR1MYB1 gene encoding a putative R1-MYB transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the R1-MYB transcription factor, designated as JcR1MYB1, was isolated from Jatropha curcas using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. JcR1MYB1 contains a 951 bp open reading frame that encodes 316 amino acids. The deduced JcR1MYB1 protein was predicted to possess the conserved, 56-amino acid-long DNA-binding domain, which consists of a single helix-turn-helix module and usually occurs in R1-MYBs. JcR1MYB1 is a member of the R1-MYB transcription factor subfamily. A subcellular localization study confirmed the nuclear localization of JcR1MYB1. Expression analysis showed that JcR1MYB1 transcripts accumulated in various examined tissues, with high expression levels in the root and low levels in the stem. JcR1MYB1 transcription was up-regulated by polyethylene glycol, NaCl, and cold treatments, as well as by abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene treatment. Analysis of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing JcR1MYB1 indicates an inportant function for this gene in salt stress. PMID:25249778

  14. Leisingera sp. JC1, a Bacterial Isolate from Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Eggs, Produces Indigoidine and Differentially Inhibits Vibrios.

    PubMed

    Gromek, Samantha M; Suria, Andrea M; Fullmer, Matthew S; Garcia, Jillian L; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Nyholm, Spencer V; Balunas, Marcy J

    2016-01-01

    Female members of many cephalopod species house a bacterial consortium in the accessory nidamental gland (ANG), part of the reproductive system. These bacteria are deposited into eggs that are then laid in the environment where they must develop unprotected from predation, pathogens, and fouling. In this study, we characterized the genome and secondary metabolite production of Leisingera sp. JC1, a member of the roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae) of Alphaproteobacteria isolated from the jelly coat of eggs from the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. Whole genome sequencing and MLSA analysis revealed that Leisingera sp. JC1 falls within a group of roseobacters associated with squid ANGs. Genome and biochemical analyses revealed the potential for and production of a number of secondary metabolites, including siderophores and acyl-homoserine lactones involved with quorum sensing. The complete biosynthetic gene cluster for the pigment indigoidine was detected in the genome and mass spectrometry confirmed the production of this compound. Furthermore, we investigated the production of indigoidine under co-culture conditions with Vibrio fischeri, the light organ symbiont of E. scolopes, and with other vibrios. Finally, both Leisingera sp. JC1 and secondary metabolite extracts of this strain had differential antimicrobial activity against a number of marine vibrios, suggesting that Leisingera sp. JC1 may play a role in host defense against other marine bacteria either in the eggs and/or ANG. These data also suggest that indigoidine may be partially, but not wholly, responsible for the antimicrobial activity of this squid-associated bacterium. PMID:27660622

  15. Leisingera sp. JC1, a Bacterial Isolate from Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Eggs, Produces Indigoidine and Differentially Inhibits Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Gromek, Samantha M.; Suria, Andrea M.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Garcia, Jillian L.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Nyholm, Spencer V.; Balunas, Marcy J.

    2016-01-01

    Female members of many cephalopod species house a bacterial consortium in the accessory nidamental gland (ANG), part of the reproductive system. These bacteria are deposited into eggs that are then laid in the environment where they must develop unprotected from predation, pathogens, and fouling. In this study, we characterized the genome and secondary metabolite production of Leisingera sp. JC1, a member of the roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae) of Alphaproteobacteria isolated from the jelly coat of eggs from the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. Whole genome sequencing and MLSA analysis revealed that Leisingera sp. JC1 falls within a group of roseobacters associated with squid ANGs. Genome and biochemical analyses revealed the potential for and production of a number of secondary metabolites, including siderophores and acyl-homoserine lactones involved with quorum sensing. The complete biosynthetic gene cluster for the pigment indigoidine was detected in the genome and mass spectrometry confirmed the production of this compound. Furthermore, we investigated the production of indigoidine under co-culture conditions with Vibrio fischeri, the light organ symbiont of E. scolopes, and with other vibrios. Finally, both Leisingera sp. JC1 and secondary metabolite extracts of this strain had differential antimicrobial activity against a number of marine vibrios, suggesting that Leisingera sp. JC1 may play a role in host defense against other marine bacteria either in the eggs and/or ANG. These data also suggest that indigoidine may be partially, but not wholly, responsible for the antimicrobial activity of this squid-associated bacterium.

  16. Leisingera sp. JC1, a Bacterial Isolate from Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Eggs, Produces Indigoidine and Differentially Inhibits Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Gromek, Samantha M.; Suria, Andrea M.; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Garcia, Jillian L.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Nyholm, Spencer V.; Balunas, Marcy J.

    2016-01-01

    Female members of many cephalopod species house a bacterial consortium in the accessory nidamental gland (ANG), part of the reproductive system. These bacteria are deposited into eggs that are then laid in the environment where they must develop unprotected from predation, pathogens, and fouling. In this study, we characterized the genome and secondary metabolite production of Leisingera sp. JC1, a member of the roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae) of Alphaproteobacteria isolated from the jelly coat of eggs from the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. Whole genome sequencing and MLSA analysis revealed that Leisingera sp. JC1 falls within a group of roseobacters associated with squid ANGs. Genome and biochemical analyses revealed the potential for and production of a number of secondary metabolites, including siderophores and acyl-homoserine lactones involved with quorum sensing. The complete biosynthetic gene cluster for the pigment indigoidine was detected in the genome and mass spectrometry confirmed the production of this compound. Furthermore, we investigated the production of indigoidine under co-culture conditions with Vibrio fischeri, the light organ symbiont of E. scolopes, and with other vibrios. Finally, both Leisingera sp. JC1 and secondary metabolite extracts of this strain had differential antimicrobial activity against a number of marine vibrios, suggesting that Leisingera sp. JC1 may play a role in host defense against other marine bacteria either in the eggs and/or ANG. These data also suggest that indigoidine may be partially, but not wholly, responsible for the antimicrobial activity of this squid-associated bacterium. PMID:27660622

  17. Isolation and functional characterization of the JcERF gene, a putative AP2/EREBP domain-containing transcription factor, in the woody oil plant Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjuan; Sun, Jingwen; Liu, Yun; Chen, Fan; Shen, Shihua

    2007-02-01

    A cDNA clone, named JcERF, was isolated from Jatropha curcas seedlings (a woody oil plant). It was classified as an ERF subfamily member based on multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic characterization. The deduced amino acid sequences of the JcERF clone showed no significant sequence similarity with other known ERF proteins except for the conserved AP2/EREBP DNA-binding domain. Expression of the JcERF gene was rapidly induced upon salinity, drought, ethylene and mechanical wounding treatments. No significant changes in the JcERF expression were observed under ABA stress. Gel retardation assay revealed that the JcERF protein could bind specifically to the GCC box as well as to the C/DRE motif. Also it can be inferred from the gel-shift that there is a possibility that the near sequence of the GCC box has an important effect on the DNA-binding activity. In yeast, the JcERF protein specifically bound to the DRE sequence and activated the transcription of two reporter genes His3 and LacZ driven by the DRE sequence. When fused to the LexA DNA-binding domain, the full-length JcERF functioned effectively as a trans-activator in the yeast one-hybrid assay. Overexpression of JcERF cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis enhanced the salt and freezing tolerance. Meanwhile the seed germination of JcERF transgenic plants was not affected by various concentrations ABA in MS medium. Taken together, the results showed that JcERF functioned as a novel transcription factor and it exhibited a mechanism of plant response to environmental factors like the other AP2/EREBP regulons that also exist in tropical woody plants.

  18. Insights into the mechanism of action of cidofovir and other acyclic nucleoside phosphonates against polyoma- and papillomaviruses and non-viral induced neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Andrei, G; Topalis, D; De Schutter, T; Snoeck, R

    2015-02-01

    Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are well-known for their antiviral properties, three of them being approved for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection (tenofovir), chronic hepatitis B (tenofovir and adefovir) or human cytomegalovirus retinitis (cidofovir). In addition, cidofovir is mostly used off-label for the treatment of infections caused by several DNA viruses other than cytomegalovirus, including papilloma- and polyomaviruses, which do not encode their own DNA polymerases. There is considerable interest in understanding why cidofovir is effective against these small DNA tumor viruses. Considering that papilloma- and polyomaviruses cause diseases associated either with productive infection (characterized by high production of infectious virus) or transformation (where only a limited number of viral proteins are expressed without synthesis of viral particles), it can be envisaged that cidofovir may act as antiviral and/or antiproliferative agent. The aim of this review is to discuss the advances in recent years in understanding the mode of action of ANPs as antiproliferative agents, given the fact that current data suggest that their use can be extended to the treatment of non-viral related malignancies.

  19. JcLEA, a novel LEA-like protein from Jatropha curcas, confers a high level of tolerance to dehydration and salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Zhou, Mingqi; Zhou, Xin; Jin, Yuanjie; Xu, Ming; Lin, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is a highly drought and salt tolerant plant species that is typically used as a traditional folk medicine and biofuel crop in many countries. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie the response to various abiotic environmental stimuli, especially to drought and salt stresses, in J. curcas could be important to crop improvement efforts. In this study, we cloned and characterized the gene for a late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein from J. curcas that we designated JcLEA. Sequence analyses showed that the JcLEA protein belongs to group 5, a subgroup of the LEA protein family. In young seedlings, expression of JcLEA is significantly induced by abscisic acid (ABA), dehydration, and salt stress. Subcellular localization analysis shows that that JcLEA protein is distributed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Moreover, based on growth status and physiological indices, the overexpression of JcLEA in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred increased resistance to both drought and salt stresses compared to the WT. Our data suggests that the group 5 JcLEA protein contributes to drought and salt stress tolerance in plants. Thus, JcLEA is a potential candidate gene for plant genetic modification. PMID:24391737

  20. Enhancement of the in-field Jc of MgB2 via SiCl4 doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Lin; Dou, S. X.; Hossain, M. S. A.; Cheng, Z. X.; Liao, X. Z.; Ghorbani, S. R.; Yao, Q. W.; Kim, J. H.; Silver, T.

    2010-06-01

    We present the following results. (1) We introduce a doping source for MgB2 , liquid SiCl4 , which is free of C, to significantly enhance the irreversibility field (Hirr) , the upper critical field (Hc2) , and the critical current density (Jc) with a little reduction in the critical temperature (Tc) . (2) Although Si can not be incorporated into the crystal lattice, a significant reduction in the a -axis lattice parameter was found, to the same extent as for carbon doping. (3) Based on the first-principles calculation, it is found that it is reliable to estimate the C concentration just from the reduction in the a -lattice parameter for C-doped MgB2 polycrystalline samples that are prepared at high sintering temperatures, but not for those prepared at low sintering temperatures. Strain effects and magnesium deficiency might be reasons for the a -lattice reduction in non-C or some of the C-added MgB2 samples. (4) The SiCl4 -doped MgB2 shows much higher Jc with superior field dependence above 20 K compared to undoped MgB2 and MgB2 doped with various carbon sources. (5) We introduce a parameter, RHH (Hc2/Hirr) , which can clearly reflect the degree of flux-pinning enhancement, providing us with guidance for further enhancing Jc . (6) It was found that spatial variation in the charge-carrier mean free path is responsible for the flux-pinning mechanism in the SiCl4 treated MgB2 with large in-field Jc .

  1. A novel aldo-keto reductase from Jatropha curcas L. (JcAKR) plays a crucial role in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a potent electrophile.

    PubMed

    Mudalkar, Shalini; Sreeharsha, Rachapudi Venkata; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2016-05-20

    Abiotic stress leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which further results in the production of reactive carbonyls (RCs) including methylglyoxal (MG). MG, an α, β-dicarbonyl aldehyde, is highly toxic to plants and the mechanism behind its detoxification is not well understood. Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) play a role in detoxification of reactive aldehydes and ketones. In the present study, we cloned and characterised a putative AKR from Jatropha curcas (JcAKR). Phylogenetically, it forms a small clade with AKRs of Glycine max and Rauwolfia serpentina. JcAKR was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3) cells and the identity of the purified protein was confirmed through MALDI-TOF analysis. The recombinant protein had high enzyme activity and catalytic efficiency in assays containing MG as the substrate. Protein modelling and docking studies revealed MG was efficiently bound to JcAKR. Under progressive drought and salinity stress, the enzyme and transcript levels of JcAKR were higher in leaves compared to roots. Further, the bacterial and yeast cells expressing JcAKR showed more tolerance towards PEG (5%), NaCl (200mM) and MG (5mM) treatments compared to controls. In conclusion, our results project JcAKR as a possible and potential target in crop improvement for abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26995646

  2. Trivittatus virus infections in wild mammals and sentinel rabbits in central Iowa.

    PubMed

    Pinger, R R; Rowley, W A; Wong, Y W; Dorsey, D C

    1975-11-01

    A serological survey was conducted in Iowa to determine the prevalence rate of California group virus antibodies in sera of several vertebrate species. Serum specimens were assayed for infectivity-neutralizing antibody in a microneutralization system with baby hamster kidney cell culture. Of 77 sera assayed, 21 (27%) neutralized trivittatus (TVT) virus infectivity. The antibody prevalence rate was highest for eastern cottontail rabbits inasmuch as 46% (10/22) of the serum specimens form this species possessed neutralizing activity. Other vertebrate species having TVT virus antibody included the fox squirrel, 29% (7/24), opossum, 12% (3/25), and raccoon, 17% (1/6). One cottontail rabbit serum neutralized both TVT virus and Jamestown Canyon (JC) virus infectivity, and one opossum serum specimen neutralized JC virus. None of the vertebrate sera neutralized La Crosse, St. Louis encephalitis, or western equine encephalomyelitis virus infectivity. Trivittatus virus neutralizing antibody was detected in the sera of sentinel rabbits, and TVT virus was isolated from the blood collected from one of these sentinels shortly after the first population peak of adult Aedes trivittatus mosquitoes in 1973. The implications of these data and the possibility of trans-ovarial transmission of TVT virus in A. trivittatus are discussed.

  3. Effects on Jc of pinning center morphology for multiple-in-line-damage in coated conductor and bulk, melt-textured HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, R.; Parks, D.; Sawh, R.-P.; Mayes, B.; Gandini, A.; Goyal, A.; Chen, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2009-12-01

    The properties of discontinuous aligned pinning centers (PCs) created by high-energy heavy-ions are compared for bulk melt-textured and coated conductor HTS. Properties of PCs, which increase Jc (pinning potential and entanglement), and negative properties which decrease Jc (e.g., decreased Tc and percolation paths) are evaluated. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the very large increases in Jc resulting from multiple-in-line-damage (MILD) compared to continuous columnar pinning centers (CCPC). In particular, a mechanism which results in fluxoid entanglement, even for parallel (unsplayed) PCs, is discussed. The same mechanism is found to also account for restoration of much of the pinning potential expected to be lost due to the gaps in MILD PCs. It also accounts for the fact that at high fluence, Jc increases as fluence is increased, instead of decreasing as expected. The very low self-field in coated conductor permits separation of the negative and positive effects of PCs. It is found that parameters developed to quantify the negative effects in bulk melt-textured YBCO, by 63 GeV U 238 ions, successfully describe damage to 2.1 μm thick coated conductor by 1 GeV Ru 44 ions. Coated conductor at 77 K and self-field is generally known to have Jc about 100 times that of melt-textured YBCO. However, at 77 K and applied field of 1 T, when both forms of HTS are processed with comparable numbers of near-optimum MILD PCs, the difference in Jc is reduced to a factor of 1.3-2. Whereas Jc for melt-textured YBCO increased sharply, by a factor of up to 16.8 for high-fluence MILD PCs, Jc in coated conductor increased by a smaller factor of 2.5-3.0. Nevertheless, 2.1 μm thick coated conductor, with near-optimum MILD PCs, exhibits Jc = 543 kA/cm 2 at 77 K and applied field of 1.0 T, and Ic = 114 A/cm-width of conductor. This is the highest value we find in the literature. The phenomenology developed indicates that for optimum MILD PCs in coated conductor, Jc ∼ 700 ± 70 k

  4. Morphotectonics of Hess Deep: Preliminary Results of RRS James Cook Cruise JC21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Shillington, D. J.; Scientific Party, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Hess Deep (2° 15'N, 101° 30'W), a rifted depression formed by the westward propagation of the Cocos-Nazca plate boundary towards the East Pacific Rise, provides unique exposures of the deeper levels of ocean crust formed at a fast spreading mid-ocean ridge. In January-February 2008, during RRS James Cook cruise JC21, we conducted a site survey of Hess Deep in support of proposed Integrated Ocean Drilling Program operations there. Using the Isis remotely-operated vehicle we acquired microbathymetry and collected 145 samples from an 11 sq km area from the nadir of the Deep (5400m water depth) up and onto the intra-rift ridge (3000m), a horst block within the broader rift valley that had previously been drilled at ODP Sites 894 and 895. From previous investigations it was considered that a continuous section through the lower crust down to the Moho transition zone existed in this region, tilted northwards as a result of extension during opening of the rift. Detachment faulting, perhaps assisted by serpentinite diapirism, had been invoked to explain uplift of the intra-rift ridge (Francheteau et al., 1990; MacLeod et al., 1996). However, our detailed mapping and sampling indicates a significantly more complex distribution of rock types across Hess Deep than previously supposed, and that a re-examination of the existing models for the structure and tectonic evolution of the rift is required. We here present our new geological constraints and propose a revised model for the opening of Hess Deep and uplift of the intra-rift ridge, emphasising the role of previously unsuspected neotectonics in controlling the structure of the rift valley. Francheteau, J. et al., 1990. 1 Ma East Pacific Rise oceanic crust and uppermost mantle exposed by rifting in Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific Ocean). EPSL 101, 281-295. MacLeod, C.J. et al., 1996. Tectonics of Hess Deep: A synthesis of drilling results from Leg 147. Proc. ODP, Sci. Res. 147, College Station TX, 461-475.

  5. Application of Multi-port Bidirectional DC-DC Converter to Fuel Cell Vehicle Driving in JC08 Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Katayama, Noboru; Kogoshi, Sumio; Fukada, Takafumi; Ogawa, Makoto

    A fuel cell-EDLC hybrid power system with a multi-port bidirectional DC-DC converter has been recently proposed for extending lifetime of a fuel cell due to smoothing the output current of the fuel cell. This paper studies the performance of the hybrid power system when a fuel cell vehicle drives in the JC08 mode using a simulation model. The simulation results indicate that even if the load current fluctuates, the output current of the fuel cell could be maintained at almost constant values with an assist from the EDLC although small spikes are observed.

  6. Difference between ²JC2H3 and ²JC3H2 spin-spin couplings in heterocyclic five- and six-membered rings as a probe for studying σ-ring currents: a quantum chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Rubén H; dos Santos, Francisco P; Ducati, Lucas C; Tormena, Cláudio F

    2010-12-01

    Adequate analyses of canonical molecular orbitals (CMOs) can provide rather detailed information on the importance of different σ-Fermi contact (FC) coupling pathways (FC term transmitted through the σ-skeleton). Knowledge of the spatial distribution of CMOs is obtained by expanding them in terms of natural bond orbitals (NBOs). Their relative importance for transmitting the σ-FC contribution to a given spin-spin coupling constants (SSCCs) is estimated by resorting to the expression of the FC term given by the polarisation propagator formalism. In this way, it is possible to classify the effects affecting such couplings in two different ways: delocalisation interactions taking place in the neighbourhood of the coupling nuclei and 'round the ring' effects. The latter, associated with σ-ring currents, are observed to yield significant differences between the FC terms of (2)J(C2H3) and (2)J(C3H2) SSCCs which, consequently, are taken as probes to gauge the differences in σ-ring currents for the five-membered rings (furan, thiophene, selenophene and pyrrol) and also for the six-membered rings (benzene, pyridine, protonated pyridine and N-oxide pyridine) used in the present study.

  7. Structural basis of GM1 ganglioside recognition by simian virus 40.

    PubMed

    Neu, Ursula; Woellner, Karin; Gauglitz, Guenter; Stehle, Thilo

    2008-04-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been a paradigm for understanding attachment and entry of nonenveloped viruses, viral DNA replication, and virus assembly, as well as for endocytosis pathways associated with caveolin and cholesterol. We find by glycan array screening that SV40 recognizes its ganglioside receptor GM1 with a quite narrow specificity, but isothermal titration calorimetry shows that individual binding sites have a relatively low affinity, with a millimolar dissociation constant. The high-resolution crystal structure of recombinantly produced SV40 capsid protein, VP1, in complex with the carbohydrate portion of GM1, reveals that the receptor is bound in a shallow solvent-exposed groove at the outer surface of the capsid. Through a complex network of interactions, VP1 recognizes a conformation of GM1 that is the dominant one in solution. Analysis of contacts provides a structural basis for the observed specificity and suggests binding mechanisms for additional physiologically relevant GM1 variants. Comparison with murine Polyomavirus (Polyoma) receptor complexes reveals that SV40 uses a different mechanism of sialic acid binding, which has implications for receptor binding of human polyomaviruses. The SV40-GM1 complex reveals a parallel to cholera toxin, which uses a similar cell entry pathway and binds GM1 in the same conformation.

  8. Biology of simian virus 40 (SV40) transplantation antigen (TrAg). X. Tumorigenic potential of mouse cells transformed by SV40 in high responder C57BL/6 mice and correlation with the persistence of SV40 TrAg, early proteins and sequences.

    PubMed

    Flyer, D C; Pretell, J; Campbell, A E; Liao, W S; Tevethia, M J; Taylor, J M; Tevethia, S S

    1983-11-01

    Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts of C57Bl/6 origin and cells derived from a tumor induced by polyoma virus in a C57Bl/6 mouse were transformed with SV40. The tumorigenic potential of these cells in normal adult and SV40-immunized mice was correlated with the synthesis of SV40 tumor antigens including the transplantation rejection antigen (TrAg) and with the presence of SV40 early region DNA sequences. Primary cells transformed by SV40 (B6/WT-3) induced tumors in immunocompetent adult syngeneic mice after adaptation in the immunosuppressed host. Passage of these tumor cells (B6/WT-3-T) through SV40-immunized mice resulted in the retention of both T and t antigens and TrAg. However, passage of SV40-transformed polyoma tumor cells through SV40-immunized immunocompetent adult mice but not in nonimmunized mice resulted in the loss of expression of SV40 tumor antigens including TrAg. This loss correlated with the loss of SV40 early region sequences from these double transformed cells. These results demonstrate that the establishment of in vitro SV40-transformed primary mouse cells into a tumor capable of progressive growth in high responder mice does not lead to the selection of variants which have lost the expression of early region DNA sequences.

  9. Polyomavirus JC Urinary Shedding in Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients Associated With Reduced Creatinine Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Kusne, Shimon; Vilchez, Regis A.; Zanwar, Preeti; Quiroz, Jorge; Mazur, Marek J.; Heilman, Raymond L.; Mulligan, David; Butel, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Polyomavirus reactivation can cause significant morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients, particularly BK virus (BKV) in kidney transplant patients. Less is known about dynamics of John Cunningham virus (JCV) in nonkidney organ transplant patients. Methods. We examined the frequency of urinary shedding of polyomaviruses BKV and JCV and their relationship to creatinine clearance (CrCl) in a longitudinal study of 41 kidney and 33 liver transplant recipients. Results. Any polyomavirus urinary shedding was more frequent in liver than kidney recipients (64% vs 39%; P = .03). JCV was excreted more frequently by liver than kidney recipients (71% vs 38%), whereas BKV was shed more often by kidney than liver patients (69% vs 52%). Mean JCV loads were significantly higher than those of BKV in both patient groups (P < .0001). Lower mean CrCl values were significantly associated with JCV shedding in both kidney and liver recipients (P < .001). Conclusions. These findings suggest that BKV and JCV display different patterns of reactivation and shedding in kidney and liver transplant patients and that JCV may have a role in renal dysfunction in some solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:22802433

  10. New Insights on Human Polyomavirus JC and Pathogenesis of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bellizzi, Anna; Anzivino, Elena; Rodio, Donatella Maria; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Nencioni, Lucia; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family. It was first isolated from the brain of a patient with Hodgkin disease in 1971, and since then the etiological agent of the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was considered. Until the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, PML was rare: in fact HIV-induced immunodeficiency is the most common predisposing factor accounting for 85% of all instances of PML. This data led to intense research on JCV infection and resulted in better understanding of epidemiology and clinic-pathologic spectrum. Recently, cases of PML have been observed after the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, such as natalizumab, rituximab, efalizumab, and infliximab, in the treatment of autoimmune disease, underlining the important role of host immunity in PML pathogenesis. In this review current understanding of the JCV infection and the new findings relating to the pathogenesis of PML has been comprehensively revised, focusing our attention on the interaction between the cellular and viral molecular pathways implicated in the JCV infection and the modulating role of host immune surveillance in the viral reactivation from a latent state. PMID:23690827

  11. Hot pressing to enhance the transport Jc of Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting tapes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Dong, Chiheng; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Qianjun; Ma, Yanwei; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Tian, Huanfang; Li, Jianqi

    2014-01-01

    High-performance Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 (Sr-122) tapes have been successfully fabricated using hot pressing (HP) process. The effect of HP temperatures (850–925°C) on the c-axis texture, resistivity, Vickers micro-hardness, microstructure and critical current properties has been systematically studied. Taking advantage of high degree of c-axis texture, well grain connectivity and large concentration of strong-pinning defects, we are able to obtain an excellent Jc of 1.2 × 105 A/cm2 at 4.2 K and 10 T for Sr-122 tapes. More importantly, the field dependence of Jc turns out to be very weak, such that in 14 T the Jc still remains ~ 1.0 × 105 A/cm2. These Jc values are the highest ever reported so far for iron-pnictide wires and tapes, achieving the level desired for practical applications. Our results clearly strengthen the position of iron-pnictide conductors as a competitor to the conventional and MgB2 superconductors for high field applications. PMID:25374068

  12. Detection of DNA viruses in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smelov, Vitaly; Bzhalava, Davit; Arroyo Mühr, Laila Sara; Eklund, Carina; Komyakov, Boris; Gorelov, Andrey; Dillner, Joakim; Hultin, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    We tested prostatic secretions from men with and without prostate cancer (13 cases and 13 matched controls) or prostatitis (18 cases and 18 matched controls) with metagenomic sequencing. A large number (>200) of viral reads was only detected among four prostate cancer cases (1 patient each positive for Merkel cell polyomavirus, JC polyomavirus and Human Papillomavirus types 89 or 40, respectively). Lower numbers of reads from a large variety of viruses were detected in all patient groups. Our knowledge of the biology of the prostate may be furthered by the fact that DNA viruses are commonly shed from the prostate and can be readily detected by metagenomic sequencing of expressed prostate secretions. PMID:27121729

  13. Over-expression of JcDGAT1 from Jatropha curcas increases seed oil levels and alters oil quality in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Vidhu A

    2013-12-01

    The increasing consumption of fossil fuels and petroleum products is leading to their rapid depletion and is a matter of concern around the globe. Substitutes of fossil fuels are required to sustain the pace of economic development. In this context, oil from the non food crops (biofuel) has shown potential to substitute fossil fuels. Jatropha curcas is an excellent shrub spread and naturalized across the globe. Its oil contains a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (about 78-84% of total fatty acid content) making the oil suitable for biodiesel production. Despite its high oil content, it has been poorly studied in terms of important enzymes/genes responsible for oil biosynthesis. Here, we describe the isolation of the full length cDNA clone of JcDGAT1, a key enzyme involved in oil biosynthesis, from J. curcas seeds and manipulation of oil content and composition in transgenic Arabidopsis plants by its expression. Transcript analysis of JcDGAT1 reveals a gradual increase from early seed development to its maturation. Homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing JcDGAT1 both under CaMV35S promoter and a seed specific promoter show an enhanced level of total oil content (up by 30-41%) in seeds but do not show any phenotypic differences. In addition, our studies also show alterations in the oil composition through JcDGAT1 expression. While the levels of saturated FAs such as palmitate and stearate in the oil do not change, there is significant reproducible decrease in the levels of oleic acid and a concomitant increase in levels of linolenic acid both under the CaMV35S promoter as well as the seed specific promoter. Our studies thus confirm that DGAT is involved in flux control in oil biosynthesis and show that JcDGAT1 could be used specifically to manipulate and improve oil content and composition in plants. PMID:24125179

  14. Risk Factors for the Development of BK Virus Nephropathy in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Pai, D; Mann, D M; Malik, A; Hoover, D R; Fyfe, B; Mann, R A

    2015-10-01

    The BK polyoma virus has, in recent years, become a significant cause of renal allograft dysfunction and failure. Among 260 adult kidney transplant recipients, those with biopsy-proven BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) were compared with those without BKVN with regard to gender, age, race, rejection episodes, time on dialysis, number of organs transplanted, HLA match, live donor versus deceased donor, cold ischemia time, delayed graft function, cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus of donor and recipient, induction therapy, and maintenance immunosuppression. Episodes of rejection (35.7% of patients with BKVN vs 8.5% of patients without BKVN; P = .01), transplantation of >1 organ (35.7% of patients with BKVN vs 9.0% of patients without BKVN; P = .01), positive CMV serology in both donor and recipient (71.4% of patients with BKVN vs 41.1% of patients without BKVN; P = .03), and a greater cumulative dose of daclizumab use at the time of induction (2.24 ± 0.05 mg/kg in patients with BKVN vs 2.03 ± 0.14 mg/kg in patients without BKVN; P = .04) were statistically significant risk factors for the development of BKVN. Those who developed BKVN received a higher mean cumulative dose of rabbit antithymoglobulin for induction therapy, but that difference failed to achieve statistical significance (P = .07).

  15. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  16. Evaluation of virus removal efficiency of coagulation-sedimentation and rapid sand filtration processes in a drinking water treatment plant in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Asami, Tatsuya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Torrey, Jason Robert; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2016-09-15

    In order to properly assess and manage the risk of infection by enteric viruses in tap water, virus removal efficiency should be evaluated quantitatively for individual processes in actual drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs); however, there have been only a few studies due to technical difficulties in quantifying low virus concentration in water samples. In this study, the removal efficiency of indigenous viruses was evaluated for coagulation-sedimentation (CS) and rapid sand filtration (RSF) processes in a DWTP in Bangkok, Thailand by measuring the concentration of viruses before and after treatment processes using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Water samples were collected and concentrated from raw source water, after CS, and after RSF, and inhibitory substances in water samples were reduced by use of a hydrophobic resin (DAX-8). Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and JC polyomavirus (JC PyV) were found to be highly prevalent in raw waters, with concentrations of 10(2.88 ± 0.35) and 10(3.06 ± 0.42) copies/L (geometric mean ± S.D.), respectively. Step-wise removal efficiencies were calculated for individual processes, with some variation observed between wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, PMMoV was removed less by CS and more by RSF on average (0.40 log10 vs 1.26 log10, respectively), while the reverse was true for JC PyV (1.91 log10 vs 0.49 log10, respectively). Both viruses were removed similarly during the dry season, with CS removing the most virus (PMMoV, 1.61 log10 and 0.78 log10; JC PyV, 1.70 log10, and 0.59 log10; CS and RSF, respectively). These differences between seasons were potentially due to variations in raw water quality and the characteristics of the viruses themselves. These results suggest that PMMoV and JC PyV, which are more prevalent in environmental waters than the other enteric viruses evaluated in this study, could be useful in determining viral fate for the risk management of viruses in water treatment

  17. Human embryonic kidney cells: Stable transformation with an origin-defective simian virus 40 DNA and use as hosts for human papovavirus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Major, E.O.; Matsumura, P.

    1984-02-01

    An origin-defective mutant DNA of simian virus 40 immortalized human embryonic kidney cells, maintaining a T protein which could function for human papovavirus BK DNA replication but not for human papovavirus JC DNA replication. Neither BK virions nor capsid proteins were produced in these cells. This may indicate that the simian virus 40 T protein in human embryonic kidney cells is competent for maintaining transformation and initiating and completing DNA replication for BK but is not competent for switching to late gene functions. Furthermore, it appears that the JC DNA replication origin cannot efficiently use the simian virus 40 T protein for its DNA synthesis, as suggested by its DNA sequence data.

  18. Virus Reduction during Advanced Bardenpho and Conventional Wastewater Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Bradley W; Kitajima, Masaaki; Campillo, Maria E; Gerba, Charles P; Pepper, Ian L

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated wastewater treatment for the removal of 11 different virus types (pepper mild mottle virus; Aichi virus; genogroup I, II, and IV noroviruses; enterovirus; sapovirus; group-A rotavirus; adenovirus; and JC and BK polyomaviruses) by two wastewater treatment facilities utilizing advanced Bardenpho technology and compared the results with conventional treatment processes. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing full-scale treatment processes that all received sewage influent from the same region. The incidence of viruses in wastewater was assessed with respect to absolute abundance, occurrence, and reduction in monthly samples collected throughout a 12 month period in southern Arizona. Samples were concentrated via an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results suggest that Plant D, utilizing an advanced Bardenpho process as secondary treatment, effectively reduced pathogenic viruses better than facilities using conventional processes. However, the absence of cell-culture assays did not allow an accurate assessment of infective viruses. On the basis of these data, the Aichi virus is suggested as a conservative viral marker for adequate wastewater treatment, as it most often showed the best correlation coefficients to viral pathogens, was always detected at higher concentrations, and may overestimate the potential virus risk. PMID:27447291

  19. buffer Layer Growth, the Thickness Dependence of Jc in Coated Conductors, Local Identification of Current Limiting Mechanisms and Participation in the Wire Development Group

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David; Hellstron, Eric; Abraimov, Dmytro

    2011-12-17

    The primary thrusts of our work were to provide critical understanding of how best to enhance the current-carrying capacity of coated conductors. These include the deconstruction of Jc as a function of fim thickness, the growth of in situ films incorporating strong pinning centers and the use of a suite of position-sensitive tools that enable location and analysis of key areas where current-limiting occurs.

  20. Large transport Jc in Cu-sheathed Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting tape conductors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Qianjun; Dong, Chiheng; Wang, Dongliang; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-01-01

    Copper sheath is the first choice for manufacturing high-Tc superconducting wires and tapes because of its high electrical and thermal conductivities, low-cost and good mechanical properties. However, Cu can easily react with superconducting cores, such as BSCCO, MgB2 and pnictides, and therefore drastically decrease the transport Jc. Here, we report the fabrication of Cu-sheathed Sr1−xKxFe2As2 tapes with superior Jc performance using a simple hot pressing method that is capable of eliminating the lengthy high-temperature sintering. We obtained high-quality Sr1−xKxFe2As2 tapes with processing at 800 oC for 30 minutes and measured high Tc and sharp transition. By this rapid fabrication, Cu sheath does not give rise to apparent reaction layer, and only slightly diffuses into Sr-122 core. As a consequence, we achieved high transport Jc of 3.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T and 2.7 × 104 A/cm2 in 14 T at 4.2 K. The in-field Jc performance is by far the highest reported for Cu-sheathed high-Tc conductors. More importantly, Cu-sheathed Sr-122 tapes also showed a high Je value of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T at 4.2 K, which has reached the widely accepted practical level for applications. These results demonstrate that Cu is a very promising sheath for the practical application of pnictide conductors. PMID:26122741

  1. Large transport Jc in Cu-sheathed Sr0.6K0.4Fe2As2 superconducting tape conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, He; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xianping; Zhang, Qianjun; Dong, Chiheng; Wang, Dongliang; Ma, Yanwei

    2015-06-01

    Copper sheath is the first choice for manufacturing high-Tc superconducting wires and tapes because of its high electrical and thermal conductivities, low-cost and good mechanical properties. However, Cu can easily react with superconducting cores, such as BSCCO, MgB2 and pnictides, and therefore drastically decrease the transport Jc. Here, we report the fabrication of Cu-sheathed Sr1-xKxFe2As2 tapes with superior Jc performance using a simple hot pressing method that is capable of eliminating the lengthy high-temperature sintering. We obtained high-quality Sr1-xKxFe2As2 tapes with processing at 800 oC for 30 minutes and measured high Tc and sharp transition. By this rapid fabrication, Cu sheath does not give rise to apparent reaction layer, and only slightly diffuses into Sr-122 core. As a consequence, we achieved high transport Jc of 3.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T and 2.7 × 104 A/cm2 in 14 T at 4.2 K. The in-field Jc performance is by far the highest reported for Cu-sheathed high-Tc conductors. More importantly, Cu-sheathed Sr-122 tapes also showed a high Je value of 1.0 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T at 4.2 K, which has reached the widely accepted practical level for applications. These results demonstrate that Cu is a very promising sheath for the practical application of pnictide conductors.

  2. Development of very high Jc in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 thin films grown on CaF2

    PubMed Central

    Tarantini, C.; Kametani, F.; Lee, S.; Jiang, J.; Weiss, J. D.; Jaroszynski, J.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Eom, C. B.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 is the most tunable of the Fe-based superconductors (FBS) in terms of acceptance of high densities of self-assembled and artificially introduced pinning centres which are effective in significantly increasing the critical current density, Jc. Moreover, FBS are very sensitive to strain, which induces an important enhancement in critical temperature, Tc, of the material. In this paper we demonstrate that strain induced by the substrate can further improve Jc of both single and multilayer films by more than that expected simply due to the increase in Tc. The multilayer deposition of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 on CaF2 increases the pinning force density (Fp = Jc × µ0H) by more than 60% compared to a single layer film, reaching a maximum of 84 GN/m3 at 22.5 T and 4.2 K, the highest value ever reported in any 122 phase. PMID:25467177

  3. Development of very high Jc in Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 thin films grown on CaF2

    DOE PAGES

    Tarantini, C.; Kametani, F.; Lee, S.; Jiang, J.; Weiss, J. D.; Jaroszynski, J.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Eom, C. B.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2014-12-03

    Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 is the most tunable of the Fe-based superconductors (FBS) in terms of acceptance of high densities of self-assembled and artificially introduced pinning centres which are effective in significantly increasing the critical current density, Jc. Moreover, FBS are very sensitive to strain, which induces an important enhancement in critical temperature,Tc, of the material. In this study we demonstrate that strain induced by the substrate can further improve Jc of both single and multilayer films by more than that expected simply due to the increase in Tc. The multilayer deposition of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 on CaF2 increases the pinning force density (Fp=Jc xmore » μ₀H) by more than 60% compared to a single layer film, reaching a maximum of 84 GN/m3 at 22.5 T and 4.2 K, the highest value ever reported in any 122 phase.« less

  4. Enhanced Jc's of YBa2Cu3O7 - x-Ag ex situ annealed coevaporated films on LaAlO3 (100) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, T.; Ejrnæs, M.; Olesen, M.; Hilger, K.; Skov, J. L.; Bodin, P.; Kühle, A.; Chorkendorff, I.

    1994-10-01

    A 5× increase of the critical current density (Jc) at 77 K was obtained by coating a coevaporated 500 nm thick Y, BaF2, Cu film with 50 nm Ag prior to the ex situ annealing. Jc increased from 0.2 for uncoated samples to 1 MA/cm2 for the Ag-coated sample without severely affecting the zero resistance transition temperature (Tc0). Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface morphology was improved and that the normally observed trellislike structure was greatly reduced. By combining electron microscopy and sputter assisted Auger analysis it was found that the Ag nucleated in droplets on the surface of the superconductor with only small amounts of Ag in the superconductor matrix. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the Ag-coated film was highly c-axis oriented. The increase in Jc is believed to be due to the improved surface properties of the superconductor, indicating that a larger amount of the film is c-axis oriented or that the single-crystalline grains are larger.

  5. Nuclear factor 1 family members mediate repression of the BK virus late promoter.

    PubMed

    Kraus, R J; Shadley, L; Mertz, J E

    2001-08-15

    BK virus (BKV) is a member of the polyoma virus family that is ubiquitous in humans. Its 5-kb DNA genome consists of a bidirectional promoter region situated between two temporally regulated coding regions. We mapped the transcription initiation site of the major late promoter (MLP) of the archetype strain BKV(WW) to nt 185. We found that it lies within the sequence TGGN6GCCA, a binding site for members of the nuclear factor 1 (NF1) family of transcription factors. Competition electrophoretic mobility shift and immunoshift assays confirmed that NF1 factors present in nuclear extracts of HeLa and CV-1 cells bind to the BKV-MLP. Because BKV(WW) grew poorly in tissue culture and failed to express detectable levels of RNA in vitro, SV40-BKV chimeric viruses were constructed to investigate the transcriptional function of this NF-1 binding site. These sequence-specific factors repressed transcription in a cell-free system when template copy number was low. This repression could be relieved by the addition in trans of oligonucleotides containing wild-type, but not mutated, NF1-binding site sequences. SV40-BKV chimeric viruses defective in this NF1-binding site overproduced late RNA at early, but not late, times after transfection of CV-1 cells. Finally, transient expression in 293 cells of cDNAs encoding the family members NF1-A4, NF1-C2, and NF1-X2 specifically repressed transcription from the BKV late promoter approximately 3-, 10-, and 10-fold, respectively, in a DNA binding-dependent manner. We conclude that some members of the NF1 family of transcription factors can act as sequence-specific cellular repressors of the BKV-MLP. We propose that titration of these and other cellular repressors by viral genome amplification may be responsible in part for the replication-dependent component of the early-to-late switch in BKV gene expression.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-induced ROS accumulation enhances mutagenic potential of T-antigen from human polyomavirus JC.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Anna; Waligórski, Piotr; Lassak, Adam; Vashistha, Himanshu; Lirette, David; Tate, David; Zea, Arnold H; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Rodriguez, Paulo; Meggs, Leonard G; Estrada, John J; Ochoa, Augusto; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the products of incomplete combustion of organic materials, which are present in cigarette smoke, deep-fried food, and in natural crude oil. Since PAH-metabolites form DNA adducts and cause oxidative DNA damage, we asked if these environmental carcinogens could affect transforming potential of the human Polyomavirus JC oncoprotein, T-antigen (JCV T-antigen). We extracted DMSO soluble PAHs from Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (oil-PAHs), and detected several carcinogenic PAHs. The oil-PAHs were tested in exponentially growing cultures of normal mouse fibroblasts (R508), and in R508 stably expressing JCV T-antigen (R508/T). The oil-PAHs were cytotoxic only at relatively high doses (1:50-1:100 dilution), and at 1:500 dilution the growth and cell survival rates were practically unaffected. This non-toxic dose triggered however, a significant accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), caused oxidative DNA damage and the formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Although oil-PAHs induced similar levels of DNA damage in R508 and R508/T cells, only T-antigen expressing cells demonstrated inhibition of high fidelity DNA repair by homologous recombination (HRR). In contrast, low-fidelity repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) was unaffected. This potential mutagenic shift between DNA repair mechanisms was accompanied by a significant increase in clonal growth of R508/T cells chronically exposed to low doses of the oil-PAHs. Our results indicate for the first time carcinogenic synergy in which oil-PAHs trigger oxidative DNA damage and JCV T-antigen compromises DNA repair fidelity. PMID:23558788

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Gene Family in Physic Nut and Overexpression of the JcERF011 Gene in Rice Increased Its Sensitivity to Salinity Stress.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuehui; Qin, Shanshan; Guo, Yali; Chen, Yanbo; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2016-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factors play crucial roles in plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. A total of 119 AP2/ERF genes (JcAP2/ERFs) have been identified in the physic nut genome; they include 16 AP2, 4 RAV, 1 Soloist, and 98 ERF genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that physic nut AP2 genes could be divided into 3 subgroups, while ERF genes could be classed into 11 groups or 43 subgroups. The AP2/ERF genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome and retain many duplicates which arose from ancient duplication events. The expression patterns of several JcAP2/ERF duplicates in the physic nut showed differences among four tissues (root, stem, leaf, and seed), and 38 JcAP2/ERF genes responded to at least one abiotic stressor (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation, and nitrogen starvation) in leaves and/or roots according to analysis of digital gene expression tag data. The expression of JcERF011 was downregulated by salinity stress in physic nut roots. Overexpression of the JcERF011 gene in rice plants increased its sensitivity to salinity stress. The increased expression levels of several salt tolerance-related genes were impaired in the JcERF011-overexpressing plants under salinity stress. PMID:26943337

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Gene Family in Physic Nut and Overexpression of the JcERF011 Gene in Rice Increased Its Sensitivity to Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuehui; Qin, Shanshan; Guo, Yali; Chen, Yanbo; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2016-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factors play crucial roles in plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. A total of 119 AP2/ERF genes (JcAP2/ERFs) have been identified in the physic nut genome; they include 16 AP2, 4 RAV, 1 Soloist, and 98 ERF genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that physic nut AP2 genes could be divided into 3 subgroups, while ERF genes could be classed into 11 groups or 43 subgroups. The AP2/ERF genes are non-randomly distributed across the 11 linkage groups of the physic nut genome and retain many duplicates which arose from ancient duplication events. The expression patterns of several JcAP2/ERF duplicates in the physic nut showed differences among four tissues (root, stem, leaf, and seed), and 38 JcAP2/ERF genes responded to at least one abiotic stressor (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation, and nitrogen starvation) in leaves and/or roots according to analysis of digital gene expression tag data. The expression of JcERF011 was downregulated by salinity stress in physic nut roots. Overexpression of the JcERF011 gene in rice plants increased its sensitivity to salinity stress. The increased expression levels of several salt tolerance-related genes were impaired in the JcERF011-overexpressing plants under salinity stress. PMID:26943337

  9. Detection of human viruses in rivers of a densly-populated area in Germany using a virus adsorption elution method optimized for PCR analyses.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Jurzik, Lars; Stang, Alexander; Sure, Klaus; Uberla, Klaus; Wilhelm, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Transmission of viruses via surface water is a major public health concern. To determine the viral concentration in rivers of a densely-populated area in Germany, the virus adsorption elution (VIRADEL) method was optimized for downstream PCR applications. Using a high-salt alkaline phosphate buffer for elution, the median recovery efficiency from spiked 1l water samples ranged from 21.3% to 100% for JC polyomavirus, human adenovirus type 5, Echovirus 11, and norovirus genogroup I. Analyses of 41 water samples collected during the winter 2007/08 from the rivers Ruhr and Rhine yielded detection rates 97.5% for adenoviruses and human polyomavirus (JC, BK), and 90% for group A rotaviruses. Noroviruses genogroup II were detected in 31.7% of the samples and only one sample was positive for enteroviruses. Virus concentrations ranged from 9.4 to 2.3x10(4) gen.equ./l. However, the genome equivalents/liter determined for the RNA viruses and their detection frequency are only lower limits, since the concentration procedure leads to carry-over of inhibitors of the reverse transcription step. Sequence analyses of the PCR products revealed that the adenovirus and rotavirus PCRs used could cross-react with animal viruses from the respective virus families. These results suggest that detection of human polyomavirus genomes is the most sensitive and specific marker for contamination of surface water with viruses from human sewage. Although we could routinely detect nucleic acids of viral pathogens in river water by the PCR-optimized VIRADEL method, threshold levels of viral nucleic acids above which there is a risk of infection with viruses derived from human remain to be determined.

  10. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies.

  11. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies. PMID:26958713

  12. Treatment of Resıstant Cyclophosphamide Induced Haemorrhagic Cystıtıs: Revıew of Literature and Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Engin; Yilmaz, Sercan; Özgür, Gökhan; Kibar, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Haemorrhagic Cystitis (HC) is defined as diffuse inflammatory bladder bleeding due to many aetiologies. Massive HC often arises from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of pelvic malignancies. Phosphamides are the anti-cancer drugs used for treating breast cancer, B-cell lymphoma, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythaematosis by cross-linking strands of DNA and preventing the cell division. They are also used in bone marrow transplantation for prevention of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). Hepatic metabolism of phosphamide forms acrolein, and acrolein makes ulceration, haemorrhage, edema and necrosis of the urothelium during its excretion by the urine. Infectious causes of HC in immunocomprimesed patients are adenovirus, BK polyoma-virus (BK), JC virus, and Cytomegalovirus (CMV). The present article attempts to make a review of literature for the treatment of intractable HC and report three cases with HC. PMID:27190887

  13. Increased Prevalence of Human Polyomavirus JC Viruria in Chronic Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases Patients in Treatment with Anti-TNF α: A 18 Month Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodio, Donatella Maria; Anzivino, Elena; Mischitelli, Monica; Bellizzi, Anna; Scrivo, Rossana; Scribano, Daniela; Conte, Gianlorenzo; Prezioso, Carla; Trancassini, Maria; Valesini, Guido; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRDs) are immune-mediated pathologies involving joints. To date, TNFα-blocking agents administration is the most promising therapy, although these treatments are associated with an increased Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation, the etiological agent of the Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). The aim of this study was the recruitment and the analysis of a CIRDs cohort in order to investigate a possible correlation between JCPyV presence and the influence of anti-TNF-α agents on viral loads. Blood and urine samples were collected from 34 CIRDs subjects prior the first anti-TNF-α infusion (T0) and after 3 (T3), 6 (T6), 12 (T12), and 18 (T18) months. Results showed persistent JC viruria significantly higher than JC viremia throughout the 18 month follow-up study (p = 0.002). In JCPyV positive samples, the non-coding control region (NCCR) was analyzed. Results evidenced archetypal structures (type II-S) in all isolates with the exception of a sequence isolated from a plasma sample, that corresponds to the type II-R found in PML subjects. Finally, the viral protein 1 (VP1) genotyping was performed and results showed the prevalence of the European genotypes 1A, 1B, and 4. Since only few studies have been carried out to understand whether there is a PML risk in CIRDs population infected by JCPyV, this study contributes to enrich literature insight on JCPyV biology in this cluster. Further investigations are necessary in order to recognize the real impact of biologics on JCPyV life cycle and to identify possible and specific viral variants related to increased virulence in CIRDs patients. PMID:27242700

  14. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  15. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Zika Virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Areas with Zika Countries and territories with active Zika virus transmission... Mosquito Control Prevent mosquito bites, integrated mosquito ...

  16. Chikungunya Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... traveling to countries with chikungunya virus, use insect repellent, wear long sleeves and pants, and stay in ... Chikungunya Prevention is key! Prevent Infection. Use mosquito repellent. Chikungunya Virus Distribution Chikungunya in the U.S. What's ...

  17. Virus Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in general terms with specific examples chosen for emphasis. Finally the herpes viruses are compared with bacteriophages. The data support divergent evolution of noda, picorna and tetraviruses from a common ancestor and divergent evolution of alpha and flaviviruses from a common ancestor. Likewise, bacteriophages and herpes viruses almost certainly share a common ancestor in their evolution. Comparing all the viruses, we conclude that maturation is a convergent process that is required to solve conflicting requirements in biological dynamics and function. PMID:22404678

  18. Treatment of BK virus-associated nephropathy with CMX001 after kidney transplantation in a young child.

    PubMed

    Reisman, Lewis; Habib, Sabeen; McClure, Gloria B; Latiolais, Lisa S; Vanchiere, John A

    2014-11-01

    NC, with renal failure secondary to bilateral dysplastic kidneys, received an LRD renal transplant (tx) at 17 months of age. Her early post-tx course was complicated by persistently elevated blood polyoma BK virus DNA loads. A protocol biopsy at six months post-transplant revealed BKVAN. Blood viral loads did not respond to decreased immunosuppression or treatment with ciprofloxacin and leflunomide. Six months post-tx, her serum creatinine began to rise and we sought experimental therapy to prevent the loss of her graft. At seven months post-tx, with FDA approval under an eIND, the patient was started on a 36-wk course of treatment with the investigational drug. The patient is now more than 24 months after stopping treatment with CMX. BKV viral DNA loads remain at low, but still detectable levels. Urine viral loads have declined, but remain elevated. EBV DNA loads become undetectable. The patient's serum creatinine has declined back to a baseline of 0.5-0.7 mg/dL and has been stable for two yr. Renal function was preserved in association with the use of CMX001 to treat BKV nephropathy in a young pediatric kidney transplant recipient. There were no serious adverse events associated with the use of CMX001. This novel medication may be of value in the treatment of BKVAN in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

  19. High-throughput characterization of virus-like particles by interlaced size-exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Oelmeier, Stefan A; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The development and manufacturing of safe and effective vaccines relies essentially on the availability of robust and precise analytical techniques. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have emerged as an important and valuable class of vaccines for the containment of infectious diseases. VLPs are produced by recombinant protein expression followed by purification procedures to minimize the levels of process- and product-related impurities. The control of these impurities is necessary during process development and manufacturing. Especially monitoring of the VLP size distribution is important for the characterization of the final vaccine product. Currently used methods require long analysis times and tailor-made assays. In this work, we present a size-exclusion ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (SE-UHPLC) method to characterize VLPs and quantify aggregates within 3.1min per sample applying interlaced injections. Four analytical SEC columns were evaluated for the analysis of human B19 parvo-VLPs and murine polyoma-VLPs. The optimized method was successfully used for the characterization of five recombinant protein-based VLPs including human papillomavirus (HPV) VLPs, human enterovirus 71 (EV71) VLPs, and chimeric hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) VLPs pointing out the generic applicability of the assay. Measurements were supported by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. It was demonstrated that the iSE-UHPLC method provides a rapid, precise and robust tool for the characterization of VLPs. Two case studies on purification tools for VLP aggregates and storage conditions of HPV VLPs highlight the relevance of the analytical method for high-throughput process development and process monitoring of virus-like particles. PMID:26845741

  20. Automated detection of hepatotoxic compounds in human hepatocytes using HepaRG cells and image-based analysis of mitochondrial dysfunction with JC-1 dye

    SciTech Connect

    Pernelle, K.; Le Guevel, R.; Glaise, D.; Stasio, C. Gaucher-Di; Le Charpentier, T.; Bouaita, B.; Corlu, A.; Guguen-Guillouzo, C.

    2011-08-01

    In this study, our goal was to develop an efficient in situ test adapted to screen hepatotoxicity of various chemicals, a process which remains challenging during the early phase of drug development. The test was based on functional human hepatocytes using the HepaRG cell line, and automation of quantitative fluorescence microscopy coupled with automated imaging analysis. Differentiated HepaRG cells express most of the specific liver functions at levels close to those found in primary human hepatocytes, including detoxifying enzymes and drug transporters. A triparametric analysis was first used to evaluate hepatocyte purity and differentiation status, mainly detoxication capacity of cells before toxicity testing. We demonstrated that culturing HepaRG cells at high density maintained high hepatocyte purity and differentiation level. Moreover, evidence was found that isolating hepatocytes from 2-week-old confluent cultures limited variations associated with an ageing process occurring over time in confluent cells. Then, we designed a toxicity test based on detection of early mitochondrial depolarisation associated with permeability transition (MPT) pore opening, using JC-1 as a metachromatic fluorescent dye. Maximal dye dimerization that would have been strongly hampered by efficient efflux due to the active, multidrug-resistant (MDR) pump was overcome by coupling JC-1 with the MDR inhibitor verapamil. Specificity of this test was demonstrated and its usefulness appeared directly dependent on conditions supporting hepatic cell competence. This new hepatotoxicity test adapted to automated, image-based detection should be useful to evaluate the early MPT event common to cell apoptosis and necrosis and simultaneously to detect involvement of the multidrug resistant pump with target drugs in a human hepatocyte environment. - Highlights: > We define conditions to preserve differentiation of selective pure HepaRG hepatocyte cultures. > In these conditions, CYPs

  1. Human Polyomavirus JC monitoring and noncoding control region analysis in dynamic cohorts of individuals affected by immune-mediated diseases under treatment with biologics: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) onset, caused by Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) in patients affected by immune-mediated diseases during biological treatment, raised concerns about the safety profile of these agents. Therefore, the aims of this study were the JCPyV reactivation monitoring and the noncoding control region (NCCR) and viral protein 1 (VP1) analysis in patients affected by different immune-mediated diseases and treated with biologics. Methods We performed JCPyV-specific quantitative PCR of biological samples collected at moment of recruitment (t0) and every 4 months (t1, t2, t3, t4). Subsequently, rearrangements’ analysis of NCCR and VP1 was carried out. Data were analyzed using χ2 test. Results Results showed that at t0 patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases presented a JCPyV load in the urine significantly higher (p≤0.05) than in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and Crohn’s disease (CD). It can also be observed a significant association between JC viruria and JCPyV antibodies after 1 year of natalizumab (p=0.04) in MS patients. Finally, NCCR analysis showed the presence of an archetype-like sequence in all urine samples, whereas a rearranged NCCR Type IR was found in colon-rectal biopsies collected from 2 CD patients after 16 months of infliximab. Furthermore, sequences isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 2 MS patients with JCPyV antibody at t0 and t3, showed a NCCR Type IIR with a duplication of a 98 bp unit and a 66 bp insert, resulting in a boxB deletion and 37 T to G transversion into the Spi-B binding site. In all patients, a prevalence of genotypes 1A and 1B, the predominant JCPyV genotypes in Europe, was observed. Conclusions It has been important to understand whether the specific inflammatory scenario in different immune-mediated diseases could affect JCPyV reactivation from latency, in particular from kidneys. Moreover, for a more accurate PML risk stratification

  2. Zika virus.

    PubMed

    2016-02-10

    Essential facts Zika virus disease is caused by a virus that is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. While it generally causes a mild illness, there is increasing concern that it is harmful in pregnancy and can cause congenital abnormalities in infants born to women infected with the virus. There is no antiviral treatment or vaccine currently available. The best form of prevention is protection against mosquito bites.

  3. Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Streether, L A

    1999-01-01

    Ebola virus was first identified as a filovirus in 1976, following epidemics of severe haemorrhagic fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Further outbreaks have occurred since, but, despite extensive and continued investigations, the natural reservoir for the virus remains unknown. The mortality rate is high and there is no cure for Ebola virus infection. Molecular technology is proving useful in extending our knowledge of the virus. Identification of the host reservoir, control and prevention of further outbreaks, rapid diagnosis of infection, and vaccine development remain areas of continued interest in the fight against this biosafety level-four pathogen.

  4. Virus Crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Elizabeth; Logan, Derek; Stuart, David

    Crystallography provides a means of visualizing intact virus particles as well as their isolated constituent proteins and enzymes (1-3) at near-atomic resolution, and is thus an extraordinarily powerful tool in the pursuit of a fuller understanding of the functioning of these simple biological systems. We have already expanded our knowledge of virus evolution, assembly, antigenic variation, and host-cell interactions; further studies will no doubt reveal much more. Although the rewards are enormous, an intact virus structure determination is not a trivial undertaking and entails a significant scaling up in terms of time and resources through all stages of data collection and processing compared to a traditional protein crystallographic structure determination. It is the methodology required for such studies that will be the focus of this chapter. The computational requirements were satisfied in the late 1970s, and when combined with the introduction of phase improvement techniques utilizing the virus symmetry (4,5), the application of crystallography to these massive macromolecular assemblies became feasible. This led to the determination of the first virus structure (the small RNA plant virus, tomato bushy stunt virus), by Harrison and coworkers in 1978 (6). The structures of two other plant viruses followed rapidly (7,8). In the 1980s, a major focus of attention was a family of animal RNA viruses; the Picornaviridae.

  5. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live virus" used ... cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that ...

  6. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in a patient with lymphoma treated with rituximab: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Banda, Ramzi W; Daabil, Riyadh A; Dawamneh, M F

    2015-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare demyelinating disease caused by reactivation of a latent JC polyoma virus. The first cases of PML were described 50 years ago in patients with lymphoma. PML typically occurs in immunocompromised individuals, particularly those infected with HIV. We present a 52-year-old male with lymphoma who was treated with R-CHOP (R: Rituximab; C: Cyclophosphamide; H: Doxorubicin; O: Vincristine; P: Prednisone). After six cycles of therapy, the patients developed tonic-clonic seizure. MRI of the brain showed multiple brain lesions. The pathology of a brain biopsy was diagnostic for PML. We review radiographic and histopathological features of the disease. The literature on PML and its association with immunosuppressant agents is reviewed, and the impact of rituximab and other biological agents in the setting is highlighted. PMID:25666327

  7. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    in the atomic structures of the DNA tumor papovaviruses (SV40 and polyoma). The swollen structure is closely similar to the expanded form of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) previously determined at 8A resolution by X-ray crystallography.

  8. Effect of temperature and concentration of solution in chemical treatment for MgB 2 powder on the Jc- B property of ex situ processed MgB 2 superconducting tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, H.; Ozawa, K.

    2010-03-01

    MgB 2 tapes were fabricated through an ex situ process in a powder-in-tube (PIT) technique using powders treated at elevated temperatures in benzene solutions of benzoic acid with various concentrations. The amount of carbon substitution in MgB 2 in heat-treated tapes with treatment at the boiling points (BPs) of the solutions is smaller than that at room temperature (RT). This carbon substitution improves the Jc property in the high-field region. For RT treatment, the Jc property is improved with increasing the solution concentration. In contrast, the Jc property is deteriorated with increasing the concentration for BP treatment. On the other hand, treatment with pure solvent does not bring about the Jc enhancement and carbon substitution at all at both RT and the BPs. This suggests that acidity essential for the dissolution of MgO layers attached to the surface of MgB 2 is required for carbon substitution. The BP treatment enhances the acting of the acidity and possibly inflicts damage on MgB 2 itself.

  9. Determination of high mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa loaded with the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) using flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A flow cytometric method was developed to identify viable, energized sperm cells with high mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (''m), > 80-100 mV using the mitochondrial probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and the impermeant nuclear ...

  10. Relative abundance and treatment reduction of viruses during wastewater treatment processes--identification of potential viral indicators.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Iker, Brandon C; Pepper, Ian L; Gerba, Charles P

    2014-08-01

    Waterborne pathogenic viruses discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pose potential public health risks. In the present study, we investigated the relative abundance, occurrence, and reduction of eleven different viruses at two WWTPs in southern Arizona over a 12-month period, from August 2011 to July 2012. Influent and effluent samples from the two WWTPs were collected monthly. Viruses were concentrated using an electronegative filter method and quantified using TaqMan-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for each of the virus types (i.e., genogroup I, II and IV noroviruses, sapovirus, enterovirus, group A rotavirus, Aichi virus, pepper mild mottle virus, adenovirus, and JC and BK polyomaviruses), with murine norovirus internal control for the monitoring of extraction-RT-qPCR efficiencies. The pepper mild mottle virus, a plant virus, was found to be the most prevalent virus in both influent and effluent wastewater (annual mean concentration of 3.7-4.4×10(6) copies/L and 4.6-6.3×10(5) copies/L in influent and effluent wastewater, respectively), showing a low reduction by the treatment processes (0.76-0.99 annual mean log10 reduction), and no significant seasonal change in concentration. Aichi virus, a human enteric virus, was also found in greater abundance, and showed lower reduction during wastewater treatment than other human enteric viruses. Our results suggest that these viruses could be used as potential indicators of wastewater reclamation system performance, with respect to virus occurrence and removal. PMID:24836386

  11. Computer viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  12. Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people.

  13. Hendra virus.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-12-01

    Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. An unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011 leading to heightened community concern. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. PMID:25281398

  14. High-throughput process development of an alternative platform for the production of virus-like particles in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ladd Effio, Christopher; Baumann, Pascal; Weigel, Claudia; Vormittag, Philipp; Middelberg, Anton; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-02-10

    The production of safe vaccines against untreatable or new diseases has pushed the research in the field of virus-like particles (VLPs). Currently, a large number of commercial VLP-based human vaccines and vaccine candidates are available or under development. A promising VLP production route is the controlled in vitro assembly of virus proteins into capsids. In the study reported here, a high-throughput screening (HTS) procedure was implemented for the upstream process development of a VLP platform in bacterial cell systems. Miniaturized cultivations were carried out in 48-well format in the BioLector system (m2p-Labs, Germany) using an Escherichia coli strain with a tac promoter producing the murine polyomavirus capsid protein (VP1). The screening procedure incorporated micro-scale cultivations, HTS cell disruption by sonication and HTS-compatible analytics by capillary gel electrophoresis. Cultivation temperatures, shaking speeds, induction and medium conditions were varied to optimize the product expression in E. coli. The most efficient system was selected based on an evaluation of soluble and insoluble product concentrations as well as on the percentage of product in the total soluble protein fraction. The optimized system was scaled up to cultivation 2.5L shaker flask scale and purified using an anion exchange chromatography membrane adsorber, followed by a size exclusion chromatography polishing procedure. For proof of concept, purified VP1 capsomeres were assembled under defined buffer conditions into empty capsids and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The presented HTS procedure allowed for a fast development of an efficient production process of VLPs in E. coli. Under optimized cultivation conditions, the VP1 product totalled up to 43% of the total soluble protein fraction, yielding 1.63 mg VP1 per mL of applied cultivation medium. The developed production process strongly promotes the murine polyoma-VLP platform, moving towards

  15. Zika Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk for developing fetal complications. Blood, organ and tissue donor screening tests are also needed to assure the safety of transfusion and transplantation in areas of active mosquito-borne virus transmission. ...

  16. Chikungunya virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... first time in the Americas in the Caribbean Islands. In the Americas, local transmission of the disease ... in Florida, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. How Chikungunya can spread Mosquitoes spread the virus ...

  17. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies.

  18. Dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Ross, Ted M

    2010-03-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus affecting humans today. The virus group consists of 4 serotypes that manifest with similar symptoms. Dengue causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild febrile illness to a life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Breeding sites for the mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus have proliferated, partly because of population growth and uncontrolled urbanization in tropical and subtropical countries. Successful vector control programs have also been eliminated, often because of lack of governmental funding. Dengue viruses have evolved rapidly as they have spread worldwide, and genotypes associated with increased virulence have spread across Asia and the Americas. This article describes the virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and outcomes, and treatments/vaccines associated with dengue infection.

  19. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies. PMID:27411846

  20. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  1. Parainfluenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Kelly J.

    2003-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus. PMID:12692097

  2. Determination of high mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa loaded with the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyanine iodide (JC-1) by using fluorescence-activated flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, H David; Welch, Glenn R

    2008-01-01

    A flow cytometric method was developed to identify viable, energized sperm cells with high mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential (Deltapsi(m)), >80-100 mV using the mitochondrial probe 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) and the impermeant nuclear stain propidium iodine (PI). This flow cytometric method is described in detail here. When in contact with membranes possessing a high Deltapsi(m), JC-1 forms aggregates (J(agg)) that are fluorescent at 590 nm in response to 488 nm excitation. We found that the reactive oxygen species generator, menadione reduced sperm motility and reduced Deltapsi(m) in a dose responsive fashion that was closely correlated with the loss of motility. PMID:19082941

  3. Improvement in Jc performance below liquid nitrogen temperature for SmBa2Cu3Oy superconducting films with BaHfO3 nano-rods controlled by low-temperature growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Ichino, Y.; Xu, Q.; Matsumoto, K.; Ichinose, A.; Awaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    For use in high-magnetic-field coil-based applications, the critical current density (Jc) of REBa2Cu3Oy (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) coated conductors must be isotropically improved, with respect to the direction of the magnetic field; these improvements must be realized at the operating conditions of these applications. In this study, improvement of the Jc for various applied directions of magnetic field was achieved by controlling the morphology of the BaHfO3 (BHO) nano-rods in a SmBCO film. We fabricated the 3.0 vol. % BHO-doped SmBCO film at a low growth temperature of 720 °C, by using a seed layer technique (Ts = 720 °C film). The low-temperature growth resulted in a morphological change in the BHO nano-rods. In fact, a high number density of (3.1 ± 0.1) × 103 μm-2 of small (diameter: 4 ± 1 nm), discontinuous nano-rods that grew in various directions, was obtained. In Jc measurements, the Jc of the Ts = 720 °C film in all directions of the applied magnetic field was higher than that of the non-doped SmBCO film. The Jcmin (6.4 MA/cm2) of the former was more than 6 times higher than that (1.0 MA/cm2) of the latter at 40 K, under 3 T. The aforementioned results indicated that the discontinuous BHO nano-rods, which occurred with a high number density, exerted a 3D-like flux pinning at the measurement conditions considered. Moreover, at 4.2 K and under 17 T, a flux pinning force density of 1.6 TN/m3 was realized; this value was comparable to the highest value recorded, to date.

  4. Hendra virus

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Hendra virus infection of horses occurred sporadically between 1994 and 2010 as a result of spill-over from the viral reservoir in Australian mainland flying-foxes, and occasional onward transmission to people also followed from exposure to affected horses. For reasons that are not well understood an unprecedented number of outbreaks were recorded in 2011, including the first recorded field infection of a dog, leading to heightened community concern. Increasingly, pressure mounted to instigate measures for control of flying-fox numbers, and equine health care workers started to leave the industry on account of risk and liability concerns. Release of an inactivated subunit vaccine for horses against Hendra virus represents the first commercially available product that is focused on mitigating the impact of a Biosafety Level 4 pathogen. Through preventing the development of acute Hendra virus disease in horses, vaccine use is also expected to reduce the risk of transmission of infection to people. This approach to emerging infectious disease management focuses on the role of horses as the proximal cause of human Hendra virus disease, and may assist in redirecting community concerns away from the flying-fox reservoirs, keystone species for the ongoing health of Australia’s native forests. PMID:25281398

  5. New constraints on the structure of Hess Deep from regional- and micro-bathymetry data acquired during RRS James Cook in Jan-Feb 2008 (JC021)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillington, D. J.; Ferrini, V. L.; MacLeod, C. J.; Teagle, D. A.; Gillis, K. M.; Cazenave, P. W.; Hurst, S. D.; Scientific Party, J.

    2008-12-01

    In January-February 2008, new geophysical and geological data were acquired in Hess Deep using the RRS James Cook and the British ROV Isis. Hess Deep provides a tectonic window into oceanic crust emplaced by fast seafloor spreading at the East Pacific Rise, thereby offering the opportunity to test competing hypotheses for oceanic crustal accretion. The goal of this cruise was to collect datasets that can constrain the structure and composition of the lower crustal section exposed in the south-facing slope of the Intrarift Ridge just north of the Deep, and thus provide insights into the emplacement of gabbroic lower crust at fast spreading rates. Additionally, the acquired datasets provide site survey data for IODP Proposal 551-Full. The following datasets were acquired during JC021: 1) regional multibeam bathymetry survey complemented with sub-bottom profiler (SBP) data (in selected areas), 2) two micro-bathymetry surveys, and 3) seafloor rock samples acquired with an ROV. Here we present grids of regional multibeam and microbathymetry data following post-cruise processing. Regional multibeam bathymetry were acquired using the hull-mounted Kongsberg Simrad EM120 system (12 kHz). These data provide new coverage of the northern flank of the rift as far east as 100°W, which show that it comprises of a series of 50- to 100-km-long en echelon segments. Both E-W and NE-SW striking features are observed in the immediate vicinity of the Deep, including in a newly covered region to the SW of the rift tip. Such features might arise due to the rotation of the Galapagos microplate(s), as proposed by other authors. The ROV Isis acquired micro-bathymetry data in two areas using a Simrad SM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam sonar. Data were acquired at a nominal altitude of ~100 m and speed of 0.3 kts to facilitate high-resolution mapping of seabed features and also permit coverage of two relatively large areas. Swath widths were ~200- 350 m depending on noise and seabed characteristics

  6. Reactivation of human polyomavirus JC in patients affected by psoriasis vulgaris and psoriatic arthritis and treated with biological drugs: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Nardis, Chiara; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Rodio, Donatella M; De Pità, Ornella; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2012-12-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and psoriatic arthritis (PSA) are inter-related heritable inflammatory skin diseases. Psoriatic lesions develop as a result of abnormal immune responses, hyperproliferation and altered differentiation of keratinocytes, and a notable subset of psoriatic patients develops PsA, characterized by joints inflammation. Recently, biological drugs were introduced to treat these diseases. However, this therapy has already been associated with the development of serious life-threatening infections, such as the reactivation of human polyomavirus JC (JCV), responsible for the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a lethal demyelinating disease caused by oligodendrocytes lytic infection. Therefore, the aims of our study were the investigation of the possible JCV reactivation in PsV and PsA patients treated with adalimumab, etanercept, and methotrexate, performing quantitative real-time PCR in sera and skin biopsies at the time of recruitment (T0) and after 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months of treatment, and the sequencing analysis of the JCV non-coding control region (NCCR). We found JCV DNA in 5/15 PsV patients and in 2/15 PsA patients and JCV NCCR sequence analysis always showed a structure similar to non-pathogenic CY archetype, with random occurrence of a few irrelevant point mutations. Nevertheless the poor number of patients analyzed, our preliminary data can pave the way for taking into account that the follow-up of JCV DNA detection and the JCV NCCR sequence analysis in psoriatic patients may be important to evaluate the risk of PML onset, considering that patients affected by autoimmune diseases and treated with biologics continue to rise. PMID:22422468

  7. [Influenza virus].

    PubMed

    Juozapaitis, Mindaugas; Antoniukas, Linas

    2007-01-01

    Every year, especially during the cold season, many people catch an acute respiratory disease, namely flu. It is easy to catch this disease; therefore, it spreads very rapidly and often becomes an epidemic or a global pandemic. Airway inflammation and other body ailments, which form in a very short period, torment the patient several weeks. After that, the symptoms of the disease usually disappear as quickly as they emerged. The great epidemics of flu have rather unique characteristics; therefore, it is possible to identify descriptions of such epidemics in historic sources. Already in the 4th century bc, Hippocrates himself wrote about one of them. It is known now that flu epidemics emerge rather frequently, but there are no regular intervals between those events. The epidemics can differ in their consequences, but usually they cause an increased mortality of elderly people. The great flu epidemics of the last century took millions of human lives. In 1918-19, during "The Spanish" pandemic of flu, there were around 40-50 millions of deaths all over the world; "Pandemic of Asia" in 1957 took up to one million lives, etc. Influenza virus can cause various disorders of the respiratory system: from mild inflammations of upper airways to acute pneumonia that finally results in the patient's death. Scientist Richard E. Shope, who investigated swine flu in 1920, had a suspicion that the cause of this disease might be a virus. Already in 1933, scientists from the National Institute for Medical Research in London - Wilson Smith, Sir Christopher Andrewes, and Sir Patrick Laidlaw - for the first time isolated the virus, which caused human flu. Then scientific community started the exhaustive research of influenza virus, and the great interest in this virus and its unique features is still active even today.

  8. The 3;21 translocation in myelodysplasia results in a fusion transcript between the AML1 gene and the gene for EAP, a highly conserved protein associated with the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1.

    PubMed Central

    Nucifora, G; Begy, C R; Erickson, P; Drabkin, H A; Rowley, J D

    1993-01-01

    In the 8;21 translocation, the AML1 gene, located at chromosome band 21q22, is translocated to chromosome 8 (q22), where it is fused to the ETO gene and transcribed as a chimeric gene. AML1 is the human homolog of the recently cloned mouse gene pebp2 alpha B, homologous to the DNA binding alpha subunit of the polyoma enhancer factor pebp2. AML1 is also involved in a translocation with chromosome 3 that is seen in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome and in chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. We have isolated a fusion cDNA clone from a t(3;21) library derived from a patient with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome; this clone contains sequences from AML1 and from EAP, which we have now localized to band 3q26. EAP has previously been characterized as a highly expressed small nuclear protein of 128 residues (EBER 1) associated with Epstein-Barr virus small RNA. The fusion clone contains the DNA binding 5' part of AML1 that is fused to ETO in the t(8;21) and, in addition, at least one other exon. The translocation replaces the last nine codons of AML1 with the last 96 codons of EAP. The fusion does not maintain the correct reading frame of EAP and may not lead to a functional chimeric protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8395054

  9. The Geometry of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    1991-01-01

    Presented is an activity in which students make models of viruses, which allows them to visualize the shape of these microorganisms. Included are some background on viruses, the biology and geometry of viruses, directions for building viruses, a comparison of cells and viruses, and questions for students. (KR)

  10. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  11. Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Musso, Didier; Gubler, Duane J

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation of Zika fever is nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as other infectious diseases, especially those due to arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infection was associated with only mild illness prior to the large French Polynesian outbreak in 2013 and 2014, when severe neurological complications were reported, and the emergence in Brazil of a dramatic increase in severe congenital malformations (microcephaly) suspected to be associated with ZIKV. Laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on virus isolation or detection of ZIKV-specific RNA. Serological diagnosis is complicated by cross-reactivity among members of the Flavivirus genus. The adaptation of ZIKV to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors in tropical areas where dengue is endemic suggests that the incidence of ZIKV infections may be underestimated. There is a high potential for ZIKV emergence in urban centers in the tropics that are infested with competent mosquito vectors such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

  12. Oncogenic viruses associated with vulva cancer in HIV-1 patients in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oncoviruses such as HPV, KSHV, and EBV have been reported in patients with HIV infection and AIDS. How oncovirus-associated cancers rise in AIDS patients has not been fully established. The purpose of our study was to identify the viral agents in vulvar cancer and to assess their contribution to pathogenesis. Method We retrospectively identified a total of 13 vulva tissue samples from HIV-1 positive and 9 vulvar samples from HIV-1 negative patients from the Botswana National Health Laboratory in Gaborone, Botswana, a Southern African country with a high incidence of HIV. We utilized PCR and IHC to identify HPV, EBV, KSHV, and JC virus in FFPE preserved tissue samples. Results Using the GP5+/GP6+ primer set we detected several HPV types in tissue samples. EBV was detected in all of the positive cases (100%) and in most of the negative cases (89%). KSHV was detected in 39% of the HIV-1 positive samples and in 11% of the negative samples, and no JC virus was detected in any of the samples. Using IHC we demonstrated that LANA was expressed in 61% of the positive samples and in 44% of the negative samples. The ubiquitous EBV was more consistently expressed in negative cases (100%) than in positive cases (69%). Interestingly, the HPV-16 E6 transcript was detected in 56% of the negative samples compared to 31% of the positive samples. However, the cell cycle protein P21 used as a surrogate marker for HPV was detected in 77% of the positive samples and in 44% of the negative samples, while VEGF signals were similar in both positive (92%) and negative samples (89%). Conclusion Our study, suggests that in Botswana, vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is associated with oncogenic viruses present in the niche but the contribution and progression may be regulated by HPV and other immunosuppressive infections that include HIV-1. PMID:25225572

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  14. SAMPLING VIRUSES FROM SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes in detail methods for detecting viruses of bacteria and humans in soil. Methods also are presented for the assay of these viruses. Reference sources are provided for information on viruses of plants.

  15. Hanta virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hanta virus is a distant cousin of Ebola virus, but is found worldwide. The virus is spread by human contact with rodent waste. Dangerous respiratory illness develops. Effective treatment is not yet ...

  16. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Ebola virus disease Fact sheet Updated January 2016 Key ... for survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the ...

  17. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  18. Distribution of human polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and hepatitis E virus in the environment and in a drinking-water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Albinana-Gimenez, Nestor; Clemente-Casares, Pilar; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Ribas, Ferran; Girones, Rosina

    2006-12-01

    Large numbers of viruses are excreted in human feces and urine, which even at low concentrations may cause illness when ingested. Some of these viruses have not been traditionally monitored in terms of waterborne diseases and are considered emergent viruses, such as hepatitis E virus (HEV) and JC and BK polyomavirus (JCPyV and BKPyV). The high prevalence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and polyomaviruses, which both show DNA genomes, in sewage from widely divergent areas has suggested the relevance of evaluating these viruses as possible indicators of viral contamination. The concentration of these viruses was analyzed in sewage and river water and after treatment in a drinking-water treatment plant including chlorination, flocculation, ozonation, and granulate active carbon (GAC) filtration. Samples of GAC-filtered water were collected before a second chlorination treatment. The river used as a source of fresh water presented an average concentration of 2.6 x 10(1) JCPyV and 4 x 10(2) HAdV GC (genome copies)/L. A removal of 2 logarithms (99%) of HAdV and JCPyV was observed in the drinking-water treatment plant. All the GAC-filtered water samples studied contained HAdV, with a mean value of 4.3 HAdV GC/L. HEV strains belonging to genotype 3 were frequently detected in low concentrations in urban sewage and in biosolids or sewage containing swine feces but not in the river water samples studied. The detection of viruses by molecular techniques is useful for genetically describe emergent viruses in community wastewaters and water supplies. Quantification of JCPyV and HAdV using quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) may be useful for evaluating virus removal efficiency in water treatment plants and as an index of the virological quality of water and of the potential presence of human viruses.

  19. Virus Movement Maintains Local Virus Population Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    J. Snyder; B. Wiedenheft; M. Lavin; F. Roberto; J. Spuhler; A. Ortmann; T. Douglas; M. Young

    2007-11-01

    Viruses are the largest reservoir of genetic material on the planet, yet little is known about the population dynamics of any virus within its natural environment. Over a 2-year period, we monitored the diversity of two archaeal viruses found in hot springs within Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Both temporal phylogeny and neutral biodiversity models reveal that virus diversity in these local environments is not being maintained by mutation but rather by high rates of immigration from a globally distributed metacommunity. These results indicate that geographically isolated hot springs are readily able to exchange viruses. The importance of virus movement is supported by the detection of virus particles in air samples collected over YNP hot springs and by their detection in metacommunity sequencing projects conducted in the Sargasso Sea. Rapid rates of virus movement are not expected to be unique to these archaeal viruses but rather a common feature among virus metacommunities. The finding that virus immigration rather than mutation can dominate community structure has significant implications for understanding virus circulation and the role that viruses play in ecology and evolution by providing a reservoir of mobile genetic material.

  20. Association between simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Madden, Charles R.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Finch, Chris J.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma has increased in frequency over the past 30 years, and is a common cancer in HIV-1-infected patients. Although no definite risk factors have emerged, a viral cause has been postulated. Polyomaviruses are known to infect human beings and to induce tumours in laboratory animals. We aimed to identify which one of the three polyomaviruses able to infect human beings (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus) was associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: We analysed systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma from 76 HIV-1-infected and 78 HIV-1-uninfected patients, and non-malignant lymphoid samples from 79 HIV-1-positive and 107 HIV-1-negative patients without tumours; 54 colon and breast carcinoma samples served as cancer controls. We used PCR followed by Southern blot hybridisation and DNA sequence analysis to detect DNAs of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses. FINDINGS: Polyomavirus T antigen sequences, all of which were SV40-specific, were detected in 64 (42%) of 154 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, none of 186 non-malignant lymphoid samples, and none of 54 control cancers. This difference was similar for HIV-1-infected patients and HIV-1-uninfected patients alike. Few tumours were positive for both SV40 and Epstein-Barr virus. Human herpesvirus type 8 was not detected. SV40 sequences were found most frequently in diffuse large B-cell and follicular-type lymphomas. INTERPRETATION: SV40 is significantly associated with some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These results add lymphomas to the types of human cancers associated with SV40.

  1. Evasion of superinfection exclusion and elimination of primary viral RNA by an adapted strain of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Webster, Brian; Ott, Melanie; Greene, Warner C

    2013-12-01

    Cells that are productively infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) are refractory to a second infection by HCV via a block in viral replication known as superinfection exclusion. The block occurs at a postentry step and likely involves translation or replication of the secondary viral RNA, but the mechanism is largely unknown. To characterize HCV superinfection exclusion, we selected for an HCV variant that could overcome the block. We produced a high-titer HC-J6/JFH1 (Jc1) viral genome with a fluorescent reporter inserted between NS5A and NS5B and used it to infect Huh7.5 cells containing a Jc1 replicon. With multiple passages of these infected cells, we isolated an HCV variant that can superinfect cells at high levels. Notably, the superinfectious virus rapidly cleared the primary replicon from superinfected cells. Viral competition experiments, using a novel strategy of sequence-barcoding viral strains, as well as superinfection of replicon cells demonstrated that mutations in E1, p7, NS5A, and the poly(U/UC) tract of the 3' untranslated region were important for superinfection. Furthermore, these mutations dramatically increased the infectivity of the virus in naive cells. Interestingly, viruses with a shorter poly(U/UC) and an NS5A domain II mutation were most effective in overcoming the postentry block. Neither of these changes affected viral RNA translation, indicating that the major barrier to postentry exclusion occurs at viral RNA replication. The evolution of the ability to superinfect after less than a month in culture and the concomitant exclusion of the primary replicon suggest that superinfection exclusion dramatically affects viral fitness and dynamics in vivo.

  2. Viruses and Virus Diseases of Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubus species are propagated vegetatively and are subject to infection by viruses during development, propagation and fruit production stages. Reports of initial detection and symptoms of more than 30 viruses, virus-like diseases and phytoplasmas affecting Rubus spp. have been reviewed more than 20 ...

  3. Crystallization of viruses and virus proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehnke, Paul C.; Harrington, Melissa; Hosur, M. V.; Li, Yunge; Usha, R.; Craig Tucker, R.; Bomu, Wu; Stauffacher, Cynthia V.; Johnson, John E.

    1988-07-01

    Methods for crystallizing six isometric plant and insect viruses are presented. Procedures developed for modifying, purifying and crystallizing coat protein subunits isolated from a virus forming asymmetric, spheroidal particles, stabilized almost exclusively by protein-RNA interactions, are also discussed. The tertiary and quaternary structures of small RNA viruses are compared.

  4. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  5. Viruses of potato.

    PubMed

    Loebenstein, Gad; Gaba, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Potatoes are an important crop in Mediterranean countries both for local consumption and for export to other countries, mainly during the winter. Many Mediterranean countries import certified seed potato in addition to their own seed production. The local seeds are mainly used for planting in the autumn and winter, while the imported seed are used for early and late spring plantings. Potato virus Y is the most important virus in Mediterranean countries, present mainly in the autumn plantings. The second important virus is Potato leafroll virus, though in recent years its importance seems to be decreasing. Potato virus X, Potato virus A, Potato virus S, Potato virus M, and the viroid, Potato spindle tuber viroid, were also recorded in several Mediterranean countries. For each virus the main strains, transmission, characterization of the virus particle, its genome organization, detection, and control methods including transgenic approaches will be discussed. PMID:22682169

  6. High diversity of human polyomaviruses in environmental and clinical samples in Argentina: Detection of JC, BK, Merkel-cell, Malawi, and human 6 and 7 polyomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina; Barrios, Melina Elizabeth; Cammarata, Robertina Viviana; Cisterna, Daniel Marcelo; Estrada, Tatiana; Martini Novas, Sergio; Cahn, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, María Dolores; Mbayed, Viviana Andrea

    2016-01-15

    New human polyomaviruses have been recently described. The aim of this work was to detect and characterize human polyomaviruses circulating in Argentina by recovering viruses from environmental and sewage samples and evaluating their potential role as viral indicators of human waste contamination. Analysis was performed in a wider context including viruses from clinical samples from an immunocompromised population. River water and sewage samples were analyzed as a strategy to study the molecular epidemiology of viruses excreted by millions of people. Samples belonged to the Matanza-Riachuelo River (2005-2006: n=25 and 2012: n=20) and sewage from Buenos Aires city and suburbs (2011 and 2013: n=24). Viral detection was performed by PCR and the amplified viral genomes were characterized by phylogenetic analysis. Polyomaviruses were detected in 95.8% of sewage samples, identifying BKPyV (87.5%), JCPyV (83.3%), MCPyV (8.3%) and HPyV6 (8.3%). Besides, one sample collected in 2009 resulted positive for HPyV7. In 2005-2006, polyomaviruses were detected in 84.0% of river water samples, with the highest detection for MCPyV (52.0%), followed by BKPyV (44.0%), JCPyV (20.0%) and MWPyV (4.0%). In 2012, polyomaviruses were detected in 85.0% of river samples, finding JCPyV (85.0%), BKPyV (75.0%), MCPyV (25.0%) and HPyV6 (25.0%). Also, polyomaviruses, including JCPyV, BKPyV and MCPyV, were detected in 63.2% of urine samples from patients infected with HIV (n=19). Characterization indicated the coexistence of different genotypes and variants for each virus, particularly in sewage. MCPyV sequences (the only sequences from Argentina) formed a monophyletic group with the single sequence available for South America (French Guiana). The high level of detection and viral diversity found by environmental surveillance, which involved the characterization of viruses not previously described in South America, reinforces the usefulness of this approach to monitor viral contamination and

  7. High diversity of human polyomaviruses in environmental and clinical samples in Argentina: Detection of JC, BK, Merkel-cell, Malawi, and human 6 and 7 polyomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carolina; Barrios, Melina Elizabeth; Cammarata, Robertina Viviana; Cisterna, Daniel Marcelo; Estrada, Tatiana; Martini Novas, Sergio; Cahn, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, María Dolores; Mbayed, Viviana Andrea

    2016-01-15

    New human polyomaviruses have been recently described. The aim of this work was to detect and characterize human polyomaviruses circulating in Argentina by recovering viruses from environmental and sewage samples and evaluating their potential role as viral indicators of human waste contamination. Analysis was performed in a wider context including viruses from clinical samples from an immunocompromised population. River water and sewage samples were analyzed as a strategy to study the molecular epidemiology of viruses excreted by millions of people. Samples belonged to the Matanza-Riachuelo River (2005-2006: n=25 and 2012: n=20) and sewage from Buenos Aires city and suburbs (2011 and 2013: n=24). Viral detection was performed by PCR and the amplified viral genomes were characterized by phylogenetic analysis. Polyomaviruses were detected in 95.8% of sewage samples, identifying BKPyV (87.5%), JCPyV (83.3%), MCPyV (8.3%) and HPyV6 (8.3%). Besides, one sample collected in 2009 resulted positive for HPyV7. In 2005-2006, polyomaviruses were detected in 84.0% of river water samples, with the highest detection for MCPyV (52.0%), followed by BKPyV (44.0%), JCPyV (20.0%) and MWPyV (4.0%). In 2012, polyomaviruses were detected in 85.0% of river samples, finding JCPyV (85.0%), BKPyV (75.0%), MCPyV (25.0%) and HPyV6 (25.0%). Also, polyomaviruses, including JCPyV, BKPyV and MCPyV, were detected in 63.2% of urine samples from patients infected with HIV (n=19). Characterization indicated the coexistence of different genotypes and variants for each virus, particularly in sewage. MCPyV sequences (the only sequences from Argentina) formed a monophyletic group with the single sequence available for South America (French Guiana). The high level of detection and viral diversity found by environmental surveillance, which involved the characterization of viruses not previously described in South America, reinforces the usefulness of this approach to monitor viral contamination and

  8. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  9. a Study on Correlation Between Jc(4.2 k) and Current Sharing Temperature Tcs of Nb3Sn Strands and Short Sample of Conductor for Toroidal Field Coils of Iter Magnet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikov, A. K.; Pantsyrny, V. I.; Kozlenkova, N. I.; Vasilyev, R. M.; Vorobieva, A. E.; Mareev, K. A.; Sudijev, S. V.

    2010-04-01

    One of the main requirements for ITER Nb3Sn Toroidal Field (TF) conductor is a temperature margin of 0.7 K under 11.8 T peak field, 68 kA operating current, and operating temperature of 5 K, i.e. current sharing temperature Tcs = 5.7 K, while the performance of Nb3Sn strands used for the fabrication of the conductor is evaluated by critical current density Jc(4.2 K, 12 T). This work represents an analysis of experimentally revealed correlation between Jc(4.2 K, 12 T) and Tcs of several Nb3Sn strands and short sample of the TF conductor RFTF2 tested in SULTAN facility (SULTAN sample). The performance of the strands used for SULTAN sample fabrication is investigated in details. The paper includes the analysis of voltage-current and voltage-temperature characteristics. An assessment of strain influence on the performance and transition parameters (n and T0) of the strands is also presented. The results obtained for strands are compared with the test results of SULTAN sample RFTF2.

  10. Amino Acid Variation in HLA Class II Proteins Is a Major Determinant of Humoral Response to Common Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Christian; Begemann, Martin; McLaren, Paul J.; Bartha, István; Michel, Angelika; Klose, Beate; Schmitt, Corinna; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Schulz, Thomas F.; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Fellay, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the human antibody response to viral antigens is highly variable. To explore the human genetic contribution to this variability, we performed genome-wide association studies of the immunoglobulin G response to 14 pathogenic viruses in 2,363 immunocompetent adults. Significant associations were observed in the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome 6 for influenza A virus, Epstein-Barr virus, JC polyomavirus, and Merkel cell polyomavirus. Using local imputation and fine mapping, we identified specific amino acid residues in human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II proteins as the most probable causal variants underlying these association signals. Common HLA-DRβ1 haplotypes showed virus-specific patterns of humoral-response regulation. We observed an overlap between variants affecting the humoral response to influenza A and EBV and variants previously associated with autoimmune diseases related to these viruses. The results of this study emphasize the central and pathogen-specific role of HLA class II variation in the modulation of humoral immune response to viral antigens in humans. PMID:26456283

  11. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  12. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    PubMed

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  13. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  14. Morphogenesis of Bittner Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Frederick W.; Clarke, John K.; Dermott, Evelyn

    1970-01-01

    The morphogenesis of Bittner virus (mouse mammary tumor virus) was studied in sectioned mammary tumor cells. Internal components of the virus (type A particles) were seen being assembled in virus factories close to the nucleus and were also seen forming at the plasma membrane. The particles in virus factories became enveloped by budding through the membrane of cytoplasmic vacuoles which were derived from dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Complete virus particles were liberated from these vacuoles by cell lysis. Particles budding at the plasma membrane were released into intercellular spaces. Maturation of enveloped virus occurred after release, but mature internal components were rarely seen in the cytoplasm before envelopment. Direct cell-to-cell transfer of virus by pinocytosis of budding particles by an adjacent cell was observed, and unusual forms of budding virus which participated in this process are illustrated and described. There was evidence that some virus particles contained cytoplasmic constituents, including ribosomes. Certain features of the structure of internal components are discussed in relation to a recently proposed model for the internal component of the mouse leukemia virus. Intracisternal virus-like particles were occasionally seen in tumor cells, but there was no evidence that these structures were developmentally related to Bittner virus. Images PMID:4193837

  15. Morphogenesis of Bittner virus.

    PubMed

    Gay, F W; Clarke, J K; Dermott, E

    1970-06-01

    The morphogenesis of Bittner virus (mouse mammary tumor virus) was studied in sectioned mammary tumor cells. Internal components of the virus (type A particles) were seen being assembled in virus factories close to the nucleus and were also seen forming at the plasma membrane. The particles in virus factories became enveloped by budding through the membrane of cytoplasmic vacuoles which were derived from dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Complete virus particles were liberated from these vacuoles by cell lysis. Particles budding at the plasma membrane were released into intercellular spaces. Maturation of enveloped virus occurred after release, but mature internal components were rarely seen in the cytoplasm before envelopment. Direct cell-to-cell transfer of virus by pinocytosis of budding particles by an adjacent cell was observed, and unusual forms of budding virus which participated in this process are illustrated and described. There was evidence that some virus particles contained cytoplasmic constituents, including ribosomes. Certain features of the structure of internal components are discussed in relation to a recently proposed model for the internal component of the mouse leukemia virus. Intracisternal virus-like particles were occasionally seen in tumor cells, but there was no evidence that these structures were developmentally related to Bittner virus. PMID:4193837

  16. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  17. Viruses and human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, R.C.; Haseltine, W.; Klein, G.; Zur Hausen, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers on the following topics: Immunology and Epidemiology, Biology and Pathogenesis, Models of Pathogenesis and Treatment, Simian and Bovine Retroviruses, Human Papilloma Viruses, EBV and Herpesvirus, and Hepatitis B Virus.

  18. Densonucleosis virus structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D C; Moore, N F; Spilling, C R; Barwise, A H; Walker, I O

    1980-10-01

    The protein coats of two densonucleosis viruses (types 1 and 2) were examined by a variety of biophysical, biochemical, and serological techniques. The viruses were 24 nm in diameter, contained at least four polypeptides, were remarkably stable to extremes of pH and denaturing agents, and were serologically closely related. The two viruses could, however, be distinguished serologically and by differences in migration of their structural polypeptides. For each virus the "top component" (i.e., the protein coat minus DNA, found occurring naturally in infections) appeared to have a composition identical to that of the coat of the virus and was a more stable structure. Electrometric titration curves of the virus particles and top components demonstrated that the DNA phosphate in densonucleosis virus particles was neutralized by cations other than basic amino acid side chains of the protein coat. Circular dichroism studies showed that there was a conformational difference between the protein coats of top components and virus particles.

  19. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  20. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Zika virus Fact sheet Updated 6 September 2016 Key facts ... and last for 2-7 days. Complications of Zika virus disease After a comprehensive review of evidence, there ...

  1. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPIVs Are Not the Same as Influenza (Flu) Viruses People usually get HPIV infections more often in ... hands, and touching objects or surfaces with the viruses on them then touching your mouth, nose, or ...

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  3. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  4. Advances in virus research

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. ); Murphy, F.A. ); Shatkin, A.J. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains eight chapters. Some of the titles are: Initiation of viral DNA replication; Vaccinia: virus, vector, vaccine; The pre-S region of hepadnavirus envelope proteins; and Archaebacterial viruses.

  5. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person. ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not develop ...

  6. Virus Assembly and Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, John E.

    2004-03-01

    We use two techniques to look at three-dimensional virus structure: electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and X-ray crystallography. Figure 1 is a gallery of virus particles whose structures Timothy Baker, one of my former colleagues at Purdue University, used cryoEM to determine. It illustrates the variety of sizes of icosahedral virus particles. The largest virus particle on this slide is the Herpes simplex virus, around 1200Å in diameter; the smallest we examined was around 250Å in diameter. Viruses bear their genomic information either as positive-sense DNA and RNA, double-strand DNA, double-strand RNA, or negative-strand RNA. Viruses utilize the various structure and function "tactics" seen throughout cell biology to replicate at high levels. Many of the biological principles that we consider general were in fact discovered in the context of viruses ...

  7. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  8. Computer Virus Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  9. Avian influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in o...

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A ... often get it when older kids carry the virus home from school and pass it to ... often happen in epidemics that last from late fall through early spring. ...

  11. Zika virus - an overview.

    PubMed

    Zanluca, Camila; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte

    2016-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

  12. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    PubMed

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  13. Detection of polyomavirus simian virus 40 tumor antigen DNA in AIDS-related systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilchez, Regis A.; Lednicky, John A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Butel, Janet S.

    2002-01-01

    Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (S-NHL) is a common malignancy during HIV infection, and it is hypothesized that infectious agents may be involved in the etiology. Epstein-Barr virus DNA is found in <40% of patients with AIDS-related S-NHL, suggesting that other oncogenic viruses, such as polyomaviruses, may play a role in pathogenesis. We analyzed AIDS-related S-NHL samples, NHL samples from HIV-negative patients, peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected and -uninfected patients without NHL, and lymph nodes without tumors from HIV-infected patients. Specimens were examined by polymerase chain reaction analysis with use of primers specific for an N-terminal region of the oncoprotein large tumor antigen ( T-ag ) gene conserved among all three polyomaviruses (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus). Polyomavirus T-ag DNA sequences, proven to be SV40-specific, were detected more frequently in AIDS-related S-NHL samples (6 of 26) than in peripheral blood leukocytes from HIV-infected patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 69; p =.0001), NHL samples from HIV-negative patients (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 10; p =.09), or lymph nodes (6 of 26 vs. 0 of 7; p =.16). Sequences of C-terminal T-ag DNA from SV40 were amplified from two AIDS-related S-NHL samples. Epstein-Barr virus DNA sequences were detected in 38% (10 of 26) AIDS-related S-NHL samples, 50% (5 of 10) HIV-negative S-NHL samples, and 57% (4 of 7) lymph nodes. None of the S-NHL samples were positive for both Epstein-Barr virus DNA and SV40 DNA. Further studies of the possible role of SV40 in the pathogenesis of S-NHL are warranted.

  14. Viruses of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.

  15. Viruses of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  16. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  17. Discovering novel zoonotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa

    2011-07-01

    From the emergence of Hendra virus and Menangle virus in Australia to the global pandemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza viruses (both H5N1 and H1N1), there has been a surge of zoonotic virus outbreaks in the last two decades. Although the drivers for virus emergence remain poorly understood, the rate of discovery of new viruses is accelerating. This is due to a combination of true emergence of new pathogens and the advance of new technologies making rapid detection and characterisation possible. While molecular approaches will continue to lead the way in virus discovery, other technological platforms are required to increase the chance of success. The lessons learnt in the last 20 years confirm that the One Health approach, involving inclusive collaborations between physicians, veterinarians and other health and environmental professionals, will be the key to combating future zoonotic disease outbreaks.

  18. Development and validation of a quantitative real time PCR assay for BK virus.

    PubMed

    Mitui, Midori; Leos, N Kristine; Lacey, Damon; Doern, Christopher; Rogers, Beverly B; Park, Jason Y

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that BK viral load in plasma and urine are reliable markers for the detection of BK virus associated nephropathy (BKVAN) in renal transplant patients. We developed a quantitative real time PCR assay based on TaqMan technology for the measurement of BK viral load in plasma and urine. Considering the high similarity of the nucleotide sequence of the BK virus (BKV) with the JC virus (JCV), we designed this assay to specifically amplify BKV. We determined the viral DNA recovery rate on manual (QIAGEN's QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit) and automated (BioMerieux's NucliSENS EasyMAG) extraction methods. The comparison showed a higher viral DNA recovery rate on the automated extraction (61-76% in plasma and 52-65% in urine) as compared to the manual method (49-52% in plasma and 33-56% in urine). Quantitation of the viral load was performed using an external standard curve that was constructed with serial dilution of a plasmid containing the full length of the BKV genome. Commercially available quantitative BKV standards showed good correlation with the plasmid standard. The reproducibility of the assay was determined based on the Ct values of the amplified products as well as in BK copies per milliliter of sample. This assay is linear over a 7 log range (10 to 1 × 10(7) copies per reaction), no cross-reactivity was detected with the closest-related polyomavirus JCV, as well as other viruses that may be found in immunocompromised patients, and human genomic DNA. The limit of detection of the assay is 300 copies per milliliter in both plasma and urine and the limit of quantitation is 1000 copies per milliliter using the NATtrol BK Virus Linearity Panel (ZeptoMetrix). This real time PCR assay provides a reliable and sensitive method for the quantitation of BKV in plasma and urine samples.

  19. Virus-Associated Lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tarantul, V. Z.

    2006-01-01

    At least 2 billion people are affected by viral infections worldwide. The infections induce a lot of various human diseases and are one of the main causes of human mortality. In particular, they can lead to development of various human cancers. Up to 15-20% of human cancer incidence can be attributed to viruses. Although viral infections are very common in the general population, only few of them result in clinically relevant lesions. Certain associations between virus infections and malignancy are strong and irrefutable, the others are still speculative. The criteria most often used for determining the causality are the consistence of the association, either epidemiologic or at the molecular level, and oncogenicity of viruses or particular viral genes in animal models or cell cultures. Due to some ambiguity of such a determination, it is instructive to consider by specific cases what evidence is generally accepted as sufficient to establish a causal relation between virus and cancer. Lymphomas are one of the best studied cancer types closely associated with a small but definite range of viruses. Numerous data show a close interrelation between lymphomagenesis and infection by such viruses as Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For instance, experiments on monkeys artificially infected with viruses and data on anti-cancer effect of specific antiviral preparations strongly suggest the involvement of viruses in lymphoma development. The present review is devoted to the association of different viruses with human lymphomas and to viral genes potentially involved in the neoplastic process. The recognition of virus involvement in lymphomagenesis may facilitate new strategies for cancer therapy, diagnosis and screening and can lead to a reduction in the number of individuals at risk of disease. PMID:23674972

  20. [The great virus comeback].

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  1. Viruses of botrytis.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Michael N; Bailey, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) is one of the most widespread and destructive fungal diseases of horticultural crops. Propagation and dispersal is usually by asexual conidia but the sexual stage (Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) also occurs in nature. DsRNAs, indicative of virus infection, are common in B. cinerea, but only four viruses (Botrytis virus F (BVF), Botrytis virus X (BVX), Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 (BcMV1), and Botrytis porri RNA virus) have been sequenced. BVF and BVX are unusual mycoviruses being ssRNA flexous rods and have been designated the type species of the genera Mycoflexivirus and Botrexvirus (family Betaflexivirdae), respectively. The reported effects of viruses on Botrytis range from negligible to severe, with Botrytis cinerea mitovirus 1 causing hypovirulence. Little is currently known about the effects of viruses on Botrytis metabolism but recent complete sequencing of the B. cinerea genome now provides an opportunity to investigate the host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. There is interest in the possible use of mycoviruses as biological controls for Botrytis because of the common problem of fungicide resistance. Unfortunately, hyphal anastomosis is the only known mechanism of horizontal virus transmission and the large number of vegetative incompatibility groups in Botrytis is a potential constraint on the spread of an introduced virus. Although some Botrytis viruses, such as BVF and BVX, are known to have international distribution, there is a distinct lack of epidemiological data and the means of spread are unknown.

  2. RNA Viruses Infecting Pest Insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA viruses are viruses whose genetic material is ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA viruses may be double or single-stranded based on the type of RNA they contain. Single-stranded RNA viruses can be further grouped into negative sense or positive-sense viruses according to the polarity of their RNA. Fur...

  3. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  4. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  5. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, L.A.; Goldberg, P.W.; Phillips, C.A.; Sorkin, G.B.

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  6. Viruses within animal genomes.

    PubMed

    De Brognier, A; Willems, L

    2016-04-01

    Viruses and their hosts can co-evolve to reach a fragile equilibrium that allows the survival of both. An excess of pathogenicity in the absence of a reservoir would be detrimental to virus survival. A significant proportion of all animal genomes has been shaped by the insertion of viruses that subsequently became 'fossilised'. Most endogenous viruses have lost the capacity to replicate via an infectious cycle and now replicate passively. The insertion of endogenous viruses has contributed to the evolution of animal genomes, for example in the reproductive biology of mammals. However, spontaneous viral integration still occasionally occurs in a number of virus-host systems. This constitutes a potential risk to host survival but also provides an opportunity for diversification and evolution.

  7. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  8. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  9. Enhancement in the transport critical current density Jc in YBa2Cu3O7-δ added with an insulating nano crystalline YBa2HfO5.5 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejith, P. P.; Vidya, S.; Solomon, Sam; Thomas, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    When a magnetic field is applied to type II superconductors, such as YBa2Cu307-δ (YBCO), the flux quanta penetrate the material as a regular array of vortices. However when transport currents are applied, they act to move these vortices, thus lowers the critical current density (Jc) as well as destroying superconductivity. The development of microstructures made of YBCO materials has enabled engineers to increase the critical current density, within Type II materials by introducing flux pinning centres into the material. The microstructure and flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ system with varying levels (0-5 wt. %) of a nano perovskite ceramic insulator; YBa2HfO5.5 addition was studied in detail. Orthorhombic YBa2Cu3O7-δ powder was prepared through conventional solid state route and a modified combustion method was used for synthesizing nanocrystalline YBa2HfO5.5. The structure and microstructure of the samples examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that YBa2HfO5.5 and YBCO remained unreacted even at higher processing temperature without deteriorating the superconducting properties. The scanning electron microscope image shows that YBa2HfO5.5 forms an electrical-network between grains. These observations suggest that the YBa2HfO5.5 addition to the Y-123-compounds improve the electrical connection between superconducting grains and substantial improvements in the relative electrical transport properties of the composites. The variation of sintering temperature, density, critical transition temperature (Tc) and magnetic field dependence of critical current density (Jc) of YBa2Cu3O7-δ having different proportions of YBa2HfO5.5 in the matrix were also studied in detail. It is found that the addition of these elements considerably enhances the flux pinning strength of the system, and there is also an increase of critical temperature (Tc) and critical current density (Jc) up to an optimum value of 8.76 × 104 A/cm2 for a

  10. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  11. [Zika virus epidemic].

    PubMed

    Kronborg, Gitte; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2016-03-21

    Zika virus is endemic in several parts of the world. February 1, 2016 Zika virus was declared a public health emergency by the WHO. This declaration is mainly due to a convincing association between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and birth defects, like microcephaly, among some of the newborns. Imported cases of Zika virus infection to North America, Europe and Denmark have been described. The infection in itself is mild and self-limiting. The available diagnostic methods are under development, validation and evaluation. In Denmark, some promising diagnostics are available at Statens Serum Institut.

  12. Viruses Surveillance Under Different Season Scenarios of the Negro River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carmen Baur; de Abreu Corrêa, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Kay, David; Vargha, Marta; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-03-01

    The Negro River is located in the Amazon basin, the largest hydrological catchment in the world. Its water is used for drinking, domestic activities, recreation and transportation and water quality is significantly affected by anthropogenic impacts. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and concentrations of the main viral etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, such as group A rotavirus (RVA) and genogroup II norovirus (NoV GII), and to assess the use of human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) as viral indicators of human faecal contamination in the aquatic environment of Manaus under different hydrological scenarios. Water samples were collected along Negro River and in small streams known as igarapés. Viruses were concentrated by an organic flocculation method and detected by quantitative PCR. From 272 samples analysed, HAdV was detected in 91.9%, followed by JCPyV (69.5%), RVA (23.9%) and NoV GII (7.4%). Viral concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) GC L(-1) and viruses were more likely to be detected during the flood season, with the exception of NoV GII, which was detected only during the dry season. Statistically significant differences on virus concentrations between dry and flood seasons were observed only for RVA. The HAdV data provides a useful complement to faecal indicator bacteria in the monitoring of aquatic environments. Overall results demonstrated that the hydrological cycle of the Negro River in the Amazon Basin affects the dynamics of viruses in aquatic environments and, consequently, the exposure of citizens to these waterborne pathogens.

  13. Multiple oncogenic viruses identified in Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-1 patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is a rare cancer that has increased in incidence with the HIV pandemic in Africa. The underlying cause of this cancer in HIV-infected patients from Botswana is not well defined. Results Tissues were obtained from 28 OSSN and 8 pterygia patients. The tissues analyzed from OSSN patients were 83% positive for EBV, 75% were HPV positive, 70% were KSHV positive, 75% were HSV-1/2 positive, and 61% were CMV positive by PCR. Tissues from pterygium patients were 88% positive for EBV, 75% were HPV positive, 50% were KSHV positive, and 60% were CMV positive. None of the patients were JC or BK positive. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analyses further identified HPV, EBV, and KSHV in a subset of the tissue samples. Conclusion We identified the known oncogenic viruses HPV, KSHV, and EBV in OSSN and pterygia tissues. The presence of these tumor viruses in OSSN suggests that they may contribute to the development of this malignancy in the HIV population. Further studies are necessary to characterize the molecular mechanisms associated with viral antigens and their potential role in the development of OSSN. PMID:20346104

  14. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  15. Virus separation using membranes.

    PubMed

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  16. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  17. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

  18. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  19. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  20. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  1. Zika Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Slenczka, Werner

    2016-06-01

    The history of Zika virus disease serves as a paradigm of a typical emerging viral infection. Zika virus disease, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first isolated in 1947 in the Zika forest of Uganda. The same virus was also isolated from jungle-dwelling mosquitoes (Aedes [Stegomyia] africanus). In many areas of Africa and South Asia human infections with Zika virus were detected by both serology and virus isolation. About 80% of infections are asymptomatic, and in 20% a mostly mild disease with fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis may occur. Fetal infections with malformations were not recorded in Africa or Asia. Zika virus was imported to northern Brazil possibly during the world soccer championship that was hosted by Brazil in June through July 2014. A cluster of severe fetal malformations with microcephaly and ocular defects was noted in 2015 in the northeast of Brazil, and intrauterine infections with Zika virus were confirmed. The dramatic change in Zika virus pathogenicity upon its introduction to Brazil has remained an enigma.

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Denise; Hurst, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus and reports linking infection in pregnant women with microcephaly in newborns have caused concern worldwide. Information has been evolving rapidly. Nurses and other clinicians, especially those who work with women of childbearing age, play a pivotal role in disseminating accurate information and identifying potential cases of Zika virus infection.

  3. Zika Virus and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Denise; Hurst, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus and reports linking infection in pregnant women with microcephaly in newborns have caused concern worldwide. Information has been evolving rapidly. Nurses and other clinicians, especially those who work with women of childbearing age, play a pivotal role in disseminating accurate information and identifying potential cases of Zika virus infection. PMID:27287356

  4. Zika Virus Disease.

    PubMed

    Slenczka, Werner

    2016-06-01

    The history of Zika virus disease serves as a paradigm of a typical emerging viral infection. Zika virus disease, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was first isolated in 1947 in the Zika forest of Uganda. The same virus was also isolated from jungle-dwelling mosquitoes (Aedes [Stegomyia] africanus). In many areas of Africa and South Asia human infections with Zika virus were detected by both serology and virus isolation. About 80% of infections are asymptomatic, and in 20% a mostly mild disease with fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis may occur. Fetal infections with malformations were not recorded in Africa or Asia. Zika virus was imported to northern Brazil possibly during the world soccer championship that was hosted by Brazil in June through July 2014. A cluster of severe fetal malformations with microcephaly and ocular defects was noted in 2015 in the northeast of Brazil, and intrauterine infections with Zika virus were confirmed. The dramatic change in Zika virus pathogenicity upon its introduction to Brazil has remained an enigma. PMID:27337468

  5. Influenza A virus reassortment.

    PubMed

    Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C

    2014-01-01

    Reassortment is the process by which influenza viruses swap gene segments. This genetic exchange is possible due to the segmented nature of the viral genome and occurs when two differing influenza viruses co-infect a cell. The viral diversity generated through reassortment is vast and plays an important role in the evolution of influenza viruses. Herein we review recent insights into the contribution of reassortment to the natural history and epidemiology of influenza A viruses, gained through population scale phylogenic analyses. We describe methods currently used to study reassortment in the laboratory, and we summarize recent progress made using these experimental approaches to further our understanding of influenza virus reassortment and the contexts in which it occurs.

  6. Respiratory viruses and children.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory viruses place a great disease burden especially on the youngest children in terms of high rates of infection, bacterial complications and hospitalizations. In developing countries, some viral infections are even associated with substantial mortality in children. The interaction between viruses and bacteria is probably much more common and clinically significant than previously understood. Respiratory viruses frequently initiate the cascade of events that ultimately leads to bacterial infection. Effective antiviral agents can substantially shorten the duration of the viral illness and prevent the development of bacterial complications. Viral vaccines have the potential to not only prevent the viral infection but also decrease the incidence of bacterial complications. At present, antivirals and vaccines are only available against influenza viruses, but new vaccines and antivirals against other viruses, especially for RSV, are being developed. PMID:27177731

  7. Respiratory viruses and children.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Terho

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory viruses place a great disease burden especially on the youngest children in terms of high rates of infection, bacterial complications and hospitalizations. In developing countries, some viral infections are even associated with substantial mortality in children. The interaction between viruses and bacteria is probably much more common and clinically significant than previously understood. Respiratory viruses frequently initiate the cascade of events that ultimately leads to bacterial infection. Effective antiviral agents can substantially shorten the duration of the viral illness and prevent the development of bacterial complications. Viral vaccines have the potential to not only prevent the viral infection but also decrease the incidence of bacterial complications. At present, antivirals and vaccines are only available against influenza viruses, but new vaccines and antivirals against other viruses, especially for RSV, are being developed.

  8. Akabane virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, P D

    2015-08-01

    Akabane virus is a Culicoides-borne orthobunyavirus that is teratogenic to the fetus of cattle and small ruminant species. Depending upon the stage of gestation atwhich infection occurs, and the length of gestation of the mammalian host, a range of congenital defects may be observed. The developing central nervous system is usually the most severely affected, with hydranencephaly and arthrogryposis most frequently observed. Less commonly, some strains of Akabane virus can cause encephalitis in the neonate or, rarely, adult cattle. Akabane viruses are known to be widespread in temperate and tropical regions of Australia, Southeast Asia, the Middle East and some African countries. Disease is infrequently observed in regions where this virus is endemic and the presence of the virus remains unrecognised in the absence of serological surveillance. In some Asian countries, vaccines are used to minimise the occurrence of disease. PMID:26601444

  9. Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus-Virus Plaque Assay.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays.

  10. Virus discovery and recent insights into virus diversity in arthropods.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Drosten, Christian

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies on virus discovery have focused mainly on mammalian and avian viruses. Arbovirology with its long tradition of ecologically oriented investigation is now catching up, with important novel insights into the diversity of arthropod-associated viruses. Recent discoveries include taxonomically outlying viruses within the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, and even novel virus families within the order Nidovirales. However, the current focusing of studies on blood-feeding arthropods has restricted the range of arthropod hosts analyzed for viruses so far. Future investigations should include species from other arthropod taxa than Ixodita, Culicidae and Phlebotominae in order to shed light on the true diversity of arthropod viruses.

  11. Cost-effective method for microbial source tracking using specific human and animal viruses.

    PubMed

    Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Calgua, Byron; Rusiñol, Marta; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Girones, Rosina

    2011-01-01

    Microbial contamination of the environment represents a significant health risk. Classical bacterial fecal indicators have shown to have significant limitations, viruses are more resistant to many inactivation processes and standard fecal indicators do not inform on the source of contamination. The development of cost-effective methods for the concentration of viruses from water and molecular assays facilitates the applicability of viruses as indicators of fecal contamination and as microbial source tracking (MST) tools. Adenoviruses and polyomaviruses are DNA viruses infecting specific vertebrate species including humans and are persistently excreted in feces and/or urine in all geographical areas studied. In previous studies, we suggested the quantification of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) as an index of human fecal contamination. Recently, we have developed qPCR assays for the specific quantification of porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) as animal fecal markers of contamination with sensitivities of 1-10 genome copies per test tube. In this study, we present the procedure to be followed to identify the source of contamination in water samples using these tools. As example of representative results, analysis of viruses in ground water presenting high levels of nitrates is shown. Detection of viruses in low or moderately polluted waters requires the concentration of the viruses from at least several liters of water into a much smaller volume, a procedure that usually includes two concentration steps in series. This somewhat cumbersome procedure and the variability observed in viral recoveries significantly hamper the simultaneous processing of a large number of water samples. In order to eliminate the bottleneck caused by the two-step procedures we have applied a one-step protocol developed in previous studies and applicable to a diversity of water matrices. The procedure includes

  12. Realms of the Viruses Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Viruses have evolved strategies for infecting all taxa, but most viruses are highly specific about their cellular host. In humans, viruses cause diverse diseases, from chronic but benign warts, to acute and deadly hemorrhagic fever. Viruses have entertaining names like Zucchini Yellow Mosaic, Semliki Forest, Coxsackie, and the original terminator,…

  13. Tembusu Virus in Ducks, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Cun; Liu, Yuehuan; Ye, Weicheng; Han, Jingwen; Ma, Guoming; Zhang, Dongdong; Xu, Feng; Gao, Xuhui; Tang, Yi; Shi, Shaohua; Wan, Chunhe; Zhang, Chen; He, Bin; Yang, Mengjie; Lu, Xinhao; Huang, Yu; Diao, Youxiang; Ma, Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    In China in 2010, a disease outbreak in egg-laying ducks was associated with a flavivirus. The virus was isolated and partially sequenced. The isolate exhibited 87%–91% identity with strains of Tembusu virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Ntaya virus group. These findings demonstrate emergence of Tembusu virus in ducks. PMID:22000358

  14. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks. PMID:25897646

  15. Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ≈450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 μS/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 μS/cm for films containing 100 μM virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films. PMID:22856875

  16. A Virus in Turbo Pascal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teleky, Heidi Ann; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Addresses why the authors feel it is not inappropriate to teach about viruses in the how-to, hands-on fashion. Identifies the special features of Turbo Pascal that have to be used for the creation of an effective virus. Defines virus, derives its structure, and from this structure is derived the implemented virus. (PR)

  17. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  18. Viruses of Chelonia.

    PubMed

    Ahne, W

    1993-02-01

    Viruses occurring in turtles and tortoises are hetergeneous but according to ecologic characteristics and pathogenic properties they can be divided in two major groups: 1. Arboviruses (toga-, flavi-, rhabdo- and bunyaviruses) transmitted by arthropods cause severe diseases in homoiothermic vertebrates. The viruses are of great epidemiological interest in human and veterinary medicine. Chelonia and other reptiles infected by bites of vectors e.g. Aedes, Anopheles, Culex develop cyclic viremia without injury. The ectothermic animals maintain inapparent arbovirus infections during hibernation and they play role as reservoirs for these viruses. 2. Viruses of Chelonia origin (papova-, herpes-, irido- and paramyxoviruses) associated with diseases of infected turtles and tortoises have been described frequently during the last 20 years. Several viruses or virus-like particles could be demonstrated in affected reptiles mainly by electron microscopy. Especially herpesviruses seem to attack Chelonia and epizootics due to infections with these viruses were reported in several reptiles in collections. However, the etiological role of the agents detected is not well documented yet. PMID:8456570

  19. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  20. Genome of horsepox virus.

    PubMed

    Tulman, E R; Delhon, G; Afonso, C L; Lu, Z; Zsak, L; Sandybaev, N T; Kerembekova, U Z; Zaitsev, V L; Kutish, G F; Rock, D L

    2006-09-01

    Here we present the genomic sequence of horsepox virus (HSPV) isolate MNR-76, an orthopoxvirus (OPV) isolated in 1976 from diseased Mongolian horses. The 212-kbp genome contained 7.5-kbp inverted terminal repeats and lacked extensive terminal tandem repetition. HSPV contained 236 open reading frames (ORFs) with similarity to those in other OPVs, with those in the central 100-kbp region most conserved relative to other OPVs. Phylogenetic analysis of the conserved region indicated that HSPV is closely related to sequenced isolates of vaccinia virus (VACV) and rabbitpox virus, clearly grouping together these VACV-like viruses. Fifty-four HSPV ORFs likely represented fragments of 25 orthologous OPV genes, including in the central region the only known fragmented form of an OPV ribonucleotide reductase large subunit gene. In terminal genomic regions, HSPV lacked full-length homologues of genes variably fragmented in other VACV-like viruses but was unique in fragmentation of the homologue of VACV strain Copenhagen B6R, a gene intact in other known VACV-like viruses. Notably, HSPV contained in terminal genomic regions 17 kbp of OPV-like sequence absent in known VACV-like viruses, including fragments of genes intact in other OPVs and approximately 1.4 kb of sequence present only in cowpox virus (CPXV). HSPV also contained seven full-length genes fragmented or missing in other VACV-like viruses, including intact homologues of the CPXV strain GRI-90 D2L/I4R CrmB and D13L CD30-like tumor necrosis factor receptors, D3L/I3R and C1L ankyrin repeat proteins, B19R kelch-like protein, D7L BTB/POZ domain protein, and B22R variola virus B22R-like protein. These results indicated that HSPV contains unique genomic features likely contributing to a unique virulence/host range phenotype. They also indicated that while closely related to known VACV-like viruses, HSPV contains additional, potentially ancestral sequences absent in other VACV-like viruses.

  1. Viruses in reptiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3.9.2. Togaviridae 3.10. Caliciviridae

  2. [Ebola virus disease].

    PubMed

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  3. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  4. [Zika, a neurotropic virus?].

    PubMed

    Del Carpio-Orantes, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the neurotropism potential Zika virus is discussed, by comparison with viruses both RNA and DNA are neurotropic known, also it is said that compared with the new viruses that have affected the Americas, as the chikungunya, Zika has shown great affinity by brain tissue, manifested by a high incidence of acute neurological conditions, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, among others, as well as the reported incidence of microcephaly that is abnormally high compared with the previous incidence, which, in a stillborn subject necropsied significant alterations demonstrated in brain tissue, identifying viral material and live virus in the fetoplacental complex, and demonstrating the impact both white matter and gray matter as well as basal ganglia, corpus callosum, ventricles and spinal cord, which could explain the microcephaly that concerns him. Although not a direct cause-effect relationship is demonstrated, however current evidence supports that relationship, hoping to be supported scientifically.

  5. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-01-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. Images PMID:2224837

  6. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... RSV often spreads quickly in crowded households and day care centers. The virus can live for a half ... The following increase the risk for RSV: Attending day care Being near tobacco smoke Having school-aged brothers ...

  8. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... to human beings through their bites. Credit: CDC Biology, Genetics, & Clinical Research NIAID conducts and funds basic and clinical research on WNV biology and viral structure, ways the virus causes human ...

  9. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important ... the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But ...

  10. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  11. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes spread the virus that causes it. People who ... barrels Stay indoors between dusk and dawn, when mosquitoes are most active Use screens on windows to ...

  12. The dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Henchal, E A; Putnak, J R

    1990-10-01

    Dengue, a major public health problem throughout subtropical and tropical regions, is an acute infectious disease characterized by biphasic fever, headache, pain in various parts of the body, prostration, rash, lymphadenopathy, and leukopenia. In more severe or complicated dengue, patients present with a severe febrile illness characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some instances results in a hypovolemic shock. Four distinct serotypes of the dengue virus (dengue-1, dengue-2, dengue-3, and dengue-4) exist, with numerous virus strains found worldwide. Molecular cloning methods have led to a greater understanding of the structure of the RNA genome and definition of virus-specific structural and nonstructural proteins. Progress towards producing safe, effective dengue virus vaccines, a goal for over 45 years, has been made. PMID:2224837

  13. Microstructure of a high Jc, laser-ablated YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ/sol-gel deposited NdGaO 3 buffer layer/(001) SrTiO 3 multi-layer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chau-Yun; Ichinose, Ataru; Babcock, S. E.; Morrell, J. S.; Mathis, J. E.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Paranthaman, M.; Beach, D. B.; Christen, D. K.

    A YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO) film with a transport critical current density ( Jc) value of 1 mA/cm 2 (77 K, 0 T) was grown on a solution deposited NdGaO 3 (NGO) buffer layer on (100) SrTiO 3 (STO). The 25-nm thick NGO buffer layer was dip-coated onto the STO single crystal from a solution of metal methoxyethoxides in 2-methoxyethanol. Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was used to grow a 250-nm-thick YBCO film on the NGO. The epitaxial relationships are cube-on-cube throughout the structure when the pseudo cubic and pseudo tetragonal unit cells are used to describe the NGO and YBCO crystal structures, respectively: (001) YBCO∥(001) NGO∥(001) STO and [100] YBCO∥[100] NGO∥[100] STO. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the bare NGO surface revealed ∼40 nm diameter pinholes with number density of ∼2×10 13 m -2, corresponding to an area fraction coverage of 2.5%, in an otherwise featureless surface. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that these pinholes penetrate to the STO; otherwise the NGO layer was uniformly thick to within approximately ±5 nm and defect free. The X-ray diffraction φ- and ω-scans indicated that the YBCO film was highly oriented with a full-width-half maximum peak breadth of 1.14° for in-plane and 0.46° for out-of-plane alignment, respectively. The film contained sparse a-axis oriented grains, an appreciable density of (001) stacking faults and apparently insulating second phase precipitates of the type that typically litter the surface of PLD films. All of these defects are typical of YBCO thin films. High-resolution cross-sectional TEM images indicate that no chemical reaction occurs at the YBCO/NGO interface.

  14. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  15. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection. PMID:27486731

  16. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. <=35 nm. CPMV-templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  17. Human Influenza Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Peteranderl, Christin; Herold, Susanne; Schmoldt, Carole

    2016-08-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza are the two faces of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in humans. As seasonal influenza occurs on an annual basis, the circulating virus strains are closely monitored and a yearly updated vaccination is provided, especially to identified risk populations. Nonetheless, influenza virus infection may result in pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, frequently complicated by bacterial coinfection. Pandemics are, in contrary, unexpected rare events related to the emergence of a reassorted human-pathogenic influenza A virus (IAV) strains that often causes increased morbidity and spreads extremely rapidly in the immunologically naive human population, with huge clinical and economic impact. Accordingly, particular efforts are made to advance our knowledge on the disease biology and pathology and recent studies have brought new insights into IAV adaptation mechanisms to the human host, as well as into the key players in disease pathogenesis on the host side. Current antiviral strategies are only efficient at the early stages of the disease and are challenged by the genomic instability of the virus, highlighting the need for novel antiviral therapies targeting the pulmonary host response to improve viral clearance, reduce the risk of bacterial coinfection, and prevent or attenuate acute lung injury. This review article summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular basis of influenza infection and disease progression, the key players in pathogenesis driving severe disease and progression to lung failure, as well as available and envisioned prevention and treatment strategies against influenza virus infection.

  18. Transmission of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  19. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  20. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  1. Smaller fleas: viruses of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category-bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist-with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms.

  2. Receptor ganglioside content of three hosts for Sendai virus. MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Markwell, M A; Fredman, P; Svennerholm, L

    1984-08-01

    Specific gangliosides GD1a, GT1b and GQ1b isolated from brain have been shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus by conferring susceptibility to infection when they are incorporated into receptor-deficient cells (Markwell, M.A.K., Svennerholm, L. and Paulson, J.C. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 5406-5410). The endogenous gangliosides of three commonly used hosts for Sendai virus: MDBK, HeLa, and MDCK cells were analyzed to determine the amount and type of receptor gangliosides present. In all three cell lines, GM3 was the major ganglioside component. The presence of GM1, GD1a and the more complex homologs of the gangliotetraose series was also established. In cell lines derived from normal tissue, MDBK and MDCK cells, gangliosides contributed 47-65% of the total sialic acid. In HeLa cells, gangliosides contributed substantially less (17% of the total sialic acid). The ganglioside content of each cell line was shown not to be immutable but instead to depend on the state of differentiation, passage number, and surface the cells were grown on. Thus, the ganglioside concentration of undifferentiated MDCK cells was found to be substantially greater than that of MDBK or HeLa cells, but decreased as the MDCK cells underwent differentiation. Changes in culture conditions that were shown to decrease the receptor ganglioside content of the cells resulted in a corresponding decrease in susceptibility to infection. The endogenous oligosialogangliosides present in susceptible host cells were shown to function as receptors for Sendai virus.

  3. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. PMID:27079865

  4. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  5. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  6. Two African viruses serologically and morphologically related to rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Shope, R E; Murphy, F A; Harrison, A K; Causey, O R; Kemp, G E; Simpson, D I; Moore, D L

    1970-11-01

    Lagos bat virus and an isolate from shrews (IbAn 27377), both from Nigeria, were found to be bullet-shaped and to mature intracytoplasmically in association with a distinct matrix. They were related to, but readily distinguishable from, rabies virus and each other by complement fixation and neutralization tests. The three viruses, including rabies, form a subgrouping within the rhabdoviruses. PMID:5530013

  7. [Viruses and civilization].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  8. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  9. Viruses and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Owens, Gregory P; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  10. Attenuation of Vaccinia Virus.

    PubMed

    Yakubitskiy, S N; Kolosova, I V; Maksyutov, R A; Shchelkunov, S N

    2015-01-01

    Since 1980, in the post-smallpox vaccination era the human population has become increasingly susceptible compared to a generation ago to not only the variola (smallpox) virus, but also other zoonotic orthopoxviruses. The need for safer vaccines against orthopoxviruses is even greater now. The Lister vaccine strain (LIVP) of vaccinia virus was used as a parental virus for generating a recombinant 1421ABJCN clone defective in five virulence genes encoding hemagglutinin (A56R), the IFN-γ-binding protein (B8R), thymidine kinase (J2R), the complement-binding protein (C3L), and the Bcl-2-like inhibitor of apoptosis (N1L). We found that disruption of these loci does not affect replication in mammalian cell cultures. The isogenic recombinant strain 1421ABJCN exhibits a reduced inflammatory response and attenuated neurovirulence relative to LIVP. Virus titers of 1421ABJCN were 3 lg lower versus the parent VACV LIVP when administered by the intracerebral route in new-born mice. In a subcutaneous mouse model, 1421ABJCN displayed levels of VACV-neutralizing antibodies comparable to those of LIVP and conferred protective immunity against lethal challenge by the ectromelia virus. The VACV mutant holds promise as a safe live vaccine strain for preventing smallpox and other orthopoxvirus infections. PMID:26798498

  11. [Markers of hepatitis virus].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Fumitaka

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the major viruses known to cause viral hepatitis. Serological markers are commonly used as diagnostic and/or prognostic indicators of acute or chronic HBV or HCV infection. The ability to detect HBV DNA in serum has been reported to have prognostic value for the outcome of chronic HBV infection. A rapid and sustained drop in HBV DNA or HCV RNA levels in patients under therapy has been shown to be a predictive factor for a favourable treatment outcome. Various techniques for detecting HBV DNA or HCV RNA have already been described; however, there are various problems with the sensitivity or detection range of those methods. New virus measuring methods have recently been reported and used. The Cobas Taq Man HCV Test is a new method to detect HBV DNA and HCV RNA with higher sensitivity and a broader range of quantitation than conventional methods. Some reports have shown that these methods improve therapy monitoring and the management of HBV or HCV infection. Moreover, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been reported in Japan. The clinical features and viral markers of HEV have also been described. PMID:19086457

  12. Geneticin Stabilizes the Open Conformation of the 5′ Region of Hepatitis C Virus RNA and Inhibits Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Mateos, Ascensión; Díaz-Toledano, Rosa; Block, Timothy M.; Prieto-Vega, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The aminoglycoside Geneticin (G418) is known to inhibit cell culture proliferation, via virus-specific mechanisms, of two different virus genera from the family Flaviviridae. Here, we tried to determine whether Geneticin can selectively alter the switching of the nucleotide 1 to 570 RNA region of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and, if so, whether this inhibits viral growth. Two structure-dependent RNases known to specifically cleave HCV RNA were tested in the presence or absence of the drug. One was the Synechocystis sp. RNase P ribozyme, which cleaves the tRNA-like domain around the AUG start codon under high-salt buffer conditions; the second was Escherichia coli RNase III, which recognizes a double-helical RNA switch element that changes the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from a closed (C) conformation to an open (O) one. While the drug did not affect RNase P activity, it did inhibit RNase III in the micromolar range. Kinetic studies indicated that the drug favors the switch from the C to the O conformation of the IRES by stabilizing the distal double-stranded element and inhibiting further processing of the O form. We demonstrate that, because the RNA in this region is highly conserved and essential for virus survival, Geneticin inhibits HCV Jc1 NS3 expression, the release of the viral genomic RNA, and the propagation of HCV in Huh 7.5 cells. Our study highlights the crucial role of riboswitches in HCV replication and suggests the therapeutic potential of viral-RNA-targeted antivirals. PMID:26621620

  13. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field.

  14. Chlorella viruses isolated in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Burbank, D.E.; Van Etten, J.L. )

    1988-09-01

    Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eukaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N{sup 6}-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with {sup 32}P-labeled DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly.

  15. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  16. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  17. Emerging issues in virus taxonomy.

    PubMed

    van Regenmortel, Marc H V; Mahy, Brian W J

    2004-01-01

    Viruses occupy a unique position in biology. Although they possess some of the properties of living systems such as having a genome, they are actually nonliving infectious entities and should not be considered microorganisms. A clear distinction should be drawn between the terms virus, virion, and virus species. Species is the most fundamental taxonomic category used in all biological classification. In 1991, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) decided that the category of virus species should be used in virus classification together with the categories of genus and family. More than 50 ICTV study groups were given the task of demarcating the 1,550 viral species that were recognized in the 7th ICTV report, which was published in 2000. We briefly describe the changes in virus classification that were introduced in that report. We also discuss recent proposals to introduce a nonlatinized binomial nomenclature for virus species. PMID:15078590

  18. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  20. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  1. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  2. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  3. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  4. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  5. Chlorella viruses isolated in China.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y P; Burbank, D E; Van Etten, J L

    1988-01-01

    Plaque-forming viruses of the unicellular, eucaryotic, exsymbiotic, Chlorella-like green algae strain NC64A, which are common in the United States, were also present in fresh water collected in the People's Republic of China. Seven of the Chinese viruses were examined in detail and compared with the Chlorella viruses previously isolated in the United States. Like the American viruses, the Chinese viruses were large polyhedra and sensitive to chloroform. They contained numerous structural proteins and large double-stranded DNA genomes of at least 300 kilobase pairs. Each of the DNAs from the Chinese viruses contained 5-methyldeoxycytosine, which varied from 12.6 to 46.7% of the deoxycytosine, and N6-methyldeoxyadenosine, which varied from 2.2 to 28.3% of the deoxyadenosine. Four of the Chinese virus DNAs hybridized extensively with DNA from the American virus PBCV-1, and three hybridized poorly. Images PMID:2847652

  6. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  7. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  8. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  9. 9 CFR 113.215 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.215 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine, Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed...

  10. Detection of BK virus DNA in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with respiratory infections but not in saliva from immunodeficient and immunocompetent adult patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sundsfjord, A; Spein, A R; Lucht, E; Flaegstad, T; Seternes, O M; Traavik, T

    1994-01-01

    Our understanding of important stages in the pathogenesis of the human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) infections is limited. In this context, nasopharyngeal aspirates from 201 children with respiratory diseases and saliva from 60 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults and 10 healthy adult controls were collected and analyzed for the presence of BKV and JCV DNA by PCR. Neither BKV nor JCV DNA was detected in the saliva specimens. We demonstrated BKV DNA, but no infectious BKV, in 2 of 201 nasopharyngeal aspirates. Each sample contained one unique rearranged noncoding control region variant of BKV. The results indicate that (i) BKV and JCV are not regularly associated with respiratory infections in children requiring hospitalization, (ii) nasopharyngeal cells are not an important site for primary replication of human polyomavirus BKV and JCV, and (iii) the salivary glands and oropharyngeal cells seem not to be involved in BKV and JCV persistence. We propose that for the polyomaviruses BKV and JCV the alimentary tract should be considered as a portal of entrance to the human organism. Images PMID:8051277

  11. RNA-Seq reveals virus-virus and virus-plant interactions in nature.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Mari; Nagano, Atsushi J; Honjo, Mie N; Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    As research on plant viruses has focused mainly on crop diseases, little is known about these viruses in natural environments. To understand the ecology of viruses in natural systems, comprehensive information on virus-virus and virus-host interactions is required. We applied RNA-Seq to plants from a natural population of Arabidopsis halleri subsp. gemmifera to simultaneously determine the presence/absence of all sequence-reported viruses, identify novel viruses and quantify the host transcriptome. By introducing the criteria of read number and genome coverage, we detected infections by Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cucumber mosaic virus and Brassica yellows virus Active TuMV replication was observed by ultramicroscopy. De novo assembly further identified a novel partitivirus, Arabidopsis halleri partitivirus 1 Interestingly, virus reads reached a maximum level that was equivalent to that of the host's total mRNA, although asymptomatic infection was common. AhgAGO2, a key gene in host defence systems, was upregulated in TuMV-infected plants. Multiple infection was frequent in TuMV-infected leaves, suggesting that TuMV facilitates multiple infection, probably by suppressing host RNA silencing. Revealing hidden plant-virus interactions in nature can enhance our understanding of biological interactions and may have agricultural applications. PMID:27549115

  12. Deformed wing virus.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Genersch, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV; Iflaviridae) is one of many viruses infecting honeybees and one of the most heavily investigated due to its close association with honeybee colony collapse induced by Varroadestructor. In the absence of V.destructor DWV infection does not result in visible symptoms or any apparent negative impact on host fitness. However, for reasons that are still not fully understood, the transmission of DWV by V.destructor to the developing pupae causes clinical symptoms, including pupal death and adult bees emerging with deformed wings, a bloated, shortened abdomen and discolouration. These bees are not viable and die soon after emergence. In this review we will summarize the historical and recent data on DWV and its relatives, covering the genetics, pathobiology, and transmission of this important viral honeybee pathogen, and discuss these within the wider theoretical concepts relating to the genetic variability and population structure of RNA viruses, the evolution of virulence and the development of disease symptoms.

  13. Oncolytic viruses: finally delivering

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Leonard W; Fisher, Kerry D

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses can be found at the confluence of virology, genetic engineering and pharmacology where versatile platforms for molecularly targeted anticancer agents can be designed and optimised. Oncolytic viruses offer several important advantages over traditional approaches, including the following. (1) Amplification of the active agent (infectious virus particles) within the tumour. This avoids unnecessary exposure to normal tissues experienced during delivery of traditional stoichiometric chemotherapy and maximises the therapeutic index. (2) The active cell-killing mechanisms, often independent of programmed death mechanisms, should decrease the emergence of acquired drug resistance. (3) Lytic death of cancer cells provides a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and the potential for induction of an anticancer vaccine response. (4) Tumour-selective expression and secretion of encoded anticancer biologics, providing a new realm of potent and cost-effective-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26766734

  14. Viruses and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Dulek, Daniel E.; Peebles, R. Stokes

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral respiratory infection has long been known to influence the occurrence of asthma exacerbations. Over the last twenty years much effort has been put into clarifying the role that viral respiratory infections play in the eventual development of asthma. Scope of Review In this review we give a general background of the role of viruses in the processes of asthma exacerbation and asthma induction. We review recent additions to the literature in the last three years with particular focus on clinical and epidemiologic investigations of influenza, rhinovirus, bocavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and metapneumovirus. Major Conclusions The development of asthma emerges from a complex interaction of genetic predisposition and environmental factors with viral infection likely playing a significant role in the effect of environment on asthma inception. General Significance Further understanding of the role that viruses play in asthma exacerbation and inception will contribute to decreased asthma morbidity in the future. PMID:21291960

  15. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures.

  16. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. PMID:27154393

  17. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

  18. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  19. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  20. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  1. An introduction to computer viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  2. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Weinbauer, Markus G

    2004-05-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment. PMID:15109783

  3. Ecology of prokaryotic viruses.

    PubMed

    Weinbauer, Markus G

    2004-05-01

    The finding that total viral abundance is higher than total prokaryotic abundance and that a significant fraction of the prokaryotic community is infected with phages in aquatic systems has stimulated research on the ecology of prokaryotic viruses and their role in ecosystems. This review treats the ecology of prokaryotic viruses ('phages') in marine, freshwater and soil systems from a 'virus point of view'. The abundance of viruses varies strongly in different environments and is related to bacterial abundance or activity suggesting that the majority of the viruses found in the environment are typically phages. Data on phage diversity are sparse but indicate that phages are extremely diverse in natural systems. Lytic phages are predators of prokaryotes, whereas lysogenic and chronic infections represent a parasitic interaction. Some forms of lysogeny might be described best as mutualism. The little existing ecological data on phage populations indicate a large variety of environmental niches and survival strategies. The host cell is the main resource for phages and the resource quality, i.e., the metabolic state of the host cell, is a critical factor in all steps of the phage life cycle. Virus-induced mortality of prokaryotes varies strongly on a temporal and spatial scale and shows that phages can be important predators of bacterioplankton. This mortality and the release of cell lysis products into the environment can strongly influence microbial food web processes and biogeochemical cycles. Phages can also affect host diversity, e.g., by 'killing the winner' and keeping in check competitively dominant species or populations. Moreover, they mediate gene transfer between prokaryotes, but this remains largely unknown in the environment. Genomics or proteomics are providing us now with powerful tools in phage ecology, but final testing will have to be performed in the environment.

  4. Bagaza virus and Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus are a single virus species.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Davidson, Irit; Elizalde, Maia; Perk, Shimon; Khinich, Yevgeny; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel

    2014-04-01

    Bagaza virus (BAGV) and Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus (ITV) are classified in the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Serologically, they are closely related, belonging to the Ntaya serocomplex. Nucleotide sequences available to date consist of several complete sequences of BAGV isolates, but only partial sequences of ITV isolates. Sequence comparisons of partial envelope (E) and NS5 regions reveal a close genetic relationship between these viruses. Despite this, BAGV and ITV are considered as separate virus species in the database of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. In this work, complete nucleotide sequences for five ITV isolates are provided, thereby permitting a phylogenetic comparison with other complete sequences of flaviviruses in the Ntaya serogroup. We conclude that BAGV and ITV are the same virus species and propose that both viruses be designated by a new unified name: Avian meningoencephalomyelitis virus.

  5. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  6. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  7. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas. PMID:19788800

  8. Genome packaging in viruses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B; Rossmann, Michael G

    2010-02-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures became available. Here we discuss various aspects of genome packaging and compare the mechanisms proposed for packaging motors on the basis of structural information. PMID:20060706

  9. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  10. Virus diseases of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    The degenerative or non-neoplastic diseases of possible virus origin give the fish-culturist the most concern because of the severe mortalities resulting from infection. Epizootics of this nature have been reported in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Europe, in acara (Geophagus brasiliensis) in South America, in kokanee, (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka nerka) in the State of Washington. It has been demonstrated that each epizootic was caused by an infectious filterable agent, probably a virus.

  11. Schmallenberg virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wernike, K; Elbers, A; Beer, M

    2015-08-01

    Since Schmallenberg virus, an orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was identified near the German-Dutch border for the first time in late 2011 it has spread extremely quickly and caused a large epidemic in European livestock. The virus, which is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, infects domestic and wild ruminants. Adult animals show only mild clinical symptoms or none at all, whereas an infection during a critical period of gestation can lead to abortion, stillbirth or the birth of severely malformed offspring. The impact of the disease is usually greater in sheep than in cattle. Vaccination could be an important aspect of disease control. PMID:26601441

  12. Zika virus outside Africa.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic confusion between ZIKV illness and dengue.The emergence of ZIKV outside of its previously known geographic range should prompt awareness of the potential for ZIKV to spread to other Pacific islands and the Americas.

  13. Viruses and viral proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verdaguer, Nuria; Ferrero, Diego; Murthy, Mathur R. N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than 30 years X-ray crystallography has been by far the most powerful approach for determining the structures of viruses and viral proteins at atomic resolution. The information provided by these structures, which covers many important aspects of the viral life cycle such as cell-receptor recognition, viral entry, nucleic acid transfer and genome replication, has extensively enriched our vision of the virus world. Many of the structures available correspond to potential targets for antiviral drugs against important human pathogens. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of different structural aspects of the above-mentioned processes. PMID:25485129

  14. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  16. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  17. Research on computer virus database management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  18. Epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    LeDuc, J W

    1989-01-01

    Twelve distinct viruses associated with hemorrhagic fever in humans are classified among four families: Arenaviridae, which includes Lassa, Junin, and Machupo viruses; Bunyaviridae, which includes Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan viruses; Filoviridae, which includes Marburg and Ebola viruses; and Flaviviridae, which includes yellow fever, dengue, Kyasanur Forest disease, and Omsk viruses. Most hemorrhagic fever viruses are zoonoses, with the possible exception of the four dengue viruses, which may continually circulate among humans. Hemorrhagic fever viruses are found in both temperate and tropical habitats and generally infect both sexes and all ages, although the age and sex of those infected are frequently influenced by the possibility of occupational exposure. Transmission to humans is frequently by bite of an infected tick or mosquito or via aerosol from infected rodent hosts. Aerosol and nosocomial transmission are especially important with Lassa, Junin, Machupo, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Marburg, and Ebola viruses. Seasonality of hemorrhagic fever among humans is influenced for the most part by the dynamics of infected arthropod or vertebrate hosts. Mammals, especially rodents, appear to be important natural hosts for many hemorrhagic fever viruses. The transmission cycle for each hemorrhagic fever virus is distinct and is dependent upon the characteristics of the primary vector species and the possibility for its contact with humans.

  19. Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The bumpy exterior of the turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) protein coat, or capsid, was defined in detail by Dr. Alexander McPherson of the University of California, Irvin using proteins crystallized in space for analysis on Earth. TYMV is an icosahedral virus constructed from 180 copies of the same protein arranged into 12 clusters of five proteins (pentamers), and 20 clusters of six proteins (hexamers). The final TYMV structure led to the unexpected hypothesis that the virus releases its RNA by essentially chemical-mechanical means. Most viruses have fairly flat coats, but in TYNV, the fold in each protein, called the jellyroll, is clustered at the points where the protein pentamers and hexamers join. The jellyrolls are almost standing on end, producing a bumpy surface with knobs at all of the pentamers and hexamers. At the inside surface of the pentamers is a void that is not present at the hexamers. The coating had been seen in early stuties of TYMV, but McPherson's atomic structure shows much more detail. The inside surface is strikingly, and unexpectedly, different than the outside. While the pentamers contain a central void on the inside, the hexameric units contain peptides linked to each other, forming a ring or, more accurately, rings to fill the void. Credit: Dr. Alexander McPherson, University of California, Irvine

  20. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2010-01-08

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  1. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    PubMed

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  2. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sung-Hou Kim

    2009-02-09

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy

  3. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    ScienceCinema

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2013-05-29

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

  4. Human Viruses and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2014-01-01

    The first human tumor virus was discovered in the middle of the last century by Anthony Epstein, Bert Achong and Yvonne Barr in African pediatric patients with Burkitt’s lymphoma. To date, seven viruses -EBV, KSHV, high-risk HPV, MCPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV1- have been consistently linked to different types of human cancer, and infections are estimated to account for up to 20% of all cancer cases worldwide. Viral oncogenic mechanisms generally include: generation of genomic instability, increase in the rate of cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, alterations in DNA repair mechanisms and cell polarity changes, which often coexist with evasion mechanisms of the antiviral immune response. Viral agents also indirectly contribute to the development of cancer mainly through immunosuppression or chronic inflammation, but also through chronic antigenic stimulation. There is also evidence that viruses can modulate the malignant properties of an established tumor. In the present work, causation criteria for viruses and cancer will be described, as well as the viral agents that comply with these criteria in human tumors, their epidemiological and biological characteristics, the molecular mechanisms by which they induce cellular transformation and their associated cancers. PMID:25341666

  5. From Shakespeare to Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Hou

    2009-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientists have created a unique new tool for analyzing and comparing long sets of data, be it the genomes of mammals or viruses, or the works of Shakespeare. The results of the Shakespeare analysis surprised scholars with their accuracy.

  6. Cold Facts about Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pea, Celeste; Sterling, Donna R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides ways for students to demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Describes a mini-unit around the cold in which students can relate humans to viruses. Includes activities and a modified simulation that provides questions to guide students. Discusses ways that allows students to apply prior knowledge, take ownership…

  7. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Alison W. S.; Williams, Timothy J.; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R. Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  8. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA.

  9. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  10. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Hayman, David T S; Luis, Angela D; Peel, Alison J; Plowright, Raina K; Wood, James L N

    2014-05-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host-virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  11. A vaccinia virus renaissance

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Paulo H.; Titong, Allison; Hagen, Caitlin J.

    2012-01-01

    In 1796, Edward Jenner introduced the concept of vaccination with cowpox virus, an Orthopoxvirus within the family Poxviridae that elicits cross protective immunity against related orthopoxviruses, including smallpox virus (variola virus). Over time, vaccinia virus (VACV) replaced cowpox virus as the smallpox vaccine, and vaccination efforts eventually led to the successful global eradication of smallpox in 1979. VACV has many characteristics that make it an excellent vaccine and that were crucial for the successful eradication of smallpox, including (1) its exceptional thermal stability (a very important but uncommon characteristic in live vaccines), (2) its ability to elicit strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, (3) the fact that it is easy to propagate, and (4) that it is not oncogenic, given that VACV replication occurs exclusively within the host cell cytoplasm and there is no evidence that the viral genome integrates into the host genome. Since the eradication of smallpox, VACV has experienced a renaissance of interest as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines, immunotherapies, and oncolytic therapies, as well as the development of next-generation smallpox vaccines. This revival is mainly due to the successful use and extensive characterization of VACV as a vaccine during the smallpox eradication campaign, along with the ability to genetically manipulate its large dsDNA genome while retaining infectivity and immunogenicity, its wide mammalian host range, and its natural tropism for tumor cells that allows its use as an oncolytic vector. This review provides an overview of new uses of VACV that are currently being explored for the development of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and oncolytic virotherapies. PMID:22777090

  12. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ishioka, Taisei; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Kimura, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma. PMID:24062735

  13. Neuroteratogenic Viruses and Lessons for Zika Virus Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed that Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. ZIKV now joins five other neuroteratogenic (NT) viruses in humans and ZIKV research is in its infancy. In addition, there is only one other NT human arbovirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), which is also poorly understood. But further insight into ZIKV can be found by evaluating arboviruses in domestic animals, of which there are at least seven NT viruses, three of which have been well studied. Here we review two key anatomical structures involved in modeling transplacental NT virus transmission: the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier. We then survey major research findings regarding transmission of NT viruses for guidance in establishing a mouse model of Zika disease that is crucial for a better understanding of ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis. PMID:27387029

  14. Neuroteratogenic Viruses and Lessons for Zika Virus Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed that Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. ZIKV now joins five other neuroteratogenic (NT) viruses in humans and ZIKV research is in its infancy. In addition, there is only one other NT human arbovirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), which is also poorly understood. But further insight into ZIKV can be found by evaluating arboviruses in domestic animals, of which there are at least seven NT viruses, three of which have been well studied. Here we review two key anatomical structures involved in modeling transplacental NT virus transmission: the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier. We then survey major research findings regarding transmission of NT viruses for guidance in establishing a mouse model of Zika disease that is crucial for a better understanding of ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis.

  15. Single Virus Genomics: A New Tool for Virus Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Lisa Zeigler; Ishoey, Thomas; Novotny, Mark A.; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Lasken, Roger S.; Williamson, Shannon J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called ‘Single Virus Genomics’, which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA). The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable. PMID:21436882

  16. Detection of sweet potato viruses in Yunnan and genetic diversity analysis of the common viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two hundred seventy-nine samples with virus-like symptoms collected from 16 regions in Yunnan Province were tested by RT-PCR/PCR using virus-specific primers for 8 sweet potato viruses. Six viruses, Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), Sweet Potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato ...

  17. Discrete virus infection model of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Min, Lequan; Pian, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    In 1996 Nowak and his colleagues proposed a differential equation virus infection model, which has been widely applied in the study for the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Biological dynamics may be described more practically by discrete events rather than continuous ones. Using discrete systems to describe biological dynamics should be reasonable. Based on one revised Nowak et al's virus infection model, this study introduces a discrete virus infection model (DVIM). Two equilibriums of this model, E1 and E2, represents infection free and infection persistent, respectively. Similar to the case of the basic virus infection model, this study deduces a basic virus reproductive number R0 independing on the number of total cells of an infected target organ. A proposed theorem proves that if the basic virus reproductive number R0<1 then the virus free equilibrium E1 is locally stable. The DVIM is more reasonable than an abstract discrete susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIRS) whose basic virus reproductive number R0 is relevant to the number of total cells of the infected target organ. As an application, this study models the clinic HBV DNA data of a patient who was accepted via anti-HBV infection therapy with drug lamivudine. The results show that the numerical simulation is good in agreement with the clinic data.

  18. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z < 3.5. The status of VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  19. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  20. The encephalomyocarditis virus

    PubMed Central

    Carocci, Margot; Bakkali-Kassimi, Labib

    2012-01-01

    The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only myocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. EMCV pathogenesis appears to be viral strain- and host-specific, and a better understanding of EMCV virulence factors is increasingly required. Indeed, EMCV is often used as a model for diabetes and viral myocarditis, and is also widely used in immunology as a double-stranded RNA stimulus in the study of Toll-like as well as cytosolic receptors. However, EMCV virulence and properties have often been neglected. Moreover, EMCV is able to infect humans albeit with a low morbidity. Progress on xenografts, such as pig heart transplantation in humans, has raised safety concerns that need to be explored. In this review we will highlight the biology of EMCV and all known and potential virulence factors. PMID:22722247

  1. The 2D {31P} Spin-Echo-Difference Constant-Time [13C, 1H]-HMQC Experiment for Simultaneous Determination of 3JH3‧P and 3JC4‧P in 13C-Labeled Nucleic Acids and Their Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyperski, Thomas; Fernández, César; Ono, Akira; Wüthrich, Kurt; Kainosho, Masatsune

    1999-10-01

    A two-dimensional {31P} spin-echo-difference constant-time [13C, 1H]-HMQC experiment (2D {31P}-sedct-[13C, 1H]-HMQC) is introduced for measurements of 3JC4‧P and 3JH3‧P scalar couplings in large 13C-labeled nucleic acids and in DNA-protein complexes. This experiment makes use of the fact that 1H-13C multiple-quantum coherences in macromolecules relax more slowly than the corresponding 13C single-quantum coherences. 3JC4‧P and 3JH3‧P are related via Karplus-type functions with the phosphodiester torsion angles β and ɛ, respectively, and their experimental assessment therefore contributes to further improved quality of NMR solution structures. Data are presented for a uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled 14-base-pair DNA duplex, both free in solution and in a 17-kDa protein-DNA complex.

  2. Cytomegalovirus: the stealth virus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sharon

    2016-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an infection, part of the herpes family of viruses which, if contracted during pregnancy, cancause devastating effects on the newborn baby. This article is written by the trustee of a volunteer-based charity, mostly run by mothers of CMV children, who are striving to raise awareness of this infection, which is more common than Down's syndrome, listeria and toxoplasmosis, and is theprimary preventable cause of childhood hearing loss.

  3. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Arthur

    2016-09-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of hepatitis C virus, focusing on transmission, prevention, screening, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:27595226

  5. Physical Studies on Pox Viruses

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, J. F.; Preiss, John W.; O'Loughlin, Jean

    1960-01-01

    Vaccinia virus was irradiated in vacuo with low-voltage electrons of restricted ranges. It was found that the pock-forming ability of the virus was not decreased after bombardment with electrons penetrating 100 A beneath the virus surface. There was very slight reduction in titer with large doses of electrons penetrating 330 A, but a sudden marked drop in infectivity occurred after exposure to electrons penetrating 500 to 700 A. Electrons of higher energies, including those capable of penetrating the virus particle completely, did not produce significant further fall in infectivity titer. It is concluded that a highly radiation-sensitive unit essential for pock formation is situated 500 to 700 A beneath the surface of the virus particle, possibly in the form of a shell. The relation of this finding to the known structure of the virus and to other radiation data on the dimensions of the infectious unit is discussed. PMID:13773839

  6. Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-01-01

    Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists.

  7. Principles of Virus Structural Organization

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, B.V. Venkataram; Schmid, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Viruses, the molecular nanomachines infecting hosts ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, come in different sizes, shapes and symmetries. Questions such as what principles govern their structural organization, what factors guide their assembly, how these viruses integrate multifarious functions into one unique structure have enamored researchers for years. In the last five decades, following Caspar and Klug's elegant conceptualization of how viruses are constructed, high resolution structural studies using X-ray crystallography and more recently cryo-EM techniques have provided a wealth of information on structures of variety of viruses. These studies have significantly furthered our understanding of the principles that underlie structural organization in viruses. Such an understanding has practical impact in providing a rational basis for the design and development of antiviral strategies. In this chapter, we review principles underlying capsid formation in a variety of viruses, emphasizing the recent developments along with some historical perspective. PMID:22297509

  8. Ebola Virus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kourtis, Athena P.; Appelgren, Kristie; Chevalier, Michelle S.; McElroy, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is one of the most deadly pathogens known to infect humans. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa is unprecedented in magnitude and duration and, as of November 30, 2014, shows no signs of abating. For the first time, cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in the US, originating from patients who traveled during the incubation period. The outbreak has generated worldwide concern. It is clear that U.S. physicians need to be aware of this disease, know when to consider Ebola and how to care for the patient as well as protect themselves. Children comprise a small percentage of all cases globally, likely because of their lower risk of exposure given social and cultural practices. Limited evidence is available on pediatric disease course and prognosis. In this article, we present an overview of the pathogen, its epidemiology and transmission, clinical and laboratory manifestations, treatment and infection control procedures, with an emphasis on what is known about Ebola virus disease in the pediatric population. PMID:25831417

  9. Detection of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Nagesh K; Shrivastava, Ambuj; Dash, Paban K; Jana, Asha M

    2011-01-01

    Global incidence of dengue has increased considerably over the past decade. Dengue fever (DF) is a self-limiting disease; however, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are fatal. Since there is no therapy and vaccine against dengue, timely diagnosis is therefore necessary for patient management. Laboratory diagnosis is carried out by virus isolation, demonstration of viral antigen, presence of viral nucleic acid, and antibodies. Further, recombinant dengue envelope protein can be used to detect specific antibodies, both IgG and IgM against all four serotypes of virus using an E. coli vector. The purified protein can then be used for detection of dengue specific IgG or IgM antibodies in patient serum with higher sensitivity and specificity, than that of traditional assays. Molecular detection can be accomplished by a one-step, single-tube, rapid, multiplex, RT-PCR for serotype determination. Despite many advantages of the modern techniques, isolation of virus is still considered as "gold-standard" in dengue diagnosis.

  10. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-08-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  11. Viral resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific pyridinone reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Nunberg, J H; Schleif, W A; Boots, E J; O'Brien, J A; Quintero, J C; Hoffman, J M; Emini, E A; Goldman, M E

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific pyridinone reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors prevent HIV-1 replication in cell culture (M. E. Goldman, J. H. Nunberg, J. A. O'Brien, J.C. Quintero, W. A. Schleif, K. F. Freund, S. L. Gaul, W. S. Saari, J. S. Wai, J. M. Hoffman, P. S. Anderson, D. J. Hupe, E. A. Emini, and A. M. Stern, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:6863-6867, 1991). In contrast to nucleoside analog inhibitors, such as AZT, which need to be converted to triphosphates by host cells, these compounds act directly to inhibit RT via a mechanism which is noncompetitive with respect to deoxynucleoside triphosphates. As one approach to define the mechanism of action of pyridinone inhibitors, we isolated resistant mutants of HIV-1 in cell culture. Serial passage in the presence of inhibitor yielded virus which was 1,000-fold resistant to compounds of this class. Bacterially expressed RTs molecularly cloned from resistant viruses were also resistant. The resistant RT genes encoded two amino acid changes, K-103 to N and Y-181 to C, each of which contributed partial resistance. The mutation at amino acid 181 lies adjacent to the conserved YG/MDD motif found in most DNA and RNA polymerases. The mutation at amino acid 103 lies within a region of RT which may be involved in PPi binding. The resistant viruses, although sensitive to nucleoside analogs, were cross-resistant to the structurally unrelated RT inhibitors TIBO R82150 (R. Pauwels, K. Andries, J. Desmyter, D. Schols, M. J. Kukla, H. J. Breslin, A. Raeymaeckers, J. Van Gelder, R. Woestenborghs, J. Heykanti, K. Schellekens, M. A. C. Janssen, E. De Clercq, and P. A. J. Janssen, Nature [London] 343:470-474, 1990) and BI-RG-587 (V. J. Merluzzi, K. D. Hargrave, M. Labadia, K. Grozinger, M. Skoog, J. C. Wu, C.-K. Shih, K. Eckner, S. Hattox, J. Adams, A. S. Rosenthal, R. Faanes, R. J. Eckner, R. A. Koup, and J. L. Sullivan, Science 250:1411-1413, 1990). Thus, these nonnucleoside analog inhibitors may share a

  12. Photoreactivation of a Cytoplasmic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferkorn, E. R.; Boyle, Mary K.

    1972-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-inactivated frog virus 3 is efficiently photoreactivated by chick embryo cells. A cellular enzyme is presumably responsible for this repair of viral deoxyribonucleic acid, for the phenomenon is insensitive to an inhibitor of protein synthesis and is not seen in mammalian cells that are known to lack photoreactivating enzyme. Since frog virus 3 is a cytoplasmic virus, functionally significant amounts of photoreactivating enzyme are probably present in the cytoplasm of chick embryo cells. PMID:5062749

  13. [Hemorrhagic fever viruses in Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Fontenille, D; Mathiot, C; Coulanges, P

    1988-01-01

    The authors remind, what are the viral haemorrhagic fevers, and explain the situation in Madagascar. The viruses of Crimée-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome are present in Madagascar. There is no real proof about the presence of Dengue viruses. The yellow fever viruses have never been stown off. It seems that there was not diagnosed outbreak of haemorrhagic fever, since the beginning of our century.

  14. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  15. Introducing Virological Concepts Using an Insect Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Roger F.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is presented which utilizes wax moth larvae in a laboratory investigation of an insect virus. Describes how an insect virus can be used to introduce undergraduate biology students to laboratory work on viruses and several virological concepts. (SA)

  16. Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... which viruses are selected for use in vaccine production? The influenza viruses in the seasonal flu vaccine ... to get a good vaccine virus for vaccine production? There are a number of factors that can ...

  17. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  18. Dengue Virus May Bolster Zika's Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... dengue fever virus may increase the severity of Zika virus, a new study says. Early stage laboratory findings ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Zika Virus Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Dengue ...

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  20. Emergence of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Webby, R J; Webster, R G

    2001-01-01

    Pandemic influenza in humans is a zoonotic disease caused by the transfer of influenza A viruses or virus gene segments from animal reservoirs. Influenza A viruses have been isolated from avian and mammalian hosts, although the primary reservoirs are the aquatic bird populations of the world. In the aquatic birds, influenza is asymptomatic, and the viruses are in evolutionary stasis. The aquatic bird viruses do not replicate well in humans, and these viruses need to reassort or adapt in an intermediate host before they emerge in human populations. Pigs can serve as a host for avian and human viruses and are logical candidates for the role of intermediate host. The transmission of avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses directly to humans during the late 1990s showed that land-based poultry also can serve between aquatic birds and humans as intermediate hosts of influenza viruses. That these transmission events took place in Hong Kong and China adds further support to the hypothesis that Asia is an epicentre for influenza and stresses the importance of surveillance of pigs and live-bird markets in this area. PMID:11779380

  1. Nuclear entry of DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    DNA viruses undertake their replication within the cell nucleus, and therefore they must first deliver their genome into the nucleus of their host cells. Thus, trafficking across the nuclear envelope is at the basis of DNA virus infections. Nuclear transport of molecules with diameters up to 39 nm is a tightly regulated process that occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Due to the enormous diversity of virus size and structure, each virus has developed its own strategy for entering the nucleus of their host cells, with no two strategies alike. For example, baculoviruses target their DNA-containing capsid to the NPC and subsequently enter the nucleus intact, while the hepatitis B virus capsid crosses the NPC but disassembles at the nuclear side of the NPC. For other viruses such as herpes simplex virus and adenovirus, although both dock at the NPC, they have each developed a distinct mechanism for the subsequent delivery of their genome into the nucleus. Remarkably, other DNA viruses, such as parvoviruses and human papillomaviruses, access the nucleus through an NPC-independent mechanism. This review discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms used by DNA viruses to deliver their genome into the nucleus, and further presents the experimental evidence for such mechanisms. PMID:26029198

  2. Review: influenza virus in pigs.

    PubMed

    Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology.

  3. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  4. Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus, but not vaccinia virus, require glycolysis for optimal replication.

    PubMed

    Findlay, James S; Ulaeto, David

    2015-09-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens which rely on the cell's machinery to produce the energy and macromolecules required for replication. Infection is associated with a modified metabolic profile and one pathway which can be modified is glycolysis. In this study, we investigated if the glycolysis pathway is required for alphavirus replication. Pre-treatment of Vero cells with three different glycolysis inhibitors (2-deoxyglucose, lonidamine and oxamate) resulted in a significant reduction (but not abrogation) of Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus replication, but not of the unrelated virus, vaccinia virus. Reduced virus yield was not associated with any significant cytotoxic effect and delayed treatment up to 3 h post-infection still resulted in a significant reduction. This suggested that glycolysis is required for optimal replication of alphaviruses by supporting post-entry life cycle steps.

  5. Structure of Flexible Filamentous Plant Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Amy; McDonald, Michele; Bian, Wen; Bowles, Timothy; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Shi, Jian; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Bullitt, Esther; Gore, David; Irving, Thomas C.; Havens, Wendy M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Wall, Joseph S.; Stubbs, Gerald

    2008-10-23

    Flexible filamentous viruses make up a large fraction of the known plant viruses, but in comparison with those of other viruses, very little is known about their structures. We have used fiber diffraction, cryo-electron microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy to determine the symmetry of a potyvirus, soybean mosaic virus; to confirm the symmetry of a potexvirus, potato virus X; and to determine the low-resolution structures of both viruses. We conclude that these viruses and, by implication, most or all flexible filamentous plant viruses share a common coat protein fold and helical symmetry, with slightly less than 9 subunits per helical turn.

  6. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  7. Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

  8. Uukuniemi Virus as a Tick-Borne Virus Model

    PubMed Central

    Mazelier, Magalie; Rouxel, Ronan Nicolas; Zumstein, Michael; Mancini, Roberta; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the last decade, novel tick-borne pathogenic phleboviruses in the family Bunyaviridae, all closely related to Uukuniemi virus (UUKV), have emerged on different continents. To reproduce the tick-mammal switch in vitro, we first established a reverse genetics system to rescue UUKV with a genome close to that of the authentic virus isolated from the Ixodes ricinus tick reservoir. The IRE/CTVM19 and IRE/CTVM20 cell lines, both derived from I. ricinus, were susceptible to the virus rescued from plasmid DNAs and supported production of the virus over many weeks, indicating that infection was persistent. The glycoprotein GC was mainly highly mannosylated on tick cell-derived viral progeny. The second envelope viral protein, GN, carried mostly N-glycans not recognized by the classical glycosidases peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and endoglycosidase H (Endo H). Treatment with β-mercaptoethanol did not impact the apparent molecular weight of GN. On viruses originating from mammalian BHK-21 cells, GN glycosylations were exclusively sensitive to PNGase F, and the electrophoretic mobility of the protein was substantially slower after the reduction of disulfide bonds. Furthermore, the amount of viral nucleoprotein per focus forming unit differed markedly whether viruses were produced in tick or BHK-21 cells, suggesting a higher infectivity for tick cell-derived viruses. Together, our results indicate that UUKV particles derived from vector tick cells have glycosylation and structural specificities that may influence the initial infection in mammalian hosts. This study also highlights the importance of working with viruses originating from arthropod vector cells in investigations of the cell biology of arbovirus transmission and entry into mammalian hosts. IMPORTANCE Tick-borne phleboviruses represent a growing threat to humans globally. Although ticks are important vectors of infectious emerging diseases, previous studies have mainly involved virus stocks

  9. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

  10. Emerging tomato viruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes crop losses worldwide. This tospovirus is well-known for disease epidemics in vegetable, ornamental and peanut crops in the southeastern U.S. Two other tospoviruses have recently emerged in south Florida. Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was first detected in ...

  11. Tobacco ringspot virus in Rubus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) has a broad host range among woody and perennial plants and has been reported from blackberry but not from red or black raspberry. The virus has been detected in blackberry in the southeastern United States with a single report from blackberry in British Columbia, Cana...

  12. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  13. Defining life: the virus viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism-the virus-producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  14. Ebola Virus-Related Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    de Greslan, Thierry; Billhot, Magali; Rousseau, Claire; Mac Nab, Christine; Karkowski, Ludovic; Cournac, Jean-Marie; Bordes, Julien; Gagnon, Nicolas; Dubrous, Philippe; Duron, Sandrine; Moroge, Sophie; Quentin, Benoit; Koulibaly, Fassou; Bompaire, Flavie; Renard, Jean-Luc; Cellarier, Gilles

    2016-10-15

    Ebola patients frequently exhibit behavioral modifications with ideation slowing and aggressiveness, sometimes contrasting with mild severity of Ebola disease. We performed lumbar punctures in 3 patients with this presentation and found Ebola virus in all cerebrospinal fluid samples. This discovery helps to discuss the concept of a specific Ebola virus encephalitis. PMID:27418576

  15. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  16. Paper Models Illustrating Virus Symmetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Instructions are given for constructing two models, one to illustrate the general principles of symmetry in T=1, T=3, and T=4 viruses, and the other to illustrate the disposition of protein subunits in the T=3 plant viruses and the picornaviruses. (Author/CW)

  17. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldufsky, Joe; Sivendran, Shanthi; Harcharik, Sara; Pan, Michael; Bernardo, Sebastian; Stern, Richard H; Friedlander, Philip; Ruby, Carl E; Saenger, Yvonne; Kaufman, Howard L

    2013-01-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers.

  18. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goldufsky, Joe; Sivendran, Shanthi; Harcharik, Sara; Pan, Michael; Bernardo, Sebastian; Stern, Richard H; Friedlander, Philip; Ruby, Carl E; Saenger, Yvonne; Kaufman, Howard L

    2013-01-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers. PMID:27512656

  19. Group 2 vaccinia virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil.

  20. West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P; Arroyo, J; Miller, C; Guirakhoo, F

    2001-05-01

    Within the past 5 years, West Nile encephalitis has emerged as an important disease of humans and horses in Europe. In 1999, the disease appeared for the first time in the northeastern United States. West Nile virus (a mosquito-borne flavivirus) has flourished in the North American ecosystem and is expected to expand its geographic range. In this review, the rationale for a human and veterinary vaccine is presented and a novel approach for rapid development of a molecularly-defined, live, attenuated vaccine is described. The technology (ChimeriVax) is applicable to the development of vaccines against all flaviviruses, and products against Japanese encephalitis (a close relative of West Nile) and dengue are in or are nearing clinical trials, respectively. ChimeriVax vaccines utilize the safe and effective vaccine against the prototype flavivirus -yellow fever 17D- as a live vector. Infectious clone technology is used to replace the genes encoding the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of yellow fever 17D vaccine with the corresponding genes of the target virus (e.g., West Nile). The resulting chimeric virus contains the antigens responsible for protection against West Nile but retains the replication efficiency of yellow fever 17D. The ChimeriVax technology is well-suited to the rapid development of a West Nile vaccine, and clinical trials could begin as early as mid-2002. Other approaches to vaccine development are briefly reviewed. The aim of this brief review is to describe the features of West Nile encephalitis, a newly introduced infectious disease affecting humans, horses and wildlife in the United States; the rationale for rapid development of vaccines; and approaches to the development of vaccines against the disease.

  1. New aspects of influenza viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, M W; Arden, N H; Maassab, H F

    1992-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality with a worldwide social and economic impact. The past five years have seen dramatic advances in our understanding of viral replication, evolution, and antigenic variation. Genetic analyses have clarified relationships between human and animal influenza virus strains, demonstrating the potential for the appearance of new pandemic reassortants as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes are exchanged in an intermediate host. Clinical trials of candidate live attenuated influenza virus vaccines have shown the cold-adapted reassortants to be a promising alternative to the currently available inactivated virus preparations. Modern molecular techniques have allowed serious consideration of new approaches to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines as the functions of the viral genes and proteins are further elucidated. The development of techniques whereby the genes of influenza viruses can be specifically altered to investigate those functions will undoubtedly accelerate the pace at which our knowledge expands. PMID:1310439

  2. Nonlytic spread of naked viruses.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara W; Kirkegaard, Karla

    2015-01-01

    How do viruses spread from cell to cell? Enveloped viruses acquire their surrounding membranes by budding: either through the plasma membrane or an internal membrane of infected cells. Thus, a newly budded enveloped virus finds itself either in the extracellular milieu or in a lumenal compartment from which it can exit the cell by conventional secretion. On the other hand, naked viruses such as poliovirus, nodavirus, adenovirus, and SV40 lack an external membrane. They are simply protein-nucleic acid complexes within the cytoplasm or nucleus of the infected cell, and thus would seem to have no other exit route than cell lysis. We have presented the first documentation of nonlytic spread of a naked virus, and showed the interconnections between this event and the process or components of the autophagy pathway. PMID:25680079

  3. Nonlytic spread of naked viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Sara W; Kirkegaard, Karla

    2015-01-01

    How do viruses spread from cell to cell? Enveloped viruses acquire their surrounding membranes by budding: either through the plasma membrane or an internal membrane of infected cells. Thus, a newly budded enveloped virus finds itself either in the extracellular milieu or in a lumenal compartment from which it can exit the cell by conventional secretion. On the other hand, naked viruses such as poliovirus, nodavirus, adenovirus, and SV40 lack an external membrane. They are simply protein-nucleic acid complexes within the cytoplasm or nucleus of the infected cell, and thus would seem to have no other exit route than cell lysis. We have presented the first documentation of nonlytic spread of a naked virus, and showed the interconnections between this event and the process or components of the autophagy pathway. PMID:25680079

  4. Movement of Viruses between Biomes

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Emiko; Carlson, Suzanne; Wegley, Linda; Rohwer, Forest

    2004-01-01

    Viruses are abundant in all known ecosystems. In the present study, we tested the possibility that viruses from one biome can successfully propagate in another. Viral concentrates were prepared from different near-shore marine sites, lake water, marine sediments, and soil. The concentrates were added to microcosms containing dissolved organic matter as a food source (after filtration to allow 100-kDa particles to pass through) and a 3% (vol/vol) microbial inoculum from a marine water sample (after filtration through a 0.45-μm-pore-size filter). Virus-like particle abundances were then monitored using direct counting. Viral populations from lake water, marine sediments, and soil were able to replicate when they were incubated with the marine microbes, showing that viruses can move between different ecosystems and propagate. These results imply that viruses can laterally transfer DNA between microbes in different biomes. PMID:15466522

  5. The ecology of Ebola virus.

    PubMed

    Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz; Strong, James E

    2007-09-01

    Since Ebola virus was first identified more than 30 years ago, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular biology and pathogenesis of this virus. However, the means by which Ebola virus is maintained and transmitted in nature remains unclear despite dedicated efforts to answer these questions. Recent work has provided new evidence that fruit bats might have a role as a reservoir species, but it is not clear whether other species are also involved or how transmission to humans or apes takes place. Two opposing hypotheses for Ebola emergence have surfaced; one of long-term local persistence in a cryptic and infrequently contacted reservoir, versus another of a more recent introduction of the virus and directional spread through susceptible populations. Nevertheless, with the increasing frequency of human filovirus outbreaks and the tremendous impact of infection on the already threatened great ape populations, there is an urgent need to better understand the ecology of Ebola virus in nature. PMID:17698361

  6. Biosensing with Virus Electrode Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Kritika; Penner, Reginald M.; Weiss, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Virus electrodes address two major challenges associated with biosensing. First, the surface of the viruses can be readily tailored for specific, high affinity binding to targeted biomarkers. Second, the viruses are entrapped in a conducting polymer for electrical resistance-based, quantitative measurement of biomarker concentration. To further enhance device sensitivity, two different ligands can be attached to the virus surface, and increase the apparent affinity for the biomarker. In the example presented here, the two ligands bind to the analyte in a bidentate binding mode with chelate-based avidity effect, and result in an 100 pM experimentally observed limit of detection for the cancer biomarker prostate-specific membrane antigen. The approach does not require enzymatic amplification, and allows reagent-free, real-time measurements. This article presents general protocols for the development of such biosensors with modified viruses for the enhanced detection of arbitrary target proteins. PMID:26344233

  7. [Classification of viruses by computer].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, O N; Andzhaparidze, O G; Kibardin, V M; Nazarova, G M; Pleteneva, E A

    1982-01-01

    The study used the information mass containing information on 83 viruses characterized by 41 markers. The suitability of one of the variants of cluster analysis for virus classification was demonstrated. It was established that certain stages of automatic allotment of viruses into groups by the degree of similarity of their properties end the formation of groups which consist of viruses sufficiently close to each other by their properties and are sufficiently isolated. Comparison of these groups with the classification proposed by the ICVT established their correspondence to individual families. Analysis of the obtained classification system permits sufficiently grounded conclusions to be drawn with regard to the classification position of certain viruses, the classification of which has not yet been completed by the ICVT.

  8. Marine Viruses: Truth or Dare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitbart, Mya

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, marine virology has progressed from a curiosity to an intensely studied topic of critical importance to oceanography. At concentrations of approximately 10 million viruses per milliliter of surface seawater, viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans. The majority of these viruses are phages (viruses that infect bacteria). Through lysing their bacterial hosts, marine phages control bacterial abundance, affect community composition, and impact global biogeochemical cycles. In addition, phages influence their hosts through selection for resistance, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of bacterial metabolism. Recent work has also demonstrated that marine phages are extremely diverse and can carry a variety of auxiliary metabolic genes encoding critical ecological functions. This review is structured as a scientific "truth or dare," revealing several well-established "truths" about marine viruses and presenting a few "dares" for the research community to undertake in future studies.

  9. Virus assembly, allostery, and antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Adam; Mukhopadhyay, Suchetana

    2010-01-01

    Assembly of virus capsids and surface proteins must be regulated to ensure that the resulting complex is an infectious virion. Here we examine assembly of virus capsids, focusing on hepatitis B virus and bacteriophage MS2, and formation of glycoproteins in the alphaviruses. These systems are structurally and biochemically well-characterized and are simplest-case paradigms of self-assembly. Published data suggest that capsid and glycoprotein assembly is subject to allosteric regulation, that is, regulation at the level of conformational change. The hypothesis that allostery is a common theme in viruses suggests that deregulation of capsid and glycoprotein assembly by small molecule effectors will be an attractive antiviral strategy, as has been demonstrated with hepatitis B virus. PMID:21163649

  10. The Acute bee paralysis virus-Kashmir bee virus-Israeli acute paralysis virus complex.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Joachim R; Cordoni, Guido; Budge, Giles

    2010-01-01

    Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV) and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) are part of a complex of closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae. These viruses have a widespread prevalence in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and a predominantly sub-clinical etiology that contrasts sharply with the extremely virulent pathology encountered at elevated titres, either artificially induced or encountered naturally. These viruses are frequently implicated in honey bee colony losses, especially when the colonies are infested with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. Here we review the historical and recent literature of this virus complex, covering history and origins; the geographic, host and tissue distribution; pathology and transmission; genetics and variation; diagnostics, and discuss these within the context of the molecular and biological similarities and differences between the viruses. We also briefly discuss three recent developments relating specifically to IAPV, concerning its association with Colony Collapse Disorder, treatment of IAPV infection with siRNA and possible honey bee resistance to IAPV.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Harry R.; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  12. Chikungunya virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sam, I-C; AbuBakar, S

    2006-06-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which causes epidemic fever, rash and polyarthralgia in Africa and Asia. Two outbreaks have been reported in Malaysia, in Klang, Selangor (1998) and Bagan Panchor, Perak (2006). It is not known if the outbreaks were caused by the recent introduction of CHIKV, or if the virus was already circulating in Malaysia. Seroprevalence studies from the 1960s suggested previous disease activity in certain parts of the country. In Asia, CHIKV is thought to be transmitted by the same mosquitoes as dengue, Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Due to similarities in clinical presentation with dengue, limited awareness, and a lack of laboratory diagnostic capability, CHIKV is probably often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as dengue. Treatment is supportive. The prognosis is generally good, although some patients experience chronic arthritis. With no vaccine or antiviral available, prevention and control depends on surveillance, early identification of outbreaks, and vector control. CHIKV should be borne in mind in sporadic cases, and in patients epidemiologically linked to ongoing local or international outbreaks or endemic areas.

  13. Dengue virus vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Yauch, Lauren E; Shresta, Sujan

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, causing hundreds of millions of infections each year. Infections range from asymptomatic to a self-limited febrile illness, dengue fever (DF), to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). The expanding of the habitat of DENV-transmitting mosquitoes has resulted in dramatic increases in the number of cases over the past 50 years, and recent outbreaks have occurred in the United States. Developing a dengue vaccine is a global health priority. DENV vaccine development is challenging due to the existence of four serotypes of the virus (DENV1-4), which a vaccine must protect against. Additionally, the adaptive immune response to DENV may be both protective and pathogenic upon subsequent infection, and the precise features of protective versus pathogenic immune responses to DENV are unknown, complicating vaccine development. Numerous vaccine candidates, including live attenuated, inactivated, recombinant subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines, are in various stages of clinical development, from preclinical to phase 3. This review will discuss the adaptive immune response to DENV, dengue vaccine challenges, animal models used to test dengue vaccine candidates, and historical and current dengue vaccine approaches.

  14. Hepatitis E virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Dalton, Harry R; Abravanel, Florence; Izopet, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a worldwide disease. An improved understanding of the natural history of HEV infection has been achieved within the last decade. Several reservoirs and transmission modes have been identified. Hepatitis E is an underdiagnosed disease, in part due to the use of serological assays with low sensitivity. However, diagnostic tools, including nucleic acid-based tests, have been improved. The epidemiology and clinical features of hepatitis E differ between developing and developed countries. HEV infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, but in developed countries it causes chronic infection with rapidly progressive cirrhosis in organ transplant recipients, patients with hematological malignancy requiring chemotherapy, and individuals with HIV. HEV also causes extrahepatic manifestations, including a number of neurological syndromes and renal injury. Acute infection usually requires no treatment, but chronic infection should be treated by reducing immunosuppression in transplant patients and/or the use of antiviral therapy. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the current knowledge about the virus itself, as well as the epidemiology, diagnostics, natural history, and management of HEV infection in developing and developed countries. PMID:24396139

  15. Comparison of Immunohistochemistry and Virus Isolation for Diagnosis of West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Angela E.; Mead, Daniel G.; Allison, Andrew B.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Gottdenker, Nicole L.; Stallknecht, David E.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry and virus isolation were performed on 1,057 birds. Immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, or both found 325 birds to be West Nile virus positive. Of these, 271 were positive by both methods. These results indicate that virus isolation and immunohistochemistry are approximately equal in their ability to detect West Nile virus. PMID:15956415

  16. Genome Sequence of Bivens Arm Virus, a Tibrovirus Belonging to the Species Tibrogargan virus (Mononegavirales: Rhabdoviridae)

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Lisa E.

    2015-01-01

    The new rhabdoviral genus Tibrovirus currently has two members, Coastal Plains virus and Tibrogargan virus. Here, we report the coding-complete genome sequence of a putative member of this genus, Bivens Arm virus. A genomic comparison reveals Bivens Arm virus to be closely related to, but distinct from, Tibrogargan virus. PMID:25792044

  17. A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. While investigating virus-invertebrate host interactions we found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), were unable to infect certain Lepido...

  18. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  19. Sequence-specific interactions between a cellular DNA-binding protein and the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Traut, W.; Fanning, E.

    1988-02-01

    The core origin of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication is composed of a 64-base-pair sequence encompassing T-antigen-binding site II and adjacent sequences on either side. A 7-base-pair sequence to the early side of T-antigen-binding site II which is conserved among the papovavirus genomes SV40, BK, JC and SA12 was recently shown to be part of a 10-base-pair sequence required for origin activity, but its functional role was not defined. In the present report, the authors used gel retention assays to identify a monkey cell factor that interacts specifically with double-stranded DNA carrying this sequence and also binds to single-stranded DNA. DNA-protein complexes formed with extracts from primate cells are more abundant and display electrophoretic mobilities distinct from those formed with rodent cell extracts. The binding activity of the factor on mutant templates is correlate with the replication activity of the origin. The results suggest that the monkey cell factor may be involved in SV40 DNA replication.

  20. Influenza: a virus of our times

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Conall

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are successful and omnipresent. Influenza A is a particularly important virus of humans. The article reviews the 2009 emergence of the pandemic influenza A virus, focusing on the potential origin of the virus and the distinctive clinical and epidemiological impact of the 2009 pandemic. PMID:21116418

  1. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  2. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Savidis, George; Perreira, Jill M; Portmann, Jocelyn M; Meraner, Paul; Guo, Zhiru; Green, Sharone; Brass, Abraham L

    2016-06-14

    Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.

  3. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  4. Viruses and interactomes in translation.

    PubMed

    Meyniel-Schicklin, Laurène; de Chassey, Benoît; André, Patrice; Lotteau, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    A decade of high-throughput screenings for intraviral and virus-host protein-protein interactions led to the accumulation of data and to the development of theories on laws governing interactome organization for many viruses. We present here a computational analysis of intraviral protein networks (EBV, FLUAV, HCV, HSV-1, KSHV, SARS-CoV, VACV, and VZV) and virus-host protein networks (DENV, EBV, FLUAV, HCV, and VACV) from up-to-date interaction data, using various mathematical approaches. If intraviral networks seem to behave similarly, they are clearly different from the human interactome. Viral proteins target highly central human proteins, which are precisely the Achilles' heel of the human interactome. The intrinsic structural disorder is a distinctive feature of viral hubs in virus-host interactomes. Overlaps between virus-host data sets identify a core of human proteins involved in the cellular response to viral infection and in the viral capacity to hijack the cell machinery for viral replication. Host proteins that are strongly targeted by a virus seem to be particularly attractive for other viruses. Such protein-protein interaction networks and their analysis represent a powerful resource from a therapeutic perspective.

  5. Virus infection and knee injury.

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, P; Venner, R; Clements, G B

    1987-01-01

    Serological evidence of virus infection was sought in 31 consecutive patients presenting with knee swelling and compared with age/sex-matched controls. In a normal age/sex-matched control group, 42% of patients had evidence of recent or past infection with Coxsackie B virus, emphasising the care required in the evaluation of the significance of Coxsackie B neutralization titres in individual patients. Of 12 patients presenting with knee swelling and a history of a twisting injury, eight had serological evidence of recent or past infection with Coxsackie B virus, and one had evidence of a current adenovirus infection. PMID:2825728

  6. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Kristina Maria; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV) is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems. PMID:27338448

  7. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus (XMRV) Backgrounder

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have not found evidence that XMRV causes any diseases in humans or in animals. The presence of an infectious agent, such as a virus, in diseased tissue does not mean that the agent causes the disease.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis of viruses, subviral particles and virus complexes.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Leopold; Bilek, Gerhard; Blaas, Dieter; Kenndler, Ernst

    2007-07-01

    CZE and CIEF were so far applied to the analysis of tobacco mosaic virus, Semliki forest virus, human rhinovirus, adenovirus, norovirus and the bacteriophages T5 and MS2. The concentration of viral or subviral particles, of capsid proteins and viral genomes were determined, their electrophoretic mobilities and pI values were measured and bioaffinity reactions between viruses and antibodies, antibody fragments and receptor fragments were assessed. The role of detergents added to the BGE to obtain reproducible electrophoretic conditions was elucidated. The analytes were detected via their UV-absorbance or via fluorescence after derivatization of the viral capsid, the nucleic acid, or both. A new dimension to the detection is added by the possibility of making use of the viral infectivity. At least in theory, this allows for the unequivocal identification of a single infectious virus particle after collection at the capillary outlet. This review summarizes the 25 papers so far published on this topic.

  9. Virus isolation for diagnosing dengue virus infections in returning travelers.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, D; Göbels, K; Niedrig, M; Sim-Brandenburg, J-W; Làge-Stehr, J; Grobusch, M P

    2003-11-01

    Dengue fever is recognized as one of the most frequent imported acute febrile illnesses affecting European tourists returning from the tropics. In order to assess the value of virus isolation for the diagnosis of dengue fever, 70 cases of dengue fever confirmed in German travelers during the period 1993-2001 were analyzed retrospectively. In 26 patients who had developed acute febrile illness within 2 weeks following their return from a trip to a dengue-endemic area, 9 of 13 attempts to isolate the virus were successful in sera drawn 1-5 days and 2 of 13 sera drawn 6-10 days after the onset of illness. DEN-1 was the most frequent serotype isolated. If performed early, virus isolation is a reliable tool for detecting dengue virus in returning travelers.

  10. Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Razonable, Raymund R.

    2011-01-01

    Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-α and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess anti–human immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID

  11. Cucumber mosaic virus, a model for RNA virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, M J

    2001-03-01

    Summary Taxonomic relationships: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is the type member of the Cucumovirus genus, in the family Bromoviridae. Additional members of the genus are Peanut stunt virus (PSV) and Tomato aspermy virus (TAV). The RNAs 3 of all members of the genus can be exchanged and still yield a viable virus, while the RNAs 1 and 2 can only be exchanged within a species. Physical properties: The virus particles are about 29 nm in diameter, and are composed of 180 subunits (T = 3 icosahedral symmetry). The particles sediment with an s value of approximately 98. The virions contain 18% RNA, and are highly labile, relying on RNA-protein interactions for their integrity. The three genomic RNAs, designated RNA 1 (3.3 kb in length), RNA 2 (3.0 kb) and RNA 3 (2.2 kb) are packaged in individual particles; a subgenomic RNA, RNA 4 (1.0 kb), is packaged with the genomic RNA 3, making all the particles roughly equivalent in composition. In some strains an additional subgenomic RNA, RNA 4A is also encapsidated at low levels. The genomic RNAs are single stranded, plus sense RNAs with 5' cap structures, and 3' conserved regions that can be folded into tRNA-like structures. Satellite RNAs: CMV can harbour molecular parasites known as satellite RNAs (satRNAs) that can dramatically alter the symptom phenotype induced by the virus. The CMV satRNAs do not encode any proteins but rely on the RNA for their biological activity. Hosts: CMV infects over 1000 species of hosts, including members of 85 plant families, making it the broadest host range virus known. The virus is transmitted from host to host by aphid vectors, in a nonpersistent manner. Useful web sites: http://mmtsb.scripps.edu/viper/1f15.html (structure); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ICTVdb/ICTVdB/10040001.htm (general information).

  12. Characterization of Sepik and Entebbe bat viruses closely related to yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Goro; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2006-12-01

    Yellow fever virus has a special place in medical history as the first animal virus isolated and as the prototype virus in the genus Flavivirus, which contains many serious human pathogens. Only recently, its closely related viruses within the group were identified phylogenetically. In this study, we obtained complete or near complete genome sequences of two viruses most closely related to yellow fever virus: Sepik virus of Papua New Guinea and Entebbe bat virus of Africa. Based on full-genomic characterization and genomic traits among related viruses, we identified Sepik virus to be most closely related to yellow fever virus and analyzed the pattern of repeat and conserved sequence motifs in the 3'-noncoding region among the members of yellow fever virus cluster. We also discuss the geographic dispersal as a part of ecological traits of this lineage of flaviviruses.

  13. Zika virus infections.

    PubMed

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976

  14. West Nile virus meningoencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasi, Roberta L.; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Since its first appearance in the US in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as the most common cause of epidemic meningoencephalitis in North America. In the 6 years following the 1999 outbreak, the geographic range and burden of the disease in birds, mosquitoes and humans has greatly expanded to include the 48 contiguous US and 7 Canadian provinces, as well as Mexico, the Caribbean islands and Colombia. WNV has shown an increasing propensity for neuroinvasive disease over the past decade, with varied presentations including meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Although neuroinvasive disease occurs in less than 1% of infected individuals, it is associated with high mortality. From 1999–2005, more than 8,000 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported in the US, resulting in over 780 deaths. In this review, we discuss epidemiology, risk factors, clinical features, diagnosis and prognosis of WNV meningoencephalitis, along with potential treatments. PMID:16932563

  15. Junin virus structural proteins.

    PubMed Central

    De Martínez Segovia, Z M; De Mitri, M I

    1977-01-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified Junin virus revealed six distinct structural polypeptides, two major and four minor ones. Four of these polypeptides appeared to be covalently linked with carbohydrate. The molecular weights of the six proteins, estimated by coelectrophoresis with marker proteins, ranged from 25,000 to 91,000. One of the two major components (number 3) was identified as a nucleoprotein and had a molecular weight of 64,000. It was the most prominent protein and was nonglycosylated. The other major protein (number 5), with a molecular weight of 38,000, was a glucoprotein and a component of the viral envelope. The location on the virion of three additional glycopeptides with molecular weights of 91,000, 72,000, and 52,000, together with a protein with a molecular weight of 25,000, was not well defined. PMID:189088

  16. Zika virus infections.

    PubMed

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives.

  17. Varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed Central

    Arvin, A M

    1996-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Varicella is a common childhood illness, characterized by fever, viremia, and scattered vesicular lesions of the skin. As is characteristic of the alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in cells of the dorsal root ganglia. Herpes zoster, caused by VZV reactivation, is a localized, painful, vesicular rash involving one or adjacent dermatomes. The incidence of herpes zoster increases with age or immunosuppression. The VZV virion consists of a nucleocapsid surrounding a core that contains the linear, double-stranded DNA genome; a protein tegument separates the capsid from the lipid envelope, which incorporates the major viral glycoproteins. VZV is found in a worldwide geographic distribution but is more prevalent in temperate climates. Primary VZV infection elicits immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies, which bind to many classes of viral proteins. Virus-specific cellular immunity is critical for controlling viral replication in healthy and immunocompromised patients with primary or recurrent VZV infections. Rapid laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of varicella or herpes zoster, which can be accomplished by detecting viral proteins or DNA, is important to determine the need for antiviral therapy. Acyclovir is licensed for treatment of varicella and herpes zoster, and acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are approved for herpes zoster. Passive antibody prophylaxis with varicella-zoster immune globulin is indicated for susceptible high-risk patients exposed to varicella. A live attenuated varicella vaccine (Oka/Merck strain) is now recommended for routine childhood immunization. PMID:8809466

  18. Novel vaccines against influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Compans, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Killed and live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are effective in preventing and curbing the spread of influenza epidemics when the strains present in the vaccines are closely matched with the predicted epidemic strains. These vaccines are primarily targeted to induce immunity to the variable major target antigen, hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus. However, current vaccines are not effective in preventing the emergence of new pandemic or highly virulent viruses. New approaches are being investigated to develop universal influenza virus vaccines as well as to apply more effective vaccine delivery methods. Conserved vaccine targets including the influenza M2 ion channel protein and HA stalk domains are being developed using recombinant technologies to improve the level of cross protection. In addition, recent studies provide evidence that vaccine supplements can provide avenues to further improve current vaccination. PMID:21968298

  19. Zika virus: An international emergency?

    PubMed

    Palomo, Adolfo Martinez

    2016-05-01

    This Viewpoint discusses the World Health Organization's Declaration on 1 February 2016 that the epidemic infection caused by the Zika virus is a public health emergency of international concern - the basis of the decision and controversy surrounding it.

  20. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  1. Viruses of eukaryotice green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of our research was to develop the Chlorella-PBCV-1 virus system so that it can be used as a model system for studying gene expression in a photosynthetic eukaryote. We have made considerable progress and have learned much about PBCV-1 and its replication cycle. In addition, several significant discoveries were made in the last 3 to 4 years. These discoveries include: (i) the finding that morphologically similar, plaque forming, dsDNA containing viruses are common in nature and can be isolated readily from fresh water, (ii) the finding that all of these Chlorella viruses contain methylated bases which range in concentration from 0.1% to 47.5% m{sup 5}dC and 0 to 37% m{sup 6}dA and (iii) the discovery that infection with at least some of these viruses induces the appearance of DNA modification/restriction systems. 26 refs.

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, eyes, and mouth. This is a life-threatening infection that can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Herpes simplex viruses also cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. ...

  3. Arthropod viruses and small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Vijayendran, Diveena; Airs, Paul M; Dolezal, Kelly; Bonning, Bryony C

    2013-10-01

    The recently characterized small RNAs provide a new paradigm for physiological studies. These molecules have been shown to be integral players in processes as diverse as development and innate immunity against bacteria and viruses in eukaryotes. Several of the well-characterized small RNAs including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and PIWI-interacting RNAs are emerging as important players in mediating arthropod host-virus interactions. Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems. PMID:23932976

  4. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  5. An overview of Chikungunya virus.

    PubMed

    Busch, Mitchell; Erickson, Gerald

    2015-10-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral infection caused by the Chikungunya virus that causes abrupt onset of fever, debilitating arthralgias and myalgias, and some rare but serious atypical presentations in infected patients. This mosquito-borne virus may not be familiar to North American healthcare providers. This article describes the causes, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic and screening measures, management guidelines, and future research prospects for Chikungunya infection.

  6. A DNA Virus of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the viruses infecting most species. Even in groups as well-studied as Drosophila, only a handful of viruses have been well-characterized. A viral metagenomic approach was used to explore viral diversity in 83 wild-caught Drosophila innubila, a mushroom feeding member of the quinaria group. A single fly that was injected with, and died from, Drosophila C Virus (DCV) was added to the sample as a control. Two-thirds of reads in the infected sample had DCV as the best BLAST hit, suggesting that the protocol developed is highly sensitive. In addition to the DCV hits, several sequences had Oryctes rhinoceros Nudivirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, as a best BLAST hit. The virus associated with these sequences was termed Drosophila innubila Nudivirus (DiNV). PCR screens of natural populations showed that DiNV was both common and widespread taxonomically and geographically. Electron microscopy confirms the presence of virions in fly fecal material similar in structure to other described Nudiviruses. In 2 species, D. innubila and D. falleni, the virus is associated with a severe (∼80–90%) loss of fecundity and significantly decreased lifespan. PMID:22053195

  7. Another really, really big virus.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, James L

    2011-01-01

    Viruses with genomes larger than 300 kb and up to 1.2 Mb, which encode hundreds of proteins, are being discovered and characterized with increasing frequency. Most, but not all, of these large viruses (often referred to as giruses) infect protists that live in aqueous environments. Bioinformatic analyses of metagenomes of aqueous samples indicate that large DNA viruses are quite common in nature and await discovery. One issue that is perhaps not appreciated by the virology community is that large viruses, even those classified in the same family, can differ significantly in morphology, lifestyle, and gene complement. This brief commentary, which will mention some of these unique properties, was stimulated by the characterization of the newest member of this club, virus CroV (Fischer, M.G.; Allen, M.J.; Wilson, W.H.; Suttle, C.A. Giant virus with a remarkable complement of genes infects marine zooplankton. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 19508-19513). CroV has a 730 kb genome (with ∼544 protein-encoding genes) and infects the marine microzooplankton Cafeteria roenbergensis producing a lytic infection.

  8. Kinetics of virus production from single cells.

    PubMed

    Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2012-03-01

    The production of virus by infected cells is an essential process for the spread and persistence of viral diseases, the effectiveness of live-viral vaccines, and the manufacture of viruses for diverse applications. Yet despite its importance, methods to precisely measure virus production from cells are lacking. Most methods test infected-cell populations, masking how individual cells behave. Here we measured the kinetics of virus production from single cells. We combined simple steps of liquid-phase infection, serial dilution, centrifugation, and harvesting, without specialized equipment, to track the production of virus particles from BHK cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. Remarkably, cell-to-cell differences in latent times to virus release were within a factor of two, while production rates and virus yields spanned over 300-fold, highlighting an extreme diversity in virus production for cells from the same population. These findings have fundamental and technological implications for health and disease.

  9. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  10. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  11. Methods for engineering resistance to plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Sudarshana, Mysore R; Roy, Gourgopal; Falk, Bryce W

    2007-01-01

    The development of genetically engineered resistance to plant viruses is a result of efforts to understand the plant-virus interactions involved in "crossprotection," a phenomenon observed with several plant virus diseases. Historically, expression of the coat protein gene of Tobacco mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants is the first example of transgene-mediated resistance to a plant virus. Subsequently, virus-derived sequences of several plant viruses were shown to confer virus resistance in experimental and/or natural hosts. For plant RNA viruses, virus complementary DNA sequences shown to confer resistance include wild-type genes, mutated genes that produced truncated protein products, and nontranslatable sense or antisense transcripts to various regions of the virus genome. Resistance also has been demonstrated for some viruses by mutant trans-dominant gene products, derived from the movement protein and replication-associated protein genes. In addition to virus-derived sequences, gene sequences of plant origin have also been used for transgenic resistance, and such resistance can be virus-specific, for instance, R genes isolated from resistant plant genotypes, or nonspecific, for example, ribosome inactivating proteins and proteinase inhibitors. Plantibodies and 2-5A synthetase, a class of proteins of mammalian origin, have also been useful in engineering plant virus resistance. In the case of transgenic resistance mediated by viral coat protein, the mechanism of resistance was suggested to operate during the early events of virus infection. However, transgene-mediated RNA silencing and generation of small interfering RNAs appears to be the primary mechanism that confers resistance to plant viruses. Despite the advantages of transgene-mediated resistance, current interest in the development and use of transgenic virus resistant plants is low in most parts of the world. However, because of its real potential, we believe that this

  12. Emerging influenza viruses and the prospect of a universal influenza virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Florian

    2015-05-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual seasonal epidemics and pandemics at irregular intervals. Several cases of human infections with avian and swine influenza viruses have been detected recently, warranting enhanced surveillance and the development of more effective countermeasures to address the pandemic potential of these viruses. The most effective countermeasure against influenza virus infection is the use of prophylactic vaccines. However, vaccines that are currently in use for seasonal influenza viruses have to be re-formulated and re-administered in a cumbersome process every year due to the antigenic drift of the virus. Furthermore, current seasonal vaccines are ineffective against novel pandemic strains. This paper reviews zoonotic influenza viruses with pandemic potential and technological advances towards better vaccines that induce broad and long lasting protection from influenza virus infection. Recent efforts have focused on the development of broadly protective/universal influenza virus vaccines that can provide immunity against drifted seasonal influenza virus strains but also against potential pandemic viruses.

  13. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-06-11

    Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  14. Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A.; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F.; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A.; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C.; Smith, Derek J.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited higher pathogenicity in mice and ferrets than an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

  15. Zika Virus Infection and Zika Fever: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updated: 25 March 2016 ABOUT ZIKA What is Zika virus infection? Zika virus infection is caused by the ... possible to characterize the disease better. How is Zika virus transmitted? Zika virus is transmitted to people through ...

  16. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando-Pérez, M.; Cartagena-Rivera, A. X.; Lošdorfer Božič, A.; Carrillo, P. J. P.; San Martín, C.; Mateu, M. G.; Raman, A.; Podgornik, R.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of

  17. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Mehle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

  18. Cell entry of enveloped viruses.

    PubMed

    Cosset, François-Loic; Lavillette, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Enveloped viruses penetrate their cell targets following the merging of their membrane with that of the cell. This fusion process is catalyzed by one or several viral glycoproteins incorporated on the membrane of the virus. These envelope glycoproteins (EnvGP) evolved in order to combine two features. First, they acquired a domain to bind to a specific cellular protein, named "receptor." Second, they developed, with the help of cellular proteins, a function of finely controlled fusion to optimize the replication and preserve the integrity of the cell, specific to the genus of the virus. Following the activation of the EnvGP either by binding to their receptors and/or sometimes the acid pH of the endosomes, many changes of conformation permit ultimately the action of a specific hydrophobic domain, the fusion peptide, which destabilizes the cell membrane and leads to the opening of the lipidic membrane. The comprehension of these mechanisms is essential to develop medicines of the therapeutic class of entry inhibitor like enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this chapter, we will summarize the different envelope glycoprotein structures that viruses develop to achieve membrane fusion and the entry of the virus. We will describe the different entry pathways and cellular proteins that viruses have subverted to allow infection of the cell and the receptors that are used. Finally, we will illustrate more precisely the recent discoveries that have been made within the field of the entry process, with a focus on the use of pseudoparticles. These pseudoparticles are suitable for high-throughput screenings that help in the development of natural or artificial inhibitors as new therapeutics of the class of entry inhibitors.

  19. Marek's disease virus latency.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R W; Xie, Q; Cantello, J L; Miles, A M; Bernberg, E L; Kent, J; Anderson, A

    2001-01-01

    MDV latency is defined as the persistence of the viral genome in the absence of production of infectious virus except during reactivation. A number of systems for studying MDV latency exist, and most involve the use of lymphoblastoid cells or tumors. It has been difficult to divorce latency and transformation. Understanding the relationship between these two states remains a major challenge for the MDV system. Based on their patterns of expression, the MDV LATs are apt to be important in the balance between latent and lytic infections. The LATs are a complex group of transcripts. The profile of gene expression that characterizes latency differs among all herpesviruses, and MDV is no exception. MDV LATs bear little resemblance to LATs of other alphaherpesviruses or to the LATs of other lymphotropic herpesviruses. LAT splicing patterns are complex and the relationships among various spliced species or between these species and the large 10-kb transcript are unknown. In addition, the existence of any protein gene products of significance is unknown at this time. More work is needed to further investigate the significance and function of these RNAs. Better technology to construct mutants in the MDV system is badly needed, since the analysis of mutants in the chicken is a powerful and unique advantage of the MDV system. PMID:11217424

  20. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160