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Sample records for polyurethane channel system

  1. Properties of Multiphase Polyurethane Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    polyurethane blend systems. --- ’ ET-38-1 is a polyether based polyurethane containing 38 wt% MDI. The molar ratios of the polymer are 3:2:1 (MDI: butane...a well-mixed PVC- polyether matrix phase as evidenced by T shifts, orientation characteristics, and infrared peak position changes. The aromatic...methods used in this study. B. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION \\Studies on blends of a segmented polyether polyurethane ET-38-1 with PVC were carried out utilizing

  2. Experimental polyurethane foam roof systems, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alumbaugh, R. L.; Keeton, J. R.; Humm, E. F.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental roofing installation is described in which polyurethane foam (PUF) was spray-applied directly to metal Butlerib-type metal decks, the roof divided into five approximately equal areas, and the PUF protected with five different elastomeric coating systems. Three of the coating systems were damaged by hailstones about a year after installation; these systems were recoated within 3 years of the initial installation. The current coatings include two of the original coating systems - a plural component silicone and a single component silicone - and those applied over the three systems damaged by hail - a single component silicone, an aluminum filled, hydrocarbon-extended catalyzed urethane, and a catalyzed urethane. The performance of these five PUF systems over a 7-year period is reported. The temperature distributions throughout the roof systems are described. The decay in the thermal conductivity of the PUF roof over a 5-year period is presented, and the energy savings realized by foaming the roof are presented.

  3. Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, R.L.; Thomas, E.V.

    1995-04-01

    EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.

  4. Reticulation of Aqueous Polyurethane Systems Controlled by DSC Method

    PubMed Central

    Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Rajkovic, Milos B.; Raskovic, Ljiljana; Stamenkovic, Jakov

    2006-01-01

    The DSC method has been employed to monitor the kinetics of reticulation of aqueous polyurethane systems without catalysts, and with the commercial catalyst of zirconium (CAT®XC-6212) and the highly selective manganese catalyst, the complex Mn(III)-diacetylacetonemaleinate (MAM). Among the polyol components, the acrylic emulsions were used for reticulation in this research, and as suitable reticulation agents the water emulsible aliphatic polyisocyanates based on hexamethylendoisocyanate with the different contents of NCO-groups were employed. On the basis of DSC analysis, applying the methods of Kissinger, Freeman-Carroll and Crane-Ellerstein the pseudo kinetic parameters of the reticulation reaction of aqueous systems were determined. The temperature of the examination ranged from 50°C to 450°C with the heat rate of 0.5°C/min. The reduction of the activation energy and the increase of the standard deviation indicate the catalytic action of the selective catalysts of zirconium and manganese. The impact of the catalysts on the reduction of the activation energy is the strongest when using the catalysts of manganese and applying all the three afore-said methods. The least aberrations among the stated methods in defining the kinetic parameters were obtained by using the manganese catalyst.

  5. Fabrication of polyurethane and polyurethane based composite fibres by the electrospinning technique for soft tissue engineering of cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kucinska-Lipka, J; Gubanska, I; Janik, H; Sienkiewicz, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning is a unique technique, which provides forming of polymeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering, which include tissue scaffolds for soft tissues of the cardiovascular system. Such artificial soft tissues of the cardiovascular system may possess mechanical properties comparable to native vascular tissues. Electrospinning technique gives the opportunity to form fibres with nm- to μm-scale in diameter. The arrangement of obtained fibres and their surface determine the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Polyurethanes (PUs) are being commonly used as a prosthesis of cardiovascular soft tissues due to their excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity, elasticity and mechanical properties. PUs also possess fine spinning properties. The combination of a variety of PU properties with an electrospinning technique, conducted at the well tailored conditions, gives unlimited possibilities of forming novel polyurethane materials suitable for soft tissue scaffolds applied in cardiovascular tissue engineering. This paper can help researches to gain more widespread and deeper understanding of designing electrospinable PU materials, which may be used as cardiovascular soft tissue scaffolds. In this paper we focus on reagents used in PU synthesis designed to increase PU biocompatibility (polyols) and biodegradability (isocyanates). We also describe suggested surface modifications of electrospun PUs, and the direct influence of surface wettability on providing enhanced biocompatibility of scaffolds. We indicate a great influence of electrospinning parameters (voltage, flow rate, working distance) and used solvents (mostly DMF, THF and HFIP) on fibre alignment and diameter - what impacts the biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of such electrospun PU scaffolds. Moreover, we present PU modifications with natural polymers with novel approach applied in electrospinning of PU scaffolds. This work may contribute with further developing of novel electrospun PUs, which may be

  6. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  7. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  8. Designed drug-release systems having various breathable polyurethane film-backed hydrocolloid acrylated adhesive layers for moisture healing.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Hsien; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Huang, Ching-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A series of designed drug-release systems were prepared and established for clear moisture healing. These systems were designed to have an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structure, which contained a breathable polyurethane film, hydrocolloidlayer, and polyacrylate adhesive layer. Breathable polyurethane film (2000 g/m(2)/24 hr) with high moisture permeability was employed as a base for new drug-release systems or wound dressings. All drug-release systems having a polyurethane film-backed hydrocolloid acrylated adhesive layer showed an increase of water uptakes with increasing time. After 114 hours, high water uptakes of drug-release systems with 20% hydrocolloid components were observed in the values of 160, 1100, and 1870% for different additional hydrocolloid components of carboxymethylcellulose, sodium alginate, and carbomer U10, respectively. New drug-release systems of polyurethane film-backed hydrocolloid/adhesive layers could be designed and established for wound care managements.

  9. Active Debris Removal System Based on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzitelli, Federico; Valdatta, Marcelo; Bellini, Niccolo; Candini Gian, Paolo; Rastelli, Davide; Romei, Fedrico; Locarini, Alfredo; Spadanuda, Antonio; Bagassi, Sara

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an increasing problem. The exponential increase of satellite launches in the last 50 years has determined the problem of space debris especially in LEO. The remains of past missions are dangerous for both operative satellites and human activity in space. But not only: it has been shown that uncontrolled impacts between space objects can lead to a potentially dangerous situation for civil people on Earth. It is possible to reach a situation of instability where the big amount of debris could cause a cascade of collisions, the so called Kessler syndrome, resulting in the infeasibility of new space missions for many generations. Currently new technologies for the mitigation of space debris are under study: for what concerning the removal of debris the use of laser to give a little impulse to the object and push it in a graveyard orbit or to be destroyed in the atmosphere. Another solution is the use of a satellite to rendezvous with the space junk and then use a net to capture it and destroy it in the reentry phase. In a parallel way the research is addressed to the study of deorbiting solutions to prevent the formation of new space junk. The project presented in this paper faces the problem of how to deorbit an existing debris, applying the studies about the use of polyurethane foam developed by Space Robotic Group of University of Bologna. The research is started with the Redemption experiment part of last ESA Rexus program. The foam is composed by two liquid components that, once properly mixed, trig an expansive reaction leading to an increase of volume whose entity depends on the chemical composition of the two starting components. It is possible to perform two kind of mission: 1) Not controlled removal: the two components are designed to react producing a low density, high expanded, spongy foam that incorporates the debris. The A/m ratio of the debris is increased and in this way also the ballistic parameter. As a consequence, the effect of

  10. Experimental polyurethane foam roof systems - II. Technical note Oct 75-Jul 81

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, R.L.; Keeton, J.R.; Humm, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental roofing installation is described in which polyurethane foam (PUF) was spray-applied directly to metal Butlerib-type metal decks, the roof divided into five approximately equal areas, and the PUF protected with five different elastomeric coating systems. Three of the coating systems were damaged by hailstones about a year after installation; these systems were recoated within 3 years of the initial installation. The current coatings include two of the original coating systems - a plural component silicone and a single component silicone - and those applied over the three systems damaged by hail - a single component silicone, an aluminum filled, hydrocarbon-extended catalyzed urethane, and a catalyzed urethane. The performance of these five PUF systems over a 7-year period is reported. The temperature distributions throughout the roof systems are described. The decay in the thermal conductivity of the PUF roof over a 5-year period is presented, and the energy savings realized by foaming the roof are presented.

  11. A three channel telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesho, Jeffery C.; Eaton, Harry A. C.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel telemetry system intended for biomedical applications is described. The transmitter is implemented in a single chip using a 2 micron BiCMOS processes. The operation of the system and the test results from the latest chip are discussed. One channel is always dedicated to temperature measurement while the other two channels are generic. The generic channels carry information from transducers that are interfaced to the system through on-chip general purpose operational amplifiers. The generic channels have different bandwidths: one from dc to 250 Hz and the other from dc to 1300 Hz. Each generic channel modulates a current controlled oscillator to produce a frequency modulated signal. The two frequency modulated signals are summed and used to amplitude modulate the temperature signal which acts as a carrier. A near-field inductive link telemeters the combined signals over a short distance. The chip operates on a supply voltage anywhere from 2.5 to 3.6 Volts and draws less than 1 mA when transmitting a signal. The chip can be incorporated into ingestible, implantable and other configurations. The device can free the patient from tethered data collection systems and reduces the possibility of infection from subcutaneous leads. Data telemetry can increase patient comfort leading to a greater acceptance of monitoring.

  12. Effects of Polyurethane Foams on Microbial Growth in Fuel-Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, J. J.

    1969-01-01

    Four, open-cell, ester-base polyurethane foams were examined for their effect on growth of fuel-utilizing organisms in jet fuel-water systems. Three foams contained a potential biocide, tetraethylthiuram E (0.66%), sodium omadine (0.07%), or zinc omadine (0.07%), all w/v. These were compared with a control foam which did not contain an additive. Each foam was examined in fuel-water systems containing JP-4 fuel, JP-4 fuel plus 0.1% anti-icing additive (AIA), or JP-5 fuel. Pure cultures of a fuel-grown bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and of a fuel-grown fungus, Hormodendrum (Cladosporium) sp., served as test organisms. In control cultures without foam and in cultures containing control foam, P. aeruginosa achieved maximum stationary-phase populations of approximately 108 viable cells per ml, and Hormodendrum sp. produced an extensive mycelial mat. In the three fuel systems examined, tetraethylthiuram E- and sodium omadine-containing foams had little effect on growth of the bacterium; foam with zinc omadine decreased the rate of bacterial growth but had little effect on total populations. Tetraethylthiuram E decreased the rate of fungal growth and showed its greatest effect in JP-4 plus AIA. Foam with sodium omadine or zinc omadine markedly decreased fungal growth in all three fuel systems. The data suggest that either sodium omadine or zinc omadine in polyurethane foam may be a useful antifungal agent; and that tetraethylthiuram E and AIA could exert a synergistic effect, particularly at AIA concentrations which have been reported to occur in some field situations. Images PMID:16349836

  13. A new three-dimensional culture system for hepatocytes using reticulated polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Ochiya, T; Yasuda, Y; Matsubara, K

    1994-04-01

    Poly-N-para-vinylbenzyl-lactonamide (PVLA)-coated reticulated polyurethane (PVLA-RPU) has been employed for the long-term maintenance of primary rat hepatocyte cultures. After 3 days of incubation of 2 x 10(7) hepatocytes/cm3 embedded in PVLA-RPU discs and kept in culture medium, most cells showed typical hepatocyte morphology, with some bile canaliculus-like intercellular spaces among the hepatocytes on examination with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The cells were attached to the surface of the PVLA-RPU and formed multicellular spheroids in the reticulated pores. The hepatocytes maintained various liver-specific functions such as albumin secretion, ammonium metabolism, urea synthesis and gluconeogenesis, and they were viable. The liver-specific functions could be maintained for more than 1 month when the cells were kept in the rats' peritoneal cavities. This new system may be useful as a bioreactor for an artificial liver.

  14. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  15. Measurement of the responses of polyurethane and CONFOR(TM) foams and the development of a system identification technique to estimate polyurethane foam parameters from experimental impulse responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Vaidyanadan

    Flexible polyurethane foam is the main cushioning element used in car seats. Optimization of an occupied seat's static and dynamic behavior requires models of foam that are accurate over a wide range of excitation and pre-compression conditions. Experiments were conducted to measure the response of foam over a wide range of excitation which include slowly varying uniaxial compression tests on a 3 inch cube foam sample, base excitation and impulse excitation test on a foam-mass system. The foam used was the same in all of the experiments, thus obtaining all the responses on the same foam sample which helps eliminate the sample to sample variation. Similar efforts were taken to conduct impulse and base excitation tests on CONFOR(TM) foam to help in future modeling efforts of CONFOR(TM) foam. All the experimental protocols and data pre-processing protocols along with results are presented. Previous researcher developed a linear model for a single-degree of freedom foam-mass system subjected to an impulsive excitation. Free response data from impulse tests on a foam-mass system with different masses was used to identify model parameters at various pre-compression levels (settling points). The free response of the system was modeled as a Prony series (sum of exponentials) whose parameters can be related to the parameters in the foam-mass system model. Models identified from tests at one settling point performed poorly when used to predict the response at other settling points. In this research, a method is described to estimate the parameters of a global model of the foam behavior from data gathered in a series of impulse tests at different settling points. The global model structure includes a nonlinear elastic term and a hereditary viscoelastic term. The model can be used to predict the settling point for each mass used and, by expanding the model about that settling point, local linear models of the response to impulsive excitation can be derived. From this analysis

  16. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  17. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  18. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  19. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  20. Road Maintenance Experience Using Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization as Ground Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhar, A. M. M.; Asmaniza, A.

    2016-07-01

    There are many types of ground rehabilation and improvement that can be consider and implement in engineering construction works for soil improvement in order to prevent road profile deformation in later stage. However, when comes to road maintenance especially on operated expressways, not all method can be apply directly as it must comply to opreation's working window and lane closure basis. Key factors that considering ideal proposal for ground rehabilitation are time, cost, quality and most importantly practicality. It should provide long lifespan structure in order to reduce continuous cycle of maintenance. Thus, this paper will present two approaches for ground rehabilitation, namely Polyurethane (PU) Foam Injection System and Geocrete Soil Stabilization. The first approach is an injection system which consists two-parts chemical grout of Isocynate and Polyol when mixed together within soil structure through injection will polymerized with volume expansion. The strong expansion of grouting causes significant compression and compacting of the surrounding soil and subsequently improve ground properties and uplift sunken structure. The later is a cold in-place recyclying whereby mixture process that combines in-situ soil materials, cement, white powder (alkaline) additive and water to produce hard yet flexible and durable ground layer that act as solid foundation with improved bearing capacity. The improvement of the mechanical behaviour of soil through these two systems is investigated by an extensive testing programme which includes in-situ and laboratory test in determining properties such as strength, stiffness, compressibility, bearing capacity, differential settlement and etc.

  1. Disulfide cross-linked polyurethane micelles as a reduction-triggered drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangjiang; Ding, Jianxun; He, Chaoliang; Cao, Yue; Xu, Weiguo; Chen, Xuesi

    2014-05-01

    Nanoscale carriers that stably load drugs in blood circulation and release the payloads in desirable sites in response to a specific trigger are of great interest for smart drug delivery systems. For this purpose, a novel type of disulfide core cross-linked micelles, which are facilely fabricated by cross-linking of poly(ethylene glycol)/polyurethane block copolymers containing cyclic disulfide moieties via a thiol-disulfide exchange reaction, are developed. A broad-spectrum anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), is loaded into the micelles as a model drug. The drug release from the core cross-linked polyurethane micelles (CCL-PUMs) loaded with DOX is suppressed in normal phosphate buffer saline (PBS), whereas it is markedly accelerated with addition of an intracellular reducing agent, glutathione (GSH). Notably, although DOX-loaded CCL-PUMs display lower cytotoxicity in vitro compared to either free DOX or DOX-loaded uncross-linked polyurethane micelles, the drug-loaded CCL-PUMs show the highest anti-tumor efficacy with reduced toxicity in vivo. Since enhanced anti-tumor efficacy and reduced toxic side effects are key aspects of efficient cancer therapy, the novel reduction-responsive CCL-PUMs may hold great potential as a bio-triggered drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  2. Evaluation of DNA damage and cytotoxicity of polyurethane-based nano- and microparticles as promising biomaterials for drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caon, Thiago; Zanetti-Ramos, Betina Giehl; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Cloutet, Eric; Cramail, Henri; Borsali, Redouane; Soldi, Valdir; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    The in vitro cytotoxicity and DNA damage evaluation of biodegradable polyurethane-based micro- and nanoparticles were carried out on animal fibroblasts. For cytotoxicity measurement and primary DNA damage evaluation, MTT and Comet assays were used, respectively. Different formulations were tested to evaluate the influence of chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of particles on cell toxicity. No inhibition of cells growth surrounding the polyurethane particles was observed. On the other hand, a decrease of cell viability was verified when the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as droplets stabilizer of monomeric phase. Polyurethane nanoparticles stabilized with Tween 80 and Pluronic F68 caused minor cytotoxic effects. These results indicated that the surface charge plays an important role on cytotoxicity. Particles synthesized from MDI displayed a higher cytotoxicity than those synthesized from IPDI. Size and physicochemical properties of the particles may explain the higher degree of DNA damage produced by two tested formulations. In this way, a rational choice of particles' constituents based on their cytotoxicity and genotoxicity could be very useful for conceiving biomaterials to be used as drug delivering systems.

  3. Quantifying segmental dynamics of model poly(urethane urea) systems using computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantawansri, Tanya L.; Sliozberg, Yelena R.; Hsieh, Alex J.; Riggleman, Robert A.

    2013-03-01

    The segmental dynamics of an elastomer has been shown to play an important role in high strain-rate mechanical deformation, where published research results suggest that the response can be tailored to transition from the glassy regime into the rubbery-like regime with increasing strain rate, whereby stress levels may be greatly enhanced and large energy dissipation mechanisms can be realized. Even so, the link between segmental dynamics and morphology of the microstructure during deformation is not fully understood. To study the effect of microstructure on the segmental dynamics, we have used coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the bond autocorrelation function for model poly(urethane urea) (PUU) systems during high-strain rate deformation and for the undeformed state. From the bond autocorrelation function we extracted an effective relaxation time, which was used to quantify the relative change in the segmental dynamics. We have found that the microstructure of PUU plays a critical role in its segmental dynamics, which suggests that elastomers with tunable microstructures can be developed to exhibit a broad range of dynamic impact relaxation characteristics.

  4. Preparation and characterization of naproxen-loaded electrospun thermoplastic polyurethane nanofibers as a drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Akduman, Cigdem; Özgüney, Işık; Kumbasar, E Perrin Akcakoca

    2016-07-01

    The design and production of drug-loaded nanofiber based materials produced by electrospinning is of interest for use in innovative drug delivery systems. In the present study, ultra-fine fiber mats of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) containing naproxen (NAP) were successfully prepared by electrospinning from 8 and 10% (w/w) TPU solutions. The amount of NAP in the solutions was 10 and 20% based on the weight of TPU. The collection period of the drug-loaded electrospun TPU fibers was 5, 10 and 20h, and they were characterized by FTIR, DSC and TGA analysis. The morphology of the NAP-loaded electrospun TPU fiber mats was smooth, and the average diameters of these fibers varied between 523.66 and 723.50nm. The release characteristics of these fiber mats were determined by the total immersion method in the phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. It was observed that the collection period in terms of the mat thickness played a major role in the release rate of NAP from the electrospun TPU mats.

  5. Spiking neural P systems with multiple channels.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Yang, Jinyu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Sun, Zhang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiangnian

    2017-11-01

    Spiking neural P systems (SNP systems, in short) are a class of distributed parallel computing systems inspired from the neurophysiological behavior of biological spiking neurons. In this paper, we investigate a new variant of SNP systems in which each neuron has one or more synaptic channels, called spiking neural P systems with multiple channels (SNP-MC systems, in short). The spiking rules with channel label are introduced to handle the firing mechanism of neurons, where the channel labels indicate synaptic channels of transmitting the generated spikes. The computation power of SNP-MC systems is investigated. Specifically, we prove that SNP-MC systems are Turing universal as both number generating and number accepting devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly fluorinated polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, E. C., Jr.; Rochow, S. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    New polyurethanes containing a high degree of fluorine atoms are reported. The presence of the fluorine atoms in the polyurethane resins provides material having good thermal stability and chemical resistance. These polyurethanes are derived from a new hydroxy-terminated perfluoro polyether. The hydroxy terminated material is reacted with a diisocyanate to produce the polyurethanes. The polyurethanes can be used to form seals, coatings, potting material, hoses and the like.

  7. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Monique N.; Coetzee, William A.

    2015-01-01

    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. PMID:26660852

  8. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Foster, Monique N; Coetzee, William A

    2016-01-01

    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. 3D bioprinting of neural stem cell-laden thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane hydrogel and potential in central nervous system repair.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Lin, Hsin-Hua; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2015-12-01

    The 3D bioprinting technology serves as a powerful tool for building tissue in the field of tissue engineering. Traditional 3D printing methods involve the use of heat, toxic organic solvents, or toxic photoinitiators for fabrication of synthetic scaffolds. In this study, two thermoresponsive water-based biodegradable polyurethane dispersions (PU1 and PU2) were synthesized which may form gel near 37 °C without any crosslinker. The stiffness of the hydrogel could be easily fine-tuned by the solid content of the dispersion. Neural stem cells (NSCs) were embedded into the polyurethane dispersions before gelation. The dispersions containing NSCs were subsequently printed and maintained at 37 °C. The NSCs in 25-30% PU2 hydrogels (∼680-2400 Pa) had excellent proliferation and differentiation but not in 25-30% PU1 hydrogels. Moreover, NSC-laden 25-30% PU2 hydrogels injected into the zebrafish embryo neural injury model could rescue the function of impaired nervous system. However, NSC-laden 25-30% PU1 hydrogels only showed a minor repair effect in the zebrafish model. In addition, the function of adult zebrafish with traumatic brain injury was rescued after implantation of the 3D-printed NSC-laden 25% PU2 constructs. Therefore, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique involving NSCs embedded in the thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane ink offers new possibilities for future applications of 3D bioprinting in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studying Ionic Channels as Physical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2000-03-01

    Ionic channels are proteins with holes down their middle that act as gatekeepers for cells by controlling flow of ions across otherwise insulating membranes. Ionic channels are a large class of proteins of great biological/clinical importance, investigated in hundreds of laboratories every day. The techniques of molecular biology allow channel proteins to be studied easily one molecule at a time, with knowledge and control of the location of charges of the protein in several favorable cases. Once open, channels have simple unchanging structure. Ionic channels are a biological system of considerable importance that can be studied as a physical system of known structure. The natural function of channels is to pass current, driven by gradients of concentration and electrical potential across the membrane. Ions diffuse in electric fields created by the protein and neighboring charges. A simple mean field theory of electrostatics and electrodiffusion using Poisson and Nernst-Planck (diffusion) equations fits a wide range of data from many channel types, provided the protein is described as a distribution of fixed charge, not as a fixed profile of potential or as rate constants. These PNP equations can be generalized to deal with chemical specificity and selectivity. Some ionic channels preferentially conduct a particular type of ion (e.g., Ca) even in the presence of large excess of other ions. If ions and charges of the active site of the channel are described as spheres, using the mean spherical approximation of physical chemistry, the excluded volume of the ions and active site account quantitatively for the excess free energy and thus selectivity of the channel. The PNP equations are nearly the Poisson drift diffusion equations of semiconductor physics. They are a nonequilibrium and highly nonlinear system, easily solved by Gummel iteration, that describe (with one set of parameters) a variety of different physical devices. They also describe ionic channels.

  11. BK Channels in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Contet, C.; Goulding, S. P.; Kuljis, D. A.; Barth, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK) channels are widely distributed in the postnatal central nervous system (CNS). BK channels play a pleiotropic role in regulating the activity of brain and spinal cord neural circuits by providing a negative feedback mechanism for local increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. In neurons, they regulate the timing and duration of K+ influx such that they can either increase or decrease firing depending on the cellular context, and they can suppress neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals. In addition, BK channels located in astrocytes and arterial myocytes modulate cerebral blood flow. Not surprisingly, both loss and gain of BK channel function have been associated with CNS disorders such as epilepsy, ataxia, mental retardation, and chronic pain. On the other hand, the neuroprotective role played by BK channels in a number of pathological situations could potentially be leveraged to correct neurological dysfunction. PMID:27238267

  12. Multi-channel automotive night vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  13. Multi-channel gas-delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenzon, Yan; Trujillo, Robert T.; Beese, Steven C.

    2016-09-13

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a gas-delivery system for delivering reaction gas to a reactor chamber. The gas-delivery system includes a main gas-inlet port for receiving reaction gases and a gas-delivery plate that includes a plurality of gas channels. A gas channel includes a plurality of gas holes for allowing the reaction gases to enter the reactor chamber from the gas channel. The gas-delivery system further includes a plurality of sub-gas lines coupling together the main gas-inlet port and the gas-delivery plate, and a respective sub-gas line is configured to deliver a portion of the received reaction gases to a corresponding gas channel.

  14. Isothermal aging of three polyurethane elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Guess, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Two polyurethane systems, EN-7 and L-100, have a long history as encapsulants and coatings in Sandia programs. These materials contain significant amounts of toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a suspect human carcinogen. As part of efforts to reduce the use of hazardous materials in the workplace, PET-90A, a polyurethane with less than 0.1% free TDI, was identified as a candidate for new applications and as a replacement for the more hazardous polyurethanes in selected programs. This report documents the results of a two-year accelerated aging study of PET-90A, EN-7, and L-100 polyurethane elastomers to characterize the effect of 135{degrees}F isothermal aging on selected physical, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. In general, there was very little change in properties over the two year period for the three elastomers. The largest changes occurred in EN-7, which is the polyurethane with the longest service history in Sandia applications.

  15. Comparison of solvent/derivatization agent systems for determination of extractable toluene diisocyanate from flexible polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Vangronsveld, Erik; Berckmans, Steven; Spence, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Flexible polyurethane foam (FPF) is produced from the reaction of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyols. Limited and conflicting results exist in the literature concerning the presence of unreacted TDI remaining in FPF as determined by various solvent extraction and analysis techniques. This study reports investigations into the effect of several solvent/derivatization agent combinations on extractable TDI results and suggests a preferred method. The suggested preferred method employs a syringe-based multiple extraction of foam samples with a toluene solution of 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine. Extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography using an ion trap mass spectrometry detection technique. Detection limits of the method are ~10ng TDI g(-1) foam (10 ppb, w/w) for each TDI isomer (i.e. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI). The method was evaluated by a three-laboratory interlaboratory comparison using two representative foam samples. The total extractable TDI results found by the three labs for the two foams were in good agreement (relative standard deviation of the mean of 30-40%). The method has utility as a basis for comparing FPFs, but the interpretation of extractable TDI results using any solvent as the true value for 'free' or 'unreacted' TDI in the foam is problematic, as demonstrated by the difference in the extracted TDI results from the different extraction systems studied. Further, a consideration of polyurethane foam chemistry raises the possibility that extractable TDI may result from decomposition of parts of the foam structure (e.g. dimers, biurets, and allophanates) by the extraction system.

  16. Washing Off Polyurethane Foam Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Fogel, Irving

    1990-01-01

    Jet of hot water removes material quickly and safely. Simple, environmentally sound technique found to remove polyurethane foam insulation from metal parts. Developed for (but not limited to) use during rebuilding of fuel system of Space Shuttle main engine, during which insulation must be removed for penetrant inspection of metal parts.

  17. Open-celled polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foam has a density of 8.3 pounds per cubic foot and a compressive strength of 295 to 325 psi. It is useful as a porous spacer in layered insulation and as an insulation material in vacuum tight systems.

  18. System Description for the K-25/K-27 D&D Project Polyurethane Foam Delivery System, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, G.

    2008-02-21

    The Foam Delivery System used in the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project for the K-25/K-27 Buildings at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) is comprised of a trailer-mounted Gusmer{reg_sign} H20/35 Pro-TEC Proportioning Unit and the associated equipment to convey electrical power, air, and foam component material to the unit. This high-pressure, plural-component polyurethane foam pouring system will be used to fill process gas and non-process equipment/piping (PGE/P) within the K-25/K-27 Buildings with polyurethane foam to immobilize contaminants prior to removal. The system creates foam by mixing isocyanate and polyol resin (Resin) component materials. Currently, the project plans to utilize up to six foaming units simultaneously during peak foaming activities. Also included in this system description are the foam component material storage containers that will be used for storage of the component material drums in a staging area outside of the K-25/K-27 Buildings. The Foam Delivery System and foam component material storage enclosures (i.e., Foaming Component Protective Enclosures) used to store polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI) component material are identified as Safety Significant (SS) Structures, Systems and Components (SSC) in the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) for the project, Documented Safety Analysis for the K-25 and K-27 Facilities at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, DSA-ET-K-25/K-27-0001.

  19. A multi-channel waveform digitizer system

    SciTech Connect

    Bieser, F.; Muller, W.F.J. )

    1990-04-01

    The authors report on the design and performance of a multichannel waveform digitizer system for use with the Multiple Sample Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) Detector at the Bevalac. 128 channels of 20 MHz Flash ADC plus 256 word deep memory are housed in a single crate. Digital thresholds and hit pattern logic facilitate zero suppression during readout which is performed over a standard VME bus.

  20. Novel Polyurethane Matrix Systems Reveal a Particular Sustained Release Behavior Studied by Imaging and Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Campiñez, María Dolores; Caraballo, Isidoro; Puchkov, Maxim; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data. The obtained results showed that the polymers exhibited a surprisingly high ability for controlling drug release at low excipient concentrations (only 10% w/w of excipient controlled the release of drug during almost 8 h). The mesoscopic in silico model helped to reveal how the novel biopolymers were controlling drug release. The mechanism was found to be a special geometrical arrangement of the excipient particles, creating an almost continuous barrier surrounding the drug in a very effective way, comparable to lipid or waxy excipients but with the advantages of a much higher compactability, stability, and absence of excipient polymorphism.

  1. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Zuo, Yi; Zhao, Minghui; Jiang, Jiaxing; Man, Yi; Wu, Jun; Hu, Yunjiu; Liu, Changlei; Li, Yubao; Li, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU)-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3) and 5 wt% (PU5) concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1) and AH Plus (positive control) against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great application potential in the field of root canal fillings. PMID:25653518

  2. Highly fluorinated polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, E. C., Jr.; Rochow, S. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The reaction perfluorinated hydroxyl terminated polyether with diisocyanate to form polyurethane is discussed. Data are given on the resin's oxidation stability, chemical resistance, and low temperature flexibility.

  3. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xi-Lang

    2008-10-01

    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  4. Channel simulation for optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is reported for simulating the signal fading that will be experienced by typical optical communication systems. The desired irradiance or amplitude fading statistics can be simulated by incorporating a linearized optical modulator subsystem between the transmitter and receiver. This technique has been implemented in the design and construction of a laboratory channel simulator. The design of the processing electronics is discussed along with the results of tests performed for each mode of operation.

  5. Single-channel prototype terahertz endoscopic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil; Giles, Robert

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate the design and development of an innovative single-channel terahertz (THz) prototype endoscopic imaging system based on flexible metal-coated THz waveguides and a polarization specific detection technique. The continuous-wave (CW) THz imaging system utilizes a single channel to transmit and collect the reflected intrinsic THz signal from the sample. Since the prototype system relies on a flexible waveguide assembly that is small enough in diameter, it can be readily integrated with a conventional optical endoscope. This study aims to show the feasibility of waveguide enabled THz imaging. We image various objects in transmission and reflection modes. We also image normal and cancerous colonic tissues in reflectance mode using a polarization specific imaging technique. The resulting cross-polarized THz reflectance images showed contrast between normal and cancerous colonic tissues at 584 GHz. The level of contrast observed using endoscopic imaging correlates well with contrast levels observed in ex vivo THz reflectance studies of colon cancer. This indicates that the single-channel flexible waveguide-based THz endoscope presented here represents a significant step forward in clinical endoscopic application of THz technology to aid in in vivo cancer screening.

  6. Novel polymer electrolytes based on thermoplastic polyurethane and ionic liquid/lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/propylene carbonate salt system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavall, R. L.; Ferrari, S.; Tomasi, C.; Marzantowicz, M.; Quartarone, E.; Magistris, A.; Mustarelli, P.; Lazzaroni, S.; Fagnoni, M.

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared from thermoplastic polyurethane with addition of mixture of ionic liquid N-ethyl(methylether)-N-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonimmide (PYRA 12O1TFSI), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfoneimide) salt and propylene carbonate. The electrolytes characterization was performed by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties were investigated in detail by impedance spectroscopy with the aid of equivalent circuit fitting of the impedance spectra. A model describing temperature evolution of ionic conductivity and the properties of electrolyte/blocking electrode interface was developed. The electrochemical stability of the electrolytes was studied by linear voltammetry. Our results indicate that the studied electrolytes have good self-standing characteristics, and also a sufficient level of thermal stability and a fairly good electrochemical window. The ionic conductivity increases with increasing amount of mixture, and the character of temperature dependence of conductivity indicates decoupling of ion transport from polymer matrix. For studied system, the highest value of ionic conductivity measured at room temperature was 10 -4 S cm -1.

  7. Marine biofouling resistance of polyurethane with biodegradation and hydrolyzation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Ma, Chunfeng; Ma, Jielin; Gan, Tiansheng; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2014-03-26

    We have prepared polyurethane with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) as the segments of the main chain and poly(triisopropylsilyl acrylate) (PTIPSA) as the side chains by a combination of radical polymerization and a condensation reaction. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation studies show that polyurethane can degrade in the presence of enzyme and the degradation rate decreases with the PTIPSA content. Our studies also demonstrate that polyurethane is able to hydrolyze in artificial seawater and the hydrolysis rate increases as the PTIPSA content increases. Moreover, hydrolysis leads to a hydrophilic surface that is favorable to reduction of the frictional drag under dynamic conditions. Marine field tests reveal that polyurethane has good antifouling ability because polyurethane with a biodegradable PCL main chain and hydrolyzable PTIPSA side chains can form a self-renewal surface. Polyurethane was also used to carry and release a relatively environmentally friendly antifoulant, and the combined system exhibits a much higher antifouling performance even in a static marine environment.

  8. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V.

    2016-05-03

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in a subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  9. Multi-channel medical imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-12-31

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and fluorescent images. The system may employ dyes in a small-molecule form that remain in the subject's blood stream for several minutes, allowing real-time imaging of the subject's circulatory system superimposed upon a conventional, visible light image of the subject. The system may provide an excitation light source to excite the fluorescent substance and a visible light source for general illumination within the same optical guide used to capture images. The system may be configured for use in open surgical procedures by providing an operating area that is closed to ambient light. The systems described herein provide two or more diagnostic imaging channels for capture of multiple, concurrent diagnostic images and may be used where a visible light image may be usefully supplemented by two or more images that are independently marked for functional interest.

  10. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  11. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  12. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-15

    temperature using a color change temperature indicator tape and using an Infrared (IR) pyrometer . Based on the flow of compound during welding, it is...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Seaman Corporation,1000 Venture...congressionally mandated research project was undertaken to study polyurethane coated fabric systems and fabrication processes that are or may be used, in

  13. Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.

    PubMed

    Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g.

  14. 16. VIEW NORTH FROM SWINGSPAN DECK, CHANNEL OPEN, FENDER SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW NORTH FROM SWING-SPAN DECK, CHANNEL OPEN, FENDER SYSTEM AND ABUTMENT ON CHANNEL END OF NORTHERN FIXED SPAN; new bridge located on right - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  15. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  16. The Discovery Channel Telescope optical coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Heather K.; Ash, Gary S.; Parsley, William F.

    2010-07-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a project of Lowell Observatory, undertaken with support from Discovery Communications, Inc., to design and construct a 4-meter class telescope and support facility on a site approximately 40 miles southeast of Flagstaff, AZ. Lowell Observatory contracted with Dynavac of Hingham, MA to design and build an optical coating system for the DCT optics. The DCT Optical Coating System includes a mechanical roughing pump, two high-vacuum cryogenic pumps, a Meissner trap, evaporative filament aluminum deposition system, LabView software and PLC-based control system, and all ancillary support equipment. The system was installed at the site and acceptance testing was completed in October 2009. The Optical Coating System achieved near perfect reflectivity performance, thickness uniformity of 1000 angstroms +/-10%, and adhesion conforming to MIL-F-48616, Section 4.6.8.1. This paper discusses the design and analysis of the coating system, the process of transportation and assembly as well as testing results.

  17. A 1000+ channel bionic communication system.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Joseph H; Mobley, J Phil; Wolfe, James; Stover, Howard; Krag, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The wireless electronic nervous system interface known as the functional electrical stimulation-battery powered bion system is being developed at the Alfred Mann Foundation. It contains a real-time propagated wave micro-powered multichannel communication system. This system is designed to send bi-directional messages between an external master controller unit (MCU), and each one of a group of injectable stimulator-sensor battery powered bion implants (BPB). The system is capable of communicating in each direction about 90 times per second using a structure of 850 time slots within a repeating 11 millisecond time window. The system's total Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communication capability is about 77,000 two-way communications per second on a single 5 MHz wide radio channel. Each time slot can be used by one BPB, or shared alternately by two or more BPBs. Each bidirectional communication consists of a 15 data bit message sent from the MCU sequentially to each BPB and 10 data bit message sent sequentially from each BPB to the MCU. Redundancy bits are included to provide error detection and correction. This communication system is designed to draw only a few microamps from the 3.6 volt, 3.0 mAHr lithium ion (LiIon) battery contained in each BPB, and the majority of the communications circuitry is contained within a 1.4x5 mm integrated circuit.

  18. Multiple channel optical data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.; Goff, D.R.

    1985-02-22

    A multiple channel optical data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote sensors monitoring specific process variable are interrogated by means of a single optical fiber connecting the remote station/sensors to a base station. The remote station/sensors derive all power from light transmitted through the fiber from the base station. Each station/sensor is individually accessed by means of a light modulated address code sent over the fiber. The remote station/sensors use a single light emitting diode to both send and receive light signals to communicate with the base station and provide power for the remote station. The system described can power at least 100 remote station/sensors over an optical fiber one mile in length.

  19. Cryogenic line insulation made from prefabricated polyurethane shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerma, G.

    1975-01-01

    Prefabricated polyurethane foam insulation is inexpensive and easily installed on cryogenic lines. Insulation sections are semicircular half shells. Pair of half shells is placed to surround cryogenic line. Cylindrically-shaped knit sock is pulled over insulation then covered with polyurethane resin to seal system.

  20. Development of a phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems using thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle.

    PubMed

    Inata, Hiroki; Semba, Takatoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Kuribayashi, Yuta; Murayama, Suetoshi; Nishizaki, Osamu; Araki, Fujio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems. The phantom was made of papers formed into a human shape, paper clay, and filling rigid polyester. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes were inserted at anterior-posterior (A-P) and right-left (R-L) directions in the phantom to give static load by pulling ropes through the pipes. First, the positioning precision of the phantom utilizing a target locating system (TLS) was evaluated by moving the phantom on a couch along inferior-superior (I-S), A-P, and R-L directions in a range from -5 mm to +5 mm. The phantom's positions detected with the TLS were compared with values measured by a vernier caliper. Second, the phantom movements in a tensile test were chosen from patient movements determined from 15 patients treated for intracranial lesions and immobilized with a thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle. The phantom movement was given by minimum or maximum values of patient movements in each direction. Finally, the relationship between phantom movements and the static load in the tensile test was characterized from measurements using the new phantom and the TLS. The differences in all positions between the vernier caliper measurement and the TLS detected values were within 0.2 mm with frequencies of 100%, 95%, and 90% in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively. The phantom movements according to patient movements in clinical application in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions were within 0.58 mm, 0.94 mm, and 0.93 mm from the mean value plus standard deviation, respectively. The regression lines between the phantom movements and static load were given by y = 0.359x, y = 0.241x, and y = 0.451x in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively, where x is the phantom movement (mm) and y is the static load (kgf). The relationship between the phantom movements and static load may represent the performance of inhibiting patient movements, so the

  1. Development of a phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems using thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle.

    PubMed

    Inata, Hiroki; Semba, Takatoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Kuribayashi, Yuta; Murayama, Suetoshi; Nishizaki, Osamu; Araki, Fujio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new phantom to evaluate the positioning accuracy of patient immobilization systems. The phantom was made of papers formed into a human shape, paper clay, and filling rigid polyester. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipes were inserted at anterior-posterior (A-P) and right-left (R-L) directions in the phantom to give static load by pulling ropes through the pipes. First, the positioning precision of the phantom utilizing a target locating system (TLS) was evaluated by moving the phantom on a couch along inferior-superior (I-S), A-P, and R-L directions in a range from -5 mm to +5 mm. The phantom's positions detected with the TLS were compared with values measured by a vernier caliper. Second, the phantom movements in a tensile test were chosen from patient movements determined from 15 patients treated for intracranial lesions and immobilized with a thermoplastic mask and polyurethane cradle. The phantom movement was given by minimum or maximum values of patient movements in each direction. Finally, the relationship between phantom movements and the static load in the tensile test was characterized from measurements using the new phantom and the TLS. The differences in all positions between the vernier caliper measurement and the TLS detected values were within 0.2 mm with frequencies of 100%, 95%, and 90% in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively. The phantom movements according to patient movements in clinical application in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions were within 0.58 mm, 0.94 mm, and 0.93 mm from the mean value plus standard deviation, respectively. The regression lines between the phantom movements and static load were given by y = 0.359x, y = 0.241x, and y = 0.451x in I-S, A-P, and R-L directions, respectively, where x is the phantom movement (mm) and y is the static load (kgf). The relationship between the phantom movements and static load may represent the performance of inhibiting patient movements, so the

  2. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  3. Channel estimation for OFDM in mobile communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Kan; Zeng, Guoyan; Wang, Wenbo

    2004-04-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)is one of the best candidates for the future mobile communication systems. This paper analyzes channel estimation algorithms for OFDM systems not only for the downlink but also for the uplink. With reasonable constraint and well-designed preambles for each user, the DFT-based uplink channel estimation algorithm on the uplink can achieve good estimation accuracy without sacrificing much system capacity. Computer simulation demonstrates effectiveness of channel estimation algorithms and conclusion is followed.

  4. Molecular dynamics studies of polyurethane nanocomposite hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strankowska, J.; Piszczyk, Ł.; Strankowski, M.; Danowska, M.; Szutkowski, K.; Jurga, S.; Kwela, J.

    2013-10-01

    Polyurethane PEO-based hydrogels have a broad range of biomedical applicability. They are attractive for drug-controlled delivery systems, surgical implants and wound healing dressings. In this study, a PEO based polyurethane hydrogels containing Cloisite® 30B, an organically modified clay mineral, was synthesized. Structure of nanocomposite hydrogels was determined using XRD technique. Its molecular dynamics was studied by means of NMR spectroscopy, DMA and DSC analysis. The mechanical properties and thermal stability of the systems were improved by incorporation of clay and controlled by varying the clay content in polymeric matrix. Molecular dynamics of polymer chains depends on interaction of Cloisite® 30B nanoparticles with soft segments of polyurethanes. The characteristic nanosize effect is observed.

  5. From natural to bioassisted and biomimetic artificial water channel systems.

    PubMed

    Barboiu, Mihail; Gilles, Arnaud

    2013-12-17

    Within biological systems, natural channels and pores transport metabolites across the cell membranes. Researchers have explored artificial ion-channel architectures as potential mimics of natural ionic conduction. All these synthetic systems have produced an impressive collection of alternative artificial ion-channels. Amazingly, researchers have made far less progress in the area of synthetic water channels. The development of synthetic biomimetic water channels and pores could contribute to a better understanding of the natural function of protein channels and could offer new strategies to generate highly selective, advanced water purification systems. Despite the imaginative work by synthetic chemists to produce sophisticated architectures that confine water clusters, most synthetic water channels have used natural proteins channels as the selectivity components, embedded in the diverse arrays of bioassisted artificial systems. These systems combine natural proteins that present high water conductance states under natural conditions with artificial lipidic or polymeric matrixes. Experimental results have demonstrated that natural biomolecules can be used as bioassisted building blocks for the construction of highly selective water transport through artificial membranes. A next step to further the potential of these systems was the design and construction of simpler compounds that maintain the high conduction activity obtained with natural compounds leading to fully synthetic artificial biomimetic systems. Such studies aim to use constitutional selective artificial superstructures for water/proton transport to select functions similar to the natural structures. Moving to simpler water channel systems offers a chance to better understand mechanistic and structural behaviors and to uncover novel interactive water-channels that might parallel those in biomolecular systems. This Account discusses the incipient development of the first artificial water channels

  6. Polyurethane toilet seat contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Turan, Hakan; Saricaoğlu, Hayriye; Turan, Ayşegül; Tunali, Sükran

    2011-01-01

    Polyurethane chemicals are produced by the reaction of isocyanates and they may cause allergic contact dermatitis or precipitate asthma attacks. Contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat has not been reported before. Herein we present a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyurethane toilet seat.

  7. Polyurethane foam application for high voltage insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argin, Mehmet

    Polyurethane foams have been in use for decades by the industry. The use of polyurethane foams is common in low voltage switchgears, but few applications are reported in medium and high-voltage (HV) systems. At high voltages, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and/or nitrogen (N2) is applied in hollow insulation systems like Optical Instrument Transformers (OIT) to avoid internal flashover. Firmly sealing these gases within the insulating system over a long period of time as well as over variable temperatures is difficult. As a result of this sealing problem, gas pressure drops, moisture may penetrate into the insulation medium, and the dielectric strength of the insulation system decreases. This work proposes the use of polyurethane foams to fill the hollow spaces in insulation systems. Much of the research effort focused on the demonstration of the dielectric strength of three different foams which are investigated using alternating current (AC) and lightning impulse voltages under different humidity and temperature conditions. It is shown that polyurethane foams have 2-3 times better dielectric strength than air. The breakdown strength decreases with the thickness of the foam; temperature and humidity have negligible effects on the breakdown voltage. The foam breakdown stress depends on the void size and distribution. The high density foams, with smaller void diameters, have higher breakdown stress. As the breakdown mechanism within polyurethane foam was explained, a hypothesis was developed to describe the mechanism that leads to electrical breakdown of polyurethane foams. Partial discharge measurements revealed that electrical breakdown of polyurethane foam is not the result of progress of discharges in time, as in other polymeric materials; discharges are very low and increase immediately before breakdown, suddenly increasing the electric field and producing an avalanche. Therefore, the mechanism that leads to breakdown in polyurethane foam is an avalanche breakdown

  8. Role of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhichao; Xie, Jia; Yu, Albert S; Stock, Jonathan; Du, Jianyang; Yue, Lixia

    2015-02-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily consists of a large number of nonselective cation channels with variable degree of Ca(2+)-permeability. The 28 mammalian TRP channel proteins can be grouped into six subfamilies: canonical, vanilloid, melastatin, ankyrin, polycystic, and mucolipin TRPs. The majority of these TRP channels are expressed in different cell types including both excitable and nonexcitable cells of the cardiovascular system. Unlike voltage-gated ion channels, TRP channels do not have a typical voltage sensor, but instead can sense a variety of other stimuli including pressure, shear stress, mechanical stretch, oxidative stress, lipid environment alterations, hypertrophic signals, and inflammation products. By integrating multiple stimuli and transducing their activity to downstream cellular signal pathways via Ca(2+) entry and/or membrane depolarization, TRP channels play an essential role in regulating fundamental cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. With the use of targeted deletion and transgenic mouse models, recent studies have revealed that TRP channels are involved in numerous cellular functions and play an important role in the pathophysiology of many diseases in the cardiovascular system. Moreover, several TRP channels are involved in inherited diseases of the cardiovascular system. This review presents an overview of current knowledge concerning the physiological functions of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system and their contributions to cardiovascular diseases. Ultimately, TRP channels may become potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Role of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Zhichao; Xie, Jia; Yu, Albert S.; Stock, Jonathan; Du, Jianyang

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily consists of a large number of nonselective cation channels with variable degree of Ca2+-permeability. The 28 mammalian TRP channel proteins can be grouped into six subfamilies: canonical, vanilloid, melastatin, ankyrin, polycystic, and mucolipin TRPs. The majority of these TRP channels are expressed in different cell types including both excitable and nonexcitable cells of the cardiovascular system. Unlike voltage-gated ion channels, TRP channels do not have a typical voltage sensor, but instead can sense a variety of other stimuli including pressure, shear stress, mechanical stretch, oxidative stress, lipid environment alterations, hypertrophic signals, and inflammation products. By integrating multiple stimuli and transducing their activity to downstream cellular signal pathways via Ca2+ entry and/or membrane depolarization, TRP channels play an essential role in regulating fundamental cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. With the use of targeted deletion and transgenic mouse models, recent studies have revealed that TRP channels are involved in numerous cellular functions and play an important role in the pathophysiology of many diseases in the cardiovascular system. Moreover, several TRP channels are involved in inherited diseases of the cardiovascular system. This review presents an overview of current knowledge concerning the physiological functions of TRP channels in the cardiovascular system and their contributions to cardiovascular diseases. Ultimately, TRP channels may become potential therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25416190

  10. TRPV1 channels in cardiovascular system: A double edged sword?

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2017-02-01

    Apart from modulating nociception, there is vital role of TRPV1 channels in modulating atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, systemic hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, hemorrhagic shock and vascular remodeling. TRPV1 channel activation has shielding effect against the development of atherosclerosis and systemic hypertension. TRPV1 channel activation alleviates the formation of atherosclerotic lesions via increasing the expression of cholesterol efflux regulatory protein, UCP 2 and enhancing autophagy. Furthermore, activation of these channels enhances Na(+) excretion and NO release to reduce the blood pressure. TRPV1 channel activation in the cardiac sensory neurons and subsequent CGRP release reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury. Activation of these channels during conditioning enhances CGRP and SP release from the sensory nerve fibers innervating the heart to induce cardioprotection. However, activation of these channels may elicit detrimental effects in pulmonary hypertension, hemorrhage and vascular remodeling. Activation of TRPV1 channels enhances smooth muscle cell proliferation to promote pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, TRPV1 channel inhibition reduces massive catecholamine release, improves survival during hemorrhage. Activation of these channels enhances vascular remodeling via enhancing NO release. Furthermore, dual role of TRPV1 channels has been reported in the perpetuation of congestive heart failure. On one hand, TRPV1 channel activation increases the expression of UCP2, PPAR- δ and mitochondrial sirtuin 3 to decrease oxidative stress and reduce heart injury. On the other hand, activation of these channels may enhance the expression of hypertrophic fibrotic proteins viz. GATA4, MMP to promote cardiac fibrosis. The present review discusses the dual role of activation of TRPV1 channels in diseases associated with cardiovascular system.

  11. Ion Channels as Drug Targets in Central Nervous System Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Waszkielewicz, A.M; Gunia, A; Szkaradek, N; Słoczyńska, K; Krupińska, S; Marona, H

    2013-01-01

    Ion channel targeted drugs have always been related with either the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system, or the cardiovascular system. Within the CNS, basic indications of drugs are: sleep disorders, anxiety, epilepsy, pain, etc. However, traditional channel blockers have multiple adverse events, mainly due to low specificity of mechanism of action. Lately, novel ion channel subtypes have been discovered, which gives premises to drug discovery process led towards specific channel subtypes. An example is Na+ channels, whose subtypes 1.3 and 1.7-1.9 are responsible for pain, and 1.1 and 1.2 – for epilepsy. Moreover, new drug candidates have been recognized. This review is focusing on ion channels subtypes, which play a significant role in current drug discovery and development process. The knowledge on channel subtypes has developed rapidly, giving new nomenclatures of ion channels. For example, Ca2+ channels are not any more divided to T, L, N, P/Q, and R, but they are described as Cav1.1-Cav3.3, with even newer nomenclature α1A-α1I and α1S. Moreover, new channels such as P2X1-P2X7, as well as TRPA1-TRPV1 have been discovered, giving premises for new types of analgesic drugs. PMID:23409712

  12. Polyurethane adhesive with improved high temperature properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A polyurethane resin with paste activator, capable of providing useful bond strengths over the temperature range of -184 C to 149 C, is described. The adhesive system has a pot life of over one hour. Tensile shear strength ratings are given for various adhesive formulations.

  13. Energy, time, and channel evolution in catastrophically disturbed fluvial systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, A.

    1992-01-01

    Specific energy is shown to decrease nonlinearly with time during channel evolution and provides a measure of reductions in available energy at the channel bed. Data from two sites show convergence towards a minimum specific energy with time. Time-dependent reductions in specific energy at a point act in concert with minimization of the rate of energy dissipation over a reach during channel evolution as the fluvial systems adjust to a new equilibrium.

  14. The new secondary channel control system at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitel, R.; Bishop, D.; Dale, D.; England, N.; Harrison, D.

    1990-08-01

    The control of the secondary channels at TRIUMF has been decentralized. Each channel is now controlled through a single CAMAC crate from an IBM PC in the experimental counting room. Intelligent motor controllers were developed to replace the ageing slit control system. Advanced features of the control software package TICS, such as computer optimization of channel parameters and high-voltage conditioning of the de separators, are described.

  15. Channel cooperation for anti-occlusion visible light communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxin; Huang, Zhitong; Li, Wei; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    The need to exchange data wirelessly has increased as the growth of the number of mobile devices. Visible light communication (VLC) is a promising technology to alleviate the growing traffic problem. However, the occlusion problem is a difficulty in VLC system. In order to solve the problem, an anti-occlusion VLC system has been proposed in this article. In this VLC system, we propose the channel cooperative selection mechanism, which is based on the best-response dynamics and best response strategies of the game theory. This mechanism uses bit error ratio (BER) as the utility function to optimize system performance. In addition, the system provides three candidate communication channels, including direct channel, indirect channel, and mixed channel, to active users who will select the optimal communication channel. Moreover, the anti-occlusion VLC system has many application scenarios, such as the office, which has practical significance. For verifying the validity of the proposed mechanism, we accomplish the simulation results in terms of BER and throughput in different communication cases. It is demonstrated that the proposed channel cooperative selection mechanism in VLC systems offers superior performance in environment of obstructions.

  16. TRP channels in the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Several of the 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed throughout the alimentary canal where they play important roles in taste, chemo- and mechanosensation, thermoregulation, pain and hyperalgesia, mucosal function and homeostasis, control of motility by neurons, interstitial cells of Cajal and muscle cells, and vascular function. While the implications of some TRP channels, notably TRPA1, TRPC4, TRPM5, TRPM6, TRPM7, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6, have been investigated in much detail, the understanding of other TRP channels in their relevance to digestive function lags behind. The polymodal chemo- and mechanosensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPV1 and TRPV4 is particularly relevant to the alimentary canal whose digestive and absorptive function depends on the surveillance and integration of many chemical and physical stimuli. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 appear to be essential for the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively, while TRPM7 appears to contribute to the pacemaker activity of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and TRPC4 transduces smooth muscle contraction evoked by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation. The implication of some TRP channels in pathological processes has raised enormous interest in exploiting them as a therapeutic target. This is particularly true for TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, which may be targeted for the treatment of several conditions of chronic abdominal pain. Consequently, blockers of these TRP channels have been developed, and their clinical usefulness has yet to be established. PMID:20932260

  17. Photodegradation of MDI Based Polyurethane/Urea Elastomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-13

    and identify by block number) A series of polyurethane urea and polyurea elastomers based on MDI, a chain extender such as ethylene glycol or ethylene...Photodegradation of these polymers was monitored by UV and IR spectroscopy. A review of two systems, a polyurethane urea and a polyurea , is described in depth...Formation of photo-Fries product is observed in both the systems, although the pure polyurea exhibits a greater magnitude of change in the ultraviolet

  18. Modeling decomposition of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams are used as encapsulants to isolate and support thermally sensitive components within weapon systems. When exposed to abnormal thermal environments, such as fire, the polyurethane foam decomposes to form products having a wide distribution of molecular weights and can dominate the overall thermal response of the system. Decomposing foams have either been ignored by assuming the foam is not present, or have been empirically modeled by changing physical properties, such as thermal conductivity or emissivity, based on a prescribed decomposition temperature. The hypothesis addressed in the current work is that improved predictions of polyurethane foam degradation can be realized by using a more fundamental decomposition model based on chemical structure and vapor-liquid equilibrium, rather than merely fitting the data by changing physical properties at a prescribed decomposition temperature. The polyurethane decomposition model is founded on bond breaking of the primary polymer and formation of a secondary polymer which subsequently decomposes at high temperature. The bond breaking scheme is resolved using percolation theory to describe evolving polymer fragments. The polymer fragments vaporize according to individual vapor pressures. Kinetic parameters for the model were obtained from Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) from a single nonisothermal experiment with a heating rate of 20 C/min. Model predictions compare reasonably well with a separate nonisothermal TGA weight loss experiment with a heating rate of 200 C/min.

  19. A unique modulation system for two channel data transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melrose, B. T.

    1972-01-01

    A simple low cost system is reported for the telemetry of information from meteorological rocket payloads including parachute borne systems. It uses S- or L-band microwave links with low cost oscillator type transmitters. An extension of this system to transmit two channels of data simultaneously by standard time and frequency multiplexing techniques as a sampled pulse is described. One channel is represented by the pulse repetition rate while the other channel is represented by the instantaneous duty cycle of the pulse train.

  20. Channels

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-29

    Two channels are visible in this image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft . The smaller one near the bottom did not carve as deeply as the larger channel at the top. The channel near the top of the image is near the origin of Mamers Valles.

  1. Channel Modelling and Characterization of Mobile Satellite Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abbas; Seun, Ajayi; Yang, Zhe; Erman, Maria; Hult, Tommy

    2009-03-01

    Reliable characterization of the propagation environment and channel modelling of mobile satellite communication systems is necessary in order to provide better quality of service and efficient design of these systems. In this paper, the channel impairments affecting the performance and an overview of the satellite channel models are presented. The statistical distributions of the received signal that can be used to characterize the dynamic nature of these propagation channels are also presented. The main modelling parameters are investigated and simulation results show that the bit error rate (BER) performance is predominantly affected by the shadowing factor. Finally, in order to further test the channel models and the effect of the propagation environment, we investigate a novel application of using satellite diversity in conjunction with compact MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) antenna array configurations in order to enhance the capacity of satellite communication links.

  2. TRPV4 channels: physiological and pathological role in cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2015-11-01

    TRPV4 channels are non-selective cation channels permeable to Ca(2+), Na(+), and Mg(2+) ions. Recently, TRPV4 channels have received considerable attention as these channels are widely expressed in the cardiovascular system including endothelial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscles, and peri-vascular nerves. Therefore, these channels possibly play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. TRPV4 channels critically regulate flow-induced arteriogenesis, TGF-β1-induced differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, and heart failure-induced pulmonary edema. These channels also mediate hypoxia-induced increase in proliferation and migration of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and progression of pulmonary hypertension. These channels also maintain flow-induced vasodilation and preserve vascular function by directly activating Ca(2+)-dependent KCa channels. Furthermore, these may also induce vasodilation and maintain blood pressure indirectly by evoking the release of NO, CGRP, and substance P. The present review discusses the evidences and the potential mechanisms implicated in diverse responses including arteriogenesis, cardiac remodeling, congestive heart failure-induced pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, flow-induced dilation, regulation of blood pressure, and hypoxic preconditioning.

  3. Design and performance of the LANL 158-channel magnetoencephalography system

    SciTech Connect

    Matlachov, A. N.; Kraus, Robert H., Jr.; Espy, M. A.; Best, E. D.; Briles, M. Carolyn; Raby, E. Y.; Flynn, E. R.

    2002-01-01

    Design and performance for a recently completed whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system using a superconducting imaging-surface (SIS) surrounding an array of SQUID magnetometers is reported. The helmet-like SIS is hemispherical in shape with a brim. The SIS images nearby sources while shields sensors from ambient magnetic noise. The shielding factor depends on magnetometer position and orientation. Typical shielding values of 200 in central sulcus area have been observed. Nine reference channels form three vector magnetometers, which are placed outside SIS. Signal channels consist of 149 SQUID magnetometers with 0.84nT/{Phi}{sub 0} field sensitivity and less then 3 fT/{radical}Hz noise. Typical SQUID - room temperature separations are about 20mm in the cooled state. Twelve 16-channel flux-lock loop units are connected to two 96-channel control units allowing up to 192 total SQUID channels. The control unit includes signal conditioning circuits as well as system test and control circuits. After conditioning all signals are fed to 192-channel, 24-bit data acquisition system capable of sampling up to 48kSa/sec/channel. The SIS-MEG system enables high-quality human functional brain data to be recorded in a one-layer magnetically shielded room.

  4. Optimization and characterization of a fibre channel switching system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.

    1994-04-01

    Fibre Channel, as defined in the ANSI standard X3T9.3, is an emerging technology in high speed data communications and has become the choice of many organizations for their future data networking needs. The system tested is a distributed three stage switching system based on the Fibre Channel Standard. Testing and Optimization of the three stage switching system is necessary to characterize the performance of the prototype system before a production system is implemented. This paper presents a discussion of optimization techniques and achieved performance numbers under different conditions as well as a comparison to a single stage switching system.

  5. Three-channel telemetry system with optical interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesho, Jeffrey C.; Eaton, Harry A.

    1994-10-01

    An optical interface was incorporated into a three channel telemetry device to allow for communication to a packaged telemeter. Information transmitted on the optical link includes calibration parameters and commands to program the operation of the telemeter. The optical ink allows calibration information to be programmed into a telemeter, without the need for a bio-compatible electrical connection. The optical link was designed to completely reside on an integrated circuit chip. One of the three channels of the telemeter is dedicated to temperature measurement, while the other two channels are generic. The generic channels carry information from transducers that are interfaced to the system through on-chip general purpose operational amplifiers. The calibration information that is programmed into the telemeter is retrieved by time division multiplexing it with one of the generic channels.

  6. Microbial degradation of polyurethane, polyester polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shigeno-Akutsu, Y; Nomura, N; Onuma, F; Nakahara, T

    1999-02-01

    Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently, environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of its biodegradability. There are many reports on the degradation of polyester PUR by microorganisms, especially by fungi. Microbial degradation of polyester PUR is thought to be mainly due to the hydrolysis of ester bonds by esterases. Recently, polyester-PUR-degrading enzymes have been purified and their characteristics reported. Among them, a solid-polyester-PUR-degrading enzyme (PUR esterase) derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35 had unique characteristics. This enzyme has a hydrophobic PUR-surface-binding domain and a catalytic domain, and the surface-binding domain was considered as being essential for PUR degradation. This hydrophobic surface-binding domain is also observed in other solid-polyester-degrading enzymes such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases. There was no significant homology between the amino acid sequence of PUR esterase and that of PHA depolymerases, except in the hydrophobic surface-binding region. Thus, PUR esterase and PHA depolymerase are probably different in terms of their evolutionary origin and it is possible that PUR esterases come to be classified as a new solid-polyester-degrading enzyme family.

  7. Note: optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-11-01

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  8. Note: Optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-11-15

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  9. Power Control of Turbo Coded System in Lognormal Shadowing Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Joon

    Traditionally, it has been considered that the received signal to noise power ratio should be uniformly preserved to maximize system capacity for uncoded system with reliable feedback channel. However, once channel coding is employed as a building block, another power control scheme presents better performance. In this paper, we consider several power reallocation schemes for an effective use of limited power in a turbo coded system in lognormal shadowing channel. We show that the proposed power reallocation can reduce the decoding error probability by almost two orders of magnitude and provide a power gain of 0.87dB at a target bit error rate of 10-4 over the equal power allocation among all code symbols. We also propose applying different power levels and cut-off thresholds on systematic and parity bits, and investigate the effect of channel estimation error.

  10. Multiple-channel Streaming Delivery for Omnidirectional Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Yoshio; Nagahara, Hajime; Yachida, Masahiko

    An omnidirectional vision is an imaging system that can capture a surrounding image in whole direction by using a hyperbolic mirror and a conventional CCD camera. This paper proposes a streaming server that can efficiently transfer movies captured by an omnidirectional vision system through the Internet. The proposed system uses multiple channels to deliver multiple movies synchronously. Through this method, the system enables clients to view the different direction of omnidirectional movies and also support the function to change the view are during playback period. Our evaluation experiments show that our proposed streaming server can effectively deliver multiple movies via multiple channels.

  11. Pre-experiment testing of the Multi Channel Systems 16-channel preamplifier CPA16

    SciTech Connect

    Patin, J B; Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Friensehner, A V

    2003-11-03

    The 16-channel preamplifier model CPA16 from Multi Channel Systems was studied. The CPA16 preamplifier/amplifier module is a candidate to be used as the preamplifiers and amplifiers for the focal plane detectors of the Mass Analyzer of Super Heavy Atoms (MASHA). The equipment used to test the CPA16, the results of testing the CPA16 with a pulser, a mixed {sup 229}Th/{sup 148}Gd source and a {sup 252}Cf source, and a summary of the results will be presented.

  12. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  13. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOEpatents

    Neet, Thomas E.; Spieker, David A.

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  14. Stable Polyurethane Coatings for Electronic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Alkane-based polyurethanes resist deterioration while maintaining good dielectric properties. Weight loss after prolonged immersion in hot water far less for alkane-based polyurethanes than for more common ether based polyurethanes, at any given oxygen content. Major uses of polyurethanes are as connector potting materials and conformal coatings for printed circuit boards.

  15. Establishment of 37 channel SQUID system for magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parasakthi, C.; Patel, Rajesh; Sengottuvel, S.; Mariyappa, N.; Gireesan, K.; Janawadkar, M. P.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.

    2012-06-01

    We report the development of a thirty seven channel SQUID based Magnetocardiography (MCG) system for the measurement of biomagnetic fields originating from the human heart. These fields are extremely weak and can be non-invasively measured only by using SQUID sensors. The system can simultaneously record biomagnetic signals at thirty seven spatial locations on the chest with a total coverage area of 300 cm2. The typical noise level of the system is measured to be about 2.5 fTrms/cm/√Hz for most gradiometer channels and around 7.3 fTrms/√Hz for magnetometer channels. The measurement of Magnetocardiogram (MCG) from human heart carried out using this system is shown.

  16. Channel simulation for direct-detection optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct-detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log-normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean, or chi-square density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the channel simulator are presented.

  17. Channel simulation for direct detection optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tycz, M.; Fitzmaurice, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for simulating the random modulation imposed by atmospheric scintillation and transmitter pointing jitter on a direct detection optical communication system. The system is capable of providing signal fading statistics which obey log normal, beta, Rayleigh, Ricean or chi-squared density functions. Experimental tests of the performance of the Channel Simulator are presented.

  18. Identified ion channels in the squid nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, J J C; Gilly, W F

    2003-01-01

    Our modern understanding of channels as discrete voltage-sensitive and ion-selective entities comes largely from a series of classical studies using the squid giant axon. This system has also been critical for understanding how transporters and synaptic transmission operate. This review outlines attempts to assign molecular identities to the extensively studied physiological properties of this system. As it turns out, this is no simple task. Molecular candidates for voltage-gated Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) channels, as well as ion transporters have been isolated from the squid nervous system. Both physiological and molecular approaches have been used to equate these cloned gene products with their native counterparts. In the case of the delayed rectifier K(+) conductance, the most thoroughly studied example, two major issues further complicate the equation. First, the ability of K(+) channel monomers to form heteromultimers with unique properties must be considered. Second, squid K(+) channel mRNAs are extensively edited, a process that can generate a wide variety of channel proteins from a common gene. The giant axon system is beginning to play an important role in understanding the biological relevance of this latter process. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. A Fully Implantable 96-channel Neural Data Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Michael; Bossetti, Chad A; Jochum, Thomas A; Callender, Stephen H; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Turner, Dennis A; Wolf, Patrick D

    2009-01-01

    A fully implantable neural data acquisition system is a key component of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. This type of system must communicate with the outside world and obtain power without the use of wires that cross through the skin. We present a 96-channel fully implantable neural data acquisition system. This system performs spike detection and extraction within the body and wirelessly transmits data to an external unit. Power is supplied wirelessly through the use of inductively-coupled coils. The system was implanted acutely in sheep and successfully recorded, processed, and transmitted neural data. Bidirectional communication between the implanted system and an external unit was successful over a range of 2 m. The system is also shown to integrate well into a brain-machine interface. This demonstration of a high channel-count fully implanted neural data acquisition system is a critical step in the development of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. PMID:19255459

  20. A fully implantable 96-channel neural data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizk, Michael; Bossetti, Chad A.; Jochum, Thomas A.; Callender, Stephen H.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Turner, Dennis A.; Wolf, Patrick D.

    2009-04-01

    A fully implantable neural data acquisition system is a key component of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. This type of system must communicate with the outside world and obtain power without the use of wires that cross through the skin. We present a 96-channel fully implantable neural data acquisition system. This system performs spike detection and extraction within the body and wirelessly transmits data to an external unit. Power is supplied wirelessly through the use of inductively coupled coils. The system was implanted acutely in sheep and successfully recorded, processed and transmitted neural data. Bidirectional communication between the implanted system and an external unit was successful over a range of 2 m. The system is also shown to integrate well into a brain-machine interface. This demonstration of a high channel-count fully implanted neural data acquisition system is a critical step in the development of a clinically viable brain-machine interface.

  1. A fully implantable 96-channel neural data acquisition system.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Michael; Bossetti, Chad A; Jochum, Thomas A; Callender, Stephen H; Nicolelis, Miguel A L; Turner, Dennis A; Wolf, Patrick D

    2009-04-01

    A fully implantable neural data acquisition system is a key component of a clinically viable brain-machine interface. This type of system must communicate with the outside world and obtain power without the use of wires that cross through the skin. We present a 96-channel fully implantable neural data acquisition system. This system performs spike detection and extraction within the body and wirelessly transmits data to an external unit. Power is supplied wirelessly through the use of inductively coupled coils. The system was implanted acutely in sheep and successfully recorded, processed and transmitted neural data. Bidirectional communication between the implanted system and an external unit was successful over a range of 2 m. The system is also shown to integrate well into a brain-machine interface. This demonstration of a high channel-count fully implanted neural data acquisition system is a critical step in the development of a clinically viable brain-machine interface.

  2. Real space channelization for generic DBT system image quality evaluation with channelized Hotelling observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Dimitar; Cockmartin, Lesley; Marshall, Nicholas; Vancoillie, Liesbeth; Young, Kenneth; Bosmans, Hilde

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a relatively new 3D mammography technique that promises better detection of low contrast masses than conventional 2D mammography. The parameter space for DBT is large however and finding an optimal balance between dose and image quality remains challenging. Given the large number of conditions and images required in optimization studies, the use of human observers (HO) is time consuming and certainly not feasible for the tuning of all degrees of freedom. Our goal was to develop a model observer (MO) that could predict human detectability for clinically relevant details embedded within a newly developed structured phantom for DBT applications. DBT series were acquired on GE SenoClaire 3D, Giotto Class, Fujifilm AMULET Innovality and Philips MicroDose systems at different dose levels, Siemens Inspiration DBT acquisitions were reconstructed with different algorithms, while a larger set of DBT series was acquired on Hologic Dimensions system for first reproducibility testing. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Gabor channels was developed The parameters of the Gabor channels were tuned on all systems at standard scanning conditions and the candidate that produced the best fit for all systems was chosen. After tuning, the MO was applied to all systems and conditions. Linear regression lines between MO and HO scores were calculated, giving correlation coefficients between 0.87 and 0.99 for all tested conditions.

  3. Thermal Conductivity of Weathered Polyurethane Foam Roofing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Experimental polyurethane foam roofing systems, by J. R. Keeton , R. L. Alumbaugh, Ph.D , and E. F. Humm. Port Hueneme, Calif., Aug 1976. 2. . Purchase...101. Pearl Harbor, HI; CODE 09P PEARL HARBOR HI: Code 2011 Pearl Harbor. HI; Code 402. RDT&E. Pearl Harbor HI; Commander. Pearl Harbor. HI: Library...Code 2011 San Bruno, CA NAVFACENGCOM CONTRACTS AROICC MCAS El Toro; AROICC, NAVSTA Brooklyn, NY; AROICC, Point Mugu CA; AROICC, Quantico, VA; Colts

  4. The influence of aluminium, steel and polyurethane shoeing systems and of the unshod hoof on the injury risk of a horse kick. An ex vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sprick, Miriam; Fürst, Anton; Baschnagel, Fabio; Michel, Silvain; Piskoty, Gabor; Hartnack, Sonja; Jackson, Michelle A

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the damage inflicted by an unshod hoof and by the various horseshoe materials (steel, aluminium and polyurethane) on the long bones of horses after a simulated kick. Sixty-four equine radii and tibiae were evaluated using a drop impact test setup. An impactor with a steel, aluminium, polyurethane, or hoof horn head was dropped onto prepared bones. An impactor velocity of 8 m/s was initially used with all four materials and then testing was repeated with a velocity of 12 m/s with the polyurethane and hoof horn heads. The impact process was analysed using a high-speed camera, and physical parameters, including peak contact force and impact duration, were calculated. At 8 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 75% for steel and 81% for aluminium, whereas polyurethane and hoof horn did not damage the bones. At 12 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 25% for polyurethane and 12.5% for hoof horn. The peak contact force and impact duration differed significantly between 'hard materials' (aluminium and steel) and 'soft materials' (polyurethane and hoof horn). The observed bone injuries were similar to those seen in analogous experimental studies carried out previously and comparable to clinical fracture cases suggesting that the simulated kick was realistic. The probability of fracture was significantly higher for steel and aluminium than for polyurethane and hoof horn, which suggests that the horseshoe material has a significant influence on the risk of injury for humans or horses kicked by a horse.

  5. Joint Channel Estimation and Phase Noise Suppression for OFDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Seong-Cheol

    Phase noise (PHN) can cause the common phase error (CPE) and the inter-carrier interference (ICI), both of which impair the accurate channel estimation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. In this letter, we build a new signal model parameterized by the channel impulse response, the CPE and the ICI. Based on this model, we derive the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and the minimum mean square error estimator (MMSEE). Simulation results show that the proposed schemes significantly improve the performance of OFDM systems in the presence of PHN.

  6. Uplink channel estimation error for large scale MIMO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albdran, Saleh; Alshammari, Ahmad; Matin, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    The high demand on the wireless networks and the need for higher data rates are the motivation to develop new technologies. Recently, the idea of using large-scale MIMO systems has grabbed great attention from the researchers due to its high spectral and energy efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the UL channel estimation error using large number of antennas in the base station where the UL channel is based on predefined pilot signal. By making a comparison between the identified UL pilot signal and the received UL signal we can get the realization of the channel. We choose to deal with one cell scenario where the effect of inter-cell interference is eliminated for the sake of studying simple approach. While the number of antennas is very large in the base station side, we choose to have one antennal in the user terminal side. We choose to have two models to generate the channel covariance matrix includes one-ring model and exponential correlation model. Figures of channel estimation error are generated where the performance of the mean square error MSE per antenna is presented as a function signal to noise ratio SNR. The simulation results show that the higher the SNR the better the performance. Furthermore, the affect of the pilot length on the channel estimation error is studied where two different covariance models are used to see the impact of the two cases. In the two cases, the increase of the pilot length has improved the estimation accuracy.

  7. Eight-channel telephone telemetry system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R.; Carr, T.

    1973-01-01

    Portable telemetry system uses conventional telephone link which eliminates mailing or messenger service between physician and analyst. Transmitter is used by physician; receiver is used by analyst. Each unit is inductively coupled to its respective telephone set, transmitter converting EEG into audio frequency and receiver converting this frequency back to EEG.

  8. Highly stretchable nanoalginate based polyurethane elastomers.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi; Barmar, Mohammad

    2013-06-20

    Highly stretchable elastomeric samples based on cationic polyurethane dispersions-sodium alginate nanoparticles (CPUD/SA) were prepared by the solution blending of sodium alginate and aqueous polyurethane dispersions. CPUDs were synthesized by step growth polymerization technique using N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as a source of cationic emulsifier. The chemical structure and thermal-mechanical properties of these systems were characterized using FTIR and DMTA, respectively. The presence of nanoalginate particles including nanobead and nanorod particles were proved by SEM and EDX. It was observed that thermal properties of composites increased with increasing SA content. All prepared samples were known as thermoplastic-elastomers with high percentages of elongation. Excellent compatibility of prepared nanocomposites was proved by the DMTA data.

  9. Visualization of an entangled channel spin-1 system

    SciTech Connect

    Sirsi, Swarnamala; Adiga, Veena

    2010-08-15

    Covariance matrix formalism gives powerful entanglement criteria for continuous as well as finite dimensional systems. We use this formalism to study a mixed channel spin-1 system which is well known in nuclear reactions. A spin-j state can be visualized as being made up of 2j spinors which are represented by a constellation of 2j points on a Bloch sphere using Majorana construction. We extend this formalism to visualize an entangled mixed spin-1 system.

  10. Channel capacity of next generation large scale MIMO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshammari, A.; Albdran, S.; Matin, M.

    2016-09-01

    Information rate that can be transferred over a given bandwidth is limited by the information theory. Capacity depends on many factors such as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), channel state information (CSI) and the spatial correlation in the propagation environment. It is very important to increase spectral efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for wireless services. Thus, Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology has been developed and applied in most of the wireless standards and it has been very successful in increasing capacity and reliability. As the demand is still increasing, attention now is shifting towards large scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO) which has a potential of bringing orders of magnitude of improvement in spectral and energy efficiency. It has been shown that users channels decorrelate after increasing the number of antennas. As a result, inter-user interference can be avoided since energy can be focused on precise directions. This paper investigates the limits of channel capacity for large scale MIMO. We study the relation between spectral efficiency and the number of antenna N. We use time division duplex (TDD) system in order to obtain CSI using training sequence in the uplink. The same CSI is used for the downlink because the channel is reciprocal. Spectral efficiency is measured for channel model that account for small scale fading while ignoring the effect of large scale fading. It is shown the spectral efficiency can be improved significantly when compared to single antenna systems in ideal circumstances.

  11. Capacity of UWB wireless channel for neural recording systems.

    PubMed

    El Khaled, Mohamad; Bahrami, Hadi; Fortier, Paul; Gosselin, Benoit; Rusch, Leslie Ann

    2014-01-01

    Ultra wide-band (UWB) short-range communication systems are valuable in medical technology, particularly for implanted devices, due to their low-power consumption, low cost, small size and high data rates. Monitoring of neural responses in the brain requires high data rate if we target a system supporting a large number of sensors. In this work, we are interested in the evaluation of the capacity of the ultra wide-band (UWB) channel that we could exploit using a realistic model of the biological channel. The channel characteristics are examined under two scenarios that are related to TX antenna placements. Using optimal power spectrum allocation (OPSA) at the transmitter side, we have computed this capacity by taking into account the fading characteristics of the channel. The results show the pertinence of the optimal power spectrum allocation for this type of channel. An improvement by a factor of 2 to 3 over a uniform power spectrum allocation (UPSA) when the SNR <; 0 dB was obtained. When the SNR is > 40 dB, both approaches give similar results. Antennas placement is examined under two scenarios having contrasting power constraints.

  12. The efficacy of nafamostat mesilate on the performance of a hybrid-artificial liver using a polyurethane foam/porcine hepatocyte spheroid culture system in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Y; Shimada, M; Tsujita, E; Rikimaru, T; Ijima, H; Nakazawa, K; Sakiyama, R; Fukuda, J; Funatsu, K; Sugimachi, K

    2001-01-01

    Nafamostat mesilate (FUT) is a protease inhibitor of complement activation. The present study investigates whether FUT protects porcine hepatocytes from being injured by human plasma in a multi-capillary polyurethane foam packed-bed culture system (MC-PUF) such as the hybrid-artificial liver (PUF-HAL). Human plasmas with 1 mM of added ammonia were perfused using a small-scale PUF-HAL with porcine hepatocytes. FUT was continuously infused (10 microg/ml, 50 microg/ml). The ammonia detoxification was maintained in human plasma for 24 hours and for 48 hours with FUT which suppressed the rapid increase of asparaginic acid aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). After 60 hours of perfusion, hepatocyte spheroids completely collapsed in the human plasma, but a small amount of hepatocyte spheroid was maintained by FUT. The effect of FUT was slightly greater at 50 microg/ml than at 10 microg/ml. Our results suggest that FUT has protective effects against porcine hepatocytes in human plasma, and our PUF-HAL using porcine hepatocytes can function in human plasma for about 48 hours with FUT.

  13. Channels

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-20

    Today's VIS image shows a number of unnamed channels located on the northeastern margin of Terra Sabaea. Orbit Number: 61049 Latitude: 33.5036 Longitude: 58.6967 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-09-18 12:54 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20097

  14. Nonlinear hopping transport in ring systems and open channels.

    PubMed

    Einax, Mario; Körner, Martin; Maass, Philipp; Nitzan, Abraham

    2010-01-21

    We study the nonlinear hopping transport in one-dimensional rings and open channels. Analytical results are derived for the stationary current response to a constant bias without assuming any specific coupling of the rates to the external fields. It is shown that anomalous large effective jump lengths, as observed in recent experiments by taking the ratio of the third-order nonlinear and the linear conductivity, can occur already in ordered systems. Rectification effects due to site energy disorder in ring systems are expected to become irrelevant for large system sizes. In open channels, in contrast, rectification effects occur already for disorder in the jump barriers and do not vanish in the thermodynamic limit. Numerical solutions for a sinusoidal bias show that the ring system provides a good description for the transport behavior in the open channel for intermediate and high frequencies. For low frequencies temporal variations in the mean particle number have to be taken into account in the open channel, which cannot be captured in the more simple ring model.

  15. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Trumpis, B. D.; Udalov, S.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of space shuttle communication systems were studied. The following major areas were investigated: burst error correction for shuttle command channels; performance optimization and design considerations for Costas receivers with and without bandpass limiting; experimental techniques for measuring low level spectral components of microwave signals; and potential modulation and coding techniques for the Ku-band return link. Results are presented.

  16. Channel systems and lobe construction in the Mississippi Fan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, L. E.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Bouma, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Morphological features on the Mississippi Fan in the eastern Gulf of Mexico were mapped using GLORIA II, a long-range side-scan sonar system. Prominent is a sinuous channel flanked by well-developed levees and occasional crevasse splays. The channel follows the axis and thickest part of the youngest fan lobe; seismic-reflection profiles offer evidence that its course has remained essentially constant throughout lobe development. Local modification and possible erosion of levees by currents indicates a present state of inactivity. Superficial sliding has affected part of the fan lobe, but does not appear to have been a factor in lobe construction. ?? 1982 A. M. Dowden, Inc.

  17. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communications system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the digital communication system for the direct communication links from ground to space shuttle and the links involving the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). Three main tasks were performed:(1) Channel encoding/decoding parameter optimization for forward and reverse TDRS links,(2)integration of command encoding/decoding and channel encoding/decoding; and (3) modulation coding interface study. The general communication environment is presented to provide the necessary background for the tasks and to provide an understanding of the implications of the results of the studies.

  18. Athabasca Valles, Mars: A lava-draped channel system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaeger, W.L.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Dundas, C.M.; Russell, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Athabasca Valles is a young outflow channel system on Mars that may have been carved by catastrophic water floods. However, images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft reveal that Athabasca Valles is now entirely draped by a thin layer of solidified lava - the remnant of a once-swollen river of molten rock. The lava erupted from a fissure, inundated the channels, and drained downstream in geologically recent times. Purported ice features in Athabasca Valles and its distal basin, Cerberus Palus, are actually composed of this lava. Similar volcanic processes may have operated in other ostensibly fluvial channels, which could explain in part why the landers sent to investigate sites of ancient flooding on Mars have predominantly found lava at the surface instead.

  19. Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, W L; Keszthelyi, L P; McEwen, A S; Dundas, C M; Russell, P S

    2007-09-21

    Athabasca Valles is a young outflow channel system on Mars that may have been carved by catastrophic water floods. However, images acquired by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft reveal that Athabasca Valles is now entirely draped by a thin layer of solidified lava-the remnant of a once-swollen river of molten rock. The lava erupted from a fissure, inundated the channels, and drained downstream in geologically recent times. Purported ice features in Athabasca Valles and its distal basin, Cerberus Palus, are actually composed of this lava. Similar volcanic processes may have operated in other ostensibly fluvial channels, which could explain in part why the landers sent to investigate sites of ancient flooding on Mars have predominantly found lava at the surface instead.

  20. Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

  1. Strain tensors in layer systems by precision ion channeling measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Trinkaus, H.; Buca, D.; Hollaender, B.; Minamisawa, R. A.; Mantl, S.; Hartmann, J. M.

    2010-06-15

    A powerful method for analyzing general strain states in layer systems is the measurement of changes in the ion channeling directions. We present a systematic derivation and compilation of the required relations between the strain induced angle changes and the components of the strain tensor for general crystalline layer systems of reduced symmetry compared to the basic (cubic) crystal. It is shown that, for the evaluation of channeling measurements, virtually all layers of interest may be described as being 'pseudo-orthorhombic'. The commonly assumed boundary conditions and the effects of surface misorientations on them are discussed. Asymmetric strain relaxation in layers of reduced symmetry is attributed to a restriction in the slip system of the dislocations inducing it. The results are applied to {l_brace}110{r_brace}SiGe/Si layer systems.

  2. A 96-channel neural stimulation system for driving AIROF microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Troyk, P; Cogan, S

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and testing of a 96-channel stimulation system to drive activated iridium oxide (AIROF) microelectrodes within safe charge-injection limits. Our system improves upon the traditional capacitively coupled, symmetric charge-balanced biphasic stimulation waveform so as to maximize charge-injection capacity without endangering the microelectrodes. It can deliver computer-controlled cathodic current pulse for to up to 96 AIROF microelectrodes and positively bias them during the inter-pulse interval. The stimulation system is comprised of (1) 12 custom-designed PCB boards each hosting an 8-channel ASIC chip, (2) a motherboard to communicate between these 12 boards and the PC, (3) the PC interface equipped with a DIO card and the corresponding software. We plan to use this system in animal experiments for intracortical neural stimulation of implanted electrodes within our visual prosthesis project.

  3. Dual-channel and multifrequency radar system calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stjernman, Anders; Vivekanandan, J.; Nystrom, Anders

    1995-03-01

    Uncertainty in absolute gain and crosstalk factors are the primary sources of error in dual-channel radar measurements. A full two-port calibration technique compensates for the errors introduced due to an imperfect antenna system and improves the isolation between orthogonal polarization channels as long as the observed cross section is above the equivalent system noise cross section. A novel technique for calibrating a dual-polarized network analyzer-based scatterometer system is discussed. Rigorous two-port S-parameter representation is used to describe absolute gain and crosstalk characteristics. Validity of the crosstalk correction is demonstrated by measuring the point target scattering matrix. Correction factors are obtained by measuring the S-parameters of trihedral and dihedral corner reflectors of known sizes. Results of absolute gain of the antenna system are verified using independent test target cross section measurements.

  4. Occupational urticaria from welding polyurethane

    SciTech Connect

    Kanerva, L.; Estlander, T.; Jolanki, R.; Laehteenmaeki, M.T.Ke.; Keskinen, H. )

    1991-05-01

    An urticarial reaction associated with high fever developed in a welder on four occasions while he was welding steel profiles filled with polyurethane. The fumes emitted during pyrolysis of polyurethane and inhaled by the patient probably caused the urticarial reaction. Provocation tests with two pyrolysis products, 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and 4,4-diaminophenylmethane, were negative. This case demonstrates the difficulty in detecting the cause of urticaria induced by airborne chemicals.

  5. Light Stability of Polyurethane Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-16

    photo-Fries rearrangement products obtained upon photolysis of MDI and 2,4-TDI based polyurethanes. Using a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy...conducted using a Xenon lamp/monochromator combination with 10 nm slits. Photolysis of ,4-TDI-dodecanediol polyurethane films were accomplished using a 100... polyrethane in which the rearrangement is apparently inhibited by the restrictive nature of the crystalline morphology. Similar photolysis of a semi

  6. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  7. Marine information systems and new measuring channels for hydrophysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, G. V.; Olenin, A. L.

    2015-03-01

    The results of the development and implementation of oceanographic information-measuring systems in the 1960s to 1970s and 1980s to 1990s are analytically treated and the basic principles of present-day systems for collecting data on oceanographic parameters are considered. We present the design of a technological platform for multichannel complexes aimed at concurrent measurements of hydrological, optical, and chemical characteristics. The platform allows one to combine the conventional and new channels for measuring oceanographic parameters.

  8. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  9. Adaptive Channel-Tracking Method and Equalization for MC-CDMA Systems over Rapidly Fading Channel under Colored Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chang-Yi; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2010-12-01

    A recursive maximum-likelihood (RML) algorithm for channel estimation under rapidly fading channel and colored noise in a multicarrier code-division multiple-access (MC-CDMA) system is proposed in this paper. A moving-average model with exogenous input (MAX) is given to describe the transmission channel and colored noise. Based on the pseudoregression method, the proposed RML algorithm can simultaneously estimate the parameters of channel and colored noise. Following the estimation results, these parameters can be used to enhance the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) equalizer. Considering high-speed mobile stations, a one-step linear trend predictor is added to improve symbol detection. Simulation results indicate that the proposed RML estimator can track the channel more precisely than the conventional estimator. Meanwhile, the performance of the proposed enhanced MMSE equalizer is robust to the rapidly Rayleigh fading channel under colored noise in the MC-CDMA systems.

  10. A Fast Channel Switching Method in EPON System for IPTV Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yaling; Yoshiuchi, Hideya

    This paper presents a fast channel switching method in Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) system for IPTV service. Fast channel switching is one of the important features of successful IPTV systems. Users surely prefer IPTV systems with small channel switching time rather than a longer one. Thus a channel switching control module and a channel/permission list in EPON system’s ONU or OLT is designed. When EPON system receives channel switching message from IPTV end user, the channel switching control module will catch the message and search the channel list and permission list maintained in EPON system, then got the matching parameter of EPON for the new channel. The new channel’s data transmission will be enabled by directly updating the optical filter of the ONU that end user connected. By using this method in EPON system, it provides a solution for dealing with channel switching delays in IPTV service.

  11. Evaluation of a stream channel-type system for southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    M.D. Bryant; P.E. Porter; S.J. Paustian

    1991-01-01

    Nine channel types within a hierarchical channel-type classification system (CTCS) were surveyed to determine relations between salmonid densities and species distribution, and channel type. Two other habitat classification systems and the amount of large woody debris also were compared to species distribution and salmonid densities, and to stream channel types....

  12. A multi-channel high-? SQUID system and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Tanaka, Saburou; Toyoda, Haruhisa; Hirano, Tetsuya; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Masahiro; Saijou, Tetsuya; Kado, Hisashi

    1996-04-01

    A multi-channel high-temperature superconducting interference device (high-0953-2048/9/4A/011/img11 SQUID) system has been developed. Step edge junctions were employed for the SQUID. Magnetic field resolution was in the range 0953-2048/9/4A/011/img12 at 1 Hz, 0953-2048/9/4A/011/img13 at 10 Hz and 0953-2048/9/4A/011/img14 at 1 kHz. We have designed and developed 16-channel and 32-channel high-0953-2048/9/4A/011/img11 SQUID systems. We used them in a magnetically shielded room to measure magnetic signals of the human heart. We obtained clear multi-channel magnetocardiac signals, which showed clearly the R, S, and T wave peaks. A clear isofield contour map of magnetocardiac signals was also obtained. We also observed activities of the stomach using a tiny steel ball as a tracer. These data indicate that the use of the high-0953-2048/9/4A/011/img11 SQUID is feasible for these biomagnetic applications.

  13. Molecular Beam Sampling Mass Spectrometry of High Heating Rate Pyrolysis: Description of Data Acquisition System and Pyrolysis of HMX in a Polyurethane Binder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    such as described above, a series of pyrolyses was performed on nitro- cellulose (NC) and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine in a polyurethane...similar experiments on HMX/PU (3:1; 5\\i HMX particle size) are shown in Figures 5 and 6. In the slower pyrolyses there generally appears to be no

  14. Heparinized polyurethanes: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Heyman, P W; Cho, C S; McRea, J C; Olsen, D B; Kim, S W

    1985-04-01

    Heparin immobilization chemistry using alkyl spacer arms was adapted to optimize yield on polyurethane (PU) surfaces. The resultant biological activity of immobilized heparin (HI) was examined in vitro and in vivo, and compared with a heparin releasing (HR) system. Immobilized heparin retained its ability to bind and inactivate thrombin and Factor Xa; nonspecific coagulation factor binding was insignificant. Such activity cannot be attributed to the leakage of improperly bound heparin. Immobilized heparin-polyurethane catheters implanted in canine femoral and jugular veins for 1 h periods exhibited significant reduction in thrombus formation compared with untreated PU contralateral controls. Polyurethane catheters coated with a 9% heparin dispersion in PU (HR) system provided even greater improvement in antithrombogenicity.

  15. Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, Nathaniel

    2016-06-19

    The Grant DE-SC0000736, Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices, is a continuation of the Grant DE-FG02-06ER54851, Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines. In publications funded by DE-SC0000736, the grant DE-FG02-06ER54851 was actually credited. The key results obtained under Grant DE-SC0000736, Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices, appear in a series of publications. The earlier effort under DE-FG02- 06ER54851 was the subject of a previous Final Report. The theme of this later effort has been unusual confinement effects, or de-confinement effects, in open-field magnetic confinement devices. First, the possibilities in losing axisymmetry were explored. Then a number of issues in rotating plasma were addressed. Most importantly, a spinoff application to plasma separations was recognized, which also resulted in a provisional patent application. (That provisional patent application, however, was not pursued further.) Alpha channeling entails injecting waves into magnetically confined plasma to release energy from one particular ion while ejecting that ion. The ejection of the ion is actually a concomitant effect in releasing energy from the ion to the wave. In rotating plasma, there is the opportunity to store the energy in a radial electric field rather than in waves. In other words, the ejected alpha particle loses its energy to the radial potential, which in turn produces plasma rotation. This is a very useful effect, since producing radial electric fields by other means are technologically more difficult. In fact, one can heat ions, and then eject them, to produce the desired radial field. In each case, there is a separation effect of different ions, which generalizes the original alpha-channeling concept of separating alpha ash from hydrogen. In a further generalization of the separation concept, a double-well filter represents a new way to produce high-throughput separations of ions, potentially useful for nuclear waste remediation.

  16. Dynamics of Ceramide Channels Detected Using a Microfluidic System

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Don L.; Colombini, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Ceramide, a proapoptotic sphingolipid, has been shown to form channels, in mitochondrial outer membranes, large enough to translocate proteins. In phospholipid membranes, electrophysiological studies and electron microscopic visualization both report that these channels form in a range of sizes with a modal value of 10 nm in diameter. A hydrogen bonded barrel-like structure consisting of hundreds of ceramide molecules has been proposed for the structure of the channel and this is supported by electrophysiological studies and molecular dynamic simulations. To our knowledge, the mechanical strength and deformability of such a large diameter but extremely thin cylindrical structure has never been reported. Here we present evidence for a reversible mechanical distortion of the cylinder following the addition of La3+. A microfluidic system was used to repeatedly lower and then restore the conductance by alternatively perfusing La3+ and EDTA. Although aspects of the kinetics of conductance drop and recovery are consistent with a disassembly/diffusion/reassembly model, others are inconsistent with the expected time scale of lateral diffusion of disassembled channel fragments in the membrane. The presence of a residual conductance following La3+ treatment and the relationship between the residual conductance and the initial conductance were both indicative of a distortion/recovery process in analogy with a pressure-induced distortion of a flexible cylinder. PMID:22984432

  17. A Helical Cooling Channel System for Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuya Yonehara, Rolland Johnson, Michael Neubauer, Yaroslav Derbenev

    2010-03-01

    Fast muon beam six dimensional (6D) phase space cooling is essential for muon colliders. The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) uses hydrogen-pressurized RF cavities imbedded in a magnet system with solenoid, helical dipole, and helical quadrupole components that provide the continuous dispersion needed for emittance exchange and effective 6D beam cooling. A series of HCC segments, each with sequentially smaller aperture, higher magnetic field, and higher RF frequency to match the beam size as it is cooled, has been optimized by numerical simulation to achieve a factor of 105 emittance reduction in a 300 m long channel with only a 40% loss of beam. Conceptual designs of the hardware required for this HCC system and the status of the RF studies and HTS helical solenoid magnet prototypes are described.

  18. Coupled-channel systems in a finite volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2012-10-01

    In this talk I will motivate studies of two-body coupled-channel systems in a finite volume in connection with the ultimate goal of studying nuclear reactions, as well as hadronic resonances, directly from lattice QCD. I will discuss how one can determine phase shifts and mixing parameters of coupled-channels such as that of pipi-KK isosinglet system from the energy spectrum in a finite volume with periodic boundary conditions. From the energy quantization condition, the volume dependence of electroweak matrix elements of two-hadron processes can also be extracted. This is necessary for studying weak processes that mix isosinglet-isotriplet two-nucleon states, e.g. proton-proton fusion. I will show how one can obtain such transition amplitudes from lattice QCD using the formalism developed.

  19. 48-channel coincidence counting system for multiphoton experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chen; Li, Wei; Hu, Yi; Yang, Tao; Jin, Ge; Jiang, Xiao

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a coincidence counting system with 48 input channels which is aimed to count all coincidence events, up to 531 441 kinds, in a multiphoton experiment. Using the dynamic delay adjusting inside the Field Programmable Gate Array, the alignment of photon signals of 48 channels is achieved. After the alignment, clock phase shifting is used to sample signal pulses. Logic constraints are used to stabilize the pulse width. The coincidence counting data stored in a 1G bit external random access memory will be sent to the computer to analyze the amount of 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-fold coincidence events. This system is designed for multiphoton entanglement experiments with multiple degrees of freedom of photons.

  20. Interactive full channel teletext system for cable television nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenboom, H. P. A.

    1984-08-01

    A demonstration set-up of an interactive full channel teletext (FCT) system for cable TV networks with two-way data communication possibilities was designed and realized. In FCT all image lines are used for teletext data lines. The FCT decoder was placed in the mini-star, and the FCT encoder which provides the FCT signal was placed in the local center. From the FCT signal a number of data lines are selected using an extra FCT decoder. They are placed on the image lines reserved for teletext so that a normal TV receiver equipped with a teletext decoder, can process the selected data lines. For texts not on hand in the FCT signal, a command can be sent to the local center via the data communication path. A cheap and simple system is offered in which the number of commanded pages or books is in principle unlimited, while the used waiting time and channel capacity is limited.

  1. Molecular engineering of manipulated alginate-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

    2014-11-04

    The novel soluble alginate-based polyurethanes in organic solvents were synthesized by the reaction of NCO-terminated prepolymers and tributylammonium alginate (TBA-Alg) for the first time. The chemical structures of synthesized polyurethanes were characterized using FTIR, (1)H NMR and TGA. The reaction completion was confirmed by disappearing of NCO band in FTIR spectra. Furthermore, a peak at 4.71 ppm and some small peaks at a range of 4.12-4.37 ppm in the (1)H NMR of alginate-based polyurethanes were assigned to the backbone of alginate. The results of both FTIR and (1)H NMR were remarkably confirmed by TGA data. The ionic nature of polyurethane backbone not only affects on thermal properties of samples, but it also changes the chemically-bonded alginate morphology. Both polyether and polyester based non-ionic polyurethanes extended by TBA-Alg illustrated the distinct alginate, whereas those ionomers extended by alginate were appeared as the continuous systems at nanoscale.

  2. Physicochemical characterisation and biological evaluation of polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine engineered polyurethane (Tecoflex(®)).

    PubMed

    Khandwekar, Anand P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial adhesion and encrustation are the known causes for obstruction or blockage of urethral catheters and ureteral stents, which often hinders their effective use within the urinary tract. In this in vitro study, polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I) complex modified polyurethane (Tecoflex(®)) systems were created by physically entrapping the modifying species during the reversible swelling of the polymer surface region. The presence of the PVP-I molecules on this surfaces were verified by ATR-FTIR, AFM and SEM-EDAX analysis, while wettability of the films was investigated by water contact angle measurements. The modified surfaces were investigated for its suitability as a urinary tract biomaterial by comparing its lubricity and ability to resist bacterial adherence and encrustation with that of base polyurethane. The PVP-I modified polyurethane showed a nanopatterned surface topography and was highly hydrophilic and more lubricious than control polyurethane. Adherence of both the gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (by 86%; **P < 0.01) and gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (by 80%; *P < 0.05) was significantly reduced on the modified surfaces. The deposition of struvite and hydroxyapatite the major components of urinary tract encrustations were significantly less on PVP-I modified polyurethane as compared to base polyurethane, especially reduction in hydroxyapatite encrustation was particularly marked. These results demonstrated that the PVP-I entrapment process can be applied on polyurethane in order to reduce/lower complications associated with bacterial adhesion and deposition of encrustation on polyurethanes.

  3. Understanding channel tropism in traditional Chinese medicine in the context of systems biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Songlin; Chen, Gang; Wang, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Channel tropism is investigated and developed through long-term clinical practice. In recent years, the development of channel tropism theory has attracted increasing attention. This study analyzed channel tropism theory and the problems associated with it. Results showed that this theory and systems biology have a similar holistic viewpoint. Systems biology could provide novel insights and platform in the study of channel tropism. Some problems in channel tropism theory, including pharmacology and action mechanism, were investigated.

  4. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8095 - Silylated polyurethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silylated polyurethane. 721.8095... Substances § 721.8095 Silylated polyurethane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a silylated polyurethane (PMN P-95-1356)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8095 - Silylated polyurethane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silylated polyurethane. 721.8095... Substances § 721.8095 Silylated polyurethane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a silylated polyurethane (PMN P-95-1356)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is subject...

  11. The elusive character of discontinuous deep-water channels: New insights from Lucia Chica channel system, offshore California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, K.L.; Fildani, A.; Paull, C.K.; Graham, S.A.; McHargue, T.R.; Caress, D.W.; McGann, M.

    2011-01-01

    New high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) seafloor images, with 1 m lateral resolution and 0.3 m vertical resolution, reveal unexpected seafloor rugosity and low-relief (<10 m), discontinuous conduits over ~70 km2. Continuous channel thalwegs were interpreted originally from lower-resolution images, but newly acquired AUV data indicate that a single sinuous channel fed a series of discontinuous lower-relief channels. These discontinuous channels were created by at least four avulsion events. Channel relief, defined as the height from the thalweg to the levee crest, controls avulsions and overall stratigraphic architecture of the depositional area. Flowstripped turbidity currents separated into and reactivated multiple channels to create a distributary pattern and developed discontinuous trains of cyclic scours and megaflutes, which may be erosional precursors to continuous channels. The diverse features now imaged in the Lucia Chica channel system (offshore California) are likely common in modern and ancient systems with similar overall morphologies, but have not been previously mapped with lower-resolution detection methods in any of these systems. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  12. Interfacial contributions in lignocellulosic fiber-reinforced polyurethane composites

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Rials; Michael P. Wolcott; John M. Nassar

    2001-01-01

    Whereas lignocellulosic fibers have received considerable attention as a rein- forcing agent in thermoplastic composites, their applicability to reactive polymer systems remains of considerable interest. The hydroxyl-rich nature of natural lignocellulosic fibers suggests that they are particularly useful in thermosetting systems such as polyurethanes. To further this...

  13. Interfacial contributions in lignocellulosic firber-reinforced polyurethane composites

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Rials; Michael P. Wolcott; John M. Nassar

    2001-01-01

    Whereas lignocellulosic fibers have received considerable attention as a reinforcing agent in thermoplastic composites, their applicability to reactive polymer systems remains of considerable interest. The hydroxyl-rich nature of natural lignocellulosic fibers suggests that they are particularly useful in thermsetting systems such as polyurethanes. To further this...

  14. Channel capacity of an array system for Gaussian channels with applications to combining and noise cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K. M.; Vilnrotter, V.

    1996-01-01

    A closed-form expression for the capacity of an array of correlated Gaussian channels is derived. It is shown that when signal and noise are independent, the array of observables can be replaced with a single observable without diminishing the capacity of the array channel. Examples are provided to illustrate the dependence of channel capacity on noise correlation for two- and three-channel arrays.

  15. Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to qualify candidate alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethane coatings under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  16. Localization in chaotic systems with a single-channel opening.

    PubMed

    Lippolis, Domenico; Ryu, Jung-Wan; Kim, Sang Wook

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a single-channel opening in a random Hamiltonian and a quantized chaotic map: localization on the opening occurs as a sensible deviation of the wave-function statistics from the predictions of random matrix theory, even in the semiclassical limit. Increasing the coupling to the open channel in the quantum model, we observe a similar picture to resonance trapping, made of a few fast-decaying states, whose left (right) eigenfunctions are entirely localized on the (preimage of the) opening, and plentiful long-lived states, whose probability density is instead suppressed at the opening. For the latter, we derive and test a linear relation between the wave-function intensities and the decay rates, similar to the Breit-Wigner law. We then analyze the statistics of the eigenfunctions of the corresponding (discretized) classical propagator, finding a similar behavior to the quantum system only in the weak-coupling regime.

  17. Transmission over UWB channels with OFDM system using LDPC coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziwoki, Grzegorz; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Sulek, Wojciech

    2009-06-01

    Hostile wireless environment requires use of sophisticated signal processing methods. The paper concerns on Ultra Wideband (UWB) transmission over Personal Area Networks (PAN) including MB-OFDM specification of physical layer. In presented work the transmission system with OFDM modulation was connected with LDPC encoder/decoder. Additionally the frame and bit error rate (FER and BER) of the system was decreased using results from the LDPC decoder in a kind of turbo equalization algorithm for better channel estimation. Computational block using evolutionary strategy, from genetic algorithms family, was also used in presented system. It was placed after SPA (Sum-Product Algorithm) decoder and is conditionally turned on in the decoding process. The result is increased effectiveness of the whole system, especially lower FER. The system was tested with two types of LDPC codes, depending on type of parity check matrices: randomly generated and constructed deterministically, optimized for practical decoder architecture implemented in the FPGA device.

  18. Investigation of Rapidly Deployable Plastic Foam Systems. Volume II. Nonlinear Deformation and Local Buckling of Kevlar Fabric/Polyurethane Foam Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    fab:il was Kevlar 49*. The aramids have a very high explosion, iviternal temperature was noted to be at modulus of elasticity and high tensile...POLYURETHANE FOAM COMPOSITES and corrosion-resistant properties. Advancement of the fast-foaming technology of high polymers for structural...lightweight, deployed into a desired structural geometry within a high -strength composites has generated significant few seconds. interest in their

  19. A Multiple-Channel Sub-Band Transient Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Smith

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a unique multiple-channel sub-band transient detection system to record transient electromagnetic signals in carrier-dominated radio environments; the system has been used to make unique observations of weak, transient HF signals. The detection system has made these observations possible through improved sensitivity compared to conventional broadband transient detection systems; the sensitivity improvement is estimated to be at least 20 dB. The increase in sensitivity has been achieved through subdivision of the band of interest (an 18 MHz tunable bandwidth) into eight sub-band independent detection channels, each with a 400 kHz bandwidth and its own criteria. The system generates a system trigger signal when a predetermined number of channels (typically five) trigger within a predetermined window of time (typically 100 ~s). Events are recorded with a broadband data acquisition system sampling at 50 or 100 Msample/s, so despite the fact that the detection system operates on portions of the signal confined to narrow bands, data acquisition is broadband. Between May and September of 1994, the system was used to detect and record over six thousand transient events in the frequency band from 3 to 30 MHz. Approximately 500 of the events have been characterized as paired bursts of radio noise with individual durations of 2 to 10 ps and separations between the bursts of 5 to 160 ps. The paired transients are typically 5 to 40 dB brighter than the background electromagnetic spectrum between carrier signals. We have termed these events SubIonospheric Pulse Pairs (SIPPS) and presently have no explanation as to their source. Our observations of SIPPS resemble observations of TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs (TIPPs) recorded by the Blackboard instrument on the ALEXIS satellite; the source of TIPP events is also unknown. Most of the recorded SIPP events do not exhibit frequency dispersion, implying propagation along a line-of-sight (groundwave) path; but seven of

  20. Systems Modeling of a Hypothetical SSME Channel-Wall Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D.; Thames, Mignon P.; Polsgrove, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    A future upgrade to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) may be the replacement of the current regenerative cooled tube-wall nozzle with a nozzle using a regeneratively-cooled channel-wall design. The current tube-wall design represents the only major piece of SSME hardware that has not been dramatically updated throughout thc long history of the engine. There are a number of advantages to a channel-wall design including the promise of faster and lower cost fabrication and greater reliability in the field. The technical obstacles in the path of making this happen are many, particularly in the realms of metallurgy and manufacturing techniques. However, one technical area that can and should be addressed in the near term as part of the development of detailed component requirements is a systems type model of the fluid flow and heat transfer processes to which the new design will be exposed. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a mathematical model of the internal flow for a generic channel-wall nozzle functioning as a direct replacement for the current tube-wall nozzle with a minimum of systems-level changes. Comparisons will be made to mathematical modeling results for the current tube-wall design and the results of various geometrical trade studies will be presented. It is the intent of this work to examine the feasibility of the concept of a direct replacement component with minimum systems-!eve impacts and to highlight potential areas of concern requiring further work in the future.

  1. Systems Modeling of a Hypothetical SSME Channel-Wall Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William D.; Thames, Mignon P.; Polsgrove, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    A future upgrade to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) may be the replacement of the current regenerative cooled tube-wall nozzle with a nozzle using a regeneratively-cooled channel-wall design. The current tube-wall design represents the only major piece of SSME hardware that has not been dramatically updated throughout thc long history of the engine. There are a number of advantages to a channel-wall design including the promise of faster and lower cost fabrication and greater reliability in the field. The technical obstacles in the path of making this happen are many, particularly in the realms of metallurgy and manufacturing techniques. However, one technical area that can and should be addressed in the near term as part of the development of detailed component requirements is a systems type model of the fluid flow and heat transfer processes to which the new design will be exposed. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a mathematical model of the internal flow for a generic channel-wall nozzle functioning as a direct replacement for the current tube-wall nozzle with a minimum of systems-level changes. Comparisons will be made to mathematical modeling results for the current tube-wall design and the results of various geometrical trade studies will be presented. It is the intent of this work to examine the feasibility of the concept of a direct replacement component with minimum systems-!eve impacts and to highlight potential areas of concern requiring further work in the future.

  2. Improved primer for bonding polyurethane adhesives to metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constanza, L. J.

    1969-01-01

    Primer ensures effective bonding integrity of polyurethane adhesives on metal surfaces at temperatures ranging from minus 423 degrees to plus 120 degrees F. It provides greater metal surface protection and bond strengths over this temperature range than could be attained with other adhesive systems.

  3. Evaluation of Polyurethane as a Cosmetic Glove Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Polyurethane latex was evaluated for possible use as a cosmetic glove material. A two component latex system was used with a number of films and a... cosmetic glove being fabricated and evaluated with varying amounts of the two components. The mechanical properties indicate that the material is

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of a polyurethane elastomer under thermal stress

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, A.L.; Schoonover, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    FTIR spectroscopy was used to study changes in hydrogen bonding in estane, a polyurethane elastomer used as a binding agent in high explosive systems, as a function of temperature. Hydrogen bonding in estane has been observed to decrease with an increase in temperature.

  5. The Quaternary North Channel-Pitas Point Fault System in Northwest Santa Barbara Channel, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorlien, C. C.; Nicholson, C.; Behl, R. J.; Marshall, C. J.; Kennett, J.

    2014-12-01

    The north margin of the rapidly-shortening, rapidly subsiding offshore and western onshore Ventura Basin is comprised of major N-dipping faults that step left. Offshore in Santa Barbara Channel, part of the shortening accommodated by the shallow Red Mountain fault is transferred farther offshore to the North Channel-Pitas Point fault system (NC-PP). We previously investigated the eastern offshore 50 km of this fault system using dense grids of industry multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) data and local grids of high resolution MCS data. Timing and rates of the observed deformation were determined by correlation to a detailed dated stratigraphy derived from piston cores that sampled seafloor outcrops back to 740 ka, as well as biostratigraphy, oxygen isotopic stratigraphy, a dated industry well-log horizon, and tephrochonology of the 639 ka Lava Creek ash. We are now continuing our interpretation of the NC-PP through its western 50 km using 2D and 3D MCS data and this previous dated seismic stratigraphy. The PP-NC is variably blind along strike, with its upper tips in places below the 1 Ma horizon and in other locations cutting up to higher levels. The blind slip is absorbed by a progressively-tilting S-dipping forelimb everywhere. Preliminary examination of cross sections through our 8 gridded, depth-converted horizons suggests that the rate of tilting has not significantly changed during the last 1 Myr, and that dips and structural relief, although variable, are not systematically greater in the east than in the west between Carpinteria and the UCSB campus at 119° 50' W.. Farther westward, the rate of tilting, and probably the rate of offshore shortening, decreases steadily through 40 km between 120° 05' W. and the end of the system beyond Point Conception. This trend mirrors the decrease in elevation and structural relief of the Santa Ynez Mountains above the deep fault. As in its eastern part, there is no evidence of a major change in tilt rate through the

  6. Channeling power across ecological systems: social regularities in community organizing.

    PubMed

    Christens, Brian D; Inzeo, Paula Tran; Faust, Victoria

    2014-06-01

    Relational and social network perspectives provide opportunities for more holistic conceptualizations of phenomena of interest in community psychology, including power and empowerment. In this article, we apply these tools to build on multilevel frameworks of empowerment by proposing that networks of relationships between individuals constitute the connective spaces between ecological systems. Drawing on an example of a model for grassroots community organizing practiced by WISDOM—a statewide federation supporting local community organizing initiatives in Wisconsin—we identify social regularities (i.e., relational and temporal patterns) that promote empowerment and the development and exercise of social power through building and altering relational ties. Through an emphasis on listening-focused one-to-one meetings, reflection, and social analysis, WISDOM organizing initiatives construct and reinforce social regularities that develop social power in the organizing initiatives and advance psychological empowerment among participant leaders in organizing. These patterns are established by organizationally driven brokerage and mobilization of interpersonal ties, some of which span ecological systems.Hence, elements of these power-focused social regularities can be conceptualized as cross-system channels through which micro-level empowerment processes feed into macro-level exercise of social power, and vice versa. We describe examples of these channels in action, and offer recommendations for theory and design of future action research [corrected] .

  7. Nasolacrimal Polyurethane Stent: Complications with CT Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Isabel T.; Paul, Laura; Grande, Carlos

    1998-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate initial results in patients with epiphora secondary to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct treated by placement of a polyurethane stent, and to discuss the technical problems and complications arising during the procedure, with visualization of the anatomy of the drainage apparatus using computed tomography (CT). Methods: We inserted 20 polyurethane Song stents under fluoroscopic guidance after dacryocystography in 19 patients with grade 3-4 epiphora caused by idiopathic obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. CT scans were obtained following stent placement in all patients. Results: We focus on the technical problems and complications that arose during these procedures. During negotiation of the guidewire past the obstruction at the level of the junction of the duct with the lacrimal sac, the guidewire created a false passage in a posterior suborbital direction in two cases and towards the posterior midline in another. In all cases the guidewire was withdrawn and reinserted through the proper anatomic route without further difficulty or complications. In two cases the stent was improperly positioned wholly or partially outside the nasolacrimal system (one medially, one posteriorly). In one case the stent was removed and reinserted; in the other it remains in place and functional. CT was performed in all these cases to ensure proper anatomic alignment and determine what had gone wrong. The epiphora was completely resolved in 13 cases and partially relieved in four; there were three cases of stent obstruction. Epistaxis of short duration (1 hr) occurred in seven patients and headache in one. Conclusions: Treatment of epiphora with polyurethane stents is a technique that is well tolerated by patients and achieves a high success rate, yet problems in placement may be encountered. Though no major consequences for patients are involved, cognizance of such difficulties is important to avoid incorrect positioning of stents.

  8. Traveling Wave RF Systems for Helical Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; Lunin, A.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Romanov, G.; Neubauer, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Thorndahl, L.; /CERN

    2009-05-01

    The great advantage of the helical ionization cooling channel (HCC) is its compact structure that enables the fast cooling of muon beam 6-dimensional phase space. This compact aspect requires a high average RF gradient, with few places that do not have cavities. Also, the muon beam is diffuse and requires an RF system with large transverse and longitudinal acceptance. A traveling wave system can address these requirements. First, the number of RF power coupling ports can be significantly reduced compared with our previous pillbox concept. Secondly, by adding a nose on the cell iris, the presence of thin metal foils traversed by the muons can possibly be avoided. We show simulations of the cooling performance of a traveling wave RF system in a HCC, including cavity geometries with inter-cell RF power couplers needed for power propagation.

  9. Microporous biodegradable polyurethane membranes for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Yuen Kee; Gogolewski, Sylwester

    2009-08-01

    Microporous membranes with controlled pore size and structure were produced from biodegradable polyurethane based on aliphatic diisocyanate, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diol and isosorbide chain extender using the modified phase-inversion technique. The following parameters affecting the process of membrane formation were investigated: the type of solvent, solvent-nonsolvent ratio, polymer concentration in solution, polymer solidification time, and the thickness of the polymer solution layer cast on a substrate. The experimental systems evaluated were polymer-N,N-dimethylformamide-water, polymer-N,N-dimethylacetamide-water and polymer-dimethylsulfoxide-water. From all three systems evaluated the best results were obtained for the system polymer-N,N-dimethylformamide-water. The optimal conditions for the preparation of microporous polyurethane membranes were: polymer concentration in solution 5% (w/v), the amount of nonsolvent 10% (v/v), the cast temperature 23 degrees C, and polymer solidification time in the range of 24-48 h depending on the thickness of the cast polymer solution layer. Membranes obtained under these conditions had interconnected pores, well defined pore size and structure, good water permeability and satisfactory mechanical properties to allow for suturing. Potential applications of these membranes are skin wound cover and, in combination with autogenous chondrocytes, as an "artificial periosteum" in the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

  10. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725 are...

  11. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725 are...

  12. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725 are...

  13. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725 are...

  14. 47 CFR 22.757 - Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels for basic exchange telephone radio... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Rural Radiotelephone Service Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Systems § 22.757 Channels for basic exchange telephone radio systems. The channels listed in § 22.725 are...

  15. A Channel System and Patterned Ground near Hellas Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-01

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the southwestern floor of a 50-kilometer diameter unnamed crater, about 100 kilometers northeast of Hellas Basin. The crater's rim is breached on both the north and south by a valley system that previously flowed across the crater floor, leaving behind an interesting array of channel patterns and deposits as it transported water and sediments into and out of the crater. In this image, we see a portion of the channel system along the southwestern crater floor near where the valley breaches the southern rim. The darker-toned surface has a pattern similar to the texture of a basketball, and blankets the region both in the channel belt and in the basin below the cliffs. Superposed on this patterned surface are clusters of larger, circular mounds that may be related to the thawing and freezing of ice-rich sediment, which is unusual at this relatively low latitude. Extensional cracks and clusters of pits make this topography more complicated. The southern part of this image reveals a prominent irregular scarp with light-toned layered deposits exposed along the margin beneath this textured surface. The light-toned layers look like an ancient mosaic in some areas as they are irregularly fractured and brecciated. Individual blocks and large boulders of this material are visible at full-resolution near the scarp, just about to fall and already lying on the debris slopes below the scarp. Some are brighter than the others: these may be dust-free, indicating that they have detached from the cliff more recently. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19850

  16. Spray polyurethane foam in external envelopes of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Bomberg, M.T.; Lstiburek, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    ``Spray Polyurethane Foam in External Envelopes of Buildings'' presents, for the first time, a book focused on both the theoretical and practical design and applications of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) use. To review the moisture performance of SPF, this book focuses on the design of an assembly where moisture is kept from accumulating and causing deterioration (flow through approach). In this approach, ``Spray Polyurethane Foam'' presents two unique parts of theory and practice of various SPF products. Contents include: Part One: Performance Evaluation of System Components: Definition of Spray Polyurethane Foams; Factors Affecting performance of the Foam; Testing Physical Characteristics of Foam; Evaluation of Protective Coverings and Barriers; Quality Management in Construction Process; Technical Support for the SPF Contractor; Implementation of the Performance-Based Quality Management and Part Two: The Systems Approach to Buildings: Principles of Environmental Control in Building Envelopes; Design and Performance of Roofing Systems with SPF; Design and Performance of Walls with SPF; Case Studies--SPF Used for Remedial Measures.

  17. Eag1 K+ Channel: Endogenous Regulation and Functions in Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Tokay, Tursonjan; Zhang, Guangming; Sun, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Ether-à-go-go1 (Eag1, Kv10.1, KCNH1) K+ channel is a member of the voltage-gated K+ channel family mainly distributed in the central nervous system and cancer cells. Like other types of voltage-gated K+ channels, the EAG1 channels are regulated by a variety of endogenous signals including reactive oxygen species, rendering the EAG1 to be in the redox-regulated ion channel family. The role of EAG1 channels in tumor development and its therapeutic significance have been well established. Meanwhile, the importance of hEAG1 channels in the nervous system is now increasingly appreciated. The present review will focus on the recent progress on the channel regulation by endogenous signals and the potential functions of EAG1 channels in normal neuronal signaling as well as neurological diseases. PMID:28367272

  18. Eag1 K(+) Channel: Endogenous Regulation and Functions in Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo; Tokay, Tursonjan; Zhang, Guangming; Sun, Peng; Hou, Shangwei

    2017-01-01

    Ether-à-go-go1 (Eag1, Kv10.1, KCNH1) K(+) channel is a member of the voltage-gated K(+) channel family mainly distributed in the central nervous system and cancer cells. Like other types of voltage-gated K(+) channels, the EAG1 channels are regulated by a variety of endogenous signals including reactive oxygen species, rendering the EAG1 to be in the redox-regulated ion channel family. The role of EAG1 channels in tumor development and its therapeutic significance have been well established. Meanwhile, the importance of hEAG1 channels in the nervous system is now increasingly appreciated. The present review will focus on the recent progress on the channel regulation by endogenous signals and the potential functions of EAG1 channels in normal neuronal signaling as well as neurological diseases.

  19. Preparation of highly fluorinated polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochow, S. E.; Stump, E. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    New polyurethanes, formed from a reaction of a prepolymer diol and a perfluorinated diisocyanate, are nonflammable and possess high corrosion resistance and good low temperature flexibility. Polymer hardness increases rapidly with increasing ratio of diisocaynate to diol, but its glass transition temperature is not adversely affected.

  20. A portable fNIRS system with eight channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Juanning; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhang, Yujin; Zuo, Nianming; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-03-01

    Abundant study on the hemodynamic response of a brain have brought quite a few advances in technologies of measuring it. The most benefitted is the functional near infrared spectroscope (fNIRS). A variety of devices have been developed for different applications. Because portable fNIRS systems were more competent to measure responses either of special subjects or in natural environment, several kinds of portable fNIRS systems have been reported. However, they all required a computer for receiving data. The extra computer increases the cost of a fNIRS system. What's more noticeable is the space required to locate the computer even for a portable system. It will discount the portability of the fNIRS system. So we designed a self-contained eight channel fNIRS system, which does not demand a computer to receive data and display data in a monitor. Instead, the system is centered by an ARM core CPU, which takes charge in organizing data and saving data, and then displays data on a touch screen. The system has also been validated by experiments on phantoms and on subjects in tasks.

  1. Application of a multi-channel system for continuous monitoring and an early warning system.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Song, C H; Kim, B C; Gu, M B

    2006-01-01

    A multi-channel continuous toxicity monitoring system developed in our laboratory, based on two-stage mini-bioreactors, was successfully implemented in the form of computer-based data acquisition. The multi-channel system consists of a series of a two-stage minibioreactor systems connected by a fiber optic probe to a luminometer, and uses genetically engineered bioluminescent bacteria for the detection of the potential toxicity from the soluble chemicals. This system can be stably and continuously operated due to the separation of the culture reactor from the test reactor and accomplish easy and long-term monitoring without system shut down by abrupt inflows of severe polluting chemicals. Four different recombinant bioluminescent bacteria were used in different channels so that the modes of the samples toxicities can be reasonably identified and evaluated based upon the response signature of each channel. The bioluminescent signatures were delivered from four channels by switching one at once, while the data is automatically logged to an IBM compatible computer. We also achieved the enhancement of the system through the manipulation of the dilution rate and the use of thermo-lux fusion strains. Finally, this system is now being implemented to a drinking water reservoir and river for remote sensing as an early warning system.

  2. THz channel characterization for future wireless gigabit indoor communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesiewicz, Radoslaw; Jemai, Jaouhar; Koch, Martin; Kurner, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Short range wireless communication systems are expanding at rapid rate, finding application in offices, congested urban areas and homes. Development of wireless local area networks is accompanied by a steady increase in the demand for ever higher data rates. This in turn entails the necessity to develop communication systems which operate at higher frequencies. Currently WLAN works at a few GHz, while systems operating at several ten GHz appear already feasible. It can be expected that wireless short-range communication networks will soon push towards the THz frequency range and that systems which handle high-density information and support wider bandwidth communications will be developed in a few years time. Since THz radiation is strongly absorbed by the atmosphere, working distances may be short and individual THz pico-cells may cover only single rooms or at most one building. For an indoor system of practical importance it must be robust against shadowing. Recently, flexible all-plastic mirrors, supporting specular reflections in the THz range have been demonstrated. They are cheap and easy to produce and can be used as frequency selective wall-paper to enhance the reflectivity of walls and hence facilitate non-line-of-sight communication in a THz cell. For this case the spatial and temporal characteristics of the indoor THz propagation channel in a room with randomly placed objects and moving people are derived with ray-tracing methodology and Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations show that high-gain antennas will be needed for the realization of THz communication in indoor environments. Furthermore, indirect transmission paths between transmitter and receiver, supported by dielectric mirrors make the communication channel much more robust against shadowing.

  3. A multi-channel, optically coupled spark gap monitor system

    SciTech Connect

    Gribble, R.; Barnes, G.A.

    1987-10-01

    A spark gap monitor system has been installed on FRX-C Large Source Modification, a theta pinch experiment which forms field-reversed configuration (FRC) compact toroids. The field reversing theta pinch produces a vacuum magnetic field of 10kG inside the single turn, 2-m-long straight 0.7-id coil by discharging in series two 50kV, 200..mu..F capacitor banks with a total of 140 2.8..mu..F capacitors each with a start spark-gap switch and a ''piggy-back'' crowbar spark-gap switch. Efficient operation of the bank requires information on the timing and function of each capacitor-spark gap unit. Diagnosing the capacitor-spark-gap unit load cable current (approximately 3kA per cable) is complicated by the fact that the ground return for the capacitor is of a relatively high impedance. Units that are allowed to prefire or postfire not only degrade the performance of the bank but will self destruct or destroy their neighbors. To provide this information without introducing high voltage transients into the data acquisition and control system as optically coupled, 140 channel gap monitor system has been installed. Simplicity and reliability were key requirements in the design of the system. A resistor made of thin wall stainless steel tubing replaces a short section of the braid on one load cable on each capacitor. The voltage developed across the resistor provides the current source to drive an LED. The relatively linear output from the LED is transmitted through approximately 30m of fiber optic cable to the FRX-C control room. The signal is received by a photo diode and simple amplifier circuit that feeds the signal into a 12 channel charge integrating ADC CAMAC module for processing by the computer. The information provided by this system informs the operator as to when and how each gap fired. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  5. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  6. Automatic channel trimming for control systems: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Sykes, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Set of bias signals added to channel inputs automatically normalize differences between channels. Algorithm and second feedback loop compute trim biases. Concept could be applied to regulators and multichannel servosystems for remote manipulators in undersea mining.

  7. Automatic channel trimming for control systems: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Sykes, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Set of bias signals added to channel inputs automatically normalize differences between channels. Algorithm and second feedback loop compute trim biases. Concept could be applied to regulators and multichannel servosystems for remote manipulators in undersea mining.

  8. Fully integrated control system for the Discovery Channel Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiecha, Oliver M.; Sebring, Thomas A.

    2004-09-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope control system incorporates very demanding requirements regarding fast serviceability and remote operation of the telescope itself as well as facility management tools and security systems. All system capabilities are accessible from a central user interface anywhere, anytime. Although the mature stage of telescope control technology allows focusing more on science rather than on telescope operation, the time and effort needed to integrate a large suite of software modules still impose a challenge to which reusing existing software is one of the answers, especially for advanced subsystems with distributed collaborative development teams. DCT's large CCD camera presents enormous computational problems due to the overwhelming amount of generated data. Properly implemented preventive maintenance and reliability aspects of telescope operation call for historical and real time data in order to determine behavioral trends and permit early detection of failure factors. In this new approach utility monitoring and power conditioning and management are integral parts of the control system. Proposed real time spectral analysis system of sound and vibration of key mount components allows tracking mechanical component deterioration that could lead to performance degradation. Survival control cells and unmanned operation systems are other options being explored for operation in harsh climatic conditions.

  9. Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters chartered the Acquisition Pollution Prevention (AP2) Office to coordinate agency activities affecting pollution prevention issues identified during system and component acquisition and sustainment processes. The primary objective of this effort is to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethane coatings. Successful completion of this project will result in one or more isocyanate-free coating systems qualified for use at Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and NASA centers participating in this study. The objective of this project is to qualify the candidates under the specifications for the standard system. This project will compare coating performance of the proposed alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  10. A review: fabrication of porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Janik, H; Marzec, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of tissue engineering is the fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds that can be used for the reconstruction and regeneration of damaged or deformed tissues and organs. A wide variety of techniques have been developed to create either fibrous or porous scaffolds from polymers, metals, composite materials and ceramics. However, the most promising materials are biodegradable polymers due to their comprehensive mechanical properties, ability to control the rate of degradation and similarities to natural tissue structures. Polyurethanes (PUs) are attractive candidates for scaffold fabrication, since they are biocompatible, and have excellent mechanical properties and mechanical flexibility. PU can be applied to various methods of porous scaffold fabrication, among which are solvent casting/particulate leaching, thermally induced phase separation, gas foaming, emulsion freeze-drying and melt moulding. Scaffold properties obtained by these techniques, including pore size, interconnectivity and total porosity, all depend on the thermal processing parameters, and the porogen agent and solvents used. In this review, various polyurethane systems for scaffolds are discussed, as well as methods of fabrication, including the latest developments, and their advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Biodegradable injectable polyurethanes: synthesis and evaluation for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Raju; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Griffiths, Ian; Tatai, Lisa; Wickramaratna, Malsha; Houshyar, Shadi; Moore, Tim; Mayadunne, Roshan T M; Field, John; McGee, Margaret; Carbone, Tania

    2008-10-01

    Biodegradable polyurethanes offer advantages in the design of injectable or preformed scaffolds for tissue engineering and other medical implant applications. We have developed two-part injectable prepolymer systems (prepolymer A and B) consisting of lactic acid and glycolic acid based polyester star polyols, pentaerythritol (PE) and ethyl lysine diisocyanate (ELDI). This study reports on the formulation and properties of a series of cross linked polyurethanes specifically developed for orthopaedic applications. Prepolymer A was based on PE and ELDI. Polyester polyols (prepolymer B) were based on PE and dl-lactic acid (PEDLLA) or PE and glycolic acid (PEGA) with molecular weights 456 and 453, respectively. Several cross linked porous and non-porous polyurethanes were prepared by mixing and curing prepolymers A and B and their mechanical and thermal properties, in vitro (PBS/37 degrees C/pH 7.4) and in vivo (sheep bi-lateral) degradation evaluated. The effect of incorporating beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP, 5 microns, 10 wt.%) was also investigated. The cured polymers exhibited high compressive strength (100-190 MPa) and modulus (1600-2300 MPa). beta-TCP improved mechanical properties in PEDLLA based polyurethanes and retarded the onset of in vitro and in vivo degradation. Sheep study results demonstrated that the polymers in both injectable and precured forms did not cause any surgical difficulties or any adverse tissue response. Evidence of new bone growth and the gradual degradation of the polymers were observed with increased implant time up to 6 months.

  12. Polyurethane Masks Large Areas in Electroplating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Polyurethane foam provides effective mask in electroplating of copper or nickel. Thin layer of Turco maskant painted on area to be masked: Layer ensures polyurethane foam removed easily after served its purpose. Component A, isocyanate, and component B, polyol, mixed together and brushed or sprayed on mask area. Mixture reacts, yielding polyurethane foam. Foam prevents deposition of nickel or copper on covered area. New method saves time, increases productivity and uses less material than older procedures.

  13. Flash Photolysis of Aromatic Diisocyanate Based Polyurethanes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-10

    both TDI ( toluene diisocyanate ) and MDI (methylene 4,4’-diphenyldiisocyanate) based polyurethanes. The second process, exclusive to MDI based...pathways for photodegradation of polyurethanes based on toluene diisocyanate (mixture of 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI Isomers) and methylene 4,4...I-192 276 FLASH PNOTOLYSIS OF AROMATIC DIISOCYNNATE BASED 1/1POLYURETHANES(U) UNIVERSI Y OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI HATTIESBURG DEPT OF POLYMER

  14. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  15. Miniaturized multi channel infrared optical gas sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Eberhardt, Andre; Rademacher, Sven; Schmitt, Katrin

    2011-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy uses the characteristic absorption of the molecules in the mid infrared and allows the determination of the gases and their concentration. Especially by the absorption at longer wavelengths between 8 μm and 12 μm, the so called "fingerprint" region, the molecules can be measured with highest selectivity. We present an infrared optical filter photometer for the analytical determination of trace gases in the air. The challenge in developing the filter photometer was the construction of a multi-channel system using a novel filter wheel concept - which acts as a chopper too- in order to measure simultaneously four gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. The system consists of a broadband infrared emitter, a long path cell with 1.7m optical path length, a filter wheel and analogue and digital signal processing. Multi channel filter photometers normally need one filter and one detector per target gas. There are small detection units with one, two or more detectors with integrated filters available on the market. One filter is normally used as reference at a wavelength without any cross-sensitivities to possible interfering gases (e.g. at 3.95 μm is an "atmospheric window" - a small spectral band without absorbing gases in the atmosphere). The advantage of a filter-wheel set-up is that a single IR-detector can be used, which reduces the signal drift enormously. Pyroelectric and thermopile detectors are often integrated in these kinds of spectrometers. For both detector types a modulation of the light is required and can be done - without an additional chopper - with the filter wheel.

  16. Detection System for Metallic Contaminants by Eight-Channel SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Hatsukade, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Ohtani, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2012-03-01

    We developed a magnetic contaminant detection system for industrial products such as electrode foils of lithium ion battery employing eight high-Tc SQUID gradiometers. The system was based on pre-magnetization of a contaminant in an object under test by means of permanent magnets of 0.5 T, which magnetization direction was horizontal, in order to suppress the edge effect from the object composed of magnetic material. The object was conveyed to pass under the eight-channel gradiometer array, in which a pair of four gradiometers was aligned in two rows to cover target foils of several tens mm in width. The magnetization from the contaminant in the object was detected by the gradiometers of averaged flux white noise level of 25 μphi0/Hz1/2. In case that an iron ball passed just under one gradiometer, an iron ball of about phi30 μm in diameter was successfully detected with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) of 5. From measurement results using an iron ball of about 100 μm in diameter, it was demonstrated that the system had a detectable range of 70 mm in width. There results suggest that the system is a promising tool for the quality control of lithium ion batteries.

  17. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  18. In-service communication channel sensing based on reflectometry for TWDM-PON systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Daisuke; Kuwano, Shigeru; Terada, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Many base stations are accommodated in TWDM-PON based mobile backhaul and fronthaul networks for future radio access, and failed connections in an optical network unit (ONU) wavelength channel severely degrade system performance. A cost effective in-service ONU wavelength channel monitor is essential to ensure proper system operation without failed connections. To address this issue we propose a reflectometry-based remote sensing method that provides wavelength channel information with the optical line terminal (OLT)-ONU distance. The method realizes real-time monitoring of ONU wavelength channels without signal quality degradation. Experimental results show it achieves wavelength channel distinction with high distance resolution.

  19. Open-pore polyurethane product

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, R.T.; Salyer, I.O.

    1974-02-17

    The method is described of producing an open-pore polyurethane foam having a porosity of at least 50% and a density of 0.1 to 0.5 g per cu cm, and which consists of coherent spherical particles of less than 10 mu diam separated by interconnected interstices. It is useful as a filter and oil absorbent. The product is admirably adapted to scavenging of crude oil from the surface of seawater by preferential wicking. The oil-soaked product may then be compressed to recover the oil or burned for disposal. The crosslinked polyurethane structures are remarkably solvent and heat-resistance as compared with known thermoplastic structures. Because of their relative inertness, they are useful filters for gasoline and other hydrocarbon compounds. (7 claims)

  20. Flexible waveguide enabled single-channel terahertz endoscopic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. The current standard of care for colorectal cancer is the conventional colonoscopy, which relies exclusively on the Physician's experience. Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for detecting cancers. The current study demonstrates the design and development of a prototype terahertz endoscopic system based on flexible metal-coated terahertz waveguides. A CO2 pumped Far-Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz frequency was used for illuminating the tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. The continuous-wave terahertz imaging system utilizes a single waveguide channel to transmit the radiation and collect the back reflected intrinsic terahertz signal from the sample and is capable of operation in both transmission and reflection modalities. The two dimensional reflectance images obtained using a prototype terahertz endoscopic system showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions of the colorectal tissue, thereby demonstrating the potential impact of terahertz imaging for in vivo cancer detection.

  1. Speed of disentanglement in multiqubit systems under a depolarizing channel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin

    2013-06-15

    We investigate the speed of disentanglement in the multiqubit systems under the local depolarizing channel, in which each qubit is independently coupled to the environment. We focus on the bipartition entanglement between one qubit and the remaining qubits constituting the system, which is measured by the negativity. For the two-qubit system, the speed for the pure state completely depends on its entanglement. The upper and lower bounds of the speed for arbitrary two-qubit states, and the necessary conditions for a state achieving them, are obtained. For the three-qubit system, we study the speed for pure states, whose entanglement properties can be completely described by five local-unitary-transformation invariants. An analytical expression of the relation between the speed and the invariants is derived. The speed is enhanced by the three-tangle which is the entanglement among the three qubits, but reduced by the two-qubit correlations outside the concurrence. The decay of the negativity can be restrained by the other two negativity with the coequal sense. The unbalance between two qubits can reduce the speed of disentanglement of the remaining qubit in the system, and even can retrieve the entanglement partially. For the k-qubit systems in an arbitrary superposition of Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state and W state, the speed depends almost entirely on the amount of the negativity when k increases to five or six. An alternative quantitative definition for the robustness of entanglement is presented based on the speed of disentanglement, with comparison to the widely studied robustness measured by the critical amount of noise parameter where the entanglement vanishes. In the limit of large number of particles, the alternative robustness of the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type states is inversely proportional to k, and the one of the W states approaches 1/√(k)

  2. Speed of disentanglement in multiqubit systems under a depolarizing channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Jiang, Yue; Liang, Mai-Lin

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the speed of disentanglement in the multiqubit systems under the local depolarizing channel, in which each qubit is independently coupled to the environment. We focus on the bipartition entanglement between one qubit and the remaining qubits constituting the system, which is measured by the negativity. For the two-qubit system, the speed for the pure state completely depends on its entanglement. The upper and lower bounds of the speed for arbitrary two-qubit states, and the necessary conditions for a state achieving them, are obtained. For the three-qubit system, we study the speed for pure states, whose entanglement properties can be completely described by five local-unitary-transformation invariants. An analytical expression of the relation between the speed and the invariants is derived. The speed is enhanced by the three-tangle which is the entanglement among the three qubits, but reduced by the two-qubit correlations outside the concurrence. The decay of the negativity can be restrained by the other two negativity with the coequal sense. The unbalance between two qubits can reduce the speed of disentanglement of the remaining qubit in the system, and even can retrieve the entanglement partially. For the k-qubit systems in an arbitrary superposition of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and W state, the speed depends almost entirely on the amount of the negativity when k increases to five or six. An alternative quantitative definition for the robustness of entanglement is presented based on the speed of disentanglement, with comparison to the widely studied robustness measured by the critical amount of noise parameter where the entanglement vanishes. In the limit of large number of particles, the alternative robustness of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states is inversely proportional to k, and the one of the W states approaches 1/√{k}.

  3. Polyurethane retainers for ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, R. I.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation of a new ball bearing retainer material is reported. A special composite polyurethane foam ball retainer has been developed that has virtually zero wear, is chemically inert to hydrocarbon lubricants, and stores up to 60 times as much lubricant per unit volume as the most commonly used retainer material, cotton phenolic. This new retainer concept shows promise of years of ball bearing operation without reoiling, based on life testing in high vacuum.

  4. Polyurethanes from fluoroalkyl propyleneglycol polyethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trischler, F. D. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of highly stable polyurethane polymers prepared by reacting a polyether with a diisocyanate. Compounded stocks of these polymers may be shaped and cured in conventional equipment used in the rubber industry. The solutions are dispersed gels prepared from the polymers and may be used for forming supported or unsupported films for coating fabrics or solid surfaces, and for forming adhesive bonds between a wide variety of plastics, elastomers, fabrics, metals, wood, leather, ceramics and the like.

  5. A Guide to Understanding Covert Channel Analysis of Trusted Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    computer products for use by any organization desiring better protection of its important data . One way we do this is by supporting the Trusted Product...I/O Operation Completion Channels ................... 113 A.2.3 Memory Resource Management Channels .............. 114 A.2.3.1 Data Page Pool Channels...normally viewed as data objects to transfer information from one subject to another." [Kemmerer83] The last three of the above definitions have been

  6. Thermal Expansion of Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Sullivan, Roy M.

    2006-01-01

    Closed cell foams are often used for thermal insulation. In the case of the Space Shuttle, the External Tank uses several thermal protection systems to maintain the temperature of the cryogenic fuels. A few of these systems are polyurethane, closed cell foams. In an attempt to better understand the foam behavior on the tank, we are in the process of developing and improving thermal-mechanical models for the foams. These models will start at the microstructural level and progress to the overall structural behavior of the foams on the tank. One of the key properties for model characterization and verification is thermal expansion. Since the foam is not a material, but a structure, the modeling of the expansion is complex. It is also exacerbated by the anisoptropy of the material. During the spraying and foaming process, the cells become elongated in the rise direction and this imparts different properties in the rise direction than in the transverse directions. Our approach is to treat the foam as a two part structure consisting of the polymeric cell structure and the gas inside the cells. The polymeric skeleton has a thermal expansion of its own which is derived from the basic polymer chemistry. However, a major contributor to the thermal expansion is the volume change associated with the gas inside of the closed cells. As this gas expands it exerts pressure on the cell walls and changes the shape and size of the cells. The amount that this occurs depends on the elastic and viscoplastic properties of the polymer skeleton. The more compliant the polymeric skeleton, the more influence the gas pressure has on the expansion. An additional influence on the expansion process is that the polymeric skeleton begins to breakdown at elevated temperatures and releases additional gas species into the cell interiors, adding to the gas pressure. The fact that this is such a complex process makes thermal expansion ideal for testing the models. This report focuses on the thermal

  7. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft are presented.

  8. Nicotine effect on cardiovascular system and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Salma Toma

    2006-03-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Nicotine is one of the components of cigarette smoke. Nicotine effects on the cardiovascular system reflect the activity of the nicotine receptors centrally and on peripheral autonomic ganglia. It has been found that cigarette smoke extract-induced contraction of porcine coronary arteries is related to superoxide anion-mediated degradation of nitric oxide. Treatment of rabbit aortas with an oxygen free radicals scavenger attenuated cigarette smoke impairment of arterial relaxation. Treatment of smokers with vitamin C, an antioxidant, improved impaired endothelium-dependent reactivity of large peripheral arteries. Thus it appears that chronic smoking and acute exposure to cigarette smoke extract may alter endothelium-dependent reactivity via the production of oxygen derived free radicals. This review discusses the effects of nicotine on resistance arterioles, compliance arteries, smooth muscle cells, and ion channels in the cardiovascular system. We discuss studies performed on humans, nicotine-exposed animals, and cell cultures yielding varying and inconsistent results that may be due to differences in experimental design, species, and the dose of exposure. Nicotine exposure appears to induce a combination of free radical production, vascular wall adhesion, and a reduction of fibrinolytic activity in the plasma.

  9. Channel morphology investigations using Geographic Information Systems and field research

    Treesearch

    Scott N. Miller; Ann Youberg; D. Phillip Guertin; David C. Goodrich

    2000-01-01

    Stream channels are integral to watershed function and are affected by watershed management decisions. Given an understanding of the relationships among channel and watershed variables, they may serve as indicators of upland condition or used in distributed rainfall-runoff models. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of fluvial morphology as related to watershed...

  10. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels... and/or airborne mobile) as indicated, for voice-grade general communications and private line...

  11. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1007 Channels for offshore... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels... and/or airborne mobile) as indicated, for voice-grade general communications and private line...

  12. Stochastic simulation of channelized sedimentary bodies using a constrained L-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rongier, Guillaume; Collon, Pauline; Renard, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    Simulating realistic sedimentary bodies while conditioning all the available data is a major topic of research. We present a new method to simulate the channel morphologies resulting from the deposition processes. It relies on a formal grammar system, the Lindenmayer system, or L-system. The L-system puts together channel segments based on user-defined rules and parameters. The succession of segments is then interpreted to generate non-rational uniform B-splines representing straight to meandering channels. Constraints attract or repulse the channel from the data during the channel development. They enable to condition various data types, from well data to probability cubes or a confinement. The application to a synthetic case highlights the method's ability to manage various data while preserving at best the channel morphology.

  13. Polyurethane biomaterials for fabricating 3D porous scaffolds and supporting vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Stéphanie; Sandig, Martin; Mequanint, Kibret

    2007-09-15

    Successful tissue engineering of vascular grafts largely depends on synthetic scaffolds that support the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of seeded cells. To investigate the utility of polyurethanes for vascular tissue engineering, three-dimensional porous polyurethane scaffolds with highly interconnected pore structures were fabricated by a pressure differential/particulate leaching technique. Ammonium chloride and paraffin porogens were prepared to fabricate the scaffolds. Grinding of ammonium chloride resulted in particulates with uniform particle sizes but irregular shapes. Paraffin particulates made by a dispersion method, on the other hand, had spherical shapes and uniform particle sizes. Polyurethane scaffolds fabricated from these particulates had open faced, highly interconnected channels that could allow cellular infiltration and nutrient delivery. Human coronary artery smooth muscle and endothelial cell interactions with polyurethane surfaces revealed these biomaterials to maintain the contractile phenotype of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and the formation of endothelial monolayers. During longer culture times, surface modification with cell adhesive extracellular matrix (ECM) protein promoted vascular cell proliferation, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype and endothelial monolayer integrity. Our results suggest that these polyurethanes, in conjunction with cell adhesive ECM proteins, could also support vascular cells in three-dimensional bioreactor-based culture conditions. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effective Disposal of Fuel Cell Polyurethane Foam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Production of Rigid Polyurethane Foam from a Rigid Polyurethane Foam, U.S. Patent 4,014,809, March 29, 1976. 33. Landrock, A., " Ecological Dispc;al of...ppmv ums misuLon Rate of Cyanide - .0192464 pounds/hour 140 AMERICAN SRVICES ASSOIATES CYANIDEI EISSIGON lCALJATIOt4S CLIIT : HW MEXICO EDI4EWNG

  15. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  16. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  17. Microwave-assisted synthesis of cyclodextrin polyurethanes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cyclodextrin (CD) has often been incorporated into polyurethanes in order to facilitate its use in encapsulation or removal of organic species for various applications. In this work a microwave-assisted method has been developed to produce polyurethanes consisting of alpha-, ß-, and gamma-CD and thr...

  18. A Multi-Channel Method for Detecting Periodic Forced Oscillations in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Follum, James D.; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2016-11-14

    Forced oscillations in electric power systems are often symptomatic of equipment malfunction or improper operation. Detecting and addressing the cause of the oscillations can improve overall system operation. In this paper, a multi-channel method of detecting forced oscillations and estimating their frequencies is proposed. The method operates by comparing the sum of scaled periodograms from various channels to a threshold. A method of setting the threshold to specify the detector's probability of false alarm while accounting for the correlation between channels is also presented. Results from simulated and measured power system data indicate that the method outperforms its single-channel counterpart and is suitable for real-world applications.

  19. TREK-1 K(+) channels in the cardiovascular system: their significance and potential as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Goonetilleke, Lakshman; Quayle, John

    2012-02-01

    Potassium (K(+) ) channels are important in cardiovascular disease both as drug targets and as a cause of underlying pathology. Voltage-dependent K(+) (K(V) ) channels are inhibited by the class III antiarrhythmic agents. Certain vasodilators work by opening K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and K(+) channel activation may also be a route to improving endothelial function. The two-pore domain K(+) (K(2P) ) channels form a group of 15 known channels with an expanding list of functions in the cardiovascular system. One of these K(2P) channels, TREK-1, is the focus of this review. TREK-1 channel activity is tightly regulated by intracellular and extracellular pH, membrane stretch, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), temperature, and receptor-coupled second messenger systems. TREK-1 channels are also activated by volatile anesthetics and some neuroprotectant agents, and they are inhibited by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as well as amide local anesthetics. Some of the clinical cardiovascular effects and side effects of these drugs may be through their actions on TREK-1 channels. It has recently been suggested that TREK-1 channels have a role in mechano-electrical coupling in the heart. They also seem important in the vascular responses to PUFAs, and this may underlie some of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of the essential dietary fatty acids. Development of selective TREK-1 openers and inhibitors may provide promising routes for intervention in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Cost-Benefit Analysis for Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2007-01-01

    NASA and Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) have similar missions and therefore similar facilities and structures in similar environments. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of an applied coating system. The most common topcoats used in coating systems are polyurethanes that contain isocyanates. Isocyanates are classified as potential human carcinogens and are known to cause cancer in animals. The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate and validate alternatives to aliphatic isocyanate polyurethanes resulting in one or more isocyanate-free coatings qualified for use at AFSPC and NASA installations participating in this project. This Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) quantifies the estimated capital and process costs of coating alternatives and cost savings relative to the current coatings. The estimates in this CBA are to be used for assessing the relative merits of the selected alternatives. The actual economic effects at any specific facility will depend on the alternative material or technology implemented, the number of actual applications converted, future workloads, and other factors . The participants initially considered eighteen (18) alternative coatings as described in the Potential Alternatives Report entitled Potential Alternatives Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB. Of those, 8 alternatives were selected for testing in accordance with the Joint Test Protocol entitled Joint Test Protocol for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, and the Field Test Plan entitled Field Evaluations Test Plan for Validation of Alternatives 10 Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, both of which were prepared by ITB. A joint Test Report entitled Joint Test Report for Validation of Alternatives to Aliphatic Isocyanate Polyurethanes, prepared by ITB, documents the results of the laboratory and field testing, as well as any

  1. Extensional channel flow revisited: a dynamical systems perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Francisco; Meseguer, Alvaro; Mellibovsky, Fernando; Weidman, Patrick D.

    2017-06-01

    Extensional self-similar flows in a channel are explored numerically for arbitrary stretching-shrinking rates of the confining parallel walls. The present analysis embraces time integrations, and continuations of steady and periodic solutions unfolded in the parameter space. Previous studies focused on the analysis of branches of steady solutions for particular stretching-shrinking rates, although recent studies focused also on the dynamical aspects of the problems. We have adopted a dynamical systems perspective, analysing the instabilities and bifurcations the base state undergoes when increasing the Reynolds number. It has been found that the base state becomes unstable for small Reynolds numbers, and a transitional region including complex dynamics takes place at intermediate Reynolds numbers, depending on the wall acceleration values. The base flow instabilities are constitutive parts of different codimension-two bifurcations that control the dynamics in parameter space. For large Reynolds numbers, the restriction to self-similarity results in simple flows with no realistic behaviour, but the flows obtained in the transition region can be a valuable tool for the understanding of the dynamics of realistic Navier-Stokes solutions.

  2. K/Ka-band channel characterization for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinck, Deborah S.; Rice, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Mobile satellite systems allow truly ubiquitous wireless communications to users anywhere and anytime. NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an ideal space-based platform for the measurement of K/Ka band propagation characteristics in a land mobile satellite application. Field tests conducted in Southern California during the first seven months of 1994 using JPL's ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) provided channel characterization data for the K/Ka-band link. A pilot tone was transmitted from a fixed station in Cleveland, Ohio through the satellite and downlinked at 20 GHz in the Southern California spot beam. The AMT was equipped with a narrow beam, high gain antenna which tracked the satellite in azimuth for a fixed elevation angle (46 degrees for this case). The field tests were conducted in three basic environments: clear line-of-sight (LOS) highways, lightly shadowed suburban, and heavily shadowed suburban. Preliminary results of these field tests indicate very little multipath for rural environments and for clear LOS links (as expected with a narrow beam antenna). Deep fades were experienced in shadowed areas, especially those where tree canopies covered the road.

  3. Added value of lignin as lignin-based hybrid polyurethane for a compatibilizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmiati, S.; Haris Mustafa, J.; Yaumal, A.; Hanum, F.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    As biomass-based material, lignin contains abundant hydroxyl groups promising to be used as chain extender in building hybrid polyurethanes. Consisting of polyehtylene glycol (PEG) content as hydrophobic part and lignin as hydrophilic part, the hybrid PU is expected to be as a novel compatibilizing agent in new materials production such as polyblends and composites. The hybrid PU was synthesized via two reaction stages, viz. pre-polyurethanization through reacting 4,4'-Methylenebis (Cyclohexyl Isocyanate) (HMDI) and PEG as polyol, and chain extention through adding lignin in the pre-polyurethanization system. The composition effect of lignin in hybrid PU syntehsis, to chemical structure corelated to hydrophobic to hydrophilic ratio, thermal and morphological properties, was evaluated by measuring NMR, FTIR, DSC, TGA and FE-SEM. The experiments showed that addition of lignin was able to extend the pre-polyurethane into hybrid polyurethane and to increase the lignin/polyol ratio in the hybrid polyurethanes, which were indicated by NMR and FTIR Analysis. And change of the ratio lead to increase the glass transition from 60.9 until 62.1°C and degradation temperature from 413.9 until 416.0°C. Observation of the morphology implied that addition of lignin gave more agglomerations. A Further investigation for this characterization study should be focused on a feasibility for this modified lignin as a novel compatibilizing agent.

  4. Average capacity for optical wireless communication systems over exponentiated Weibull distribution non-Kolmogorov turbulent channels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mingjian; Zhang, Yixin; Gao, Jie; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Fengsheng

    2014-06-20

    We model the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems for cases of weak to strong turbulence channels, using the exponentiation Weibull distribution model. The joint effects of the beam wander and spread, pointing errors, atmospheric attenuation, and the spectral index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on system performance are included. Our results show that the average capacity decreases steeply as the propagation length L changes from 0 to 200 m and decreases slowly down or tends to a stable value as the propagation length L is greater than 200 m. In the weak turbulence region, by increasing the detection aperture, we can improve the average channel capacity and the atmospheric visibility as an important issue affecting the average channel capacity. In the strong turbulence region, the increase of the radius of the detection aperture cannot reduce the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the average channel capacity, and the effect of atmospheric visibility on the channel information capacity can be ignored. The effect of the spectral power exponent on the average channel capacity in the strong turbulence region is higher than weak turbulence region. Irrespective of the details determining the turbulent channel, we can say that pointing errors have a significant effect on the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems in turbulence channels.

  5. Mechanosensitive channels in striated muscle and the cardiovascular system: not quite a stretch anymore.

    PubMed

    Stiber, Jonathan A; Seth, Malini; Rosenberg, Paul B

    2009-08-01

    Stretch-activated or mechanosensitive channels transduce mechanical forces into ion fluxes across the cell membrane. These channels have been implicated in several aspects of cardiovascular physiology including regulation of blood pressure, vasoreactivity, and cardiac arrhythmias, as well as the adverse remodeling associated with cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. This review discusses mechanosensitive channels in skeletal muscle and the cardiovascular system and their role in disease pathogenesis. We describe the regulation of gating of mechanosensitive channels including direct mechanisms and indirect activation by signaling pathways, as well as the influence on activation of these channels by the underlying cytoskeleton and scaffolding proteins. We then focus on the role of transient receptor potential channels, several of which have been implicated as mechanosensitive channels, in the pathogenesis of adverse cardiac remodeling and as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart failure.

  6. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  7. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  8. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  9. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  10. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  11. Performance of a temperate-zone channel catfish biofloc technology production system during winter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc technology production system. Outdoor biofloc production systems in the tropics are operated year-round, whereas the channel catfish studies were conducted only during the growing season and biofloc production t...

  12. Monitoring system determines amplitude and time of vibration channel peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.

    1966-01-01

    Adaptive scheme advocated in this innovation will reduce processing time and is applicable to environmental testing and to space-borne or aircraft-borne vibration monitoring devices requiring a large number of channels.

  13. Multi-channel amplifier system for computerized topographic EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Coppola, R; Morgan, N T

    1987-08-01

    Topographic analysis of EEG and evoked potentials requires the computer processing of data from multi-lead recording. The use of 20 or more channels is now quite common, straining the resources of the usual EEG machine. We present a design for a high gain, low noise, 32-channel amplifier matched to computer data acquisition requirements. Low cost and small size are additional benefits to the design.

  14. Quantifying Channelized Submarine Depositional Systems From Bed to Basin Scale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Biostratigraphic appli- cation and ecology of agglutinated foraminifera in Gulf of Mexico Basin Cenozoic exploration. GCAGS Transactions, 52:65-76, 2002. S.Q...Using seismic data from the Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico , I find that, during periods of broadly distributed, sheet-like deposition, equilibrium time is on...time scales for channel/levee com- plexes and sheet-like deposits: Fisk Basin, Gulf of Mexico 97 3.1 Introduction - Channel/levee complexes and

  15. Drainage systems associated with mid-ocean channels and submarine Yazoos: Alternative to submarine fan depositional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, R. )

    1989-12-01

    Submarine drainage systems associated with mid-ocean channels and Yazoo River-type tributaries in small ocean basins represent a contrast to deep-sea fan depositional systems. Deep-sea fans are diverging sediment-dispersal systems of distributary fan valleys. Deep-sea channel-submarine-yazoo systems, on the other hand, form centripetally converging patterns of tributaries and yazoo-type satellite channels that join a major basin-draining (mid-ocean) channel. The facies model for such systems is characterized by randomly stacked fining-upward, gravelly, and sandy channel-fill and submarine point-bar sequences of the main channel encased in fine-grained overbank deposits. Second-order channels contain sandy proximal overbank deposits, whereas the levees of the main channel are predominantly composed of silt and clay. Second-order channels may be braided and may broaden into braid plains. Morphology and surficial sediment distribution have been studied within the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea and its associated levees and yazoo-type (and other) tributaries.

  16. Polyurethane membranes for surgical gown applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukpabi, Pauline Ozoemena

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently issued a directive requiring all employers to supply personnel protective equipment to employees who are at risk of exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. For the healthcare worker, a wide variety of surgical gowns is available commercially but there are concerns over their barrier effectiveness and/or wearer comfort. To successfully create a barrier fabric which combines resistance to fluid penetration with comfort, a complete understanding of the relationship between membrane structure and functional properties is required. In this study, we investigated the surface properties of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity in polyurethane membranes intended for use in surgical gowns. The polyurethane membranes were grafted with side chains of varying lengths, polyethylene glycol (PEG) being used for the hydrophilic modifications and perfluoroalkyl compounds (a monofunctional acid and a difunctional amino alcohol) for the hydrophobic modifications. The hydrophilic treatment was intended to improve the comfort properties of monolithic membranes without adversely affecting their barrier properties. The hydrophobic treatment, on the other hand, was intended to improve the fluid repellency and hence barrier properties of microporous membranes without adversely affecting their comfort properties. Reflection infrared spectroscopy showed that fluorine was successfully grafted onto the polyurethane backbone during the hydrophobic modification, but was not sensitive enough to detect PEG grafting in leached polyethylene glycol-treated polyurethanes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the perfluoroalkylated polyurethanes contained up to 40% fluorine on their surfaces and the PEG-treated polyurethanes showed an increase in their C-O content over the unmodified polyurethane. Scanning electron microscopy not only showed that perfluoroalkylation yielded polyurethane membranes with very

  17. Performance Characterization of a Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial System with Co-Channel Interference over Generalized Fading Channels

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Umer; He, Di; Liu, Peilin

    2016-01-01

    The transmission of signals in a hybrid satellite-terrestrial system (HSTS) in the presence of co-channel interference (CCI) is considered in this study. Specifically, we examine the problem of amplify-and-forward (AF)-based relaying in a hybrid satellite-terrestrial link, where the relay node is operating in the presence of a dominant co-channel interferer. It is assumed that direct connection between a source node (satellite) and a destination node (terrestrial receiver) is not available due to masking by obstacles in the surrounding. The destination node is only able to receive signals from the satellite with the help of a relay node located at the ground. In the proposed HSTS, the satellite-relay channel follows the shadowed Rice fading; and the channels of interferer-relay and relay-destination links experience generalized Nakagami-m fading. For the considered AF-based HSTS, we first develop the analytical expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the overall output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Then, based on the derived exact MGF, we derive novel expressions for the average symbol error rate (SER) of the considered HSTS for the following digital modulation techniques: M-ary phase shift keying (M-PSK), M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) and M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM). To significantly reduce the computational complexity for utility in system-level simulations, simple analytical approximation for the exact SER in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is presented to provide key insights. Finally, numerical results and the corresponding analysis are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed performance evaluation framework and to view the impact of CCI on the considered HSTS under varying channel conditions and with different modulation schemes. PMID:27527182

  18. Performance Characterization of a Hybrid Satellite-Terrestrial System with Co-Channel Interference over Generalized Fading Channels.

    PubMed

    Javed, Umer; He, Di; Liu, Peilin

    2016-08-05

    The transmission of signals in a hybrid satellite-terrestrial system (HSTS) in the presence of co-channel interference (CCI) is considered in this study. Specifically, we examine the problem of amplify-and-forward (AF)-based relaying in a hybrid satellite-terrestrial link, where the relay node is operating in the presence of a dominant co-channel interferer. It is assumed that direct connection between a source node (satellite) and a destination node (terrestrial receiver) is not available due to masking by obstacles in the surrounding. The destination node is only able to receive signals from the satellite with the help of a relay node located at the ground. In the proposed HSTS, the satellite-relay channel follows the shadowed Rice fading; and the channels of interferer-relay and relay-destination links experience generalized Nakagami-m fading. For the considered AF-based HSTS, we first develop the analytical expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the overall output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). Then, based on the derived exact MGF, we derive novel expressions for the average symbol error rate (SER) of the considered HSTS for the following digital modulation techniques: M-ary phase shift keying (M-PSK), M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) and M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM). To significantly reduce the computational complexity for utility in system-level simulations, simple analytical approximation for the exact SER in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is presented to provide key insights. Finally, numerical results and the corresponding analysis are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed performance evaluation framework and to view the impact of CCI on the considered HSTS under varying channel conditions and with different modulation schemes.

  19. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 .ANG.. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  20. Rigid zeolite containing polyurethane foams

    DOEpatents

    Frost, C.B.

    1984-05-18

    A closed cell rigid polyurethane foam has been prepared which contains up to about 60% by weight of molecular sieves capable of sorbing molecules with effective critical diameters of up to about 10 A. The molecular sieve component of the foam can be preloaded with catalysts or with reactive compounds that can be released upon activation of the foam to control and complete crosslinking after the foam is formed. The foam can also be loaded with water or other flame-retarding agents, after completion. Up to about 50% of the weight of the isocyanate component of the foam can be replaced by polyimide resin precursors for incorporation into the final polymeric network.

  1. The Structure of Polyurethane Elastomers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-14

    ol I tir et I iati I~a S Lomer , BlIock Co poly me r .X- ray Diff rac t ion, Con ftorma t ion, S truc ture-Pro per ty Rela tionsh ips S 20, AINT"ACT...analysis was applied to polyurethanes for the first time. The results point to a fully extended poly (MDI/butandiol) chain linked to its neighbors in a...OCONH(, 2 UCH2 0 NHCOO- (CH2)x-) n-soft segment- ] n - The soft segment polymer has generally been roly (tetramethylene adipate) (PTMA) but we

  2. Polyurethane elastomers for facial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J B

    1978-02-01

    A review of the polyurethane elastomers used for facial prostheses has been presented. A description of the casting technique was given. The materials require accuracy and care in handling to insure the successful casting of a prosthesis. They seem to simulate the characteristics of the facial tissues and are more durable and comfortable than previously used materials. Over 300 patients have been exposed to or treated with these materials without evidencing significant adverse tissue reaction. In spite of the improvements that these materials present over previous ones (PVC and silicones), much work is still required to understand their behavior and their physical and mechanical characteristics and to compensate for the metameric phenomenon.

  3. Spectrophotometry of PRESAGETM polyurethane dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krstajic, N.; Wai, P.; Adamovics, J.; Doran, S.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary optical density results on irradiated PRESAGE dosimeter are outlined in this article. PRESAGE is a solid dosimeter, based on a clear polyurethane combined with the leuco-dye leuco-malachite green. The purpose of these measurements was a) to obtain spectra for optimizing the wavelength of a new light source for the equipment and b) to obtain a dose-response relation. 10 PRESAGE cuvettes were given uniform doses from 0.1 to 40 Gy and later read out by spectrophotometer. The instrument used was CAMSPEC M350 Double Beam Spectrophotometer.

  4. Linux-PC based 1024-Channel Transient Digitizer System for the DRIFT Experiment Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayad, R.; Hanson-Hart, Z.; Hyatt, M.; Katz-Hyman, M.; Maher, P.; Martoff, C. J.; Posner, A.; Freytag, D.; Freytag, M.; Haller, G.; Nelson, D.

    2003-04-01

    The DRIFT Experiment [1] is an underground search for WIMP Dark Matter using a novel detector invented for this purpose: the Negative Ion TPC (NITPC). The data acquisition system for DRIFT had to allow acquisition of long duration time digitized data from the 1024 analog channels at an affordable price. This was accomplished with a system based on a Linux PC, the Comedi [2] open-source device driver software, the inexpensive PCI-DIO-32HS National Instruments high speed digital I/O board, and custom 32-channel preamp+digitizer boards built at SLAC. System architecture, testing, and performance will be discussed, as well as further upgrade plans. [1] Low Pressure Negative Ion TPC for Dark Matter Search. D. P. Snowden-Ifft, C. J. Martoff, J. M. Burwell, Phys Rev. D. Rapid Comm. 61, 101301 (2000) [2] Comedi: linux Control and MEasurement Device Interface : http://stm.lbl.gov/comedi/

  5. An Extension of Workload Capacity Space for Systems With More Than Two Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-05

    parallel processing (Colonius & Vorberg, 1994), so the restriction to n = 2 channels is an unnecessary limitation of the applicability for the new ...workload capacity space for systems with more than two channels . 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...88ABW-2014-0140. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We provide the n- channel extension of the unified workload capacity space bounds for

  6. Functionalised polyurethane for efficient laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, G. W. J.; Kang, H.; MacMillan, F. J.; Jin, J.; Simpson, M. C.

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed laser ablation is a valuable tool that offers a much cleaner and more flexible etching process than conventional lithographic techniques. Although much research has been undertaken on commercially available polymers, many challenges still remain, including contamination by debris on the surface, a rough etched appearance and high ablation thresholds. Functionalizing polymers with a photosensitive group is a novel way and effective way to improve the efficiency of laser micromachining. In this study, several polyurethane films grafted with different concentrations of the chromophore anthracene have been synthesized which are specifically designed for 248 nm KrF excimer laser ablation. A series of lines etched with a changing number of pulses and fluences by the nanosecond laser were applied to each polyurethane film. The resultant ablation behaviours were studied through optical interference tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The anthracene grafted polyurethanes showed a vast improvement in both edge quality and the presence of debris compared with the unmodified polyurethane. Under the same laser fluence and number of pulses the spots etched in the anthracene contained polyurethane show sharp depth profiles and smooth surfaces, whereas the spots etched in polyurethane without anthracene group grafted present rough cavities with debris according to the SEM images. The addition of a small amount of anthracene (1.47%) shows a reduction in ablation threshold from unmodified polyurethane showing that the desired effect can be achieved with very little modification to the polymer.

  7. Euclid imaging channels: from science to system requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiaux, J.; Auguères, J. L.; Boulade, O.; Cara, C.; Paulin-Henriksson, S.; Réfrégier, A.; Ronayette, S.; Amara, A.; Glauser, A.; Dumesnil, C.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Booth, J.; Schweitzer, M.; Holmes, R.; Cropper, M.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Duvet, L.; Lumb, D.

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is an ESA Cosmic Vision wide-field space mission concept dedicated to the high-precision study of Dark Energy and Dark Matter. The mission relies on two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The first probe requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies. The second probe is based on the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through spectroscopic redshifts. Additional cosmological probes are also used and include cluster counts, redshift space distortions, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) and galaxy clustering, which can all be derived from a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. Euclid Imaging Channels Instrument of the Euclid mission is designed to study the weak gravitational lensing cosmological probe. The combined Visible and Near InfraRed imaging channels form the basis of the weak lensing measurements. The VIS channel provides high-precision galaxy shape measurements for the measurement of weak lensing shear. The NIP channel provides the deep NIR multi-band photometry necessary to derive the photometric redshifts and thus a distance estimate for the lensed galaxies. This paper describes the Imaging Channels design driver requirements to reach the challenging science goals and the design that has been studied during the Cosmic Vision Assessment Phase.

  8. A three-channel miniaturized optical system for multi-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay, Gebirie Y.; Ottevaere, Heidi; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by the natural compound eyes of insects, multichannel imaging systems embrace many channels that scramble their entire Field-Of-View (FOV). Our aim in this work was to attain multi-resolution capability into a multi-channel imaging system by manipulating the available channels to possess different imaging properties (focal length, angular resolution). We have designed a three-channel imaging system where the first and third channels have highest and lowest angular resolution of 0.0096° and 0.078° and narrowest and widest FOVs of 7° and 80°, respectively. The design of the channels has been done for a single wavelength of 587.6 nm using CODE V. The three channels each consist of 4 aspherical lens surfaces and an absorbing baffle that avoids crosstalk among the neighbouring channels. The aspherical lens surfaces have been fabricated in PMMA by ultra-precision diamond tooling and the baffles by metal additive manufacturing. The profiles of the fabricated lens surfaces have been measured with an accurate multi-sensor coordinate measuring machine and compared with the corresponding profiles of the designed lens surfaces. The fabricated lens profiles are then incorporated into CODE V to realistically model the three channels and also compare their performances with those of the nominal design. We can conclude that the performances of the two latter models are in a good agreement.

  9. Progress towards a 256 channel multi-anode microchannel plate photomultiplier system with picosecond timing

    PubMed Central

    Lapington, J.S.; Ashton, T.J.R.; Ross, D.; Conneely, T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the rapid advances in solid state technologies such as the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers still offer a proven and practical technological solution for high channel count pixellated photon-counting systems with very high time resolution. We describe progress towards a 256 channel optical photon-counting system using CERN-developed NINO and HTDC ASICs, and designed primarily for time resolved spectroscopy in life science applications. Having previously built and demonstrated a 18 mm diameter prototype tube with an 8×8 channel readout configuration and <43 ps rms single photon timing resolution, we are currently developing a 40 mm device with a 32×32 channel readout. Initially this will be populated with a 256 channel electronics system comprising four sets of modular 64 channel preamplifier/discriminator, and time-to-digital converter units, arranged in a compact three dimensional configuration. We describe the detector and electronics design and operation, and present performance measurements from the 256 channel development system. We discuss enhancements to the system including higher channel count and the use of application specific on-board signal processing capabilities. PMID:25843997

  10. Progress towards a 256 channel multi-anode microchannel plate photomultiplier system with picosecond timing.

    PubMed

    Lapington, J S; Ashton, T J R; Ross, D; Conneely, T

    2012-12-11

    Despite the rapid advances in solid state technologies such as the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM), microchannel plate (MCP) photomultipliers still offer a proven and practical technological solution for high channel count pixellated photon-counting systems with very high time resolution. We describe progress towards a 256 channel optical photon-counting system using CERN-developed NINO and HTDC ASICs, and designed primarily for time resolved spectroscopy in life science applications. Having previously built and demonstrated a 18 mm diameter prototype tube with an 8×8 channel readout configuration and <43 ps rms single photon timing resolution, we are currently developing a 40 mm device with a 32×32 channel readout. Initially this will be populated with a 256 channel electronics system comprising four sets of modular 64 channel preamplifier/discriminator, and time-to-digital converter units, arranged in a compact three dimensional configuration. We describe the detector and electronics design and operation, and present performance measurements from the 256 channel development system. We discuss enhancements to the system including higher channel count and the use of application specific on-board signal processing capabilities.

  11. Decreased astroglial cell adhesion and proliferation on zinc oxide nanoparticle polyurethane composites

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Justin T; Webster, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer a number of properties that are of interest to the field of neural tissue engineering. Specifically, materials that exhibit nanoscale surface dimensions have been shown to promote neuron function while simultaneously minimizing the activity of cells such as astrocytes that inhibit central nervous system regeneration. Studies demonstrating enhanced neural tissue regeneration in electrical fields through the use of conductive materials have led to interest in piezoelectric materials (or those materials which generate a transient electrical potential when mechanically deformed) such as zinc oxide (ZnO). It has been speculated that ZnO nanoparticles possess increased piezoelectric properties over ZnO micron particles. Due to this promise in neural applications, the objective of the present in vitro study was, for the first time, to assess the activity of astroglial cells on ZnO nanoparticle polymer composites. ZnO nanoparticles embedded in polyurethane were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy to evaluate nanoscale surface features of the composites. The surface chemistry was characterized via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Astroglial cell response was evaluated based on cell adhesion and proliferation. Astrocyte adhesion was significantly reduced on ZnO nanoparticle/polyurethane (PU) composites with a weight ratio of 50:50 (PU:ZnO) wt.%, 75:25 (PU:ZnO) wt.%, and 90:10 (PU:ZnO) wt.% in comparison to pure PU. The successful production of ZnO nanoparticle composite scaffolds suitable for decreasing astroglial cell density demonstrates their potential as a nerve guidance channel material with greater efficiency than what may be available today. PMID:19337420

  12. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polyurethane matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryszkowska, Joanna; Jurczyk-Kowalska, Magdalena; Szymborski, Tomasz; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.

    2007-07-01

    A high intensity ultrasound has been applied to fabricate polyurethanes/carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites. Mixtures of MWCNTs and poly(ethylene adipate) (PEA) were prepared in a two-step process. In the first step, MWCNTs were dispersed with acetone, in the second PEA and acetone. The mixture of PEA and MWCNTs was used to produce polyurethane (PUR) nanocomposites under the agitation of ultrasounds. The effect of ultrasound intensity has been studied by HRSEM and AFM investigation of the microstructure. The mechanical properties of polyurethane nanocomposites were also evaluated.

  13. Phosphonic Acid-Functionalized Polyurethane Dispersions with Improved Adhesion Properties.

    PubMed

    Breucker, Laura; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2015-11-11

    A facile route to phosphorus-functionalized polyurethane dispersions (P-PUDs) with improved adhesion properties is presented. (Bis)phosphonic acid moieties serve as adhesion promoting sites that are covalently attached via an end-capping reaction to isocyanate-reactive polyurethane particles under aqueous conditions. The synthetic approach circumvents solubility issues, offers great flexibility in terms of polyurethane composition, and allows for the synthesis of semicrystalline systems with thermomechanical response due to reversible physical cross-linking. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to investigate the effect of functionalization on the semicrystallinity. The end-capping conversion was determined via inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and was surprisingly found to be almost independent of the stoichiometry of reaction, suggesting an adsorption-dominated process. Particle charge detection (PCD) experiments reveal that a dense surface coverage of phosphonic acid groups can be attained and that, at high functionalization degrees, the phosphonic adhesion moieties are partially dragged inside the colloidal P-PUD particle. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCMD) investigations conducted with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and stainless steel sensors as model surfaces show a greatly enhanced affinity of the aqueous P-PUDs and furthermore indicate polymer chain rearrangements and autonomous film formation under wet conditions. Due to their facile synthesis, significantly improved adhesion, and variable film properties, P-PUD systems such as the one described here are believed to be of great interest for multiple applications, e.g., adhesives, paints, anticorrosion, or dentistry.

  14. Pricing strategy in a dual-channel and remanufacturing supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chengzhi; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Zhaohan

    2010-07-01

    This article addresses the pricing strategy problems in a supply chain system where the manufacturer sells original products and remanufactured products via indirect retailer channels and direct Internet channels. Due to the complexity of that system, agent technologies that provide a new way for analysing complex systems are used for modelling. Meanwhile, in order to reduce the computational load of searching procedure for optimal prices and profits, a learning search algorithm is designed and implemented within the multi-agent supply chain model. The simulation results show that the proposed model can find out optimal prices of original products and remanufactured products in both channels, which lead to optimal profits of the manufacturer and the retailer. It is also found that the optimal profits are increased by introducing direct channel and remanufacturing. Furthermore, the effect of customer preference, direct channel cost and remanufactured unit cost on optimal prices and profits are examined.

  15. Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matolak, David W.

    2007-01-01

    In this project final report, entitled "Wireless Channel Characterization in the 5 GHz Microwave Landing System Extension Band for Airport Surface Areas," we provide a detailed description and model representation for the wireless channel in the airport surface environment in this band. In this executive summary, we review report contents, describe the achieved objectives and major findings, and highlight significant conclusions and recommendations.

  16. Destiny-yield relationship for channel catfish reared in a biofloc technology production system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of stocking density on yield of stocker channel catfish and water quality in a biofloc technology production system was studied in this completely randomized design experiment. Fingerling channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; 48.0 g/fish, 17.8 cm/fish) were stocked into nine continuously ...

  17. A wideband channel model for land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, Axel; Buonomo, Sergio; Sforza, Mario; Lutz, Erich

    1995-01-01

    A wideband channel model for Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) services is presented which characterizes the time-varying transmission channel between a satellite and a mobile user terminal. The channel model statistic parameters are the results of fitting procedures to measured data. The data used for fitting have a time resolution of 33 ns corresponding to a bandwidth of 30 MHz. Thus, the model is capable to characterize the channel behaviour for a wide range of services e.g., voice transmission, digital audio broadcasting (DAB), and spread spectrum modulation schemes. The model is presented for different environments and scenarios. The model is derived for a quasi-mobile user with hand-held terminal being in two different environments: rural and urban. The parameters needed for the description are (a) the number of echoes, (b) the distribution of the echo power, and (c) the distribution of the echo delay. It is shown that the direct path follows a Rician distribution whereas the reflected paths are Rayleigh/lognormal distributed. The parameters are given for an elevation angle of 25 deg.

  18. A wideband channel model for land mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, Axel; Buonomo, Sergio; Sforza, Mario; Lutz, Erich

    1995-01-01

    A wideband channel model for Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) services is presented which characterizes the time-varying transmission channel between a satellite and a mobile user terminal. The channel model statistic parameters are the results of fitting procedures to measured data. The data used for fitting have a time resolution of 33 ns corresponding to a bandwidth of 30 MHz. Thus, the model is capable to characterize the channel behaviour for a wide range of services e.g., voice transmission, digital audio broadcasting (DAB), and spread spectrum modulation schemes. The model is presented for different environments and scenarios. The model is derived for a quasi-mobile user with hand-held terminal being in two different environments: rural and urban. The parameters needed for the description are (a) the number of echoes, (b) the distribution of the echo power, and (c) the distribution of the echo delay. It is shown that the direct path follows a Rician distribution whereas the reflected paths are Rayleigh/lognormal distributed. The parameters are given for an elevation angle of 25 deg.

  19. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by their center frequencies in MegaHertz. (a) Zone A—Southern Louisiana. The geographical area in Zone A is bounded as follows: From longitude W.87°45′ on...

  20. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by their center frequencies in MegaHertz. (a) Zone A—Southern Louisiana. The geographical area in Zone A is bounded as follows: From longitude W.87°45′ on...

  1. 47 CFR 22.1007 - Channels for offshore radiotelephone systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... located in the specified geographical zones that provide offshore radiotelephone service. All channels have a bandwidth of 20 kHz and are designated by their center frequencies in MegaHertz. (a) Zone A—Southern Louisiana. The geographical area in Zone A is bounded as follows: From longitude W.87°45′ on...

  2. Structure-property relationships of flexible polyurethane foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, Ashish

    This study examined several features of flexible polyurethane foams from a structure-property perspective. A major part of this dissertation addresses the issue of connectivity of the urea phase and its influence on mechanical and viscoelastic properties of flexible polyurethane foams and their plaque counterparts. Lithium salts (LiCl and LiBr) were used as additives to systematically alter the phase separation behavior, and hence the connectivity of the urea phase at different scale lengths. Macro connectivity, or the association of the large scale urea rich aggregates typically observed in flexible polyurethane foams was assessed using SAXS, TEM, and AFM. These techniques showed that including a lithium salt in the foam formulation suppressed the formation of the urea aggregates and thus led to a loss in the macro level connectivity of the urea phase. WAXS and FTIR were used to demonstrate that addition of LiCl or LiBr systematically disrupted the local ordering of the hard segments within the microdomains, i.e., it led to a reduction of micro level connectivity or the regularity in segmental packing of the urea phase. Based on these observations, the interaction of the lithium salt was thought to predominantly occur with the urea hard segments, and this hypothesis was confirmed using quantum mechanical calculations. Another feature of this research investigated model trisegmented polyurethanes based on monofunctional polyols, or "monos", with water-extended toluene diisocyanate (TDI) based hard segments. The formulations of the monol materials were maintained similar to those of flexible polyurethane foams with the exceptions that the conventional polyol was substituted by an oligomeric monofunctional polyether of ca. 1000 g/mol molecular weight. Plaques formed from these model systems were shown to be solid materials even at their relatively low molecular weights of 3000 g/mol and less, AFM phase images, for the first time, revealed the ability of the hard

  3. Curing behavior of seven segmented polyurethane adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.M.

    1982-06-01

    The curing behavior of seven segmented polyurethane adhesives (Halthanes) was followed by dynamic viscosity measurements with time under isothermal conditions. Two types of adhesive systems were studied: (1) MDI/ BDO/ PTMG1 or 4,4' methylene bis (phenylisocyanate)/ butanediol/ poly(tetramethylene oxide) and (2) HMDI/ ADA/ PTMG2 or 4,4' methylene bis (cyclohexylisocyanate)/ aromatic diamine/ poly(tetramethylene oxide). Changing the hard segment former from MDI/BDO to HMDI/ADA significantly increased the cure rate. The accelerator, ferric acetoacetonate, used in combination with a tetrafunctional alcohol increased the cure rate of the MDI adhesive system to nearly that of the HMDI system. With increasing temperature, macroscopic phase separation of the excess MDI in the MDI terminated prepolymer is compatibilized by the curing agent. Thus MDI/BDO/PTMG1 systems are clear when cured at above 80/sup 0/C. This does not affect the hard-soft block structure which controls the adhesive properties. All components of the HMDI/ ADA/ PTMG2 systems can be compatibilized at 60/sup 0/C and will remain dissolved for several hours at room temperature. Therefore, these systems are dark but clear when cured. 4 figures.

  4. An Analysis of Three-Channel RSNS Virtual Spacing Direction Finding System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    understand and predict the performance of a three-channel RSNS virtual spacing DF system , simulations in MATLAB were carried out. This chapter...introduces all the models that were used in the MATLAB simulations. A. NOISE MODEL It is assumed that the noise in the system is random in nature and...CHANNEL RSNS VIRTUAL SPACING DIRECTION FINDING SYSTEM by Kevin Kwai December 2007 Thesis Advisors: Phillip Pace David Jenn

  5. Effective light bending and controlling in a chamber-channel waveguide system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yingnan; Wang, Haining; Reed, Jennifer M; Pan, Shi; Zou, Shengli

    2013-07-01

    A novel chamber-channel system is proposed to achieve the bending of light at a 90 deg angle with relatively high transmission efficiencies. An ultrathin film is introduced into the chamber to couple more light into the system, which makes the chamber as a light absorber, while the channel serves as an output pathway to guide the light through the system. We show that the light propagation is significantly affected by the output position of the channels. By setting the output to specific positions, the device can be considered as a light switch, amplifier, or filter. This work holds great potential for controlling light in nanoscale photonic devices.

  6. A Serial Unequal Error Protection Codes System Using MMSE-FDE for Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Satoshi; Asano, David K.

    In our previous research, to achieve unequal error protection (UEP), we proposed a scheme which encodes the data by randomly switching between several codes which use different signal constellations and showed the effectiveness in AWGN channels. In this letter, we propose our UEP system using MMSE-FDE for fast and selective fading by using the fact that importance levels are changed every few symbols, i.e., every block, in the proposed system. We confirmed the improvement in BER performance and the effectiveness of adaptive equalization for the proposed system in fading channels. Moreover, in fading channels we confirmed the validity of the theoretical tradeoff shown in static conditions.

  7. Platelet adhesion to polyurethane urea under pulsatile flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Navitsky, Michael A; Taylor, Joshua O; Smith, Alexander B; Slattery, Margaret J; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Manning, Keefe B

    2014-12-01

    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s(-1). The aim of the current work is to determine the properties of platelet adhesion to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time-varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system was used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g., cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments were conducted with the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk was rotated in platelet-rich bovine plasma for 2 h, with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow was found to decay exponentially with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels were found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate, regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices.

  8. Modification of polyurethane to reduce occlusion of enteral feeding tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaither, Kari A.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2009-04-27

    Feeding tubes are used to supply nutritional formula to immobilized patients. The most common cause for failure of enteral feeding tubes is their occlusion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether occlusion of enteral feeding tubes could be minimized using an additive. An open, intermittent enteral feeding system was simulated in the laboratory and data was collected over a period ranging from 2 to 6 days. Feeding formula was cycled through a feeding tube in either the presence or absence of simulated gastric acid in an effort to generate a reproducible occlusion. Pressures in the tube were measured frequently throughout these cycles. We observed pressure spikes with each cycle, but never a complete occlusion. Pressure spikes formed only when simulated gastric acid was mixed with the feeding solution. Large amounts of feeding formula adsorbed onto polyurethane surfaces in the presence of gastric acid. The maximum pressure was reduced by about half from 2.0 psi to 0.8 psi when polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added. The addition of PVA to polyurethane also reduced the contact angle from 83° (untreated) to approximately 64° in the presence of PVA. Furthermore, when formula was added to polyurethane in the presence of PVA the thickness of the layer that remained on the surface was almost 10 times greater in controls than on PVA-treated surfaces. These results suggest that a treatment that increases the hydrophilicity of the feeding tube may help minimize clogging.

  9. PLATELET ADHESION TO POLYURETHANE UREA UNDER PULSATILE FLOW CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Navitsky, Michael A.; Taylor, Joshua O.; Smith, Alexander B.; Slattery, Margaret J.; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Manning, Keefe B.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s−1. The aim of the current work is to determine platelet adhesion properties to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system is used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g. cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments retain the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk is rotated in platelet rich bovine plasma for two hours with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow is found to exponentially decay with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels are found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices. PMID:24721222

  10. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  11. Thrombocytopenia associated with environmental exposure to polyurethane

    SciTech Connect

    Michelson, A.D. )

    1991-10-01

    Few chemicals in the environment have been implicated as causes of isolated thrombocytopenia, and the evidence is usually less than convincing because the patients were not rechallenged with the chemical in vivo. In the present paper, a child is reported with the onset of thrombocytopenia in temporal association with environmental exposure to polyurethane. Five years after the initial thrombocytopenia had resolved, an inadvertent in vivo rechallenge with environmental polyurethane resulted in recurrence of the thrombocytopenia. This recurrence, together with the fact that only 1-4% of cases of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children recur, provided strong evidence for a causal role for the polyurethane exposure in this patient's thrombocytopenia. In summary, environmental exposure to polyurethane should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acquired thrombocytopenia in childhood.

  12. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  13. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  14. A tone-aided dual vestigial sideband system for digital communications on fading channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hladik, Stephen M.; Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1989-01-01

    A spectrally efficient tone-aided dual vestigial sideband (TA/DVSB) system for digital data communications on fading channels is presented and described analytically. This PSK (phase-shift-keying) system incorporates a feed-forward, tone-aided demodulation technique to compensate for Doppler frequency shift and channel- induced, multipath fading. In contrast to other tone-in-band-type systems, receiver synchronization is derived from the complete data VSBs. Simulation results for the Rician fading channel are presented. These results demonstrate the receiver's ability to mitigate performance degradation due to fading and to obtain proper data carrier synchronization, suggesting that the proposed TA/DVSB system has promise for this application. Simulated BER (bit-error rate) data indicate that the TA/DVSB system effectively alleviates the channel distortions of the land mobile satellite application.

  15. Pilot Beam Pattern Design for Channel Estimation in Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Song; Zoltowski, Michael D.; Sung, Youngchul; Love, David J.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the problem of pilot beam pattern design for channel estimation in massive multiple-input multiple-output systems with a large number of transmit antennas at the base station is considered, and a new algorithm for pilot beam pattern design for optimal channel estimation is proposed under the assumption that the channel is a stationary Gauss-Markov random process. The proposed algorithm designs the pilot beam pattern sequentially by exploiting the properties of Kalman filtering and the associated prediction error covariance matrices and also the channel statistics such as spatial and temporal channel correlation. The resulting design generates a sequentially-optimal sequence of pilot beam patterns with low complexity for a given set of system parameters. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Feedback channel in linear noiseless dynamic systems controlled over the packet erasure network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with tracking state trajectory at remote controller, stability and performance of linear time-invariant noiseless dynamic systems with multiple observations over the packet erasure network subject to random packet dropout and transmission delay that does not necessarily use feedback channel full time. Three cases are considered in this paper: (1) without feedback channel, (2) with feedback channel intermittently and (3) with full time availability of feedback channel. For all three cases, coding strategies that result in reliable tracking of state trajectory at remote controller with asymptotically zero mean absolute estimation error are presented. Asymptotic mean absolute stability of the controlled system equipped with each of these coding strategies is shown; trade-offs between duty cycle for feedback channel use, transmission delay and performance, which is defined in terms of the settling time, are studied.

  17. Global coverage Mobile Satellite Systems: System availability versus channel propagation impairments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforza, M.; Buonomo, S.; Poiaresbaptista, J. P. V.

    1993-01-01

    Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) in Highly Elliptical (HEO) and circular Earth orbits at Medium (MEO) and Low (LEO) altitudes have been intensively studied in the last few years as an effective means of providing global communication services. Such global coverage MSS networks are also expected to mitigate typical channel impairments usually encountered in geostationary Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) systems. In the design stages of these satellite networks, information regarding the mobile propagation channel is needed to assess the overall link availability versus elevation angle and environmental scenarios. For multisatellite LMS configurations, the mobile user on the Earth surface sees, at any given time, more than one satellite of the constellation. In our paper, it is shown that, under certain working assumptions regarding the statistics of the propagation channel, an improvement of the link availability may be achieved through the use of a multisatellite constellation. The analyses have been carried out using the European Space Agency (ESA) LMS propagation data base which presently covers a wide range of elevation angles and environmental scenarios.

  18. Interactions of Water with Hydrophilic Polyether Polyurethanes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    AD-AILS 967 ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTOWN MA F/O 11/9 INTERACTIONS OF WATER WITH HYDROPHILIC POLYETHER POLYURETHANES.(U) JUN...INTERACTIONS OF WATER WITH HYDROPHILIC POLYETHER POLYURETHANES JOYCE L. ILLINGER POLYMER RESEARCH DIVISION June 1982 DTIC S ELECTE SEP 7 1982 Approved...NUMBER AMMRC TR 82-39 P-gl76 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERID COVERED INTERACTIONS OF WATER WITH HYDROPHILIC Final Report POLYETHER

  19. Therapeutic targeting of two-pore-domain potassium (K(2P)) channels in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Wiedmann, Felix; Schmidt, Constanze; Lugenbiel, Patrick; Staudacher, Ingo; Rahm, Ann-Kathrin; Seyler, Claudia; Schweizer, Patrick A; Katus, Hugo A; Thomas, Dierk

    2016-05-01

    The improvement of treatment strategies in cardiovascular medicine is an ongoing process that requires constant optimization. The ability of a therapeutic intervention to prevent cardiovascular pathology largely depends on its capacity to suppress the underlying mechanisms. Attenuation or reversal of disease-specific pathways has emerged as a promising paradigm, providing a mechanistic rationale for patient-tailored therapy. Two-pore-domain K(+) (K(2P)) channels conduct outward K(+) currents that stabilize the resting membrane potential and facilitate action potential repolarization. K(2P) expression in the cardiovascular system and polymodal K2P current regulation suggest functional significance and potential therapeutic roles of the channels. Recent work has focused primarily on K(2P)1.1 [tandem of pore domains in a weak inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (TWIK)-1], K(2P)2.1 [TWIK-related K(+) channel (TREK)-1], and K(2P)3.1 [TWIK-related acid-sensitive K(+) channel (TASK)-1] channels and their role in heart and vessels. K(2P) currents have been implicated in atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis and in setting the vascular tone. Furthermore, the association of genetic alterations in K(2P)3.1 channels with atrial fibrillation, cardiac conduction disorders and pulmonary arterial hypertension demonstrates the relevance of the channels in cardiovascular disease. The function, regulation and clinical significance of cardiovascular K(2P) channels are summarized in the present review, and therapeutic options are emphasized. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  20. Pulse-excited, auto-zeroing multiple channel data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.

    1985-02-22

    A multiple channel data transmission system is provided in which signals from a plurality of pulse operated transducers and a corresponding plurality of pulse operated signal processor channels are multiplexed for single channel FM transmission to a receiving station. The transducers and corresponding channel amplifiers are powered by pulsing the dc battery power to these devices to conserve energy and battery size for long-term data transmission from remote or inaccessible locations. Auto zeroing of the signal channel amplifiers to compensate for drift associated with temperature changes, battery decay, component aging, etc., in each channel is accomplished by means of a unique auto zero feature which between signal pulses holds a zero correction voltage on an integrating capacitor coupled to the corresponding channel amplifier output. Pseudo-continuous outputs for each channel are achieved by pulsed sample-and-hold circuits which are updated at the pulsed operation rate. The sample-and-hold outputs are multiplexed into an FM/FM transmitter for transmission to an FM receiver station for demultiplexing and storage in separate channel recorders.

  1. Pulse-excited, auto-zeroing multiple channel data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1987-01-01

    A multiple channel data transmission system is provided in which signals from a plurality of pulse operated transducers and a corresponding plurality of pulse operated signal processor channels are multiplexed for single channel FM transmission to a receiving station. The transducers and corresponding channel amplifiers are powered by pulsing the dc battery power to these devices to conserve energy and battery size for long-term data transmission from remote or inaccessible locations. Auto zeroing of the signal channel amplifiers to compensate for drift associated with temperature changes, battery decay, component aging, etc., in each channel is accomplished by means of a unique auto zero feature which between signal pulses holds a zero correction voltage on an integrating capacitor coupled to the corresponding channel amplifier output. Pseudo-continuous outputs for each channel are achieved by pulsed sample-and-hold circuits which are updated at the pulsed operation rate. The sample-and-hold outputs are multiplexed into an FM/FM transmitter for transmission to an FM receiver station for demultiplexing and storage in separate channel recorders.

  2. Proof-of-concept demonstration of a miniaturized three-channel multiresolution imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belay, Gebirie Y.; Ottevaere, Heidi; Meuret, Youri; Vervaeke, Michael; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Multichannel imaging systems have several potential applications such as multimedia, surveillance, medical imaging and machine vision, and have therefore been a hot research topic in recent years. Such imaging systems, inspired by natural compound eyes, have many channels, each covering only a portion of the total field-of-view of the system. As a result, these systems provide a wide field-of-view (FOV) while having a small volume and a low weight. Different approaches have been employed to realize a multichannel imaging system. We demonstrated that the different channels of the imaging system can be designed in such a way that they can have each different imaging properties (angular resolution, FOV, focal length). Using optical ray-tracing software (CODE V), we have designed a miniaturized multiresolution imaging system that contains three channels each consisting of four aspherical lens surfaces fabricated from PMMA material through ultra-precision diamond tooling. The first channel possesses the largest angular resolution (0.0096°) and narrowest FOV (7°), whereas the third channel has the widest FOV (80°) and the smallest angular resolution (0.078°). The second channel has intermediate properties. Such a multiresolution capability allows different image processing algorithms to be implemented on the different segments of an image sensor. This paper presents the experimental proof-of-concept demonstration of the imaging system using a commercial CMOS sensor and gives an in-depth analysis of the obtained results. Experimental images captured with the three channels are compared with the corresponding simulated images. The experimental MTF of the channels have also been calculated from the captured images of a slanted edge target test. This multichannel multiresolution approach opens the opportunity for low-cost compact imaging systems that can be equipped with smart imaging capabilities.

  3. Solving non-Markovian open quantum systems with multi-channel reservoir coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, Curtis J.; Jing, Jun; Yu, Ting; Eberly, Joseph H.

    2012-08-01

    We extend the non-Markovian quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to open quantum systems which exhibit multi-channel coupling to a harmonic oscillator reservoir. Open quantum systems which have multi-channel reservoir coupling are those in which canonical transformation of reservoir modes cannot reduce the number of reservoir operators appearing in the interaction Hamiltonian to one. We show that the non-Markovian QSD equation for multi-channel reservoir coupling can, in some cases, lead to an exact master equation which we derive. We then derive the exact master equation for the three-level system in a vee-type configuration which has multi-channel reservoir coupling and give the analytical solution. Finally, we examine the evolution of the three-level vee-type system with generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck reservoir correlations numerically.

  4. A slow-speed multiple-channel analog-to-digital data logging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, T. C.; Flaherty, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    The system was developed to record from one up to a maximum of sixteen channels of analog data onto magnetic tape. Each analog channel of data can be sampled at rates of 1, 2, 6, 12, or 60 times per minute. The system is divided into three subunits: a digital clock, an incremental magnetic tape recorder, and a sequential converter. The interfacing requirements of these subunits are presented.

  5. Multi-channel holographic birfurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Diep, J.; Huang, K.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on multi-channel holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive Earth Observing System (EOS) data analysis are presented. The objective is to research and develop an optical bifurcating neuromorphic pattern recognition system for making optical data array comparisons and to evaluate the use of the system for EOS data classification, reduction, analysis, and other applications.

  6. Operations Considerations in Designing a High Speed Multi Channel Data Acquisition System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    performance monitoring and evaluation system (PMES). The system, Which is similar to that of PBFA I [1], consists of approximately 300 channels of single...will be found and new system capabilities must be added; References 1. E. L. Neau and W. B. Boyer, "PBFA-II Performance Monitoring and Evaluation System

  7. VECOM: A powerful local communication channel between vehicle-borne and roadside systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ros, W.

    1986-09-01

    A system which provides for an inductive data transmission channel for local communication is described. Data exchange takes place at strategic spots via communication loops, embedded in the road. Though the main applications of the system are in the field of public transit, in other fields of transportation the system might offer interesting possibilities, especially when combined with a long range data communication system.

  8. Multi-channel holographic birfurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive EOS data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Diep, J.; Huang, K.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on multi-channel holographic bifurcative neural network system for real-time adaptive Earth Observing System (EOS) data analysis are presented. The objective is to research and develop an optical bifurcating neuromorphic pattern recognition system for making optical data array comparisons and to evaluate the use of the system for EOS data classification, reduction, analysis, and other applications.

  9. The Role of Hard Segment Content on the Molecular Dynamics of Poly(tetramethylene oxide)-Based Polyurethane Copolymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    diisocyanate (MDI)1,4- butanediol ( BDO ) hard segments is varied. Because of the complexity of these materials (multicomponent, multiphase systems...dependent syn- chrotron small-angle X-ray scattering) that these MDI BDO PTMO polyurethanes undergo phase mixing at elevated tem- peratures, signaled by a...Dielectric spectra of well-characterized MDI BDO PTMO polyurethane multiblock copolymers exhibit five dipolar relaxa- tion processes. Of particular

  10. Reduced-rank technique for joint channel estimation in TD-SCDMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil Marzook, Ali; Ismail, Alyani; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Sali, Adawati; Khatun, Sabira

    2013-02-01

    In time division-synchronous code division multiple access systems, increasing the system capacity by exploiting the inserting of the largest number of users in one time slot (TS) requires adding more estimation processes to estimate the joint channel matrix for the whole system. The increase in the number of channel parameters due the increase in the number of users in one TS directly affects the precision of the estimator's performance. This article presents a novel channel estimation with low complexity, which relies on reducing the rank order of the total channel matrix H. The proposed method exploits the rank deficiency of H to reduce the number of parameters that characterise this matrix. The adopted reduced-rank technique is based on truncated singular value decomposition algorithm. The algorithms for reduced-rank joint channel estimation (JCE) are derived and compared against traditional full-rank JCEs: least squares (LS) or Steiner and enhanced (LS or MMSE) algorithms. Simulation results of the normalised mean square error showed the superiority of reduced-rank estimators. In addition, the channel impulse responses founded by reduced-rank estimator for all active users offers considerable performance improvement over the conventional estimator along the channel window length.

  11. Design of a communications system for multiple telemetry data channels operating simultaneously with a coherent turn-around ranging channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Gevargiz, John M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a simple technique to design a phase-modulated residual carrier communications link for optimum performance. The emphasis is on two data channels which are operated simultaneously with a ranging signal. The data channels employ PCM/PM and PCM/PSK/PM modulation schemes for high and low data rate channels, respectively. The technique proposed here selects the optimum (1) subcarrier frequency to minimize the interference between the two data channels, and (2) modulation indices for optimum balance of power between the two telemetry data channels and the coherent turn around ranging channel. The selected set of optimum modulation indices will allow for the specified bit error rate (BER) degradations in the two data channels. Although this technique is proposed to optimize the performance degradation for two data channels, generalizations can be made for more than two data channels.

  12. Design of a communications system for multiple telemetry data channels operating simultaneously with a coherent turn-around ranging channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Gevargiz, John M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a simple technique to design a phase-modulated residual carrier communications link for optimum performance. The emphasis is on two data channels which are operated simultaneously with a ranging signal. The data channels employ PCM/PM and PCM/PSK/PM modulation schemes for high and low data rate channels, respectively. The technique proposed here selects the optimum (1) subcarrier frequency to minimize the interference between the two data channels, and (2) modulation indices for optimum balance of power between the two telemetry data channels and the coherent turn around ranging channel. The selected set of optimum modulation indices will allow for the specified bit error rate (BER) degradations in the two data channels. Although this technique is proposed to optimize the performance degradation for two data channels, generalizations can be made for more than two data channels.

  13. Advances in plastic recycling. Volume 1: Recycling of polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, K.C.; Klempner, D.; Prentice, G.

    1999-07-01

    ``Recycling of Polyurethanes'', the first volume in the Advances in Plastics Recycling series, is focused on the physical and chemical recycling of polyurethanes, with attention given to energy conversion. A compilation of the present ongoing studies on recycling of urethane and, in general, isocyanate-based polymers, the focus is on thermosetting urethane polymers. Contents include: Recycling of Polyurethane Plastics in the European Automotive Industry; Present State of Polyurethane Recycling in Europe; Processing Overview of Bonded Polyurethane Foam; Mechanical Recycling of Polyurethane Scrap; Ecostream{trademark}--A Technology Beyond Recycling; Recycling of Flexible polyurethane Foam; General purpose Adhesives Prepared from Chemically Recycled Waste Rigid Polyurethane Foams; and Utilization of Isocyanate Binders in Recycling of Scrap Automotive Headliners.

  14. Development of multi-channel gated integrator and PXI-DAQ system for nuclear detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Su, Hong; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Dong, Cheng-Fu; Qian, Yi; Gao, Shan-Shan; Zhou, Chao-Yang; Lu, Wan; Ye, Rui-Ping; Ma, Jun-Bing

    2010-10-01

    A multi-channel gated integrator and PXI based data acquisition system have been developed for nuclear detector arrays with hundreds of detector units. The multi-channel gated integrator can be controlled by a programmable GI controller. The PXI-DAQ system consists of NI PXI-1033 chassis with several PXI-DAQ cards. The system software has a user-friendly GUI which is written in C language using LabWindows/CVI under Windows XP operating system. The performance of the PXI-DAQ system is very reliable and capable of handling event rate up to 40 kHz.

  15. On Bit Rate Reduction of Inter-Channel Communication for a Binaural Hearing Assistance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisaki, Yoshifumi; Kawano, Ryouji; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi

    A binaural hearing assistance system based on the frequency domain binaural model has been previously proposed. The system can enhance a signal coming from a specific direction. Since the system utilizes a binaural signal, an inter-channel communication between left and right subsystems is required. The bit rate reduction in inter-channel communication is essential for the detachment of the headset from the processing system. In this paper, the performance of a system which uses a differential pulse code modulation codec is examined and the relationship between the bit rate and sound quality is discussed.

  16. Four-year follow-up of effects of toluene diisocyanate exposure on the respiratory system in polyurethane foam manufacturing workers. I. Study design and results of the first cross-sectional observation.

    PubMed

    Omae, K; Nakadate, T; Higashi, T; Nakaza, M; Aizawa, Y; Sakurai, H

    1992-01-01

    A 4-year cohort study was designed to assess the exposure-effect relationship of working in polyurethane foam (PF) manufacturing factories with exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and its effects on the respiratory system. This paper describes the results of the first cross-sectional observations. The study population included 90 male workers who had been working in PF factories for 0.5-25 years (mean 13.3 years) (PF workers) and 44 reference workers in the same factories. The mean exposure concentration of TDI calculated from 129 personal samples was 3.2 ppb. Peak exposure excursions above 20 ppb occurred in 16 of 129 samples. Pulmonary function and its change during the working day as assessed by examining the forced expiratory flow-volume curve, respiratory impedance, and airway resistance and specific airway conductance were not different in the PF workers from those in the reference workers. Chest X-radiographs did not show any noteworthy radiological changes. Prevalences of "phlegm in winter," "nasal stuffiness or discharge in winter," and "irritation of eye and throat mucous membranes" were significantly higher in the PF workers. The findings indicate that TDI exposure at levels around 3 ppb may not adversely affect the pulmonary function over many years of exposure of those who are not hypersensitive to TDI. The causal chemicals inducing some respiratory and irritative symptoms could not be specifically identified since the PF workers were exposed not only to TDI but also to other irritative agents in the PF manufacturing processes.

  17. Use Channel Reconfiguration Technique to Improve the Spatial Multiplexing Gain of MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yung-Yi; Yang, Shih-Jen; Chen, Jiunn-Tsair

    Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless systems can not always have full spatial multiplexing gain due to the channel correlation problem caused by various factors such as the coupled antenna elements, and the key-hole effect of the propagation environment. In this paper, we proposed a channel reconfiguration technique to combat the rank deficiency problem of the involved MIMO wireless channels that can not afford high-order multiplexing gains. In the proposed approach, each mobile station can simultaneously receive several independent data streams from multiple base stations through a set of MMSE-based receive beamformers to suppress the multiple access interferences. Making use of the receive beamforming, which virtually produce the effect of a single antenna at each receive mobile, makes the transmit base station possible to reconfigure the MIMO downlink channel and then pre-cancel the co-channel interferences. The proposed signal processing mechanism that iteratively optimized the MMSE receive weights and the transmit precoders, which brings the reconfigured MIMO system about the high data throughput seen only with indoor MIMO systems having rich wireless channels. It is shown that as compared to the conventional MIMO system, the M4 system can achieve a significantly higher capacity which is proportional to the number of the linked base stations.

  18. Sub-Surface and Bulk Creep Behaviour of Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jin, J; Yusoh, K; Zhang, H X; Song, M

    2016-03-01

    A series of exfoliated and intercalated polyurethane organoclay nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization of polyol/organoclay mixture, chain extender and diisocyanate. The creep behaviour of subsurface and bulk of the polyurethane coatings was investigated by nanoindentation technique and uniaxial conventional creep testing method, respectively. The results showed that the creep resistance of the nanocomposites was significantly improved by incorporation of organoclay. The enhancement of creep resistance was dependent on clay content as well as organoclay structure (exfoliation or intercalation) in the polymer matrix. With 1 wt% organoclay, the creep resistance increased by about 50% for the intercalated organoclay and 6% for the exfoliated organoclay systems, respectively, compared to the pristine polyurethane. Viscoelastic model was employed to investigate the effect of organoclay loadings on the creep performance of the polyurethane. Results showed the model was in good agreement with the experimental data. Incorporation of clay leads to an increase in elastic deformation especially in exfoliated polyurethane nanocomposites and induces a higher initial displacement at the early stage of creep.

  19. Incorporation of ionic ligands accelerates drug release from LDI-glycerol polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Sivak, Wesley N; Zhang, Jianying; Petoud, Stephane; Beckman, Eric J

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the effect of ionic ligands on the drug delivery characteristics of biodegradable polyurethane materials synthesized from lysine diisocyanate (LDI) and glycerol. Two naturally occurring, structurally related ionic species, choline chloride (CC) and isethionic acid (ISE), along with 3,3-dimethyl-butanol (DMB), their neutral carbon analog, were covalently incorporated into LDI-glycerol polyurethane materials. Selected organometallic and tertiary amine catalysts were used to fashion films and foams, respectively. The potent anticancer compound DB-67, a fluorescent camptothecin derivative, was also covalently linked to the polyurethane constructs. It was first determined that the sulfonate functional group on ISE does not react to a significant degree with isocyanate. The morphological characteristics of the polyurethane films and foams were assessed via scanning electron microscopy, showing significant differences related to the ionic ligands. The ionic materials displayed increased swelling in aqueous media over the neutral control materials. Differences in the distribution of DB-67 throughout the films and foams were then detected by fluorescence microscopy. The drug delivery characteristics of the materials were then evaluated in vitro, revealing accelerated release from ionic materials. The results of this study demonstrate the unique effects that incorporation of ionic ligands into LDI-glycerol polyurethanes have on the morphology and drug distribution of the materials. These differences have a significant impact on the drug delivery characteristics of the materials, and this information should prove useful in the design and synthesis of biodegradable controlled release systems.

  20. 47 CFR 90.717 - Channels available for nationwide systems in the 220-222 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., commercial Phase I systems. (c) Channels 111-115 and 116-120 are 5-channel blocks available for Government... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channels available for nationwide systems in... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations...

  1. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).

  2. Inter-channel nonlinear crosstalk in analog phase-modulated wavelength-division-multiplexed systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, J H; Ji, Ho-Chul

    2008-12-08

    We investigate the inter-channel nonlinear optical crosstalk in analog phase-modulated (PM) wavelength-division-multiplexed systems. The optical transmitters of the PM system produce constant optical intensity at the output. However, the chromatic dispersion of fiber induces amplitude fluctuations which in turn give rise to fiber nonlinearities to other channels through stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and optical Kerr effect. We present theoretical analysis on SRS and cross-phase modulation (XPM) for PM systems and compare it with two-channel experiment and numerical simulation. The results show that PM systems significantly suppress SRS and XPM, compared to intensity-modulated systems. Our experiment and simulation results confirm that the total nonlinear crosstalk in the analog PM WDM system is reduced up to 15 dB.

  3. Identical synchronization of chaotic secure communication systems with channel induced coherence resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepantaie, Marc M.; Namazi, Nader M.; Sepantaie, Amir M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is devoted to addressing the synchronization, and detection of random binary data exposed to inherent channel variations existing in Free Space Optical (FSO) communication systems. This task is achieved by utilizing the identical synchronization methodology of Lorenz chaotic communication system, and its synergetic interaction in adversities imposed by the FSO channel. Moreover, the Lorenz system has been analyzed, and revealed to induce Stochastic Resonance (SR) once exposed to Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In particular, the resiliency of the Lorenz chaotic system, in light of channel adversities, has been attributed to the success of the proposed communication system. Furthermore, this paper advocates the use of Haar wavelet transform for enhanced detection capability of the proposed chaotic communication system, which utilizes Chaotic Parameter Modulation (CPM) technique for means of transmission.

  4. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  5. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.

  6. Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Channel Design and Performance of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System on the ICESat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Krainak, Michael A.; Spinhirne, James D.; Palm, Steve S.; Lancaster, Redgie S.; Allan, Graham R.

    2004-01-01

    The design of the 532 and 1064nm wavelength atmosphere lidar channels of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System on the ICESat spacecraft is described. The lidar channel performance per on orbit measurements data will be presented.

  7. Multifunctional cationic polyurethanes designed for non-viral cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Jie; Shi, Ting; Zhao, Peng; Lin, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Nano-polyplexes from bioreducible cationic polymers have a massive promise for cancer gene therapy. However, the feasibility of cationic polyurethanes for non-viral gene therapy is so far not well studied. In this work, a linear cationic polyurethane containing disulfide bonds, urethane linkages and protonable tertiary amino groups was successfully generated by stepwise polycondensation reaction between 2,2'-dithiodiethanol bis(p-nitrophenyl carbonate) and 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine (BAP). We confirmed that the cationic polyurethane (denoted as PUBAP) displayed superior gene delivery properties to its cationic polyamide analogue, thus causing higher in vitro transfection efficiency in MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells. Besides, further folate-PEGylation and hydrophobic deoxycholic acid (DCA) conjugation to amino-containing PUBAP can be conducted to afford multifunctional polyurethane gene delivery system. After optimization, folate-decorated nano-polyplexes from the PUBAP conjugated with 8 folate-PEG chains and 12 DCA residues exhibited superb colloidal stability under physiological conditions, and performed rapid uptake via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis, efficient intracellular gene release and nucleus translocation into SKOV-3 cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, PUBAP based polyplexes possess low cytotoxicity as a result of PUBAP biodegradability. Therefore, marked growth inhibition of SKOV-3 tumor xenografted in Balb/c nude mice was achieved with negligible side effects on the mouse health after intravenous administration of PUBAP based polyplexes with a therapeutic plasmid encoding for TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. This work provides a new insight into biomedical application of bio-responsive polyurethanes for cancer therapy. In this study, we have confirmed that disulfide-based cationic polyurethane presents a new non-viral vector for gene transfer and cancer gene therapy. The significance of this work includes: (1) design and synthesis of a

  8. CARMENES-NIR channel spectrograph cooling system AIV: thermo-mechanical performance of the instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, S.; Mirabet, E.; Lizon, J. L.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, C.; Ferro, I.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Ramón, A.; Sánchez-Carrasco, M. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Seifert, W.; Herranz, J.

    2016-07-01

    CARMENES is the new high-resolution high-stability spectrograph built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA, Almería, Spain) by a consortium formed by German and Spanish institutions. This instrument is composed by two separated spectrographs: VIS channel (550-1050 nm) and NIR channel (950- 1700 nm). The NIR-channel spectrograph's responsible is the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAACSIC). It has been manufactured, assembled, integrated and verified in the last two years, delivered in fall 2015 and commissioned in December 2015. One of the most challenging systems in this cryogenic channel involves the Cooling System. Due to the highly demanding requirements applicable in terms of stability, this system arises as one of the core systems to provide outstanding stability to the channel. Really at the edge of the state-of-the-art, the Cooling System is able to provide to the cold mass ( 1 Ton) better thermal stability than few hundredths of degree within 24 hours (goal: 0.01K/day). The present paper describes the Assembly, Integration and Verification phase (AIV) of the CARMENES-NIR channel Cooling System implemented at IAA-CSIC and later installation at CAHA 3.5m Telescope, thus the most relevant highlights being shown in terms of thermal performance. The CARMENES NIR-channel Cooling System has been implemented by the IAA-CSIC through very fruitful collaboration and involvement of the ESO (European Southern Observatory) cryo-vacuum department with Jean-Louis Lizon as its head and main collaborator. The present work sets an important trend in terms of cryogenic systems for future E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) large-dimensioned instrumentation in astrophysics.

  9. System design for a million channel digital spectrum analyzer /MCSA/. [of bandpass filtering in SETI receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, A.; Narasimha, M.; Narayan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The system design of a wideband (8 MHz) million-channel digital spectrum analyzer for use with a SETI receiver is presented. The analyzer makes use of a digital bandpass filter bank for transforming the wideband input signal into a specified number (120) of uniform narrowband output channels by the use of a Fourier transform digital processor combined with a prototype digital weighting network (finite impulse response filter). The output is then processed separately by 120 microprocessor-based discrete Fourier transform computers, each producing 8190 output channels of approximately 8 Hz bandwidth by the use of an 8190-point prime factor algorithm.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane...

  14. Coincidence doppler broadening study in electron-irradiated polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D. J.; Zhang, J. D.; Leung, J. K. C.; Beling, C. D.; Liu, L. B.

    2007-06-01

    Coincidence doppler broadening measurements on electron-irradiated polyurethanes were performed in the presence of air. It is shown that, after a certain electron irradiation, the momentum density distributions of annihilation electrons have obvious changes for the high crosslinking polyurethane, but no significant changes have been observed for the low crosslinking polyurethane. The results were performed to analyse by irradiation crosslinking and degradation principles.

  15. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  18. Note: Experimental observation of nano-channel pattern in light sheet laser interference nanolithography system

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2016-06-15

    We experimentally observed nano-channel-like pattern in a light-sheet based interference nanolithography system. The optical system created nano-channel-like patterned illumination. Coherent counter-propagating light sheets are made to interfere at and near geometrical focus along the propagation z-axis. This results in the formation of nano-channel-like pattern (of size ≈ 300 nm and inter-channel periodicity of ≈337.5 nm) inside the sample due to constructive and destructive interference. In addition, the technique has the ability to generate large area patterning using larger light-sheets. Exciting applications are in the broad field of nanotechnology (nano-electronics and nano-fluidics).

  19. Note: Experimental observation of nano-channel pattern in light sheet laser interference nanolithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Kavya; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally observed nano-channel-like pattern in a light-sheet based interference nanolithography system. The optical system created nano-channel-like patterned illumination. Coherent counter-propagating light sheets are made to interfere at and near geometrical focus along the propagation z-axis. This results in the formation of nano-channel-like pattern (of size ≈ 300 nm and inter-channel periodicity of ≈337.5 nm) inside the sample due to constructive and destructive interference. In addition, the technique has the ability to generate large area patterning using larger light-sheets. Exciting applications are in the broad field of nanotechnology (nano-electronics and nano-fluidics).

  20. The design and analysis of channel transmission communication system of XCTD profiler.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rui; Jin, Xiang-Yu; Song, Guo-Min; Shang, Ying-Sheng; Li, Hong-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a channel transmission communication system of expendable conductivity-temperature-depth is established in accordance to the operation characteristics of the transmission line to more accurately assess the characteristics of deep-sea abandoned profiler channel. The wrapping inductance is eliminated to maximum extent through the wrapping pattern of the underwater spool and the overwater spool and the calculation of the wrapping diameter. The feasibility of the proposed channel transmission communication system is verified through theoretical analysis and practical measurement of the transmission signal error rate in the amplitude shift keying (ASK) modulation. The proposed design provides a new research method for the channel assessment of complex abandoned measuring instrument and an important experiment evidence for the rapid development of the deep-sea abandoned measuring instrument.

  1. Super multi-channel recording systems with UWB wireless transmitter for BMI.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Ando, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Isao; Matsushita, Kojiro; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Takizawa, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize a low-invasive and high accuracy Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) system for clinical applications, a super multi-channel recording system was developed in which 4096 channels of Electrocorticogram (ECoG) signal can be amplified and transmitted to outside the body by using an Ultra Wide Band (UWB) wireless system. Also, a high density, flexible electrode array made by using a Parylene-C substrate was developed that is composed of units of 32-ch recording arrays. We have succeeded in an evaluation test of UWB wireless transmitting using a body phantom system.

  2. The multi-channel laser focusing transceiver system and analysis of the image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xin; Sun, Hongri; Yang, Kun; Qu, Zhou; Zhang, Bo; Cui, Yihan

    2015-10-01

    This paper has investigated and designed a multi-channel laser focusing transceiver system based on the combination of the laser technology, the space technology and the modern photoelectric detection technology which has the feather of wide wave band, non-chromatic aberration and high quality of image quality etc. The system could be synchronized and can change the distance of detection in a particular direction and obtain the image of atmospheric echo signals at different distances. In this paper we established a multi-channel and variable range laser focusing transceiver system that consists of a single-channel laser focusing transmitter system and a dual-channel receiving telescope system. The three channels of the system depend on the same reference axis. We propose a new method that is capable to improve the laser focusing transceiver system performance. The method is implemented by using parabolic reflector design in the primary and secondary mirror of the variable range laser focusing transmitter system, dual-channel off-axis design in the receiver system and simultaneous imaging design in the different regions of the same CCD target surface of the subsequent imaging system. The detection by two channels using off-axis design would be convenient for computing follow up information. On the base of theoretical basis of the reflective double mirror system and the theory Gaussian beam propagation, this paper calculates the actual converging sot size of the transmitter system and analyzes the wavefront aberration the defocus incidence. The oblique incidence will introduce the certain astigmatism and a small amount of coma and the defocus incidence will produce the certain coma and a small amount of spherical aberration and astigmatism. Finally, an experimental multi-channel laser focusing transceiver system was established and the image quality of the transceiver system on the base of wavefront aberrations, the spot diagram and the MTF curve of some fields is

  3. Impact of Medium on the Development and Physiology of Pseudomonas fluorescens Biofilms on Polyurethane Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    17571) colony was used to start an overnight culture in Luria-Bertani broth . 100 μl of this culture was used to inoculate the flow system. The system...distribution of the polyurethane degrading enzyme of Comamonas acidovorans strain TB-35. J Ferment Bioeng. 83(5):456-460. Nakajima-Kambe T, Onuma

  4. Towards a multi-channel TOF-PET system with SiPM readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garutti, Erika; Göttlich, Martin; Harion, Tobias; Hegemann, Niklas; Schmidt, Maximilian; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Shen, Wei; Silenzi, Alessandro; Stamen, Rainer; Tadday, Alexander; Xu, Chen

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a multi-channel TOF-PET system with a 300 ps FWHM time resolution, a factor two improvement with respect to commercially available systems (Surti et al., 2007 [1]). In a TOF-PET system, the time-of-flight information can be used to improve significantly the sensitivity of the detector as shown in Karp et al. (2008) [2]. The target time resolution has been achieved in two channel systems with LYSO (Kim and Wang, 2008 [3]), the aim is to port this results into a multi-channel system. This work extends the results shown in Göttlich et al. (2010) [4], studying the stability of the detector performance in different geometries and configurations.

  5. Guidance of the divertor channel outside the main coil system for heliotron/torsatron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takase, H.; Ohyabu, N.

    1995-02-01

    A divertor magnetic configuration is proposed that significantly reduces heat load on the divertor plates in heliotron/torsatron devices. The proposed configuration utilizes an octupole field for guiding the divertor channels to a remote area outside the main coil system, where the magnetic field is weak. This allows a significant reduction of the heat load due to expansion of the divertor channels as well as substantially easier access to the divertor plates for maintenance, the key requirements for toroidal fusion reactor designs

  6. Decomposite channel estimation and equalization for GMSK-based system with transmit diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Timothy S.; Gudena, Chandragupta

    2004-08-01

    In this paper, multi-channel estimation schemes for a GMSK-based system with transmit diversity (space-time coding) are presented. For such a system, the channel information (impulse response) is critical for both space-time decoding and equalization at the receiver. Three non-blind estimation schemes, which decompose the channel in the process, are proposed for the GMSK receiver to obtain the impulse response of each of the multipath channels (i.e. transmit antennas): oversampling deconvolution, minimum mean-square error, and joint adaptive and correlation estimation. Since the received signal is the sum of emitted GMSK signals, interference cancellation is employed to facilitate the estimation process. Three cancellation algorithms, including direct cancellation, mean-square cancellation, and iterative cancellation, combined with each channel estimation method are investigated and compared. The estimated channel information will feed to the receiver consisting of space-time decoder and equalizer to decode the symbols of interest. Two receiver architectures are investigated in this paper, where the first design is the space-time decoder followed by the equalizer, the other is in the reverse way (equalizer followed by space-time decoder). In each of the two receiver architectures, the channel estimation needs additional modification and so does the equalizer. The equalizer in the design is a maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) based on Viterbi algorithm. To prove the concept and algorithms, both simulation and hardware implementation are performed. From the experimental results, it is shown that all the channel estimation algorithms can produce acceptable impulse response for space-time decoding and equalizer, in which the joint adaptive estimation with iterative cancellation is superior to the others. It is also shown that the diversity gain of this transmit diversity system is as good as a system with the same degree of receive diversity.

  7. Channel direction information probing for multi-antenna cognitive radio system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang; Villardi, Gabriel Porto; Kojima, Fumihide; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the problem of channel direction information (CDI) probing for multi-antenna cognitive radio system. The CDI of the channel from the secondary transmitter (ST) to primary receiver (PR) is elementary information in designing the beamforming at the ST for mitigating the interference to the PR. However, lacking the explicit cooperation between primary and secondary systems, the CDI has to be acquired by probing at the ST, which is challenging. To solve this, we consider the line of sight (LoS) channel between the ST and the PR, and propose one CDI probing scheme for the ST. Specifically, the ST sends two types of probing signals by beamforming towards an interested region where both the secondary receiver (SR) and the PR are located and then actively learns the hidden feedback information from the primary system to acquire the CDI. The proposed scheme has a closed-form solution, and avoids the iteration between the probing and acquisition, which is desirable for practical system. Moreover, we show that the proposed probing scheme can be extended for primary systems working under multi-access channel and broadcasting channel. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve the accuracy of the acquired CDI at the ST in cognitive ratio system remarkably.

  8. Polyurethane from biosource as a new material for fabrication of microfluidic devices by rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Piccin, Evandro; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Fracassi da Silva, José Alberto; Neto, Salvador Claro; Mazo, Luiz Henrique; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2007-11-30

    This paper presents the use of elastomeric polyurethane (PU), derived from castor oil (CO) biosource, as a new material for fabrication of microfluidic devices by rapid prototyping. Including the irreversible sealing step, PU microchips were fabricated in less than 1h by casting PU resin directly on the positive high-relief molds fabricated by standard photolithography and nickel electrodeposition. Physical characterization of microchannels was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. Polymer surface was characterized using contact angle measurements and the results showed that the hydrophilicity of the PU surface increases after oxygen plasma treatment. The polymer surface demonstrated the capability of generating an electroosmotic flow (EOF) of 2.6 x 10(-4)cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) at pH 7 in the cathode direction, which was characterized by current monitoring method at different pH values. The compatibility of PU with a wide range of solvents and electrolytes was tested by determining its degree of swelling over a 24h period of contact. The performance of microfluidic systems fabricated using this new material was evaluated by fabricating miniaturized capillary electrophoresis systems. Epinephrine and l-DOPA, as model analytes, were separated in aqueous solutions and detected with end-channel amperometric detection.

  9. Potassium channels in the central nervous system of the snail, Helix pomatia: localization and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Battonyai, I; Krajcs, N; Serfőző, Z; Kiss, T; Elekes, K

    2014-05-30

    The distribution and functional presence of three voltage-dependent potassium channels, Kv2.1, Kv3.4, Kv4.3, respectively, were studied in the central nervous system of the snail Helix pomatia by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods. Cell clusters displaying immunoreactivity for the different channels were observed in all parts of the CNS, although their localization and number partly varied. Differences were also found in their intracellular, perikaryonal and axonal localization, as well as in their presence in non-neuronal tissues nearby the CNS, such as the perineurium and the aorta wall. At ultrastructural level Kv4.3 channel immunolabeling was observed in axon profiles containing large 80-100nm granular vesicles. Blotting analyses revealed specific signals for the Kv2.1, Kv3.4 and Kv4.3 channels, confirming the presence of the channels in the Helix CNS. Voltage-clamp recordings proved that outward currents obtained from neurons displaying Kv3.4 or Kv4.3 immunoreactivity contained transient components while Kv2.1 immunoreactive cells were characterized by delayed currents. The distribution of the K(+)-channels containing neurons suggests specific roles in intercellular signaling processes in the Helix CNS, most probably related to well-defined, partly local events. The cellular localization of the K(+)-channels studied supports their involvement in both pre- and postsynaptic events at perikaryonal and axonal levels. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. DLG differentially localizes Shaker K+-channels in the central nervous system and retina of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cañada, C; Koh, Y H; Budnik, V; Tejedor, F J

    2002-09-01

    Subcellular localization of ion channels is crucial for the transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system. Here we show that Discs-Large (DLG), a member of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinases) family in Drosophila, co-localizes with Shaker potassium channels (Sh Kch) in most synaptic areas of the adult brain and in the outer membrane of photoreceptors. However, DLG is absent from axonal tracts in which Sh channels are concentrated. Truncation of the C-terminal of Sh (including the PDZ binding site) disturbs its pattern of distribution in both CNS and retina, while truncation of the guanylate kinase/C-terminal domain of DLG induces ectopic localization of these channels to neuronal somata in the CNS, but does not alter the distribution of channels in photoreceptors. Immunocytochemical, membrane fractionation and detergent solubilization analysis indicate that the C-terminal of Sh Kch is required for proper trafficking to its final destination. Thus, several major conclusions emerge from this study. First, DLG plays a major role in the localization of Sh channels in the CNS and retina. Second, localization of DLG in photoreceptors but not in the CNS seems to depend on its interaction with Sh. Third, the guanylate kinase/C-terminal domain of DLG is involved in the trafficking of Shaker channels but not of DLG in the CNS. Fourth, different mechanisms for the localization of Sh Kch operate in different cell types.

  11. Modeling of multi-channel MIMO-VLC systems in the indoor environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    The article presents a concept of simultaneous using multiple channels for data transmission (an approach MIMO- multiple input multiple output) in the visible light communication systems (VLC), which are considered here as their implementation inside buildings, in the aspect of their numerical modeling. There was presented both a mathematical description (a model) of such systems as well as obtained on this basis results in relation to the instances of MIMO-VLC system with two and four channels, respectively. The so-called non-imaging detectors were used at the receiver side . Obtained results allowed to gain a few valuable conclusions that were included in the last section of article.

  12. Methane emissions from sugarcane vinasse storage and transportation systems: Comparison between open channels and tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Bruna Gonçalves; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Chagas, Mateus Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few years the brazilian sugarcane sector has produced an average of 23.5 million liters of ethanol annually. This scale of production generates large amounts of vinasse, which depending on the manner that is disposed, can result significant greenhouse gas emissions. This study aimed to quantify the methane (CH4) emissions associated with the two most widespread systems of vinasse storage and transportation used in Brazil; open channel and those comprising of tanks and pipes. Additionally, a laboratory incubation study was performed with the aim of isolating the effects of vinasse, sediment and the interaction between these factors on CH4 emissions. We observed significant differences in CH4 emissions between the sampling points along the channels during both years of evaluation (2012-2013). In the channel system, around 80% of CH4 emissions were recorded from uncoated sections. Overall, the average CH4 emission intensity was 1.36 kg CO2eq m-3 of vinasse transported in open channels, which was 620 times higher than vinasse transported through a system of tanks and closed pipes. The laboratory incubation corroborated field results, suggesting that vinasse alone does not contribute significant emissions of CH4. Higher CH4 emissions were observed when vinasse and sediment were incubated together. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CH4 emissions originate through the anaerobic decomposition of organic material deposited on the bottom of channels and tanks. The adoption of coated channels as a substitute to uncoated channels offers the potential for an effective and affordable means of reducing CH4 emissions. Ultimately, the modernization of vinasse storage and transportation systems through the adoption of tank and closed pipe systems will provide an effective strategy for mitigating CH4 emissions generated during the disposal phase of the sugarcane ethanol production process.

  13. Reduced Complexity in Antenna Selection for Polarized MIMO System with SVD for the Practical MIMO Communication Channel Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sann Maw, Maung; Sasase, Iwao

    In the conventional multi-input multi-output (MIMO) communication systems, most of the antenna selection methods considered are suitable only for spatially separated uni-polarized system under Rayleigh fading channel in non-line of sight (NLOS) condition. There have a few antenna selection schemes for the cross-polarized system in LOS condition and Ricean fading channel, and no antenna selection scheme for the MIMO channel with both LOS and NLOS. In the practical MIMO channel case, influence of LOS and NLOS conditions in the channel can vary from time to time according to the channel parameters and user movement in the system. Based on these influences and channel condition, uni-polarized system may outperform a cross-polarized. Thus, we should consider this kind of practical MIMO channel environment when developing the antenna selection scheme. Moreover, no research work has been done on reducing the complexity of antenna selection for this kind of practical MIMO channel environment. In this paper, reduced complexity in antenna selection is proposed to give the higher throughput in the practical MIMO channel environment. In the proposed scheme, suitable polarized antennas are selected based on the calculation of singular value decomposition (SVD) of channel matrix and then adaptive bit loading is applied. Simulation results show that throughput of the system can be improved under the constraint of target BER and total transmit power of the MIMO system.

  14. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jody, B.; Daniels, E.; Libera, J.A.

    1999-03-16

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam. 4 figs.

  15. Efficient continuous dryer for flexible polyurethane foam and cleaning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jody, Bassam; Daniels, Edward; Libera, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of cleaning polyurethane foams where the material is transported through a wash station while alternately soaking the polyurethane foam in an organic solvent and squeezing solvent from the polyurethane foam a number of times. Then the polyurethane foam is sent through a rinse or solvent transfer station for reducing the concentration of solvent in the foam. The rinsed polyurethane foam is sent to a drying station wherein the foam is repeatedly squeezed while being exposed to hot air to remove wet air from the foam.

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of cyclodextrin polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Atanu; Appell, Michael; Liu, Zengshe; Cheng, H N

    2015-11-20

    Cyclodextrin (CD) has often been incorporated into polyurethanes in order to facilitate its use in encapsulation or removal of organic species for various applications. In this work a microwave-assisted method has been developed to produce polyurethanes consisting of α-, β-, and γ-CD and three common diisocyanates. As compared to conventional heating, this new synthetic method saves energy, significantly reduces reaction time, and gets similar or improved yield. The reaction products have been fully characterized with (13)C, (1)H, and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. With suitable stoichiometry of starting CD and diisocyanate, the resulting CD polyurethane is organic-soluble and water-insoluble and is shown to remove Nile red dye and phenol from water. Possible applications include the removal of undesirable materials from process streams, toxic compounds from the environment, and encapsulation of color or fragrance molecules.

  17. Influence of prepolymer composition on polyurethane morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Jayaraman; Jeong, Young Gyu; Hashida, Tomoko; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    2004-03-01

    Polyurethane chemistry is one of the most studied subjects. Yet many aspects remain unexplained. Polyurethanes are synthesized by the reaction of diisocyanate with diol in the presence of nucleophilic catalysts. Polyurethane prepolymers are obtained by reacting the polyester diol / polyether diol with diisocyanate, with [NCO] / [OH] > 1, resulting in isocyanate-terminated polyester/polyether mixture. Prepolymers thus synthesized can be cured at a later stage to realize various morphologies and structures. Though the initial composition and the final morphology are known, little is known about the intermediate prepolymer mixture. Due to the different reactivity of primary and secondary hydroxyl groups in the polyester and polyether towards isocyanate, prepolymer has a non-random distribution in terms of composition as blends and copolymers. Our aim is to characterize the prepolymer by different techniques and study how the different prepolymer composition, with varying polyester and polyether ratio, affects the morphology and phase separation kinetics of the final product.

  18. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongchun; Zhou, Shuxue; Yang, Haihua; Gu, Guangxin; Wu, Limin

    2004-11-15

    Polyurethane/nanosilica composites were prepared using polyester polyol/nanosilica composite resins obtained from in situ polymerization or blending methods and investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA), transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. It was found that more polyester segments had chemically bonded with silica particles during in situ polymerization than during blending, introducing nanosilica increased the Tgs of polyurethanes, and different preparation methods and different particle sizes caused various impact on Tg. Contact angle measurement and XPS analyses indicated that nanosilica tended to move towards the surfaces and interfaces of polyurethane coats, decreasing the free energies of the surfaces and interfaces, but the nanosilica particles were just observed at interfaces not surfaces by AFM.

  19. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alem, W. K.; Huth, G. K.; Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    The particular Ku-band carrier, PN despreading, and symbol synchronization strategies, which were selected for implementation in the Ku-band transponder aboard the orbiter, were assessed and evaluated from a systems performance viewpoint, verifying that system specifications were met. A study was performed of the design and implementation of tracking techniques which are suitable for incorporation into the Orbiter Ku-band communication system. Emphasis was placed on maximizing tracking accuracy and communication system flexibility while minimizing cost, weight, and system complexity of Orbiter and ground systems hardware. The payload communication study assessed the design and performance of the forward link and return link bent-pipe relay modes for attached and detached payloads. As part of this study, a design for a forward link bent-pipe was proposed which employs a residual carrier but which is tracked by the existing Costas loop.

  20. Long-term morphological response to dredging including cut-across-shoal in a tidal channel-shoal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Chong-Hao; Tang, Li-Qun; Liu, Da-Bin; Guo, Chuan-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Ming

    2014-12-01

    This study examines long-term channel-shoal stability in the Tieshan Bay, which is located on the southwest coast of China. A large-scale channel-shoal system has historically existed in the outer Tieshan Bay. A navigation waterway is initiated by cutting and dredging a mid-channel shoal to supply coal to a power plant on the middle coast of the Tieshan Bay. Dredging of the access channel to the Tieshan Port was conducted in two stages followed by land reclamation. It is thus of practical meaning to explore how the channel-shoal system will evolve in long term afterwards. This study uses the process-based finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate long-term (centennial) morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system. After well calibration of hydrodynamics and sediment transport, the model forecasts morphodynamic evolution in hundred years. The simulations show that continuous erosion in tidal channels and accretion over shoals and intertidal flats occur. However, the cutting and access channels will be subjected to long-term siltation. A secondary channel indicating the reorientation of the access channel will emerge, and a localized channel-ridge system at the junction of the major channels will be formed. The overall erosion/accretion pattern demonstrates the combined effect of bottom friction and advective sediment transport processes to be responsible for the channel-shoal formation. Dredging of the tidal channels will stimulate the stability of the channel-shoal pattern. It suggests that the navigation waterway should be set up following the long-term morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system at a design stage and maintenance dredging volume might thus be minimized.

  1. Optimized joint timing synchronization and channel estimation for communications systems with multiple transmit antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Te-Lung; Parhi, Keshab K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a joint timing synchronization and channel estimation scheme for communications systems with multiple transmit antennas based on a well-designed training sequence arrangement. In addition, a generalized maximum-likelihood (ML) channel estimation scheme is presented, and this one-shot scheme is applied to obtain all channel impulse responses (CIR) from different transmit antennas. The proposed approach consists of three stages at each receive antenna. First, coarse timing and frequency offset estimates are obtained. Then, an advanced timing, relative timing indices, and the corresponding CIR estimates at the second stage are obtained using the generalized ML estimation based on a sliding observation vector. Finally, the fine time adjustment based on the minimum mean squared error criterion is performed. From the simulation results, the proposed approach has excellent performance in timing synchronization under several channel models at signal-to-noise ratio smaller than 1dB.

  2. Pilot symbol assisted channel estimation for OFDM-based cognitive radio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasseh, Emmanuel; Ohno, Shuichi; Nakamoto, Masayoshi

    2013-12-01

    In this article, challenges regarding the provision of channel state information (CSI) in non-contiguous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (NC-OFDM) cognitive radio (CR) systems are addressed. We propose a novel scheme that utilizes cross entropy (CE) optimization together with an analytical pilot power distribution technique to design pilot symbols that minimizes the channel estimate mean squared error (MSE) of frequency-selective channels. The optimal selection of pilot subcarriers is a combinatorial problem that requires heavy computations. To reduce the computational complexity, the CE optimization is utilized to determine the position of pilot subcarriers. Then, for a given pilot placement obtained by the CE algorithm, a closed form expression to obtain optimal pilot power distribution is employed. Simulation results indicate that, the proposed pilot symbol design provides better channel estimate MSE as well as the bit error rate (BER) performance when compared with the conventional equal powered pilot design.

  3. TRPM4 channels in the cardiovascular system: physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Abriel, Hugues; Syam, Ninda; Sottas, Valentin; Amarouch, Mohamed Yassine; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    The transient receptor potential channel (TRP) family comprises at least 28 genes in the human genome. These channels are widely expressed in many different tissues, including those of the cardiovascular system. The transient receptor potential channel melastatin 4 (TRPM4) is a Ca(2+)-activated non-specific cationic channel, which is impermeable to Ca(2+). TRPM4 is expressed in many cells of the cardiovascular system, such as cardiac cells of the conduction pathway and arterial and venous smooth muscle cells. This review article summarizes the recently described roles of TRPM4 in normal physiology and in various disease states. Genetic variants in the human gene TRPM4 have been linked to several cardiac conduction disorders. TRPM4 has also been proposed to play a crucial role in secondary hemorrhage following spinal cord injuries. Spontaneously hypertensive rats with cardiac hypertrophy were shown to over-express the cardiac TRPM4 channel. Recent studies suggest that TRPM4 plays an important role in cardiovascular physiology and disease, even if most of the molecular and cellular mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We conclude this review article with a brief overview of the compounds that have been shown to either inhibit or activate TRPM4 under experimental conditions. Based on recent findings, the TRPM4 channel can be proposed as a future target for the pharmacological treatment of cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias.

  4. Channel estimation for OFDM system in atmospheric optical communication based on compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingsong; Hao, Shiqi; Geng, Hongjian; Sun, Han

    2015-10-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique applied to the atmospheric optical communication can improve data transmission rate, restrain pulse interference, and reduce effect of multipath caused by atmospheric scattering. Channel estimation, as one of the important modules in OFDM, has been investigated thoroughly and widely with great progress. In atmospheric optical communication system, channel estimation methods based on pilot are common approaches, such as traditional least-squares (LS) algorithm and minimum mean square error (MMSE) algorithm. However, sensitivity of the noise effects and high complexity of computation are shortcomings of LS algorithm and MMSE algorithm, respectively. Here, a new method based on compressive sensing is proposed to estimate the channel state information of atmospheric optical communication OFDM system, especially when the condition is closely associated with turbulence. Firstly, time-varying channel model is established under the condition of turbulence. Then, in consideration of multipath effect, sparse channel model is available for compressive sensing. And, the pilot signal is reconstructed with orthogonal matching tracking (OMP) algorithm, which is used for reconstruction. By contrast, the work of channel estimation is completed by LS algorithm as well. After that, simulations are conducted respectively in two different indexes -signal error rate (SER) and mean square error (MSE). Finally, result shows that compared with LS algorithm, the application of compressive sensing can improve the performance of SER and MSE. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed method is reasonable and efficient.

  5. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  6. Investigation of Industrial Polyurethane Foams Modified with Antimicrobial Copper Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sportelli, Maria Chiara; Picca, Rosaria Anna; Ronco, Roberto; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Pollini, Mauro; Sannino, Alessandro; Valentini, Antonio; Cataldi, Tommaso R.I.; Cioffi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were electrosynthetized and applied to the controlled impregnation of industrial polyurethane foams used as padding in the textile production or as filters for air conditioning systems. CuNP-modified materials were investigated and characterized morphologically and spectroscopically, by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The release of copper ions in solution was studied by Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of freshly prepared, as well as aged samples—stored for two months—was demonstrated towards different target microorganisms. PMID:28773665

  7. Separation of uranium on polyurethane foam impregnated with trioctylphosphine oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Korkisch, J.; Steffan, I.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the quantitative separation of uranium from practically all other elements in 1M hydrochloric acid solution containing ascorbic acid. From such a solution uranium is retained selectively by a column containing open-cell polyurethane foam impregnated with tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO). The uranium together with TOPO is eluted with ethanol and then it is adsorbed on a column of Dowex 1 anion exchange resin from a HCl-organic solvent system. Uranium is eluted with 1M hydrochloric acid. 5 tables.

  8. Use of the Nucleus 22 Channel Cochlear Implant System with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Steven J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes components of the Nucleus 22 Channel Cochlear Implant System used with deaf children and adults. It discusses speech coding strategies, programming concepts, programming the device for children, trouble-shooting, and fitting an FM system to a speech processor. It reports data showing improved ability to use auditory…

  9. A bidirection-adjustable ionic current rectification system based on a biconical micro-channel.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengxia; Chen, Cheng; Xie, Xia; Chen, Lisha; Li, Meixian; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-10-25

    We developed a simple, cheap and bidirectional ionic current rectification system based on the integration of a biconical micro-channel, working electrode and reference electrode. This system may have potential and realistic future value for studying two-way ionic transport in the cell membrane.

  10. Winter performance of an outdoor biofloc production system for channel catfish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the tropics, outdoor biofloc technology production systems are operated year-round. While channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been grown successfully in an outdoor biofloc production system, these studies were conducted only during the growing season and production tanks were idled for the...

  11. Multiple channel secure communication using chaotic system encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    fA new method to encrypt signals using chaotic systems has been developed that offers benefits over conventional chaotic encryption methods. The method simultaneously encodes multiple plaintext streams using a chaotic system; a key is required to extract the plaintext from the chaotic cipertext. A working prototype demonstrates feasibility of the method by simultaneously encoding and decoding multiple audio signals using electrical circuits.

  12. Solids management in a channel catfish biofloc technology production system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofloc technology (BFT) production systems are being used more commonly to produce high yields of fish or shrimp because very high feed rates are possible. In an outdoor BFT production system, a complex of living organisms is closely associated with particulate organic matter and is maintained in s...

  13. Droplet-based lipid bilayer system integrated with microfluidic channels for solution exchange.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yutaro; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-04-21

    This paper proposes a solution exchange of a droplet-based lipid bilayer system, in which the inner solution of a droplet is replaced for the purpose of efficient ion channel analyses. In our previous report, we successfully recorded the channel conductance of alpha-hemolysin in a bilayer lipid membrane using a droplet contact method that can create a spontaneous lipid bilayer at the interface of contacting droplets; this method is widely used as highly efficient method for preparing planar lipid membranes. When only pipetting droplets of the solution, this method is highly efficient for preparing lipid membranes. However, the drawback of droplet-based systems is their inability to exchange the solution within the droplets. To study the effect of inhibitors and promoters of ion channels in drug discovery, it would be beneficial to conduct a solution exchange of droplets to introduce membrane proteins and to apply or wash-out the chemicals. In this study, we propose a droplet contact method that allows for the solution exchange of droplets via microfluidic channels. We experimentally and numerically investigated the bilayer stability with respect to exchanging flow rates, and then demonstrated a binding assay of an alpha-hemolysin using one of its blockers. The solution exchange in this system was conducted in less than 20 s without rupturing the membrane. We believe that the proposed system will enhance the efficiency of ion channel analyses.

  14. Multi-Channel RF System for MRI-Guided Transurethral Ultrasound Thermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yak, Nicolas; Asselin, Matthew; Chopra, Rajiv; Bronskill, Michael

    2009-04-01

    MRI-guided transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy is an approach to treating localized prostate cancer which targets precise deposition of thermal energy within a confined region of the gland. This treatment requires a system incorporating a heating applicator with multiple planar ultrasound transducers and associated RF electronics to control individual elements independently in order to achieve accurate 3D treatment. We report the design, construction, and characterization of a prototype multi-channel system capable of controlling 16 independent RF signals for a 16-element heating applicator. The main components are a control computer, microcontroller, and a 16-channel signal generator with 16 amplifiers, each incorporating a low-pass filter and transmitted/reflected power detection circuit. Each channel can deliver from 0.5 to 10 W of electrical power and good linearity from 3 to 12 MHz. Harmonic RF signals near the Larmor frequency of a 1.5 T MRI were measured to be below -30 dBm and heating experiments within the 1.5 T MR system showed no significant decrease in SNR of the temperature images. The frequency and power for all 16 channels could be changed in less than 250 ms, which was sufficiently rapid for proper performance of the control algorithms. A common backplane design was chosen which enabled an inexpensive, modular approach for each channel resulting in an overall system with minimal footprint.

  15. Channel Estimation and Performance Analysis of One-Bit Massive MIMO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongzhi; Tao, Cheng; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Mezghani, Amine; Swindlehurst, A. Lee; Liu, Liu

    2017-08-01

    This paper considers channel estimation and system performance for the uplink of a single-cell massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. Each receive antenna of the base station (BS) is assumed to be equipped with a pair of one-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) to quantize the real and imaginary part of the received signal. We first propose an approach for channel estimation that is applicable for both flat and frequency-selective fading, based on the Bussgang decomposition that reformulates the nonlinear quantizer as a linear functionwith identical first- and second-order statistics. The resulting channel estimator outperforms previously proposed approaches across all SNRs. We then derive closed-form expressions for the achievable rate in flat fading channels assuming low SNR and a large number of users for the maximal ratio and zero forcing receivers that takes channel estimation error due to both noise and one-bit quantization into account. The closed-form expressions in turn allow us to obtain insight into important system design issues such as optimal resource allocation, maximal sum spectral efficiency, overall energy efficiency, and number of antennas. Numerical results are presented to verify our analytical results and demonstrate the benefit of optimizing system performance accordingly.

  16. Modeling of skeletal members using polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Sena, J.M.F.; Weaver, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    At the request of the University of New Mexico's Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, members of the Plastic Section in the Process Development Division at SNLA undertook the special project of the Chaco Lady. The project consisted of polyurethane foam casting of a disinterred female skull considered to be approximately 1000 years old. Rubber latex molds, supplied by the UNM Anthropology Department, were used to produce the polymeric skull requested. The authors developed for the project a modified foaming process which will be used in future polyurethane castings of archaeological artifacts and contemporary skeletal members at the University.

  17. Shape memory polyurethane nanocomposites with functionalized graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Taek; Dung Dao, Trung; Oh, Kyung Min; Lee, Hyung-il; Jeong, Han Mo; Kim, Byung Kyu

    2012-07-01

    The roles of graphene in shape memory polyurethane nanocomposite (SMPUN) as a reinforcing filler, as a fixed structure for memorizing a specified original shape, and as a conductive filler to actuate shape recovery by resistive heating, were examined. The effectiveness of each role was modulated by functionalizing graphene with a hydroxyl group through oxidation with H2O2. The reinforcing effect of graphene and its role as a fixed structure were enhanced by the hydroxyl groups due to the increased grafting of polyurethane chains on graphene during the in situ preparation of SMPUN. However, the oxidation reduced the conductivity of SMPUN, resulting in deterioration of the resistive heating.

  18. Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated.

  19. Effect of low concentrations of carbon nanotubes on electric dipole relaxation in a polyurethane elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenok, E. V.; Novikov, G. F.; Estrin, Ya. I.; Badamshina, E. R.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of small (up to 0.018 wt %) additions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on the complex electric modulus M*= M' - jM″ and the spectrum of the relaxation times G(τ) of a cross-linked polyurethane elastomer containing ˜10 vol % of polyamide-6 dispersed in the polyurethane matrix and incompatible with it was studied. The measurements were conducted in the range of electric field frequencies 10-3-105 Hz at temperatures from 133 to 413 K. Based on the shape analysis of the M″( M') diagrams, the contributions of electric conductivity and dielectric relaxation to complex dielectric permittivity ɛ* = ɛ' - jɛ″ were separated and the effect of additions on α and β relaxation for both polyurethane and polyamide phases was analyzed in accordance with the peculiarities of phase-separated systems. The introduction of SWNTs in the composite affected the dielectric properties of the material; the maximum effect was observed at concentrations of 0.002-0.008 wt %; at higher SWNT concentrations, the scatter of data increased and did not allow us to evaluate the effect. The effect of SWNTs on G(τ) in the main phase was opposite to that in the polyamide phase. In the temperature range of α relaxation of the polyurethane phase, the relaxation times increased after the introduction of SWNTs evidently because of the decrease in the free volume that determines the α relaxation times of polyurethane. In contrast, for the polyamide phase in the range of α relaxation, the relaxation times decreased after the introduction of SWNTs. The results agree with the literature data on the effect of ultrasmall SWNT concentrations on the physicomechanical characteristics of the polyurethane elastomer and its electric conductivity.

  20. Extended Horizon Liftings for Periodic Gain Adjustments in Control Systems, and for Equalization of Communication Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Periodic gain adjustment in plants of irreducible order, n, or for equalization of communications channels is effected in such a way that the plant (system) appears to be minimum phase by choosing a horizon time N greater then n of liftings in periodic input and output windows Pu and Py, respectively, where N is an integer chosen to define the extent (length) of each of the windows Pu and Py, and n is the order of an irreducible input/output plant. The plant may be an electrical, mechanical or chemical system, in which case output tracking (OT) is carried out for feedback control or a communication channel, in which case input tracking (IT) is carried out. Conditions for OT are distinct from IT in terms of zero annihilation, namely for OT and of IT, where the OT conditions are intended for gain adjustments in the control system, and IT conditions are intended for equalization for communication channels.

  1. Parallel Interconnection of Broadcast Systems with Multiple FIFO Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan Marín, Ruben; Cholvi, Vicent; Jiménez, Ernesto; Muñoz-Escoí, Francesc D.

    This paper proposes new protocols for the interconnection of FIFO- and causal-ordered broadcast systems, thus increasing their scalability. They use several interconnection links between systems, which avoids bottleneck problems due to the network traffic, since messages are not forced to go throughout a single link but instead through the several links we establish. General architectures to interconnect FIFO- and causal-ordered systems are proposed. Failure management is also discussed and a performance analysis is given, detailing the benefits introduced by these interconnection approaches that are able to easily increase the resulting interconnection bandwidth.

  2. Quantifying habitat benefits of channel reconfigurations on a highly regulated river system, Lower Missouri River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of habitat availability in a highly regulated lowland river, comparing a restored reach with two reference reaches: an un-restored, channelized reach, and a least-altered reach. We evaluate the effects of channel modifications in terms of distributions of depth and velocity as well as distributions and availability of habitats thought to be supportive of an endangered fish, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conditions that support food production and foraging may limit growth and survival of juvenile pallid sturgeon. To evaluate conditions that support these habitats, we constructed two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the three study reaches, two located in the Lower Missouri River (channelized and restored reaches) and one in the Yellowstone River (least-altered reach). Comparability among the reaches was improved by scaling by bankfull discharge and bankfull channel area. The analysis shows that construction of side-channel chutes and increased floodplain connectivity increase the availability of foraging habitat, resulting in a system that is more similar to the reference reach on the Yellowstone River. The availability of food-producing habitat is low in all reaches at flows less than bankfull, but the two reaches in the Lower Missouri River – channelized and restored – display a threshold-like response as flows overtop channel banks, reflecting the persistent effects of channelization on hydraulics in the main channel. These high lateral gradients result in punctuated ecological events corresponding to flows in excess of bankfull discharge. This threshold effect in the restored reach remains distinct from that of the least-altered reference reach, where hydraulic changes are less abrupt and overbank flows more gradually inundate the adjacent floodplain. The habitat curves observed in the reference reach on the Yellowstone River may not be attainable within the

  3. Interactive multimedia systems as communication channels in color workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudio, Alejandra; De Ponti, Javier

    2002-06-01

    Great technological advances can help us to recover communication areas that might otherwise be lost. Media competition and visual contamination frequently appear in daily communication. A notable anonymity in human relationship has emerged as a consequence of this. Educational establishments receive an overflowing number of students. Schools and students are overwhelmed by this situation. Teachers don't know their students and students usually don't know their own classmates, with all the consequences that this implies. In front of this inadequate structure of educational institutions, technology has improved the possibilities of instant answers and the dialogue between teachers and students; the unilateral exposition pronounced by teachers in front of the anonymous mass finds an alternative in multimedia systems. The present work describes Interactive Multimedia System's utilization for teaching the chromatic circle as a system of color organization. The proposed method intends to devise a theoretical and conceptual frame and its production for multimedia systems oriented to elaborate, represent, store, interact with and access to knowledge Its relevance comes from the potential contribution to build up knowledge systems that value cultural codes and at the same time make creative and motivating interactive experiences. This work concerns the realization and understanding of the chromatic circle, selection of different color systems, logical strategies for playing and studying theory and multimedia. Levels of visualization: theory, practice, developing skills, works and evaluation. Levels to study: teaching chromatic circle, multimedia supports, quality, application and linking screens, help, theory, etc; without losing the interdisciplinary nature of the work, specialist participation, and Multimedia Systems in the steps of its realization.

  4. BLISTERING AND DEGRADATION OF POLYURETHANE COATINGS UNDER DIFFERENT ACCELERATED WEATHERING TESTS. (R828081E01)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An epoxy primer with a high gloss polyurethane topcoat coating system was exposed either only in a QUV chamber or exposed in a QUV chamber and a Prohesion chamber, alternatively, in this study. AFM studies found that micro blisters formed on the coating surface after both expo...

  5. BLISTERING AND DEGRADATION OF POLYURETHANE COATINGS UNDER DIFFERENT ACCELERATED WEATHERING TESTS. (R828081E01)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An epoxy primer with a high gloss polyurethane topcoat coating system was exposed either only in a QUV chamber or exposed in a QUV chamber and a Prohesion chamber, alternatively, in this study. AFM studies found that micro blisters formed on the coating surface after both expo...

  6. Anisoplanatic studies and Fried parameter estimation via multi-channel laser communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, A.; Roggemann, M.

    The knowledge of the turbulence conditions and the ability to describe its properties are the key aspects to improve performance and extend the range of optical communication systems. The developed multi-channel, outdoor 3.2 km, partially over water, turbulence measurement and monitoring communication platform is directed to collect significant amount of the experimental data with the goal of statistically describe atmospheric turbulence. The communication system described in this paper has two transmitters and two receivers. The transmitter side is equipped with the laser and the bank of 14 horizontally, in-line mounted LEDs. The receiver side consists of two channels for wave front sensor (WFS) and point spread function (PSF) measurements. Data collected via both channels is further used for Fried parameter estimation and anisoplanatic studies. In this article authors provide comprehensive analysis of the turbulence statistics extracted from the experimental data. Statistics of Freid parameter r0 is derived from 6 Tb of data collected through 40 days time interval, and under various day and night atmospheric conditions. These data collected from WFS and PSF channels are digitally post processed and results obtained from PSF measurements are compared with the ones derived from the WFS data. Consistent results obtained via both channels allows authors to conclude that the entire system performs reliably and generates trustworthy results. Results extracted from the data collected via both channels show significant fluctuations of r0 with the values ranging from 2mm and up to 20 cm. The data collected from the PSF channel is also used for measurements of anisoplanetic effects. Theoretically, the severe anisoplanatic conditions found in horizontally imaging scenarios can be approximated by a finite number of phase screens placed along the imaging path. However, comparison of adjacent PSFs generated in this manner reveals significant correlation a- angles much larger

  7. Single layer, multi-channel band-gear system for rotary joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, Kin Yuen (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A multi-channel band-gear system for a rotary joint has a ring gear assembly with a conducting ring band in electrical contact with corresponding conducting bands of a set of intermediary planetary gears, which in turn are in electrical contact with a conducting sun band of a sun gear assembly. The ring band is formed with a plurality of conducting segments which are electrically insulated from each other and positioned angularly in a circumferential direction of the ring gear, such that separate electrical power/signal channels are formed across the rotary joint. In a preferred embodiment having continuously connected channels, the ring band has four conducting segments at 90.degree. intervals, the sun band has two conducting segments at 180.degree. intervals, and three planetary bands are in rolling electrical contact at 120.degree. intervals between the ring band segments and the sun band segments, forming two continuously connected channels in a single layer of the band-gear system. Multiple sets of ring gear, planetary gear, and sun gear assemblies may be used in a stacked configuration in a single axial layer to further increase the number of channels provided through the band-gear system.

  8. Indoor positioning system using WLAN channel estimates as fingerprints for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Erick; Akopian, David

    2015-03-01

    With the growing integration of location based services (LBS) such as GPS in mobile devices, indoor position systems (IPS) have become an important role for research. There are several IPS methods such as AOA, TOA, TDOA, which use trilateration for indoor location estimation but are generally based on line-of-sight. Other methods rely on classification such as fingerprinting which uses WLAN indoor signals. This paper re-examines the classical WLAN fingerprinting accuracy which uses received signal strength (RSS) measurements by introducing channel estimates for improvements in the classification of indoor locations. The purpose of this paper is to improve existing classification algorithms used in fingerprinting by introducing channel estimates when there are a low number of APs available. The channel impulse response, or in this case the channel estimation from the receiver, should characterize a complex indoor area which usually has multipath, thus providing a unique signature for each location which proves useful for better pattern recognition. In this experiment, channel estimates are extracted from a Software-Defined Radio (SDR) environment, thus exploiting the benefits of SDR from a NI-USRP model and LabVIEW software. Measurements are taken from a known building, and several scenarios with one and two access points (APs) are used in this experiment. Also, three granularities in distance between locations are analyzed. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the algorithm for pattern recognition of different locations based on the samples taken from RSS and channel estimation coefficients.

  9. Patterns in abundance of fishes in main channels of the upper Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettmers, J.M.; Gutreuter, S.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Abundance of fishes of the main channels of the upper Mississippi River system and of other large North American rivers is largely unknown because historic sampling methods have been inadequate. We used a bottom trawl to estimate spatial and temporal patterns in abundance in the navigation channels of Pool 26 of the Mississippi River and the lower Illinois River. Total biomass density averaged 21 and 29 kg·ha-1 in the navigation channels of Pool 26 and the lower Illinois River, respectively. We identified spatial and temporal patterns in catches of key species using a generalized linear model based on the negative binomial distribution. Some species, including shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), are persistent residents of the main channel. Multiple-season residents, including freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens), rely heavily on the main channel during most of the year but leave it briefly, for example to seek thermal refugia in backwaters during winters. We suggest revision of the prevailing notion that main channels of large temperate rivers serve mainly as corridors for movement among other habitat types.

  10. Characterization and optimization of an eight-channel time-multiplexed pulse-shaping system

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrer, Christophe; Bittle, Wade A.; Cuffney, Robert; Spilatro, Michael; Hill, Elizabeth M.; Kosc, Tanya Z.; Kelly, John H.; Zuegel, Jonathan D.

    2016-12-06

    High-performance optical pulse shaping is paramount to photonics and lasers applications for which high-resolution optical waveforms must be generated. We investigate the design and performance of a time-multiplexed pulse shaping (TMPS) system in which optical waveforms from a single pulse-shaping unit are demultiplexed and retimed before being sent to different optical systems. This architecture has the advantages of low cost and low relative jitter between optical waveforms because a single pulse-shaping system, e.g., a high-performance arbitrary waveform generator driving a Mach-Zehnder modulator, generates all the waveforms. We demonstrate an eight-channel TMPS system based on a 1 × 8 LiNbO3 demultiplexer composed of four stages of 1 × 2 Δβ phase-reversal switches that allow for demultiplexing and extinction enhancement via application of a control voltage modifying the propagation constant difference between adjacent waveguides. It is shown that optimal demultiplexing, i.e. low insertion loss and high extinction ratio between channels, requires optimization in dynamic operation because of the slow component of the switches’ response. Lastly, we demonstrate losses lower than 5 dB, extinction ratios of the order of 70 dB for a four-channel system and 50 dB for an eight-channel system, and jitter added by the demultiplexer smaller than 0.1 ps.

  11. Characterization and optimization of an eight-channel time-multiplexed pulse-shaping system

    DOE PAGES

    Dorrer, Christophe; Bittle, Wade A.; Cuffney, Robert; ...

    2016-12-06

    High-performance optical pulse shaping is paramount to photonics and lasers applications for which high-resolution optical waveforms must be generated. We investigate the design and performance of a time-multiplexed pulse shaping (TMPS) system in which optical waveforms from a single pulse-shaping unit are demultiplexed and retimed before being sent to different optical systems. This architecture has the advantages of low cost and low relative jitter between optical waveforms because a single pulse-shaping system, e.g., a high-performance arbitrary waveform generator driving a Mach-Zehnder modulator, generates all the waveforms. We demonstrate an eight-channel TMPS system based on a 1 × 8 LiNbO3 demultiplexermore » composed of four stages of 1 × 2 Δβ phase-reversal switches that allow for demultiplexing and extinction enhancement via application of a control voltage modifying the propagation constant difference between adjacent waveguides. It is shown that optimal demultiplexing, i.e. low insertion loss and high extinction ratio between channels, requires optimization in dynamic operation because of the slow component of the switches’ response. Lastly, we demonstrate losses lower than 5 dB, extinction ratios of the order of 70 dB for a four-channel system and 50 dB for an eight-channel system, and jitter added by the demultiplexer smaller than 0.1 ps.« less

  12. Down regulation of sodium channels in the central nervous system of hibernating snails.

    PubMed

    Kiss, T; Battonyai, I; Pirger, Z

    2014-05-28

    Hibernation, as behavior, is an evolutionary mode of adaptation of animal species to unfavorable environmental conditions. It is generally characterized by suppressed metabolism, which also includes down regulation of the energy consuming ion-channel functioning. Experimental data regarding decreased ion-channel function are scarce. Therefore, our goal was to study the possible down regulation of voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) subtypes in the neurons of hibernating snails. Our immunohistochemical experiments revealed that the expression of NaV1.8-like channels in the central nervous system was substantially down regulated in hibernating animals. In contrast to NaV1.8-like, the NaV1.9-like channels were present in neurons independently from hibernating and non-hibernating states. Our western blot data supported the immunohistochemical results according to which the band of the NaV1.8-like channel protein was less intensively labeled in the homogenate of the hibernating snails. The NaV1.9-like immunoreactivity was equally present both in hibernating and active snails. Micro-electrophysiological experiments show that in hibernating snails both NaV1.8- and NaV1.9-like currents are substantially decreased compared to that of the active snails. The contradictory electrophysiological and immunohistochemical or western blot data suggest that the molecular mechanisms of the "channel arrest" could be different in diverse NaV channel subtypes. Climate changes will affect temperature extremes and a question is how different species beyond their physiological tolerance will or able to adapt to changing environment. Hibernation is an important mode of adaptation to extreme climatic variations, and pursuant to this the present results may contribute to the study of the behavioral ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysing connectivity through landslide-channel geomorphic coupling in a large drainage system of Southern Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurchescu, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Unlike creep, splash erosion and linear erosion which sometimes are called "continuous" slope processes, since they are perceived as causing relatively continuous erosion on slopes and a rather rapid transport towards river channels, mass movement processes, excepting flows, have a discontinuous behavior, manifesting stochastically on time intervals ranging from one year to tens of years, while the displaced material can remain suspended in different parts of the slope forming sediment stores. It is obviously why estimating the sediment delivered to the river network by landslides becomes a difficult task. Landslide control on channel dynamics is just one of the several forms of hillslope-channel coupling. Landslide-channel connectivity is relevant for understanding the way landslides are contributing to the sediment flux within catchments and how their study should be integrated in the estimation of sediment budgets. This paper explores the geomorphic coupling of landslides with river channels based on an extensive landslide inventory. The study area is a large drainage basin (> 2400 km2) in southern Romania encompassing four different geomorphic units (mountains, hills, piedmont and plain). The region is highly affected by a wide range of geomorphic processes which contribute to supplying sediments to the drainage network. The presence of a reservoir at the river outlet emphasizes the importance of estimating sediment budgets, the first stage of which consists in studying sediment sources. High sediment transport is associated to flash floods, a fraction of which is due to the slope failures occurring in response to the undercutting of river channels. Nominal classification systems as well as quantitative measures available in the connectivity literature are adopted here to describe the landslides-channels contact zones. Characteristics of the geomorphic coupling interfaces are further linked to the resulting geomorphic effects of landslides on the drainage

  14. Elastic, inelastic, and 1-nucleon transfer channels in the 7Li+120Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, A.; Santra, S.; Pal, A.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Tripathi, R.; Roy, B. J.; Nag, T. N.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Kailas, S.

    2017-03-01

    Background: Simultaneous description of major outgoing channels for a nuclear reaction by coupled-channels calculations using the same set of potential and coupling parameters is one of the difficult tasks to accomplish in nuclear reaction studies. Purpose: To measure the elastic, inelastic, and transfer cross sections for as many channels as possible in 7Li+120Sn system at different beam energies and simultaneously describe them by a single set of model calculations using fresco. Methods: Projectile-like fragments were detected using six sets of Si-detector telescopes to measure the cross sections for elastic, inelastic, and 1-nucleon transfer channels at two beam energies of 28 and 30 MeV. Optical model analysis of elastic data and coupled-reaction-channels (CRC) calculations that include around 30 reaction channels coupled directly to the entrance channel, with respective structural parameters, were performed to understand the measured cross sections. Results: Structure information available in the literature for some of the identified states did not reproduce the present data. Cross sections obtained from CRC calculations using a modified but single set of potential and coupling parameters were able to describe simultaneously the measured data for all the channels at both the measured energies as well as the existing data for elastic and inelastic cross sections at 44 MeV. Conclusions: Non-reproduction of some of the cross sections using the structure information available in the literature which are extracted from reactions involving different projectiles indicates that such measurements are probe dependent. New structural parameters were assigned for such states as well as for several new transfer states whose spectroscopic factors were not known.

  15. Terpenes and lipids of the endocannabinoid and transient-receptor-potential-channel biosignaling systems.

    PubMed

    Janero, David R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2014-11-19

    Endocananbnoid-system G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are critical components of cellular biosignaling networks. These plasma-membrane proteins are pleiotropic in their ability to interact with and engage structurally diverse ligands. The endocannabinoid and TRP signaling systems overlap in their recognition properties with respect to select naturally occurring plant-derived ligands that belong to the terpene and lipid chemical classes, the overlap establishing a physiological connectivity between these two ubiquitous cell-signaling systems. Identification and pharmacological profiling of phytochemicals engaged by cannabinoid GPCRs and/or TRP channels has inspired the synthesis of novel designer ligands that interact with cannabinoid receptors and/or TRP channels as xenobiotics. Functional interplay between the endocannabinoid and TRP-channel signaling systems is responsible for the antinocifensive action of some synthetic cananbinoids (WIN55,212-2 and AM1241), vasorelaxation by the endocannabinoid N-arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide), and the pain-relief afforded by the synthetic anandamide analogue N-arachidonoylaminophenol (AM404), the active metabolite of the widely used nonprescription analgesic and antipyretic acetaminophen (paracetamol). The biological actions of some plant-derived cannabinoid-receptor (e.g., Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) or TRP-channel (e.g,, menthol) ligands either carry abuse potential themselves or promote the use of other addictive substances, suggesting the therapeutic potential for modulating these signaling systems for abuse-related disorders. The pleiotropic nature of and therapeutically relevant interactions between cananbinergic and TRP-channel signaling suggest the possibility of dual-acting ligands as drugs.

  16. Single-channel digital command-detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, C. C.; Couvillon, L. A.; Goldstein, R. M.; Posner, E. C.; Green, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    System, fabricated of highly-reliable digital logic elements, operates on binary pulse-code-modulated signals and derives internal synchronization from data signal. All-digital implementation of detector develops synchronization from data signal by computer cross-correlation of command modulation signal with its expected forms in sequence and adjusts detector phases in accordance with correlation peaks.

  17. Channels: Runtime System Infrastructure for Security-typed Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Department of the Air Force contract number FA8750-07-2- 0036. The U.S. Government has for itself and others acting on its behalf an unlimited, paid-up...8] B. Hicks, S. Rueda , T. Jaeger, and P. McDaniel. From trusted to secure: Building and executing applications that enforce system security. In

  18. Simulating channel losses in an underwater optical communication system.

    PubMed

    Cox, William; Muth, John

    2014-05-01

    A Monte Carlo numerical simulation for computing the received power for an underwater optical communication system is discussed and validated. Power loss between receiver and transmitter is simulated for a variety of receiver aperture sizes and fields of view. Additionally, pointing-and-tracking losses are simulated.

  19. A 32-channel wireless system for recording gastric electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Springston, Christopher S; Rui Bao; Farajidavar, Aydin

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a wireless system designed to collect, store and transmit gastric electrical activity, known as slow waves. The system is composed of a miniaturized front-end module that can record from up to 32 locations of the stomach, and a back-end module. The front-end could either store the recorded slow waves into a flash memory, or wirelessly transmit them to the back-end connected to a computer featuring a custom-made graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displays signals in real time, and stores them for off-line analysis. The front-end with the dimensions of 12×48×4 mm3, allows for potential implantation through laparoscopic or endoscopic procedure. The system was successfully tested on rigorous bench-top experiments. The results of these tests showed that the system could run as designed and accurately map the signals collected by each sensor, as well as show that the flash memory could store data for almost 34 hours should wireless communication be lost.

  20. Development of a 64 channel ultrasonic high frequency linear array imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Hu, ChangHong; Zhang, Lequan; Cannata, Jonathan M.; Yen, Jesse; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the lateral resolution and extend the field of view of a previously reported 48 element 30 MHz ultrasound linear array and 16-channel digital imaging system, the development of a 256 element 30 MHz linear array and an ultrasound imaging system with increased channel count has been undertaken. This paper reports the design and testing of a 64 channel digital imaging system which consists of an analog front-end pulser/receiver, 64 channels of Time-Gain Compensation (TGC), 64 channels of high-speed digitizer as well as a beamformer. A Personal Computer (PC) is used as the user interface to display real-time images. This system is designed as a platform for the purpose of testing the performance of high frequency linear arrays that have been developed in house. Therefore conventional approaches were taken it its implementation. Flexibility and ease of use are of primary concern whereas consideration of cost-effectiveness and novelty in design are only secondary. Even so, there are many issues at higher frequencies but do not exist at lower frequencies need to be solved. The system provides 64 channels of excitation pulsers while receiving simultaneously at a 20 MHz–120 MHz sampling rate to 12-bits. The digitized data from all channels are first fed through Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and then stored in memories. These raw data are accessed by the beamforming processor to re-build the image or to be downloaded to the PC for further processing. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes of each channel is implemented with the strategy that combines coarse (8.3ns) and fine delays (2 ns). The coarse delays are integer multiples of the sampling clock rate and are achieved by controlling the write enable pin of the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory to obtain valid beamforming data. The fine delays are accomplished with interpolation filters. This system is capable of achieving a maximum frame rate of 50 frames per second. Wire phantom

  1. Development of a 64 channel ultrasonic high frequency linear array imaging system.

    PubMed

    Hu, ChangHong; Zhang, Lequan; Cannata, Jonathan M; Yen, Jesse; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve the lateral resolution and extend the field of view of a previously reported 48 element 30 MHz ultrasound linear array and 16-channel digital imaging system, the development of a 256 element 30 MHz linear array and an ultrasound imaging system with increased channel count has been undertaken. This paper reports the design and testing of a 64 channel digital imaging system which consists of an analog front-end pulser/receiver, 64 channels of Time-Gain Compensation (TGC), 64 channels of high-speed digitizer as well as a beamformer. A Personal Computer (PC) is used as the user interface to display real-time images. This system is designed as a platform for the purpose of testing the performance of high frequency linear arrays that have been developed in house. Therefore conventional approaches were taken it its implementation. Flexibility and ease of use are of primary concern whereas consideration of cost-effectiveness and novelty in design are only secondary. Even so, there are many issues at higher frequencies but do not exist at lower frequencies need to be solved. The system provides 64 channels of excitation pulsers while receiving simultaneously at a 20-120 MHz sampling rate to 12-bits. The digitized data from all channels are first fed through Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), and then stored in memories. These raw data are accessed by the beamforming processor to re-build the image or to be downloaded to the PC for further processing. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes of each channel is implemented with the strategy that combines coarse (8.3 ns) and fine delays (2 ns). The coarse delays are integer multiples of the sampling clock rate and are achieved by controlling the write enable pin of the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) memory to obtain valid beamforming data. The fine delays are accomplished with interpolation filters. This system is capable of achieving a maximum frame rate of 50 frames per second. Wire phantom images

  2. Characteristics of weakly confined submarine channel system and their application to gas hydrate trapping system, Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Y.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2013-12-01

    The 1st offshore gas hydrate production test was conducted at gas hydrate concentrated zone (reservoir) of the Eastern Nankai Trough, which is considered stratigraphic accumulation. However, the accumulation mechanism for this concentrated zone is not yet well understood. In this study, in order to examine gas hydrate trapping system in the accumulation mechanism, we identify the depositional process and controlling factors based on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy using the core and geophysical log data. Our study area is the minibasin in the front of the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the Eastern Nankai Trough. The minibasin development is strongly influenced by uplift of the knoll associated with plate subduction. The minibasin fill deposits are interpreted as the Pleistocene trough fill small turbidite fan system. Seven depositional sequences are identified based on grain size, bed thickness, sedimentary structure, and stacking pattern in this study. The sequence boundaries are also identified by terminations of seismic reflection. These sequences are attributed to a fourth to fifth-order eustatic sea-level changes, because the stacking pattern cycle is in phase with global oxygen isotope curves, the cycle is also identified in the onshore formation during the same period. The reservoir was interpreted as Falling-Stage Systems Tract (FSST) and Lowstand Systems Tract (LST). In the reservoir, it was observed the channel complex set characterized by relatively strong reflections and paleocurrent flowing from northeast to southwest on 3-D seismic data. The channel complex set changes into muddy facies in the south direction. The channel complex set is characterized by hemipelagic setting or slope (F1), abandonment mud drape (F2), nonamalgamated channel element (F3), and semiamalgamated channel element (F4). The channel elements (F3, 4) are the fundamental unit and record a single phase of downcutting and filling. The building block of the channel

  3. A fast forward/backward semi-blind channel estimation for MIMO STC-OFDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lena; Cheng, Ching-Min; Tang, Zay-Shing

    2013-09-01

    In the study, we propose an efficient subspace-based semiblind channel estimation for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) space-time code (STC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. We first proposed a forward-backward estimation (FBE) method which can improve the channel estimation accuracy by using both the forward and backward receiving data. Then, based on the symmetric property of the forward and backward smoothed correlation matrix, we develop a fast forward-backward (FFB) estimation method which estimates the noise subspace by performing eigen-decomposition of two half dimensionality sub-matrices obtained from the forward and backward smoothed correlation matrix. FFB achieves the same performance as the FBE but only requires one-fourth computation complexity of FBE. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy in channel estimation of the proposed FFB for the MIMO STC-OFDM systems.

  4. A Four Channel Beam Current Monitor Data Acquisition System Using Embedded Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Jr., Robert Mitchell; Dalmas, Dale A.; Dale, Gregory E.

    2015-08-11

    Data acquisition from multiple beam current monitors is required for electron accelerator production of Mo-99. A two channel system capable of recording data from two beam current monitors has been developed, is currently in use, and is discussed below. The development of a cost-effective method of extending this system to more than two channels and integrating of these measurements into an accelerator control system is the main focus of this report. Data from these current monitors is digitized, processed, and stored by a digital data acquisition system. Limitations and drawbacks with the currently deployed digital data acquisition system have been identified as have been potential solutions, or at least improvements, to these problems. This report will discuss and document the efforts we've made in improving the flexibility and lowering the cost of the data acquisition system while maintaining the minimum requirements.

  5. A system-level view of optimizing high-channel-count wireless biosignal telemetry.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Rodney J; Gibson, Sarah; Karkare, Vaibhav; Farshchi, Shahin; Marković, Dejan; Judy, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we perform a system-level analysis of a wireless biosignal telemetry system. We perform an analysis of each major system component (e.g., analog front end, analog-to-digital converter, digital signal processor, and wireless link), in which we consider physical, algorithmic, and design limitations. Since there are a wide range applications for wireless biosignal telemetry systems, each with their own unique set of requirements for key parameters (e.g., channel count, power dissipation, noise level, number of bits, etc.), our analysis is equally broad. The net result is a set of plots, in which the power dissipation for each component and as the system as a whole, are plotted as a function of the number of channels for different architectural strategies. These results are also compared to existing implementations of complete wireless biosignal telemetry systems.

  6. Multi-channel data acquisition system with absolute time synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Włodarczyk, Przemysław; Pustelny, Szymon; Budker, Dmitry; Lipiński, Marcin

    2014-11-01

    We present a low-cost, stand-alone global-time-synchronized data acquisition system. Our prototype allows recording up to four analog signals with a 16-bit resolution in variable ranges and a maximum sampling rate of 1000 S/s. The system simultaneously acquires readouts of external sensors e.g. magnetometer or thermometer. A complete data set, including a header containing timestamp, is stored on a Secure Digital (SD) card or transmitted to a computer using Universal Serial Bus (USB). The estimated time accuracy of the data acquisition is better than ±200 ns. The device is intended for use in a global network of optical magnetometers (the Global Network of Optical Magnetometers for Exotic physics - GNOME), which aims to search for signals heralding physics beyond the Standard Model, that can be generated by ordinary spin coupling to exotic particles or anomalous spin interactions.

  7. Simulation of Adjacent Channel Interference in a UHF Satellite System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    INTRODUCTION A. DISCUSSION The main goal of the ultra high frequency (UHF) satellite system is to provide reliable data transmission between multiple ...assumed that the probability of bit error (Pb) [Ref. 1], can be made arbitrarily small. The UTHF satellite is a frequency-division multiple access...is caused by the intermodulation products generated within a satellite transponder as a result of the non-linear amplification of multiple carriers by

  8. Deltas as Ecomorphodynamic Systems: Effects of Vegetation Gradients on Sediment Trapping and Channel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliouras, A.; Kim, W.; Goggin, H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the feedbacks between water, sediment, and vegetation in deltas is an important part of understanding deltas as ecomorphodynamic systems. We conducted a set of laboratory experiments using alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as a proxy for delta vegetation to determine (1) the effects of plants on delta growth and channel dynamics and (2) the influence of fine material on delta evolution. Vegetated experiments were compared to a control run without plants to isolate the effects of vegetation, and experiments with fine sediment were compared to a set of similar experiments with only sand. We found that alfalfa increased sediment trapping on the delta topset, and that the plants were especially effective at retaining fine material. Compared to the control run, the vegetated experiments showed an increased retention of fine sediment on the floodplain that resulted in increased delta relief and stronger pulses of shoreline progradation when channel avulsion and migration occurred. In other words, a higher amount of sediment storage with the addition of vegetation corresponded to a higher amount of sediment excavation during channelization events. In natural systems, dense bank vegetation is typically expected to help confine flow. We seeded our delta uniformly, which eliminated typical vegetation density gradients from riverbank to island center and therefore diminished the gradient in overbank sedimentation that best confines channels by creating levees. Dense clusters of alfalfa throughout the interior of the floodplain and delta islands were therefore able to induce flow splitting, where channels diverged around a stand of plants. This created several smaller channels that were then able to more widely distribute sediment at the delta front compared to unvegetated experiments. We conclude that plants are efficient sediment trappers that change the rate and amount of sediment storage in the delta topset, and that gradients in vegetation density are an important

  9. Polarization Drift Channel Model for Coherent Fibre-Optic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Czegledi, Cristian B.; Karlsson, Magnus; Agrell, Erik; Johannisson, Pontus

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is introduced to model the dynamical changes of the state of polarization during transmission in coherent fibre-optic systems. The model generalizes the one-dimensional phase noise random walk to higher dimensions, accounting for random polarization drifts, emulating a random walk on the Poincaré sphere, which has been successfully verified using experimental data. The model is described in the Jones, Stokes and real four-dimensional formalisms, and the mapping between them is derived. Such a model will be increasingly important in simulating and optimizing future systems, where polarization-multiplexed transmission and sophisticated digital signal processing will be natural parts. The proposed polarization drift model is the first of its kind as prior work either models polarization drift as a deterministic process or focuses on polarization-mode dispersion in systems where the state of polarization does not affect the receiver performance. We expect the model to be useful in a wide-range of photonics applications where stochastic polarization fluctuation is an issue. PMID:26905596

  10. Design of a robust underwater acoustic communication system over multipath fading channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jangeun; Shim, Taebo

    2012-11-01

    Due to the surface and bottom constraints of the underwater acoustic channel (UAC) in shallow waters, multipath fading occurs and causes degradation of the signal for the UAC system. To overcome these problems, a robust underwater acoustic communication system was designed over multipath fading channels by employing both decision feedback equalization with the RLS algorithm and convolutional coding with interleaving+shuffling block data sequence. The dual use of these two methods simultaneously can reduce the intersymbol interference (ISI) and the adjacent bit and burst errors. The system will retransmit the same signal if the system fails to estimate the channel due to severe multipath fading. To verify the performance of the system, the transmission of an image was tested using a 524,288bit gray-scaled image through the multipath fading channel. The test results showed that the number of bit errors was reduced from 86,824 to 5,106 when the reference SNR was 12 dB.

  11. Ultra-compact 32-channel system for time-correlated single-photon counting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, S.; Cuccato, A.; Miari, L.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2013-05-01

    Modern Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting applications require to detect spectral and temporal fluorescence data simultaneously and from different areas of the analyzed sample. These rising quests have led the development of multichannel systems able to perform high count rate and high performance analysis. In this work we describe a new 32-channel TCSPC system designed to be used in modern setups. The presented module consists of four independent 8-channel TCSPC boards, each of them including two 4-channel Time-Amplitude Converter arrays. These TAC arrays are built-in 0.35 μm Si-Ge BiCMOS technology and are characterized by low crosstalk, high resolution, high conversion rate and variable full-scale range. The 8-channel TCSPC board implements an 8-channel ADC to sample the TAC outputs, an FPGA to record and organize the measurement results and a USB 2.0 interface to enable real-time data transmission to and from an external PC. Experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system ensures high performance TCSPC measurements, in particular: high conversion rate (5 MHz), good time resolution (down to 30 psFWHM with the full scale range set to 11 ns) and low differential non-linearity (rms value lower than 0.15% of the time bin width). We design the module to be very compact and, thanks to the reduced dimensions of the 8-channel TCSPC board (95×40 mm), the whole system can be enclosed in a small aluminum case (160×125×30 mm).

  12. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  13. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  14. Biodegradation Of thermoplastic polyurethanes from vegetable oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thermoplastic urethanes based on polyricinoleic acid soft segments and MDI/BD hard segments with varied soft segment concentration were prepared. Soft segment concentration was varied fro, 40 to 70 wt %. Biodegradation was studied by respirometry. Segmented polyurethanes with soft segments based ...

  15. Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Jackson, Daniel C; Trammell, Neil E; Hunt, Marcus A; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

  16. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  17. Polyurethanes from isosorbide-based diisocyanates.

    PubMed

    Zenner, Michael D; Xia, Ying; Chen, Jason S; Kessler, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Benign building blocks: Stereochemically pure diisocyanates were prepared on a multigram scale from succinic anhydride and isosorbide or isomannide. Characterization of polyurethanes that were produced from these diisocyanates revealed low polydispersity, high thermal stability, and stereochemistry-dependent morphology. If biobased succinic anhydride is used, then no stoichiometric petroleum-derived reagents are required in the synthesis of these materials.

  18. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of several studies Space Shuttle communication system are summarized. These tasks can be divided into the following categories: (1) phase multiplexing for two- and three-channel data transmission, (2) effects of phase noise on the performance of coherent communication links, (3) analysis of command system performance, (4) error correcting code tradeoffs, (5) signal detection and angular search procedure for the shuttle Ku-band communication system, and (6) false lock performance of Costas loop receivers.

  19. Characterization of potassium channel modulators with QPatch automated patch-clamp technology: system characteristics and performance.

    PubMed

    Kutchinsky, Jonatan; Friis, Søren; Asmild, Margit; Taboryski, Rafael; Pedersen, Simon; Vestergaard, Ras K; Jacobsen, Rasmus B; Krzywkowski, Karen; Schrøder, Rikke L; Ljungstrøm, Trine; Hélix, Nathalie; Sørensen, Claus B; Bech, Morten; Willumsen, Niels J

    2003-10-01

    Planar silicon chips with 1-2-microm etched holes (average resistance: 2.04 +/- 0.02 MOmega in physiological buffer, n = 274) have been developed for patch-clamp recordings of whole-cell currents from cells in suspension. An automated 16-channel parallel screening system, QPatch 16, has been developed using this technology. A single-channel prototype of the QPatch system was used for validation of the patch-clamp chip technology. We present here data on the quality of patch-clamp recordings and from actual drug screening studies of human potassium channels expressed in cultured cell lines. Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), gigaseals of 4.1 +/- 0.4 GOmega (n = 146) and high-quality whole-cell current recordings were obtained from hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Success rates for gigaseal recordings varied from 40 to 95%, and 67% of the whole-cell configurations lasted for >20 min. Cells were maintained in suspension up to 4 h in a cell storage facility that is integrated in the QPatch 16. No decline in patchability was observed during this time course. A series of screens was conducted with known inhibitors of the hERG and KCNQ4 potassium channels. Dose-response relationship characterizations of verapamil and rBeKm-1 blockage of hERG currents provided IC(50) values similar to values reported in the literature.

  20. The male polyurethane condom: a review of current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Waugh, M S; Solomon, H M; Lyszkowski, A D

    1996-03-01

    Condoms are one of the oldest form of contraceptive and the best recognized form of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Their use, however, is limited by both behavioral factors and device-related factors, including complaints about decreased sensitivity and sexual enjoyment. To address these limitations, a male condom made of polyurethane was developed. Polyurethane is a strong impermeable material with good heat transfer characteristics that is less susceptible to deterioration during storage than latex. Because little information is available comparing polyurethane and latex condoms in terms of consumer preferences as well as breakage and slippage, we reviewed four pre-marketing studies of polyurethane condoms, one of which included comparison to latex. No significant differences in slippage and breakage rates between latex and polyurethane condoms were reported in the study that included a latex comparator, and other studies of polyurethane condoms alone resulted in rates in the same range as published for latex condoms. Subjectively, consumers expressed significantly greater preference for the polyurethane condom over latex in regard to appearance, lack of smell, likelihood of slippage, comfort, sensitivity, natural look, natural feel, and overall. While additional testing is needed, these preliminary results suggest that the male polyurethane condom reviewed performed at least as well as latex condoms and is preferred by consumers. If preference translates to greater use, the male polyurethane condom may address important barriers that have been linked with inadequate condom use in the past. These results, however, may not be generalizable to other brands of polyurethane condom currently under development.

  1. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udalov, S.; Huth, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the forward link signal structure for the shuttle orbiter Ku-band communication system was carried out, based on the assumptions of a 3.03 Mcps PN code. It is shown that acquisition requirements for the forward link can be met at the acquisition threshold C/N0 sub 0 value of about 60 dB-Hz, which corresponds to a bit error rate (BER) of about 0.001. It is also shown that the tracking threshold for the forward link is at about 57 dB-Hz. The analysis of the bent pipe concept for the orbiter was carried out, along with the comparative analysis of the empirical data. The complexity of the analytical approach warrants further investigation to reconcile the empirical and theoretical results. Techniques for incorporating a text and graphics capability into the forward link data stream are considered and a baseline configuration is described.

  2. Comment on "Athabasca Valles, Mars: a lava-draped channel system".

    PubMed

    Page, David P

    2008-06-20

    Jaeger et al. (Reports, 21 September 2007, p. 1709) presented images of the Athabasca Valles channel system on Mars and asserted that the observed deposits are composed of thin, fluid lavas. However, all the features they described are secondary and postdate the surface by many millions of years, as documented by structural relationships with small, young impact craters.

  3. Linear time-invariant controller design for two-channel decentralized control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, Charles A.; Gundes, A. Nazli

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyzes a linear time-invariant two-channel decentralized control system with a 2 x 2 strictly proper plant. It presents an algorithm for the algebraic design of a class of decentralized compensators which stabilize the given plant.

  4. Case Management Agency Systems of Administering Long-Term Care: Evidence from the Channeling Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Examines what was learned from channeling demonstration about potential of case management agency systems for administering home care benefits. Considers both advantages (substitution of lower cost for higher cost services, negotiation of lower prices for services, quality assurance) and disadvantages (difficulty controlling participation rates,…

  5. Low-Power, 8-Channel EEG Recorder and Seizure Detector ASIC for a Subdermal Implantable System.

    PubMed

    Do Valle, Bruno G; Cash, Sydney S; Sodini, Charles G

    2016-04-20

    EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients who have infrequent seizures. These systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition cannot be given. This work aims to address this need by proposing a subdermal implantable, eight-channel EEG recorder and seizure detector that has two modes of operation: diagnosis and seizure counting. In the diagnosis mode, EEG is continuously recorded until a number of seizures are recorded. In the seizure counting mode, the system uses a low-power algorithm to track the number of seizures a patient has, providing doctors with a reliable count to help determine medication efficacy or other clinical endpoint. An ASIC that implements the EEG recording and seizure detection algorithm was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The ASIC includes eight EEG channels and is designed to minimize the system's power and size. The result is a power-efficient analog front end that requires 2.75 μW per channel in diagnosis mode and 0.84 μW per channel in seizure counting mode. Both modes have an input referred noise of approximately 1.1 μVrms.

  6. Low-Power, 8-Channel EEG Recorder and Seizure Detector ASIC for a Subdermal Implantable System.

    PubMed

    Do Valle, Bruno G; Cash, Sydney S; Sodini, Charles G

    2016-12-01

    EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients who have infrequent seizures. These systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition cannot be given. This work aims to address this need by proposing a subdermal implantable, eight-channel EEG recorder and seizure detector that has two modes of operation: diagnosis and seizure counting. In the diagnosis mode, EEG is continuously recorded until a number of seizures are recorded. In the seizure counting mode, the system uses a low-power algorithm to track the number of seizures a patient has, providing doctors with a reliable count to help determine medication efficacy or other clinical endpoint. An ASIC that implements the EEG recording and seizure detection algorithm was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The ASIC includes eight EEG channels and is designed to minimize the system's power and size. The result is a power-efficient analog front end that requires 2.75 μW per channel in diagnosis mode and 0.84 μW per channel in seizure counting mode. Both modes have an input referred noise of approximately 1.1 μVrms.

  7. Mechanisms of hyperconcentrated flood propagation in a dynamic channel-floodplain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Su, Zhenghua; van Maren, D. S.; Wang, Zhengbing; de Vriend, Huib J.

    2017-09-01

    The downstream peak discharge increase during hyperconcentrated floods in the Yellow River has been attributed to bed erosion, roughness reduction and floodplain effects. While great improvements have been made on the understandings of the roles of bed erosion and roughness reduction, the effects of floodplain remain poorly understood. Here, as a first step to reveal the floodplain effects, we present a numerical experimental study on how the channel-floodplain system reacts to a hyperconcentrated flood process. For this purpose, schematized channel-floodplain systems are designed and the classical 1992 flood record data is prescribed at the upstream boundary. By applying a fully coupled morphodynamic model, numerical experiments are conducted for a comprehensive analysis on the effects of bed erodibility, floodplain width, bed roughness variation, symmetry and longitudinal variability of geomorphology. Our results show two distinct trends for the response of channel- floodplain system depending on bed erodibility. For a small bed erodibility, both channel and floodplain experience erosion. For a moderate/large bed erodibility, only the channel experiences erosion whereas deposition occurs on the floodplain. The variation of the floodplain width does not affect these erosion-deposition behaviors while changing the magnitude and patterns of floodplain deposition. The longitudinally discontinuous channel-floodplain divided by either water storage areas or housing/farming banks diminishes the floodplain deposition at the discontinuous locations. The present numerical experiments do not show an obvious peak discharge increase, nonetheless, the recognized erosion-deposition characteristics would help further study of the floodplain effects on the peak of hyperconcentrated floods.

  8. Identifying and Quantifying Ecological Changes in Channel Bank Systems in a Small California Agricultural Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Nichols, A. L.; Ustin, S.; Lay, M.

    2011-12-01

    episodic floods, with likely responses dependent on complex interactions between the landscape-scale legacy of past landuse, such as channel incision, flood magnitude and duration, and current landuses that may include grazing or restoration. Floods may cause bank erosion, expose tree roots, undercut trees, modify bars, or incise the channel bed. In a resilient watershed, the spatial heterogeneity in these processes creates and maintains dynamic bank and aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity. In contrast, in watersheds where channels are incised and human activities have denuded riparian vegetation, the system may have crossed a threshold such that a flood causes a regime shift between resiliency and degradation of channel bank habitat.

  9. Energy efficient graphite polyurethane electrically conductive coatings for thermally actuated smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Dervishi, E.; Berry, B.; Viswanathan, T.; Bourdo, S.; Kim, H.; Sproles, R.; Hudson, M. K.

    2007-02-01

    The concept of graphite-polyurethane coatings as efficient, electrical resistors is the focus of this paper. A 60-40 graphite-polyurethane mix (weight %) demonstrated an electrical resistivity of 40.71 Ω mm. The graphite-polyurethane mix was coated on electrically insulating Kapton tape, which was then wrapped on a nichrome wire (nominal dimensions: 100 mm length and 1.5 mm diameter). This three-phase assembly was heated by Joule heating of the graphite-polyurethane layer. Steady state temperatures as high as 180 °C were attained under free convection conditions, at a very low power requirement of about 2.5 W as opposed to about 18 W for uncoated wires. Interestingly, the effect on transients (heating and cooling times) was not as dramatic. Experiments were also performed under vacuum conditions, following which an analysis is offered regarding the different modes of heat transfer. These coatings can potentially be used as efficient resistors for highly conductive, moderately high temperature shape memory alloys (e.g. the copper-aluminium-nickel system) or electrically insulating shape memory polymers. Any other thermally activated shape memory alloy (e.g. the popular nickel-titanium system) may also use the coatings as resistors due to the potentially dramatic energy savings that may be realized without a dramatic adverse impact on the frequency response.

  10. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Deyang Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  11. An eight channel co-boresighted mm-wave receiver system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, E. L.; Audette, D. J.

    1992-10-01

    A mm-wave sensor design with eight coboresighted beams spanning two octaves of continuous frequencies is described. The sensor system consists of a high/low gain Cassegrain antenna, a quasi-optical multiplexer, and cooled receivers operating in a frequency range of 30 to 110 GHz in eight 10 GHz wide channels. The Cassegrain antenna switches between high and low gain as the subreflector translates in and out of the beam. Quasi-optical focusing highpass filters separate the wideband bean into eight channels. All bands are observed simultaneously and adjacent bands are detected in orthogonal linear polarization.

  12. Development of superconducting contacts for the CRESST II 66-channel superconducting quantum interference device readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Majorovits, B.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.

    2007-07-15

    The CRESST experiment is designed to search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter with cryogenic detectors. CRESST II will use up to 33 CaWO{sub 4} crystals with a total mass of {approx}10 kg. These many detectors require a readout system based on 66-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this article we report on the development of a modular superconducting connector for the 66-channel SQUID readout circuit. We show that the technique developed reliably produces superconducting contacts.

  13. An upper bound on the channel throughput for the unslotted ALOHA system with partial ACK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jozef

    A modification of the pure ALOHA protocol is described which can significantly increase the maximum channel throughput in the ALOHA system. This modification is based on the introduction of total positive acknowledgments (ACK) and partial positive acknowledgments (PACK) of packets. PACKs are sent to users whose packets have been partially correctly received by the central receiver under the condition that the part of a packet received without interference consists of the header and at least one information segment. The results obtained are valid in both terrestrial and satellite packet-switching radio networks. An upper bound is found for the channel throughput for unslotted ALOHA protocols with PACK of packets.

  14. A chaotic system of two-phase flow in a small, horizontal, rectangular channel

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Various measurement tools that are used in chaos theory were applied to analyze two-phase pressure signals with the objective of identifying and interpreting flow pattern transitions for two-phase flows in a small, horizontal rectangular channel. These measurement tools included power spectral density function, autocorrelation function, pseudo-phase-plane trajectory, Lyapunov exponents, and fractal dimensions. It was demonstrated that the randomlike pressure fluctuations characteristic of two-phase flow in small rectangular channels are chaotic. As such, they are governed by a high-order deterministic system. The correlation dimension is potentially a new approach for identifying certain two-phase flow patterns and transitions.

  15. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deyang; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-11-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O(3+) ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  16. Quantum interference of stored dual-channel spin-wave excitations in a single tripod system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hai; Li Shujing; Xu Zhongxiao; Zhao Xingbo; Zhang Lijun; Li Jiahua; Wu Yuelong; Xie Changde; Peng Kunchi; Xiao Min

    2011-04-15

    We present an experimental demonstration of dual-channel memory in a single tripod atomic system. The total readout signal exhibits either constructive or destructive interference when the dual-channel spin-wave excitations (SWEs) are retrieved by two reading beams with a controllable relative phase. When the two reading beams have opposite phases, the SWEs will remain in the medium, which can be retrieved later with two in-phase reading beams. Such a phase-sensitive storage and retrieval scheme can be used to measure and control the relative phase between the two SWEs in the memory medium, which may find applications in quantum-information processing.

  17. Channel Patterns as the Result of Self-Organization Within the Flow-Sediment-Vegetation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, M.; Paola, C.

    2003-12-01

    The familiar patterns of braided and meandering rivers can be thought of as the result of self-organization within a "three-phase" system comprising fluid, sediment, and vegetation. Interactions between these three components are also largely responsible for the organization of river systems into separate and distinguishable channels and floodplains. Key elements of the self organization include the space and time characteristics of seed dispersal and plant growth as well as the statistics of occupation, abandonment, and reworking of the bed by the flow. Seeds are transported and dispersed readily by wind and water and opportunistically colonize areas of the channel that are abandoned or exposed at low flows. Vegetation increases bank stability through root reinforcement of the sediment and increases the threshold shear stress needed for erosion. In addition, vegetation offers resistance to the flow by increasing the drag and reducing the velocity, thus decreasing the stream power available for erosion and transport. Vegetation that is not removed while young will become stronger and increasingly resistant to erosion and removal by the flow. Thus a key organizing parameter in the flow-sediment-vegetation system is the time scale for establishment of the vegetation relative to a characteristic channel or bed mobility time. Experiments at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory demonstrate how repeated cycling of vegetation seeding and water discharge changes an unvegetated braided channel morphology: the flow is gradually corralled into a single sinuous channel that largely tracks the thread of maximum velocity in the original braided network. The experiments are carried out in a large unconsolidated sand bed flume in which alfalfa sprouts are used to simulate riparian vegetation and offer the only form of cohesion in the system. An initial braided pattern is allowed to evolve freely in conjunction with alternating high and low discharges and repeated seedings. As the

  18. Chip-Level Channel Estimation for the Downlink of a WCDMA System in Very High Mobility Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ya-Yin; Chang, Jin-Fu

    This article proposes a channel estimation method for the downlink channels of a WCDMA system in a high-speed railroad setting. High mobility may cause conventional symbol-level channel estimation to yield severe errors because in conventional methods channel state has to maintain constant within one to several symbol durations. However, in high mobility environment, this assumption may not hold. Errors are particularly more dangerous when using very high spreading factors. In order to counteract the adverse effect of high mobility on channel estimation, we shorten the observation window to that of an N-chip block so that channel conditions or characteristics remain approximately unchanged. We consider channel estimation prior to dispreading the received signal. In other words, channel estimation is done at the chip level rather than the conventional symbol level. The least squares (LS) criterion is employed to acquire channel characteristics for each block of N pilot chips, and the linear interpolation method is used to determine the channel characteristics for each data chip. The LS-based estimator is selected due to its simplicity since it does not need to know channel or noise statistics. An LS-based estimator at the chip level has the further advantage that it is robust against interpath interference (IPI). The uncoded bit error rate (BER) performance of a RAKE receiver using different channel estimation schemes is evaluated and compared through simulations. The proposed scheme is found to be suitable for a high-speed railroad setting.

  19. SFO compensation by pilot-aided channel estimation for real-time DDO-OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Rui; He, Jing; Chen, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated a pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique in the real-time direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) system using a cost-effective directly modulated laser (DML). It has been verified that the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique can help to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) effect. The experimental results show that, based on the pilot-aided and linear interpolated channel estimation technique, even at a SFO of 170 ppm, a 16-QAM-OFDM signal can be successfully transmitted over 100-km SSMF under the hard-decision forward-error-correction (HD-FEC) threshold with a bit error rate of 3.8×10-3. And the effect of up to ~25 ppm SFO can be negligible.

  20. Immunoadsorption in patients with autoimmune ion channel disorders of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Antozzi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune ion channel disorders of the peripheral nervous system include myasthenia gravis, the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, acquired neuromyotonia and autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathies. These disorders are characterized by the common feature of being mediated by IgG autoantibodies against identified target antigens, i.e. the acetylcholine receptor, the voltage-gated calcium and potassium channels, and the neuronal acetylcholine receptor. Moreover, experimental animal models have been identified for these diseases that respond to immunotherapy and are improved by plasmapheresis. On this basis, autoimmune ion channel disorders represent the ideal candidate for therapeutic apheresis. Immunoadsorption can be the treatment of choice when intensive apheretic protocols or long-term treatments must be performed, in patients needing frequent apheresis to keep a stable clinical condition, in case of unresponsiveness to corticosteroids and immunosuppressive treatments, or failure with TPE or intravenous immunoglobulins, and in patients with severe contraindications to long-term corticosteroids.

  1. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels and nociception in the peripheral and central nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Deval, Emmanuel; Lingueglia, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Since their molecular cloning in the late 90's, Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) have been shown to be involved in many aspects of nociception, both in peripheral and central neurons. In rodents, the combination of specific or non-specific pharmacological modulators of ASICs, together with in vivo knockdown and/or knockout animals has revealed their contribution to the detection, the modulation and the sensitization of the pain message by primary and secondary sensory neurons. Functional ASICs are homo or heterotrimers of different homologous subunits (ASIC1-3). Channels containing ASIC3 or ASIC1 subunits, appear to be important in peripheral nociceptors, where they are subject to intense regulation, while ASIC1a-containing channels also have a prominent role in central neurons, including spinal cord neurons that modulate and transmit the pain signal to the brain. In humans, experiments performed in healthy volunteers using drugs already used in the clinic and acting as poorly-selective inhibitors of ASICs, together with recent in vitro data obtained from stem cell-derived sensory neurons both support a role for these channels in nociception. These data thus suggest a real translational potential in the development of inhibitory strategies of ASICs for the treatment of pain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'.

  2. Majorana bound states in two-channel time-reversal-symmetric nanowire systems.

    PubMed

    Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Paaske, Jens; Flensberg, Karsten

    2014-03-28

    We consider time-reversal-symmetric two-channel semiconducting quantum wires proximity coupled to a conventional s-wave superconductor. We analyze the requirements for a nontrivial topological phase and find that the necessary conditions are (1) the determinant of the pairing matrix in channel space must be negative, (2) inversion symmetry must be broken, and (3) the two channels must have different spin-orbit couplings. The first condition can be implemented in semiconducting nanowire systems where interactions suppress intra-channel pairing, while the inversion symmetry can be broken by tuning the chemical potentials of the channels. For the case of collinear spin-orbit directions, we find a general expression for the topological invariant by block diagonalization into two blocks with chiral symmetry only. By projection to the low-energy sector, we solve for the zero modes explicitly and study the details of the gap closing, which in the general case happens at finite momenta.

  3. Peptide-gated ion channels and the simple nervous system of Hydra.

    PubMed

    Gründer, Stefan; Assmann, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Neurons either use electrical or chemical synapses to communicate with each other. Transmitters at chemical synapses are either small molecules or neuropeptides. After binding to their receptors, transmitters elicit postsynaptic potentials, which can either be fast and transient or slow and longer lasting, depending on the type of receptor. Fast transient potentials are mediated by ionotropic receptors and slow long-lasting potentials by metabotropic receptors. Transmitters and receptors are well studied for animals with a complex nervous system such as vertebrates and insects, but much less is known for animals with a simple nervous system like Cnidaria. As cnidarians arose early in animal evolution, nervous systems might have first evolved within this group and the study of neurotransmission in cnidarians might reveal an ancient mechanism of neuronal communication. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra extensively uses neuropeptides and, recently, we cloned and functionally characterized an ion channel that is directly activated by neuropeptides of the Hydra nervous system. These results demonstrate the existence of peptide-gated ion channels in Hydra, suggesting they mediate fast transmission in its nervous system. As related channels are also present in the genomes of the cnidarian Nematostella, of placozoans and of ctenophores, it should be considered that the early nervous systems of cnidarians and ctenophores have co-opted neuropeptides for fast transmission at chemical synapses. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Channel estimation in DFT-based offset-QAM OFDM systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian

    2014-10-20

    Offset quadrature amplitude modulation (offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) exhibits enhanced net data rates compared to conventional OFDM, and reduced complexity compared to Nyquist FDM (N-FDM). However, channel estimation in discrete-Fourier-transform (DFT) based offset-QAM OFDM is different from that in conventional OFDM and requires particular study. In this paper, we derive a closed-form expression for the demultiplexed signal in DFT-based offset-QAM systems and show that although the residual crosstalk is orthogonal to the decoded signal, its existence degrades the channel estimation performance when the conventional least-square method is applied. We propose and investigate four channel estimation algorithms for offset-QAM OFDM that vary in terms of performance, complexity, and tolerance to system parameters. It is theoretically and experimentally shown that simple channel estimation can be realized in offset-QAM OFDM with the achieved performance close to the theoretical limit. This, together with the existing advantages over conventional OFDM and N-FDM, makes this technology very promising for optical communication systems.

  5. Coogoon Valles, western Arabia Terra: Hydrological evolution of a complex Martian channel system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, Antonio; López, Iván; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Fernández-Remolar, David; de Pablo, Miguel Ángel; Gómez, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Coogoon Valles is an intricate fluvial system, and its main channel was formed during the Noachian period through the erosion of the clay-bearing basement of the Western Arabia Terra. This region is characterized by a thinner crust compared to the rest of the highlands and by the occurrence of massive phyllosilicate-bearing materials. The origin of this region is still under discussion. Its surface has been exposed to a large-scale volcanism, and several episodes of extensive denudation were primarily controlled by fluvial activity. In this regard, the study of the oldest channels in Arabia Terra is crucial for understanding the global geological evolution of early Mars. The reactivation of the hydrological system by sapping followed by aeolian erosion had reshaped the channel, as well as exposed ancient materials and landforms. The examination of the bed deposits suggests an old episode of detrital sedimentation covering the Noachian basement followed by an erosive event that formed the current Coogoon Valles configuration. A complex system of deltas and alluvial fans is situated at the termination of this channel, which has been proposed as a landing site for the upcoming ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions.

  6. Stability assessment of QKD procedures in commercial quantum cryptography systems versus quality of dark channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacak, Monika; Melniczuk, Damian; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz; Gruber, Jacek; Jóźwiak, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    In order to assess the susceptibility of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to the hacking attack including simultaneous and frequent system self-decalibrations, we analyze the stability of the QKD transmission organized in two commercially available systems. The first one employs non-entangled photons as flying qubits in the dark quantum channel for communication whereas the second one utilizes the entangled photon pairs to secretly share the cryptographic key. Applying standard methods of the statistical data analysis to the characteristic indicators of the quality of the QKD communication (the raw key exchange rate [RKER] and the quantum bit error rate [QBER]), we have estimated the pace of the self-decalibration of both systems and the repeatability rate in the case of controlled worsening of the dark channel quality.

  7. Stability of linear dynamic systems over the packet erasure channel: a co-design approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the stability of linear time-invariant dynamic systems over the packet erasure channel subject to minimum bit rate constraint when an encoder and a decoder are unaware of the control signal. This assumption results in co-designing the encoder, decoder and controller. The encoder, decoder, controller and conditions relating transmission rate to packet erasure probability and eigenvalues of the system matrix A are presented for almost sure asymptotic stability of linear time-invariant dynamic systems over the packet erasure channel with feedback acknowledgment. When the eigenvalues of the system matrix A are real valued, it is shown that the obtained condition for stability is tight. Simulation result illustrates the satisfactory performance of the proposed encoder, decoder and controller for almost sure asymptotic stability.

  8. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  9. Waterhole form and process in the anastomosing channel system of Cooper Creek, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, A. David; Nanson, Gerald C.

    2000-10-01

    One of the most distinctive features of Cooper Creek's anastomosing channel system is the preponderance of waterholes, enlarged segments of channel ranging in length from 100 m to over 20 km. Enlargement occurs in both the width and depth dimensions to give bankfull cross-sectional areas four to eight times the average size of individual anastomosing channels. The anastomosing system is cut into a floodplain of subtle relief but depths of incision can be highly variable, giving rise to changes in the degree of anastomosis as different sets of channels are activated during the filling stage of a flood. Also, cross-sectional form and bed topography can vary markedly over short channel distances, which has implications for local flow conditions and erosive potential. Hydraulic geometry analyses suggest that cross-sectional area adjusts much more readily than velocity to increasing discharge in waterholes, particularly if there is limited lateral confinement. Consequently, velocities tend to be rather modest across a wide spectrum of flows, with average values rarely reaching 1 m s -1. Nevertheless, observations made during a 1:20-year flood reveal a deeply penetrative band of relatively high velocity in one waterhole, suggesting that localized values of bed shear could be quite large even when sectional averages are moderate. Waterholes appear to be a product of the present regime, since they concentrate flow from both feeder channels and the floodplain during flood discharges. In several respects they resemble chains-of-ponds morphology [Eyles, R.J., 1977. Birchams Creek: the transition from a chain of ponds to a gully. Aust. Geogr. Stud. 15, 146-157.], and could represent the discontinuous sections of a present-day channel, which cannot be maintained in that form over its entire length. That the one waterhole to accommodate the entire cross-valley flow at bankfull stage (Meringhina Waterhole) has cross-sectional dimensions similar to those predicted by appropriate

  10. A Low Cost Compact 512 Channel Therapeutic Ultrasound System For Transcutaneous Ultrasound Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Tim; Cain, Charles

    2006-05-01

    A low cost 512 channel therapeutic ultrasound system was designed and tested with a 2D array transducer. The system was optimized for high energy, low duty cycle pulsing applications (cavitation mediated therapy), but is also folly compatible with continuous wave applications. The effective steering range was measured to be 40 mm FWHM over a 3D volume. Well defined volumes of liver tissue were disrupted with high energy cavitation generating ultrasound pulses in ex-vivo liver experiments.

  11. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression are reported which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft. In addition to presenting new and potentially significant system considerations, this report attempts to fill a need for a comprehensive tutorial which makes much of this very subject accessible to readers whose disciplines lie outside of communication theory.

  12. Study of Polyurethane Foaming Dynamics Using a Heat Flow Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koniorczyk, P.; Trzyna, M.; Zmywaczyk, J.; Zygmunt, B.; Preiskorn, M.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the results of the study concerning the effects of fillers addition on the heat flux density \\dot{q}( t ) of foaming of polyurethane-polystyrene porous composite (PSUR) and describes the dynamics of this process during the first 600 s. This foaming process resulted in obtaining porous materials that were based on HFC 365/225 blown rigid polyurethane foam (PUR) matrix, which contained thermoplastic expandable polystyrene (EPS) beads as the filler. In PSUR composites, the EPS beads were expanded after being heated to a temperature above the glass transition temperature of EPS and vaporing gas incorporated inside, by using the heat of exothermic reaction of polyol with isocyanate. From the start (t=0) to the end of the PSUR composite foaming process (t=tk), \\dot{q}( t ) was measured with the use of the heat flow meter. For the purpose of the study two PUR systems were selected: one with high and one with low heat density of foaming process q. EPS beads were selected from the same manufacturer with large and small diameter. The mass fraction of EPS in PSUR foam varied during the measurements. Additionally, a study of volume fractions of expanded EPS phase in PSUR foams as a function of mass fractions of EPS was conducted. In order to verify effects of the EPS addition on the heat flux density during PSUR foaming process, the thermal conductivity measurements were taken.

  13. Acid-degradable polyurethane particles for protein-based vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bachelder, Eric M.; Beaudette, Tristan T.; Broaders, Kyle E.; Paramonov, Sergey E.; Dashe, Jesse; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Acid-degradable particles containing a model protein antigen, ovalbumin, were prepared from a polyurethane with acetal moieties embedded throughout the polymer, and characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The small molecule degradation by-product of the particles was synthesized and tested in vitro for toxicity indicating an LC50 of 12,500 μg/ml. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was developed to monitor the in vitro degradation of these particles. The degradation by-product inside RAW macrophages was at its highest level after 24 hours of culture and was efficiently exocytosed until it was no longer detectable after four days. When tested in vitro, these particles induced a substantial increase in the presentation of the immunodominant ovalbumin-derived peptide SIINFEKL in both macrophages and dendritic cells. In addition, vaccination with these particles generated a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response that was superior to both free ovalbumin and particles made from an analogous but slower-degrading acid-labile polyurethane polymer. Overall, we present a fully degradable polymer system with non-toxic by-products, which may find use in various biomedical applications including protein-based vaccines. PMID:18710254

  14. Catalyst-dependent drug loading of LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams leads to differing controlled release profiles.

    PubMed

    Sivak, Wesley N; Pollack, Ian F; Petoud, Stéphane; Zamboni, William C; Zhang, Jianying; Beckman, Eric J

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop biodegradable and biocompatible polyurethane foams based on lysine diisocyanate (LDI) and glycerol to be used as drug-delivery systems for the controlled release of 7-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (DB-67). The impact of urethane catalysts on cellular proliferation was assessed in an attempt to enhance the biocompatibility of our polyurethane materials. DB-67, a potent camptothecin analog, was then incorporated into LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams with two different amine urethane catalysts: 1,4-diazobicyclo[2.2.2]-octane (DABCO) and 4,4'-(oxydi-2,1-ethane-diyl)bismorpholine (DMDEE). The material morphologies of the polyurethane foams were analyzed via scanning electron microscopy, and DB-67 distribution was assessed by way of fluorescence microscopy. Both foam morphology and drug distribution were found to correlate to the amine catalyst used. Hydrolytic release rates of DB-67 from the polyurethane foams were catalyst dependent and also demonstrated greater drug loads being released at higher temperatures. The foams were capable of delivering therapeutic concentrations of DB-67 in vitro over an 11week test period. Cellular proliferation assays demonstrate that empty LDI-glycerol foams did not significantly alter the growth of malignant human glioma cell lines (P<0.05). DB-67 loaded LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams were found to inhibit cellular proliferation by at least 75% in all the malignant glioma cell lines tested (P<1.0x10(-8)). These results clearly demonstrate the long-term, catalyst-dependent release of DB-67 from LDI-glycerol polyurethane foams, indicating their potential for use in implantable drug-delivery devices.

  15. The effect of native silk fibroin powder on the physical properties and biocompatibility of biomedical polyurethane membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Feng, Jinqi; Wang, Na; Xu, Weilin; Yang, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    Naturally derived fibers such as silk fibroin can potentially enhance the biocompatibility of currently used biomaterials. This study investigated the physical properties of native silk fibroin powder and its effect on the biocompatibility of biomedical polyurethane. Native silk fibroin powder with an average diameter of 3 µm was prepared on a purpose-built machine. A simple method of phase inversion was used to produce biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder hybrid membranes at different blend ratios by immersing a biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder solution in deionized water at room temperature. The physical properties of the membranes including morphology, hydrophilicity, roughness, porosity, and compressive modulus were characterized, and in vitro biocompatibility was evaluated by seeding the human umbilical vein endothelial cells on the top surface. Native silk fibroin powder had a concentration-dependent effect on the number and morphology of human umbilical vein endothelial cells growing on the membranes; cell number increased as native silk fibroin powder content in the biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder hybrid membrane was increased from 0% to 50%, and cell morphology changed from spindle-shaped to cobblestone-like as the native silk fibroin powder content was increased from 0% to 70%. The latter change was related to the physical characteristics of the membrane, including hydrophilicity, roughness, and mechanical properties. The in vivo biocompatibility of the native silk fibroin powder-modified biomedical polyurethane membrane was evaluated in a rat model; the histological analysis revealed no systemic toxicity. These results indicate that the biomedical polyurethane/native silk fibroin powder hybrid membrane has superior in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility relative to 100% biomedical polyurethane membranes and thus has potential applications in the fabrication of small-diameter vascular grafts and in

  16. Rollable Microfluidic Systems with Microscale Bending Radius and Tuning of Device Function with Reconfigurable 3D Channel Geometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; You, Jae Bem; Nam, Sung Min; Seo, Sumin; Im, Sung Gap; Lee, Wonhee

    2017-03-29

    Flexible microfluidic system is an essential component of wearable biosensors to handle body fluids. A parylene-based, thin-film microfluidic system is developed to achieve flexible microfluidics with microscale bending radius. A new molding and bonding technique is developed for parylene microchannel fabrication. Bonding with nanoadhesive layers deposited by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) enables the construction of microfluidic channels with short fabrication time and high bonding strength. The high mechanical strength of parylene allows less channel deformation from the internal pressure for the thin-film parylene channel than bulk PDMS channel. At the same time, negligible channel sagging or collapse is observed during channel bending down to a few hundreds of micrometers due to stress relaxation by prestretch structure. The flexible parylene channels are also developed into a rollable microfluidic system. In a rollable microfluidics format, 2D parylene channels can be rolled around a capillary tubing working as inlets to minimize the device footprint. In addition, we show that creating reconfigurable 3D channel geometry with microscale bending radius can lead to tunable device function: tunable Dean-flow mixer is demonstrated using reconfigurable microscale 3D curved channel. Flexible parylene microfluidics with microscale bending radius is expected to provide an important breakthrough for many fields including wearable biosensors and tunable 3D microfluidics.

  17. Effects of natural zeolite and ferric oxide to electromagnetic and reflection loss properties of polyurethane nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultom, G.; Wirjosentono, B.; Ginting, M.; Sebayang, K.

    2017-07-01

    Microwave-absorptive polymeric composite materials are becoming important to protect interference of any communication systems due to increasing use of microwave-inducing devices. In this work, the microwave-absorptive polyurethane nanocomposites were prepared using natural zeolites of Sarulla North Sumatra and commercial ferric oxide as fillers. Weight ratios of the polyurethane to natural zeolite and ferric oxide were varied (90%:6%:4%; 80%:12%:8%; 70%:24%:6%) by weight. The fillers were prepared using ball milling technique and characterized for their particle size distributions using Particle Size Analyzer. The nanocomposites, prepared using in-situ reaction of polyethylene glycol, toluene diisocyanate and fillers. The complex permittivity (ε’and ε”) and complex permeability (μ’ and μ”) as electromagnetic properties were calculated using NRW method after collecting real and imaginary S parameter using Vector Network Analyzer measurement at X band frequency. Results show ratio of the fillers will affect the permeability, permittivity and reflection loss of the materials. The best reflection loss was shown -40.588 dB (>99 % absorption) at ratio for polyurethane : nanozeolite : ferric oxide (80%:12%:8%) by weight observed at 10.92 GHz. According to the measurement and calculation was shown the polyurethane filled with natural nanozeolite and ferric oxide is a good electromagnetic wave attenuation material.

  18. The role of symmetry of chain extender in controlling the morphology of thermoplastic polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamuo, Onyenkachi; Song, Cheng; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    Although polyurethane is a well-studied subject, the specific role of chain extender in the alteration of segmental dynamics and morphology formation has yet to be elucidated. Relatively low molecular weight thermoplastic polyurethanes synthesized from a two-step polymerization method were utilized in this study. The effect of the symmetry of chain extenders used in the polymerization on the morphological behavior has been studied. Comparison has been made for a number of chain extenders, including a symmetric 1,4 butanediol or 1,6 hexanediol and an asymmetric 1,2 propanediol or 1,3 butanediol. Using a combination of thermal analysis, spectroscopy and mechanical properties measurements, the development of morphological features were determined as a function of time and temperature. The symmetric chain-extended polyurethanes promotes the formation of hydrogen bonding, shows two glass transition temperatures consistent with a phase separation behavior and furthermore gives a more rigid, less extensible mechanical property when compared with the asymmetric chain-extended polyurethanes. In the latter case, the reacted polymer exhibits poor chain packing thus limiting the formation of robust hydrogen bonding behavior. It showed a singular glass transition representative of a more phase mixed system and shows more extensibility in terms of its mechanical behavior.

  19. The Martain drainage system and the origin of valley networks and fretted channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Michael H.

    1995-04-01

    Outflow channels provide strong evidence for abundant water near the Martian surface and an extensive groundwater system. Collapse of the surface into some channels suggests massive subsurface erosion and/or solution in addition to erosion by flow across the surface. Flat floors, steep walls, longitudinal striae and ridges, downstream deflection of striae from channel walls, and lack of river channels suggest that fretted channels form dominantly by mass wasting. A two-stage process is proposed. In the first stage, extension of valleys heads is favored by seepage of groundwater into debris shed from slopes. The debris moves downstream, aided by interstitial groundwater at the base of the debris, possibly with high pore pressures. In the second stage, because of climate change or a lower heat flow, groundwater can no longer seep into the debris flows in the valleys, their movement almost stops, and more viscous ice-lubricated debris aprons form. Almost all uplands at elevations greater than +1 km are dissected by valley networks, although the drainage densities are orders of magnitude less than is typical for the Earth. The valley networks resemble terrestrial river systems in planimetric shape, but U-shaped and rectangular-shaped cross sections, levee- like peripheral ridges, median ridges, patterns of branching and rejoining, and flat floors without river channels suggest that the networks may not be true analogs to terrestrial river valleys. It is proposed that they, like the fretted channels, formed mainly by mass wasting, aided by groundwater seepage into the mass-wasted debris. Movements of only millimeters to centimeters per year are needed to explain the channel lengths. Most valley formation ceased early at low latitudes because of progressive dehydration of the near surface, the result of sublimation of water and/or drainage of groundwater to regions of lower elevations. Valley formation persisted to later dates where aided by steep slopes, as on crater

  20. How ORAI and TRP channels interfere with each other: interaction models and examples from the immune system and the skin.

    PubMed

    Saul, Stephanie; Stanisz, Hedwig; Backes, Christian S; Schwarz, Eva C; Hoth, Markus

    2014-09-15

    Four types of Ca(2+) selective ion channels are known, ten voltage gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels, four CatSper channels, three store operated CRAC channels (ORAI channels) and at least two members of the TRPV subfamily (TRPV5, TRPV6). Some of the other TRP channels also show some Ca(2+) selectivity like certain splice variants of TRPM3. In addition to Ca(2+) selective channels, various cation channels play an important role for Ca(2+) entry and furthermore, they may also regulate Ca(2+) entry through other channels by modulating the membrane potential or other means as outlined in this review. Of the different types of cation channels, TRP channels form one of the most prominent families of non-selective cation channels with functional relevance in electrically non-excitable and electrically excitable cell types. Among these, the seven channels of the TRPC subfamily are rather non-selective with very modest Ca(2+) selectivity, whereas in the other subfamilies, cation selectivity ranges from monovalent selectivity (i.e. TRPM4, TRPM5) to divalent selectivity (i.e. TRPM6, TRPM7) or Ca(2+) selectivity (i.e. TRPV5, TRPV6). Rather than discussing the heavily reviewed individual functions of ORAI or TRP channels, we summarize data and present models how TRP and ORAI may functionally interact to guide cellular functions. We focus on T lymphocytes representing a more ORAI-dominated tissue and skin as model system in which both ORAI and TRP channel have been reported to control relevant functions. We present several interaction models how ORAI and TRP may interfere with each other's function.

  1. A parallel finite element simulator for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bin; Chen, Minxin; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Linbo; Eisenberg, Bob; Lu, Benzhuo

    2013-09-15

    A parallel finite element simulator, ichannel, is developed for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems that consist of protein and membrane. The coordinates of heavy atoms of the protein are taken from the Protein Data Bank and the membrane is represented as a slab. The simulator contains two components: a parallel adaptive finite element solver for a set of Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations that describe the electrodiffusion process of ion transport, and a mesh generation tool chain for ion channel systems, which is an essential component for the finite element computations. The finite element method has advantages in modeling irregular geometries and complex boundary conditions. We have built a tool chain to get the surface and volume mesh for ion channel systems, which consists of a set of mesh generation tools. The adaptive finite element solver in our simulator is implemented using the parallel adaptive finite element package Parallel Hierarchical Grid (PHG) developed by one of the authors, which provides the capability of doing large scale parallel computations with high parallel efficiency and the flexibility of choosing high order elements to achieve high order accuracy. The simulator is applied to a real transmembrane protein, the gramicidin A (gA) channel protein, to calculate the electrostatic potential, ion concentrations and I - V curve, with which both primitive and transformed PNP equations are studied and their numerical performances are compared. To further validate the method, we also apply the simulator to two other ion channel systems, the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and α-Hemolysin (α-HL). The simulation results agree well with Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation results and experimental results. Moreover, because ionic finite size effects can be included in PNP model now, we also perform simulations using a size-modified PNP (SMPNP) model on VDAC and α-HL. It is shown that the size effects in SMPNP can

  2. Compressed sensing theory-based channel estimation for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Minghui; Wang, Ruyan; Liu, Yuanni; Song, Daiping

    2014-09-01

    Due to the spare multipath property of the channel, a channel estimation method, which is based on partial superimposed training sequence and compressed sensing theory, is proposed for line of sight optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication systems. First, a continuous training sequence is added at variable power ratio to the cyclic prefix of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing symbols at the transmitter prior to transmission. Then the observation matrix of compressed sensing theory is structured by the use of the training symbols at receiver. Finally, channel state information is estimated using sparse signal reconstruction algorithm. Compared to traditional training sequences, the proposed partial superimposed training sequence not only improves the spectral efficiency, but also reduces the influence to information symbols. In addition, compared with classical least squares and linear minimum mean square error methods, the proposed compressed sensing theory based channel estimation method can improve both the estimation accuracy and the system performance. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  3. Integrated optofluidic-microfluidic twin channels: toward diverse application of lab-on-a-chip systems

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chao; Xia, Hong; Guan, Wei; Sun, Yun-Lu; Tian, Zhen-Nan; Jiang, Tong; Wang, Ying-Shuai; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Chen, Qi-Dai; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Yu, Yu-De; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Optofluidics, which integrates microfluidics and micro-optical components, is crucial for optical sensing, fluorescence analysis, and cell detection. However, the realization of an integrated system from optofluidic manipulation and a microfluidic channel is often hampered by the lack of a universal substrate for achieving monolithic integration. In this study, we report on an integrated optofluidic-microfluidic twin channels chip fabricated by one-time exposure photolithography, in which the twin microchannels on both surfaces of the substrate were exactly aligned in the vertical direction. The twin microchannels can be controlled independently, meaning that fluids could flow through both microchannels simultaneously without interfering with each other. As representative examples, a tunable hydrogel microlens was integrated into the optofluidic channel by femtosecond laser direct writing, which responds to the salt solution concentration and could be used to detect the microstructure at different depths. The integration of such optofluidic and microfluidic channels provides an opportunity to apply optofluidic detection practically and may lead to great promise for the integration and miniaturization of Lab-on-a-Chip systems. PMID:26823292

  4. Integrated optofluidic-microfluidic twin channels: toward diverse application of lab-on-a-chip systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chao; Xia, Hong; Guan, Wei; Sun, Yun-Lu; Tian, Zhen-Nan; Jiang, Tong; Wang, Ying-Shuai; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Chen, Qi-Dai; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Yu, Yu-De; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Optofluidics, which integrates microfluidics and micro-optical components, is crucial for optical sensing, fluorescence analysis, and cell detection. However, the realization of an integrated system from optofluidic manipulation and a microfluidic channel is often hampered by the lack of a universal substrate for achieving monolithic integration. In this study, we report on an integrated optofluidic-microfluidic twin channels chip fabricated by one-time exposure photolithography, in which the twin microchannels on both surfaces of the substrate were exactly aligned in the vertical direction. The twin microchannels can be controlled independently, meaning that fluids could flow through both microchannels simultaneously without interfering with each other. As representative examples, a tunable hydrogel microlens was integrated into the optofluidic channel by femtosecond laser direct writing, which responds to the salt solution concentration and could be used to detect the microstructure at different depths. The integration of such optofluidic and microfluidic channels provides an opportunity to apply optofluidic detection practically and may lead to great promise for the integration and miniaturization of Lab-on-a-Chip systems.

  5. Integrated optofluidic-microfluidic twin channels: toward diverse application of lab-on-a-chip systems.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chao; Xia, Hong; Guan, Wei; Sun, Yun-Lu; Tian, Zhen-Nan; Jiang, Tong; Wang, Ying-Shuai; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Chen, Qi-Dai; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Yu, Yu-De; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2016-01-29

    Optofluidics, which integrates microfluidics and micro-optical components, is crucial for optical sensing, fluorescence analysis, and cell detection. However, the realization of an integrated system from optofluidic manipulation and a microfluidic channel is often hampered by the lack of a universal substrate for achieving monolithic integration. In this study, we report on an integrated optofluidic-microfluidic twin channels chip fabricated by one-time exposure photolithography, in which the twin microchannels on both surfaces of the substrate were exactly aligned in the vertical direction. The twin microchannels can be controlled independently, meaning that fluids could flow through both microchannels simultaneously without interfering with each other. As representative examples, a tunable hydrogel microlens was integrated into the optofluidic channel by femtosecond laser direct writing, which responds to the salt solution concentration and could be used to detect the microstructure at different depths. The integration of such optofluidic and microfluidic channels provides an opportunity to apply optofluidic detection practically and may lead to great promise for the integration and miniaturization of Lab-on-a-Chip systems.

  6. Synthesis of shape memory polyurethane using bulk polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziming; Jiang, Qiongling; He, Guanru; Zhou, Wuyi; Yang, Zhuohong

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, a series of shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) containing polycaprolactone diol (PCL4000), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) were synthesized using bulk polymerization. Their thermal properties, thermomechanical properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and the shape memory effect was also investigated. Moreover, one kind of shape memory polyurethane fiber was spinned by melting method from these prepared SMPUs and its shape memory properties were also investigated. The results showed that synthesis of shape memory polyurethane using bulk polymerization can effectively enhance the properties of polyurethanes, save cost and improve efficiency compared with solution polymerization.

  7. Development of a fast sampling system for estimation of impulse responses of mobile radio channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melancon, Pierre

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the features of measurement equipment developed to measure impulse response estimates of mobile radio channels in less than a ms per measurement. The development of such equipment was required to measure mobile radio channels in realistic operating scenarios, in a normal sized vehicle moving at typical speeds in different environments. Up to speeds of 70 km/hr, the measurement period is short enough to assume the equipment is measuring the same channel during the whole sampling interval. AT the transmitter end of the measurement system, a wideband signal (10 MHz) is produced by modulating a carrier frequency with a 511 bit pseudo random sequence at 5 Mb/s and transmitted through the radio channel. The received signal is down-converted to 70 MHz and demodulated by a complex demodulator. The quadrature baseband signals at the demodulator outputs are then filtered and sampled at high speed by two fast digitizers. During this process, the data are stored in large memory banks to allow a fast sampling rate during a long period of time. Data are transferred to laser disks for further processing in the laboratory. Impulse response of radio channels are estimated by performing a software correlation between a measurement system back to back reference and real time measurements. A minivan was modified to hold the receiver, digitizers, memory banks and the computer. A shaft encoder was attached to its rear left wheel to trigger measurements while moving. Features of the system are discussed along with the effects of data block length, signal to noise ratio, sampling rate, memory size and phase stability on the design of the measurement equipment. Finally, some measurement results are presented and discussed.

  8. Systemic and regional haemodynamic interactions between K+ channel openers and the sympathetic nervous system in the pithed SHR.

    PubMed

    Richer, C; Mulder, P; Doussau, M P; Gautier, P; Giudicelli, J F

    1990-07-01

    1. The interactions between two K+ channel openers, cromakalim and SR 44866 (infused i.v. at equihypotensive doses), and the sympathetic nervous system at the systemic and regional (mesentery, kidney, hindlimb) vascular levels were investigated in the pithed spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) by use of the pulsed Doppler technique. 2. The two K+ channel openers did not affect postsynaptic alpha 1- but slightly reduced postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated systemic pressor and regional vasoconstrictor responses. 3. Both drugs significantly decreased the systemic pressor and regional vasoconstrictor responses elicited by spinal cord stimulation. These sympathoinhibitory effects were not homogeneously distributed among the different vascular beds, the decreasing rank order being: mesentery greater than kidney greater than hindlimb. Simultaneously, the spinal cord stimulation-induced tachycardia remained unaffected. 4. After treatment with K+ channel openers, restoration of initial blood pressure and vascular tone values by infusion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and vasopressin respectively did not affect and abolished the sympathoinhibitory effects of cromakalim and SR 44866. 5. We conclude that in SHRs the two K+ channel openers that we investigated exert similar sympathohibitory effects which affect some vascular beds more than others. These effects are not dependent upon the arterial blood pressure level and are most likely prejunctionally located.

  9. TRPV1 channel as a target for cancer therapy using CNT-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Guerrero, Andres; Espinosa-Duran, John M; Velasco-Medina, Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being considered for the design of drug delivery systems (DDSs) due to their capacity to internalize molecules and control their release. However, for cellular uptake of drugs, this approach requires an active translocation pathway or a channel to transport the drug into the cell. To address this issue, it is suggested to use TRPV1 ion channels as a potential target for drug release by nano-DDSs since these channels are overexpressed in cancer cells and allow the permeation of large cationic molecules. Considering these facts, this work presents three studies using molecular dynamics simulations of a human TRPV1 (hTRPV1) channel built here. The purpose of these simulations is to study the interaction between a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and hTRPV1, and the diffusion of doxorubicin (DOX) across hTRPV1 and across a POPC lipid membrane. The first study shows an attractive potential between the SWCNT surface and hTRPV1, tilting the adsorbed SWCNT. The second study shows low diffusion probability of DOX across the open hTRPV1 due to a high free energy barrier. Although, the potential energy between DOX and hTRPV1 reveals an attractive interaction while DOX is inside hTRPV1. These results suggest that if the channel is dilated, then DOX diffusion could occur. The third study shows a lower free energy barrier for DOX across the lipid membrane than for DOX across hTRPV1. Taking into account the results obtained, it is feasible to design novel nano-DDSs based on SWCNTs to accomplish controlled drug release into cells using as translocation pathway, the hTRPV1 ion channel.

  10. Electronic communication channel within the patient data management system improves internal communication in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Väisänen, Paula; Holopainen, Jaana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the internal communication within the intensive care unit of the Kuopio University Hospital. We developed an intranet based internal communication channel within the patient data management system and studied the effectiveness of this system in improving communication in the ICU. The hypothesis was that the communication difficulties caused by the structure of the unit, large personnel and work schedule (three separate shifts) could be reduced by supplementing oral communication by this intranet based system. The results clearly indicate that this type of system can significantly improve communication within our unit.

  11. Formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: Observations from three diverse river systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.; Parker, G.

    2009-06-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology; yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. Here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in the following three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River (Papua New Guinea), the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed, single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V-shaped cross section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bidirectional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  12. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Joel C; Dietrich, William E; Day, Geoff; Parker, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  13. Investigation into reversion of polyurethane encapsulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, C. R.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of high humidity (95% RH) at 60 C, 70 C, 85 C and 100 C on the solid-to-liquid reversion of polyurethane elastomers (used for potting electrical connectors and conformal coating printed circuit boards) was investigated. Hardness measurements were conducted on eleven elastomers to track reversion for a 101-day period. The primary purpose of the tests was to provide data to predict service life for the polyurethane elastomers. This was not accomplished as the hardness did not deteriorate rapidly enough at the lower test temperatures. The tests did determine that the potting and coating materials most widely used on the S-1C Program are susceptible to reversion but appear adequate for service in the S-1C environment.

  14. Time-Frequency Based Channel Estimation for High-Mobility OFDM Systems-Part I: MIMO Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Önen, Erol; Akan, Aydın; Chaparro, LuisF

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems hold the potential to drastically improve the spectral efficiency and link reliability in future wireless communications systems. A particularly promising candidate for next-generation fixed and mobile wireless systems is the combination of MIMO technology with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM has become the standard method because of its advantages over single carrier modulation schemes on multipath, frequency selective fading channels. Doppler frequency shifts are expected in fast-moving environments, causing the channel to vary in time, that degrades the performance of OFDM systems. In this paper, we present a time-varying channel modeling and estimation method based on the Discrete Evolutionary Transform to obtain a complete characterization of MIMO-OFDM channels. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared on different levels of channel noise and Doppler frequency shifts.

  15. Channel coding for underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanjun; Zhang, Yonglei; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhou, Lin; Niu, Jiong

    2017-01-01

    CDMA is an effective multiple access protocol for underwater acoustic networks, and channel coding can effectively reduce the bit error rate (BER) of the underwater acoustic communication system. For the requirements of underwater acoustic mobile networks based on CDMA, an underwater acoustic single-carrier CDMA communication system (UWA/SCCDMA) based on the direct-sequence spread spectrum is proposed, and its channel coding scheme is studied based on convolution, RA, Turbo and LDPC coding respectively. The implementation steps of the Viterbi algorithm of convolutional coding, BP and minimum sum algorithms of RA coding, Log-MAP and SOVA algorithms of Turbo coding, and sum-product algorithm of LDPC coding are given. An UWA/SCCDMA simulation system based on Matlab is designed. Simulation results show that the UWA/SCCDMA based on RA, Turbo and LDPC coding have good performance such that the communication BER is all less than 10-6 in the underwater acoustic channel with low signal to noise ratio (SNR) from -12 dB to -10dB, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of the convolutional coding. The system based on Turbo coding with Log-MAP algorithm has the best performance.

  16. Structures and Properties of Polyurethanes. Part II,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-23

    values of module/moaulus and strength for tear. The presence 𔄃. DOC =79011109 PAs;j fo of pliable groups in hardaer, tur example thioester, lowered...properties it is polyurethane in soluticn ana Diock. It is important to also explain a guestion concerning what projeLties of the isclated/ insulated ...isolated/ insulated macromoecule, with temperature transitions in polymeric block, that tear cooperdtive character (95]. The authors tried to reveal

  17. Interurethane Hydrogen Bonding in Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    segments consisting of either 2,4- or 2,6- toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BOL). - Summary of Results The existence of two phase morphology... Toluene Diisocyanate /" Participating Scientific Personnel C. Brunette, Ph.D. Awarded C. Chen, Ph.D. Candidate C. Feger, Post-Doctoral Research Associate...segmented polyurethanes based on hydroxy terminated polybutadiene (HTPBD) soft segments and hard segments consisting of either 2,4- or 2,6- toluene

  18. Three-dimensional model of hydro acoustic channel for research MIMO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, V. P.; Lomakina, A. V.; Legin, A. A.; Voronin, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, wireless hydroacoustic modems are actively being developed, which are used to provide efficient data transmission in the hydroacoustic channel. Such kind of developments are relevant for today, as they are used in various fields of science and fields of activity. An example is the connection with underwater vehicles for scientific, research, search and rescue purposes. Development of this kind of communication systems (modems) is a difficult task, as signal propagation is affected by various factors. As a result, the transfer characteristic changes with time, thereby imposing restrictions on the acoustic communication channel. In this regard, the researchers began the task of further study sonar environment and get a detailed mathematical description of the underwater channel. For this, a huge number of field tests were conducted, aimed at studying the underwater acoustic environment. However, the results of the research are always limited by the conditions in which the test took place. Therefore, it is not always possible to apply these results to the required conditions. All of the above features do not allow you to create some kind of a commonly accepted model for the acoustic channel, as studies based on experiments, collected in localized environments without generalizations. This paper presents, the three-dimensional model of the sonar channel for MIMO systems in the coastal zone, based on the acoustic signal propagation characteristics in the presence of multiple paths, the influence of the Doppler effect (as a result of mobile and / or base station traffic), in terms of signal attenuation, receiver characteristics influence and Transmitting antenna, etc.

  19. High Capacity Phase/Amplitude Modulated Optical Communication Systems and Nonlinear Inter-Channel Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassoli, Vahid

    This thesis studies and mathematically models nonlinear interactions among channels of modern high bit rate (amplitude/) phase modulated optical systems. First, phase modulated analogue systems are studied and a differential receiving method is suggested with experimental validation. The main focus of the rest of the thesis is on digital advanced modulation format systems. Cross-talk due to fiber Kerr nonlinearity in two-format hybrid systems as well as 16-QAM systems is mathematically modelled and verified by simulation for different system parameters. A comparative study of differential receivers and coherent receivers is also given for hybrid systems. The model is based on mathematically proven assumptions and provides an intuitive analytical understanding of nonlinear cross-talk in such systems.

  20. Optical design of a dual-channel two-focal-length system by utilizing azimuth property of PAL structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    An approach to design a dual-channel two-focal-length lens based on the panoramic annular lens (PAL) structure is presented in this paper. The method of establishing the second channel to eliminate the blind area has been explored in some documents, and mostly it is achieved by utilizing the front surface of the PAL block. But in this paper, we modified the PAL block and divided it into two channels according to their different azimuth direction. These two channels have different focal lengths. Thus, by rotating the system around its axis, optical step-zoom effect can be obtained. Finally, a dual-channel system with a radial zoom ratio of 3× is designed, of which the wide-angle channel has a field-of-view (FOV) of 60° (radial) ×60° (azimuthal) and the long focal length channel has a FOV of 20° (radial)×20° (azimuthal). These two channels share the same stop surface, relay lens, and the image sensor. And a thin glass plate with diffractive structure is placed before the image plane to further correct aberration and obtain a common back focal length for the two channels. This system may have applications in many fields, such as surveillance, robot vision, and foveal imaging.

  1. Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Isosorbide Chain Extender

    SciTech Connect

    Javni, Ivan; Bilic, Olivera; Bilic, Nikola; Petrovic, Zoran; Eastwood, Eric; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-12-15

    Isosorbide, a renewable diol derived from starch, was used alone or in combination with butane diol (BD) as the chain extender in two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) with 50 and 70% polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) soft segment concentration (SSC), respectively. In the synthesized TPUs, the hard segment composition was systematically varied in both series following BD/isosorbide molar ratios of 100 : 0; 75 : 25; 50 : 50; 25 : 75, and 0 : 100 to examine in detail the effect of chain extenders on properties of segmented polyurethane elastomers with different morphologies. We found that polyurethanes with 50% SSC were hard elastomers with Shore D hardness of around 50, which is consistent with assumed co-continuous morphology. Polymers with 70% SSC displayed lower Shore A hardness of 74–79 (Shore D around 25) as a result of globular hard domains dispersed in the soft matrix. Insertion of isosorbide increased rigidity, melting point and glass transition temperature of hard segments and tensile strength of elastomers with 50% SSC. These effects were weaker or non-existent in 70% SSC series due to the short hard segments and low content of isosorbide. We also found that the thermal stability was lowered by increasing isosorbide content in both series.

  2. High-resolution pluronic-filled microchip CE-SSCP analysis system via channel width control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Giyoung; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Daeyeon; Lee, Nam Ki; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2016-02-01

    Although the resolution of CE-SSCP has been significantly improved by using a poly(ethyleneoxide)-poly(propyleneoxide)-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO; Pluronic(®)) triblock copolymer as a separation medium, CE-SSCP on a microchip format is not widely applicable because their resolution is limited by short channel length. Therefore, a strategy to improve the resolution in channels of limited lengths is highly required for enabling microchip-based CE-SSCP. In this study, we developed a high-resolution CE-SSCP microchip system by controlling the width of the pluronic-filled channel. We tested four different channel widths of 180, 240, 300, and 400 μm, and found that 300 μm showed the highest resolution in the separation of two pathogen specific markers. Potential applications of our method in various genetic analyses were also shown by using SNP markers for spinal muscular atrophy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Characterization of Unruh channel in the context of open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhashish; Kumar Alok, Ashutosh; Omkar, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we study an important facet of field theories in curved space-time, viz. the Unruh effect, by making use of ideas of statistical mechanics and quantum foundations. Aspects of decoherence and dissipation, natural artifacts of open quantum systems, along with foundational issues such as the trade-off between coherence and mixing as well as various aspects of quantum correlations are investigated in detail for the Unruh effect. We show how the Unruh effect can be quantified mathematically by the Choi matrix approach. We study how environmentally induced decoherence modifies the effect of the Unruh channel. The differing effects of a dissipative or non-dissipative environment are noted. Further, useful parameters characterizing channel performance such as gate and channel fidelity are applied here to the Unruh channel, both with and without external influences. Squeezing, which is known to play an important role in the context of particle creation, is shown to be a useful resource in a number of scenarios.

  4. Receptors, channels, and signalling in the urothelial sensory system in the bladder

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Liana; Gonzalez, Eric J.; Girard, Beatrice M.; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    The storage and periodic elimination of urine, termed micturition, requires a complex neural control system to coordinate the activities of the urinary bladder, urethra, and urethral sphincters. At the level of the lumbosacral spinal cord, lower urinary tract reflex mechanisms are modulated by supraspinal controls with mechanosensory input from the urothelium, resulting in regulation of bladder contractile activity. The specific identity of the mechanical sensor is not yet known, but considerable interest exists in the contribution of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to the mechanosensory functions of the urothelium. The sensory, transduction, and signalling properties of the urothelium can influence adjacent urinary bladder tissues including the suburothelial nerve plexus, interstitial cells of Cajal, and detrusor smooth muscle cells. Diverse stimuli, including those that activate TRP channels expressed by the urothelium, can influence urothelial release of chemical mediators (such as ATP). Changes to the urothelium are associated with a number of bladder pathologies that underlie urinary bladder dysfunction. Urothelial receptor and/or ion channel expression and the release of signalling molecules (such as ATP and nitric oxide) can be altered with bladder disease, neural injury, target organ inflammation, or psychogenic stress. Urothelial receptors and channels represent novel targets for potential therapies that are intended to modulate micturition function or bladder sensation. PMID:26926246

  5. Power Scaling of Uplink Massive MIMO Systems With Arbitrary-Rank Channel Means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo; Matthaiou, Michail

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the uplink achievable rates of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems in Ricean fading channels, using maximal-ratio combining (MRC) and zero-forcing (ZF) receivers, assuming perfect and imperfect channel state information (CSI). In contrast to previous relevant works, the fast fading MIMO channel matrix is assumed to have an arbitrary-rank deterministic component as well as a Rayleigh-distributed random component. We derive tractable expressions for the achievable uplink rate in the large-antenna limit, along with approximating results that hold for any finite number of antennas. Based on these analytical results, we obtain the scaling law that the users' transmit power should satisfy, while maintaining a desirable quality of service. In particular, it is found that regardless of the Ricean $K$-factor, in the case of perfect CSI, the approximations converge to the same constant value as the exact results, as the number of base station antennas, $M$, grows large, while the transmit power of each user can be scaled down proportionally to $1/M$. If CSI is estimated with uncertainty, the same result holds true but only when the Ricean $K$-factor is non-zero. Otherwise, if the channel experiences Rayleigh fading, we can only cut the transmit power of each user proportionally to $1/\\sqrt M$. In addition, we show that with an increasing Ricean $K$-factor, the uplink rates will converge to fixed values for both MRC and ZF receivers.

  6. Oxidation of KCNB1 K(+) channels in central nervous system and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sesti, Federico; Wu, Xilong; Liu, Shuang

    2014-05-26

    KCNB1, a voltage-gated potassium (K(+)) channel that conducts a major delayed rectifier current in the brain, pancreas and cardiovascular system is a key player in apoptotic programs associated with oxidative stress. As a result, this protein represents a bona fide drug target for limiting the toxic effects of oxygen radicals. Until recently the consensus view was that reactive oxygen species trigger a pro-apoptotic surge in KCNB1 current via phosphorylation and SNARE-dependent incorporation of KCNB1 channels into the plasma membrane. However, new evidence shows that KCNB1 can be modified by oxidants and that oxidized KCNB1 channels can directly activate pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. Hence, a more articulated picture of the pro-apoptotic role of KCNB1 is emerging in which the protein induces cell's death through distinct molecular mechanisms and activation of multiple pathways. In this review article we discuss the diverse functional, toxic and protective roles that KCNB1 channels play in the major organs where they are expressed.

  7. Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion-translocation system: channel formation by secreted Yops.

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, F; Homblé, F; Neyt, C; Wattiez, R; Cornelis, G R; Ruysschaert, J M; Cabiaux, V

    1999-01-01

    'Type III secretion' allows extracellular adherent bacteria to inject bacterial effector proteins into the cytosol of their animal or plant host cells. In the archetypal Yersinia system the secreted proteins are called Yops. Some of them are intracellular effectors, while YopB and YopD have been shown by genetic analyses to be dedicated to the translocation of these effectors. Here, the secretion of Yops by Y.enterocolitica was induced in the presence of liposomes, and some Yops, including YopB and YopD, were found to be inserted into liposomes. The proteoliposomes were fused to a planar lipid membrane to characterize the putative pore-forming properties of the lipid-bound Yops. Electrophysiological experiments revealed the presence of channels with a 105 pS conductance and no ionic selectivity. Channels with those properties were generated by mutants devoid of the effectors and by lcrG mutants, as well as by wild-type bacteria. In contrast, mutants devoid of YopB did not generate channels and mutants devoid of YopD led to current fluctuations that were different from those observed with wild-type bacteria. The observed channel could be responsible for the translocation of Yop effectors. PMID:10581252

  8. Yersinia enterocolitica type III secretion-translocation system: channel formation by secreted Yops.

    PubMed

    Tardy, F; Homblé, F; Neyt, C; Wattiez, R; Cornelis, G R; Ruysschaert, J M; Cabiaux, V

    1999-12-01

    'Type III secretion' allows extracellular adherent bacteria to inject bacterial effector proteins into the cytosol of their animal or plant host cells. In the archetypal Yersinia system the secreted proteins are called Yops. Some of them are intracellular effectors, while YopB and YopD have been shown by genetic analyses to be dedicated to the translocation of these effectors. Here, the secretion of Yops by Y.enterocolitica was induced in the presence of liposomes, and some Yops, including YopB and YopD, were found to be inserted into liposomes. The proteoliposomes were fused to a planar lipid membrane to characterize the putative pore-forming properties of the lipid-bound Yops. Electrophysiological experiments revealed the presence of channels with a 105 pS conductance and no ionic selectivity. Channels with those properties were generated by mutants devoid of the effectors and by lcrG mutants, as well as by wild-type bacteria. In contrast, mutants devoid of YopB did not generate channels and mutants devoid of YopD led to current fluctuations that were different from those observed with wild-type bacteria. The observed channel could be responsible for the translocation of Yop effectors.

  9. Turbulence characteristics of two-dimensional channel flow with system rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakabayashi, Koichi; Kitoh, Osami

    2005-04-01

    Turbulence quantities have been measured for a low-Reynolds-number fully developed two-dimensional channel flow subjected to system rotation. Turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress, correlation coefficient, skewness and flatness factors, four-quadrant analysis, autocorrelation coefficient and power spectra are investigated. According to the dimensional analysis, the relevant parameters of this flow are the Reynolds number Re* = u*D/ν and the Coriolis parameter Rc = Ω ν/u*2 for the wall region, and Re* and Ω D/u* for the turbulent core-region. The existence of a Coriolis region where turbulence intensities are defined by a new variable y*c = y/δc has been clarified on the pressure side in the rotating channel flow. The amount of turbulent kinetic energy transported by the Coriolis term is extremely small compared to the production term in the transport equation of Reynolds normal stress. However, the Coriolis term makes a large contribution to Reynolds shear stress transport on the pressure side of the channel. It is caused by the strong ejection which occurs periodically on the pressure side even though the ejection frequency is low. The strong ejection is conjectured to be caused by a large-scale longitudinal structure like a roll cell on the pressure side of the channel.

  10. Episodic Channels: Effects of Regulation on Non-Equilibrium River Systems in California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Minear, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Mediterranean-climate rivers are characterized by episodic channels, whose geomorphic work is concentrated in short, infrequent events (large floods), separated by long periods of quiescence in which the channel narrows and riparian vegetation can establish and mature, only to be disrupted by the next large disturbance. While not ‘pretty’ in conventional terms, such rivers support diverse assemblages of native species, adapted to the episodic regime. Because of the importance of irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean-climate regions, large reservoir storage projects are common, resulting in dam-induced reductions flood peaks, which have reduced dynamism in downstream channels. The result has been loss of habitat diversity and native species. A systems-level analysis of the Sacramento-San Joaquin and other rivers reveals that Q2 has commonly been reduced by 80%, sediment loads reduced, and vegetation encroached in formerly active channels. More profound have been hardening of banks and isolation of floodplains by levees. Restoration of ecological values in such rivers will require room for the river to move and flood, as well as floods sufficient to drive these processes. We identify a set of rivers with highest potential for re-activation or preservation of dynamic process in California.

  11. Method for Evaluation of Outage Probability on Random Access Channel in Mobile Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Martin

    2012-05-01

    In order to access the cell in all mobile communication technologies a so called random-access procedure is used. For example in GSM this is represented by sending the CHANNEL REQUEST message from Mobile Station (MS) to Base Transceiver Station (BTS) which is consequently forwarded as an CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the Base Station Controller (BSC). If the BTS decodes some noise on the Random Access Channel (RACH) as random access by mistake (so- called ‘phantom RACH') then it is a question of pure coincidence which èstablishment cause’ the BTS thinks to have recognized. A typical invalid channel access request or phantom RACH is characterized by an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT procedure (assignment of an SDCCH or TCH) which is not followed by sending an ESTABLISH INDICATION from MS to BTS. In this paper a mathematical model for evaluation of the Power RACH Busy Threshold (RACHBT) in order to guaranty in advance determined outage probability on RACH is described and discussed as well. It focuses on Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) however the obtained results can be generalized on remaining mobile technologies (ie WCDMA and LTE).

  12. Oxidation of KCNB1 K+ channels in central nervous system and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sesti, Federico; Wu, Xilong; Liu, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    KCNB1, a voltage-gated potassium (K+) channel that conducts a major delayed rectifier current in the brain, pancreas and cardiovascular system is a key player in apoptotic programs associated with oxidative stress. As a result, this protein represents a bona fide drug target for limiting the toxic effects of oxygen radicals. Until recently the consensus view was that reactive oxygen species trigger a pro-apoptotic surge in KCNB1 current via phosphorylation and SNARE-dependent incorporation of KCNB1 channels into the plasma membrane. However, new evidence shows that KCNB1 can be modified by oxidants and that oxidized KCNB1 channels can directly activate pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. Hence, a more articulated picture of the pro-apoptotic role of KCNB1 is emerging in which the protein induces cell’s death through distinct molecular mechanisms and activation of multiple pathways. In this review article we discuss the diverse functional, toxic and protective roles that KCNB1 channels play in the major organs where they are expressed. PMID:24921000

  13. On the delay effects of different channels in Internet-based networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun-Bo; Kim, Jongrae; Sun, Xi-Ming; Liu, Guo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    The sensor-to-controller and the controller-to-actuator delays in networked control systems (NCSs) are investigated for the first time with respect to their different effects on the system performance. This study starts with identifying the delay-independent and delay-dependent control laws in NCSs, and confirms that only two delay-dependent control laws can cause different delay effects in different channels. The conditions under which the different delays in different channels can cause different effects are then given for both delay-dependent control laws. The results are verified by numerical examples. Potentially, these results can be regarded as important design principles in the practical implementation of NCSs.

  14. Beam transport channels and beam injection and extraction systems of the NICA accelerator complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butenko, A. V.; Volkov, V. I.; Kolesnikov, S. Yu.; Meshkov, I. N.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Rabtsun, S. V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Sidorov, A. I.; Topilin, N. D.; Trubnikov, G. V.; Tuzikov, A. V.; Fateev, A. A.; Shvetsov, V. S.

    2016-12-01

    A new accelerator complex is being constructed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research as a part of the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) project. The goal is to conduct experiments with colliding ion beams (at the first stage of the project) and colliding polarized proton/deuteron beams (at the second stage). Transport beam channels and the systems of beam injection and extraction for synchrotrons and collider rings are an important connecting link for the whole accelerator facility. The design of the primary beam-transport channels and injection/extraction systems are presented. Special attention is paid to various aspects of dynamics of beams in their transfer between the NICA accelerators.

  15. Barrier distribution functions for the system 6Li+64Ni and the effect of channel coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Md. Moin; Roy, Subinit; Rajbanshi, S.; Pradhan, M. K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, P.; Pal, S.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R. G.; Shrivastava, A.

    2015-03-01

    Background: The barrier distribution function is an important observable in low-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions because it carries the distinct signature of the channel-coupling effect that is dominant at low energies. It can be derived from the fusion excitation function as well as from the back-angle quasi-elastic excitation function. The barrier distribution functions derived from the two complimentary measurements, in general, appear to peak at an energy close to the Coulomb barrier for strongly bound systems. But for weakly bound projectiles, like 6Li, a relative shift is observed between the distributions. Purpose: The present work investigates the barrier distribution functions from fusion as well as from the back-angle quasi-elastic excitation function for the 6Li+64Ni system. The purpose is to look for the existence of a shift, if any, between the two measured distribution functions, as reported for 6Li collision with heavy targets. A detailed coupled-channel calculation to probe the behavior of the distribution functions and their relative shift has been attempted. Measurement: A simultaneous measurement of fusion and back-angle quasi-elastic excitation functions for the system 6Li+64Ni was performed. The fusion excitation function was measured for the energy range of 11 to 28 MeV while the quasi-elastic excitation function measurement extended from 11 to 20 MeV. The barrier distribution functions were subsequently extracted from both the excitation functions and compared. Results: A small shift of around 450 keV peak to peak is observed between the barrier distribution functions derived from the complementary measurements. Detailed coupled channel and coupled reaction channel calculations reproduced both the excitation functions and barrier distributions. The shift of about 550 keV resulted from the model predictions corroborate the experimentally observed value for 6Li+64Ni system. Conclusions: The coupling to inelastic channels are found to be

  16. Application of the Hardman methodology to the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The HARDMAN methodology was applied to the various configurations of employment for an emerging Army multipurpose communications system. The methodology was used to analyze the manpower, personnel and training (MPT) requirements and associated costs, of the system concepts responsive to the Army's requirement for the Single Channel Ground-Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS). The scope of the application includes the analysis of two conceptual designs Cincinnati Electronics and ITT Aerospace/Optical Division for operating and maintenance support addressed through the general support maintenance echelon.

  17. Performance evaluation and channel modeling of MIMO free space optical communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tianping; Lu, Yimin; Lu, Gang; Peng, Kai

    2005-11-01

    Free space optical communication systems represent one of the most promising approaches for addressing the emerging broadband access market, it can provide high bandwidth with no physical contact, but are hampered by signal fading effects due to particulate scattering caused by atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we propose a new channel model of MIMO free space optical communication system. The physics meaning of this model is very clear, and its format is very simple. Mathematic results show that MIMO is a very effective way for intensity fluctuation reduction induced by turbulence, thus reduce the bit-error-rate of the system.

  18. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak.

    PubMed

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S K

    2014-05-01

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (74-86 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 × 10(9) V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  19. Characterization and calibration of 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system for SST-1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Siju, Varsha; Kumar, Dharmendra; Shukla, Praveena; Pathak, S. K.

    2014-05-15

    An 8-channel E-band heterodyne radiometer system (74–86 GHz) is designed, characterized, and calibrated to measure the radial electron temperature profile by measuring Electron Cyclotron Emission spectrum at SST-1 Tokamak. The developed radiometer has a noise equivalent temperature of 1 eV and sensitivity of 5 × 10{sup 9} V/W. In order to precisely measure the absolute value of electron temperature, a calibration measurement of the radiometer system is performed using hot-cold Dicke switch method, which confirms the system linearity.

  20. Dual-channel filter photometer system for biocomponent content determination in diesel oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołębiowski, Jacek; Prohuń, Tomasz

    2008-07-01

    Currently, infrared spectrometry is the most often used method of determination of the biocomponent content in diesel oil, but this is also an expensive and time-consuming process. In this study, a portable, low-cost dual-channel filter photometer system is presented which meets the requirements of the European standard for biocomponent concentration measurements in diesel fuel. The results obtained using this novel system are reported and compared to the measurements made using a standard infrared spectrometer for biodiesel concentration between 0% and 20% by weight. The advantages of the new system, such as its adaptability to the different environmental conditions of analysis, are also discussed.

  1. Outage Capacity Analysis of TAS/MRC Systems over Arbitrary Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chia-Chun; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Shyh-Neng; Wu, Rong-Ching

    A simple closed-form approximation for the outage capacity of Transmit Antenna Selection/Maximal-Ratio Combining (TAS/MRC) systems over independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) Nakagami-m fading channels is derived while the fading index is a positive integer. When the Nakagami-m fading index is not an integer, the approximate outage capacity is derived as a single infinite series of Gamma function. Computer simulations verify the accuracy of the approximate results.

  2. High-speed indoor optical wireless communication system with single channel imaging receiver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2012-04-09

    In this paper we experimentally investigate a gigabit indoor optical wireless communication system with single channel imaging receiver. It is shown that the use of single channel imaging receiver rejects most of the background light. This single channel imaging receiver is composed of an imaging lens and a small photo-sensitive area photodiode attached on a 2-axis actuator. The actuator and photodiode are placed on the focal plane of the lens to search for the focused light spot. The actuator is voice-coil based and it is low cost and commercially available. With this single channel imaging receiver, bit rate as high as 12.5 Gbps has been successfully demonstrated and the maximum error-free (BER<10⁻⁹) beam footprint is even larger than 1 m. Compared with our previous experimental results with a single wide field-of-view non-imaging receiver, an improvement in error-free beam footprint of >20% has been achieved. When this system is integrated with our recently proposed optical wireless based indoor localization system, both high speed wireless communication and mobility can be provided to users over the entire room. Furthermore, theoretical analysis has been carried out and the simulation results agree well with the experiments. In addition, since the rough location information of the user is available in our proposed system, instead of searching for the focused light spot over a large area on the focal plane of the lens, only a small possible area needs to be scanned. By further pre-setting a proper comparison threshold when searching for the focused light spot, the time needed for searching can be further reduced.

  3. Modeling Manufacturing Impacts on Aging and Reliability of Polyurethane Foams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Rekha R.; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Johnson, Kyle; Lorenzo, Henry T.

    2016-10-01

    Polyurethane is a complex multiphase material that evolves from a viscous liquid to a system of percolating bubbles, which are created via a CO2 generating reaction. The continuous phase polymerizes to a solid during the foaming process generating heat. Foams introduced into a mold increase their volume up to tenfold, and the dynamics of the expansion process may lead to voids and will produce gradients in density and degree of polymerization. These inhomogeneities can lead to structural stability issues upon aging. For instance, structural components in weapon systems have been shown to change shape as they age depending on their molding history, which can threaten critical tolerances. The purpose of this project is to develop a Cradle-to-Grave multiphysics model, which allows us to predict the material properties of foam from its birth through aging in the stockpile, where its dimensional stability is important.

  4. A Parallel Double Front System along the Main Channel of a Barotropic Tidal Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.

    2003-12-01

    In an estuary with a significant longitudinal density gradient, fronts can occur during flood stage if a cross channel shear of flow exists. In a wide estuary, models have suggested convergence on the right hand side when facing the downstream direction, because of Coriolis effect, favoring a single front line changing its position with tidal phase. If a front system occurs during different tidal stages including ebb and appears in pairs on both sides of a channel, then neither of the above mechanisms can explain it. Here I report such a front system observed in a barotropic tidal inlet - Sand Shoal Inlet, VA. The front system is observed during different tidal stages within a 13-hour observation period. A 25-ft boat is used to tow an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to measure velocity profiles along an hour-glass shaped ship track. A harmonic-statistic analysis is used to analyze the tide, tidal velocity, and mean velocity. The transverse convergence and divergence of velocity are calculated. The rms errors of the harmonic-statistic analysis of the elevation and velocity are about 0.28 m and 0.13 m/s (with a maximum velocity of over 2 m/s), respectively. On average, about 83%, 95%, and 70% of the variabilities of the elevation, longitudinal and transverse velocities respectively can be explained by the M2 tidal and subtidal constituents. Strong transverse velocity convergences are identified by the analysis and are generally consistent with the observed front positions. The analysis shows that the front system is apparently generated by a combination of several mechanisms including (1) differential rotation of the tidal ellipses and spatial variations of the major axes of the tidal ellipses, owing to the strong bottom friction, and (2) a strong geometric convergence at the inlet. Density effect is found to be negligible and the planetary vorticity tilt effect is also unimportant because of a much higher relative vorticity. The observed front system is

  5. A real-time multi-channel monitoring system for stem cell culture process.

    PubMed

    Xicai Yue; Drakakis, E M; Lim, M; Radomska, A; Hua Ye; Mantalaris, A; Panoskaltsis, N; Cass, A

    2008-06-01

    A novel, up to 128 channels, multi-parametric physiological measurement system suitable for monitoring hematopoietic stem cell culture processes and cell cultures in general is presented in this paper. The system aims to measure in real-time the most important physical and chemical culture parameters of hematopoietic stem cells, including physicochemical parameters, nutrients, and metabolites, in a long-term culture process. The overarching scope of this research effort is to control and optimize the whole bioprocess by means of the acquisition of real-time quantitative physiological information from the culture. The system is designed in a modular manner. Each hardware module can operate as an independent gain programmable, level shift adjustable, 16 channel data acquisition system specific to a sensor type. Up to eight such data acquisition modules can be combined and connected to the host PC to realize the whole system hardware. The control of data acquisition and the subsequent management of data is performed by the system's software which is coded in LabVIEW. Preliminary experimental results presented here show that the system not only has the ability to interface to various types of sensors allowing the monitoring of different types of culture parameters. Moreover, it can capture dynamic variations of culture parameters by means of real-time multi-channel measurements thus providing additional information on both temporal and spatial profiles of these parameters within a bioreactor. The system is by no means constrained in the hematopoietic stem cell culture field only. It is suitable for cell growth monitoring applications in general.

  6. Performance analysis of a finite radon transform in OFDM system under different channel models

    SciTech Connect

    Dawood, Sameer A.; Anuar, M. S.; Fayadh, Rashid A.; Malek, F.; Abdullah, Farrah Salwani

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a class of discrete Radon transforms namely Finite Radon Transform (FRAT) was proposed as a modulation technique in the realization of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The proposed FRAT operates as a data mapper in the OFDM transceiver instead of the conventional phase shift mapping and quadrature amplitude mapping that are usually used with the standard OFDM based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), by the way that ensure increasing the orthogonality of the system. The Fourier domain approach was found here to be the more suitable way for obtaining the forward and inverse FRAT. This structure resulted in a more suitable realization of conventional FFT- OFDM. It was shown that this application increases the orthogonality significantly in this case due to the use of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) twice, namely, in the data mapping and in the sub-carrier modulation also due to the use of an efficient algorithm in determining the FRAT coefficients called the optimal ordering method. The proposed approach was tested and compared with conventional OFDM, for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, flat fading channel, and multi-path frequency selective fading channel. The obtained results showed that the proposed system has improved the bit error rate (BER) performance by reducing inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI), comparing with conventional OFDM system.

  7. Environmental testing of a prototypic digital safety channel, Phase I: System design and test methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Qualification Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis and acceptance criteria for the qualification of advanced I&C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR). It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALWRs. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  8. Extended horizon lifting for periodic gain adjustment in control systems, and for equalization of communication channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Periodic gain adjustment in plants of irreducible order, n, or for equalization of communications channels is effected in such a way that the plant (system) appears to be minimum phase by choosing a horizon time N is greater than n of liftings in periodic input and output windows rho sub u and rho sub y, respectively, where N is an integer chosen to define the extent (length) of each of the windows rho sub u and rho sub y, and n is the order of an irreducible input/output plant. The plant may be an electrical, mechanical, or chemical system, in which case output tracking (OT) is carried out for feedback control or a communication channel, in which case input tracking (IT) is performed. Conditions for OT are distinct from IT in terms of zero annihilation, namely H(sub s)H(sub s)(sup +) = I for OT and H(sub s)H(sub s)(sup +) = I of IT, where the OT conditions are intended for gain adjustments in the control system, and IT conditions are intended for equalization for communication channels.

  9. Regional expression of the anesthetic-activated potassium channel TRESK in the rat nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, SieHyeon; Liu, Jia; Sabbadini, Marta; Au, Paul; Xie, Guo-xi; Yost, C. Spencer

    2009-01-01

    The two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels contribute to background (leak) potassium currents maintaining the resting membrane potential to play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. As such they may contribute to nociception and the mechanism of action of volatile anesthetics. In the present study, we examined the protein expression pattern of the K2P channel TRESK in the rat central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) by immunohistochemistry. The regional distribution expression pattern of TRESK has both similarities and significant differences from that of other K2P channels expressed in the CNS. TRESK expression is broadly found in the brain, spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG). TRESK expression is highest in important CNS structures, such as specific cortical layers, periaqueductal gray (PAG), granule cell layer of the cerebellum, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. TRESK expression is also high in small and medium sized DRG neurons. These results provide an anatomic basis for identifying functional roles of TRESK in the rat nervous system. PMID:19716403

  10. A sophisticated, multi-channel data acquisition and processing system for high frequency noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Bridges, James

    1992-01-01

    A sophisticated, multi-channel computerized data acquisition and processing system was developed at the NASA LeRC for use in noise experiments. This technology, which is available for transfer to industry, provides a convenient, cost-effective alternative to analog tape recording for high frequency acoustic measurements. This system provides 32-channel acquisition of microphone signals with an analysis bandwidth up to 100 kHz per channel. Cost was minimized through the use of off-the-shelf components. Requirements to allow for future expansion were met by choosing equipment which adheres to established industry standards for hardware and software. Data processing capabilities include narrow band and 1/3 octave spectral analysis, compensation for microphone frequency response/directivity, and correction of acoustic data to standard day conditions. The system was used successfully in a major wind tunnel test program at NASA LeRC to acquire and analyze jet noise data in support of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program.

  11. Development of a Crosslink Channel Simulator for Simulation of Formation Flying Satellite Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger; Hunt, Chris; Burns, Rich D.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-vehicle missions are an integral part of NASA s and other space agencies current and future business. These multi-vehicle missions generally involve collectively utilizing the array of instrumentation dispersed throughout the system of space vehicles, and communicating via crosslinks to achieve mission goals such as formation flying, autonomous operation, and collective data gathering. NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing the Formation Flying Test Bed (FFTB) to provide hardware-in- the-loop simulation of these crosslink-based systems. The goal of the FFTB is to reduce mission risk, assist in mission planning and analysis, and provide a technology development platform that allows algorithms to be developed for mission hctions such as precision formation flying, synchronization, and inter-vehicle data synthesis. The FFTB will provide a medium in which the various crosslink transponders being used in multi-vehicle missions can be plugged in for development and test. An integral part of the FFTB is the Crosslink Channel Simulator (CCS),which is placed into the communications channel between the crosslinks under test, and is used to simulate on-orbit effects to the communications channel due to relative vehicle motion or antenna misalignment. The CCS is based on the Starlight software programmable platform developed at General Dynamics Decision Systems which provides the CCS with the ability to be modified on the fly to adapt to new crosslink formats or mission parameters.

  12. Designing Effective Persuasive Systems Utilizing the Power of Entanglement: Communication Channel, Strategy and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiqing; Chatterjee, Samir

    With rapid advances in information and communication technology, computer-mediated communication (CMC) technologies are utilizing multiple IT platforms such as email, websites, cell-phones/PDAs, social networking sites, and gaming environments. However, no studies have compared the effectiveness of a persuasive system using such alternative channels and various persuasive techniques. Moreover, how affective computing impacts the effectiveness of persuasive systems is not clear. This study proposes (1) persuasive technology channels in combination with persuasive strategies will have different persuasive effectiveness; (2) Adding positive emotion to a message that leads to a better overall user experience could increase persuasive effectiveness. The affective computing or emotion information was added to the experiment using emoticons. The initial results of a pilot study show that computer-mediated communication channels along with various persuasive strategies can affect the persuasive effectiveness to varying degrees. These results also shows that adding a positive emoticon to a message leads to a better user experience which increases the overall persuasive effectiveness of a system.

  13. Discriminating Formation Channels of Binary Black Hole Systems with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevin, Michael; Rodriguez, Carl; Pankow, Chris; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Fred

    2017-01-01

    The field of gravitational-wave astronomy has been initiated by the recent observations of binary black hole mergers. These observations illuminate objects that are inaccessible with electromagnetic telescopes, and open inquiries as to how heavy binary black hole systems form and merge. Two possible formation channels proposed for such systems are isolated binary evolution in galactic fields and dynamical formation in star clusters. Currently, the coarse localization of these gravitational-wave events cannot indicate the environment in which the binary formed, and the mass distributions and merger rates from simulations of the aforementioned formation channels do not have an appreciable difference. However, the component spins of the black holes have the potential to unveil the formation history of the system. In this talk, I will discuss how to match measurements of the black hole component spin alignment with the projected spin distributions produced by population synthesis simulations. Using this framework we will link the estimated black hole spin to the formation channel of a merger, thus leading to a more detailed picture of their environments and origins.

  14. Discriminating Formation Channels of Binary Black Hole Systems with Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zevin, Michael; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Pankow, Chris; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-01-01

    The field of gravitational-wave astronomy has been initiated by the recent observations of binary black hole mergers. These observations illuminate objects that are inaccessible with electromagnetic telescopes, and open inquiries as to how binary black hole systems form and merge. Two possible formation channels proposed for such systems are isolated binary evolution in the galactic field and dynamical formation in star clusters. Currently, the coarse localization of these gravitational-wave events cannot indicate the environment in which the binary formed, and simulations find that the mass distributions and merger rates of the aforementioned formation channels do not have an appreciable difference. However, the component spins of the black holes have the potential to unveil the formation history of the system. In this talk, I will discuss how to match measurements of the black hole component spin alignment with the spin distributions produced by population synthesis simulations of the galactic field and star clusters. Using this framework, we will link black hole spin measurements to the formation channel of a merger, thus leading to a more detailed picture of their environments and origins.

  15. Isolation, Cloning and Expression of the Genes for Microbial Polyurethane Degradation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-31

    Identifiers/Open-Ended Terms DNA/DNA libraries/16 S RNA sequence/ polyurethane paint/biodegradation/ enzyme Availability Security Class Defense Technical...experiments, i.e., if the degradation of the paint is mediated by isolatable enzymes , the tryptic peptides could be sequenced; oligonucleotides created...Superfund Site areas. Both enzymatic and microbial stripping systems could be self-contained and completely recycled. Commercial enzyme systems could be

  16. Auxetic polyurethane foam: Manufacturing and processing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahan, Md Deloyer

    Materials with negative Poisson's ratio are referred to as auxetic materials. They are different from conventional materials in their deformation behavior when responding to external stresses. The cross-section of the materials widens in the lateral direction when being stretched in the longitudinal direction and becomes narrower when being compressed longitudinally. While a number of natural auxetic materials exist, most auxetic materials are synthetic. They show interesting properties and have potential in several important applications. Auxetic materials exhibit better mechanical properties than conventional materials such as enhanced indentation resistance, shear resistance, toughness, damping and energy absorption capacity, sound absorption, variable permeability and capability of producing complex curvature. These properties are beneficial in a wide range of applications including personal protective equipments, sound absorbers, packaging, smart filtration, drug delivery, tissue scaffolding, seat cushioning, etc. A wide range of auxetic materials has been synthesized. They include different polymers, metals, composites and ceramics. Among these, auxetic polyurethane (PU) foam is one of the most widely studied types of auxetic materials. Auxetic PU foams are usually fabricated by altering the microstructure of conventional foams and the unusual mechanical properties originate from the deformation characteristics of the microstructures. Three most important processing parameters in fabricating auxetic PU foam that dictate auxetic behavior are processing temperature, heating time and volumetric compression ratio. This study addresses several important issues in the manufacturing and characterization of auxetic PU foam. First, an improved automatic measuring technique has been developed to determine Poisson's ratio of auxetic PU foam. The technique involves development of a Matlab based image processing program. The second part of the study includes an

  17. A quasioptical system of the dual channel SIS receiver for TRAO telescope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. A.; Han, S. T.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, K. D.; Kim, H. R.; Chung, H. S.; Cho, S. H.; Lee, C. H.; Yang, J.

    1999-10-01

    A quasioptical system of 100/150 GHz band for a dual channel receiver is developed for the simultaneous observation for both bands. The frequency independent Gaussian beam matching is applied to design the quasioptical system for wide band operation. A beam measurement system is constructed to measure the quasioptical system and to align its components. The beam from Cassegrain focus is divided into two polarizations by the beam splitter and then fed to corrugated feed horns of their bands through their quasioptical system. The intensity distributions near the Cassegrain focus and the variations of the beam widths along the propagation are measured in the laboratory. The performances of the developed quasioptical system are evaluated by comparing the measured results with theoretical calculations. The dual channel receiver with this quasioptical system is installed in the 14 m telescope. The relative pointing offset between two bands is 3n. The authors have successfully observed the various sources with both bands using this receiver since October 1998.

  18. High Explosive Moulding Powders from RDX and Aqueous Polyurethane Dispersions,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    polybutadiene (17] type by reaction with low molecular weight diisocyanates in the absence of water. Explosive moulding powders incorporating...polyaddition reaction . The final polymers have predominantly hydrophobic long chain segments of the polyether or polyester type and also contain some...reacted with isocyanate groups in reaction sequences which ultimately yield either polyurethane or polyurethane-urea polymers. Three of the methods for

  19. Skeletal myotube formation enhanced by electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotube scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Sirivisoot, Sirinrath; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of electrically conductive materials made from electrospun single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with polyurethane to promote myoblast differentiation into myotubes in the presence and absence of electrical stimulation. Methods and results After electrical stimulation, the number of multinucleated myotubes on the electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotube scaffolds was significantly larger than that on nonconductive electrospun polyurethane scaffolds (5% and 10% w/v polyurethane). In the absence of electrical stimulation, myoblasts also differentiated on the electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotube scaffolds, as evidenced by expression of Myf-5 and myosin heavy chains. The myotube number and length were significantly greater on the electrospun carbon nanotubes with 10% w/v polyurethane than on those with 5% w/v polyurethane. The results suggest that, in the absence of electrical stimulation, skeletal myotube formation is dependent on the morphology of the electrospun scaffolds, while with electrical stimulation it is dependent on the electrical conductivity of the scaffolds. Conclusion This study indicates that electrospun polyurethane carbon nanotubes can be used to modulate skeletal myotube formation with or without application of electrical stimulation. PMID:22072883

  20. Tests Of Polyurethane And Dichromate Coats On Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to determine relative effectiveness of new polyurethane and more-conventional dichromate coat in helping to retard corrosion of anodized 6061-T6 aluminum. Concludes by suggesting greater protection against corrosion achieved by combining polyurethane-sealing method with hard-anodizing method and by increasing thickness of coat.