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Sample records for polyvinyl butyral pvb

  1. A reference electrode based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) polymer for decentralized chemical measurements.

    PubMed

    Guinovart, Tomàs; Crespo, Gastón A; Rius, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J

    2014-04-22

    A new solid-state reference electrode using a polymeric membrane of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Ag/AgCl and NaCl to be used in decentralized chemical measurements is presented. The electrode is made by drop-casting the membrane cocktail onto a glassy carbon (GC) substrate. A stable potential (less than 1 mV dec(-1)) over a wide range of concentrations for the several chemical species tested is obtained. No significant influence to changes in redox potential, light and pH are observed. The response of this novel electrode shows good correlation when compared with a conventional double-junction reference electrode. Also good long-term stability (90±33 μV/h) and a lifetime of approximately 4 months are obtained. Aspects related to the working mechanisms are discussed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) studies reveal the presence of nanopores and channels on the surface, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of optimized electrodes show low bulk resistances, usually in the kΩ range, suggesting that a nanoporous polymeric structure is formed in the interface with the solution. Future applications of this electrode as a disposable device for decentralized measurements are discussed. Examples of the utilization on wearable substrates (tattoos, fabrics, etc) are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Recycling of waste automotive laminated glass and valorization of polyvinyl butyral through mechanochemical separation

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: swain@iae.re.kr; Ryang Park, Jae; Yoon Shin, Dong

    Due to strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility polyvinyl butyral (PVB) resin films are commonly used in the automotive and architectural application as a protective interlayer in the laminated glass. Worldwide million tons of PVB waste generated from end-of-life automotive associated with various environmental issues. Stringent environmental directive, higher land cost eliminates land filling option, needs a study, we have developed a mechanochemical separation process to separate PVB resins from glass and characterized the separated PVB through various techniques, i.e., scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonancemore » spectroscopy (NMR). Commercial nonionic surfactants D201 used for the mechanochemical separation purpose. Through parameter optimization following conditions are considered to be the optimum condition; 30 vol% D201, stirring speed of 400 rpm, 35 °C temperature, operation time 1 h, and dilute D201 volume to waste automotive laminated glass weight ratio of ≈25. The technology developed in our laboratory is sustainable, environmentally friendly, techno-economical feasible process, capable of mass production (recycling). - Highlights: • Waste automotive laminated glass and polyvinyl butyral mechanochemically separated. • An economical total recovery and environment-friendly process has been developed. • It is a global problem rather than regional environmental issue has been addressed. • Without using hazardous chemical wastes are being converted to a wealth.« less

  3. Extremely flexible, transparent, and strain-sensitive electroluminescent device based on ZnS:Cu-polyvinyl butyral composite and silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Sungwoo; Kim, Youngmin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Jong-Woong

    2018-01-01

    A multifunctional alternate current electroluminescent device (ACEL) was achieved by compositing ZnS:Cu particles in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) with two layers of percolated silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes. The strong hydrogen bonding interactions and entanglement of PVB chains considerably strengthened the PVB, and thus, the cured mixture of ZnS:Cu particles and freestanding PVB required no additional support. The device was fabricated by embedding AgNWs on both sides of the ZnS:Cu-PVB composite film using an inverted layer process and intense-pulsed-light treatment. The strong affinity of PVB to the polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) layer, which capped the AgNWs, mechanically stabilized the device to such an extent that it could resist 10,000 bending cycles under a curvature radius of 500 μm. Using AgNW networks in both the top and bottom electrodes made a double-sided light-emitting device that could be applied to wearable lightings or flexible digital signage. The capacitance formed in the device sensitively varied with the applied bending and unfolding, thus demonstrating that the device can also be used as a deformation sensor.

  4. Photochromic properties of the N-Salicylideneaniline in Polyvinyl Butyral matrix: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahab, Siyamak; Filippovich, Liudmila; Aharodnikova, M.; Almodarresiyeh, Hora A.; Hajikolaee, Fatemeh Haji; Kumar, Rakesh; Mashayekhi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, isomerization, photophysical properties, thermal conductivity (λ) and spectral study of the N-Salicylideneaniline: 2-[(E)-(phenylimino)methyl]phenol (SA) under the action of UV radiation in the Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) matrix were studied using the Indicator method and Density Functional Theory (DFT). The electronic absorption spectra of SA and its isomers (SA1 and SA2) in dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions were also calculated. The nature of absorption bands of SA, SA1 and SA2 in the visible and near ultraviolet spectral regions was interpreted. The excitation energies, electronic transitions and oscillator strengths for SA, SA1 and SA2 have also been calculated. Thermal Conductivity of PVB-films containing SA before and after UV radiation was also measured. A Photochromic PVB - film on the basis of SA for application in optical devices and display technologies was made.

  5. Colorful Hydrophobic Poly(Vinyl Butyral)/Cationic Dye Fibrous Membranes via a Colored Solution Electrospinning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xu; You, Ming-Hao; Lou, Tao; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Jun-Cheng; Gong, Mao-Gang; Lv, Fu-Yan; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yun-Ze

    2016-12-01

    Colorful nanofibrous membranes have attracted much attention for their visual varieties and various functionalities. In this article, a colored solution electrospinning process was used to fabricate colorful hydrophobic poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB)/cationic dye nanofibrous membranes (NFMs) successfully. The color and morphology of these as-spun nanofibrous membranes have been analyzed by colorimetry, spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that the as-spun colorful PVB-based membranes exhibit excellent level-dyeing property and color stability. Furthermore, the doping of cationic dye and the increase of dye concentration can decrease the diameter of the as-spun colored fibers, which results in better level-dyeing property and higher water contact angle more than 140°. The stained PVB fibrous membranes with excellent level-dyeing property and hydrophobicity are promising in some applications such as textiles, wallpapers, and anticorrosive coating/painting.

  6. Recycling of waste automotive laminated glass and valorization of polyvinyl butyral through mechanochemical separation.

    PubMed

    Swain, Basudev; Ryang Park, Jae; Yoon Shin, Dong; Park, Kyung-Soo; Hwan Hong, Myung; Gi Lee, Chan

    2015-10-01

    Due to strong binding, optical clarity, adhesion to many surfaces, toughness and flexibility polyvinyl butyral (PVB) resin films are commonly used in the automotive and architectural application as a protective interlayer in the laminated glass. Worldwide million tons of PVB waste generated from end-of-life automotive associated with various environmental issues. Stringent environmental directive, higher land cost eliminates land filling option, needs a study, we have developed a mechanochemical separation process to separate PVB resins from glass and characterized the separated PVB through various techniques, i.e., scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Commercial nonionic surfactants D201 used for the mechanochemical separation purpose. Through parameter optimization following conditions are considered to be the optimum condition; 30v ol% D201, stirring speed of 400 rpm, 35 °C temperature, operation time 1h, and dilute D201 volume to waste automotive laminated glass weight ratio of ≈25. The technology developed in our laboratory is sustainable, environmentally friendly, techno-economical feasible process, capable of mass production (recycling). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral composite as a stable binder for castable supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Herbeck-Engel, P.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2015-04-01

    Mixtures of polyvinylpyrrolidone/polyvinyl butyral (PVP/PVB) are attractive binders for the preparation of carbon electrodes for aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors. The use of PVP/PVB offers several key advantages: They are soluble in ethanol and can be used to spray coat or drain cast activated carbon (AC) electrodes directly on a current collector. Infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements show that the PVP-to-PVB ratio determines the degree of binder hydrophilicity. Within our study, the most favorable performance was obtained for AC electrodes with a composition of AC + 1.5 mass% PVP + 6.0 mass% PVB; such electrodes were mechanically stabile and water resistant with a PVP release of less than 5% of total PVP while PVB itself is water insoluble. Compared to when using PVDF, the specific surface area (SSA) of the assembled electrodes was 10% higher, indicating a reduced pore blocking tendency. A good electrochemical performance was observed in different aqueous electrolytes for composite electrodes with the optimized binder composition: 160 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 for 1 M H2SO4 and 6 M KOH and 120 F g-1 for 1 M NaCl. The capacitance was slightly reduced by 2.5% after cycling to 1.2 V with 1.28 A g-1 in 1 M NaCl for 10,000 times.

  8. Design and fabrication of an E-shaped wearable textile antenna on PVB-coated hydrophobic polyester fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu Roshni, Satheesh; Jayakrishnan, M. P.; Mohanan, P.; Peethambharan Surendran, Kuzhichalil

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated the simulation and fabrication of an E-shaped microstrip patch antenna realized on multilayered polyester fabric suitable for WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) applications. The main challenges while designing a textile antenna were to provide adequate thickness, surface uniformity and water wettability to the textile substrate. Here, three layers of polyester fabric were stacked together in order to obtain sufficient thickness, and were subsequently dip coated with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) solution. The PVB-coated polyester fabric showed a hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 91°. The RMS roughness of the uncoated and PVB-coated polyester fabric was about 341 nm and 15 nm respectively. The promising properties, such as their flexibility, light weight and cost effectiveness, enable effortless integration of the proposed antenna into clothes like polyester jackets. Simulated and measured results in terms of return loss as well as gain were showcased to confirm the usefulness of the fabricated prototype. The fabricated antenna successfully operates at 3.37 GHz with a return loss of 21 dB and a maximum measured gain of 3.6 dB.

  9. Water permeation and dielectric breakdown. Water permeability in Pub Tedlar. Pub/Tedlar as a function of temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    Moisture transport and dielectric breakdown of polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Tedlar, and PVB/Tedlar composites were addressed. Data for the temperature range between 20 and 80 C showed that the moisture flux through the composite is governed by the slower material; and that the composite permeability is intermediate to those of the component material, as predicted by theory. Data for Tedlar at 71 C, showing the dependence of moisture flux on relative humidity, was also presented. Dielectric breakdown data were less precise and less conclusive. The generally applied theoretical model does not match the experimental data. The PVB/Tedlar composite exhibited greater voltage breakdown resistance than either component. Testing of EVA and EVA/Tedlar composites is underway.

  10. Influence of MnO2 decorated Fe nano cauliflowers on microwave absorption and impedance matching of polyvinylbutyral (PVB) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Pritom J.; Porwal, Mayuri; Vinoy, K. J.; Ramamurthy, Praveen C.; Madras, Giridhar

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a promising, polyvinyl butryl (PVB)-MnO2 decorated Fe composite was synthesised and microwave absorption properties were studied for the most important frequency ranges i.e., X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) and Ku-band (12.4-18 GHz). The microwave absorption of Fe nano cauliflower structure can be enhanced by MnO2 nanofiber coating. 10 wt% Fe-MnO2 nano cauliflower loaded PVB composite films (2 mm thick) shows an appreciable increase in microwave absorption properties. In X-band, the reflection loss (RL) of this composite decreases almost linearly to -7.5 dB, whereas in the Ku-band the minimum RL was found to be -15.7 dB at 14.7 GHz. Here it was observed that impedance matching is the primarily important factor responsible for enhanced microwave absorption. Further, enhancement of EM attenuation constant (α), dielectrics, scattering attenuation also bolsters the obtained results. This polymer composite can be considered as a novel microwave absorbing coating material.

  11. Preliminary study: Moisture-polymer interaction. Stuby objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The problems associated with mathematically modeling water-module interaction phenomena, including sorption and desorption, diffusion, and permeation are discussed. With reliable analytical models, an extensive materials data base, and solar radiation surface meteorological observations (SOLMET) weather data, predicting module lifetimes in realistic environments can become a practical reality. The status of the present techniques of simulating the various transport mechanisms was reported. The Dent model (a modified Brunauer-Emmet-Teller) approach represented polyvinyl butyral (PVB) sorption data. A 100-layer material model and Fick's diffusion model gave diffusivity values exhibiting adequate agreement with those measured for PVB. Diffusivity of PVB is concentration dependent, decreasing as the water content in PVB increases. The temperature dependence of diffusion in PVB is well modeled by the Arrhenius rate equation. Equilibrium conductivity and leakage current data are well represented by Hearle's model for bulk ionic conductivity. A nodal network analysis using the Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer (SINDA) Thermal Analyzer gave reasonable correlation with measurable data. It is concluded that realistic lifetime predictions seem to be feasible.

  12. Water permeation and electrical properties of pottants, backings, and pottant/backing composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1986-01-01

    It is reported that the interface between plastic film back covers and ethylene vinyl acetates (EVA) or polyvinyl butyral (PVB) in photovoltaic modules can influence water permeation, and electrial properties of the composites such as leakage current and dielectric constant. The interface can either be one of two dissimilar materials in physical contact with no intermixing, or the interface can constitute a thin zone which is an interphase of the two materials having a gradient composition from one material to the other. The former condition is described as a discrete interface. A discrete interface model was developed to predict water permeation, dielectric strength, and leakage current for EVA, ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA), and PVB coupled to Tedlar and mylar films. Experimental data was compared with predicted data.

  13. The aging correlation (RH + t): Relative humidity (%) + temperature (deg C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    An aging correlation between corrosion lifetime, and relative humidity RH (%) and temperature t (C) has been reported in the literature. This aging correlation is a semi-log plot of corrosion lifetime on the log scale versus the interesting summation term RH(%) + t(C) on the linear scale. This empirical correlation was derived from observation of experimental data trends and has been referred to as an experimental law. Using electrical resistivity data of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) measured as a function of relative humidity and temperature, it was found that the electrical resistivity could be expressed as a function of the term RH(%) t(C). Thus, if corrosion is related to leakage current through an organic insulator, which, in turn, is a function of RH and t, then some partial theoretical validity for the correlation is indicated. This article describes the derivation of the term RH(%) t(C) from PVB electrical resistivity data.

  14. A new label dosimetry system based on pentacosa-diynoic acid monomer for low dose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Abdel-Rehim, F.; Soliman, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of γ-radiation sensitive labels based on polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and a conjugated diacetylene monomer, 10,12-pentacosa-diynoic acid (PCDA) have been investigated using reflectance colorimeter. Two types of labels (colourless and yellow) based on PCDA monomer were prepared using an Automatic Film Applicator System. Upon γ-ray exposure, the colourless label turns progressively blue, while the yellow colour label turns to green then to dark blue. The colour intensity of the labels is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose. The useful dose range was 15 Gy-2 kGy depending on PCDA monomer concentration. The expanded uncertainty of dose measurement of the colourless label was 6.06 (2 σ).

  15. Determination of PVB interlayer’s shear modulus and its effect on normal stress distribution in laminated glass panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hána, T.; Eliášová, M.; Machalická, K.; Vokáč, M.

    2017-10-01

    Noticing the current architecture, there are many examples of glass bearing members such as beams, panes, ribs stairs or even columns. Most of these elements are made of laminated glass from panes bonded by polymer interlayer so the task of transferring shear forces between the glass panes needs to be investigated due to the lack of knowledge. This transfer depends on stiffness of polymer material, which is affected by temperature and load duration. It is essential to catch the safe side with limit cases when designing these members if the exact material behaviour is not specified. There are lots of interlayers for structural laminated glass applications available on a market. Most of them exhibit different properties, which need to be experimentally verified. This paper is focused on tangent shear modulus of PVB (polyvinyl-buthyral) interlayer and its effect on the stress distribution in glass panes when loaded. This distribution may be determined experimentally or numerically, respectively. This enables to design structural laminated glass members more effectively regarding price and safety. Furthermore, this is the way, how to extend the use of laminated glass in architectural design.

  16. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production with high butyrate/acetate ratio.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Fu, Hongxin; Wang, Jufang

    2018-05-01

    Butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium couples with the synthesis of acetic acid. But the presence of acetic acid reduces butyric acid yield and increases separation and purification costs of butyric acid. Hence, enhancing the butyrate/acetate ratio is important for economical butyric acid production. This study indicated that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux by overexpression of both the butyryl-CoA/acetate CoA transferase (cat1) and crotonase (crt) genes in C. tyrobutyricum could significantly reduce acetic acid concentration. Fed-batch fermentation of ATCC 25755/cat1 + crt resulted in increased butyrate/acetate ratio of 15.76 g/g, which was 2.24-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, in order to simultaneously increase the butyrate/acetate ratio, butyric acid concentration and productivity, the recombinant strain ATCC 25755/ppcc (co-expression of 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA) gene, pyruvate kinase (pykA) gene, cat1, and crt) was constructed. Consequently, ATCC 25755/ppcc produced more butyric acid (46.8 vs. 35.0 g/L) with a higher productivity (0.83 vs. 0.49 g/L·h) and butyrate/acetate ratio (13.22 vs. 7.22 g/g) as compared with the wild-type strain in batch fermentation using high glucose concentration (120 g/L). This study demonstrates that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux is an effective way to reduce acetic acid production and increase butyrate/acetate ratio.

  17. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for butyric acid production with high butyric acid selectivity.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Im, Jung Ae; Choi, So Young; Lee, Jung Im; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-05-01

    A typical characteristic of the butyric acid-producing Clostridium is coproduction of both butyric and acetic acids. Increasing the butyric acid selectivity important for economical butyric acid production has been rather difficult in clostridia due to their complex metabolic pathways. In this work, Clostridium acetobutylicum was metabolically engineered for highly selective butyric acid production. For this purpose, the second butyrate kinase of C. acetobutylicum encoded by the bukII gene instead of butyrate kinase I encoded by the buk gene was employed. Furthermore, metabolic pathways were engineered to further enhance the NADH-driving force. Batch fermentation of the metabolically engineered C. acetobutylicum strain HCBEKW (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-) and adhE1(-)) at pH 6.0 resulted in the production of 32.5g/L of butyric acid with a butyric-to-acetic acid ratio (BA/AA ratio) of 31.3g/g from 83.3g/L of glucose. By further knocking out the hydA gene (encoding hydrogenase) in the HCBEKW strain, the butyric acid titer was not further improved in batch fermentation. However, the BA/AA ratio (28.5g/g) obtained with the HYCBEKW strain (pta(-), buk(-), ctfB(-), adhE1(-) and hydA(-)) was 1.6 times higher than that (18.2g/g) obtained with the HCBEKW strain at pH 5.0, while no improvement was observed at pH 6.0. These results suggested that the buk gene knockout was essential to get a high butyric acid selectivity to acetic acid in C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grademore » uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.« less

  19. Butyric acid in functional constipation.

    PubMed

    Pituch, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid, is a major energy source for colonocytes. It occurs in small quantities in some foods, and in the human body, it is produced in the large intestine by intestinalkacteria. This production can be reduced in some cases, for which butyric acid supplementation may be useful. So far, the use of butyric acid in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders has been limited because of its specific characteristics such as its rancid smell and rapid absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the Polish market, sodium butyrate has been recently made available, produced by the modern technology of microencapsulation, which allows the active substance to reach the small and large intestines, where butyrate easily dissociates into butyric acid. This article presents the potential beneficial mechanisms of action of butyric acid in defecation disorders, which are primarily associated with reductions in pain during defecation and inflammation in the gut, among others.

  20. Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface using hierarchical polyaniline spheres.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaofei; Wang, Jixiao; Zhao, Yanchai; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2011-06-01

    Wettability and water-adhesion behavior are the most important properties of solid surfaces from both fundamental and practical aspects. Here, the biomimetic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via a simple coating process using polyaniline (PANI) microspheres which is covered with PANI nanowires as functional component, and poly-vinyl butyral (PVB, poly-vinyl alcohol crosslinked with n-butylaldehyde) as PANI microsphere adhering improvement agent to the substrate. The obtained surface displays superhydrophobic behavior without any modification with low-surface-energy materials such as thiol- or fluoroalkylsilane. The effects of coating process and the content of PANI microspheres on superhydropbobic behavior were discussed. Combine contact angle, water-adhesion measurements, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) observations with selected areas energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS), the hydrophobic mechanism was proposed. The superhydrophobicity is attributed to a hierarchical morphology of PANI microspheres and the nature of the material itself. In addition, induced by van der Waals forces, the created superhydrophobic surface here shows the strong water-adhesion behavior. The surface has the combination performance of Lotus leaf and gecko's pad. The special wettability would be of great significance to the liquid microtransport in microfluid devices. The experimental results show that the ordinary coating process is a facile approach for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  1. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    PubMed

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  2. Thermophilic anaerobic degradation of butyrate by a butyrate-utilizing bacterium in coculture and triculture with methanogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    We studied syntrophic butyrate degradation in thermophilic mixed cultures containing a butyrate-degrading bacterium isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or in triculture with M. thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacterium. Butyrate was beta-oxidized to acetate with protons as the electron acceptors. Acetate was used concurrently with its production in the triculture. We found a higher butyrate degradation rate in the triculture, in which both hydrogen and acetate were utilized, than in the coculture, in which acetate accumulated. Yeast extract, rumen fluid, and clarified digestor fluid stimulated butyrate degradation, while the effect of Trypticase was less pronounced. Penicillin G, d-cycloserine, and vancomycin caused complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the cultures. No growth or degradation of butyrate occurred when 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid or chloroform, specific inhibitors of methanogenic bacteria, was added to the cultures and common electron acceptors such as sulfate, nitrate, and fumarate were not used with butyrate as the electron donor. Addition of hydrogen or oxygen to the gas phase immediately stopped growth and butyrate degradation by the cultures. Butyrate was, however, metabolized at approximately the same rate when hydrogen was removed from the cultures and was metabolized at a reduced rate in the cultures previously exposed to hydrogen.

  3. 75 FR 55552 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ...-grade low-ash PVA are not included in the scope of this investigation. PVB-grade low-ash PVA is defined... amended the scope of the petition and the definition of the domestic like product to exclude ``PVB-grade... that fall within or that are functionally equivalent to and commercially competitive with products that...

  4. Paper-polymer composite devices with minimal fluorescence background.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Chong-You; Liao, Wei-Ssu

    2017-04-22

    Polymer film incorporated paper-based devices show advantages in simplicity and rugged backing. However, their applications are restricted by the high fluorescence background interference of conventional laminating pouches. Herein, we report a straightforward approach for minimal fluorescence background device fabrication, in which filter paper was shaped and laminated in between two biaxially oriented polypropylene (OPP) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB) composite films. This composite film provides mechanical strength for enhanced device durability, protection from environmental contamination, and prevents reagent degradation. This approach was tested by the determination of copper ions with a fluorescent probe, while the detection of glucose was used to illustrate the improved device durability. Our results show that lamination by the polymer composite lengthens device lifetime, while allowing for fluorescence detection methods combination with greatly reduced fluorescent background widely present in commercially available lamination pouches. By the combination of rapid device prototyping with low cost materials, we believe that this composite design would further expand the potential of paper-based devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance improvement of pentacosa-diynoic acid label dosimeter for radiation processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, A. A.; Soliman, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    A radiation sensitive material, 10,12-pentacosa-diynoic acid (PCDA), was incorporated into polyvinyl butyral (PVB) films to develop indicators/dosimeters for blood and food irradiation. The present study aims to improve the dosimetric performance of these previously prepared dosimeters and to extend their shelf life by the combination of a radical scavenger, propyl gallate (PG), and a UV absorber, tinuvin-p (TP). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the dosimeters were analysed and their dosimetric characteristics were investigated by specular reflectance in the visible spectrum range of 400-700 nm. Upon irradiation, the films turn blue exhibiting two main bands around 670 and 620 nm. Their dose-response functions were fitted by a double exponential growth, 5 parameters, equation. Irradiation temperature influences the dosimeter response at 670 nm without causing thermochromic transition up to 50 °C in poly-PCDA. The useful dose range is 5-4000 Gy depending on the wavelengths of analysis and PCDA content in the films. The overall uncertainty of dose measurement is less than 6% at 2σ.

  6. Butyric acid in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Załęski, Andrzej; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid (butanoic acid) belongs to a group of short-chain fatty acids and is thought to play several beneficial roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Butyric anion is easily absorbed by enteric cells and used as a main source of energy. Moreover, butyric acid is an important regulator of colonocyte proliferation and apoptosis, gastrointestinal tract motility and bacterial microflora composition in addition to its involvement in many other processes including immunoregulation and anti-inflammatory activity. The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal condition, is complex, and its precise mechanisms are still unclear. This article describes the potential benefits of butyric acid in IBS.

  7. Butyric acid - a well-known molecule revisited.

    PubMed

    Borycka-Kiciak, Katarzyna; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    The properties of butyric acid, and the role it plays in the gastrointestinal tract, have been known for many years. However, the newest research shows that butyric acid still remains a molecule with a potential that has not as yet been fully exploited. The article provides an outline of relevant up-to-date knowledge about butyric acid, and presents the expert position on the clinical benefits of using butyric acid products in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases.

  8. Sonolytic degradation of butyric acid in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dükkancı, Meral; Gündüz, Gönül

    2013-11-15

    The sonolytic degradation of butyric acid was investigated in an ultrasonic reactor emitting waves at 850 kHz. The effects of the ultrasonic power, the initial concentration of butyric acid, and the addition of H2O2 were studied on the degradation of butyric acid. In the sonication of butyric acid, degradation degrees as high as 31.5% could be achieved at a power of 31 W, at an initial concentration of 2.8 mM butyric acid with the addition of 0.34 M H2O2 for a sonication time of 5 h. The degradation of butyric acid increased with irradiation time, indicating first order kinetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Butyrate-Induced Transcriptional Changes in Human Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutvin, Steven A. L. W.; Troost, Freddy J.; Hamer, Henrike M.; Lindsey, Patrick J.; Koek, Ger H.; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Kodde, Andrea; Venema, Koen; Brummer, Robert J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon results in the production of short chain fatty acids (mainly propionate, butyrate and acetate). Butyrate modulates a wide range of processes, but its mechanism of action is mostly unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of butyrate on the transcriptional regulation of human colonic mucosa in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Five hundred genes were found to be differentially expressed after a two week daily butyrate administration with enemas. Pathway analysis showed that the butyrate intervention mainly resulted in an increased transcriptional regulation of the pathways representing fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain and oxidative stress. In addition, several genes associated with epithelial integrity and apoptosis, were found to be differentially expressed after the butyrate intervention. Conclusions/Significance Colonic administration of butyrate in concentrations that can be achieved by consumption of a high-fiber diet enhances the maintenance of colonic homeostasis in healthy subjects, by regulating fatty acid metabolism, electron transport and oxidative stress pathways on the transcriptional level and provide for the first time, detailed molecular insight in the transcriptional response of gut mucosa to butyrate. PMID:19707587

  10. Biosynthesis of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Tang, Wan; Zhu, Shengquan; Du, Meini

    2018-05-28

    Butyric acid (C 3 H 7 COOH) is an important chemical that is widely used in foodstuffs along with in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The bioproduction of butyric acid through large-scale fermentation has the potential to be more economical and efficient than petrochemical synthesis. In this paper, the metabolic pathways involved in the production of butyric acid from Clostridium tyrobutyricum using hexose and pentose as substrates are investigated, and approaches to enhance butyric acid production through genetic modification are discussed. Finally, bioreactor modifications (including fibrous bed bioreactor, inner disk-shaped matrix bioreactor, fibrous matrix packed in porous levitated sphere carriers), low-cost feedstocks, and special treatments (including continuous fermentation with cell recycling, extractive fermentation with solvent, using different artificial electron carriers) intended to improve the feasibility of commercial butyric acid bioproduction are summarized.

  11. New Materials and Construction for Improved Helmets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    Kevlar fabric armor have been examined Iy .\\N1N’i and ot~wrlaboatores. he consensus has selected thle same phenol ic/polyvvinyl butyral I es inl USed...Helmet kevlar fabric laminates u,,ing phenolic /polyvinyl butyral resin withstand thermol stressing ’ad have low water absorption (2.5 percent in 24 hours...basis of laboratory te!sts for fragment protection capabilities and for durability. The mate- rials considered were (1) phenolic /polyvinyl butyral

  12. Butyric acid – a well-known molecule revisited

    PubMed Central

    Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Rydzewska, Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    The properties of butyric acid, and the role it plays in the gastrointestinal tract, have been known for many years. However, the newest research shows that butyric acid still remains a molecule with a potential that has not as yet been fully exploited. The article provides an outline of relevant up-to-date knowledge about butyric acid, and presents the expert position on the clinical benefits of using butyric acid products in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:28702095

  13. Alternative splicing regulated by butyrate in bovine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sitao; Li, Congjun; Huang, Wen; Li, Weizhong; Li, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    As a signaling molecule and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), butyrate exerts its impact on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. This study examined the effect of butyrate on alternative splicing in bovine epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology. Junction reads account for 11.28 and 12.32% of total mapped reads between the butyrate-treated (BT) and control (CT) groups. 201,326 potential splicing junctions detected were supported by ≥ 3 junction reads. Approximately 94% of these junctions conformed to the consensus sequence (GT/AG) while ~3% were GC/AG junctions. No AT/AC junctions were observed. A total of 2,834 exon skipping events, supported by a minimum of 3 junction reads, were detected. At least 7 genes, their mRNA expression significantly affected by butyrate, also had exon skipping events differentially regulated by butyrate. Furthermore, COL5A3, which was induced 310-fold by butyrate (FDR <0.001) at the gene level, had a significantly higher number of junction reads mapped to Exon#8 (Donor) and Exon#11 (Acceptor) in BT. This event had the potential to result in the formation of a COL5A3 mRNA isoform with 2 of the 69 exons missing. In addition, 216 differentially expressed transcript isoforms regulated by butyrate were detected. For example, Isoform 1 of ORC1 was strongly repressed by butyrate while Isoform 2 remained unchanged. Butyrate physically binds to and inhibits all zinc-dependent HDACs except HDAC6 and HDAC10. Our results provided evidence that butyrate also regulated deacetylase activities of classical HDACs via its transcriptional control. Moreover, thirteen gene fusion events differentially affected by butyrate were identified. Our results provided a snapshot into complex transcriptome dynamics regulated by butyrate, which will facilitate our understanding of the biological effects of butyrate and other HDAC inhibitors.

  14. Searching for Synbiotics to increase Colonic Butyrate Concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate is produced by microbial fermentation of plant fiber in the gut and a preferred substrate for gut epithelial cells. In ruminants, butyrate contributes to 70% of energy metabolism. In monogastric species, butyrate also plays an important role in energy metabolism in the hindgut. Moreover, bu...

  15. Short chain fatty acids (butyric acid) and intestinal diseases

    PubMed

    Manrique Vergara, David; González Sánchez, María Eugenia

    2017-10-15

    Short chain fatty acids contain up to 6 carbon atoms. Among them, butyric acid stands out for its key role in pathologies with intestinal affectation. Butyric acid is the main energetic substrate of the colonocyte, it stimulates the absorption of sodium and water in the colon, and presents trophic action on the intestinal cells. To review the clinical use of formulations for the oral use of butyric acid. Review of published articles on oral supplementation with butyric acid in intestinal pathologies. The publications mainly deal with the use of oral butyric acid in pathologies involving inflammation and / or alterations of intestinal motility. Highlighting the clinical potential in inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. The use of oral supplementation with butyric acid is a promising strategy in pathologies such as inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Bio-available butyric acid formulations with acceptable organoleptic characteristics are being advanced.

  16. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Holtrop, Grietje; Lobley, Gerald E; Calder, A Graham; Stewart, Colin S; Flint, Harry J

    2004-06-01

    Acetate is normally regarded as an endproduct of anaerobic fermentation, but butyrate-producing bacteria found in the human colon can be net utilisers of acetate. The butyrate formed provides a fuel for epithelial cells of the large intestine and influences colonic health. [1-(13)C]Acetate was used to investigate the contribution of exogenous acetate to butyrate formation. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. grown in the presence of 60 mm-acetate and 10 mm-glucose derived 85-90 % butyrate-C from external acetate. This was due to rapid interchange between extracellular acetate and intracellular acetyl-CoA, plus net acetate uptake. In contrast, a Coprococcus-related strain that is a net acetate producer derived only 28 % butyrate-C from external acetate. Different carbohydrate-derived energy sources affected butyrate formation by mixed human faecal bacteria growing in continuous or batch cultures. The ranking order of butyrate production rates was amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > inulin > pectin (continuous cultures), and inulin > amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > pectin (batch cultures). The contribution of external acetate to butyrate formation in these experiments ranged from 56 (pectin) to 90 % (xylan) in continuous cultures, and from 72 to 91 % in the batch cultures. This is consistent with a major role for bacteria related to F. prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. in butyrate formation from a range of substrates that are fermented in the large intestine. Variations in the dominant metabolic type of butyrate producer between individuals or with variations in diet are not ruled out, however, and could influence butyrate supply in the large intestine.

  18. Colonic epithelial cell activation and the paradoxical effects of butyrate.

    PubMed

    Gibson, P R; Rosella, O; Wilson, A J; Mariadason, J M; Rickard, K; Byron, K; Barkla, D H

    1999-04-01

    Butyrate may have paradoxical effects on epithelial cells of similar origin. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that one mechanism that dictates a cell's response to butyrate is its state of activation. First, the responses to 24 h exposure to butyrate (1-2 mM) of normal and neoplastic human colonic epithelial cells activated by their isolation and primary culture, and of colon cancer cell lines, LIM1215 and Caco-2, were examined. In primary cultures of normal and cancer cells, butyrate had no effect on alkaline phosphatase activities but significantly suppressed urokinase receptor expression by a mean +/- SEM of 30 +/- 12% and 36 +/- 9%, respectively. Interleukin-8 secretion was suppressed by 44 +/- 7% in normal cells (P < 0.05) but was unchanged in cancer cells. In contrast, the cell lines significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activities by >50%, urokinase receptor expression >2-fold and interleukin-8 secretion >3-fold in response to butyrate. Secondly, the effect of butyrate on Caco-2 cells was examined with or without prior exposure to a specific activating stimulus [tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha)]. Interleukin-8 secretion increased by 145 +/- 23% and 132 +/- 17% on 24 h exposure to 2 mM butyrate or 0.1 microM TNF alpha alone, respectively. However, in cells pre-treated with TNF alpha, butyrate significantly inhibited secretion by 34 +/- 7% below unstimulated levels. The response to butyrate of urokinase receptor, whose expression was not stimulated by TNF alpha, was unchanged. These effects were mimicked by trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suggesting that butyrate's paradoxical effects may have been operating by the same mechanism. In conclusion, some of the paradoxical effects of butyrate do not appear to represent inherent differences between normal and transformed cells. Rather, the response may be determined by the state of activation of the cells.

  19. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride... the purpose of this section, poly(vinyl fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the...

  20. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride... the purpose of this section, poly(vinyl fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the...

  1. The Future of Butyric Acid in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Park, Jae-Yeon; Mitchell, Robert J.; Sang, Byoung-In

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry. As such, this paper discusses different issues regarding butyric acid fermentations and provides suggestions for future improvements and their approaches. PMID:22593687

  2. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  3. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. PMID:26994015

  4. Potential beneficial effects of butyrate in intestinal and extraintestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Pedata, Monica; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine. PMID:21472114

  5. Effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, selected gene expression in the duodenum epithelium, and nutrient digestion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Śliwiński, B; Flaga, J; Wieczorek, J; Godlewski, M M; Wierzchoś, E; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of butyrate infusion into the rumen on butyrate flow to the duodenum, expression of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporters (monocarboxylate transporter-1, -2, and -4) and receptors (G protein coupled receptor-41 and -43) in the duodenal epithelium and nutrient digestion in sheep. Eight wethers (39.0 ± 3.00 kg; mean ± SD) with ruminal and T-shape duodenal cannulas were allocated to 4 × 4 replicated Latin square design with each experimental period lasting for 21 d (12 d of adaptation and 9 d for data and sample collection). Experimental treatments were: 1) distilled water infusion into the rumen (CONT); 2) 15 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT15); 3) 30 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT30); and 4) 45 g/d of butyric acid infusion into the rumen (BUT45). The daily dose of butyrate was infused into the rumen via the rumen cannula, with 200 mL of solution of butyric acid and distilled water, at a constant rate (0.1389 mL/min) throughout the day using a peristaltic pump. Correspondingly, 200 mL/d of distilled water was infused into the rumen of CONT. The wethers were fed daily 900 g of chopped meadow hay and 200 g of concentrate in two equal meals at 0600 and 1800 h. Butyrate infusion into the rumen did not affect total SCFA concentration in the rumen fluid ( > 0.11). Molar proportion of butyrate in total SCFA linearly increased, and molar proportion of acetate and isovalerate linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.02) with an increasing amount of butyrate infused into the rumen. The molar proportion of butyrate in total SCFA in the duodenal digesta linearly increased ( < 0.01), and butyrate flow to duodenum tended to linearly increase ( = 0.06) with an increasing dose of exogenous butyrate delivered to the rumen. Butyrate infusion into the rumen did not affect ( ≥ 0.14) the mRNA expression of monocarboxylate transporter-2 and -4 and G protein coupled receptor-43 in the duodenal epithelium. The G

  6. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-04-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. © FEMS 2016.

  7. Butyric acid induces apoptosis via oxidative stress in Jurkat T-cells.

    PubMed

    Kurita-Ochiai, T; Ochiai, K

    2010-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are essential for the induction of T-cell apoptosis by butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria. To determine the involvement of oxidative stress in apoptosis pathways, we investigated the contribution of ROS in mitochondrial signaling pathways, death-receptor-initiated signaling pathway, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in butyric-acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. N-acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) abrogated mitochondrial injury, cytochrome c, AIF, and Smac release, and Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL suppression and Bax and Bad activation induced by butyric acid. However, the decrease in cFLIP expression by butyric acid was not restored by treatment with NAC; increases in caspase-4 and -10 activities by butyric acid were completely abrogated by NAC. NAC also affected the elevation of GRP78 and CHOP/GADD153 expression by butyric acid. These results suggest that butyric acid is involved in mitochondrial-dysfunction- and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in human Jurkat T-cells via a ROS-dependent mechanism.

  8. Influence of binding material of PZT coating on microresonator's electrical and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Guobiene, Asta; Palevicius, Arvydas; Brunius, Alfredas; Cekas, Elingas; Baltrusaitis, Valentinas; Sakalys, Rokas

    2017-06-01

    Microresonators are fundamental components integrated in hosts of MEMS applications: covering the automotive sector, the telecommunication industry, electronic equipment for surface/material characterization and motion sensing, and etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of PZT film fabricated with three binding materials: polyvinyl butyral (PVB), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) and to evaluate applicability in control of microresonators Q factor. Micro particles of PZT powder were mixed with 20% solution of PVB, PMMA and PS in benzyl alcohol. For investigation of mechanical and electrical properties multilayer cantilevers were made. Obtained PZT and polymer paste was screen printed on copper (thickness 40 μm) using polyester monofilament screen meshes (layer thickness 50 μm) and dried for 30 min at 100°C. Electric dipoles of the PZT particles in composite material were aligned using high voltage generator (5 kV) and a custom-made holder. Electric field was held for 30 min. Surfaces of the applied films were investigated by Atomic Force Microscope NanoWizard(R)3 NanoScience. Dynamic and electrical characteristics of the multilayer were investigated using laser triangular displacement sensor LK-G3000. The measured vibration amplitude and generated electrical potential was collected with USB oscilloscope PicoScope 3424. As the results showed, these cantilevers were able to transform mechanical strain energy into electric potential and, v.v. However, roughness of PZT coatings with PMMA and PS were higher, what could be the reason of the worse quality of the top electrode. However, the main advantage of the created composite piezoelectric material is the possibility to apply it on any uniform or non-uniform vibrating surface and to transform low frequency vibrations into electricity.

  9. Phylogenetic Relationships of Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Barcenilla, Adela; Pryde, Susan E.; Martin, Jennifer C.; Duncan, Sylvia H.; Stewart, Colin S.; Henderson, Colin; Flint, Harry J.

    2000-01-01

    Butyrate is a preferred energy source for colonic epithelial cells and is thought to play an important role in maintaining colonic health in humans. In order to investigate the diversity and stability of butyrate-producing organisms of the colonic flora, anaerobic butyrate-producing bacteria were isolated from freshly voided human fecal samples from three healthy individuals: an infant, an adult omnivore, and an adult vegetarian. A second isolation was performed on the same three individuals 1 year later. Of a total of 313 bacterial isolates, 74 produced more than 2 mM butyrate in vitro. Butyrate-producing isolates were grouped by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results indicate very little overlap between the predominant ribotypes of the three subjects; furthermore, the flora of each individual changed significantly between the two isolations. Complete sequences of 16S rDNAs were determined for 24 representative strains and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Eighty percent of the butyrate-producing isolates fell within the XIVa cluster of gram-positive bacteria as defined by M. D. Collins et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 44:812–826, 1994) and A. Willems et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46:195–199, 1996), with the most abundant group (10 of 24 or 42%) clustering with Eubacterium rectale, Eubacterium ramulus, and Roseburia cecicola. Fifty percent of the butyrate-producing isolates were net acetate consumers during growth, suggesting that they employ the butyryl coenzyme A-acetyl coenzyme A transferase pathway for butyrate production. In contrast, only 1% of the 239 non-butyrate-producing isolates consumed acetate. PMID:10742256

  10. 21 CFR 177.1670 - Polyvinyl alcohol film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinyl alcohol film. 177.1670 Section 177.1670... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1670 Polyvinyl alcohol film. Polyvinyl alcohol film may be safely used in contact with food of the types identified in § 176.170(c) of this...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1670 - Polyvinyl alcohol film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinyl alcohol film. 177.1670 Section 177.1670... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1670 Polyvinyl alcohol film. Polyvinyl alcohol film may be safely used in contact with food of the types identified in § 176.170(c) of this...

  12. Butyrate-producing bacteria, including mucin degraders, from the swine intestinal tract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate-producing microbes promote gastrointestinal health in the human gut, and similar benefits are likely derived from butyrate-producing microbes in other animal hosts. Consequently, there is considerable potential for butyrate-producing microbes to be utilized in health-promoting application...

  13. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  14. The histone deacetylase inhibitor butyrate inhibits melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Akiko; Iwashita, Jun; Murata, Jun; Abe, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have anticancer effects. Their effects on expression of cell adhesion molecules might be related to their effects on tumor cell invasion. Murine B16-BL6 cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitors, butyrate or trichostatin A. Melanoma cell invasion of the artificial basement membrane, Matrigel, was examined by Transwell chamber assay. Butyrate as well as trichostatin A inhibited the cell growth mainly by arresting the cell cycle. The cell invasion of Matrigel was inhibited by butyrate and trichostatin A. The butyrate treatment increased the cell-cell aggregation, although neither E-cadherin nor N-cadherin mRNA were up-regulated. Both mRNA expression and protein levels of the immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules, Mel-CAM and L1-CAM, were increased in the butyrate-treated cells. The HDAC inhibitor butyrate blocked the B16-BL6 melanoma cell invasion of Matrigel, although it increased the expression of Mel-CAM and L1-CAM which are important to the metastatic potential.

  15. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    PubMed Central

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB. PMID:16252341

  16. Re-discovering periodontal butyric acid: New insights on an old metabolite.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2016-05-01

    The oral microbiome is composed of detrimental and beneficial microbial communities producing several microbial factors that could contribute to the development of the oral microbiome and, likewise, may lead to the development of host diseases. Metabolites, like short-chain fatty acids, are commonly produced by the oral microbiome and serve various functions. Among the periodontal short-chain fatty acids, butyric acid is mainly produced by periodontopathic bacteria and, attributable to the butyrate paradox, is postulated to exhibit a dual function depending on butyric acid concentration. A better understanding of the interconnecting networks that would influence butyric acid function in the oral cavity may shed a new light on the current existing knowledge and view regarding butyric acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of waste automotive glasses as silica resource in ferrosilicon synthesis.

    PubMed

    Farzana, Rifat; Rajarao, Ravindra; Sahajwalla, Veena

    2016-02-01

    This fundamental research on end-of-life automotive glasses, which are difficult to recycle, is aimed at understanding the chemical and physical characteristics of waste glasses as a resource of silica to produce ferrosilicon. Laboratory experiments at 1550°C were carried out using different automotive glasses and the results compared with those obtained with pure silica. In situ images of slag-metal separation showed similar behaviour for waste glasses and silica-bearing pellets. Though X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed different slag compositions for glass and silica-bearing pellets, formation of ferrosilicon was confirmed. Synthesized ferrosilicon alloy from waste glasses and silica were compared by Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Silicon concentration in the synthesized alloys showed almost 92% silicon recovery from the silica-bearing pellet and 74-92% silicon recoveries from various waste glass pellets. The polyvinyl butyral (PVB) plastic layer in the windshield glass decomposed at low temperature and did not show any detrimental effect on ferrosilicon synthesis. This innovative approach of using waste automotive glasses as a silica source for ferrosilicon production has the potential to create sustainable pathways, which will reduce specialty glass waste in landfill. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Response of a Zn₂TiO₄ Gas Sensor to Propanol at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Gaidan, Ibrahim; Brabazon, Dermot; Ahad, Inam Ul

    2017-08-31

    In this study, three different compositions of ZnO and TiO₂ powders were cold compressed and then heated at 1250 °C for five hours. The samples were ground to powder form. The powders were mixed with 5 wt % of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as binder and 1.5 wt % carbon black and ethylene-glyco-lmono-butyl-ether as a solvent to form screen-printed pastes. The prepared pastes were screen printed on the top of alumina substrates containing arrays of three copper electrodes. The three fabricated sensors were tested to detect propanol at room temperature at two different concentration ranges. The first concentration range was from 500 to 3000 ppm while the second concentration range was from 2500 to 5000 ppm, with testing taking place in steps of 500 ppm. The response of the sensors was found to increase monotonically in response to the increment in the propanol concentration. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the prepared samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The sensors displayed good sensitivity to propanol vapors at room temperature. Operation under room-temperature conditions make these sensors novel, as other metal oxide sensors operate only at high temperature.

  19. Butyric acid: what is the future for this old substance?

    PubMed

    Sossai, Paolo

    2012-06-06

    In this brief review, we present some data from the literature on butyric acid and some of its more interesting potential uses, especially in the field of gastroenterology. Due to its principal characteristics, butyric acid is primarily used for pathologies of the colon (functional, inflammatory). Although only preliminary data are available, butyric acid may also have interesting extraintestinal applications, such as in the treatment of haematological, metabolic, and neurological pathologies.

  20. Destructive effects of butyrate on the cell envelope of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Zaman, Cynthia; Woo, Timothy Derk Hoong; Takahashi, Motomichi; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can be found in the oral cavity and is mostly detected by the use of PCR techniques. Growth of H. pylori is influenced by various factors in the mouth, such as the oral microflora, saliva and other antimicrobial substances, all of which make colonization of the oral cavity by H. pylori difficult. In the present study, we analysed the effect of the cell supernatant of a representative periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis on H. pylori and found that the cell supernatant destroyed the H. pylori cell envelope. As P. gingivalis produces butyric acid, we focused our research on the effects of butyrate and found that it significantly inhibited the growth of H. pylori. H. pylori cytoplasmic proteins and DNA were detected in the extracellular environment after treatment with butyrate, suggesting that the integrity of the cell envelope was compromised and indicating that butyrate has a bactericidal effect on H. pylori. In addition, levels of extracellular H. pylori DNA increased following treatment with the cell supernatant of butyric acid-producing bacteria, indicating that the cell supernatant also has a bactericidal effect and that this may be due to its butyric acid content. In conclusion, butyric acid-producing bacteria may play a role in affecting H. pylori colonization of the oral cavity.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for enhanced production of butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Woo, Hee Moon; Im, Jung Ae; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-11-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered as an attractive platform host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C. acetobutylicum CEKW, in which genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and CoA-transferase were knocked out, was assessed for its potential as a butyric acid producer in fermentations with four controlled pH values at 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.4. Butyric acid could be best produced by fermentation of the CEKW at pH 6.0, resulting in the highest titer of 26.6 g/l, which is 6.4 times higher than that obtained with the wild type. However, due to the remaining solventogenic ability of the CEKW, 3.6 g/l solvents were also produced. Thus, the CEKW was further engineered by knocking out the adhE1-encoding aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent solvent production. Batch fermentation of the resulting C. acetobutylicum HCEKW at pH 6.0 showed increased butyric acid production to 30.8 g/l with a ratio of butyric-to-acetic acid (BA/AA) of 6.6 g/g and a productivity of 0.72 g/l/h from 86.9 g/l glucose, while negligible solvent (0.8 g/l ethanol only) was produced. The butyric acid titer, BA/AA ratio, and productivity obtained in this study were the highest values reported for C. acetobutylicum, and the BA/AA ratio and productivity were also comparable to those of native butyric acid producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum. These results suggested that the simultaneous deletion of the pta-ctfB-adhE1 in C. acetobutylicum resulted in metabolic switch from biphasic to acidogenic fermentation, which enhanced butyric acid production.

  2. Solvent Stability Study with Thermodynamic Analysis and Superior Biocatalytic Activity of Burkholderia cepacia Lipase Immobilized on Biocompatible Hybrid Matrix of Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Hypromellose.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Kirtikumar C; Bhanage, Bhalchandra M

    2014-12-26

    In the present study, we have synthesized a biocompatible hybrid carrier of hypromellose (HY) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for immobilization of Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL). The immobilized biocatalyst HY:PVA:BCL was subjected to determination of half-life time (τ) and deactivation rate constant (K(D)) in various organic solvents. Biocatalyst showed higher τ-value in a nonpolar solvent like cyclohexane (822 h) as compared to that of a polar solvent such as acetone (347 h), which signifies better compatibility of biocatalyst in the nonpolar solvents. Furthermore, the K(D)-value was found to be less in cyclohexane (0.843 × 10(-3)) as compared to acetone (1.997 × 10(-3)), indicating better stability in the nonpolar solvents. Immobilized-BCL (35 mg) was sufficient to achieve 99% conversion of phenethyl butyrate (natural constituent of essential oils and has wide industrial applications) using phenethyl alcohol (2 mmol) and vinyl butyrate (6 mmol) at 44 °C in 3 h. The activation energy (E(a)) was found to be lower for immobilized-BCL than crude-BCL, indicating better catalytic efficiency of immobilized lipase BCL. The immobilized-BCL reported 6-fold superior biocatalytic activity and 8 times recyclability as compared to crude-BCL. Improved catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme in nonpolar media was also supported by thermodynamic activation parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH(⧧)), entropy (ΔS(⧧)) and Gibb's free energy (ΔG(⧧)) study, which showed that phenethyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by immobilized-BCL was feasible as compared to crude-BCL. The present work explains a thermodynamic investigation and superior biocatalytic activity for phenethyl butyrate synthesis using biocompatible immobilized HY:PVA:BCL in nonaqueous media for the first time.

  3. Process of making solar cell module

    DOEpatents

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  4. Butyrate influences intracellular levels of adenine and adenine derivatives in the fungus Penicillium restrictum.

    PubMed

    Zutz, Christoph; Chiang, Yi Ming; Faehnrich, Bettina; Bacher, Markus; Hellinger, Roland; Kluger, Bernhard; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Butyrate, a small fatty acid, has an important role in the colon of ruminants and mammalians including the inhibition of inflammation and the regulation of cell proliferation. There is also growing evidence that butyrate is influencing the histone structure in mammalian cells by inhibition of histone deacetylation. Butyrate shows furthermore an antimicrobial activity against fungi, yeast and bacteria, which is linked to its toxicity at a high concentration. In fungi there are indications that butyrate induces the production of secondary metabolites potentially via inhibition of histone deacetylases. However, information about the influence of butyrate on growth, primary metabolite production and metabolism, besides lipid catabolism, in fungi is scarce. We have identified the filamentous fungus Penicillium (P.) restrictum as a susceptible target for butyrate treatment in an antimicrobial activity screen. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in the mycelium of the butyrate treated culture. We investigated the effect of butyrate ranging from low (0.001mM) to high (30mM), potentially toxic, concentrations on biomass and antimicrobial activity. Butyrate at high concentrations (3 and 30mM) significantly reduced the fungal biomass. In contrast P. restrictum treated with 0.03mM of butyrate showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We isolated three antimicrobial active compounds, active against Staphylococcus aureus, from P. restrictum cellular extracts treated with butyrate: adenine, its derivate hypoxanthine and the nucleoside derivate adenosine. Production of all three compounds was increased at low butyrate concentrations. Furthermore we found that butyrate influences the intracellular level of the adenine nucleoside derivate cAMP, an important signalling molecule in fungi and various organisms. In conclusion butyrate treatment increases the intracellular levels of adenine and its respective derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle and specific cell synchronization with butyrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable in many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. The possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells was explored and the properties of butyrate-induced cell ...

  6. Butyrate modulating effects on pro-inflammatory pathways in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Elce, A; Amato, F; Zarrilli, F; Calignano, A; Troncone, R; Castaldo, G; Canani, R B

    2017-10-13

    Butyrate acts as energy source for intestinal epithelial cells and as key mediator of several immune processes, modulating gene expression mainly through histone deacetylation inhibition. Thanks to these effects, butyrate has been proposed for the treatment of many intestinal diseases. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyrate on the expression of a large series of target genes encoding proteins involved in pro-inflammatory pathways. We performed quantitative real-time-PCR analysis of the expression of 86 genes encoding proteins bearing to pro-inflammatory pathways, before and after butyrate exposure, in primary epithelial cells derived from human small intestine and colon. Butyrate significantly down-regulated the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response, among which nuclear factor kappa beta, interferon-gamma, Toll like 2 receptor and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Further confirmations of these data, including studies at protein level, would support the use of butyrate as effective therapeutic strategy in intestinal inflammatory disorders.

  7. Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles inhibit adhesion of human neutrophils to endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dianzani, Chiara; Cavalli, Roberta; Zara, Gian Paolo; Gallicchio, Margherita; Lombardi, Grazia; Gasco, Maria Rosa; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Fantozzi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) to vascular endothelial cells (EC) is a critical step in recruitment and infiltration of leukocytes into tissues during inflammation. High doses of butyric acid have been shown to ameliorate inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Cholesteryl-butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles (chol-but SLN) as prodrug are a possible delivery system for butyric acid. Sodium butyrate or chol-but SLN were coincubated with human PMNs and human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC); adhesion was quantified by computerized microimaging fluorescence analysis. Both chol-but SLN and sodium butyrate displayed antiadhesive effects on FMLP- and IL-1β-stimulated cells in a concentration–response curve (10−8–10−5 M), but chol-but SLN were in all cases more active. Moreover, chol-but SLN inhibited FMLP-induced adhesion of PMNs to FCS-coated plastic wells, thus showing a direct effect on PMNs, while sodium butyrate had little effect. Confocal microscopy showed that fluorescent SLN entered PMNs and HUVEC after 10 min incubation. Chol-but SLN acted either on activated PMN or HUVEC. Chol-but SLN inhibited O2−· production and myeloperoxidase release by PMNs evoked by FMLP, in a dose-dependent, but not time-dependent, manner and were more active than sodium butyrate. In conclusion, in all tests chol-but SLN were more active than sodium butyrate. Thus, chol-but SLN might be a valid alternative to sodium butyrate in the anti-inflammatory therapy of ulcerative colitis, avoiding complications related to the administration of sodium butyrate. PMID:16702992

  8. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, Christopher, E-mail: cchiaro@tcmedc.org; Lazarova, Darina L., E-mail: dlazarova@tcmedc.org; Bordonaro, Michael, E-mail: mbordonaro@tcmedc.org

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116,more » does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that

  9. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Butyric Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of butyric acid to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on this apoptosis. Butyric acid significantly inhibited the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody- and concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition of PBMC growth by butyric acid depended on apoptosis in vitro. It was characterized by internucleosomal DNA digestion and revealed by gel electrophoresis followed by a colorimetric DNA fragmentation assay to occur in a concentration-dependent fashion. Butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 protease activity but not by caspase-1 protease activity. LPS potentiated butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that LPS increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and the number of late-stage apoptotic cells induced by butyric acid. Annexin V binding experiments with fractionated subpopulations of PBMC in flow cytometory revealed that LPS accelerated the butyric acid-induced CD3+-T-cell apoptosis followed by similar levels of both CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell apoptosis. The addition of LPS to PBMC cultures did not cause DNA fragmentation, suggesting that LPS was unable to induce PBMC apoptosis directly. These data suggest that LPS, in combination with butyric acid, potentiates CD3+ PBMC T-cell apoptosis and plays a role in the apoptotic depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:9864191

  10. Involvement of Sp1 in butyric acid-induced HIV-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kenichi; Okamoto, Takashi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-01-01

    The ability of human immunodeficiency virus-1(HIV-1) to establish latent infection and its re-activation is considered critical for progression of HIV-1 infection. We previously reported that a bacterial metabolite butyric acid, acting as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), could lead to induction of HIV-1 transcription; however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of butyric acid on HIV-1 gene expression. Butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 gene expression was determined by luciferase assay and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Western blot analysis and ELISA were used for the detection of HIV-1. We found that Sp1 binding sites within the HIV-1 promoter are primarily involved in butyric acid-mediated HIV-1 activation. In fact, Sp1 knockdown by small interfering RNA and the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A abolished the effect of butyric acid. We also observed that cAMP response element-binding-binding protein (CBP) was required for butyric acid-induced HIV-1 activation. These results suggest that butyric acid stimulates HIV-1 promoter through inhibition of the Sp1-associated HDAC activity and recruitment of CBP to the HIV-1 LTR. Our findings suggest that Sp1 should be considered as one of therapeutic targets in anti-viral therapy against HIV-1 infection aggravated by butyric acid-producing bacteria. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Colonic Butyrate-Producing Communities in Humans: an Overview Using Omics Data

    PubMed Central

    Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the key role of butyrate for host health, understanding the ecology of intestinal butyrate-producing communities is a top priority for gut microbiota research. To this end, we performed a pooled analysis on 2,387 metagenomic/transcriptomic samples from 15 publicly available data sets that originated from three continents and encompassed eight diseases as well as specific interventions. For analyses, a gene catalogue was constructed from gene-targeted assemblies of all genes from butyrate synthesis pathways of all samples and from an updated reference database derived from genome screenings. We demonstrate that butyrate producers establish themselves within the first year of life and display high abundances (>20% of total bacterial community) in adults regardless of origin. Various bacteria form this functional group, exhibiting a biochemical diversity including different pathways and terminal enzymes, where one carbohydrate-fueled pathway was dominant with butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA transferase as the main terminal enzyme. Subjects displayed a high richness of butyrate producers, and 17 taxa, primarily members of the Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae along with some Bacteroidetes, were detected in >70% of individuals, encompassing ~85% of the total butyrate-producing potential. Most of these key taxa were also found to express genes for butyrate formation, indicating that butyrate producers occupy various niches in the gut ecosystem, concurrently synthesizing that compound. Furthermore, results from longitudinal analyses propose that diversity supports functional stability during ordinary life disturbances and during interventions such as antibiotic treatment. A reduction of the butyrate-producing potential along with community alterations was detected in various diseases, where patients suffering from cardiometabolic disorders were particularly affected. IMPORTANCE Studies focusing on taxonomic compositions of the gut microbiota are

  12. In vitro intestinal bioaccessibility of alkylglycerols versus triacylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Martín, Diana; Morán-Valero, María I; Señoráns, Francisco J; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F

    2011-03-01

    Butyric acid has been the subject of much attention last years due to its bioactivity. However, the potential advantages of butyrate are limited by the problem to reach enough plasma concentrations; therefore, pro-drugs have been proposed as an alternative to natural butyrate. A comparative study on in vitro intestinal digestion of 2,3-dibutyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (D-SCAKG) and tributyrin (TB), as potential pro-drugs of butyric acid, was performed. Aliquots were taken at different times of digestion for studying the extent and rate of hydrolysis of both substrates. The micellar phase (MP) and oily phase (OP) formed in the digestion media were separated and their composition in lipid products was analyzed. Initially, it was confirmed that the in vitro model reproduced physiological results by testing against olive oil as a standard lipid. The progress of in vitro intestinal digestion of D-SCAKG was slower than that of TB. TB hydrolyzed completely to butyric acid, whereas D-SCAKG mainly yielded 2-butyroil-1-O-octadecyl glycerol (M-SCAKG), followed by butyric acid and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol (AKG). The MP from both substrates mainly consisted of butyric acid. Minor levels of M-SCAKG and AKG were also found in the MP after hydrolysis of D-SCAKG, the M-SCAKG being mainly distributed in the OP. Therefore, D-SCAKG produced a stable form of esterified butyric acid as M-SCAKG after in vitro intestinal digestion, unlike TB. Additionally, such a product would integrate both bioactive compounds, butyric acid and alkylglycerol, within the same molecule. Free butyric acid and AKG would be also released, which are lipid products of interest as well.

  13. Polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with two aldehydes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Rieker, L. L.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A film forming polyvinyl alcohol resin is admixed, in aqueous solution, with a dialdehyde crosslinking agent which is capable of crosslinking the polyvinyl alcohol resin and a water soluble acid aldehyde containing a reactive aldehyde group capable of reacting with hydroxyl groups in the polyvinyl alcohol resin and an ionizable acid hydrogen atom. The dialdehyde is present in an amount sufficient to react with from 1 to 20% by weight of the theoretical amount required to react with all of the hydroxyl groups of the polyvinyl alcohol. The amount of acid aldehyde is from 1 to 50% by weight, same basis, and is sufficient to reduce the pH of the aqueous admixture to 5 or less. The admixture is then formed into a desired physical shape, such as by casting a sheet or film, and the shaped material is then heated to simultaneously dry and crosslink the article.

  14. Butyrate reduces appetite and activates brown adipose tissue via the gut-brain neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Katiraei, Saeed; Kooijman, Sander; Zhou, Enchen; Chung, Chih Kit; Gao, Yuanqing; van den Heuvel, José K; Meijer, Onno C; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Heijink, Marieke; Giera, Martin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Groen, Albert K; Rensen, Patrick C N; Wang, Yanan

    2017-11-03

    Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. Acute effects of butyrate on appetite and its method of action were investigated in mice following an intragastric gavage or intravenous injection of butyrate. To study the contribution of satiety to the metabolic benefits of butyrate, mice were fed a high-fat diet with butyrate, and an additional pair-fed group was included. Mechanistic involvement of the gut-brain neural circuit was investigated in vagotomised mice. Acute oral, but not intravenous, butyrate administration decreased food intake, suppressed the activity of orexigenic neurons that express neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus, and decreased neuronal activity within the nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal vagal complex in the brainstem. Chronic butyrate supplementation prevented diet-induced obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and hepatic steatosis, largely attributed to a reduction in food intake. Butyrate also modestly promoted fat oxidation and activated brown adipose tissue (BAT), evident from increased utilisation of plasma triglyceride-derived fatty acids. This effect was not due to the reduced food intake, but explained by an increased sympathetic outflow to BAT. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished the effects of butyrate on food intake as well as the stimulation of metabolic activity in BAT. Butyrate acts on the gut-brain neural circuit to improve energy metabolism via reducing energy intake and enhancing fat oxidation by activating BAT. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. 76 FR 13660 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1088 (Final)] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject investigation, the United... (March 2011), entitled Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Investigation No. 731-TA-1088 (Final). By order of...

  16. Combined effects of starvation and butyrate on autophagy-dependent gingival epithelial cell death.

    PubMed

    Evans, M; Murofushi, T; Tsuda, H; Mikami, Y; Zhao, N; Ochiai, K; Kurita-Ochiai, T; Yamamoto, M; Otsuka, K; Suzuki, N

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria in the dental biofilm surrounding marginal gingival grooves cause periodontal diseases. Numerous bacteria within the biofilm consume nutrients from the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, some gram-negative bacteria in mature dental biofilms produce butyrate. Thus, gingival epithelial cells in close proximity to mature dental biofilms are at risk of both starvation and exposure to butyrate. In the present study, we determined the combined effects of starvation and butyrate exposure on gingival epithelial cell death and the underlying mechanisms. The Ca9-22 cell line was used as an in vitro counterpart of gingival epithelial cells. Cell death was measured as the amount of total DNA in the dead cells using SYTOX Green dye, which penetrates through membranes of dead cells and emits fluorescence when it intercalates into double-stranded DNA. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, the amount of autophagy, and acetylation of histone H3 were determined using western blot. Gene expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3b (lc3b) were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Butyrate-induced cell death occurred in a dose-dependent manner whether cells were starved or fed. However, the induction of cell death was two to four times higher when cells were placed under starvation conditions compared to when they were fed. Moreover, both starvation and butyrate exposure induced AMPK activity and autophagy. While AMPK inactivation resulted in decreased autophagy and butyrate-induced cell death under conditions of starvation, AMPK activation resulted in butyrate-induced cell death when cells were fed. Combined with the results of our previous report, which demonstrated butyrate-induced autophagy-dependent cell death, the results of this study suggest that the combination of starvation and butyrate exposure activates AMPK inducing autophagy and subsequent cell death. Notably, this combination markedly

  17. Comparative In silico Analysis of Butyrate Production Pathways in Gut Commensals and Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Anand, Swadha; Kaur, Harrisham; Mande, Sharmila S

    2016-01-01

    Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals. The bacteria utilize four pathways for butyrate production with different initial substrates (Pyruvate, 4-aminobutyrate, Glutarate and Lysine) which follow a polyphyletic distribution. A comprehensive mining of complete/draft bacterial genomes indicated conserved juxtaposed genomic arrangement in all these pathways. This gene context information was utilized for an accurate annotation of butyrate production pathways in bacterial genomes. Interestingly, our analysis showed that inspite of a beneficial impact of butyrate in gut, not only commensals, but a few gut pathogens also possess butyrogenic pathways. The results further illustrated that all the gut commensal bacteria ( Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, Butyrivibrio , and commensal species of Clostridia etc) ferment pyruvate for butyrate production. On the contrary, the butyrogenic gut pathogen Fusobacterium utilizes different amino acid metabolism pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate and Glutarate) and Lysine for butyrogenesis which leads to a concomitant release of harmful by-products like ammonia in the process. The findings in this study indicate that commensals and pathogens in gut have divergently evolved to produce butyrate using distinct pathways. No such evolutionary selection was observed in oral pathogens ( Porphyromonas and Filifactor ) which showed presence of pyruvate as well as

  18. Experimental investigations on potassium permanganate doped polyvinyl alcohol - polyvinyl pyrrolidone blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veena, G.; Lobo, Blaise

    2018-04-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blend films were prepared by solution casting technique, in the doping range varying from 0.01 wt % up to 4.70 wt %. The microstructural changes caused by doping, and the modified properties of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and temperature dependent direct current (DC) electrical measurements. Temperature variation of electrical resistivity was found to obey Arrhenius relation, from which activation energy was determined. The study was supported by AFM scans, which showed an increase in surface roughness and the presence of spike-like structures, due to interaction of dopant with the polymeric blend. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) scans revealed two stages of degradation in KMnO4 doped PVA - PVP blend films.

  19. 76 FR 13982 - Antidumping Duty Order: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department... on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. DATES: Effective Date: March 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER... from Taiwan. See Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value...

  20. Impact of butyric acid on butanol formation by Clostridium pasteurianum.

    PubMed

    Regestein, Lars; Doerr, Eric Will; Staaden, Antje; Rehmann, Lars

    2015-11-01

    The butanol yield of the classic fermentative acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) process has been enhanced in the past decades through the development of better strains and advanced process design. Nevertheless, by-product formation and the incomplete conversion of intermediates still decrease the butanol yield. This study demonstrates the potential of increasing the butanol yield from glycerol though the addition of small amounts of butyric acid. The impact of butyric acid was investigated in a 7L stirred tank reactor. The results of this study show the positive impact of butyric acid on butanol yield under pH controlled conditions and the metabolic stages were monitored via online measurement of carbon dioxide formation, pH value and redox potential. Butyric acid could significantly increase the butanol yield at low pH values if sufficient quantities of primary carbon source (glycerol) were present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Butyrate Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Energy Expenditure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhanguo; Yin, Jun; Zhang, Jin; Ward, Robert E.; Martin, Roy J.; Lefevre, Michael; Cefalu, William T.; Ye, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the role of butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid formed by fermentation in the large intestine, in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In dietary-obese C57BL/6J mice, sodium butyrate was administrated through diet supplementation at 5% wt/wt in the high-fat diet. Insulin sensitivity was examined with insulin tolerance testing and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance. Energy metabolism was monitored in a metabolic chamber. Mitochondrial function was investigated in brown adipocytes and skeletal muscle in the mice. RESULTS On the high-fat diet, supplementation of butyrate prevented development of insulin resistance and obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin tolerance were all preserved in the treated mice. Body fat content was maintained at 10% without a reduction in food intake. Adaptive thermogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were enhanced. An increase in mitochondrial function and biogenesis was observed in skeletal muscle and brown fat. The type I fiber was enriched in skeletal muscle. Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α expression was elevated at mRNA and protein levels. AMP kinase and p38 activities were elevated. In the obese mice, supplementation of butyrate led to an increase in insulin sensitivity and a reduction in adiposity. CONCLUSIONS Dietary supplementation of butyrate can prevent and treat diet-induced insulin resistance in mouse. The mechanism of butyrate action is related to promotion of energy expenditure and induction of mitochondria function. PMID:19366864

  2. Butyric acid production from red algae by a newly isolated Clostridium sp. S1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Okkyoung; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Yunje; Han, Sung Ok; Sang, Byoung-In; Um, Youngsoon

    2015-09-01

    To produce butyric acid from red algae such as Gelidium amansii in which galactose is a main carbohydrate, microorganisms utilizing galactose and tolerating inhibitors in hydrolysis including levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are required. A newly isolated bacterium, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid not only from galactose as the sole carbon source but also from a mixture of galactose and glucose through simultaneous utilization. Notably, Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid and a small amount of acetic acid with the butyrate:acetate ratio of 45.4:1 and it even converted acetate to butyric acid. Clostridium sp. S1 tolerated 0.5-2 g levulinic acid/l and recovered from HMF inhibition at 0.6-2.5 g/l, resulting in 85-92% butyric acid concentration of the control culture. When acid-pretreated G. amansii hydrolysate was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 4.83 g butyric acid/l from 10 g galactose/l and 1 g glucose/l. Clostridium sp. S1 produces butyric acid from red algae due to its characteristics in sugar utilization and tolerance to inhibitors, demonstrating its advantage as a red algae-utilizing microorganism.

  3. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  4. Quantitative and temporal proteome analysis of butyrate-treated colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Tong; Tan, Sandra; Lin, Qingsong; Lim, Teck Kwang; Hew, Choy Leong; Chung, Maxey C M

    2008-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in developed countries, and its incidence is negatively associated with high dietary fiber intake. Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid fermentation by-product of fiber induces cell maturation with the promotion of growth arrest, differentiation, and/or apoptosis of cancer cells. The stimulation of cell maturation by butyrate in colonic cancer cells follows a temporal progression from the early phase of growth arrest to the activation of apoptotic cascades. Previously we performed two-dimensional DIGE to identify differentially expressed proteins induced by 24-h butyrate treatment of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. Herein we used quantitative proteomics approaches using iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation), a stable isotope labeling methodology that enables multiplexing of four samples, for a temporal study of HCT-116 cells treated with butyrate. In addition, cleavable ICAT, which selectively tags cysteine-containing proteins, was also used, and the results complemented those obtained from the iTRAQ strategy. Selected protein targets were validated by real time PCR and Western blotting. A model is proposed to illustrate our findings from this temporal analysis of the butyrate-responsive proteome that uncovered several integrated cellular processes and pathways involved in growth arrest, apoptosis, and metastasis. These signature clusters of butyrate-regulated pathways are potential targets for novel chemopreventive and therapeutic drugs for treatment of colorectal cancer.

  5. Propolis Augments Apoptosis Induced by Butyrate via Targeting Cell Survival Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Eric; Bordonaro, Michael; Lee, Seon; Atamna, Wafa; Lazarova, Darina L.

    2013-01-01

    Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC), and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling) may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors. PMID:24023824

  6. Revealing the Bacterial Butyrate Synthesis Pathways by Analyzing (Meta)genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Howe, Adina Chuang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Butyrate-producing bacteria have recently gained attention, since they are important for a healthy colon and when altered contribute to emerging diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and type II diabetes. This guild is polyphyletic and cannot be accurately detected by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Consequently, approaches targeting the terminal genes of the main butyrate-producing pathway have been developed. However, since additional pathways exist and alternative, newly recognized enzymes catalyzing the terminal reaction have been described, previous investigations are often incomplete. We undertook a broad analysis of butyrate-producing pathways and individual genes by screening 3,184 sequenced bacterial genomes from the Integrated Microbial Genome database. Genomes of 225 bacteria with a potential to produce butyrate were identified, including many previously unknown candidates. The majority of candidates belong to distinct families within the Firmicutes, but members of nine other phyla, especially from Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Thermotogae, were also identified as potential butyrate producers. The established gene catalogue (3,055 entries) was used to screen for butyrate synthesis pathways in 15 metagenomes derived from stool samples of healthy individuals provided by the HMP (Human Microbiome Project) consortium. A high percentage of total genomes exhibited a butyrate-producing pathway (mean, 19.1%; range, 3.2% to 39.4%), where the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pathway was the most prevalent (mean, 79.7% of all pathways), followed by the lysine pathway (mean, 11.2%). Diversity analysis for the acetyl-CoA pathway showed that the same few firmicute groups associated with several Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were dominating in most individuals, whereas the other pathways were associated primarily with Bacteroidetes. PMID:24757212

  7. A gene-targeted approach to investigate the intestinal butyrate-producing bacterial community

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Butyrate, which is produced by the human microbiome, is essential for a well-functioning colon. Bacteria that produce butyrate are phylogenetically diverse, which hinders their accurate detection based on conventional phylogenetic markers. As a result, reliable information on this important bacterial group is often lacking in microbiome research. Results In this study we describe a gene-targeted approach for 454 pyrotag sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the final genes in the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). We monitored the establishment and early succession of butyrate-producing communities in four patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent a colectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis and compared it with three control samples from healthy colons. All patients established an abundant butyrate-producing community (approximately 5% to 26% of the total community) in the pouch within the 2-month study, but patterns were distinctive among individuals. Only one patient harbored a community profile similar to the healthy controls, in which there was a predominance of but genes that are similar to reference genes from Acidaminococcus sp., Eubacterium sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia sp., and an almost complete absence of buk genes. Two patients were greatly enriched in buk genes similar to those of Clostridium butyricum and C. perfringens, whereas a fourth patient displayed abundant communities containing both genes. Most butyrate producers identified in previous studies were detected and the general patterns of taxa found were supported by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analysis, but the gene-targeted approach provided more detail about the potential butyrate-producing members of the community. Conclusions The presented approach provides quantitative and genotypic insights into butyrate-producing communities and facilitates a more specific

  8. Nanoparticle-Based Topical Ophthalmic Gel Formulation for Sustained Release of Hydrocortisone Butyrate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Trinh, Hoang M; Agrahari, Vibhuti; Sheng, Ye; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to develop formulations of hydrocortisone butyrate (HB)-loaded poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NP) suspended in thermosensitive gel to improve ocular bioavailability of HB for the treatment of bacterial corneal keratitis. PLGA NP with different surfactants such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), pluronic F-108, and chitosan were prepared using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion evaporation technique. NP were characterized with respect to particle size, entrapment efficiency, polydispersity, drug loading, surface morphology, zeta potential, and crystallinity. In vitro release of HB from NP showed a biphasic release pattern with an initial burst phase followed by a sustained phase. Such burst effect was completely eliminated when nanoparticles were suspended in thermosensitive gels and zero-order release kinetics was observed. In HCEC cell line, chitosan-emulsified NP showed the highest cellular uptake efficiency over PVA- and pluronic-emulsified NP (59.09 ± 6.21%, 55.74 ± 6.26%, and 62.54 ± 3.30%, respectively) after 4 h. However, chitosan-emulsified NP indicated significant cytotoxicity of 200 and 500 μg/mL after 48 h, while PVA- and pluronic-emulsified NP exhibited no significant cytotoxicity. PLGA NP dispersed in thermosensitive gels can be considered as a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of anterior eye diseases.

  9. Butyrate decreases its own oxidation in colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Han, Anna; Bennett, Natalie; Ahmed, Bettaieb; Whelan, Jay; Donohoe, Dallas R

    2018-06-05

    Colorectal cancer is characterized by an increase in the utilization of glucose and a diminishment in the oxidation of butyrate, which is a short chain fatty acid. In colorectal cancer cells, butyrate inhibits histone deacetylases to increase the expression of genes that slow the cell cycle and induce apoptosis. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the metabolic shift away from butyrate oxidation in cancer cells is important in in understanding the beneficial effects of the molecule toward colorectal cancer. Here, we demonstrate that butyrate decreased its own oxidation in cancerous colonocytes. Butyrate lowered the expression of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme that mediates the oxidation of short-chain fatty acids. Butyrate does not alter short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase levels in non-cancerous colonocytes. Trichostatin A, a structurally unrelated inhibitor of histone deacetylases, and propionate also decreased the level of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which alluded to inhibition of histone deacetylases as a part of the mechanism. Knockdown of histone deacetylase isoform 1, but not isoform 2 or 3, inhibited the ability of butyrate to decrease short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase expression. This work identifies a mechanism by which butyrate selective targets colorectal cancer cells to reduce its own metabolism.

  10. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  11. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  12. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  13. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  14. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid (2,4-DB), both free...

  15. Butyrate induces apoptosis by activating PDC and inhibiting complex I through SIRT3 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sha; Liu, Cai-Xia; Xu, Wei; Huang, Lei; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Zhao, Shi-Min

    2017-01-01

    The underlying anticancer effects of butyrate, an end-product of the intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, remain elusive. Here, we report that butyrate promotes cancer cell apoptosis by acting as a SIRT3 inhibitor. Butyrate inhibits SIRT3 both in cultured cells and in vitro . Butyrate-induced PDHA1 hyperacetylation relieves the inhibitory phosphorylation of PDHA1 at serine 293, thereby activating an influx of glycolytic intermediates into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and reversing the Warburg effect. Meanwhile, butyrate-induced hyperacetylation inactivates complex I of the electron transfer chain and prevents the utilization of TCA cycle intermediates. These metabolic stresses promote apoptosis in hyperglycolytic cancer cells, such as HCT116 p53 -/- cells. SIRT3 deacetylates both PDHA1 and complex I. Genetic ablation of Sirt3 in mouse hepatocytes abrogated the ability of butyrate to induce apoptosis. Our results identify a butyrate-mediated anti-tumor mechanism and indicate that the combined activation of PDC and inhibition of complex I is a novel tumor treatment strategy.

  16. Hepatic inflammation caused by dysregulated bile acid synthesis is reversible by butyrate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lili; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Hu, Ying; Liu, Hui-Xin; Nagar, Nidhi; Kalanetra, Karen M; French, Samuel William; French, Samuel Wheeler; Mills, David A; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    Dysregulated bile acid (BA) synthesis or reduced farnesoid X receptor (FXR) levels are found in patients having metabolic diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis or cancer. The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between butyrate and dysregulated BA synthesis-induced hepatitis as well as the effect of butyrate in reversing the liver pathology. Wild-type (WT) and FXR knockout (KO) male mice were placed on a control (CD) or western diet (WD) for 15 months. In the presence or absence of butyrate supplementation, feces obtained from 15-month-old WD-fed FXR KO mice, which had severe hepatitis and liver tumors, were transplanted to 7-month-old WD-fed FXR KO for 3 months. Hepatic phenotypes, microbiota profile, and BA composition were analyzed. Butyrate-generating bacteria and colonic butyrate concentration were reduced due to FXR inactivation and further reduced by WD intake. In addition, WD-fed FXR KO male mice had the highest concentration of hepatic β-muricholic acid (β-MCA) and bacteria-generated deoxycholic acid (DCA) accompanied by serious hepatitis. Moreover, dysregulated BA and reduced SCFA signaling co-existed in both human liver cancers and WD-fed FXR KO mice. Microbiota transplantation using butyrate-deficient feces derived from 15-month-old WD-fed FXR KO mice increased hepatic lymphocyte numbers as well as hepatic β-MCA and DCA concentrations. Furthermore, butyrate supplementation reduced hepatic β-MCA as well as DCA and eliminated hepatic lymphocyte infiltration. In conclusion, reduced butyrate contributes to the development of hepatitis in the FXR KO mouse model. In addition, butyrate reverses dysregulated BA synthesis and its associated hepatitis. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5-5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin) and genetic (si

  18. Complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid/titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosanov, I. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A complex compound polyvinyl alcohol-titanic acid has been produced and investigated by means of IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and synchronous thermal analysis. It is claimed that it represents an interpolymeric complex of polyvinyl alcohol and hydrated titanium oxide.

  19. Normal human gingival fibroblasts undergo cytostasis and apoptosis after long-term exposure to butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Shirasugi, Michihiro; Nishioka, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Nakaya, Takaaki; Kanamura, Narisato

    2017-01-22

    The causes of periodontal disease are complex. Butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mRNA expression. Butyric acid produced by Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory T cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. Mice lacking Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. By contrast, butyric acid in the oral cavity worsens periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is a chronic condition in which periodontal tissue is exposed to virulence factors (such as butyric acid); however, no study has examined the effects of long-term exposure to butyric acid. The present study demonstrated that long-term exposure of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to butyric acid induced cytostasis and apoptosis via the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Butyric acid inhibited the division of HGFs by altering expression of mRNAs encoding cyclins. Butyric acid induced apoptosis in HGFs via the intrinsic pathway, followed by activation of caspase 9; there was no DNA damage or p53 activation. Butyric acid also upregulated expression of TNF-α mRNA and protein by HGFs. Furthermore TNF-α induced apoptosis by activating caspase 8 (the extrinsic pathway) and by inducing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, the results show that butyric acid induced cytostasis and apoptosis in HGFs, accompanied by production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It thus acts as a death ligand and plays a critical role as a prophlogistic substance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced via very low pressure suspension plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleetwood, James D.

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising element of comprehensive energy policies due to their direct mechanism for converting the oxidization of fuel, such as hydrogen, into electrical energy. Both very low pressure plasma spray and electrophoretic deposition allow working with high melting temperature SOFC suspension based feedstock on complex surfaces, such as in non-planar SOFC designs. Dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs can be fabricated with each of these processes, while compositional control is achieved with dissolved dopant compounds that are incorporated into the coating during deposition. In the work reported, sub-micron 8 mole % Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC), powders, including those in suspension with scandium-nitrate dopants, were deposited on NiO-YSZ anodes, via very low pressure suspension plasma spray (VLPSPS) at Sandia National Laboratories' Thermal Spray Research Laboratory and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) at Purdue University. Plasma spray was carried out in a chamber held at 320 - 1300 Pa, with the plasma composed of argon, hydrogen, and helium. EPD was characterized utilizing constant current deposition at 10 mm electrode separation, with deposits sintered from 1300 -- 1500 °C for 2 hours. The role of suspension constituents in EPD was analyzed based on a parametric study of powder loading, powder specific surface area, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) content, polyethyleneimine (PEI) content, and acetic acid content. Increasing PVB content and reduction of particle specific surface area were found to eliminate the formation of cracks when drying. PEI and acetic acid content were used to control suspension stability and the adhesion of deposits. Additionally, EPD was used to fabricate YSZ/GDC bilayer electrolyte systems. The resultant YSZ electrolytes were 2-27 microns thick and up to 97% dense. Electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system with screen printed LSCF cathodes was evaluated with peak

  1. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Butyric acid stimulates bovine neutrophil functions and potentiates the effect of platelet activating factor.

    PubMed

    Carretta, M D; Hidalgo, A I; Burgos, J; Opazo, L; Castro, L; Hidalgo, M A; Figueroa, C D; Taubert, A; Hermosilla, C; Burgos, R A

    2016-08-01

    Increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production is associated with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and activation of inflammatory processes. In humans and rodents, SCFAs modulate inflammatory responses in the gut via free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2). In bovines, butyric acid is one of the most potent FFA2 agonists. Its expression in bovine neutrophils has recently been demonstrated, suggesting a role in innate immune response in cattle. This study aimed to evaluate if butyric acid modulates oxidative and non-oxidative functions or if it can potentiate other inflammatory mediators in bovine neutrophils. Our results showed that butyric acid can activate bovine neutrophils, inducing calcium (Ca(2+)) influx and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, two second messengers involved in FFA2 activation. Ca(2+) influx induced by butyric acid was dependent on the extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) source and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Butyric acid alone had no significant effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chemotaxis; however, a priming effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, was observed. Butyric acid increased CD63 expression and induced the release of neutrophil granule markers matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and lactoferrin. Finally, we observed that butyric acid induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation without affecting cellular viability. These findings suggest that butyric acid, a component of the ruminal fermentative process, can modulate the innate immune response of ruminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of butyrate on active sodium and chloride transport in rat and rabbit distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, S; Ramakrishna, B S

    2002-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, stimulate electroneutral NaCl absorption from the colon. Their effect in colonic epithelia lacking basal electroneutral NaCl absorption is unknown. Butyrate is also reported to inhibit active Cl− secretion in the colon. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the inter-relationships between the effects of butyrate on active Na+ and Cl− transport in the colon. Studies were carried out in rabbit distal colon (known to have predominant electrogenic Na+ absorption), rat distal colon (characterised by electroneutral Na+ absorption), and hyperaldosteronaemic rat distal colon (characterised by electrogenic Na+ absorption). The effect of cholera toxin (CT) was also noted. Potential difference, short-circuit current (ISC) and fluxes of Na+ and Cl− were measured in stripped mucosa under voltage-clamp conditions. Butyrate stimulated electroneutral Na+ and Cl− absorption in distal colon of normal and salt-depleted rats, and stimulated Na+ absorption in rabbit distal colon. Amiloride (10−4m) or CT did not inhibit this process. In rabbit distal colon, stimulation of Na+ absorption by butyrate was not dependent on the presence of Cl− in the medium. Butyrate significantly decreased conductance, decreased flux of sodium from serosa to mucosa (particularly in rabbit distal colon), and decreased ISC. Net Cl− secretion, induced by CT, was completely inhibited by butyrate. Stimulation of Na+ absorption was independent of exposure to CT. Bumetanide reversed net Cl− secretion to net absorption, but did not alter Na+ or Cl− fluxes in tissues exposed to butyrate. Thus butyrate stimulates active Na+ absorption in colonic epithelia, with or without expression of basal Na+-H+ exchange. Independently, butyrate inhibits active Cl− secretion induced by cAMP in these epithelia. PMID:11850510

  4. Enhanced butyric acid tolerance and bioproduction by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Cai, Jin; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin; Yang, Shangtian; Li, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Repeated fed-batch fermentation of glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was successfully employed to produce butyric acid at a high final concentration as well as to adapt a butyric-acid-tolerant strain. At the end of the eighth fed-batch fermentation, the butyric acid concentration reached 86.9 ± 2.17 g/L, which to our knowledge is the highest butyric acid concentration ever produced in the traditional fermentation process. To understand the mechanism and factors contributing to the improved butyric acid production and enhanced acid tolerance, adapted strains were harvested from the FBB and characterized for their physiological properties, including specific growth rate, acid-forming enzymes, intracellular pH, membrane-bound ATPase and cell morphology. Compared with the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, the adapted culture showed significantly reduced inhibition effects of butyric acid on specific growth rate, cellular activities of butyric-acid-forming enzyme phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and ATPase, together with elevated intracellular pH, and elongated rod morphology. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Genes and Gut Bacteria Involved in Luminal Butyrate Reduction Caused by Diet and Loperamide.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Nakwon; Eom, Taekil; Gupta, Sachin K; Jeong, Seong-Yeop; Jeong, Do-Youn; Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Sadowsky, Michael J; Unno, Tatsuya

    2017-11-28

    Unbalanced dietary habits and gut dysmotility are causative factors in metabolic and functional gut disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and constipation. Reduction in luminal butyrate synthesis is known to be associated with gut dysbioses, and studies have suggested that restoring butyrate formation in the colon may improve gut health. In contrast, shifts in different types of gut microbiota may inhibit luminal butyrate synthesis, requiring different treatments to restore colonic bacterial butyrate synthesis. We investigated the influence of high-fat diets (HFD) and low-fiber diets (LFD), and loperamide (LPM) administration, on key bacteria and genes involved in reduction of butyrate synthesis in mice. MiSeq-based microbiota analysis and HiSeq-based differential gene analysis indicated that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in butyrate metabolism in each treatment. Dietary modulation depleted butyrate kinase and phosphate butyryl transferase by decreasing members of the Bacteroidales and Parabacteroides . The HFD also depleted genes involved in succinate synthesis by decreasing Lactobacillus . The LFD and LPM treatments depleted genes involved in crotonoyl-CoA synthesis by decreasing Roseburia and Oscilllibacter . Taken together, our results suggest that different types of bacteria and genes were involved in gut dysbiosis, and that selected treatments may be needed depending on the cause of gut dysfunction.

  6. Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine.

    PubMed

    Louis, Petra; Flint, Harry J

    2009-05-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant groups related to Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Five different arrangements have been identified for the genes of the central pathway involved in butyrate synthesis, while in most cases butyryl-CoA : acetate CoA-transferase, rather than butyrate kinase, appears to perform the final step in butyrate synthesis. Mechanisms have been proposed recently in non-gut Clostridium spp. whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. The roles of these bacteria in the gut community and their influence on health are now being uncovered, taking advantage of the availability of cultured isolates and molecular methodologies. Populations of F. prausnitzii are reported to be decreased in Crohn's disease, for example, while populations of Roseburia relatives appear to be particularly sensitive to the diet composition in human volunteer studies.

  7. Efficient production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Cai, Jin; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Huang, Lei; Yang, Shang-Tian; Xu, Zhinan

    2011-02-01

    Butyric acid is an important specialty chemical with wide industrial applications. The feasible large-scale fermentation for the economical production of butyric acid requires low-cost substrate and efficient process. In the present study, butyric acid production by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully performed in a fibrous-bed bioreactor using Jerusalem artichoke as the substrate. Repeated-batch fermentation was carried out to produce butyric acid with a high butyrate yield (0.44 g/g), high productivity (2.75 g/L/h) and a butyrate concentration of 27.5 g/L. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using sulfuric acid pretreated Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate resulted in a high butyric acid concentration of 60.4 g/L, with the yield of 0.38 g/g and the selectivity of ∼ 85.1 (85.1g butyric acid/g acetic acid). Thus, the production of butyric acid from Jerusalem artichoke on a commercial scale could be achieved based on the system developed in this work. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Liver disease among polyvinyl chloride production workers.

    PubMed

    Creech, J L; Makk, L

    1975-01-31

    A protocol for systematic testing of all employees of a chemical plant is presented. This factory manufactures polyvinyl chloride compounds and resins, ABS compounds and resins, and synthetic rubber. The results were reviewed, which led to the discovery of 2 additional cases of angiosarcoma and 11 cases of portal fibrosis. Two of the 11 cases were found to have developed in employees other than polyvinyl chloride production workers.

  9. Butyrate production in phylogenetically diverse Firmicutes isolated from the chicken caecum

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska; De Baere, Siegrid; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Louis, Petra; Vandamme, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sixteen butyrate‐producing bacteria were isolated from the caecal content of chickens and analysed phylogenetically. They did not represent a coherent phylogenetic group, but were allied to four different lineages in the Firmicutes phylum. Fourteen strains appeared to represent novel species, based on a level of ≤ 98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards their nearest validly named neighbours. The highest butyrate concentrations were produced by the strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV and XIVa, clusters which are predominant in the chicken caecal microbiota. In only one of the 16 strains tested, the butyrate kinase operon could be amplified, while the butyryl‐CoA : acetate CoA‐transferase gene was detected in eight strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV, XIVa and XIVb. None of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates carried this gene based on degenerate PCR analyses. However, another CoA‐transferase gene more similar to propionate CoA‐transferase was detected in the majority of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates. Since this gene is located directly downstream of the remaining butyrate pathway genes in several human cluster XVI bacteria, it may be involved in butyrate formation in these bacteria. The present study indicates that butyrate producers related to cluster XVI may play a more important role in the chicken gut than in the human gut. PMID:21375722

  10. Involvement of glutathione/glutathione S-transferase antioxidant system in butyrate-inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ranganna, Kasturi; Mathew, Omana P; Yatsu, Frank M; Yousefipour, Zivar; Hayes, Barbara E; Milton, Shirlette G

    2007-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is an important etiological factor in vascular proliferative diseases such as primary atherosclerosis, hypertension, arterial and in-stent restenosis, and transplant vasculopathy. Our studies established that butyrate, a bacterial fermentation product of dietary fiber and a chromatin modulator, is a potent inhibitor of VSMC proliferation. The cardiovascular health benefits of a high-fiber diet, the principle source of butyrate in the body, have been known for a long time, however, very little is known about the antiatherogenic potential of butyrate. Because oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we examined involvement of the glutathione/glutathione S-transferase (GST) antioxidant system in butyrate's inhibition of VSMC proliferation. Treatment of proliferating VSMCs with butyrate leads to the induction of several GSTs. Interestingly, our study also demonstrated the nuclear localization of GST-P1 (GST-7-7), which is considered to be a cytosolic protein; this was demonstrated using immunostaining and was corroborated by western blotting. Also, the butyrate-induced antiproliferative action, and the induction of GST-P1 and its nuclear localization are downregulated when butyrate is withdrawn. Furthermore, assessment of intracellular glutathione levels reveals their augmentation by butyrate. Conversely, butyrate treatment reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species in VSMCs. Collectively, the butyrate-treatment-related increase in glutathione content, the reduction in reactive oxygen species, the upregulation of GST and the nuclear localization of GST-P1 in growth-arrested VSMCs imply that butyrate's antiproliferative action involves modulation of the cellular redox state. Thus, induction of the glutathione/GST antioxidant system appears to have other regulatory role(s) besides detoxification and regulation of the cellular redox state, for example, cell-cycle control and cell

  11. Review: Exogenous butyrate: implications for the functional development of ruminal epithelium and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Niwińska, B; Hanczakowska, E; Arciszewski, M B; Klebaniuk, R

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0.3% of diet dry matter is accompanied by an increase to 35% in butyrate concentration in the rumen of 33-day-old calves. Mutual reliance between an enhanced ruminal concentration of butyrate and the activities of transcription factors, genes and proteins involved in cell proliferation, ketogenesis and the maintenance of cell pH homeostasis in the ruminal epithelial cells has been clearly confirmed in many experiments. Second, the review presents results related to the effects of the introduction of butyrate salts in the diet on calf performance. Of 11 studies a positive effect was found in six; five of these were obtained from the calves that started receiving butyrate supplement at a level of about 0.3% diet dry matter from the age of 3 to 5 days. Results indicate that when a supplement is given to calves soon after birth the functional development of ruminal epithelium in cooperation with the endocrine and digestion systems is transferred into improving the efficiency of rearing. There have been no studies on the effects of greater amounts of butyrate salts in milk replacer; butyrate constitutes about 1.2% of the whole cow's milk dry matter. In older calves, when butyrate administration is provided as a component of a starter concentrate at the increasing inclusion rate from 0.3% to 3.0%, the practical effect in calf performance relates to the risk of depression of rumen pH below 5.5 and accompanying disruption of the

  12. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation which has been demonstrated to have beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on chicken macropha...

  13. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Uptake and metabolism of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Stuart M; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-07-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as an energy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. The biology of butyrate transport is therefore relevant to both its physiological and pharmacological benefits. This review of the literature was carried out to assess the evidence for both the uptake and metabolism of butyrate, in an attempt to determine possible mechanism (s) by which butyrate can act as an HDACi. It is noted that although uptake and metabolism are well characterised, there are still significant gaps in the knowledgebase around the intracellular handing of butyrate, where assumptions or dated evidence are relied upon.

  15. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry. PVC is manufactured by 20 companies at 35 plants. Each plant uses one or more of four possible polymerization processes: (1) suspension polymerization, (2) emulsion polymerization, (3) bulk p...

  16. In situ self cross-linking of polyvinyl alcohol battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A battery separator was produced from a polyvinyl alcohol sheet structure which was subjected to an in situ, self crosslinking process by selective oxidation of the 1,2 diol units present in the polyvinyl alcohol sheet structure. The 1,2 diol units were cleaved to form aldehyde end groups which subsequently crosslink through acetalization of the 1,3 diol units of the polyvinyl alcohol. Selective oxidation was achieved using a solution of a suitable oxidizing agent such as periodic acid or lead tetraacetate.

  17. Bioaugmentation with Clostridium tyrobutyricum to improve butyric acid production through direct rice straw bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xue; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yafei; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Wang, Ying

    2018-05-02

    One-pot bioconversion is an economically attractive biorefinery strategy to reduce enzyme consumption. Direct conversion of lignocellulosic biomass for butyric acid production is still challenging because of competition among microorganisms. In a consolidated hydrolysis/fermentation bioprocessing (CBP) the microbial structure may eventually prefer the production of caproic acid rather than butyric acid production. This paper presents a new bioaugmentation approach for high butyric acid production from rice straw. By dosing 0.03 g/L of Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 in the CBP, an increase of 226% higher butyric acid was yielded. The selectivity and concentration also increased to 60.7% and 18.05 g/L, respectively. DNA-sequencing confirmed the shift of bacterial community in the augmented CBP. Butyric acid producer was enriched in the bioaugmented bacterial community and the bacteria related to long chain acids production was degenerated. The findings may be useful in future research and process design to enhance productivity of desired bio-products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lactobacillus acidophilus counteracts enteropathogenic E. coli-induced inhibition of butyrate uptake in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anoop; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Butyrate, a key short-chain fatty acid metabolite of colonic luminal bacterial action on dietary fiber, serves as a primary fuel for the colonocytes, ameliorates mucosal inflammation, and stimulates NaCl absorption. Absorption of butyrate into the colonocytes is essential for these intracellular effects. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) plays a major role in colonic luminal butyrate absorption. Previous studies (Tan J, McKenzie C, Potamitis M, Thorburn AN, Mackay CR, Macia L. Adv Immunol 121: 91–119, 2014.) showed decreased MCT1 expression and function in intestinal inflammation. We have previously shown (Borthakur A, Gill RK, Hodges K, Ramaswamy K, Hecht G, Dudeja PK. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290: G30–G35, 2006.) impaired butyrate absorption in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells due to decreased MCT1 level at the apical cell surface following enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infection. Current studies, therefore, examined the potential role of probiotic Lactobacilli in stimulating MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake and counteracting EPEC inhibition of MCT1 function. Of the five species of Lactobacilli, short-term (3 h) treatment with L. acidophilus (LA) significantly increased MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat-killed LA was ineffective, whereas the conditioned culture supernatant of LA (LA-CS) was equally effective in stimulating MCT1 function, indicating that the effects are mediated by LA-secreted soluble factor(s). Furthermore, LA-CS increased apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein via decreasing its basal endocytosis, suggesting that LA-CS stimulation of butyrate uptake could be secondary to increased levels of MCT1 on the apical cell surface. LA-CS also attenuated EPEC inhibition of butyrate uptake and EPEC-mediated endocytosis of MCT1. Our studies highlight distinct role of specific LA-secreted molecules in modulating colonic butyrate absorption. PMID:26272259

  19. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In Situ Cross-Linking of Polyvinyl Alcohol Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Shu, L. C.; May, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Films or impregnated matrices readily made from aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution. Controlled thickness films made by casting precise quantities of aqueous polymer solution on smooth surface, allowing water to evaporate and then removing film. Composite separators formed in similar fashion by impregnating cloth matrix with polyvinyl alcohol solution and drying composite. Insoluble thin hydrophilic membranes made from aqueous systems, and use of undesirable organic solvents not required.

  1. Sodium Butyrate Protects against Severe Burn-Induced Remote Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Guo, Feng; Sun, Li; Wang, Yong-Jie; Sun, Ye-Xiang; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, drives proinflammatory responses when released extracellularly. It plays a key role as a distal mediator in the development of acute lung injury (ALI). Sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated to inhibit HMGB1 expression. This study investigates the effect of sodium butyrate on burn-induced lung injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: 1) sham group, sham burn treatment; 2) burn group, third-degree burns over 30% total body surface area (TBSA) with lactated Ringer’s solution for resuscitation; 3) burn plus sodium butyrate group, third-degree burns over 30% TBSA with lactated Ringer’s solution containing sodium butyrate for resuscitation. The burned animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after burn injury. Lung injury was assessed in terms of histologic changes and wet weight to dry weight (W/D) ratio. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 protein concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HMGB1 expression in the lung was determined by Western blot analysis. Pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to reflect neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress in the lung, respectively. As a result, sodium butyrate significantly inhibited the HMGB1 expressions in the lungs, reduced the lung W/D ratio, and improved the pulmonary histologic changes induced by burn trauma. Furthermore, sodium butyrate administration decreased the TNF-α and IL-8 concentrations in BALF and serum, suppressed MPO activity, and reduced the MDA content in the lungs after severe burn. These results suggest that sodium butyrate attenuates inflammatory responses, neutrophil infiltration, and oxidative stress in the lungs, and protects against remote ALI induced by severe burn, which is associated with inhibiting HMGB1

  2. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. PMID:27822203

  3. Consolidated Bioprocessing for Butyric Acid Production from Rice Straw with Undefined Mixed Culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Sheng, Zhanwu; Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Jianzheng

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable source with great potential for biofuels and bioproducts. However, the cost of cellulolytic enzymes limits the utilization of the low-cost bioresource. This study aimed to develop a consolidated bioprocessing without the need of supplementary cellulase for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. A stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 21 L was constructed and operated in batch and semi-continuous fermentation modes with a cellulolytic butyrate-producing microbial community. The semi-continuous fermentation with intermittent discharging of the culture broth and replenishment with fresh medium achieved the highest butyric acid productivity of 2.69 g/(L· d). In semi-continuous operation mode, the butyric acid and total carboxylic acid concentrations of 16.2 and 28.9 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Over the 21-day fermentation period, their cumulative yields reached 1189 and 2048 g, respectively, corresponding to 41 and 74% of the maximum theoretical yields based on the amount of NaOH pretreated rice straw fed in. This study demonstrated that an undefined mixed culture-based consolidated bioprocessing for butyric acid production can completely eliminate the cost of supplementary cellulolytic enzymes.

  4. Spectral Photosensitization of Optical Anisotropy in Solid Poly(Vinyl Cinnamate) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozenkov, V. M.; Spakhov, A. A.; Belyaev, V. V.; Chausov, D. N.; Chigrinov, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    The possibility and features of formation of sensitized photoinduced optical anisotropy in amorphous films of poly(vinyl cinnamate) and its derivative poly(vinyl-4-metoxicinnamate) under the action of polarized light (including light that is not absorbed by polymer macromolecules themselves) have been investigated. It is found that the effect of induced optical anisotropy is based on the transfer of electron excitation energy from donor (sensitizer) molecules to acceptor molecules and is observed in the course of phototopochemical biomolecular cyclization reaction of cinnamate fragments in polymer macromolecules. The detected photoinduced anisotropy in solid films of poly(vinyl cinnamate) and its derivative poly(vinyl-4-metoxicinnamate) ensures sensitized photo-orientation of low-molecular thermotropic liquid crystals.

  5. 75 FR 38079 - Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: Import Administration... (the Department) initiated the antidumping duty investigation on polyvinyl alcohol from Taiwan. See Initiation of Anti-Dumping Duty Investigation: Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan, 69 FR 59204 (October 4, 2004...

  6. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling based on increased expression of urea transporter (UT-B) in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concent...

  7. Butyric Acid-Induced T-Cell Apoptosis Is Mediated by Caspase-8 and -9 Activation in a Fas-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Fukushima, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat cells. In this study, we examined whether CD95 ligand-receptor interaction is involved in butyric acid-induced T-cell apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that expression of Fas in Jurkat and T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not affected by butyric acid treatment. Furthermore, the expression of Fas and FasL protein in Western blotting was not affected by butyric acid treatment. Coincubation with blocking anti-Fas antibodies prevented Fas-induced apoptosis but not butyric acid-induced apoptosis. Anti-FasL antibodies also did not prevent butyric acid-induced apoptosis at any dose examined. Although cytotoxic anti-Fas antibody affected butyric acid-induced apoptosis, a synergistic effect was not seen. Time-dependent activation of caspase-8 and -9 was recognized in butyric acid- as well as Fas-mediated apoptosis. IETD-CHO and LEHD-CHO, specific inhibitors of caspase-8 and -9, respectively, completely blocked Fas-mediated apoptosis and partially prevented butyric acid-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the Fas-FasL interaction is not involved in butyric acid-induced apoptosis and that caspase-8 and -9-dependent apoptosis plays an important role in butyric acid-induced apoptosis, as well as Fas-induced apoptosis. PMID:11238216

  8. Enhanced butyric acid tolerance and production by Class I heat shock protein-overproducing Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Luo, Sheng; Zhang, Yanan; Liao, Zhengping; Wang, Jufang

    2017-08-01

    The response of Clostridium tyrobutyricum to butyric acid stress involves various stress-related genes, and therefore overexpression of stress-related genes can improve butyric acid tolerance and yield. Class I heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in the process of protecting bacteria from sudden changes of extracellular stress by assisting protein folding correctly. The results of quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the Class I HSGs grpE, dnaK, dnaJ, groEL, groES, and htpG were significantly upregulated under butyric acid stress, especially the dnaK and groE operons. Overexpression of groESL and htpG could significantly improve the tolerance of C. tyrobutyricum to butyric acid, while overexpression of dnaK and dnaJ showed negative effects on butyric acid tolerance. Acid production was also significantly promoted by increased GroESL expression levels; the final butyric acid and acetic acid concentrations were 28.2 and 38% higher for C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755/groESL than for the wild-type strain. In addition, when fed-batch fermentation was carried out using cell immobilization in a fibrous-bed bioreactor, the butyric acid yield produced by C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755/groESL reached 52.2 g/L, much higher than that for the control. The improved butyric acid yield is probably attributable to the high GroES and GroEL levels, which can stabilize the biosynthetic machinery of C. tyrobutyricum under extracellular butyric acid stress.

  9. Hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw by a novel consolidated bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xue; Li, Jianzheng; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yafei; Antwi, Philip

    2018-04-01

    A novel consolidated bioprocess for hyper-production of butyric acid from delignified rice straw without exogenous enzymes involved was developed by co-fermentation of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Feasibility of the consolidated bioprocess was approved by batch fermentations, with the optimum pH of 6.5. Fed-batch fermentation with a constant pH of 6.5 at 55 °C could enhance the butyric acid yield to a remarkable 33.9 g/L with a selectivity as high as 78%. Metabolic analysis of the co-culture indicated that sugars liberated by C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 were effectively converted to butyric acid by C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875. Secondary metabolism of C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875 also contributed to the hyper-production of butyric acid, resulting in the re-assimilation of by-products such as acetic acid and ethanol. This work provides a more effective fermentation process for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass for future applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcriptome characterization by deep-RNA-sequencing underlies the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate), especially butyrate, alter cell differentiation, proliferation, motility, and in particular, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition activity. Butyrate is a great inducer of ...

  11. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  12. Production of electricity from acetate or butyrate using a single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-01-15

    Hydrogen can be recovered by fermentation of organic material rich in carbohydrates, but much of the organic matter remains in the form of acetate and butyrate. An alternative to methane production from this organic matter is the direct generation of electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Electricity generation using a single-chambered MFC was examined using acetate or butyrate. Power generated with acetate (800 mg/L) (506 mW/m2 or 12.7 mW/ L) was up to 66% higher than that fed with butyrate (1000 mg/L) (305 mW/m2 or 7.6 mW/L), demonstrating that acetate is a preferred aqueous substrate for electricity generation in MFCs. Power output as a function of substrate concentration was well described by saturation kinetics, although maximum power densities varied with the circuit load. Maximum power densities and half-saturation constants were Pmax = 661 mW/m2 and Ks = 141 mg/L for acetate (218 ohms) and Pmax = 349 mW/m2 and Ks = 93 mg/L for butyrate (1000 ohms). Similar open circuit potentials were obtained in using acetate (798 mV) or butyrate (795 mV). Current densities measured for stable power outputwere higher for acetate (2.2 A/m2) than those measured in MFCs using butyrate (0.77 A/m2). Cyclic voltammograms suggested that the main mechanism of power production in these batch tests was by direct transfer of electrons to the electrode by bacteria growing on the electrode and not by bacteria-produced mediators. Coulombic efficiencies and overall energy recovery were 10-31 and 3-7% for acetate and 8-15 and 2-5% for butyrate, indicating substantial electron and energy losses to processes other than electricity generation. These results demonstrate that electricity generation is possible from soluble fermentation end products such as acetate and butyrate, but energy recoveries should be increased to improve the overall process performance.

  13. Butyrate plays differential roles in cellular signaling in cancerous HCT116 and noncancerous NCM460 colon cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects in colon. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate at the cellular level remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate plays differential roles in cancerous and non-cancerous cells through si...

  14. Maximizing the production of butyric acid from food waste as a precursor for ABE-fermentation.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ullrich Heinz; Wimmer, B; Ortner, M; Fuchs, W; Bochmann, G

    2017-11-15

    The current study reports on the maximization of butyric acid production from food waste using a mixed microbial fermentation. In semi-continuous fermentations the effect of three different pH values (5.5, 7.0 and 9.0), three different temperatures (37°C, 55°C and 70°C) and two levels of hydraulic retention time (HRT, 2days and 6days) on the formation of butyric acid as well as total volatile fatty acid production (tVFA) were investigated. Overall, pH5.5 provided the lowest butyric acid concentrations regardless of the temperature and the HRT. At mesophilic temperature (37°C) alkaline conditions (pH9.0) lead to a strong incline of tVFA as well as butyric acid concentration probably due to a decreased solubilization of the substrate. However, most efficient in terms of butyric acid production was the fermentation conducted at 55°C and pH7 where a butyric acid concentrations of 10.55g/L (HRT 2days) and 13.00g/L (HRT 6days) were achieved. Additional experiments at 70°C showed declining butyric acid production. Increase of the HRT from 2days to 6days provided an increment of butyric acid concentration throughout almost all experimental settings. However, regarding volumetric productivity the increase in concentration does not compensate for the bigger reactor volume required to establish a higher HRT. At pH7 and 55°C the resulting volumetric production rates were 5.27g/L∗d at a HRT 2days and only 2.17g/L∗d at a HRT of 6days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-dose infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herrick, K J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Schingoethe, D J; Casper, D P; Moreland, S C; van Eys, J E

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in preruminants. These encouraging findings led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the effects of elevated butyrate concentrations on rumen metabolism have not been investigated, and consequently the maximum tolerable dosage rate of butyrate has not been established. Therefore, the first objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of a short-term increase in rumen butyrate concentration on key metabolic indicators. The second objective was to evaluate the source of butyrate, either directly dosed in the rumen or indirectly supplied via lactose fermentation in the rumen. Jugular catheters were inserted into 4 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows in a 4×4 Latin square with 3-d periods. On d 1 of each period, 1h after feeding, cows were ruminally dosed with 1 of 4 treatments: (1) 2L of water (CON), (2) 3.5g/kg of body weight (BW) of lactose (LAC), (3) 1g/kg of BW of butyrate (1GB), or (4) 2g/kg of BW of butyrate (2GB). Sodium butyrate was the source of butyrate, and NaCl was added to CON (1.34g/kg of BW), LAC (1.34g/kg of BW), and 1GB (0.67g/kg of BW) to provide equal amounts of sodium as the 2GB treatment. Serial plasma and rumen fluid samples were collected during d 1 of each period. Rumen fluid pH was greater in cows given the 1GB and 2GB treatments compared with the cows given the LAC treatment. Cows administered the 1GB and 2GB treatments had greater rumen butyrate concentrations compared with LAC. Those cows also had greater plasma butyrate concentrations compared with cows given the LAC treatment. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was greater and insulin tended to be greater for butyrate treatments compared with LAC. No difference in insulin was found between the 1GB and 2GB treatments. Based on plasma and rumen metabolites, singly infusing 3.5g/kg of BW of lactose into the rumen is not as effective

  16. Butyrate Enhances Disease Resistance of Chickens by Inducing Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptide Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Lakshmi T.; Achanta, Mallika; Schreiber, Nicole B.; Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dai, Gan; Jiang, Weiyu; Lamont, Susan; Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Beker, Ali; Teeter, Robert G.; Zhang, Guolong

    2011-01-01

    Host defense peptides (HDPs) constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous administration of butyrate, a major type of short-chain fatty acids derived from bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fiber, is capable of inducing HDPs and enhancing disease resistance in chickens. We have found that butyrate is a potent inducer of several, but not all, chicken HDPs in HD11 macrophages as well as in primary monocytes, bone marrow cells, and jejuna and cecal explants. In addition, butyrate treatment enhanced the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes against Salmonella enteritidis, with a minimum impact on inflammatory cytokine production, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst capacities of the cells. Furthermore, feed supplementation with 0.1% butyrate led to a significant increase in HDP gene expression in the intestinal tract of chickens. More importantly, such a feeding strategy resulted in a nearly 10-fold reduction in the bacterial titer in the cecum following experimental infections with S. enteritidis. Collectively, the results indicated that butyrate-induced synthesis of endogenous HDPs is a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of innate host defense shared by mammals and aves, and that dietary supplementation of butyrate has potential for further development as a convenient antibiotic-alternative strategy to enhance host innate immunity and disease resistance. PMID:22073293

  17. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T

    2014-04-08

    The durability of polymeric encapsulation materials was examined using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36 months cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/ polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelasticmore » imaging, and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. The results of the study including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.« less

  18. SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T.

    We examined the durability of polymeric encapsulation materials using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36-month cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Our measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging,more » and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. Furthermore, our results, including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.« less

  19. Multi angle laser light scattering evaluation of field exposed thermoplastic photovoltaic encapsulant materials

    DOE PAGES

    Kempe, Michael D.; Miller, David C.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; ...

    2016-01-08

    As creep of polymeric materials is potentially a safety concern for photovoltaic modules, the potential for module creep has become a significant topic of discussion in the development of IEC 61730 and IEC 61215. To investigate the possibility of creep, modules were constructed, using several thermoplastic encapsulant materials, into thin-film mock modules and deployed in Mesa, Arizona. The materials examined included poly(ethylene)-co-vinyl acetate (EVA, including formulations both cross-linked and with no curing agent), polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO), poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polyvinyl butyral (PVB), and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The absence of creep in this experiment is attributable to several factors of which themore » most notable one was the unexpected cross-linking of an EVA formulation without a cross-linking agent. It was also found that some materials experienced both chain scission and cross-linking reactions, sometimes with a significant dependence on location within a module. The TPU and EVA samples were found to degrade with cross-linking reactions dominating over chain scission. In contrast, the PO materials degraded with chain scission dominating over cross-linking reactions. Furthermore, we found no significant indications that viscous creep is likely to occur in fielded modules capable of passing the qualification tests, we note that one should consider how a polymer degrades, chain scission or cross-linking, in assessing the suitability of a thermoplastic polymer in terrestrial photovoltaic applications.« less

  20. Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials in a PMMA/glass concentrator photovoltaic system

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, David C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Muller, Matthew T.; ...

    2016-07-13

    We examined the durability of polymeric encapsulation materials using outdoor exposure at the nominal geometric concentration of 500 suns. The results for 36-month cumulative field deployment are presented for materials including: poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate), (EVA); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); ionomer; polyethylene/polyoctene copolymer (PO); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS); poly(diphenyl dimethyl siloxane) (PDPDMS); and poly(phenyl-methyl siloxane) (PPMS). Measurements of the field conditions including ambient temperature and ultraviolet (UV) dose were recorded at the test site during the experiment. Our measurements for the experiment included optical transmittance (with subsequent analysis of solar-weighted transmittance, UV cut-off wavelength, and yellowness index), mass, visual photography, photoelastic imaging,more » and fluorescence spectroscopy. While the results to date for EVA are presented and discussed, examination here focuses more on the siloxane materials. A specimen recently observed to fail by thermal decomposition is discussed in terms of the implementation of the experiment as well as its fluorescence signature, which was observed to become more pronounced with age. Modulated thermogravimetry (allowing determination of the activation energy of thermal decomposition) was performed on a subset of the siloxanes to quantify the propensity for decomposition at elevated temperatures. Supplemental, Pt-catalyst- and primer-solutions as well as peroxide-cured PDMS specimens were examined to assess the source of the luminescence. Furthermore, our results, including the change in optical transmittance, observed failure modes, and subsequent analyses of the failure modes are described in the conclusions.« less

  1. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chloride plants. 61.64 Section 61.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a...

  2. Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Kim, Seil; Jeon, Byoung Seung; Um, Youngsoon; Mitchell, Robert J; Sang, Byoung-In

    2013-03-04

    Currently, the most promising microorganism used for the bio-production of butyric acid is Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T; however, it is unable to use sucrose as a sole carbon source. Consequently, a newly isolated strain, Bacillus sp. SGP1, that was found to produce a levansucrase enzyme, which hydrolyzes sucrose into fructose and glucose, was used in a co-culture with this strain, permitting C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to ferment sucrose to butyric acid. B. sp. SGP1 alone did not show any butyric acid production and the main metabolite produced was lactic acid. This allowed C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to utilize the monosaccharides resulting from the activity of levansucrase together with the lactic acid produced by B. sp. SGP1 to generate butyric acid, which was the main fermentative product within the co-culture. Furthermore, the final acetic acid concentration in the co-culture was significantly lower when compared with pure C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T cultures grown on glucose. In fed-batch fermentations, the optimum conditions for the production of butyric acid were around pH 5.50 and a temperature of 37°C. Under these conditions, the final butyrate concentration was 34.2±1.8 g/L with yields of 0.35±0.03 g butyrate/g sucrose and maximum productivity of 0.3±0.04 g/L/h. Using this co-culture, sucrose can be utilized as a carbon source for butyric acid production at a relatively high yield. In addition, this co-culture offers also the benefit of a greater selectivity, with butyric acid constituting 92.8% of the acids when the fermentation was terminated.

  3. Effect of sodium butyrate on cell proliferation and cell cycle in porcine intestinal epithelial (IPEC-J2) cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yueqin; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Wang, Li; Jiang, Zongyong

    2017-04-01

    Conflicting results have been reported that butyrate in normal piglets leads either to an increase or to a decrease of jejunal villus length, implying a possible effect on the proliferation of enterocytes. No definitive study was found for the biological effects of butyrate in porcine jejunal epithelial cells. The present study used IPEC-J2 cells, a non-transformed jejunal epithelial line to evaluate the direct effects of sodium butyrate on cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. Low concentrations (0.5 and 1 mM) of butyrate had no effect on cell proliferation. However, at 5 and 10 mM, sodium butyrate significantly decreased cell viability, accompanied by reduced levels of p-mTOR and PCNA protein. Sodium butyrate, in a dose-dependent manner, induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and reduced the numbers of cells in S phase. In addition, relative expression of p21, p27, and pro-apoptosis bak genes, and protein levels of p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, cyclinD3, CDK4, and Cleave-caspase3 were increased by higher concentrations of sodium butyrate (1, 5, 10 mM), and the levels of cyclinD1 and CDK6 were reduced by 5 and 10 mM butyrate. Butyrate increased the phosphorylated form of the signaling molecule p38 and phosphorylated JNK. In conclusion, the present in vitro study indicated that sodium butyrate inhibited the proliferation of IPEC-J2 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycles and by increasing apoptosis at high concentrations.

  4. In vitro and in vivo study of transcriptome alternation induced by butyrate in cattle using deep RNA-seq

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs,), especially butyrate, affect cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Furthermore, butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its inhibition on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate is a potent inducer of histone hyper-acetylation in cells a...

  5. Butyrate inhibits cancerous HCT116 cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous NCM460 colon cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate at the cellular level remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser...

  6. Collagen-Immobilized Lipases Show Good Activity and Reusability for Butyl Butyrate Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dewei, Song; Min, Chen; Haiming, Cheng

    2016-11-01

    Candida rugosa lipases were immobilized onto collagen fibers through glutaraldehyde cross-linking method. The immobilization process has been optimized. Under the optimal immobilization conditions, the activity of the collagen-immobilized lipase reached 340 U/g. The activity was recovered of 28.3 % by immobilization. The operational stability of the obtained collagen-immobilized lipase for hydrolysis of olive oil emulsion was determined. The collagen-immobilized lipase showed good tolerance to temperature and pH variations in comparison to free lipase. The collagen-immobilized lipase was also applied as biocatalyst for synthesis of butyl butyrate from butyric acid and 1-butanol in n-hexane. The conversion yield was 94 % at the optimal conditions. Of its initial activity, 64 % was retained after 5 cycles for synthesizing butyl butyrate in n-hexane.

  7. Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the most promising microorganism used for the bio-production of butyric acid is Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T; however, it is unable to use sucrose as a sole carbon source. Consequently, a newly isolated strain, Bacillus sp. SGP1, that was found to produce a levansucrase enzyme, which hydrolyzes sucrose into fructose and glucose, was used in a co-culture with this strain, permitting C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to ferment sucrose to butyric acid. Results B. sp. SGP1 alone did not show any butyric acid production and the main metabolite produced was lactic acid. This allowed C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to utilize the monosaccharides resulting from the activity of levansucrase together with the lactic acid produced by B. sp. SGP1 to generate butyric acid, which was the main fermentative product within the co-culture. Furthermore, the final acetic acid concentration in the co-culture was significantly lower when compared with pure C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T cultures grown on glucose. In fed-batch fermentations, the optimum conditions for the production of butyric acid were around pH 5.50 and a temperature of 37°C. Under these conditions, the final butyrate concentration was 34.2±1.8 g/L with yields of 0.35±0.03 g butyrate/g sucrose and maximum productivity of 0.3±0.04 g/L/h. Conclusions Using this co-culture, sucrose can be utilized as a carbon source for butyric acid production at a relatively high yield. In addition, this co-culture offers also the benefit of a greater selectivity, with butyric acid constituting 92.8% of the acids when the fermentation was terminated. PMID:23452443

  8. Infusion of butyrate affects plasma glucose, butyrate, and ß-hydroxybutyrate but not plasma insulin in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects on plasma metabolites and rumen measures when butyrate was infused into the rumen or abomasum of lactating cows. Jugular catheters were inserted into 5 ruminally fistulated Holstein cows (94.2 ± 26.3 days in milk [DIM]; 717 ± 45 kg body w...

  9. Reactivation of latent HIV-1 by a wide variety of butyric acid-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kenichi; Yamada, Kiyoshi; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Okamoto, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Latently infected cells harbor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA copies integrated in heterochromatin, allowing persistence of transcriptionally silent proviruses. It is widely accepted that hypoacetylation of histone proteins by histone deacetylases (HDACs) is involved in maintaining the HIV-1 latency by repressing viral transcription. HIV-1 replication can be induced from latently infected cells by environmental factors, such as inflammation and co-infection with other microbes. It is known that a bacterial metabolite butyric acid inhibits catalytic action of HDAC and induces transcription of silenced genes including HIV-1 provirus. There are a number of such bacteria in gut, vaginal, and oral cavities that produce butyric acid during their anaerobic glycolysis. Since these organs are known to be the major site of HIV-1 transmission and its replication, we explored a possibility that explosive viral replication in these organs could be ascribable to butyric acid produced from anaerobic resident bacteria. In this study, we demonstrate that the culture supernatant of various bacteria producing butyric acid could greatly reactivate the latently-infected HIV-1. These bacteria include Fusobacterium nucleatum (commonly present in oral cavity, and gut), Clostridium cochlearium, Eubacterium multiforme (gut), and Anaerococcus tetradius (vagina). We also clarified that butyric acid in these culture supernatants could induce histone acetylation and HIV-1 replication by inhibiting HDAC. Our observations indicate that butyric acid-producing bacteria could be involved in AIDS progression by reactivating the latent HIV provirus and, subsequently, by eliminating such bacterial infection may contribute to the prevention of the AIDS development and transmission.

  10. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells.

  11. Butyrate Inhibits Cancerous HCT116 Colon Cell Proliferation but to a Lesser Extent in Noncancerous NCM460 Colon Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huawei; Taussig, David P.; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Hakkak, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects on colon cancer development. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate inhibits cancerous cell proliferation but to a lesser extent in noncancerous cells through regulating apoptosis and cellular-signaling pathways. We tested this hypothesis by exposing cancerous HCT116 or non-cancerous NCM460 colon cells to physiologically relevant doses of butyrate. Cellular responses to butyrate were characterized by Western analysis, fluorescent microscopy, acetylation, and DNA fragmentation analyses. Butyrate inhibited cell proliferation, and led to an induction of apoptosis, genomic DNA fragmentation in HCT116 cells, but to a lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Although butyrate increased H3 histone deacetylation and p21 tumor suppressor expression in both cell types, p21 protein level was greater with intense expression around the nuclei in HCT116 cells when compared with that in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, butyrate treatment increased the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), a survival signal, in NCM460 cells while it decreased p-ERK1/2 in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic potential in HCT116 cells may confer the increased sensitivity of cancerous colon cells to butyrate in comparison with noncancerous colon cells. PMID:28045428

  12. Transcriptomic sequencing reveals a set of unique genes activated by butyrate-induced histone modification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), a set of unique gen...

  13. Transcriptomic Impacts of Rumen Epithelium Induced by Butyrate Infusion in Dairy Cattle in Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Li, Robert W; Jia, Yankai; Li, Cong-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of butyrate infusion on rumen epithelial transcriptome. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics are used to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion at the level of the whole transcriptome. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methylation, and plays a prominent role in regulating genomic activities influencing rumen nutrition utilization and function. Ruminal infusion of butyrate was following 0-hour sampling (baseline controls) and continued for 168 hours at a rate of 5.0 L/day of a 2.5 M solution as a continuous infusion. Following the 168-hour infusion, the infusion was stopped, and cows were maintained on the basal lactation ration for an additional 168 hours for sampling. Rumen epithelial samples were serially collected via biopsy through rumen fistulae at 0-, 24-, 72-, and 168-hour (D1, D3, D7) and 168-hour post-infusion (D14). In comparison with pre-infusion at 0 hours, a total of 3513 genes were identified to be impacted in the rumen epithelium by butyrate infusion at least once at different sampling time points at a stringent cutoff of false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.01. The maximal effect of butyrate was observed at day 7. Among these impacted genes, 117 genes were responsive consistently from day 1 to day 14, and another 42 genes were lasting through day 7. Temporal effects induced by butyrate infusion indicate that the transcriptomic alterations are very dynamic. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that in the early stage of rumen butyrate infusion (on day 1 and day 3 of butyrate infusion), the transcriptomic effects in the rumen epithelium were involved with mitotic cell cycle process, cell cycle process, and regulation of cell cycle. Bioinformatic analysis of cellular functions

  14. In vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of calcium [1-14C]butyrate in free or protected forms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate is a by-product of microbial carbohydrate fermentation that occurs primarily in the large intestine. When added to feed, butyrate quickly disappears in the upper digestive tract. Because butyrate is important for the epithelial cell development and for mucosal integrity, and for animal grow...

  15. Properties of polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films with citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuaiyang; Ren, Junli; Li, Weiying; Sun, Runcang; Liu, Shijie

    2014-03-15

    Composite films of xylan and polyvinyl alcohol were produced with citric acid as a new plasticizer or a cross-linking agent. The effects of citric acid content and polyvinyl alcohol/xylan weight ratio on the mechanical properties, thermal stability, solubility, degree of swelling and water vapor permeability of the composite films were investigated. The intermolecular interactions and morphology of composite films were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and SEM. The results indicated that polyvinyl alcohol/xylan composite films had good compatibility. With an increase in citric acid content from 10% to 50%, the tensile strength reduced from 35.1 to 11.6 MPa. However, the elongation at break increased sharply from 15.1% to 249.5%. The values of water vapor permeability ranged from 2.35 to 2.95 × 10(-7)g/(mm(2)h). Interactions between xylan and polyvinyl alcohol in the presence of citric acid become stronger, which were caused by hydrogen bond and ester bond formation among the components during film forming. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P < 0.05 in Exp. 2) the proportion of rumen butyrate, and acetate infusion increased (P < 0.05) rumen acetate. All animals were in positive N balance (4.2 g N/d in Exp. 1; 7.0 g N/d in Exp. 2), but no difference in N retention was observed between treatments. In Exp. 2, urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( < 0.05) by Na-But compared with the Na-Ac control. In Exp. 1, although But-Buf infusion increased the FSR of rumen papillae (35.3% ± 1.08%/d vs. 28.7% ± 1.08%/d; P < 0.05), urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on

  17. Feed-drug interaction of orally applied butyrate and phenobarbital on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in chickens.

    PubMed

    Mátis, G; Kulcsár, A; Petrilla, J; Hermándy-Berencz, K; Neogrády, Zs

    2016-08-01

    The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes may be affected by several nutrition-derived compounds, such as by the commonly applied feed additive butyrate, possibly leading to feed-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to provide some evidence if butyrate can alter the activity of hepatic CYPs in chickens exposed to CYP-inducing xenobiotics, monitoring for the first time the possibility of such interaction. Ross 308 chickens in the grower phase were treated with daily intracoelomal phenobarbital (PB) injection (80 mg/kg BW), applied as a non-specific CYP-inducer, simultaneously with two different doses of intra-ingluvial sodium butyrate boluses (0.25 and 1.25 g/kg BW) for 5 days. Activity of CYP2H and CYP3A subfamilies was assessed by specific enzyme assays from isolated liver microsomes. According to our results, the lower dose of orally administered butyrate significantly attenuated the PB-triggered elevation of both hepatic CYP2H and CYP3A activities, which might be in association with the partly common signalling pathways of butyrate and CYP-inducing drugs, such as that of PB. Based on these data, butyrate may take part in pharmacoepigenetic interactions with simultaneously applied drugs or other CYP-inducing xenobiotics, with possible consequences for food safety and pharmacotherapy. Butyrate was found to be capable to maintain physiological CYP activity by attenuating CYP induction, underlining the safety of butyrate application in poultry nutrition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran.

    PubMed

    Vaseji, N; Mojgani, N; Amirinia, C; Iranmanesh, M

    2012-06-01

    Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4) in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples by GC method. Probiotic yogurt samples were prepared under laboratory scale conditions using two different commercial starters ABY1 and 211, while ordinary yogurt samples lacked the probiotic starter cultures. All samples were analyzed in duplicate, for C4 concentrations by gas chromatography after day 1, 2, 10 and 20 of production, during storage at 4°C. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test. The level of the mentioned fatty acid in ABY1 yogurt sample was significantly higher (0.2%) than in 211 samples (0.17%). These values were significantly lower in ordinary yogurt samples and only 0.07% was recorded in these samples on first day of storage which decreased gradually during storage. The level of reduction in the yogurt samples tested during different time intervals was not similar in all the examined samples, and some showed enhanced reduction than other samples. Compared to ordinary yogurt samples, probiotic yogurt samples used in study showed higher levels of butyric acid with increased shelf life.

  19. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vaseji, N; Mojgani, N; Amirinia, C; Iranmanesh, M

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4) in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples by GC method. Materials and Methods Probiotic yogurt samples were prepared under laboratory scale conditions using two different commercial starters ABY1 and 211, while ordinary yogurt samples lacked the probiotic starter cultures. All samples were analyzed in duplicate, for C4 concentrations by gas chromatography after day 1, 2, 10 and 20 of production, during storage at 4°C. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test. Results The level of the mentioned fatty acid in ABY1 yogurt sample was significantly higher (0.2%) than in 211 samples (0.17%). These values were significantly lower in ordinary yogurt samples and only 0.07% was recorded in these samples on first day of storage which decreased gradually during storage. The level of reduction in the yogurt samples tested during different time intervals was not similar in all the examined samples, and some showed enhanced reduction than other samples. Conclusions Compared to ordinary yogurt samples, probiotic yogurt samples used in study showed higher levels of butyric acid with increased shelf life. PMID:22973475

  20. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production from glucose and xylose.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongxin; Yu, Le; Lin, Meng; Wang, Jufang; Xiu, Zhilong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a promising microorganism for butyric acid production. However, its ability to utilize xylose, the second most abundant sugar found in lignocellulosic biomass, is severely impaired by glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, CCR in C. tyrobutyricum was eliminated by overexpressing three heterologous xylose catabolism genes (xylT, xylA and xlyB) cloned from C. acetobutylicum. Compared to the parental strain, the engineered strain Ct-pTBA produced more butyric acid (37.8g/L vs. 19.4g/L) from glucose and xylose simultaneously, at a higher xylose utilization rate (1.28g/L·h vs. 0.16g/L·h) and efficiency (94.3% vs. 13.8%), resulting in a higher butyrate productivity (0.53g/L·h vs. 0.26g/L·h) and yield (0.32g/g vs. 0.28g/g). When the initial total sugar concentration was ~120g/L, both glucose and xylose utilization rates increased with increasing their respective concentration or ratio in the co-substrates but the total sugar utilization rate remained almost unchanged in the fermentation at pH 6.0. Decreasing the pH to 5.0 significantly decreased sugar utilization rates and butyrate productivity, but the effect was more pronounced for xylose than glucose. The addition of benzyl viologen (BV) as an artificial electron carrier facilitated the re-assimilation of acetate and increased butyrate production to a final titer of 46.4g/L, yield of 0.43g/g sugar consumed, productivity of 0.87g/L·h, and acid purity of 98.3% in free-cell batch fermentation, which were the highest ever reported for butyric acid fermentation. The engineered strain with BV addition thus can provide an economical process for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inkjet-printed Polyvinyl Alcohol Multilayers.

    PubMed

    Salaoru, Iulia; Zhou, Zuoxin; Morris, Peter; Gibbons, Gregory J

    2017-05-11

    Inkjet printing is a modern method for polymer processing, and in this work, we demonstrate that this technology is capable of producing polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multilayer structures. A polyvinyl alcohol aqueous solution was formulated. The intrinsic properties of the ink, such as surface tension, viscosity, pH, and time stability, were investigated. The PVOH-based ink was a neutral solution (pH 6.7) with a surface tension of 39.3 mN/m and a viscosity of 7.5 cP. The ink displayed pseudoplastic (non-Newtonian shear thinning) behavior at low shear rates, and overall, it demonstrated good time stability. The wettability of the ink on different substrates was investigated, and glass was identified as the most suitable substrate in this particular case. A proprietary 3D inkjet printer was employed to manufacture polymer multilayer structures. The morphology, surface profile, and thickness uniformity of inkjet-printed multilayers were evaluated via optical microscopy.

  2. Cross-feeding between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria explains bifdobacterial competitiveness, butyrate production, and gas production.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2011-09-01

    Inulin-type fructans are not digested and reach the human colon intact, where they are selectively fermented by the colon microbiota, in particular bifidobacteria. As a result, they are converted, directly or indirectly, to short-chain fatty acids and other organic acids, as well as gases, and lead to both bifidogenic and butyrogenic health-promoting effects. Bifidobacteria display phenotypic variation on strain level as to their capacity to degrade inulin-type fructans. Also, different chain lengths of inulin-type fructans may stimulate different subgroups within the bifidobacterial population. The end-metabolites of inulin-type fructan degradation by bifidobacteria reflect their growth rates on these polymers. Other colon bacteria are also able to degrade inulin-type fructans, as is the case for lactobacilli, Bacteroides, certain enterobacteria, and butyrate producers. Bacterial cross-feeding mechanisms in the colon lay at the basis of overall butyrate production, a functional characteristic of several colon bacteria that is always accompanied by gas production. Finally, specificity of polysaccharide use by the colon microbiota may determine diet-induced alterations in the microbiota and consequent metabolic effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interleukin-15 promotes intestinal dysbiosis with butyrate deficiency associated with increased susceptibility to colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Meisel, Marlies; Mayassi, Toufic; Fehlner-Peach, Hannah

    2016-09-20

    Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and play a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored. Analysis of 16S rRNA-based inventories of bacterial communities in mice overexpressing IL-15 inmore » the intestinal epithelium (v-IL-15tg mice) shows distinct changes in the composition of the intestinal bacteria. While some alterations are specific to individual intestinal compartments, others are found across the ileum, cecum, and feces. In particular, IL-15 overexpression restructures the composition of the microbiota with a decrease in butyrate producing bacteria that is associated with a reduction in luminal butyrate levels across all intestinal compartments. Fecal microbiota transplant experiments of wild-type and v-IL-15tg microbiota into germ-free mice further indicate that diminishing butyrate concentration observed in the intestinal lumen of v-IL-15tg mice is the result of intrinsic alterations in the microbiota induced by IL-15. This reconfiguration of the microbiota is associated with increased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis. Altogether, this study reveals that IL-15 impacts butyrate-producing bacteria and lowers butyrate levels in the absence of overt pathology, which represent events that precede and promote intestinal inflammatory diseases.« less

  4. 78 FR 39256 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From...) is rescinding its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from... CCPC to the Department, ``Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Withdrawal of Administrative Review Request...

  5. Butyrate modulates TGF-beta1 generation and function: potential renal benefit for Acacia(sen) SUPERGUM (gum arabic)?

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, N; Riley, S; Fraser, D; Al-Assaf, S; Ishimura, E; Wolever, T; Phillips, G O; Phillips, A O

    2006-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that high fibre supplementation of dietary intake may have health benefits in renal disease related to alterations in circulating levels of short-chain fatty acids. The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis that dietary manipulation may increase serum butyrate and thus have potential beneficial effects in renal disease. We examined the effect of dietary supplementation with a gum arabic sample of standardized molecular characteristics, Acacia(sen) SUPERGUM EM2 (SUPERGUM), on systemic levels of butyrate in normal human subjects. In an in vitro study, we also examined the potential role of butyrate in modifying the generation of the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1) by renal epithelial cells. Following 8 weeks of dietary supplementation with 25 g/day of SUPERGUM, there was a two-fold increase in serum butyrate (n=7, P=0.03). In vitro work demonstrated that exposure of renal epithelial cells to elevated concentrations of butyrate suppressed both basal and stimulated TGF-beta1 synthesis. The action of butyrate was mediated by suppression of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway. In addition, butyrate exposures reduced the response of renal epithelial cells to TGF-beta1 as assessed by luciferase activity of a TGF-beta-responsive reporter construct. Attenuation of TGF-beta1 signalling was associated with reduced phosphorylation of Smad 3 and decreased trafficking of TGF-beta1 receptors into signalling, non-lipid raft-associated membrane fractions. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that dietary supplementation with SUPERGU increased serum butyrate, which at least in vitro has beneficial effects on renal pro-fibrotic cytokine generation.

  6. Influence of resistant starch on the SCFA production and cell counts of butyrate-producing Eubacterium spp. in the human intestine.

    PubMed

    Schwiertz, A; Lehmann, U; Jacobasch, G; Blaut, M

    2002-01-01

    The genus Eubacterium, which is the second most common genus in the human intestine, includes several known butyrate producers. We hypothesized that Eubacterium species play a role in the intestinal butyrate production and are inducible by resistant starch. In a human pilot study species-specific and group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted, Cy3 (indocarbocyanine)-labelled oligonucleotide probes were used to quantify butyrogenic species of the genera Eubacterium, Clostridium and Ruminococcus. Following the intake of RS type III a significant increase in faecal butyrate but not in total SCFA was observed. However, increase in butyrate was not accompanied by a proliferation in the targeted bacteria. The tested Eubacterium species have the capacity to produce butyrate but do not appear to play a major role for butyric acid production in the human intestine. In view of the fact that the bacteria responsible for butyrate production are largely unknown, it is still difficult to devise a dietary intervention to stimulate butyrogenic bacteria in a targeted way.

  7. Effect of polyvinyl siloxane impression material on the polymerization of composite resin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Kleverlaan, Cornelis Johannes; Liang, Kunneng; Yang, Deqin

    2017-04-01

    Polyvinyl siloxane impression material has been widely used as a lingual matrix for rebuilding missing tooth structure with composite resin. The composite resin is light polymerized in contact with the polyvinyl siloxane impression material. However, polyvinyl siloxane impression material has been shown to interact with other dental materials. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials on the polymerization of composite resins by assessing the Vickers microhardness and degree of conversion of polyvinyl siloxane. The composite resins were light polymerized in contact with 3 polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Flexitime Easy Putty; President Light Body; Xantopren L Blue) (n=8) and in contact with a matrix strip as the control group (n=8). Vickers microhardness and degree of conversion on contact surfaces were measured to evaluate the polymerization of composite resins. The depth of the effect was assessed by Vickers microhardness on section surfaces and observed with scanning electron microscopy. The results were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey honest significant differences test (α=.05). The Vickers microhardness and degree of conversion values on the contact surfaces of the experiment groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<.05); the Vickers microhardness values on the section surfaces indicated that there was no significant difference at the same depth of different groups (P>.05). The scanning electron microscope observation showed that an approximately 10-μm deep unpolymerized layer was found in the experimental group. Polyvinyl siloxane impression materials have an inhibitory effect on the polymerization of the composite resins, but just limited to within approximately 10 μm from the surface in contact with the impression material. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14 days. DATES: Comments. The public... for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production Rule, the EPA is extending...

  9. Transcriptomic impacts of rumen epithelium induced by butyrate infusion in dairy cattle in dry period

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcriptomics and bioinformatics are utilized to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is an HDAC inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methyl...

  10. Regulation of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) promoter by butyrate in human intestinal epithelial cells: involvement of NF-kappaB pathway.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Alip; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A; Ramaswamy, Krishnamurthy; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2008-04-01

    Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates in the colon, constitutes the major fuel for colonocytes. We have earlier shown the role of apically localized monocarboxylate transporter isoform 1 (MCT1) in transport of butyrate into human colonic Caco-2 cells. In an effort to study the regulation of MCT1 gene, we and others have cloned the promoter region of the MCT1 gene and identified cis elements for key transcription factors. A previous study has shown up-regulation of MCT1 expression, and activity by butyrate in AA/C1 human colonic epithelial cells, however, the detailed mechanisms of this up-regulation are not known. In this study, we demonstrate that butyrate, a substrate for MCT1, stimulates MCT1 promoter activity in Caco-2 cells. This effect was dose dependent and specific to butyrate as other predominant SCFAs, acetate, and propionate, were ineffective. Utilizing progressive deletion constructs of the MCT1 promoter, we showed that the putative butyrate responsive elements are in the -229/+91 region of the promoter. Butyrate stimulation of the MCT1 promoter was found to be independent of PKC, PKA, and tyrosine kinases. However, specific inhibitors of the NF-kappaB pathway, lactacystein (LC), and caffeic acid phenyl ester (CAPE) significantly reduced the MCT1 promoter stimulation by butyrate. Also, butyrate directly stimulated NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter activity. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) also stimulated MCT1 promoter activity, however, unlike butyrate, this stimulation was unaltered by the NF-kappaB inhibitors. Further, the combined effect of butyrate, and TSA on MCT1 promoter activity was additive, indicating that their mechanisms of action were independent. Our results demonstrate the involvement of NF-kappaB pathway in the regulation of MCT1 promoter activity by butyrate. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. [Isolation and identification of a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium and its primary metabolic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wei-yun; Yao, Wen; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2007-06-01

    The distal mammalian gut harbors prodigiously abundant microbes, which provide unique metabolic traits to host. A lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain LB01, was isolated from adult swine feces by utilizing modified Hungate technique with rumen liquid-independent YCFA medium supplemented with lactate as the single carbon source. It was an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium, and could utilize glucose, fructose, maltose and lactate with a large amount of gas products. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that it had the high similarity with members of the genus Megasphaera. The metabolic characteristics of strain LB01 was investigated by using in vitro fermentation system. Lactate at the concentration of 65 mmol/L in YCFA medium was rapidly consumed within 9 hours and was mainly converted to propionate and butyrate after 24h. As the level of acetate declined, the concentration of butyrate rose only in the presence of glucose, suggesting that butyrate could possibly be synthesized by the acetyl CoA: butyryl CoA transferase. When co-cultured with lactic acid bacteria strain K9, strain LB01 evidently reduced the concentration of lactate produced by strain K9 and decelerated the rapid pH drop, finally producing 12.11 mmol/L butyrate and 4.06 mmol/L propionate. The metabolic characteristics that strain LB01 efficiently converts toxic lactate and excessive acetate to butyrate can prevent lactate and acetate accumulation in the large intestine and maintain the slightly acidic environment of the large intestine, consequently revealing that stain LB01 could act as a potential probiotics.

  12. Bioinformatic dissecting of TP53 regulation pathway underlying butyrate-induced histone modification in epigenetic regulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Butyrate affects cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. TP53 is one of the most active upstream regulators discovered by IPA in our RNA sequencing data set. The TP53 signaling pathway pl...

  13. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral butyrate reduces oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesion sites by a mechanism involving NADPH oxidase down-regulation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Edenil C; Santos, Lana Claudinez Dos; Leonel, Alda J; de Oliveira, Jamil Silvano; Santos, Elândia Aparecida; Navia-Pelaez, Juliana M; da Silva, Josiane Fernandes; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Capettini, Luciano S A; Teixeira, Lilian G; Lemos, Virginia S; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a 4-carbon fatty acid that has antiinflammatory and antioxidative properties. It has been demonstrated that butyrate is able to reduce atherosclerotic development in animal models by reducing inflammatory factors. However, the contribution of its antioxidative effects of butyrate on atherogenesis has not yet been studied. We investigated the influence of butyrate on oxidative status, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release and oxidative enzymes (NADPH oxidase and iNOS) in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice and in oxLDL-stimulated peritoneal macrophages and endothelial cells (EA.hy926). The lesion area in aorta was reduced while in the aortic valve, although lesion area was unaltered, superoxide production and protein nitrosylation were reduced in butyrate-supplemented mice. Peritoneal macrophages from the butyrate group presented a lower free radical release after zymosan stimulus. When endothelial cells were pretreated with butyrate before oxLDL stimulus, the CCL-2 and superoxide ion productions and NADPH oxidase subunit p22phox were reduced. In macrophage cultures, in addition to a reduction in ROS release, nitric oxide and iNOS expression were down-regulated. The data suggest that one mechanism related to the effect of butyrate on atherosclerotic development is the reduction of oxidative stress in the lesion site. The reduction of oxidative stress related to NADPH oxidase and iNOS expression levels associated to butyrate supplementation attenuates endothelium dysfunction and macrophage migration and activation in the lesion site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Acute Butyr-Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report with Postmortem Concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Wright, Jennifer; Mena, Othon

    2016-03-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of butyr-fentanyl in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of intravenous drug abuse was found unresponsive on the bathroom floor of his home. Drug paraphernalia was located on the bathroom counter. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, subsequently confirmed butyr-fentanyl, which was then quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. The butyr-fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 58 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 97 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 320 ng/g, the vitreous was 40 ng/mL, the urine was 670 ng/mL and the gastric contained 170 mg. Acetyl-fentanyl was also detected in all biological specimens tested. Peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 38 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 32 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 110 ng/g, the vitreous was 38 ng/mL, the urine was 540 ng/mL and the gastric contained <70 mg. The only other drug detected was a relatively low concentration of benzoylecgonine. The cause of death was certified as acute butyr-fentanyl, acetyl-fentanyl and cocaine intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as accident. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Joseph F; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (∼ 11A/m(2)) and Coulombic efficiency (∼ 70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ∼ 80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed microbial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparing oxidized fractions of polyvinyl alcohol of a given molecular mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of two oxidizers (an oxygen-ozone mixture and hydrogen peroxide) on the kinetics of the oxidative degradation of polyvinyl alcohol in aqueous solutions is studied. Degradation of the polymer is proved not only by a reduction in the weight of oxidized fractions, but in the intrinsic viscosity of their aqueous solutions as well (and thus the average molecular weight of the resulting fractions). It is shown that the degree of the destructive reactions of polyvinyl alcohol grows along with the duration of the process, increasing the initial concentrations of H2O2 and raising the temperature. These results can be used in obtaining oxidized fractions of polyvinyl alcohol that have predetermined molecular weights.

  18. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. Results In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. Conclusions This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as

  19. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Xi-Hong; Li, Xue-Hu; Xin, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Jia-Rong; Zhao, Mei-Rong; Wang, Liang; Du, Wen-Yue; Liang, Jian-Ping

    2014-02-18

    Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as a first step in a combined

  20. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

  1. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found to produce butyrate under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations using Lactobacilli MRS Broth produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from glucose (0.48 g/g glucose). However, the strain was not capable of utilizing five carbon sugars. To assess the a...

  2. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  3. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  4. Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids increase the rate of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rumberger, John M.; Arch, Jonathan R.S.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prolonged treatment with butyrate (5 mM) increased the rate of lipolysis approximately 2–3-fold. Aminobutyric acid and acetate had little or no effect on lipolysis, however propionate stimulated lipolysis, suggesting that butyrate and propionate act through their shared activity as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Consistent with this, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (1 µM) also stimulated lipolysis to a similar extent as did butyrate. Western blot data suggested that neither mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation nor perilipin down-regulation are necessary for SCFA-induced lipolysis. Stimulation of lipolysis with butyrate and trichostatin A was glucose-dependent. Changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation mediated by glucose were independent of changes in rates of lipolysis. The glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate prevented both butyrate- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-(TNF-α) mediated increases in rates of lipolysis indicating glucose metabolism is required. However, unlike TNF-α– , butyrate-stimulated lipolysis was not associated with increased lactate release or inhibited by activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) with dichloroacetate. These data demonstrate an important relationship between lipolytic activity and reported HDAC inhibitory activity of butyrate, other short-chain fatty acids and trichostatin A. Given that HDAC inhibitors are presently being evaluated for the treatment of diabetes and other disorders, more work will be essential to determine if these effects on lipolysis are due to inhibition of HDAC. PMID:25320679

  5. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n=38), Aves (n=8) and Reptilia (n=8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large ‘unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  6. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  7. Steering Endogenous Butyrate Production in the Intestinal Tract of Broilers as a Tool to Improve Gut Health

    PubMed Central

    Onrust, Lonneke; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Driessche, Karolien; De Maesschalck, Celine; Vermeulen, Karen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The ban on antimicrobial growth promoters and efforts to reduce therapeutic antibiotic usage has led to major problems of gastrointestinal dysbiosis in livestock production in Europe. Control of dysbiosis without the use of antibiotics requires a thorough understanding of the interaction between the microbiota and the host mucosa. The gut microbiota of the healthy chicken is highly diverse, producing various metabolic end products, including gases and fermentation acids. The distal gut knows an abundance of bacteria from within the Firmicutes Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa that produce butyric acid, which is one of the metabolites that are sensed by the host as a signal. The host responds by strengthening the epithelial barrier, reducing inflammation, and increasing the production of mucins and antimicrobial peptides. Stimulating the colonization and growth of butyrate-producing bacteria thus may help optimizing gut health. Various strategies are available to stimulate butyrate production in the distal gut. These include delivery of prebiotic substrates that are broken down by bacteria into smaller molecules which are then used by butyrate producers, a concept called cross-feeding. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are such compounds as they can be converted to lactate, which is further metabolized to butyrate. Probiotic lactic acid producers can be supplied to support the cross-feeding reactions. Direct feeding of butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa strains are a future tool provided that large scale production of strictly anaerobic bacteria can be optimized. Current results of strategies that promote butyrate production in the gut are promising. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the intestinal ecosystem is still insufficient, and further research efforts are needed to fully exploit the capacity of these strategies. PMID:26734618

  8. Butyric acid stimulates bone sialoprotein gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Zhitao; Wang, Shuang; Sasaki, Yoko; Takai, Hideki; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2010-06-01

    Butyric acid (sodium butyrate; BA) is an extracellular metabolite secreted from periodontopathic bacteria present in subgingival plaque. BA induces apoptosis of T and B cells, and acts as a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone, and may be crucial for osteoblast differentiation, bone matrix mineralization and tumor metastasis. In the present study we investigated the regulation of BSP transcription by BA in rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. At 12 h, BA (10(-4) M) increased the level of BSP mRNA, and enhanced the luciferase activity of the construct pLUC3, which includes the promoter sequence between nucleotides -116 and +60. Transcriptional stimulation by BA was abrogated in the pLUC3 construct which containing a 2-bp mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE). Gel shift analyses showed that BA increased the binding of nuclear protein to FRE. These data suggest that BA increases the transcription of the BSP gene mediated through FRE in the rat BSP gene promoter, and induces osteoblast activity in the early stage of bone formation.

  9. Kinetics of acetate, propionate and butyrate removal in the treatment of a semi-synthetic landfill leachate on anaerobic filter.

    PubMed

    Gourdon, R; Comel, C; Vermande, P; Véron, J

    1989-04-05

    The kinetics of acetate, propionate, and butyrate removal was studied in conditions of leachate treatment in a plug flow anaerobic fixed-film reactor made of a sequence of seven perfectly mixed compartments. An original experimental procedure was followed under sequential feeding conditions so as to maintain the Bacteriol biomass in a quasi-steady state all along the study. With an appropriate computer program based on the least squares method, the apparent kinetic parameters of VFA removal were calculated within concentration ranges below the levels of salt inhibition. The models proposed are based on simple theoretical considerations. For acetate and n-butyrate removal, the best fits were given by the Michaelis-Menten equation with respectively: V(m) (spec) = 0.49 +/- 0.06 g CH(3) COOH g(-1) biomass h(-1)and 0.18 +/- 0.02 g n-CH(3)CH(2)CH(2)COOH g(-1) biomass h(-1) and: K(s) = 21.2 +/- 0.9 g CH(3)COOH L(-1) liquid phase and 8.2 +/- 0.9 g n-CH(3)CH(2)CH(2)COOH L(-1) liquid phase, Iso-butyrate was produced during n-butyrate catabolism and the apparent removal rate of (n + iso)-butyrate considered as a whole was also described by the Michaelis-Menten equation with V(m) (spec) = 0.14 +/- 0.02 g(n + iso)-butyrate g(-1) biomass h(-1) and K(s) = 9.0 +/- 1.2 g (n + iso) butyrate L(-1) liquid phase. On the other hand in the case of propionate, the best fit was obtained with a first-order equation with K(spec) = (0.88 +/- 0.05) 10(-2) L liquid phase g(-1) biomass h(-1). These constants were subsequently used to predict the removal of mixtures of the three major VFAs under study, at various feed concentrations. Three sets of concentrations were tested, and the experimental data were compared to the simulations. This study, together with other experimental observations previously reported, tends to show that under sequential feeding conditions the classical assumption of butyrate beta-oxidation should be rejected. Butyrate seems to be anaerobically decarboxylated, but

  10. Enhanced extraction of butyric acid under high-pressure CO2 conditions to integrate chemical catalysis for value-added chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Chun, Jaesung; Choi, Okkyoung; Sang, Byoung-In

    2018-01-01

    Extractive fermentation with the removal of carboxylic acid requires low pH conditions because acids are better partitioned into the solvent phase at low pH values. However, this requirement conflicts with the optimal near-neutral pH conditions for microbial growth. CO 2 pressurization was used, instead of the addition of chemicals, to decrease pH for the extraction of butyric acid, a fermentation product of Clostridium tyrobutyricum , and butyl butyrate was selected as an extractant. CO 2 pressurization (50 bar) improved the extraction efficiency of butyric acid from a solution at pH 6, yielding a distribution coefficient ( D ) 0.42. In situ removal of butyric acid during fermentation increased the production of butyric acid by up to 4.10 g/L h, an almost twofold increase over control without the use of an extraction process. In situ extraction of butyric acid using temporal CO 2 pressurization may be applied to an integrated downstream catalytic process for upgrading butyric acid to value-added chemicals in an organic solvent.

  11. Short Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon and Peripheral Tissues: A Focus on Butyrate, Colon Cancer, Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    McNabney, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased dietary fiber consumption has been associated with many beneficial effects, including amelioration of obesity and insulin resistance. These effects may be due to the increased production of short chain fatty acids, including propionate, acetate and butyrate, during fermentation of the dietary fiber in the colon. Indeed, oral and dietary supplementation of butyrate alone has been shown to prevent high fat-diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. This review focuses on sources of short chain fatty acids, with emphasis on sources of butyrate, mechanisms of fiber and butyrate metabolism in the gut and its protective effects on colon cancer and the peripheral effects of butyrate supplementation in peripheral tissues in the prevention and reversal of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:29231905

  12. Molecular Pathways: Gene-environment interactions regulating dietary fiber induction of proliferation and apoptosis via butyrate for cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bultman, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions are so numerous and biologically complicated that it can be challenging to understand their role in cancer. However, dietary fiber and colorectal cancer prevention may represent a tractable model system. Fiber is fermented by colonic bacteria into short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate. One molecular pathway that has emerged involves butyrate having differential effects depending on its concentration and the metabolic state of the cell. Low-moderate concentrations, which are present near the base of colonic crypts, are readily metabolized in the mitochondria to stimulate cell proliferation via energetics. Higher concentrations, which are present near the lumen, exceed the metabolic capacity of the colonocyte. Unmetabolized butyrate enters the nucleus and functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that epigenetically regulates gene expression to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis as the colonocytes exfoliate into the lumen. Butyrate may therefore play a role in normal homeostasis by promoting turnover of the colonic epithelium. Because cancerous colonocytes undergo the Warburg effect, their preferred energy source is glucose instead of butyrate. Consequently, even moderate concentrations of butyrate accumulate in cancerous colonocytes and function as HDAC inhibitors to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. These findings implicate a bacterial metabolite with metaboloepigenetic properties in tumor suppression. PMID:24270685

  13. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    PubMed

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  14. Production of butyrate from lysine and the Amadori product fructoselysine by a human gut commensal.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Ritari, Jarmo; Boeren, Sjef; de Waard, Pieter; Plugge, Caroline M; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-12-01

    Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products.

  15. Production of butyrate from lysine and the Amadori product fructoselysine by a human gut commensal

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Ritari, Jarmo; Boeren, Sjef; de Waard, Pieter; Plugge, Caroline M.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products. PMID:26620920

  16. Simultaneous Clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Corjan; Heeres, Arjan S; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20 g L(-1). To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to perform simultaneously clostridial fermentation, esterification of the formed butanol to butyl butyrate, and extraction of this ester by hexadecane. The very high partition coefficient of butyl butyrate pulls the esterification towards the product side even at fermentation pH and relatively low butanol concentrations. The hexadecane extractant is a model diesel compound and is nontoxic to the cells. If butyl butyrate enriched diesel can directly be used as car fuel, no product recovery is required. A proof-of-principle experiment for the one-pot bio-ester production from glucose led to 5 g L(-1) butyl butyrate in the hexadecane phase. The principle may be extended to a wide range of esters, especially to longer chain ones. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Production of butyric acid from acid hydrolysate of corn husk in fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum: kinetics and process economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhiping; Cheng, Chu; Bao, Teng; Liu, Lujie; Wang, Bin; Tao, Wenjing; Pei, Xun; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Minqi

    2018-01-01

    Butyric acid is an important chemical currently produced from petrochemical feedstocks. Its production from renewable, low-cost biomass in fermentation has attracted large attention in recent years. In this study, the feasibility of corn husk, an abundant agricultural residue, for butyric acid production by using Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was evaluated. Hydrolysis of corn husk (10% solid loading) with 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 at 110 °C for 6 h resulted in a hydrolysate containing ~ 50 g/L total reducing sugars (glucose:xylose = 1.3:1.0). The hydrolysate was used for butyric acid fermentation by C. tyrobutyricum in a FBB, which gave 42.6 and 53.0% higher butyric acid production from glucose and xylose, respectively, compared to free-cell fermentations. Fermentation with glucose and xylose mixture (1:1) produced 50.37 ± 0.04 g L -1 butyric acid with a yield of 0.38 ± 0.02 g g -1 and productivity of 0.34 ± 0.03 g L -1  h -1 . Batch fermentation with corn husk hydrolysate produced 21.80 g L -1 butyric acid with a yield of 0.39 g g -1 , comparable to those from glucose. Repeated-batch fermentations consistently produced 20.75 ± 0.65 g L -1 butyric acid with an average yield of 0.39 ± 0.02 g g -1 in three consecutive batches. An extractive fermentation process can be used to produce, separate, and concentrate butyric acid to > 30% (w/v) sodium butyrate at an economically attractive cost for application as an animal feed supplement. A high concentration of total reducing sugars at ~ 50% (w/w) yield was obtained from corn husk after acid hydrolysis. Stable butyric acid production from corn husk hydrolysate was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with C. tyrobutyricum immobilized in a FBB, demonstrating that corn husk can be used as an economical substrate for butyric acid production.

  18. Dietary sodium gluconate protects rats from large bowel cancer by stimulating butyrate production.

    PubMed

    Kameue, Chiyoko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yamada, Kouji; Koyama, Hironari; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Nakayama, Keizo; Ushida, Kazunari

    2004-04-01

    Butyrate has an antitumorigenic effect on colorectal cancer cell lines. Dietary sodium gluconate (GNA) promotes butyrate production in the large intestine. Accordingly, we examined the effect of dietary GNA on tumorigenesis in the large intestine in rats. Male Fisher-344 rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups: 2 diets (with or without 50 g GNA/kg basal diet) x 2 treatments (with or without carcinogen administration). Colonic tumors were induced by 3 intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body wt, 1 time/wk) and dietary deoxycholic acid (2 g/kg basal diet). The experiment was conducted for 33 wk except for a few rats. Ingestion of GNA increased cecal butyrate concentration at the end of experiment (P < 0.01). No tumor development occurred in the untreated groups. Ingestion of GNA decreased the incidence of tumors in rats administered the carcinogen (37.5 vs. 100%, P < 0.05). Ingestion of GNA also decreased the mean number of tumors per rat (0.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 2.8 +/- 1.5, P < 0.01). beta-Catenin accumulation and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in tumors were histochemically examined. The results of this study suggested that the antitumorigenic effect of GNA may involve the stimulation of apoptosis through enhanced butyrate production in the large intestine.

  19. Antiproliferative effect of alkylglycerols as vehicles of butyric acid on colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Molina, S; Moran-Valero, M I; Martin, D; Vázquez, L; Vargas, T; Torres, C F; Ramirez de Molina, A; Reglero, G

    2013-01-01

    The anticarcinogenic activity of synthetic 1-O-octadecyl-2,3-dibutyroilglycerol (D-SCAKG) in tumor-cell line of colonocytes (SW620) was performed. The effect of the previously digested D-SCAKG under in vitro intestinal conditions was compared to the bioactivity of non-digested D-SCAKG. Antiproliferative activity of each individual product from digestion (1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol; 1-O-octadecyl glycerol; butyric acid) was also performed. The impact of solubilization of lipid products within micellar structures was also tested. The 1-O-octadecyl glycerol was the most active compound, followed by 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol, D-SCAKG and butyric acid. The 1-O-octadecyl glycerol and butyric acid were the only molecules that showed antiproliferative effect in absence of micelles. Digested D-SCAKG was 4-fold more effective than non-digested D-SCAKG. A synergism between 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol was evidenced. As summary, the synthetic D-SCAKG seems to be an interesting antitumoral lipid against colonocytes, especially after previous intestinal digestion, and mainly due to the synergism of the major products, namely 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol and 1-O-octadecyl glycerol. At the same time, 1-O-octadecyl-2-butyroilglycerol would constitute a stable esterified form of butyric acid for its vehiculization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of C/N ratio for butyric acid production from textile wastewater sludge by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Zhang, Jingjing; Fan, Jinfeng; Wang, Jin; Liu, He

    2012-01-01

    Increasing textile wastewaters and their biotreatment byproduct-waste activated sludge are serious pollution problems. Butyric acid production from textile wastewater sludge by anaerobic digestion at different C/N ratios was investigated. Adding starch to textile wastewater sludge with a C/N ratio of 30 increased the butyric acid concentration and percentage accounting for total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) to 21.42 g/L and 81.5%, respectively, as compared with 21.42 g/L and 10.6% of textile wastewater sludge alone. The maximum butyric acid yield (0.45 g/g VS), conversion rate (0.74 g/g VS(digest)) and production rate (2.25 g/L d) was achieved at a C/N ratio of 30. The biological toxicity of textile wastewater sludge also significantly decreased after the anaerobic digestion. The study indicated that the anaerobic co-digestion of textile wastewater sludge and carbohydrate-rich waste with appropriate C/N ratio is possible for butyric acid production.

  1. Proboscis conditioning experiments with honeybees, Apis mellifera caucasica, with butyric acid and DEET mixture as conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee.

  2. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain.

    PubMed

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-09-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l(-1) of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v(-1) ) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60-80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g(-1) of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9-1.0 g g(-1) of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for iontohporesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Prasanta; Alam, Asif Ali; Arora, Neha; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Basak, Piyali

    2013-06-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. The iontophoresis deal with the systemic delivery of the bioactive agents (drug) by applying an electric current. It is basically an injection without the needle. The iontophoretic system requires a gel-based matrix to accommodate the bioactive agent. Hydrogels have been used by many investigators in controlled-release drug delivery systems because of their good tissue compatibility and easy manipulation of swelling level and, thereby, solute permeability. In this work we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We have cross linked polyvinyl alcohol chemically with Glutaraldehyde with different wt%. FTIR study reveals the chemical changes during cross linking. Swelling in water, is done to have an idea about drug loading and drug release from the membrane. After drug loading to the hydrogels, we have studied the drug release property of the hydrogels using salicylic acid as a model drug.

  4. Increasing butyrate concentration in the distal colon by accelerating intestinal transit

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S; Heaton, K

    1997-01-01

    Background—Populations at low risk of colonic cancer consume large amounts of fibre and starch and pass acid, bulky stools. One short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate, is the colon's main energy source and inhibits malignant transformation in vitro. 
Aim—To test the hypothesis that altering colonic transit rate alters colonic pH and the SCFA content of the stools. 
Patients—Thirteen healthy adults recruited by advertisement. 
Methods—Volunteers consumed, in turn, wheat bran, senna and loperamide, each for nine days with a two week washout period between study periods, dietary intake being unchanged. Before, and in the last four days of each intervention, whole gut transit time (WGTT), defaecation frequency, stool form, stool β-glucuronidase activity, stool pH, stool SCFA concentrations and intracolonic pH (using a radiotelemetry capsule for continuous monitoring) were assessed. 
Results—WGTT decreased, stool output and frequency increased with wheat bran and senna, vice versa with loperamide. The pH was similar in the distal colon and stool. Distal colonic pH fell with wheat bran and senna and tended to increase with loperamide. Faecal SCFA concentrations, including butyrate, increased with senna and fell with loperamide. With wheat bran the changes were non-significant, possibly because of the short duration of the study. Baseline WGTT correlated with faecal SCFA concentration (r=−0.511, p=0.001), with faecal butyrate (r=−0.577, p<0.001) and with distal colonic pH (r=0.359, p=0.029). 
Conclusion—Bowel transit rate is a determinant of stool SCFA concentration including butyrate and distal colonic pH. This may explain the inter-relations between colonic cancer, dietary fibre intake, stool output, and stool pH. 

 Keywords: bowel cancer; colonic pH; fibre; intestinal transit; pH; short chain fatty acids PMID:9301506

  5. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, YunJae

    2015-12-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Dibutyric cAMP and Butyric Acid on the Differentiation of Human Eosinophilic Leukemia EoL-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purification of enough numbers of circulating eosinophils is difficult because eosinophils account for less than 5% peripheral blood leukocytes. Human eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells have been considered an in vitro source of eosinophils as they can differentiate into mature eosinophil-like cells when incubated with dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) or butyric acid. In this study, the viability and phenotypic maturation of EoL-1 cells stimulated by either dbcAMP or butyric acid were comparatively analyzed. After treatment with 100 µM dbcAMP or 0.5 µM butyric acid, EoL-1 cells showed morphological signs of differentiation, although the number of nonviable EoL-1 cells was significantly increased following butyric acid treatment. Stimulation of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid more effectively induced the expression of mature eosinophil markers than stimulation with dbcAMP. These results suggest that treatment of EoL-1 cells with 0.5 µM butyric acid for limited duration could be an effective strategy for inducing their differentiation. Considering that expression of CCR3 was not sufficient in EoL-1 cells stimulated with 0.5 µM butyric acid, treatment of the chemically stimulated EoL-1 cells with cytokines, which primarily support eosinophil maturation, would help to obtain differentiated EoL-1 cells with greater functional maturity. PMID:26770185

  7. Proboscis Conditioning Experiments with Honeybees, Apis Mellifera Caucasica, with Butyric Acid and DEET Mixture as Conditioned and Unconditioned Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul; Mixson, T. Andrew; Nolf, Sondra L.; Wells, Harrington; Kence, Aykut; Kence, Meral

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments are described investigating whether olfactory repellents DEET and butyric acid can support the classical conditioning of proboscis extension in the honeybee, Apis mellifera caucasica (Hymenoptera: Apidae). In the first experiment DEET and butyric acid readily led to standard acquisition and extinction effects, which are comparable to the use of cinnamon as a conditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that the odor of DEET or butyric acid is not intrinsically repellent to honey bees. In a second experiment, with DEET and butyric acid mixed with sucrose as an unconditioned stimulus, proboscis conditioning was not established. After several trials, few animals responded to the unconditioned stimulus. These results demonstrate that these chemicals are gustatory repellents when in direct contact. In the last experiment a conditioned suppression paradigm was used. Exposing animals to butyric acid or DEET when the proboscis was extended by direct sucrose stimulation or by learning revealed that retraction of the proboscis was similar to another novel odor, lavender, and in all cases greatest when the animal was not permitted to feed. These results again demonstrate that DEET or butyric acid are not olfactory repellents, and in addition, conditioned suppression is influenced by feeding state of the bee. PMID:20879917

  8. Modeling polyvinyl chloride Plasma Modification by Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changquan

    2018-03-01

    Neural networks model were constructed to analyze the connection between dielectric barrier discharge parameters and surface properties of material. The experiment data were generated from polyvinyl chloride plasma modification by using uniform design. Discharge voltage, discharge gas gap and treatment time were as neural network input layer parameters. The measured values of contact angle were as the output layer parameters. A nonlinear mathematical model of the surface modification for polyvinyl chloride was developed based upon the neural networks. The optimum model parameters were obtained by the simulation evaluation and error analysis. The results of the optimal model show that the predicted value is very close to the actual test value. The prediction model obtained here are useful for discharge plasma surface modification analysis.

  9. Modulation of butyrate anticancer activity by solid lipid nanoparticle delivery: an in vitro investigation on human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Foglietta, Federica; Serpe, Loredana; Canaparo, Roberto; Vivenza, Nicoletta; Riccio, Giovanna; Imbalzano, Erica; Gasco, Paolo; Zara, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Histone modification has emerged as a promising approach to cancer therapy. The short-chain fatty acid, butyric acid, a histone deacetylase (HD) inhibitor, has shown anticancer activity. Butyrate transcriptional activation is indeed able to withdraw cancer cells from the cell cycle, leading to programmed cell death. Since butyrate's clinical use is hampered by unfavorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, delivery systems, such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), have been developed to overcome these constraints. In order to outline the influence of butyrate delivery on its anticancer activity, the effects of butyrate as a free (sodium butyrate, NB) or nanoparticle (cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles, CBSLN) formulation on the growth of different human cancer cell lines, such as the promyelocytic leukemia, HL-60, and the breast cancer, MCF-7 was investigated. A detailed investigation into the mechanism of the induced cytotoxicity was also carried out, with a special focus on the modulation of HD and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) mRNA gene expression by real time PCR analysis. In HL-60 cells, CBSLN induced a higher and prolonged expression level of the butyrate target genes at lower concentrations than NB. This led to a significant decrease in cell proliferation, along with considerable apoptosis, cell cycle block in the G0/G1 phase, significant inhibition of total HD activity and overexpression of the p21 protein. Conversely, in MCF-7 cells, CBSLN did not enhance the level of expression of the butyrate target genes, leading to the same anticancer activity as that of NB. Solid lipid nanoparticles were able to improve butyrate anticancer activity in HL-60, but not in MCF-7 cells. This is consistent with difference in properties of the cells under study, such as expression of the TP53 tumor suppressor, or the transporter for short-chain fatty acids, SLC5A8.

  10. Usefulness of rectally administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate for breath test in patients with active and quiescent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kimitoshi; Ishii, Yukimoto; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Sugitani, Masahiko; Asai, Satoshi; Kohno, Tadashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Komuro, Sachiko; Iwamoto, Maho; Miyamoto, Shunpachi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arakawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-02-01

    Impaired butyrate metabolism plays a part in ulcerative colitis (UC). To assess the usefulness of measuring butyrate metabolism as an indication of inflammatory activity, we investigated the rate of butyrate metabolism by breath test after administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate rectally to patients with UC. Thirty-eight UC patients (22 active, 16 quiescent) and 15 healthy controls were given [1-(13)C]-butyrate enemas. The (13)CO2 production rate was measured by breath test using an infrared spectrometric analyzer. The quantity of expired (13)CO2 was significantly lower in the active than in the quiescent UC and control groups. Cumulative (13)CO2 production at 240 min showed significant negative correlations with the clinical activity index (r=-0.65, p<0.0001), endoscopic activity index (r=-0.63, p=0.0001) and histology (r=-0.71, p<0.0001) in the active UC group. The (13)CO2 production rate was significantly increased in the quiescent stage as compared with the active stage in six UC patients, in whom clinical remission was achieved, in accordance with improvements in the clinical activity index, the endoscopic activity index, histology and fecal butyrate concentrations. Significant inverse correlations between the cumulative (13)CO2 production rate and these three parameters were seen in these six UC patients assessed in both the active and quiescent stages. Measurement of expired (13)CO2 after rectally administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate in active and quiescent UC appears to be a promising and reliable method for evaluating disease activity and metabolic changes associated with amelioration of inflammation.

  11. Control of Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broilers by target-released butyric acid, fatty acids and essential oils.

    PubMed

    Timbermont, L; Lanckriet, A; Dewulf, J; Nollet, N; Schwarzer, K; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of target-released butyric acid, medium-chain fatty acids (C(6) to C(12) but mainly lauric acid) and essential oils (thymol, cinnamaldehyde, essential oil of eucalyptus) micro-encapsulated in a poly-sugar matrix to control necrotic enteritis was investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the different additives were determined in vitro, showing that lauric acid, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde are very effective in inhibiting the growth of Clostridium perfringens. The in vivo effects were studied in two trials in an experimental necrotic enteritis model in broiler chickens. In the first trial, four groups of chickens were fed a diet supplemented with butyric acid, with essential oils, with butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids, or with butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids and essential oils. In all groups except for the group receiving only butyric acid, a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions was found compared with the infected, untreated control group. In the second trial the same products were tested but at a higher concentration. An additional group was fed a diet supplemented with only medium-chain fatty acids. In all groups except for that receiving butyric acid in combination with medium-chain fatty acids and essential oils, a significant decrease in the number of birds with necrotic lesions was found compared with the infected, untreated control group. These results suggest that butyric acid, medium-chain fatty acids and/or essential oils may contribute to the prevention of necrotic enteritis in broilers.

  12. Recovery of Agricultural Odors and Odorous Compounds from Polyvinyl Fluoride Film Bags

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David B.; Perschbacher-Buser, Zena L.; Cole, N. Andy; Koziel, Jacek A.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human panelists using dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. The purpose of this research was to simultaneously quantify and compare recoveries of odor and odorous compounds from both commercial and homemade PVF sampling bags. A standard gas mixture consisting of p-cresol (40 μg m−3) and seven volatile fatty acids: acetic (2,311 μg m−3), propionic (15,800 μg m−3), isobutyric (1,686 μg m−3), butyric (1,049 μg m−3), isovaleric (1,236 μg m−3), valeric (643 μg m−3), and hexanoic (2,158 μg m−3) was placed in the PVF bags at times of 1 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, and 7 d prior to compound and odor concentration analyses. Compound concentrations were quantified using sorbent tubes and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Odor concentration, intensity, and hedonic tone were measured using a panel of trained human subjects. Compound recoveries ranged from 2 to 40% after 1 h and 0 to 14% after 7 d. Between 1 h and 7 d, odor concentrations increased by 45% in commercial bags, and decreased by 39% in homemade bags. Minimal changes were observed in intensity and hedonic tone over the same time period. These results suggest that PVF bags can bias individual compound concentrations and odor as measured by dynamic triangular forced-choice olfactometry. PMID:22163671

  13. A Proteomic View at the Biochemistry of Syntrophic Butyrate Oxidation in Syntrophomonas wolfei

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alexander; Müller, Nicolai; Schink, Bernhard; Schleheck, David

    2013-01-01

    In syntrophic conversion of butyrate to methane and CO2, butyrate is oxidized to acetate by secondary fermenting bacteria such as Syntrophomonas wolfei in close cooperation with methanogenic partner organisms, e.g., Methanospirillum hungatei. This process involves an energetically unfavourable shift of electrons from the level of butyryl-CoA oxidation to the substantially lower redox potential of proton and/or CO2 reduction, in order to transfer these electrons to the methanogenic partner via hydrogen and/or formate. In the present study, all prominent membrane-bound and soluble proteins expressed in S. wolfei specifically during syntrophic growth with butyrate, in comparison to pure-culture growth with crotonate, were examined by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and identified by peptide fingerprinting-mass spectrometry. A membrane-bound, externally oriented, quinone-linked formate dehydrogenase complex was expressed at high level specifically during syntrophic butyrate oxidation, comprising a selenocystein-linked catalytic subunit with a membrane-translocation pathway signal (TAT), a membrane-bound iron-sulfur subunit, and a membrane-bound cytochrome. Soluble hydrogenases were expressed at high levels specifically during growth with crotonate. The results were confirmed by native protein gel electrophoresis, by formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase-activity staining, and by analysis of formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities in intact cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, constitutive expression of a membrane-bound, internally oriented iron-sulfur oxidoreductase (DUF224) was confirmed, together with expression of soluble electron-transfer flavoproteins (EtfAB) and two previously identified butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases. Our findings allow to depict an electron flow scheme for syntrophic butyrate oxidation in S. wolfei. Electrons derived from butyryl-CoA are transferred through a membrane-bound EtfAB:quinone oxidoreductase (DUF224) to a

  14. Effect of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in the close-up diet on performance of dairy cows in the early lactation period.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Z M; Górka, P; Flaga, J; Barteczko, A; Burakowska, K; Oprządek, J; Zabielski, R

    2015-05-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effect of sodium butyrate microencapsulated within triglyceride matrix (Na-butyrate) in the close-up period on performance of dairy cows and rumen papillae development. In trial 1, 26 Holstein-Friesian cows were randomly allocated to 2 groups (13 cows/group) and fed prepartum a total mixed ration (TMR) without or with 300g of Na-butyrate/d from 30 d before expecting calving to parturition. After calving, the same lactational TMR without Na-butyrate was offered to both treatments. Dry matter intake and milk yield were monitored daily to 60 d in milk, and body condition of cows was scored on d 30, 21, and 4 before parturition and d 14, 31, and 60 after parturition. On d 15, 10, and 5 before parturition blood samples were collected from 6 cows randomly chosen from each group and analyzed for plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations. No differences in dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield, body condition score, or plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids concentrations was observed between treatments; however, in the last 5 d before parturition the cows receiving Na-butyrate ate 1.7kg of DM/d more, on average, as compared with control cows. In trial 2, 12 Holstein-Friesian growing bulls (404±48; body weight ± SD) were used to determine the effect of Na-butyrate inclusion in the diet on rumen papillae development. Bulls were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 bulls/group) and fed TMR without or with 2% (on a dry matter basis) of Na-butyrate for 21 d. At the end of the study, bulls were killed and rumen fluid and rumen tissue samples from dorsal and ventral sac of the rumen were collected. No effect of Na-butyrate supplementation on BW of bulls and DMI during the trial period was observed. Sodium butyrate supplementation increased total short-chain fatty acid concentration in the rumen but had no effect on rumen pH, molar proportions of short-chain fatty acids, and NH3-N concentration

  15. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    PubMed

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sodium Butyrate Attenuates Diarrhea in Weaned Piglets and Promotes Tight Junction Protein Expression in Colon in a GPR109A-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenqian; Wu, Yancheng; Chen, Guangxin; Fu, Shoupeng; Li, Bai; Huang, Bingxu; Wang, Dali; Wang, Wei; Liu, Juxiong

    2018-06-27

    Butyric acid plays an important role in maintaining intestinal health. Butyric acid has received special attention as a short-chain fatty acid, but its role in protecting the intestinal barrier is poorly characterized. Butyric acid not only provides energy for epithelial cells but also acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor; it is also a natural ligand for G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A). A GPR109A analog was expressed in Sus scrofa and mediated the anti-inflammatory effects of beta-hydroxybutyric acid. This study investigated the effects of butyrate on growth performance, diarrhea symptoms, and tight junction protein levels in 21-day-old weaned piglets. We also studied the mechanism by which butyric acid regulates intestinal permeability. Twenty-four piglets that had been weaned at an age of 21 days were divided randomly into 2 equal groups: basal diet group and sodium butyrate + basal diet group. Diarrhea rate, growth performance during 3 weeks of feeding on these diets were observed, the lactulose-mannitol ratio in urine were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, the expression levels of tight junction proteins in the intestinal tract and related signaling molecules, such as GPR109A and Akt, in the colon were examined by quantitative real-time PCR or western blot analyses on day 21. Caco-2 cells were used as a colon cell model and cultured with or without sodium butyrate to assess the expression of tight junction proteins and the activation of related signaling molecules. GPR109A-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and specific antagonists of Akt and ERK1/2 were used as signaling pathway inhibitors to elucidate the mechanism by which butyric acid regulates the expression of tight junction proteins and the colonic epithelial barrier. The sodium butyrate diet alleviated diarrhea symptoms and decreased intestinal permeability without affecting the growth of early weaned piglets. The expression levels of the tight junction proteins Claudin-3, Occludin

  17. Gut Microbiome-Induced Shift of Acetate to Butyrate Positively Manages Dysbiosis in High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Si, Xu; Shang, Wenting; Zhou, Zhongkai; Strappe, Padraig; Wang, Bing; Bird, Anthony; Blanchard, Chris

    2018-02-01

    A recent study revealed that the accumulation of gut microbiota-produced acetate (GMPA) led to insulin over-secretion and obesity symptom. To further develop this scientific point, the effect of resistant starch (RS) or exogenous acetate carried by RS (RSA) in the gut on metabolic syndrome is investigated using diet-induced obese rats. The metabonomics analysis shows that the gut of rats in the RSA group generate more butyrate in both serum and feces rather than acetate compared to the rats in RS group, indicating the conversion among metabolites, in particular from acetate to butyrate via gut microbiota. Consistently, the gut microbiome uses acetate as a substrate to produce butyrate, such as Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium and was highly promoted in RSA group, which further supports the metabolic conversion. This is the first report to reveal the accumulation of gut microbiota-produced butyrate (GMPB) but not GMPA significantly enriched AMPK signaling pathway with reduced expression of lipogenesis-associated genes for suppressing sphingosines and ceramides biosynthesis to trigger insulin sensitivity. Gut microbiome profile and lipogenesis pathway are regulated by GMPB, which substantially influences energy harvesting in the gut from patterns opposed to GMPA. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W.; Philipp, W. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A film-forming polyvinyl alcohol polymer is mixed with a polyaldehyde-polysaccharide cross-linking agent having at least two monosaccharide units and a plurality of aldehyde groups per molecule, perferably an average of at least one aldehyde group per monosaccharide units. The cross-linking agent, such as a polydialdehyde starch, is used in an amount of about 2.5 to 20% of the theoretical amount required to cross-link all of the available hydroxyl groups of the polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Reaction between the polymer and cross-linking agent is effected in aqueous acidic solution to produce the cross-linked polymer. The polymer product has low electrical resistivity and other properties rendering it suitable for making separators for alkaline batteries.

  19. Acetate Utilization and Butyryl Coenzyme A (CoA):Acetate-CoA Transferase in Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sylvia H.; Barcenilla, Adela; Stewart, Colin S.; Pryde, Susan E.; Flint, Harry J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven strains of Roseburia sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Coprococcus sp. from the human gut that produce high levels of butyric acid in vitro were studied with respect to key butyrate pathway enzymes and fermentation patterns. Strains of Roseburia sp. and F. prausnitzii possessed butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase and acetate kinase activities, but butyrate kinase activity was not detectable either in growing or in stationary-phase cultures. Although unable to use acetate as a sole source of energy, these strains showed net utilization of acetate during growth on glucose. In contrast, Coprococcus sp. strain L2-50 is a net producer of acetate and possessed detectable butyrate kinase, acetate kinase, and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase activities. These results demonstrate that different functionally distinct groups of butyrate-producing bacteria are present in the human large intestine. PMID:12324374

  20. 75 FR 61175 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1088 (Final)] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of the final phase of an... antidumping investigation No. 731-TA-1088 (Final) under section 735(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C...

  1. Use of butyrate or glutamine in enema solution reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental diversion colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Rodrigo Goulart; Esposito, Christiano Costa; Müller, Lucas CM; Castelo-Branco, Morgana TL; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Chagas, Vera Lucia A; de Souza, Heitor Siffert P; Schanaider, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether butyrate or glutamine enemas could diminish inflammation in experimental diversion colitis. METHODS: Wistar specific pathogen-free rats were submitted to a Hartmann’s end colostomy and treated with enemas containing glutamine, butyrate, or saline. Enemas were administered twice a week in the excluded segment of the colon from 4 to 12 wk after the surgical procedure. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed every 4 wk for 12 wk. The effect of treatment was evaluated using video-endoscopic and histologic scores and measuring interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor beta production in organ cultures by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Colonoscopies of the diverted segment showed mucosa with hyperemia, increased number of vessels, bleeding and mucus discharge. Treatment with either glutamine or butyrate induced significant reductions in both colonoscopic (P < 0.02) and histological scores (P < 0.01) and restored the densities of collagen fibers in tissue (P = 0.015; P = 0.001), the number of goblet cells (P = 0.021; P = 0.029), and the rate of apoptosis within the epithelium (P = 0.043; P = 0.011) to normal values. The high levels of cytokines in colon explants from rats with diversion colitis significantly decreased to normal values after treatment with butyrate or glutamine. CONCLUSION: The improvement of experimental diversion colitis following glutamine or butyrate enemas highlights the importance of specific luminal nutrients in the homeostasis of the colonic mucosa and supports their utilization for the treatment of human diversion colitis. PMID:22969190

  2. The gas-liquid chromatography of carboxylic acid esters of the urinary 11-deoxy-17-oxo steroids. Determination as n-butyrates.

    PubMed

    Sadler, P A; Kellie, A E

    1967-06-01

    1. The gas-liquid-chromatographic separations of the acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters of androsterone, aetiocholanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone were studied on a 1% neopentyl glycol sebacate column. The n-butyrate, isobutyrate and n-valerate esters were well resolved. 2. The three steroids derived from hydrolysed urinary 17-oxo steroid conjugate extracts were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography after conversion into their n-butyrate esters. The results were compared with independent determinations involving chromatography on alumina.

  3. Relationship of Enhanced Butyrate Production by Colonic Butyrate-Producing Bacteria to Immunomodulatory Effects in Normal Mice Fed an Insoluble Fraction of Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Sachi; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamada, Kazuki; Furuya, Kanon

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of feeding a fiber-rich fraction of Brassica vegetables on the immune response through changes in enteric bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in normal mice. The boiled-water-insoluble fraction of Brassica rapa L. (nozawana), which consists mainly of dietary fiber, was chosen as a test material. A total of 31 male C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups and housed in a specific-pathogen-free facility. The animals were fed either a control diet or the control diet plus the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction for 2 weeks and sacrificed to determine microbiological and SCFA profiles in lower-gut samples and immunological molecules. rRNA-based quantification indicated that the relative population of Bacteroidetes was markedly lower in the colon samples of the insoluble B. rapa L. fraction-fed group than that in the controls. Populations of the Eubacterium rectale group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, both of which are representative butyrate-producing bacteria, doubled after 2 weeks of fraction intake, accompanying a marginal increase in the proportion of colonic butyrate. In addition, feeding with the fraction significantly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) and tended to increase splenic regulatory T cell numbers but significantly reduced the population of cells expressing activation markers. We demonstrated that inclusion of the boiled-water-insoluble fraction of B. rapa L. can alter the composition of the gut microbiota to decrease the numbers of Bacteroidetes and to increase the numbers of butyrate-producing bacteria, either of which may be involved in the observed shift in the production of splenic IL-10. PMID:26921420

  4. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 and cyclin D1 is increased in butyrate-resistant HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Derjuga, A; Richard, C; Crosato, M; Wright, P S; Chalifour, L; Valdez, J; Barraso, A; Crissman, H A; Nishioka, W; Bradbury, E M; Th'ng, J P

    2001-10-12

    Sodium butyrate induced cell cycle arrest in mammalian cells through an increase in p21Waf1/Cip1, although another study showed that this arrest is related to pRB signaling. We isolated variants of HeLa cells adapted to growth in 5 mm butyrate. One of these variants, clone 5.1, constitutively expressed elevated levels of p21Waf1/Cip1 when incubated in regular growth medium and in the presence of butyrate. Despite this elevated level of p21Waf1/Cip1, the cells continue to proliferate, albeit at a slower rate than parental HeLa cells. Western blot analyses showed that other cell cycle regulatory proteins were not up-regulated to compensate for the elevated expression of p21Waf1/Cip1. However, cyclin D1 was down-regulated by butyrate in HeLa cells but not in clone 5.1. We conclude that continued expression of cyclin D1 allowed clone 5.1 to grow in the presence of butyrate and elevated levels of p21Waf1/Cip1.

  6. Single-dose infusion of sodium butyrate, but not lactose, increases plasma ß-hydroxybutyrate and insulin in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several previous studies have identified beneficial effects of butyrate on rumen development and intestinal health in pre-ruminants. These encouraging findings have led to further investigations related to butyrate supplementation in the mature ruminant. However, the maximum tolerable dosage rate of...

  7. Parameters for Novel Production of Fruity Floral Fragrance Ester (Geranyl Butyrate) by Locally Isolated Lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik Raikhan, N. H.

    2018-05-01

    Geranyl butyrate has been synthesized successfully using our locally isolated lipase Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68 (LGT) as the fragrance ester with aim to be used in a nanotechnology fragrance application. We have used and modified few parameters from the previous research and then, continued with optimization of the synthesis by looking into degree of esterification and water content in the system. Butyric acid (C4), stearic acid (C18: 0), caprylic acid (C8), linolenic acid (C18: 3), myristic acid (C14), linoleic acid (C18: 2) and oleic acid (C18: 1) were used in the substrate selection. The yield of geranyl butyrate before the optimization was 31.68±0.01%. The optimum parameters for the synthesis of geranyl butyrate were recorded as temperature of 65°C, shaking rate at 200 rpm, 5.0 ml of geraniol and 0.40 ml of butyric acid and 4.0 ml of n-butanol and 0.40 ml of oleic acid. After the optimization, geranyl butyrate synthesis was increased by 297% as to compare with the value before the parameters were optimized. We also have significantly reduced water content as a byproduct of the esterification and managed to run the system a success. The ability thermotolerant lipase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (LGT) in this synthesis is novel to Malaysian fragrance industry.

  8. Butyric acid attenuates intestinal inflammation in murine DSS-induced colitis model via milk fat globule-EGF factor 8.

    PubMed

    Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Otani, Aya; Ansary, Md Mesbah Uddin; Tongu, Miki; Harashima, Nanae; Yamada, Takaya; Sato, Shuichi; Amano, Yuji; Itoh, Kazuhito; Ishihara, Shunji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2013-07-01

    Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid and one of the main metabolites of intestinal microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, has been shown to have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, while it also has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, the precise mechanisms underlying those effects have not been fully identified. We exposed colonic epithelial cells to butyric acid, then extracted total RNA samples, and subsequently hybridized them to microarray chips. Among the upregulated genes, milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) was elevated by approximately fivefold. We previously reported that the potential therapeutic benefits of MFG-E8 in intestinal tissue injury were dependent not only on enhanced clearance of apoptotic cells but also required diverse cellular events for maintaining epithelial integrity. The influence of butyric acid on cell function is often attributed to its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). We found that acetylation on histone 3 lysine 9 (acetyl-H3K9) around the MFG-E8 promoter was significantly increased with butyric acid exposure. Experimental colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in C57BL/6N (MFG-E8+/+) and MFG-E8-/- mice. Although the colonic bacterial compositions in wild-type (WT) and MFG-E8-/- mice were not significantly different, intrarectal administration of butyric acid during an acute phase of colitis attenuated intestinal inflammatory parameters and inhibited body weight loss in the WT mice. Our novel findings suggest that butyric acid has significant anti-inflammatory effects partly via MFG-E8 on DSS-induced murine experimental colitis.

  9. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production. The EPA is... present oral testimony at the public hearing, please contact Ms. Teresa Clemons, U.S. Environmental...

  10. Sodium Butyrate Ameliorates High-Concentrate Diet-Induced Inflammation in the Rumen Epithelium of Dairy Goats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongyu; Liu, Xinxin; Yan, Jinyu; Aabdin, Zain Ul; Bilal, Muhammad Shahid; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2017-01-25

    To investigate the effect of sodium butyrate on high-concentrate diet-induced local inflammation of the rumen epithelium, 18 midlactating dairy goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a low-concentrate diet group as the control (concentrate:forage = 4:6), a high-concentrate (HC) diet group (concentrate:forage = 6:4), and a sodium butyrate (SB) group (concentrate:forage = 6:4, with 1% SB by weight). The results showed that, with the addition of sodium butyrate, the concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rumen fluid (2.62 × 10 4 ± 2.90 × 10 3 EU/mL) was significantly lower than that in the HC group (4.03 × 10 4 ± 2.77 × 10 3 EU/mL). The protein abundance of pp65, gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2,9 in the rumen epithelium were significantly down-regulated by SB compared with those in the HC group. With sodium butyrate administration, the concentration of NH3-N (19.2 ± 0.890 mM) in the rumen fluid was significantly higher than that for the HC group (12.7 ± 1.38 mM). Severe disruption of the rumen epithelium induced by HC was also ameliorated by dietary SB. Therefore, local inflammation and disruption of the rumen epithelium induced by HC were alleviated with SB administration.

  11. Hybridized Thermoplastic Aramids: Enabling Material Technology For Future Force Headgear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    keeping the complete helmet weight the same. Design Material Rolled steel Hadfield Steel Kevlar 29/PVB Phenolic Kevlar 129/PVB...Material Rolled steel Hadfield Steel Kevlar 29/PVB Phenolic Kevlar 129/PVB phenolic Thermoplastic aramid Twaron/PVB phenolic ...Deflection RESULTS Improved Fiber, Fiber Architecture, and Matrix Materials Enable Performance Enhancement PASGT: 19 Ply S735 Kevlar with PVB Phenolic

  12. Alternate splicing regulated by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a signaling molecule and a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HADCs), butyrate exerts its impacts on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. In this study, we examined the effect of...

  13. Stability of polyvinyl alcohol-coated biochar nanoparticles in brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Christopher; Daigle, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the dispersion stability of 150 nm polyvinyl alcohol coated biochar nanoparticles in brine water. Biochar is a renewable, carbon based material that is of significant interest for enhanced oil recovery operations primarily due to its wide ranging surface properties, low cost of synthesis, and low environmental toxicity. Nanoparticles used as stabilizing agents for foams (and emulsions) or in nanofluids have emerged as potential alternatives to surfactants for subsurface applications due to their improved stability at reservoir conditions. If, however, the particles are not properly designed, they are susceptible to aggregation because of the high salinity brines typical of oil and gas reservoirs. Attachment of polymers to the nanoparticle surface, through covalent bonds, provides steric stabilization, and is a necessary step. Our results show that as the graft density of polyvinyl alcohol increases, so too does the stability of nanoparticles in brine solutions. A maximum of 34 wt% of 50,000 Da polyvinyl alcohol was grafted to the particle surface, and the size of the particles was reduced from 3500 nm (no coating) to 350 nm in brine. After 24 h, the particles had a size of 500 nm, and after 48 h completely aggregated. 100,000 Da PVA coated at 24 wt% on the biochar particles were stable in brine for over 1 month with no change in mean particle size of 330 nm.

  14. Use of Additives to Improve Performance of Methyl Butyrate-Based Lithium-Ion Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. To this end, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl butyrate-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), which have been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. Improved performance has been demonstrated of Li-ion cells with methyl butyrate-based electrolytes, including 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %); 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 4% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + lithium oxalate; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% VC; and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 0.10M LiBOB. These electrolytes have been shown to improve performance in MCMB-LiNiCoO2 and graphite-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 experimental Li-ion cells. A number of LiPF6-based mixed carbonate electrolyte formulations have been developed that contain ester co-solvents, which have been optimized for operation at low temperature, while still providing reasonable performance at high temperature. For example, a number of ester co-solvents were investigated, including methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), and butyl butyrate (BB) in multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (20:60:20 v/v %) [where X = ester co-solvent]. ["Optimized Car bon ate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes", NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), p. 56.] Focusing upon improved rate

  15. Polyvinyl Alcohol Microspheres Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Composites

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Dongdong; Li, Bengang; Yin, Peng; Li, Panxin

    2018-01-01

    We reported a new method to prepare polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/thermoplastic starch (TPS) composites by using polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (PVAMS). The PVAMS/TPS composites were characterized using tensile test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results exhibited that adding small amounts of PVAMSs can effectively improve the mechanical strength and toughness of the composites, especially for the 1 wt %PVAMS in TPS matrix, with a tensile strength of 3.5 MPa, an elongation at break at 71.73% and an impact strength of 33.4 kJ/m2. Furthermore, the SEM and shift in the tan δ peak (Tα and Tβ) at the maximum value of 69.87 and −36.52 °C indicates that the PVAMS decreased the mobility of the amorphous starch molecules due to the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds between PVAMS and TPS. The peak temperature of maximum decomposition rate (Tp) of 1 wt % PVAMS/TPS composites increased about 5 °C compared with TPS in TGA curves. PMID:29690506

  16. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. AtomicNuclearProperties

    Science.gov Websites

    ) Polytrifluorochloroethylene [C2F3Cl]n Polyvinylacetate [CH2CHOCOCH3]n Polyvinyl alcohol (C2H3-O-H)n Polyvinyl butyral [C8H1302 other materal for properties of interest in high-energy physics: stopping power (<-dE/dx>) tables (C10H16O) Aniline (C6H5NH2) Anthracene (C14H10) Benzene C6H6 Butane (C4H10) n-Butyl alcohol (C4H9OH) Carbon

  18. Poly(vinyl Chloride) Photostabilization in the Presence of Schiff Bases Containing a Thiadiazole Moiety.

    PubMed

    Shaalan, Naser; Laftah, Nawres; El-Hiti, Gamal A; Alotaibi, Mohammad Hayal; Muslih, Raad; Ahmed, Dina S; Yousif, Emad

    2018-04-15

    Five Schiff bases containing a thiadiazole moiety have been used as poly(vinyl chloride) photostabilizers at low concentrations. The efficiency of Schiff bases as photostabilizers was investigated using various techniques, for example, the changes in poly(vinyl chloride) infrared spectra, molecular weight, chain scission quantum yield, and surface morphology were monitored upon irradiation with an ultraviolet light. Evidently, all the additives used inhibited poly(vinyl chloride) photodegradation at a significant level. The most efficient Schiff base exhibited a high level of aromaticity and contained a hydroxyl group. It seems possible that such photostabilization could be due to the direct absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the additives. In addition, Schiff bases could act as radical scavengers and proton transfer facilitators to stabilize the polymeric materials.

  19. Prebiotic potential of L-sorbose and xylitol in promoting the growth and metabolic activity of specific butyrate-producing bacteria in human fecal culture.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tadashi; Kusuhara, Shiro; Yokoi, Wakae; Ito, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Kouji

    2017-01-01

    Dietary low-digestible carbohydrates (LDCs) affect gut microbial metabolism, including the production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of various LDCs to promote butyrate production was evaluated in in vitro human fecal cultures. Fecal suspensions from five healthy males were anaerobically incubated with various LDCs. L-Sorbose and xylitol markedly promoted butyrate formation in cultures. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of these fecal cultures revealed a marked increase in the abundance of bacteria closely related to the species Anaerostipes hadrus or A. caccae or both, during enhanced butyrate formation from L-sorbose or xylitol. By using an agar plate culture, two strains of A. hadrus that produced butyrate from each substrate were isolated from the feces of two donors. Furthermore, of 12 species of representative colonic butyrate producers, only A. hadrus and A. caccae demonstrated augmented butyrate production from L-sorbose or xylitol. These findings suggest that L-sorbose and xylitol cause prebiotic stimulation of the growth and metabolic activity of Anaerostipes spp. in the human colon. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Propionic and butyric acids, formed in the caecum of rats fed highly fermentable dietary fibre, are reflected in portal and aortic serum.

    PubMed

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Jädert, Cecilia; Holm, Lena; Nyman, Margareta E

    2013-11-14

    SCFA are important end products formed during colonic fermentation of dietary fibre (DF). It has been suggested that propionic and butyric acids affect metabolic parameters, low-grade systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the various SCFA profiles observed after fermentation in the caecum of rats fed pectin, guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were also represented in hepatic portal and aortic serum. The SCFA in serum were extracted using hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane extraction before GLC analysis. The concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids in caecal content correlated well with those in portal serum (P< 0·001) for all the three diets. A weaker correlation was found for propionic and butyric acids between the caecal content and aortic serum (P< 0·05). Butyric acid concentration in caecal content was also reflected in the aortic serum (P= 0·019) of rats fed FOS. FOS gave rather low amounts of the SCFA, especially butyric acid, but caecal tissue weight was higher with FOS than with the other two diets. This may be explained by rapid fermentation and quick utilisation/absorption of the SCFA. The present study also showed that propionic acid was metabolised/utilised to a higher extent than butyric acid by colonocytes before reaching the liver. We conclude that the formation of propionic and butyric acids in the caecum is reflected by increased concentrations in the aortic blood. This approach may therefore simplify the evaluation and study of SCFA from DF in human subjects.

  1. Butyrate: A dietary inhibitor of histone deacetylases and an epigenetic regulator

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, also known as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by microbial fermentation. Consumption of dietary fibers has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as increasing satiety, an...

  2. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polymerization of vinyl fluoride. (b) The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity of not... Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be... Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference; see paragraph (b) of...

  3. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polymerization of vinyl fluoride. (b) The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity of not... Dilute Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference. Copies may be... Solution Viscosity of Vinyl Chloride Polymers,” which is incorporated by reference; see paragraph (b) of...

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanocomposite polyvinyl chloride films with NO-generating activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakevych, Roman B.; Korobeinyk, Alina V.; Bolbukh, Yulia M.; Tertykh, Valentin A.; Mikhalovska, Lyuba I.; Zienkiewicz-Strzałka, Malgorzlata; Deryło-Marczewska, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The silica and copper oxide nanoparticles were embedded into the polyvinyl chloride film and obtained filled composites were tested as a catalyst in the reaction of the NO release from appropriate biomolecules. Obtained materials were characterized using scanning electron, atomic-force microscopies and thermomechanical analysis. It has been shown that the introduced particles are distributed uniformly in the polymeric matrix of hybrid composite and such film produces a significant amount of NO when reacts with S-nitrosothiols. At the same time, the unfilled polyvinyl chloride film had no statistically significant catalytic activity.

  5. Synchronous and Time-Dependent Expression of Cyclins, Cyclin-Dependant Kinases, and Apoptotic Genes in the Rumen Epithelia of Butyrate-Infused Goats

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Jamila; Lu, Zhongyan; Gui, Hongbing; Zhang, Bei; Shen, Zanming

    2018-01-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that butyrate induced ruminal epithelial growth through cyclin D1 upregulation. Here, we investigated the influence of butyrate on the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and apoptosis in rumen epithelium. Goats (n = 24) were given an intra ruminal infusion of sodium butyrate at 0.3 (group B, n = 12) or 0 (group A, n = 12) g/kg of body weight (BW) per day before morning feeding for 28 days and were slaughtered (4 goat/group) at 5,7 and 9 h after butyrate infusion. Rumen fluid was analyzed for short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration. Ruminal tissues were analyzed for morpho-histrometry and the expressions of genes associated with cell cycle and apoptosis. The results revealed that the ruminal butyrate concentration increased (P < 0.05) in B compared to group A. Morphometric analysis showed increased (P < 0.05) papillae size associated with higher number of cell layers in epithelial strata in B compared to A. Butyrate-induced papillae enlargement was coupled with enhanced mRNA expression levels (P < 0.05) of cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, and CDK6 (G0/G1 phase regulators) at 5 h, cyclin E1 (G1/S phase regulator) at 7 h and cyclin A and CDK1 (S phase regulators) at 9 h post-infusion compared to A group. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of apoptotic genes, i.e., caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bax at 5 h post-infusion were upregulated (P < 0.05) in group B compared to group A. The present study demonstrated that butyrate improved ruminal epithelial growth through concurrent and time-dependent changes in the expressions of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. It seems that the rate of proliferation was higher than the apoptosis which was reflected in epithelial growth. PMID:29875672

  6. Evolution of butyric acid and the methanogenic microbial population in a thermophilic dry anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Montero, B; Garcia-Morales, J L; Sales, D; Solera, R

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the relationship between the evolution of butyric acid, the main precursor of methane, and the methanogenic microbial population, quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), is important for understating and controlling the anaerobic digestion of solid waste. In this study, a statistical analysis has been made of this relationship in a laboratory-scale continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) without recycling of biomass. The CSTR has been operated at four organic loading rates (OLR) between 4.42 and 7.50 kg VS m(-3)day(-1), using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) as the substrate. During the start-up stage, the consumption of butyric acid is related to the population of H(2)-utilising methanogens (R(2)=0.774), whereas in the stabilization stage, it is related to that of acetoclastic methanogens (R(2)=0.716). Therefore, it can be concluded that the methanogenic population dynamics are closely correlated with the concentration of volatile fatty acids, and in particular, with that of butyric acid. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Phyla were identified in ...

  8. Vincristine- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human retinoblastoma. Potentiation by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Conway, R M; Madigan, M C; Billson, F A; Penfold, P L

    1998-10-01

    Chemotherapy alone has largely been unsuccessful in controlling retinoblastoma growth, and has traditionally been limited in use as an alternative to irradiation for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Recently, clinical studies combining chemotherapy with local therapies, including radiotherapy, laser therapy or cryotherapy and in some cases, cyclosporine A, have been effective in treating retinoblastoma. Differentiating agents may also be combined with chemotherapy to enhance the action of cytotoxic drugs on tumor cell growth, although this approach has not been fully investigated in retinoblastoma. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic response of human retinoblastoma cell lines (Y79 and WERI-Rb1) to two chemotherapy agents commonly used in treating retinoblastoma, vincristine (VCR) and cisplatin (CDDP). Retinoblastoma cells have been shown to be sensitive to the differentiating agent sodium butyrate, and cell lines were also treated with a combination of VCR or CDDP with sodium butyrate, and the effects on retinoblastoma viability assessed. Both VCR and CDDP induced dose-dependent death of Y79 and WERI-Rb1 cells, accompanied by nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation and DNA laddering, features characteristic of apoptosis. Inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis, cycloheximide and actinomycin-D, significantly reduced VCR- and CDDP-induced apoptosis, although putative endonuclease inhibitors zinc sulphate and aurintricarboxylic acid had no apparent effect. Treatment with 0.5 mM or 1 mM sodium butyrate combined with VCR or CDDP significantly increased induction of apoptosis by these agents. This augmentation of chemotherapy-induced apoptosis may have implications for retinoblastoma therapy.

  9. "Cold" synthesis of carbon from polyvinyl chloride with the use of an electron beam ejected into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryazhev, Yu. G.; Vorob'ev, M. S.; Koval', N. N.; Trenikhin, M. V.; Solodovnichenko, V. S.; Sulakshin, S. A.; Likholobov, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    This work shows the possibility in principle of forming hydrocarbon structures in polyvinyl chloride films free of admixtures and polyvinyl chloride films modified with 5-mass % ferrocene via a radiation chemical transformation in the atmosphere with the use of an electron accelerator with a plasma cathode operating in the pulsed-periodic mode maximal electron energy no higher than 160 keV, pulse length of 40 μs, and current density of 5 mA/cm2. According to the results of semiquantitative X-ray microanalysis, an irradiated polyvinyl chloride film free of admixtures contains 92 of carbon, 6 of oxygen, and 2 mass % of chlorine; the irradiated polyvinyl chloride is an amorphous carbon material. A possible mechanism of the phenomenon is discussed.

  10. Neutron attenuation characteristics of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and heavy aggregate concrete and mortars.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Majid, S; Othman, F

    1994-03-01

    Polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets were introduced into concrete to improve its neutron attenuation characteristics while several types of heavy coarse aggregates were used to improve its gamma ray attenuation properties. Neutron and gamma ray attenuation were studied in concrete samples containing coarse aggregates of barite, pyrite, basalt, hematite, and marble as well as polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride pellets in narrow-beam geometry. The highest neutron attenuation was shown by polyethylene mortar, followed by polyvinyl chloride mortar; barite and pyrite concrete showed higher gamma ray attenuation than ordinary concrete. Broad-beam and continuous (infinite) medium geometries were used to study the neutron attenuation of samples containing polymers at different concentrations with and without heavy aggregates, the fitting equations were established, and from these the neutron removal coefficients were deduced. In a radiation field of neutrons and gamma rays, the appropriate concentration of polymer and heavy aggregate can be selected to give the optimum total dose attenuation depending on the relative intensities of each type of radiation. This would give much better design flexibility over ordinary concrete. The compressive strength tests performed on mortar and concrete samples showed that their value, in general, decreases as polymer concentration increases and that the polyvinyl chloride mortar showed higher values than the polyethylene mortar. For general construction purposes, the compression strength was considered acceptable in these samples.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Mixture of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Sodium Butyrate in Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong A; Kim, Sung-Hak; Kim, In Sung; Yu, Da Yoon; Kim, Sung Chan; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Sang Suk; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Choi, In Soon; Cho, Kwang Keun

    2018-03-20

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory skin disease. Recently, probiotics have been shown to suppress allergic symptoms through immunomodulatory responses. In the present study, combinatorial effects on allergic symptoms were identified in BALB/c mice fed with a mixture of four species of probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and sodium butyrate. Following sensitization with whey protein, the mice were challenged and divided into two groups: (1) mice administered with phosphate-buffered saline as a control and (2) mice administered with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate. Allergic symptoms were assessed by measuring ear thicknesses, serum histamine and IL-10 concentrations, and the quantities of leaked Evans blue. T cell differentiation was determined by analyzing the T cells groups in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and spleen. To examine changes in the total gut microbiota, total fecal microflora was isolated, species identification was performed by DNA sequencing using Illumina MiSeq, and changes in intestinal beneficial bacteria were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate reduced ear thicknesses, the quantity of leaked Evans blue, and serum histamine values, while increasing serum IL-10 values. In the mouse model, the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate increased Th1 and Treg cell differentiation in MLN and spleen tissues; the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, which is associated with reduction in allergic reactions; and microorganisms that lead to cell differentiation into Treg. These results suggest that the probiotic mixture and sodium butyrate can prevent and alleviate allergic symptoms.

  12. Spectroscopic, thermal, and electrical properties of MgO/ polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Gh.; El Sayed, Adel M.; Morsi, W. M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to control the optical and electrical properties of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in order to broaden its industrial and technological applications, which we achieved by blending PVA with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and adding sol-gel prepared MgO nanopowder. The blended film and nanocomposite films were prepared using the solution casting technique. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the crystallite size was ∼18.4 nm for MgO and the highest degree of crystallinity (XC) in the films was about 24.34% at 1.0 wt% MgO. High resolution transmission electron microscopy determined the nanoribbon morphology of MgO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the uniform distribution of the MgO nanoribbons on the surfaces of the PVA/PVP films. SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also confirmed the interaction between the blend and MgO fillers. The effects of the additives on the glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures were evaluated by differential thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The appearance of one melting point confirmed the miscibility of the two polymers. According to ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy measurements, the optical properties and optical constants of PVA could be adjusted by the addition of PVP and MgO, where the optical band gap (Eg) determined for PVA increased with the PVP content, whereas it decreased to 4.8 eV as the MgO content increased. The DC conductivity (σdc) of the films increased whereas the activation energy (Ea) decreased after the addition of MgO, possibly because the nanoribbon shape fixed the preferred conducting pathways. In addition, MgO could break the H-bond in sbnd OH groups of the blends to allow the free movement of the molecular chains.

  13. Modulation of fecal Clostridiales bacteria and butyrate by probiotic intervention with Lactobacillus paracasei DG varies among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Chiara; Taverniti, Valentina; Milani, Christian; Fiore, Walter; Laureati, Monica; De Noni, Ivano; Stuknyte, Milda; Chouaia, Bessem; Riso, Patrizia; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-11-01

    The modulation of gut microbiota is considered to be the first target to establish probiotic efficacy in a healthy population. This study was conducted to determine the impact of a probiotic on the intestinal microbial ecology of healthy volunteers. High-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota in healthy adults (23-55 y old) of both sexes, before and after 4 wk of daily consumption of a capsule containing at least 24 billion viable Lactobacillus paracasei DG cells, according to a randomized, double-blind, crossover placebo-controlled design. Probiotic intake induced an increase in Proteobacteria (P = 0.006) and in the Clostridiales genus Coprococcus (P = 0.009), whereas the Clostridiales genus Blautia (P = 0.036) was decreased; a trend of reduction was also observed for Anaerostipes (P = 0.05) and Clostridium (P = 0.06). We also found that the probiotic effect depended on the initial butyrate concentration. In fact, participants with butyrate >100 mmol/kg of wet feces had a mean butyrate reduction of 49 ± 21% and a concomitant decrease in the sum of 6 Clostridiales genera, namely Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Anaerostipes, Pseudobutyrivibrio, Clostridium, and Butyrivibrio (P = 0.021), after the probiotic intervention. In contrast, in participants with initial butyrate concentrations <25 mmol/kg of wet feces, the probiotic contributed to a 329 ± 255% (mean ± SD) increment in butyrate concomitantly with an ∼55% decrease in Ruminococcus (P = 0.016) and a 150% increase in an abundantly represented unclassified Bacteroidales genus (P = 0.05). The intake of L. paracasei DG increased the Blautia:Coprococcus ratio, which, according to the literature, can potentially confer a health benefit on the host. The probiotic impact on the microbiota and on short-chain fatty acids, however, seems to strictly depend on the initial characteristics of the intestinal microbial ecosystem. In particular, fecal butyrate concentrations

  14. Fogging in Polyvinyl Toluene Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, Richard J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hurlbut, Charles

    It has been observed that large polyvinyl toluene (PVT)-based gamma ray detectors can suffer internal “fogging” when exposed to outdoor environmental conditions over long periods of time. When observed, this change results in reduced light collection by photomultiplier tubes connected to the PVT. Investigation of the physical cause of these changes has been explored, and a root cause identified. Water penetration into the PVT from hot, high-humidity conditions results in reversible internal water condensation at room temperature, and permanent micro-fracturing of the PVT at very low environmental temperatures. Mitigation procedures and methods are being investigated.

  15. Sensitized green emission of terbium with dibenzoylmethane and 1, 10 phenanthroline in polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Brijesh; Kaur, Gagandeep; Rai, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Tb doped polyvinyl alcohol: polyvinyl pyrrolidone blends with dibenzoylmethane (DBM) and 1, 10 Phenanthroline (Phen) have been prepared by solution cast technique. Bond formation amongst the ligands and Tb3 + ions in the doped polymer has been confirmed employing Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques. Optical properties of the Tb3 + ions have been investigated using UV-Vis absorption, excitation and fluorescence studies excited by different radiations. Addition of dimethylbenzoate and 1, 10 Phenanthroline to the polymer blend increases the luminescence from Tb3 + ions along with energy transfer from the polymer blend itself. Luminescence decay curve analysis affirms the non-radiative energy transfer from DBM and Phen to Tb3 + ions, which is identified as the reason behind this enhancement. The fluorescence decay time of PVA-PVP host decreases from 6.02 ns to 2.31 ns showing an evidence of energy transfer from the host blend to the complexed Tb ions. Similarly the lifetime of DBM and Phen and both in the blend reduces in the complexed system showing the feasibility of energy transfer from these excited DBM and Phen to Tb3 + and is proposed as the cause of the above observations. These entire phenomena have been explained by the energy level diagram.

  16. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL

    2014-08-26

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahliimore » chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron

  17. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have “anti-obesity properties” by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26167409

  18. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have "anti-obesity properties" by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid interaction with the transgenic flax fibers: FT-IR and Raman spectra of the composite extracted from a GM flax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Żuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan; Dymińska, Lucyna; Mączka, Mirosław; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2009-07-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman studies have been performed on commercial 3-hydroxy-butyric acid, commercial poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid as well as poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid (PHB) produced by bacteria. The data were compared to those obtained for poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid extracted from natural and genetically modified flax. Genetically modified flax was generated by expression of three bacterial genes coding for synthesis of poly-3-hydroxy butyric acid. Thus transgenic flaxes were enhanced with different amount of the PHB. The discussion of polymer structure and vibrational properties has been done in order to get insight into differences among these materials. The interaction between the cellulose of flax fibers and embedded poly-3-hydroxybutyric acid has been also discussed. The spectroscopic data provide evidences for structural changes in cellulose and in PHB when synthesized in fibers. Based on this data it is suggesting that cellulose and PHB interact by hydrogen and ester bonds.

  20. Driving carbon flux through exogenous butyryl-CoA: Acetate CoA-transferase to produce butyric acid at high titer in Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-12-20

    Butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, is widely used in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The low activity of butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase in Thermobifida fusca muS, a thermophilic actinobacterium whose optimal temperature was 55°C, was found to hinder the accumulation of high yield of butyric acid. In order to solve this problem, an exogenous butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene (actA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM571 was integrated into the chromosome of T. fusca muS by replacing celR gene, forming T. fusca muS-1. We demonstrated that on 5g/L cellulose, the yield of butyric acid by the engineered muS-1 strain was increased by 42.9 % compared to the muS strain. On 100g/L of cellulose, the muS-1 strain could consume 90.5% of total cellulose in 144h, with 33.2g/L butyric acid produced. Furthermore, on the mix substrates including the major components of biomass: cellulose, xylose, mannose and galactose, 70.4g/L butyric acid was produced in 168h by fed-batch fermentation. To validate the ability of fermenting biomass, the muS-1 strain was grown on the milled corn stover ranging from 200 to 250μm. The muS-1 strain had the highest butyrate titer 17.1g/L on 90g/L corn stover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the effects of high energy carbon heavy ion irradiation and Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. on biosynthesis butyric acid efficiency in Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Wang, Shu-Yang; Lu, Xi-Hong; Liang, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of butyric acid. In this work, using high-energy carbon heavy ion irradiated C. tyrobutyricum, then butyric acid fermentation using glucose or alkali and acid pretreatments of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. as a carbon source was carried out. Initially, the modes at pH 5.7-6.5 and 37°C were compared using a model medium containing glucose as a carbon source. When the 72gL(-1) glucose concentration was found to be the highest yield, the maximum butyric acid production from glucose increased significantly, from 24gL(-1) for the wild type strains to 37gL(-1) for the strain irradiated at 126AMeV and a dose of 35Gy and a 10(7)ions/pulse. By feeding 100gL(-1) acid pretreatments of E. ulmoides Oliv. into the fermentations, butyrate yields (5.8gL(-1)) and butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio (4.32) were achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Colloidal titration of aqueous zirconium solutions with poly(vinyl sulfate) by potentiometric endpoint detection using a toluidine blue selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Osamu; Kato, Yasutake; Kito, Noriyoshi; Kameyama, Keiichi; Hattori, Toshiaki; Hashiba, Minoru

    2004-02-01

    Zirconium oxy-salts were hydrolyzed to form positively charged polymer or cluster species in acidic solutions. The zirconium hydrolyzed polymer was found to react with a negatively charged polyelectrolyte, such as poly(vinyl sulfate), and to form a stoichiometric polyion complex. Thus, colloidal titration with poly(vinyl sulfate) was applied to measure the zirconium concentration in an acidic solution by using a Toluidine Blue selective plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membrane electrode as a potentiometric end-point detecting device. The determination could be performed with 1% of the relative standard deviation. The colloidal titration stoichiometry at pH < or = 2 was one mol of zirconium per equivalent mol of poly(vinyl sulfate).

  3. Lipase in biphasic alginate beads as a biocatalyst for esterification of butyric acid and butanol in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choong Hey; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Esterification of organic acids and alcohols in aqueous media is very inefficient due to thermodynamic constraints. However, fermentation processes used to produce organic acids and alcohols are often conducted in aqueous media. To produce esters in aqueous media, biphasic alginate beads with immobilized lipase are developed for in situ esterification of butanol and butyric acid. The biphasic beads contain a solid matrix of calcium alginate and hexadecane together with 5 mg/mL of lipase as the biocatalyst. Hexadecane in the biphasic beads serves as an organic phase to facilitate the esterification reaction. Under optimized conditions, the beads are able to catalyze the production of 0.16 mmol of butyl butyrate from 0.5 mmol of butyric acid and 1.5 mmol of butanol. In contrast, when monophasic beads (without hexadecane) are used, only trace amount of butyl butyrate is produced. One main application of biphasic beads is in simultaneous fermentation and esterification (SFE) because the organic phase inside the beads is very stable and does not leach out into the culture medium. SFE is successfully conducted with an esterification yield of 6.32% using biphasic beads containing iso-octane even though the solvent is proven toxic to the butanol-producing Clostridium spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    pH control has been essential for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, it is not very clear at what pH level the acid crash will occur, at what pH level butanol production will be dominant, and at what pH level butyric acid production will be prevailing. Furthermore, contradictory results have been reported about required acidic conditions for initiation of solventogenesis. In this study, with the aim of further understanding the role of undissociated butyric acid in butanol production, we investigated the correlation between undissociated butyric acid concentration and specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum by comparing three pH control approaches: NaOH neutralization (at 12, 24 or 36 h), CaCO3 supplementation (2, 5, or 8 g/l) and NaOAc buffering (pH 4.6, 5.0 or 5.6). By neutralizing the fermentation pH to ~5.0 at different time, we observed that neutralization should take place at the beginning of exponential phase (12 h), and otherwise resulting in lower concentrations of undissociated butyric acid, cell biomass and final butanol. CaCO3 supplementation extended cell growth to 36 h and resulted in higher butyrate yield under 8 g/L of CaCO3. In the NaOAc buffering, the highest specific butanol rate (0.58 h−1) was associated with the highest undissociated butyric acid (1.92 g/L). The linear correlation of the undissociated butyric acid with the specific butanol production rates suggested the undissociated butyric acid could be the major driving force for butanol production. PMID:23294525

  5. A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuepeng; Tu, Maobing; Xie, Rui; Adhikari, Sushil; Tong, Zhaohui

    2013-01-07

    pH control has been essential for butanol production with Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, it is not very clear at what pH level the acid crash will occur, at what pH level butanol production will be dominant, and at what pH level butyric acid production will be prevailing. Furthermore, contradictory results have been reported about required acidic conditions for initiation of solventogenesis. In this study, with the aim of further understanding the role of undissociated butyric acid in butanol production, we investigated the correlation between undissociated butyric acid concentration and specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum by comparing three pH control approaches: NaOH neutralization (at 12, 24 or 36 h), CaCO3 supplementation (2, 5, or 8 g/l) and NaOAc buffering (pH 4.6, 5.0 or 5.6). By neutralizing the fermentation pH to ~5.0 at different time, we observed that neutralization should take place at the beginning of exponential phase (12 h), and otherwise resulting in lower concentrations of undissociated butyric acid, cell biomass and final butanol. CaCO3 supplementation extended cell growth to 36 h and resulted in higher butyrate yield under 8 g/L of CaCO3. In the NaOAc buffering, the highest specific butanol rate (0.58 h-1) was associated with the highest undissociated butyric acid (1.92 g/L). The linear correlation of the undissociated butyric acid with the specific butanol production rates suggested the undissociated butyric acid could be the major driving force for butanol production.

  6. Polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite hydrogels containing magnetic laponite RD to remove cadmium.

    PubMed

    Mola Ali Abasiyan, Sara; Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza

    2018-05-01

    In this study, magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized. Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol/laponite RD (PVA-mLap) nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that PVA-mLap had desirable magnetic-sorption properties and magnetic-laponite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and added to polyvinyl alcohol. The present nanocomposites were applied to remove Cd 2+ from aqueous solution. The influence of initial Cd 2+ concentration, magnetic-laponite concentration, pH, and ionic strength on adsorption isotherm was investigated. Heterogeneity of adsorption sites was intensified by increasing magnetic concentration of adsorbents and by rising pH value. Results of ionic strength studies indicated that by increasing ionic strength more than four times, the adsorption of Cd 2+ has only decreased around 15%. According to the results, the dominant mechanism of Cd 2+ sorption by the present adsorbents was determined chemical and specific sorption. Therefore, the use of the present nanocomposites as a powerful adsorbent of Cd 2+ in the wastewater treatment is suggested. Isotherm data were described by using Freundlich and Langmuir models, and better fitting was introduced Langmuir model.

  7. Clinical Fit of Partial Removable Dental Prostheses Based on Alginate or Polyvinyl Siloxane Impressions.

    PubMed

    Fokkinga, Wietske A; Witter, Dick J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical fit of metal-frame partial removable dental prostheses (PRDPs) based on custom trays used with alginate or polyvinyl siloxane impression material. Fifth-year students of the Nijmegen Dental School made 25 correct impressions for 23 PRDPs for 21 patients using alginate, and 31 correct impressions for 30 PRDPs for 28 patients using polyvinyl siloxane. Clinical fit of the framework as a whole and of each retainer separately were evaluated by calibrated supervisors during framework try-in before (first evaluation) and after (second evaluation) possible adjustments (score 0 = poor fit, up to score 3 = good fit). Framework fit and fit of the denture base were evaluated at delivery (third evaluation). Finally, postinsertion sessions were evaluated and total number of sessions needed, sore spots, adjustments to the denture base, and reported food-impaction were recorded. No significant differences in clinical fit (of the framework as a whole, for the retainers, or for the denture base) were found between the groups in the three evaluation sessions. Differences were not found for postinsertion sessions with one exception: in the alginate group, four subjects reported food impaction, versus none in the polyvinyl siloxane group. Clinical fit of metal-frame PRDPs based on impressions with custom trays combined with alginate or polyvinyl siloxane was similar.

  8. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. [The effect of Redix Scutellariae on butyrate of Porphyromonas endodontalis in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-yao; Tang, Ya-ling; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Xue-dong; Zhang, Ping

    2004-02-01

    To study the effect of Radix Scutellariae on the growth, metabolism of Porphyromonas endodontalis (P.e), as a preparation for studying the mechanism of Radix Scutellariae in treating pulp and periapical diseases. P.e was chosen as the experimental bacteria. Radix Scutellariae was extracted by means of reflux with 80% ethanol. The value of MIC of Radix Scutellariae was measured by minute amount serial dilusion test, and the production of butyrate was measured by high liquid chromatograph(HPLC). Radix Scutellariae could inhibit the growth of P.e, of which the MIC was 100 mg/L. Following the increase in concentration of Radix Scutellariae, the amount of butyrate decreased to (3.527 +/- 0.009) mg/L, (3.048 +/- 0.005) mg/L, (2.490 +/- 0.011) mg/L, (2.209 +/- 0.016) mg/L, respectively (P < 0.05). Radix Scutellariae could inhibit the growth and metabolism of P.e and might be an effective agent in treating pulp and periapical diseases.

  10. Engineering poly(hydroxy butyrate-co-hydroxy valerate) based vascular scaffolds to mimic native artery.

    PubMed

    Deepthi, S; Nivedhitha Sundaram, M; Vijayan, Ponni; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2018-04-01

    Electrospun tri-layered fibrous scaffold incorporating VEGF and Platelet Factor Concentrate (PFC) in multiple layers having different layer architectures was designed to mimic native artery. The scaffold consisted of longitudinally aligned poly(hydroxy butyrate-co-hydroxy valerate) (PHBV) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers (inner layer), radially aligned PHBV-elastin nanofibers (middle layer) to provide the bi-directional alignment and combination of longitudinally aligned PHBV-elastin and random PHBV/PVA multiscale fibers (peripheral layer). Tubular constructs of diameter <6 mm were developed. The developed electrospun fibers were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Tensile tests. Further the burst strength, compliance and stiffness index of tri-layered tubular scaffold was evaluated. SEM images of fibrous layers showed the typical longitudinal and radial alignment of fibers in the tubular construct. SEM images showed that the prepared PHBV nanofibers were in the range of 500-800 nm and PHBV microfibers were of 1-2 μm in diameter in the tri-layered electrospun membrane. PVA nanofibers were of size 200-250 nm. The tensile strength, percentage compliance and stiffness index of tri-layered membrane was in accordance with that of native small blood vessels. The developed tri-layered membrane was blood compatible, with hemolysis degree 0.85 ± 0.21% and did not activate platelets. Controlled release of VEGF and PFC was observed from the scaffold. The biocompatibility of the tri-layered scaffold was evaluated using HUVECs, SMCs and MSCs and SMCs infiltration from the outer layer was also evaluated. Specific protein expression for the HUVECs and SMCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. HUVECs and SMCs exhibited good elongation and alignment along the direction of fibers and was found to maintain its CD31, VE-Cadherin and αSMA expression respectively. The results

  11. Increased butyrate priming in the gut stalls microbiome associated-gastrointestinal inflammation and hepatic metabolic reprogramming in a mouse model of Gulf War Illness.

    PubMed

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Kimono, Diana; Alhasson, Firas; Sarkar, Sutapa; Albadrani, Muayad; Lasley, Stephen K; Horner, Ronnie; Janulewicz, Patricia; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Sullivan, Kimberly; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2018-07-01

    Most of the associated pathologies in Gulf War Illness (GWI) have been ascribed to chemical and pharmaceutical exposures during the war. Since an increased number of veterans complain of gastrointestinal (GI), neuroinflammatory and metabolic complications as they age and there are limited options for a cure, the present study was focused to assess the role of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid for attenuating GWI-associated GI and metabolic complications. Results in a GWI-mouse model of permethrin and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) exposure showed that oral butyrate restored gut homeostasis and increased GPR109A receptor copies in the small intestine (SI). Claudin-2, a protein shown to be upregulated in conditions of leaky gut was significantly decreased following butyrate administration. Butyrate decreased TLR4 and TLR5 expressions in the liver concomitant to a decrease in TLR4 activation. GW-chemical exposure showed no clinical signs of liver disease but a significant alteration of metabolic markers such as SREBP1c, PPAR-α, and PFK was evident. Liver markers for lipogenesis and carbohydrate metabolism that were significantly upregulated following GW chemical exposure were attenuated by butyrate priming in vivo and in human primary hepatocytes. Further, Glucose transporter Glut-4 that was shown to be elevated following liver complications were significantly decreased in these mice after butyrate administration. Finally, use of TLR4 KO mice completely attenuated the liver metabolic changes suggesting the central role of these receptors in the GWI pathology. In conclusion, we report a butyrate specific mechanistic approach to identify and treat increased metabolic abnormalities in GWI veterans with systemic inflammation, chronic fatigue, GI disturbances, metabolic complications and weight gain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  13. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  14. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  15. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  16. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) General. (1) A tolerance is established for the herbicide 4-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric... established for the combined residues, free and conjugated, of the herbicide MCPB, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy...

  17. Oral sodium butyrate impacts brain metabolism and hippocampal neurogenesis, with limited effects on gut anatomy and function in pigs.

    PubMed

    Val-Laillet, David; Guérin, Sylvie; Coquery, Nicolas; Nogret, Isabelle; Formal, Michèle; Romé, Véronique; Le Normand, Laurence; Meurice, Paul; Randuineau, Gwénaëlle; Guilloteau, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Parnet, Patricia; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Segain, Jean-Pierre

    2018-04-01

    Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. SB compared with C treatment triggered basal brain glucose metabolism changes in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus ( P = 0.003), increased hippocampal granular cell layer volume ( P = 0.006), and neurogenesis (Ki67: P = 0.026; DCX: P = 0.029). After 2 wk of treatment, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lactate, glucagon-like peptide 1, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine remained unchanged. After 3 wk, plasma levels of lactate were lower in SB compared with C animals ( P = 0.028), with no difference for glucose and insulin. Butyrate intake impacted very little gut anatomy and function. These results demonstrate that oral SB impacted brain functions with little effects on the gut.-Val-Laillet, D., Guérin, S., Coquery, N., Nogret, I., Formal, M., Romé, V., Le Normand, L., Meurice, P., Randuineau, G., Guilloteau, P., Malbert, C.-H., Parnet, P., Lallès, J.-P., Segain, J.-P. Oral sodium butyrate impacts brain metabolism and hippocampal neurogenesis, with limited effects on gut anatomy and function in pigs.

  18. Butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum overexpressing xylose catabolism genes for glucose and xylose co-utilization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongxin; Yang, Shang-Tian; Wang, Minqi; Wang, Jufang; Tang, I-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum can utilize glucose and xylose as carbon source for butyric acid production. However, xylose catabolism is inhibited by glucose, hampering butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates containing both glucose and xylose. In this study, an engineered strain of C. tyrobutyricum Ct-pTBA overexpressing heterologous xylose catabolism genes (xylT, xylA, and xylB) was investigated for co-utilizing glucose and xylose present in hydrolysates of plant biomass, including soybean hull, corn fiber, wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse. Compared to the wild-type strain, Ct-pTBA showed higher xylose utilization without significant glucose catabolite repression, achieving near 100% utilization of glucose and xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates in bioreactor at pH 6. About 42.6g/L butyrate at a productivity of 0.56g/L·h and yield of 0.36g/g was obtained in batch fermentation, demonstrating the potential of C. tyrobutyricum Ct-pTBA for butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modification of Poly(vinyl butyral) Coatings Using Bis-silanes (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    parent coating to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), diisopropyl methylphosphonate, and methyl salicylate ; the...methylphosphonate (DMMP), diisopropyl methylphos- phonate, and methyl salicylate ; the most significant reduction was observed for 2-CEES and DMMP at...dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL), and methyl salicylate (MS)wereobtained

  20. Butyric acid retention in gingival tissue induces oxidative stress in jugular blood mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Imai, Kenichi; Matsukawa, Noriko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2013-09-01

    Butyric acid (BA) is a major extracellular metabolite produced by anaerobic periodontopathic bacteria and is commonly deposited in the gingival tissue. BA induces mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro; however, its effects in vivo were never elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of butyric acid retention in the gingival tissues on oxidative stress induction in the jugular blood mitochondria. We established that BA injected in the rat gingival tissue has prolonged retention in gingival tissues. Blood taken at 0, 60, and 180 min after BA injection was used for further analysis. We isolated blood mitochondria, verified its purity, and measured hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), heme, superoxide (SOD), and catalase (CAT) to determine BA effects. We found that H2O2, heme, SOD, and CAT levels all increased after BA injection. This would insinuate that mitochondrial oxidative stress was induced ascribable to BA.

  1. Organogel polymers from 10-undecenoic acid and poly(vinyl acetate)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organogels are used in a variety of high value applications including the removal of toxic solvents from aqueous environments and the time-controlled release of compounds. One of the most promising gelators is a polyvinyl polymer containing medium chain length carboxylic acids. The existing producti...

  2. Electrospun nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol)reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils (CnF) were produced by electrospinning. The effects of applied voltage, polymer concentration and injection rate, tip-to-collector distance (TCD), rotation speed of the collector, and relative humidity on mor...

  3. Short cellulose nanofribrils as reinforcement in polyvinyl alcohol fiber

    Treesearch

    Jun Peng; Thomas Ellingham; Ron Sabo; Lih-Sheng Turng; Craig M. Clemons

    2014-01-01

    Short cellulose nanofibrils (SCNF) were investigated as reinforcement for polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. SCNF were mechanically isolated from hard wood pulp after enzymatic pretreatment. Various levels of SCNF were added to an aqueous PVA solution, which was gel-spun into continuous fibers. The molecular orientation of PVA was affected by a combination of wet drawing...

  4. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Shawn M; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates overmore » the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington

  5. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates overmore » the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington

  6. Compressibility of two polyvinyl siloxane interocclusal record materials and its effect on mounted cast relationships.

    PubMed

    Campos, A A; Nathanson, D

    1999-10-01

    Addition silicones (polyvinyl siloxanes) are universally accepted as accurate and stable impression materials. They have also gained popularity as interocclusal record materials. However, it has not been defined if it is possible to work with polyvinyl siloxanes without changing the recorded maxillomandibular relations. This study examined the compressibility of 2 addition silicones as interocclusal record materials, analyzing the changes of maxillomandibular relations at the condyle region when different compressive forces are used to stabilize articulated casts. Sixteen interocclusal records, obtained from the same patient (8 of each polyvinyl siloxane, Blu-Mousse, Fast Set), were interposed between the patient casts in a new measuring system obtaining 48 curves of load versus maxillomandibular positional changes in 3 axes (x, y, z). These curves were compared with curves obtained with the casts in maximum intercuspation without interocclusal records (reference curves). Analysis of variance was used to compare maxillomandibular positional changes among the 3 groups (n = 48 each): Blu-Mousse, Fast Set, and control group or maximum intercuspation without interocclusal record. There was no significant change in maxillomandibular relations when forces up to 1 kgf were applied to stabilize the casts related by means of Blu-Mousse and Fast Set addition silicone interocclusal records. It is possible to use these polyvinyl siloxanes as interocclusal record materials without changing the recorded maxillomandibular relations.

  7. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  8. Experimental Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Roofing: Field Test Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    construction. These were the single-ply membranes of the ethylene-propylene-diene monomer ( EPDM ) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) types, and the sprayed-in-place...polyurethane foam (PUF) with an elastomeric coating. EPDM and PUF roofs were constructed in 19802 and the PVC roofs were completed during summer 1983...faced isocyanu- rate foam board in two layers . Roofing systems were installed loose-laid and ballasted. Specific membrane materials were Plymouth

  9. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajit K; Khare, Prateek; Singh, Jayant K; Verma, Nishith

    2013-04-01

    A novel nanocomposite polyvinyl alcohol precursor-based material dispersed with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery separator. The primary synthesis steps of the separator material consist of esterification of polyvinyl acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro-nanofibers, mixing of the milled micron size (~500 nm) fibers to the reactant mixture at the incipience of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydrophobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol as a plasticizer, to produce a thin film of ~25 μm. The produced film, uniformly dispersed with carbon micro-nanofibers, has dramatically improved performance as a battery separator, with the ion conductivity of the electrolytes (LiPF6) saturated film measured as 0.119 S-cm(-1), approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol. The other primary characteristics of the produced film, such as tensile strength, contact angle, and thermal stability, are also found to be superior to the materials made of other precursors, including polypropylene and polyethylene, discussed in the literature. The method of producing the films in this study is novel, simple, environmentally benign, and economically viable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from swine intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, Julian; Humphrey, Samuel; Allen, Heather K

    2018-05-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, butyrate-producing coccus was cultured from the distal ileum of swine. This organism was isolated on rumen-fluid medium, consumes acetate, and produces butyrate as its major end product when grown on mono- and di-saccharides. A phylogenetic analysis based on near full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences as well as whole-genome phylogenies suggests that this isolate is most closely related to species in the genus Butyricicoccus, with Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum being the closest named relative (93.5 % 16S similarity). The G+C content of this isolate is 54 mol%, and the major cellular fatty acids are C18 : 0 DMA, C14 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and C16 : 0. These data indicate that this isolate represents a novel species within the genus Butyricicoccus, for which the name Butyricicoccus porcorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Butyricicoccus porcorum is BB10 T (ATCC TSD-102 T , DSM 104997 T ).

  11. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on gene expression in the duodenum of lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previous study infusing butyrate into the abomasum of sheep produced increased oxygen, glucose, glutamate, and glutamine uptake by the portal-drained viscera. These changes were thought to be partially due to increases in glycolysis and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...

  12. Butyrate Infusions in the Ovine Fetus Delay the Biologic Clock for Globin Gene Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrine, Susan P.; Rudolph, Abraham; Faller, Douglas V.; Roman, Christine; Cohen, Ruth A.; Chen, Shao-Jing; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1988-11-01

    The switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin expression is regulated in many mammalian species by a developmental clock-like mechanism and determined by the gestational age of the fetus. Prolonging fetal globin gene expression is of considerable interest for therapeutic potential in diseases caused by abnormal β -globin genes. Butyric acid, which is found in increased plasma concentrations in infants of diabetic mothers who have delayed globin gene switching, was infused into catheterized fetal lambs in utero during the time of the normal globin gene switch period. The globin gene switch was significantly delayed in three of four butyrate-treated fetuses compared with controls and was entirely prevented in one fetus in whom the infusion was begun before the globin switch was under way. These data provide a model for investigating and arresting the biologic clock of hemoglobin switching.

  13. Microbial Metabolic Networks at the Mucus Layer Lead to Diet-Independent Butyrate and Vitamin B12 Production by Intestinal Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Loo Wee; Aalvink, Steven; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Piironen, Vieno; Knol, Jan; de Vos, Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Akkermansia muciniphila has evolved to specialize in the degradation and utilization of host mucus, which it may use as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Mucus degradation and fermentation by A. muciniphila are known to result in the liberation of oligosaccharides and subsequent production of acetate, which becomes directly available to microorganisms in the vicinity of the intestinal mucosa. Coculturing experiments of A. muciniphila with non-mucus-degrading butyrate-producing bacteria Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii resulted in syntrophic growth and production of butyrate. In addition, we demonstrate that the production of pseudovitamin B12 by E. hallii results in production of propionate by A. muciniphila, which suggests that this syntrophy is indeed bidirectional. These data are proof of concept for syntrophic and other symbiotic microbe-microbe interactions at the intestinal mucosal interface. The observed metabolic interactions between A. muciniphila and butyrogenic bacterial taxa support the existence of colonic vitamin and butyrate production pathways that are dependent on host glycan production and independent of dietary carbohydrates. We infer that the intestinal symbiont A. muciniphila can indirectly stimulate intestinal butyrate levels in the vicinity of the intestinal epithelial cells with potential health benefits to the host. PMID:28928206

  14. An orally administered butyrate-releasing derivative reduces neutrophil recruitment and inflammation in dextran sulphate sodium-induced murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Simeoli, Raffaele; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Pirozzi, Claudio; Lama, Adriano; Santoro, Anna; Russo, Roberto; Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Berni Canani, Roberto; Calignano, Antonio; Perretti, Mauro; Meli, Rosaria

    2017-06-01

    Butyrate has shown benefits in inflammatory bowel diseases. However, it is not often administered orally because of its rancid smell and unpleasant taste. The efficacy of a more palatable butyrate-releasing derivative, N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenylethyl) butyramide (FBA), was evaluated in a mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). Male 10 week-old BALB/c mice received DSS (2.5%) in drinking water (for 5 days) followed by DSS-free water for 7 days (DSS group). Oral FBA administration (42.5 mg·kg -1 ) was started 7 days before DSS as preventive (P-FBA), or 2 days after DSS as therapeutic (T-FBA); both treatments lasted 19 days. One DSS-untreated group received only tap water (CON). FBA treatments reduced colitis symptoms and colon damage. P-FBA and T-FBA significantly decreased polymorphonuclear cell infiltration score compared with the DSS group. FBA reversed the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (reducing inducible NOS protein expression, CCL2 and IL-6 transcripts in colon and increasing TGFβ and IL-10). Morever, P-FBA and T-FBA limited neutrophil recruitment (by expression and localization of the neutrophil granule protease Ly-6G), restored deficiency of the butyrate transporter and improved intestinal epithelial integrity, preventing tight-junction impairment (zonulin-1 and occludin). FBA, similar to its parental compound sodium butyrate, inhibited histone deacetylase-9 and restored H3 histone acetylation, exerting an anti-inflammatory effect through NF-κB inhibition and the up-regulation of PPARγ. FBA reduces inflammatory intestinal damage in mice indicating its potential as a postbiotic derivative without the problems associated with the oral administration of sodium butyrate. This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.11/issuetoc. © 2016 The British

  15. Evaluation of transport parameters for PVC based polyvinyl alcohol Ce(IV) phosphate composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Mujahid Ali; Rafiuddin; Inamuddin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preparation of novel membrane and the characterization of their properties. A new class of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based polyvinyl alcohol Ce(IV) phosphate composite membrane was successfully prepared by solution casting method. The structural formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and morphological studies. The thermal property was investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. The order of surface charge density for various electrolytes was found to be LiCl

  16. Butyrate Conditions Human Dendritic Cells to Prime Type 1 Regulatory T Cells via both Histone Deacetylase Inhibition and G Protein-Coupled Receptor 109A Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kaisar, Maria M. M.; Pelgrom, Leonard R.; van der Ham, Alwin J.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Everts, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and in particular butyrate, have anti-inflammatory properties. Murine studies have shown that butyrate can promote regulatory T cells via the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs). However, the effects of SCFAs on human DCs and how they affect their capacity to prime and polarize T-cell responses have not been addressed. Here, we report that butyrate suppresses LPS-induced maturation and metabolic reprogramming of human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) and conditions them to polarize naive CD4+ T cells toward IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1). This effect was dependent on induction of the retinoic acid-producing enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in DCs. The induction of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and Tr1 cell differentiation by butyrate was dependent on simultaneous inhibition of histone deacetylases and signaling through G protein-coupled receptor 109A. Taken together, we reveal that butyrate is a potent inducer of tolerogenic human DCs, thereby shedding new light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which SCFAs can exert their immunomodulatory effects in humans. PMID:29163504

  17. Microbial Metabolic Networks at the Mucus Layer Lead to Diet-Independent Butyrate and Vitamin B12 Production by Intestinal Symbionts.

    PubMed

    Belzer, Clara; Chia, Loo Wee; Aalvink, Steven; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Piironen, Vieno; Knol, Jan; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-09-19

    Akkermansia muciniphila has evolved to specialize in the degradation and utilization of host mucus, which it may use as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Mucus degradation and fermentation by A. muciniphila are known to result in the liberation of oligosaccharides and subsequent production of acetate, which becomes directly available to microorganisms in the vicinity of the intestinal mucosa. Coculturing experiments of A muciniphila with non-mucus-degrading butyrate-producing bacteria Anaerostipes caccae , Eubacterium hallii , and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii resulted in syntrophic growth and production of butyrate. In addition, we demonstrate that the production of pseudovitamin B 12 by E. hallii results in production of propionate by A. muciniphila , which suggests that this syntrophy is indeed bidirectional. These data are proof of concept for syntrophic and other symbiotic microbe-microbe interactions at the intestinal mucosal interface. The observed metabolic interactions between A muciniphila and butyrogenic bacterial taxa support the existence of colonic vitamin and butyrate production pathways that are dependent on host glycan production and independent of dietary carbohydrates. We infer that the intestinal symbiont A. muciniphila can indirectly stimulate intestinal butyrate levels in the vicinity of the intestinal epithelial cells with potential health benefits to the host. IMPORTANCE The intestinal microbiota is said to be a stable ecosystem where many networks between microorganisms are formed. Here we present a proof of principle study of microbial interaction at the intestinal mucus layer. We show that indigestible oligosaccharide chains within mucus become available for a broad range of intestinal microbes after degradation and liberation of sugars by the species Akkermansia muciniphila This leads to the microbial synthesis of vitamin B 12 , 1,2-propanediol, propionate, and butyrate, which are beneficial to the microbial ecosystem and host

  18. In-situ cross linking of polyvinyl alcohol. [application to battery separator films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method of producing a crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol structure, such as a battery separator membrane or electrode envelope is described. An aqueous solution of a film-forming polyvinyl alcohol is admixed with an aldehyde crosslinking agent a basic pH to inhibit crosslinking. The crosslinking agent, perferably a dialdehyde such as glutaraldehyde, is used in an amount of from about 1/2 to about 20% of the theoretical amount required to crosslink all of the hydroxyl groups of the polymer. The aqueous admixture is formed into a desired physical shape, such as by casting a sheet of the solution. The sheet is then dried to form a self-supporting film. Crosslinking is then effected by immersing the film in aqueous acid solution. The resultant product has excellent properties for use as a battery separator.

  19. Cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films for food packaging: Evaluation of water adsorption, mechanical properties, light-barrier properties and transparency.

    PubMed

    Cazón, Patricia; Vázquez, Manuel; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2018-09-01

    Nowadays consumers are aware of environmental problems. As an alternative to petrochemical polymers for food packaging, researchers have been focused on biopolymeric materials as raw material. The aim of this study was to evaluate mechanical properties (toughness, burst strength and distance to burst), water adsorption, light-barrier properties and transparency of composite films based on cellulose, glycerol and polyvinyl alcohol. Scanning electron microscopy, spectral analysis (FT-IR and UV-VIS-NIR) and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to explain the morphology, structural and thermal properties of the films. Results showed that polyvinyl alcohol enhances the toughness of films up to 44.30 MJ/m 3 . However, toughness decreases when glycerol concentration is increased (from 23.41 to 10.55 MJ/m 3 ). Water adsorption increased with increasing polyvinyl alcohol concentration up to 222%. Polyvinyl alcohol increased the film thickness. The films showed higher burst strength (up to 12014 g) than other biodegradable films. The films obtained have optimal values of transparency like those values of synthetic polymers. Glycerol produced a UV protective effect in the films, an important effect for food packaging to prevent lipid oxidative deterioration. Results showed that it is feasible to obtain cellulose-glycerol-polyvinyl alcohol composite films with improved properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    PubMed

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  1. Comparison of the effect of different medicaments on surface reproduction of two commercially available Polyvinyl Siloxane impression materials - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rina; Singh, Jagjit; Singh, Ramanpreet; Nanda, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effect of different retraction cord medicaments on surface detail reproduction of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials and compare this effect on any two brands of commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. Material and methods: Four stainless steel dies were made according to ADA specification no.19. Three dies were treated with aluminium chloride (5%), ferric sulphate (13.3%) and epinephrine (0.1%) while the fourth one was left untreated to serve as control. Two impression materials (Dentsply and 3M ESPE) were used. Results: All the three medicaments adversely affected the surface detail reproduction of both the brands of the polyvinyl siloxane impression materials. These effects were statistically significant as compared to untreated control. The impressions of 3M ESPE brand have shown better surface detail reproduction as compared to Dentsply impression material. Conclusion: Surface detail reproduction of the polyvinyl siloxane impression materials is adversely affected by the retraction cord medicaments. The presence of moisture or any traces of the medicaments should be removed from the tooth surface to provide a dry field for the correct reproduction of the surface detail of these materials. Key words:Polyvinyl Siloxane, retraction cord medicaments, surface detail reproduction. PMID:24455069

  2. Oxidation and Destruction of Polyvinyl Alcohol under the Combined Action of Ozone-Oxygen Mixture and Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimin, Yu. S.; Kutlugil'dina, G. G.; Mustafin, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The oxidative transformations of a polyvinyl alcohol in aqueous solutions are studied under the simultaneous action of the two oxidizing agents, an ozone-oxygen mixture and a hydrogen peroxide. Effective parameters a and b, which characterize the first and second channels of carboxyl group accumulation, respectively, grow linearly upon an increase in the initial concentration of H2O2. After the temperature dependence of a and b parameters (331-363 K) in a PVA + O3 + O2 + H2O2 + H2O reaction system is studied, the parameters of the activation of COOH group accumulation are found (where PVA is a polyvinyl alcohol). New data on the effect process conditions (length of oxidation, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration) have on the degree of destructive transformations of polyvinyl alcohol in the investigated reaction system are obtained.

  3. Polyvinyl siloxane: novel material for external nasal splinting.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, N K; Rathnaprabhu, V; Ramesh, S; Parameswaran, A

    2016-01-01

    External nasal splinting is performed routinely after nasal bone fracture reductions, osteotomies, and rhinoplasties. Materials commonly used include plaster of Paris (POP), thermoplastic splints, self-adhesive padded aluminium splints, and Orthoplast, among many others. The disadvantages of these materials are described in this paper, and polyvinyl siloxane is recommended as an effective and more readily available alternative material to counter these pitfalls. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of Charges in Polyvinyl Alcohol Networks to Marine Antifouling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wufang; Lin, Peng; Cheng, Daocang; Zhang, Longzhou; Wu, Yang; Liu, Yupeng; Pei, Xiaowei; Zhou, Feng

    2017-05-31

    Semi-interpenetrated polyvinyl alcohol polymer networks (SIPNs) were prepared by integrating various charged components into polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and tensile tests were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared SIPNs. To investigate the contribution of charges to marine antifouling, the adhesion behaviors of green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta and diatoms Navicula sp. in the laboratory and of the actual marine animals in field test were studied for biofouling assays. The results suggest that less algae accumulation densities are observed for neutral-, anionic-, and zwitterionic-component-integrated SIPNs. However, for the cationic SIPNs, despite the hydration shell induced by the ion-dipole interaction, the resistance to biofouling largely depends on the amount of cationic component because of the possible favorable electrostatic attraction between the cationic groups in SIPNs and the negatively charged algae. Considering that the preparation of novel nontoxic antifouling coating is a long-standing and cosmopolitan industrial challenge, the SIPNs may provide a useful reference for marine antifouling and some other relevant fields.

  5. The identification of a sensitizing component used in the manufacturing of an ink ribbon.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Tapp, Loren; Durgam, Srinivas; Meade, B Jean; Jackson, Laurel G; Cohen, David E

    2012-01-01

    Skin diseases including dermatitis constitute ≈ 30% of all occupational illnesses, with a high incidence in the printing industry. An outbreak of contact dermatitis among employees at an ink ribbon manufacturing plant was investigated by scientists from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Employees in the process areas of the plant were exposed to numerous chemicals and many had experienced skin rashes, especially after the introduction of a new ink ribbon product. To identify the causative agent(s) of the occupational dermatitis, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to identify the potential of the chemicals used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Follow-up patch testing with the suspected allergens was conducted on exposed employees. Polyvinyl butyral, a chemical component used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon in question and other products, tested positive in the LLNA, with an EC3 of 3.6%, which identifies it as a potential sensitizer; however, no employees tested positive to this chemical during skin patch testing. This finding has implications beyond those described in this report because of occupational exposure to polyvinyl butyral outside of the printing industry.

  6. Complex Coacervate Core Micelles Containing Poly(vinyl alcohol) Inhibit Ice Recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Sproncken, Christian C M; Surís-Valls, Romà; Cingil, Hande E; Detrembleur, Christophe; Voets, Ilja K

    2018-04-10

    Complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) form upon complexation of oppositely charged copolymers. These co-assembled structures are widely investigated as promising building blocks for encapsulation, nanoparticle synthesis, multimodal imaging, and coating technology. Here, the impact on ice growth is investigated of C3Ms containing poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, which is well known for its high ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. The PVA-based C3Ms are prepared upon co-assembly of poly(4-vinyl-N-methyl-pyridinium iodide) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-block-poly(acrylic acid). Their formation conditions, size, and performance as ice recrystallization inhibitors are studied. It is found that the C3Ms exhibit IRI activity at PVA monomer concentrations as low as 1 × 10 -3 m. The IRI efficacy of PVA-C3Ms is similar to that of linear PVA and PVA graft polymers, underlining the influence of vinyl alcohol monomer concentration rather than polymer architecture. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Butyric acid production from lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by engineered Clostridium tyrobutyricum overexpressing Class I heat shock protein GroESL.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Fu, Hongxin; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Wang, Jufang

    2018-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and renewable substrate for biological fermentation, but the inhibitors present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates could severely inhibit the cell growth and productivity of industrial strains. This study confirmed that overexpressing of native groESL in Clostridium tyrobutyricum could significantly improve its tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate-derived inhibitors, especially for phenolic compounds. Consequently, ATCC 25755/groESL showed a better performance in butyric acid fermentation with hydrolysates of corn cob, corn straw, rice straw, wheat straw, soybean hull and soybean straw, respectively. When corn straw and rice straw hydrolysates, which showed strong toxicity to C. tyrobutyricum, were used as the substrates, 29.6 g/L and 30.1 g/L butyric acid were obtained in batch fermentation, increased by 26.5% and 19.4% as compared with the wild-type strain, respectively. And more importantly, the butyric acid productivity reached 0.31 g/L·h (vs. 0.20-0.21 g/L·h for the wild-type strain) due to the shortened lag phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomaterial properties evaluation of poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride)/chitosan nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raţă, Delia Mihaela; Popa, Marcel; Chailan, Jean-François; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara

    2014-08-01

    Nanocapsules with diameter around 100 nm based on a natural polymer (chitosan) and a synthetic polymer poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride) [poly(MAVA)] by interfacial condensation method were prepared. The present study proposes a new type of biocompatible nanocapsules based on poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride-chitosan) (MCS) able to become a reliable support for inclusion and release of drugs. The spherical shape of the nanocapsules was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Nanocapsules presented a good Norfloxacin loading and release capacity. Haemocompatibility tests have demonstrated that the nanocapsules present a low toxicity and a good compatibility with sanguine medium. The biocompatibility properties of the nanocapsules after their intraperitoneal administration in rats were evidenced by histopathological examination of different organs (brain, liver, kidney, and lung). The results are encouraging and the nanocapsules can be used as controlled drug delivery systems.

  9. Subclinical Ketosis on Dairy Cows in Transition Period in Farms with Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents in Silages

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r 2 = 0.56; P < 0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616

  10. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).

  11. Bifidobacteria and Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria: Importance and Strategies for Their Stimulation in the Human Gut

    PubMed Central

    Rivière, Audrey; Selak, Marija; Lantin, David; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing amount of evidence linking certain disorders of the human body to a disturbed gut microbiota, there is a growing interest for compounds that positively influence its composition and activity through diet. Besides the consumption of probiotics to stimulate favorable bacterial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, prebiotics such as inulin-type fructans (ITF) and arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) can be consumed to increase the number of bifidobacteria in the colon. Several functions have been attributed to bifidobacteria, encompassing degradation of non-digestible carbohydrates, protection against pathogens, production of vitamin B, antioxidants, and conjugated linoleic acids, and stimulation of the immune system. During life, the numbers of bifidobacteria decrease from up to 90% of the total colon microbiota in vaginally delivered breast-fed infants to <5% in the colon of adults and they decrease even more in that of elderly as well as in patients with certain disorders such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, allergies, and regressive autism. It has been suggested that the bifidogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of strain-specific yet complementary carbohydrate degradation mechanisms within cooperating bifidobacterial consortia. Except for a bifidogenic effect, ITF and AXOS also have shown to cause a butyrogenic effect in the human colon, i.e., an enhancement of colon butyrate production. Butyrate is an essential metabolite in the human colon, as it is the preferred energy source for the colon epithelial cells, contributes to the maintenance of the gut barrier functions, and has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the butyrogenic effects of ITF and AXOS are the result of cross-feeding interactions between bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing colon bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (clostridial cluster IV

  12. Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles inhibit the adhesion and migration of colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Minelli, R; Serpe, L; Pettazzoni, P; Minero, V; Barrera, G; Gigliotti, CL; Mesturini, R; Rosa, AC; Gasco, P; Vivenza, N; Muntoni, E; Fantozzi, R; Dianzani, U; Zara, GP; Dianzani, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles (cholbut SLN) provide a delivery system for the anti-cancer drug butyrate. These SLN inhibit the adhesion of polymorphonuclear cells to the endothelium and may act as anti-inflammatory agents. As cancer cell adhesion to endothelium is crucial for metastasis dissemination, here we have evaluated the effect of cholbut SLN on adhesion and migration of cancer cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Cholbut SLN was incubated with a number of cancer cell lines or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and adhesion was quantified by a computerized micro-imaging system. Migration was detected by the scratch ‘wound-healing’ assay and the Boyden chamber invasion assay. Expression of ERK and p38 MAPK was analysed by Western blot. Expression of the mRNA for E-cadherin and claudin-1 was measured by RT-PCR. KEY RESULTS Cholbut SLN inhibited HUVEC adhesiveness to cancer cell lines derived from human colon–rectum, breast, prostate cancers and melanoma. The effect was concentration and time-dependent and exerted on both cancer cells and HUVEC. Moreover, these SLN inhibited migration of cancer cells and substantially down-modulated ERK and p38 phosphorylation. The anti-adhesive effect was additive to that induced by the triggering of B7h, which is another stimulus inhibiting both ERK and p38 phosphorylation, and cell adhesiveness. Furthermore, cholbut SLN induced E-cadherin and inhibited claudin-1 expression in HUVEC. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that cholbut SLN could act as an anti-metastastic agent and they add a new mechanism to the anti-tumour activity of this multifaceted preparation of butyrate. PMID:22049973

  13. Functional and molecular effects of arginine butyrate and prednisone on muscle and heart in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Guerron, Alfredo D; Rawat, Rashmi; Sali, Arpana; Spurney, Christopher F; Pistilli, Emidio; Cha, Hee-Jae; Pandey, Gouri S; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Francia, Dwight; Farajian, Viken; Escolar, Diana M; Bossi, Laura; Becker, Magali; Zerr, Patricia; de la Porte, Sabine; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Partridge, Terence; Hoffman, Eric P; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-06-21

    The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin. In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated) mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy. These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with broad range of in vivo activity.

  14. Functional and Molecular Effects of Arginine Butyrate and Prednisone on Muscle and Heart in the mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Guerron, Alfredo D.; Rawat, Rashmi; Sali, Arpana; Spurney, Christopher F.; Pistilli, Emidio; Cha, Hee-Jae; Pandey, Gouri S.; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Francia, Dwight; Farajian, Viken; Escolar, Diana M.; Bossi, Laura; Becker, Magali; Zerr, Patricia; de la Porte, Sabine; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Partridge, Terence; Hoffman, Eric P.; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2010-01-01

    Background The number of promising therapeutic interventions for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is increasing rapidly. One of the proposed strategies is to use drugs that are known to act by multiple different mechanisms including inducing of homologous fetal form of adult genes, for example utrophin in place of dystrophin. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have treated mdx mice with arginine butyrate, prednisone, or a combination of arginine butyrate and prednisone for 6 months, beginning at 3 months of age, and have comprehensively evaluated the functional, biochemical, histological, and molecular effects of the treatments in this DMD model. Arginine butyrate treatment improved grip strength and decreased fibrosis in the gastrocnemius muscle, but did not produce significant improvement in muscle and cardiac histology, heart function, behavioral measurements, or serum creatine kinase levels. In contrast, 6 months of chronic continuous prednisone treatment resulted in deterioration in functional, histological, and biochemical measures. Arginine butyrate-treated mice gene expression profiling experiments revealed that several genes that control cell proliferation, growth and differentiation are differentially expressed consistent with its histone deacetylase inhibitory activity when compared to control (saline-treated) mdx mice. Prednisone and combination treated groups showed alterations in the expression of genes that control fibrosis, inflammation, myogenesis and atrophy. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that 6 months treatment with arginine butyrate can produce modest beneficial effects on dystrophic pathology in mdx mice by reducing fibrosis and promoting muscle function while chronic continuous treatment with prednisone showed deleterious effects to skeletal and cardiac muscle. Our results clearly indicate the usefulness of multiple assays systems to monitor both beneficial and toxic effects of drugs with broad range of in vivo

  15. Antimicrobial and water-triggered release characteristics of a copper sulfate-polyvinyl acetate adhesive composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesus, A. P. O.; Roxas-Villanueva, R. M. L.; Herrera, M. U.

    2017-05-01

    Water-triggered release of antimicrobial solutions is advantageous in inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi in moist and wet environments. In this study, we fabricated a composite, by mixing polyvinyl acetate adhesive with copper sulfate solution, which exhibits antimicrobial activities against bacteria. Polyvinyl acetate adhesive serves as the binder and water soluble substance while copper sulfate serves as the antimicrobial agent. The composite was coated in an acetate film and air-dried. To monitor the rate of release of copper ions, the composite was submerged in water and the conductivity was measured. The conductivity saturation time was determined. The composite showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive).

  16. Effect of Hydroxyl Concentration on Chemical Sensitivity of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Carbon-Black Composite Chemiresistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert C.; Patel, Sanjay V.; Yelton, W. Graham

    1999-05-19

    The sensitivity and selectivity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) / carbon black composite films have been found to vary depending upon the hydroxylation percentage ("-OH") of the polymer. These chemiresistors made from PVA films whose polymer backbone is 88% hydroxylated (PVA88) have a high sensitivity to water, while chemiresistors made from PVA75 have a higher sensitivity to methanol. The minor differences in polymer composition result in films with different Hildebrand volubility parameters. The relative responses of several different PVA-based chemiresistors to solvents with different volubility parameters are presented. In addition, polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) films with PVA88 are used in an arraymore » to distinguish the responses to methanol-water mixtures.« less

  17. Molecular basis of sodium butyrate-dependent proapoptotic activity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pajak, B; Orzechowski, A; Gajkowska, B

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines the molecular events that accompany the antitumor action of sodium butyrate (NaBt). Butyrate, a low-molecular weight four-carbon chain volatile fatty acid (VFA) has been previously shown to withdraw cells from cell cycle or to promote cell differentiation, and finally to induce programmed cell death. Recent advances in molecular biology indicate, that this product of large bowel microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, might evoke the above-mentioned effects by indirect action on genes. NaBt was shown to inhibit histone deacetylase activity, allowing DNA binding of several transcription factors. Higher genomic activity leads to the higher expression of proapoptotic genes, higher level of their protein products and elevated sensitivity to death ligand-induced apoptosis. Cancer cells might be arrested in G1 phase of cell cycle in a p21-dependent manner. Proapoptotic activity of NaBt includes higher expression of membrane death receptors (DR4/5), higher level and activation of Smad3 protein in TGF-beta-dependent apoptotic pathway, lower level of antiapoptotic proteins (cFLIP, XIAP) and activation ofproapoptotic tBid protein. Thus, both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways are stimulated to ampify the apoptotic signals. These effects are specific for tumor but not for regular cells. Unique properties of NaBt make this agent a promising metabolic inhibitor to retard tumorigenesis to suppress tumor growth.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Phenolic Lipid for Use as Potential Lipophilic Antioxidant and as a Prodrug of Butyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid was modified to produce a novel phenolipid containing butyl chains. Ferulic acid was esterified with butanol to produce butyl ferulate which was further dihydroxylated followed by esterification with butyric anhydride to produce the phenolipid containing butyric acid. IR, NMR and MS techniques confirmed the structure of the synthesized structured lipophilic phenolic compound. The synthesized compound was tested for in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The produced phenolipid showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay but in linoleic acid oxidation method, it exhibited good activity compared with the parent compound and the reference compounds. The prepared derivative could find applications as antioxidant in lipophilic systems and also as a potential prodrug of butyric acid. It also showed antibacterial effect against the four bacterial strains studied. The drug-likeness properties of the prepared molecule calculated were in the acceptable ranges according to Lipinski's rule of 5 and suggest that it has potential to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  19. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic study of the properties of various polymer pottant materials and of the electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell materials is required for advancing the technology of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. The items of specific concern in this sponsored research activity involve: (1) kinetics of plasticizer loss in PVB, (2) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in PVB, (3) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in EVA, (4) the electrical properties at PVB as a function of temperature and humidity, (5) the electrical properties of EVA as a function of temperature and humidity, (6) solar cell corrosion characteristics, (7) water absorption effects in PVB and EVA, and (8) ion implantation and radiation effects in PVB and EVA.

  20. The chemopreventive activity of butyrate-containing structured lipids in experimental rat hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Heidor, Renato; de Conti, Aline; Ortega, Juliana F; Furtado, Kelly S; Silva, Roberta C; Tavares, Paulo E L M; Purgatto, Eduardo; Ract, Juliana N R; de Paiva, Sérgio A R; Gioielli, Luiz A; Pogribny, Igor P; Moreno, Fernando S

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that the use of bioactive food components is a promising strategy to prevent the development of liver cancer. The goal of this study was to examine the chemopreventive effect of butyrate-containing structured lipids (STLs) produced by an enzymatic interesterification of tributyrin and flaxseed oil on rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a classic "resistant hepatocyte" model of liver carcinogenesis and treated with STLs, tributyrin or flaxseed oil during the initial phases of hepatocarcinogenesis. Treatment with STLs and tributyrin strongly inhibited the development of preneoplastic liver lesions. The chemopreventive activity of tributyrin was associated with the induction of apoptosis and reduction of the expression of major activated hepatocarcinogenesis-related oncogenes. Treatment with STLs caused substantially greater inhibitory effects than tributyrin on oncogene expression. These results demonstrate that the tumor-suppressing activity of butyrate-containing STLs is associated with its ability to prevent and inhibit activation of major hepatocarcinogenesis-related oncogenes. Enrichment of histone H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 at the promoter of Myc and Ccnd1 genes may be related to the inhibitory effect on oncogene expression in the livers of STL-treated rats. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Butyrate-induced apoptotic cascade in colonic carcinoma cells: modulation of the beta-catenin-Tcf pathway and concordance with effects of sulindac and trichostatin A but not curcumin.

    PubMed

    Bordonaro, M; Mariadason, J M; Aslam, F; Heerdt, B G; Augenlicht, L H

    1999-10-01

    Short-chain fatty acids play a critical role in colonic homeostasis because they stimulate pathways of growth arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. These effects have been well characterized in colonic cell lines in vitro. We investigated the role of beta-catenin-Tcf signaling in these responses to butyrate and other well-characterized inducers of apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells. Unlike wild-type APC, which down-regulates Tcf activity, butyrate, as well as sulindac and trichostatin A, all inducers of G0-G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the SW620 colonic carcinoma cell line, up-regulate Tcf activity. In contrast, structural analogues of butyrate that do not induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis and curcumin, which stimulates G2-M arrest without inducing apoptosis, do not alter Tcf activity. Similar to the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cascade induced by butyrate, the up-regulation of Tcf activity is dependent upon the presence of a mitochondrial membrane potential, unlike the APC-induced down-regulation, which is insensitive to collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, the butyrate-induced increase in Tcf activity, which is reflected in an increase in beta-catenin-Tcf complex formation, is independent of the down-regulation caused by expression of wild-type APC. Thus, butyrate and wild-type APC have different and independent effects on beta-catenin-Tcf signaling. These data are consistent with other reports that suggest that the absence of wild-type APC, associated with the up-regulation of this signaling pathway, is linked to the probability of a colonic epithelial cell entering an apoptotic cascade.

  2. Recovery of agricultural odors and odorous compounds from polyvinyl fluoride film bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate sampling methods are necessary when quantifying odor and volatile organic compound emissions at agricultural facilities. The commonly accepted methodology in the U.S. has been to collect odor samples in polyvinyl fluoride bags (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) and, subsequently, analyze with human ...

  3. Plasticizers derived from cardanol: Synthesis and plasticization properties for poly(vinyl chloride)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two natural plasticizers derived from cardanol, cardanol acetate (CA), and epoxidized cardanol acetate (ECA), were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The plasticizing effects of the obtained plasticizers on semi-rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) formulations were also investigated. Tw...

  4. Electrodialytic Transport Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes Prepared from Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride).

    PubMed

    Jikihara, Atsushi; Ohashi, Reina; Kakihana, Yuriko; Higa, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2013-01-02

    Random-type anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) have been prepared by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and the random copolymer-type polycation, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) at various molar percentages of anion-exchange groups to vinyl alcohol groups, Cpc, and by cross-linking the PVA chains with glutaraldehyde (GA) solution at various GA concentrations, CGA. The characteristics of the random-type AEMs were compared with blend-type AEMs prepared in our previous study. At equal molar percentages of the anion exchange groups, the water content of the random-type AEMs was lower than that of the blend-type AEMs. The effective charge density of the random-type AEMs increased with increasing Cpc and reached a maximum value. Further, the maximum value of the effective charge density increased with increasing CGA. The maximum value of the effective charge density, 0.42 mol/dm3, was obtained for the random-type AEM with Cpc = 4.2 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol %. A comparison of the random-type and blend-type AEMs with almost the same Cpc showed that the random-type AEMs had lower membrane resistance than the blend-type ones. The membrane resistance and dynamic transport number of the random-type AEM with Cpc = 6.0 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol % were 4.8 Ω cm2 and 0.83, respectively.

  5. Electrodialytic Transport Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes Prepared from Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Jikihara, Atsushi; Ohashi, Reina; Kakihana, Yuriko; Higa, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Random-type anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) have been prepared by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and the random copolymer-type polycation, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) at various molar percentages of anion-exchange groups to vinyl alcohol groups, Cpc, and by cross-linking the PVA chains with glutaraldehyde (GA) solution at various GA concentrations, CGA. The characteristics of the random-type AEMs were compared with blend-type AEMs prepared in our previous study. At equal molar percentages of the anion exchange groups, the water content of the random-type AEMs was lower than that of the blend-type AEMs. The effective charge density of the random-type AEMs increased with increasing Cpc and reached a maximum value. Further, the maximum value of the effective charge density increased with increasing CGA. The maximum value of the effective charge density, 0.42 mol/dm3, was obtained for the random-type AEM with Cpc = 4.2 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol %. A comparison of the random-type and blend-type AEMs with almost the same Cpc showed that the random-type AEMs had lower membrane resistance than the blend-type ones. The membrane resistance and dynamic transport number of the random-type AEM with Cpc = 6.0 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol % were 4.8 Ω cm2 and 0.83, respectively. PMID:24958543

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Thermoanaerobacterium sp. Strain RBIITD, a Butyrate- and Butanol-Producing Thermophile

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Ranjita; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia; ...

    2018-01-11

    ABSTRACT Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain RBIITD was isolated from contaminated rich growth medium at 55°C in an anaerobic chamber. It primarily produces butyrate as a fermentation product from plant biomass-derived sugars. The whole-genome sequence of the strain is 3.4 Mbp, with 3,444 genes and 32.48% GC content.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Thermoanaerobacterium sp. Strain RBIITD, a Butyrate- and Butanol-Producing Thermophile

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Huntemann, Marcel; Clum, Alicia

    ABSTRACT Thermoanaerobacterium sp. strain RBIITD was isolated from contaminated rich growth medium at 55°C in an anaerobic chamber. It primarily produces butyrate as a fermentation product from plant biomass-derived sugars. The whole-genome sequence of the strain is 3.4 Mbp, with 3,444 genes and 32.48% GC content.

  8. The Rheological Properties of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Gels from Rotational Viscometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Glenn A.; Bella, Malika; Salzmann, Christoph G.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to follow the gelation of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution upon addition of borax by using rotational viscometry. The rheological properties of the gel were examined, measuring the dependence of viscosity and shear stress on the shear rate. Time-dependent studies were also conducted in which the viscosity of…

  9. Effect of the polymer concentration on the ON/OFF states of a TN-LCD: polyvinyl alcohol vs. soy lecithin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coss Martinez, Romeo; Gonzalez Murguia, Jose Luis

    2011-03-01

    In this work we study the response of a Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display (TN-LCD) by varying both the concentration and the polymer used for the microgroove. We compare the performance of two polymers: polyvinyl alcohol and soy lecithin. In particular, the light transmission for the ON/OFF states is evaluated. The polyvinyl alcohol is a polymer widely used in LCDs while lecithin soy is a natural polymer.

  10. Genome-wide ChIP-seq mapping and analysis of butyrate-induced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation and epigenomic landscapes alteration in bovine cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (VFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are nutrients especially critical to ruminants. Beyond their nutritional impact, clear evidence is beginning to link modifications in chromatin structure induced by butyrate to cell cycle progression, DNA replication and over...

  11. A survey on anticancer effects of artemisinin, iron, miconazole, and butyric acid on 5637 (bladder cancer) and 4T1 (Breast cancer) cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shahbazfar, Amir Ali; Zare, Payman; Ranjbaran, Mehrdad; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein; Fakhri, Omid; Farshi, Yashar; Shadi, Sahar; Khoshkerdar, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer properties of artemisinin and its derivatives have been shown in many experiments. Addition of butyric acid, miconazole, and iron to this traditional drug has been done in order to enhance its anticancer potency. Cell lines 5637 and 4T1, were cultivated and classified into 13 groups of three each. Different doses of artemisinin with constant doses of iron, miconazole and butyric acid, were added to the cultures. At the end of exposure pathological and enzymatic studies were performed. In four groups treated with different doses of artemisinin and iron, dose-dependent changes were observed. These changes included apoptosis and necrosis with dominance of apoptosis. The supernatant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was increased in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no significant increase in the cell fraction of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) or LDH. In four other groups, which received miconazole, butyric acid and iron in addition to different doses of artemisinin, necrosis was more prominent than apoptosis, and the MDA level did not show any significant change, but LDH was increased. The groups treated with miconazole showed identical changes, with less severity compared to combination therapy groups. In butyric acid-treated groups, the only detectable changes were, mild cell swelling, few apoptosis, and rare necrosis. A combination therapy with artemisinin can be more effective against cancer cells than monotherapy with that. Butyric acid was not effective on cancer cells. Miconazole deviated the nature of cell death from apoptosis to necrosis and it must be used under caution.

  12. Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Megan W; Alim, Ishraq; Bultman, Scott J; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2016-06-20

    As interest in the gut microbiome has grown in recent years, attention has turned to the impact of our diet on our brain. The benefits of a high fiber diet in the colon have been well documented in epidemiological studies, but its potential impact on the brain has largely been understudied. Here, we will review evidence that butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced by bacterial fermentation of fiber in the colon, can improve brain health. Butyrate has been extensively studied as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor but also functions as a ligand for a subset of G protein-coupled receptors and as an energy metabolite. These diverse modes of action make it well suited for solving the wide array of imbalances frequently encountered in neurological disorders. In this review, we will integrate evidence from the disparate fields of gastroenterology and neuroscience to hypothesize that the metabolism of a high fiber diet in the gut can alter gene expression in the brain to prevent neurodegeneration and promote regeneration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  14. Edge-enhanced imaging with polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer gratings.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Andrés; Neipp, Cristian; Beléndez, Augusto; Gallego, Sergi; Ortuño, Manuel; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2003-09-01

    We demonstrate edge-enhanced imaging produced by volume phase gratings recorded on a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer. Bragg diffraction, exhibited by volume gratings, modifies the impulse response of the imaging system, facilitating spatial filtering operations with no need for a physical Fourier plane. We demonstrate that Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory can be used to calculate the transfer function for the transmitted and the diffracted orders. The experimental and simulated results agree, and they demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal.

  15. Hybrid composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fillers from renewable resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid composite laminates consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as continuous phase (33% by weight) and lignocellulosic fillers, derived from sugarcane bagasse, apple and orange waste (22% by weight) were molded in a carver press in the presence of water and glycerol such as platicizers agents. Cor...

  16. Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel phantoms for use in ultrasound and MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surry, K. J. M.; Austin, H. J. B.; Fenster, A.; Peters, T. M.

    2004-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel, PVA-C, is presented as a tissue-mimicking material, suitable for application in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasound imaging. A 10% by weight poly(vinyl alcohol) in water solution was used to form PVA-C, which is solidified through a freeze-thaw process. The number of freeze-thaw cycles affects the properties of the material. The ultrasound and MR imaging characteristics were investigated using cylindrical samples of PVA-C. The speed of sound was found to range from 1520 to 1540 m s-1, and the attenuation coefficients were in the range of 0.075-0.28 dB (cm MHz)-1. T1 and T2 relaxation values were found to be 718-1034 ms and 108-175 ms, respectively. We also present applications of this material in an anthropomorphic brain phantom, a multi-volume stenosed vessel phantom and breast biopsy phantoms. Some suggestions are made for how best to handle this material in the phantom design and development process.

  17. Influence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber on recyclability of blends prepared from poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sunil S; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    The current investigation deals with the recycling possibilities of poly(vinyl chloride) and poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. Recycled blends of poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(methyl methacrylate) are successfully formed from the plastic constituents, those are recovered from waste computer products. However, lower impact performance of the blend and lower stability of the poly(vinyl chloride) phase in the recycled blend restricts its further usage in industrial purposes. Therefore, effective utilisation acrylonitrile butadiene rubber in a recycled blend was considered for improving mechanical and thermal performance. Incorporation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber resulted in the improvement in impact performance as well as elongation-at-break of the recycled blend. The optimum impact performance was found in the blend with 9 wt% acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, which shows 363% of enhancement as compared with its parent blend. Moreover, incorporated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber also stabilises the poly(vinyl chloride) phase present in the recycled blend, similarly Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies indicate the interactions of various functionalities present in the recycled blend and acrylonitrile butadiene rubber. In addition to this, thermogravimetric analysis indicates the improvement in the thermal stability of the recycled blend after the addition of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber into it. The existence of partial miscibility in the recycled blend was identified using differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. The presence of enterovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus B19 in myocardial tissue samples from autopsies: an evaluation of their frequencies in deceased individuals with myocarditis and in non-inflamed control hearts.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Hansen, Jakob; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Baandrup, Ulrik Thorngren; Banner, Jytte

    2014-09-01

    Multiple viruses have been detected in cardiac tissue, but their role in causing myocarditis remains controversial. Viral diagnostics are increasingly used in forensic medicine, but the interpretation of the results can sometimes be challenging. In this study, we examined the prevalence of adenovirus, enterovirus, and parvovirus B19 (PVB) in myocardial autopsy samples from myocarditis related deaths and in non-inflamed control hearts in an effort to clarify their significance as the causes of myocarditis in a forensic material. We collected all autopsy cases diagnosed with myocarditis from 1992 to 2010. Eighty-four suicidal deaths with morphologically normal hearts served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the viral genomes (adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB) in myocardial tissue specimens. The distinction between acute and persistent PVB infection was made by the serological determination of PVB-specific immunoglobulins M and G. PVB was detected in 33 of 112 (29 %) myocarditis cases and 37 of 84 (44 %) control cases. All of the samples were negative for the presence of adenovirus and enterovirus. Serological evidence of an acute PVB infection, determined by the presence of immunoglobulin M, was only present in one case. In the remaining cases, PVB was considered to be a bystander with no or limited association to myocardial inflammation. In this study, adenovirus, enterovirus, and PVB were found to be rare causes of myocarditis. The detection of PVB in myocardial autopsy samples most likely represents a persistent infection with no or limited association with myocardial inflammation. The forensic investigation of myocardial inflammation demands a thorough examination, including special attention to non-viral causes and requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Corrosion inhibition by inorganic cationic inhibitors on the high strength alumunium alloy, 2024-T3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilukuri, Anusha

    alkaline is retarded in the absence of oxygen. As a result precipitation of Zn oxides and hydroxides was suppressed. Impedance in decarbonated chloride solutions showed that the absence of CO 2 reduces inhibition by Zn2+ at pH 4. The carbonate protective layer formed in aerated solutions is essential for providing better protection of the substrate at pH 4. Inhibitor cations were exchanged into insoluble ion-exchanging sodium bentonites and incorporated as pigments in organic coatings applied to AA 2024-T3 substrates. XRD of the pigments ensured ion exchange and UV-visible spectroscopy was used to characterize inhibitor ion release from the bentonites. Salt spray exposure tests on scribed panels were preformed and results were compared to those from SrCrO4 pigmented coatings. Zn-exchanged bentonite pigmented coatings showed better performance compared to the other exchanged bentonites when incorporated into epoxy coatings with total impedance magnitude in the same order as SrCrO4. PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) coatings containing Zn bentonite, however, did not show superior behaviour in the impedance response due to less or no water uptake. Salt spray exposures for a period of 336 h, showed that Zn bentonite incorporated into PVB suppressed blistering compared to the neat PVB and other pigmented bentonites.

  20. Physical characterization of biodegradable films based on chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol and Opuntia mucilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aimed to develop and characterize biodegradable films containing mucilage, chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in different concentrations. The films were prepared by casting on glass plates using glycerol as plasticizer. Mechanical properties, water vapor and oxygen barrier, as well as ...

  1. Butyrate activates the monocarboxylate transporter MCT4 expression in breast cancer cells and enhances the antitumor activity of 3-bromopyruvate.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Odília; Preto, Ana; Pacheco, António; Pinheiro, Céline; Azevedo-Silva, João; Moreira, Roxana; Pedro, Madalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Baltazar, Fátima; Casal, Margarida

    2012-02-01

    Most malignant tumors exhibit the Warburg effect, which consists in increased glycolysis rates with production of lactate, even in the presence of oxygen. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), maintain these glycolytic rates, by mediating the influx and/or efflux of lactate and are overexpressed in several cancer cell types. The lactate and pyruvate analogue 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) is an inhibitor of the energy metabolism, which has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. In the present study, we aimed at determining the effect of 3-BP in breast cancer cells and evaluated the putative role of MCTs on this effect. Our results showed that the three breast cancer cell lines used presented different sensitivities to 3-BP: ZR-75-1 ER (+)>MCF-7 ER (+)>SK-BR-3 ER (-). We also demonstrated that 3-BP reduced lactate production, induced cell morphological alterations and increased apoptosis. The effect of 3-BP appears to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic, as a continued decrease in cell viability was observed after removal of 3-BP. We showed that pre-incubation with butyrate enhanced significantly 3-BP cytotoxicity, especially in the most resistant breast cancer cell line, SK-BR-3. We observed that butyrate treatment induced localization of MCT1 in the plasma membrane as well as overexpression of MCT4 and its chaperone CD147. Our results thus indicate that butyrate pre-treatment potentiates the effect of 3-BP, most probably by increasing the rates of 3-BP transport through MCT1/4. This study supports the potential use of butyrate as adjuvant of 3-BP in the treatment of breast cancer resistant cells, namely ER (-).

  2. Performance and diversity of polyvinyl alcohol-degrading bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianping; Yang, Shisu; Zhang, Siqi

    2016-11-01

    To compare the degradation performance and biodiversity of a polyvinyl alcohol-degrading microbial community under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. An anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor was operated to degrade polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in simulated wastewater. The degradation performance of the bioreactor during sludge cultivation and the microbial communities in each reactor were compared. Both anaerobic and aerobic bioreactors demonstrated high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of 87.5 and 83.6 %, respectively. Results of 16S rDNA sequencing indicated that Proteobacteria dominated in both reactors and that the microbial community structures varied significantly under different operating conditions. Both reactors obviously differed in bacterial diversity from the phyla Planctomycetes, Chlamydiae, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Betaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria dominated, respectively, in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors. The anaerobic-aerobic system is suitable for PVA wastewater treatment, and the microbial genetic analysis may serve as a reference for PVA biodegradation.

  3. Elevated propionate and butyrate in fecal ferments of hydrolysates generated by oxalic acid treatment of corn bran arabinoxylan.

    PubMed

    Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Reuhs, Brad L; Cantu-Jungles, Thaisa M; Kaur, Amandeep; Patterson, John A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2016-12-07

    Previous work in our laboratory showed that alkali-solubilized corn arabinoxylan (CAX) has a slow initial, but later complete, in vitro human fecal fermentation. CAX and a moderately high molecular weight hydrolysate (CH) were propiogenic, and produced low levels of butyrate. Here, we show that oxalic acid-generated hydrolysates from CAX, which include a large xylooligosaccharide, and free arabinose fractions, increased short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, which included relatively high levels of both propionate and butyrate, an unusual SCFA combination. Hydrolytic degradation of CAX by acid hydrolysis (0.05 M oxalic acid at 100 °C for 2 h) and subsequent graded ethanol precipitations were used to obtain mixtures with different molecular weight ranges. Ethanol-precipitated fractions (F 0-65%, F 65-75%, F 75-85%) were mostly lower than 100 kDa and F > 85% was composed of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides of DP 2-8. Oxalic acid treatment caused the removal of all single arabinose unit branch chains and some di/trisaccharide branch chains, producing lightly substituted xylan backbone fragments, most of which were in the oligosaccharide (DP < 10) size range. In vitro human fecal fermentation analyses showed all oxalic acid-hydrolysate fractions were slower fermenting than fructooligosaccharides (FOS), but produced similar or higher amounts of total SCFAs. Butyrate production in two hydrolyzate fractions was double that of CH, while propionate levels remained relatively high.

  4. Quantification of butyryl CoA:acetate CoA-transferase genes reveals different butyrate production capacity in individuals according to diet and age.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Berit; Zwielehner, Jutta; Liszt, Kathrin; Lassl, Cornelia; Unger, Frank; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2011-03-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, which affect colonic health, immune function and epigenetic regulation. To assess the effects of nutrition and aging on the production of butyrate, the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and population shifts of Clostridium clusters lV and XlVa, the main butyrate producers, were analysed. Faecal samples of young healthy omnivores (24 ± 2.5 years), vegetarians (26 ± 5 years) and elderly (86 ± 8 years) omnivores were evaluated. Diet and lifestyle were assessed in questionnaire-based interviews. The elderly had significantly fewer copies of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene than young omnivores (P=0.014), while vegetarians showed the highest number of copies (P=0.048). The thermal denaturation of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene variant melting curve related to Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale spp. was significantly more variable in the vegetarians than in the elderly. The Clostridium cluster XIVa was more abundant in vegetarians (P=0.049) and in omnivores (P<0.01) than in the elderly group. Gastrointestinal microbiota of the elderly is characterized by decreased butyrate production capacity, reflecting increased risk of degenerative diseases. These results suggest that the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene is a valuable marker for gastrointestinal microbiota function. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The identification of a sensitizing component used in the manufacturing of an ink ribbon

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Tapp, Loren; Durgam, Srinivas; Meade, B. Jean; Jackson, Laurel G.; Cohen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Skin diseases including dermatitis constitute ≈ 30% of all occupational illnesses, with a high incidence in the printing industry. An outbreak of contact dermatitis among employees at an ink ribbon manufacturing plant was investigated by scientists from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Employees in the process areas of the plant were exposed to numerous chemicals and many had experienced skin rashes, especially after the introduction of a new ink ribbon product. To identify the causative agent(s) of the occupational dermatitis, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to identify the potential of the chemicals used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Follow-up patch testing with the suspected allergens was conducted on exposed employees. Polyvinyl butyral, a chemical component used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon in question and other products, tested positive in the LLNA, with an EC3 of 3.6%, which identifies it as a potential sensitizer; however, no employees tested positive to this chemical during skin patch testing. This finding has implications beyond those described in this report because of occupational exposure to polyvinyl butyral outside of the printing industry. PMID:22375946

  6. PRDM1 expression via human parvovirus B19 infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei-Chen; Zhang, Yue-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Yan, Qing-Guo; Guo, Ying; Fan, Lin-Ni; Liu, Yi-Xiong; Huang, Gao-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Ectopic lymphoid follicle infiltration is a key event in Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 1 (PRDM1), which is induced by antigen stimulation, can regulate all lymphocyte lineages. Several groups independently demonstrated that human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is closely associated with HT. Hence, we determined whether PRDM1 is expressed in HT thyroid tissue and whether there is any correlation between PRDM1 expression and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. We detected PRDM1 expression in HT (n = 86), normal thyroid tissue (n = 30), and nontoxic nodular goiter (n = 20) samples using immunohistochemistry. We also detected PVB19 protein in HT samples in a double-blind manner and analyzed the correlation between the 2 proteins using immunofluorescence confocal detection and coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, we detected changes of the expression levels of PRDM1 and PVB19 in transfected primary thyroid follicular epithelial cells using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found that PRDM1 protein is significantly highly expressed in the injured follicular epithelial cells in HT (83/86 cases) than in normal thyroid cells (0/30 cases) or in nontoxic nodular goiter cells (0/20 cases) (P < .001). In HT, the PRDM1 expression pattern was the same as that of PVB19, whereas PRDM1 and PVB19 were coexistent in the involved epithelial cells. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between PRDM1 and PVB19 (P < .001). In addition, primary thyroid epithelial cells also showed PRDM1 up-regulation after PVB19 NS1 transfection. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of PRDM1 and PVB19 in the pathogenesis of HT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Geochemical effects of deep-well injection of the Paradox Valley brine into Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bischoff, J.L.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Brine seepage into the Dolores River from ground water in Paradox Valley, Colorado constitutes a major source of salt to the Colorado River. Plants are enderway to remove this source of salt by drawing down the Paradox Valley brine (PVB) and forcibly injecting it into a deep disposal well (4.8 km). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of deep-well injection of PVB. The results show that PVB is near saturation with anhydrite at 25??C, and that heating results in anhydrite precipitation. The amount and the rate at which anhydrite forms is temperature, pressure, and substrate dependent. Paradox Valley brine heated in the presence of Precambrian rocks from the drill core produces the same amount of anhydrite as PVB heated alone, but at a greatly accelerated rate. A 30% dilution of PVB with Dolores River water completely eliminates anhydrite precipitation when the fluid is heated with the Precambrian rocks. Interaction of PVB and Leadville Limestone is characterized by dolomitization of calcite by brine Mg which releases Ca to solution. This added Ca reacts with SO4 to form increased amounts of anhydrite. A 20% dilution of PVB by Dolores River water has no effect on dolomitization and reduces the amount of anhydrite only slightly. A 65% dilution of PVB by Dolores River water still does not prevent dolomitization but does suppress anhydrite formation. Computer modeling of PVB by programs utilizing the Pitzer ion-interaction parameters is in general agreement with the experimental results. Ion-activity products calculated by both SOLMINEQ and PHRQPITZ are close to equilibrium with both anhydrite and dolomite whenever these phases are present experimentally, although the calculations over-estimate by a factor of 2 the degree of saturation. Some discrepancies in the calculated results between the two programs are due largely to differences in mineral solubility data. ?? 1992.

  8. Fabrication of Tunable Submicro- or Nano-structured Polyethylene Materials form Immiscible Blends with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was prepared into micro- or submicro-spheres or nanofibers via melt blending or extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/LDPE immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The sizes of the PE spheres or fibers can be successfully controlled by varyi...

  9. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  10. Reduction of butyrate- and methane-producing microorganisms in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pozuelo, Marta; Panda, Suchita; Santiago, Alba; Mendez, Sara; Accarino, Anna; Santos, Javier; Guarner, Francisco; Azpiroz, Fernando; Manichanh, Chaysavanh

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains unclear. Here we investigated the microbiome of a large cohort of patients to identify specific signatures for IBS subtypes. We examined the microbiome of 113 patients with IBS and 66 healthy controls. A subset of these participants provided two samples one month apart. We analyzed a total of 273 fecal samples, generating more than 20 million 16S rRNA sequences. In patients with IBS, a significantly lower microbial diversity was associated with a lower relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (P = 0.002; q < 0.06), in particular in patients with IBS-D and IBS-M. IBS patients who did not receive any treatment harboured a lower abundance of Methanobacteria compared to healthy controls (P = 0.005; q = 0.05). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between several bacterial taxa and sensation of flatulence and abdominal pain (P < 0.05). Altogether, our findings showed that IBS-M and IBS-D patients are characterized by a reduction of butyrate producing bacteria, known to improve intestinal barrier function, and a reduction of methane producing microorganisms a major mechanism of hydrogen disposal in the human colon, which could explain excess of abdominal gas in IBS. PMID:26239401

  11. Use of Acetate, Propionate, and Butyrate for Reduction of Nitrate and Sulfate and Methanogenesis in Microcosms and Bioreactors Simulating an Oil Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan; Shen, Yin; An, Dongshan; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate (volatile fatty acids [VFA]) occur in oil field waters and are frequently used for microbial growth of oil field consortia. We determined the kinetics of use of these VFA components (3 mM each) by an anaerobic oil field consortium in microcosms containing 2 mM sulfate and 0, 4, 6, 8, or 13 mM nitrate. Nitrate was reduced first, with a preference for acetate and propionate. Sulfate reduction then proceeded with propionate (but not butyrate) as the electron donor, whereas the fermentation of butyrate (but not propionate) was associated with methanogenesis. Microbial community analyses indicated that Paracoccus and Thauera ( Paracoccus - Thauera ), Desulfobulbus , and Syntrophomonas - Methanobacterium were the dominant taxa whose members catalyzed these three processes. Most-probable-number assays showed the presence of up to 10 7 /ml of propionate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in waters from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field. Bioreactors with the same concentrations of sulfate and VFA responded similarly to increasing concentrations of injected nitrate as observed in the microcosms: sulfide formation was prevented by adding approximately 80% of the nitrate dose needed to completely oxidize VFA to CO 2 in both. Thus, this work has demonstrated that simple time-dependent observations of the use of acetate, propionate, and butyrate for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis in microcosms are a good proxy for these processes in bioreactors, monitoring of which is more complex. IMPORTANCE Oil field volatile fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate were specifically used for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenic fermentation. Time-dependent analyses of microcosms served as a good proxy for these processes in a bioreactor, mimicking a sulfide-producing (souring) oil reservoir: 80% of the nitrate dose required to oxidize volatile fatty acids to CO 2 was needed to prevent souring in both

  12. Use of Acetate, Propionate, and Butyrate for Reduction of Nitrate and Sulfate and Methanogenesis in Microcosms and Bioreactors Simulating an Oil Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yin; An, Dongshan; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acetate, propionate, and butyrate (volatile fatty acids [VFA]) occur in oil field waters and are frequently used for microbial growth of oil field consortia. We determined the kinetics of use of these VFA components (3 mM each) by an anaerobic oil field consortium in microcosms containing 2 mM sulfate and 0, 4, 6, 8, or 13 mM nitrate. Nitrate was reduced first, with a preference for acetate and propionate. Sulfate reduction then proceeded with propionate (but not butyrate) as the electron donor, whereas the fermentation of butyrate (but not propionate) was associated with methanogenesis. Microbial community analyses indicated that Paracoccus and Thauera (Paracoccus-Thauera), Desulfobulbus, and Syntrophomonas-Methanobacterium were the dominant taxa whose members catalyzed these three processes. Most-probable-number assays showed the presence of up to 107/ml of propionate-oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in waters from the Medicine Hat Glauconitic C field. Bioreactors with the same concentrations of sulfate and VFA responded similarly to increasing concentrations of injected nitrate as observed in the microcosms: sulfide formation was prevented by adding approximately 80% of the nitrate dose needed to completely oxidize VFA to CO2 in both. Thus, this work has demonstrated that simple time-dependent observations of the use of acetate, propionate, and butyrate for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis in microcosms are a good proxy for these processes in bioreactors, monitoring of which is more complex. IMPORTANCE Oil field volatile fatty acids acetate, propionate, and butyrate were specifically used for nitrate reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenic fermentation. Time-dependent analyses of microcosms served as a good proxy for these processes in a bioreactor, mimicking a sulfide-producing (souring) oil reservoir: 80% of the nitrate dose required to oxidize volatile fatty acids to CO2 was needed to prevent souring in both

  13. The development and characterization of degradable poly(vinyl ester) and poly(vinyl ester)/PEO block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscomb, Corinne Elizabeth

    The development of biodegradable materials is a challenging and important problem in polymer science. A review of the state of the art in degradable materials is presented, which reveals that current biodegradable materials do not exhibit the thermal or mechanical properties necessary for widespread applications. One strategy for toughening polymeric materials, which has previously been applied to non-degradable thermoplastics and thermoplastic elastomers, is the formation of block copolymers. Poly(vinyl esters) (PVE) homopolymers are known to have a wide range of properties, but PVE block copolymers comprise a class of inexpensive and (bio)degradable materials that were previously unknown. Therefore, the synthesis and properties of these block copolymers were explored in an effort to develop robust degradable materials. This thesis research probes the reaction conditions necessary for the reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and chain extension reactions of vinyl ester monomers. PVE di- and triblock copolymers are synthesized and studied, and the triblock copolymers display extremely poor toughness due to their relatively low molecular weights in light of the high entanglement molecular weight of the poly(vinyl acetate) center block. Attempts to improve the mechanical properties of these materials focus on the incorporation of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a low entanglement molecular weight and biocompatible center block in PVE-containing triblock copolymers. Depending on the choice of PVE endblocks and the overall polymer composition, crystallization of the PEO block can be controlled, confined, or inhibited. Polymers in which PEO crystallization is completely inhibited exhibit enhanced mechanical properties and behave as weak thermoplastics. In order to understand the relationship between the inhibition of PEO crystallization and the mechanical properties of PVE/PEO materials, these polymers were studied using dynamic

  14. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  15. Phase diagrams for the system water/butyric acid/propylene carbonate at T = 293.2-313.2 K and p = 101.3 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarsaraee, Sina; Nahzomi, Hossein Taherpour; Nasiri-Touli, Elham

    2017-11-01

    Phase diagrams for the system water/butyric acid/propylene carbonate were plotted at T = 293.2, 303.2, 313.2 K and p = 101.3 kPa. Acidimetric titration and refractive index methods were used to determine tie-line data. Solubility data revealed that the studied system exhibits type-1 behavior of liquid-liquid equilibrium. The experimental data were regressed and acceptably correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. As a result, propylene carbonate is a suitable separating agent for aqueous mixture of butyric acid.

  16. Enabling thermal processing of ritonavir-polyvinyl alcohol amorphous solid dispersions by KinetiSol® Dispersing.

    PubMed

    LaFountaine, Justin S; Jermain, Scott V; Prasad, Leena Kumari; Brough, Chris; Miller, Dave A; Lubda, Dieter; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2016-04-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol has received little attention as a matrix polymer in amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) due to its thermal and rheological limitations in extrusion processing and limited organic solubility in spray drying applications. Additionally, in extrusion processing, the high temperatures required to process often exclude thermally labile APIs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of processing polyvinyl alcohol amorphous solid dispersions utilizing the model compound ritonavir with KinetiSol® Dispersing (KSD) technology. The effects of KSD rotor speed and ejection temperature on the physicochemical properties of the processed material were evaluated. Powder X-ray diffraction and modulated differential scanning calorimetry were used to confirm amorphous conversion. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to characterize and identify degradation pathways of ritonavir during KSD processing and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate polymer stability. An optimal range of processing conditions was found that resulted in amorphous product and minimal to no drug and polymer degradation. Drug release of the ASD produced from the optimal processing conditions was evaluated using a non-sink, pH-shift dissolution test. The ability to process amorphous solid dispersions with polyvinyl alcohol as a matrix polymer will enable further investigations of the polymer's performance in amorphous systems for poorly water-soluble compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas R; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2016-09-12

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications-from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action.

  18. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications—from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:27476873

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923).

    PubMed

    Wasels, François; Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-03-03

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain. Copyright © 2016 Wasels et al.

  20. Reentrant behaviour in polyvinyl alcohol-borax hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels, cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax, were studied with small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The SANS data satisfy the Ornstein-Zernike approximation. The hydrogels are modelled as PVA chains bound by borate cross-links. Water occupies the spaces within the three-dimensional hydrogel network. The mesh size ξ indicates reentrant behaviour i.e. at first, ξ increases and later decreases as a function of borax concentration. The behaviour is explained on the basis of the balance between the charged di-diol cross-links and the shielding by free ions in the solvent. XRD and DTA show the molecular size of water in the solvent and the glass transition temperature commensurate with reentrant behaviour.

  1. Three methods for in situ cross-linking of polyvinyl alcohol films for application as ion-conducting membranes in potassium hydroxide electrolyte. [battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Hsu, L. C.

    1979-01-01

    Three methods of in situ cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol films are presented. They are: (1) acetalization with a dialdehyde such as glutaraldehyde, (2) acetalization with aldehyde groups formed by selective oxidative cleaving of the few percent of 1,2 diol units present in polyvinyl alcohol, and (3) cross-linking by hydrogen abstraction by reaction with hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals from irradiated water. For the third method, improvement in film conductivity in KOH solution at the expense of mechanical strength is obtained by the presence of polyacrylic acid in the polyvinyl alcohol films. Resistivities in 45 percent KOH are given for in situ cross-linked films prepared by each of the three methods.

  2. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  3. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced in...

  4. Rheological and Performance Research on a Regenerable Polyvinyl Alcohol Fracturing Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Xiaosen; Ding, Yunhong; Wang, Yonghui; Yang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    A regenerable polyvinyl alcohol/organic boron fracturing fluid system with 1.6 wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and 1.2 wt% organic boron (OBT) was studied, and its main regeneration mechanism is the reversible cross-linking reaction between B(OH)4 - and hydroxyl groups of PVOH as the change of pH. Results of rheology evaluations show that both the apparent viscosity and the thermal stability of the fracturing fluid decreased with the regeneration number of times increasing. In addition, the apparent viscosity of the fluid which was without regeneration was more sensitive to the shear action compared with that of the fluid with regeneration once or twice. When the fracturing fluid was without regeneration, the elasticity was dominating due to the three-dimensional network structure of the formed gel; the viscosity gradually occupied the advantage when the fracturing fluid was regenerated once or twice. The settling velocity of proppant was accelerated by both the regeneration process and the increasing temperature, but it was decelerated when the proppant ratio increased. Results of core damage tests indicate that less permeability damage was caused by the PVOH/OBT fracturing fluid compared with that caused by the guar gum fracturing fluid after gel breaking. PMID:26641857

  5. Rheological and Performance Research on a Regenerable Polyvinyl Alcohol Fracturing Fluid.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaosen; Ding, Yunhong; Wang, Yonghui; Yang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    A regenerable polyvinyl alcohol/organic boron fracturing fluid system with 1.6 wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and 1.2 wt% organic boron (OBT) was studied, and its main regeneration mechanism is the reversible cross-linking reaction between B(OH)4- and hydroxyl groups of PVOH as the change of pH. Results of rheology evaluations show that both the apparent viscosity and the thermal stability of the fracturing fluid decreased with the regeneration number of times increasing. In addition, the apparent viscosity of the fluid which was without regeneration was more sensitive to the shear action compared with that of the fluid with regeneration once or twice. When the fracturing fluid was without regeneration, the elasticity was dominating due to the three-dimensional network structure of the formed gel; the viscosity gradually occupied the advantage when the fracturing fluid was regenerated once or twice. The settling velocity of proppant was accelerated by both the regeneration process and the increasing temperature, but it was decelerated when the proppant ratio increased. Results of core damage tests indicate that less permeability damage was caused by the PVOH/OBT fracturing fluid compared with that caused by the guar gum fracturing fluid after gel breaking.

  6. Melatonin and its precursors in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells: Effect of sodium butyrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Mei Hua; Coviella, Ignacio Lopez G.; Lynch, Harry J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The release of melatonin and the production of its precursors, S-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin, in cultured Y79 human retinoblastoma cells were studied. This biosynthetic capability was found to be dependent on cell differentiation, which was initiated by culturing Y79 cells for 7 days in dishes coated with poly-D-lysine to promote cell adhesion to the surface of the culture dishes. Differentiation was further induced by exposing the cell monolayer to sodium butyrate (3 mM) for 3 days. This protocol dramatically increased the release of melatonin, and the syntheses of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin in response to forskolin stimulation. Exposure to dopamine (10 micro-M) or L-DOPA (100 micro-M) markedly diminished the forskolin-stimulated release of melatonin, as well as the production of 5-hydroxytryptophan and serotonin. These observations indicate that Y79 cells represent a primitive cell line which, following appropriate differentiation (e.g. treatment with sodium butyrate) can display biochemical characteristics similar to those of the human retina. Moreover, serotonin synthesis and melatonin release appear to be coupled in Y79 cells. The inhibition of melatonin release by dopamine supports the hypothesis that in these cells, melatonin and dopamine are components of a retinal feedback loop.

  7. Poly(vinyl benzoate) nanoparticles for molecular delivery: Studies on their preparation and in vitro properties.

    PubMed

    Labruère, Raphaël; Sicard, Renaud; Cormier, Ryan; Turos, Edward; West, Leigh

    2010-12-01

    The preparation and properties of poly(vinyl benzoate) nanoparticle suspensions as molecular carriers are described for the first time. These nanoparticles can be formed by nanoprecipitation of commercial poly(vinyl benzoate) in water using Pluronic F68 as surfactant, to create spherical nanostructures measuring 200-250nm in diameter. These nanoparticles are stable in phosphate buffer and blood serum, and only slowly degrade in the presence of esterases. Pluronic F68 stabilizes the nanoparticle and also protects it from enzymatic degradation. Up to 1.6% by weight of a lipid-soluble molecule such as coumarin-6 can be introduced into the nanoparticle during nanoprecipitation, compared to a water-soluble compound (5(6)-carboxyfluorescein) which gave almost no loading. Kinetics experiments in phosphate buffer indicate that 78% of the coumarin-6 was encapsulated within the polymer matrix of the nanoparticle, and the residual 22% of coumarin-6 was surface-bound and quickly released. The nanoparticles are non-toxic in vitro towards human epithelial cells (IC(50)>1000μg/mL) and primary bovine aortic endothelial cells (IC(50)>500μg/mL), and non-bactericidal against a selection of representative test microbes (MIC >250μg/mL). These properties suggest that the poly(vinyl benzoate) nanoparticles may be suitable carriers for molecular delivery of lipophilic small molecules such as pharmaceutical and imaging agents. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of Sodium Butyrate Treatment on Histone Modifications and the Expression of Genes Related to Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms and Immune Response in European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus Labrax) Fed a Plant-Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Díaz, Noelia; Rimoldi, Simona; Ceccotti, Chiara; Gliozheni, Emi; Piferrer, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that inhabit the epithelium of the animals' digestive tract provide the essential biochemical pathways for fermenting otherwise indigestible dietary fibers, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Of the major SCFAs, butyrate has received particular attention due to its numerous positive effects on the health of the intestinal tract and peripheral tissues. The mechanisms of action of this four-carbon chain organic acid are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effect on gene expression since butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that play a predominant role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and cell function. In the present work, we investigated in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) the effects of butyrate used as a feed additive on fish epigenetics as well as its regulatory role in mucosal protection and immune homeostasis through impact on gene expression. Seven target genes related to inflammatory response and reinforcement of the epithelial defense barrier [tnfα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) il1β, (interleukin 1beta), il-6, il-8, il-10, and muc2 (mucin 2)] and five target genes related to epigenetic modifications [dicer1(double-stranded RNA-specific endoribonuclease), ehmt2 (euchromatic histone-lysine-N-methyltransferase 2), pcgf2 (polycomb group ring finger 2), hdac11 (histone deacetylase-11), and jarid2a (jumonji)] were analyzed in fish intestine and liver. We also investigated the effect of dietary butyrate supplementation on histone acetylation, by performing an immunoblotting analysis on liver core histone extracts. Results of the eight-week-long feeding trial showed no significant differences in weight gain or SGR (specific growth rate) of sea bass that received 0.2% sodium butyrate supplementation in the diet in comparison to control fish that received a diet without Na-butyrate. Dietary butyrate led to a twofold increase in the acetylation level of histone H4 at

  9. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase and sodium butyrate may be beneficial in attenuating LPS-induced intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Melo, A D B; Silveira, H; Bortoluzzi, C; Lara, L J; Garbossa, C A P; Preis, G; Costa, L B; Rostagno, M H

    2016-10-17

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and sodium butyrate (NaBu) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal inflammation. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase and RelA/p65 (NF-κB) gene expressions in porcine jejunum explants were evaluated following exposure to sodium butyrate (NaBu) and essential oil from Brazilian red pepper (EO), alone or in combination with NaBu, as well as exogenous IAP with or without LPS challenge. Five piglets weighing approximately 20 kg each were sacrificed, and their jejunum were extracted. The tissues were segmented into 10 parts, which were exposed to 10 treatments. Gene expressions of IAP and RelA/p65 (NF-κB) in jejunal explants were evaluated via RT-PCR. We found that EO, NaBu, and exogenous IAP were able to up-regulate endogenous IAP and enhance RelA/p65 (NF-κB) gene expression. However, only NaBu and exogenous IAP down-regulated LPS-induced inflammatory response via RelA/p65 (NF-κB). In conclusion, we demonstrated that exogenous IAP and NaBu may be beneficial in attenuating LPS-induced intestinal inflammation.

  10. H2 and acetate transfers during xylan fermentation between a butyrate-producing xylanolytic species and hydrogenotrophic microorganisms from the human gut.

    PubMed

    Chassard, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate in vitro interrelationships during xylan fermentation between an H2 and butyrate-producing xylanolytic species recently isolated in our laboratory from human faeces and identified as Roseburia intestinalis and the H2-utilizing acetogen Ruminococcus hydrogenotrophicus or the methanogen Methanobrevibacter smithii. H2 transfer between M. smithii or Ru. hydrogenotrophicus and the xylanolytic species was evidenced, confirming the great potential of these H2-consuming microorganisms to reutilize fermentative H2 during fibre fermentation in the gut. In addition, acetate transfer was demonstrated between the xylanolytic Roseburia sp. and the acetogenic species, both metabolites transfers leading to butyric fermentation of oat xylan without production of H2.

  11. Butyric Acid- and Dimethyl Disulfide-Assimilating Microorganisms in a Biofilter Treating Air Emissions from a Livestock Facility▿

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2011-01-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from “heavy” DNA from [13C4]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments. PMID:22003018

  12. Butyric acid- and dimethyl disulfide-assimilating microorganisms in a biofilter treating air emissions from a livestock facility.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Anja; Lindholst, Sabine; Feilberg, Anders; Nielsen, Per H; Neufeld, Josh D; Nielsen, Jeppe L

    2011-12-01

    Biofiltration has proven an efficient tool for the elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ammonia from livestock facilities, thereby reducing nuisance odors and ammonia emissions to the local environment. The active microbial communities comprising these filter biofilms have not been well characterized. In this study, a trickle biofilter treating air from a pig facility was investigated and proved efficient in removing carboxylic acids (>70% reduction), mainly attributed to the primary filter section within which reduced organic sulfur compounds were also depleted (up to 50%). The secondary filter eliminated several aromatic compounds: phenol (81%), p-cresol (89%), 4-ethylphenol (68%), indole (48%), and skatole (69%). The active butyric acid degrading bacterial community of an air filter sample was identified by DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and microautoradiography, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH). The predominant 16S rRNA gene sequences from a clone library derived from "heavy" DNA from [(13)C(4)]butyric acid incubations were Microbacterium, Gordonia, Dietzia, Rhodococcus, Propionibacterium, and Janibacter, all from the Actinobacteria. Actinobacteria were confirmed and quantified by MAR-FISH as being the major bacterial phylum assimilating butyric acid along with several Burkholderiales-related Betaproteobacteria. The active bacterial community assimilating dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) was characterized by DNA-SIP and MAR-FISH and found to be associated with the Actinobacteria, along with a few representatives of Flavobacteria and Sphingobacteria. Interestingly, ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria were also implicated in DMDS degradation, as were fungi. Thus, multiple isotope-based methods provided complementary data, enabling high-resolution identification and quantitative assessments of odor-eliminating Actinobacteria-dominated populations of these biofilter environments.

  13. Acute health effects among firefighters exposed to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, J.S.; Gutterman, E.M.; Schwartz, S.

    1989-05-01

    Firefighters are frequently being called on to fight fires that are chemical in nature. In the aftermath of a chemical fire in Plainfield, New Jersey on March 20-21, 1985, the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study which surveyed 80 firefighters exposed to burning polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as well as 15 nonexposed firefighter subjects. By means of an 81-item symptom checklist, exposed firefighters reported more frequent and severe symptoms at 5-6 weeks post incident. This was true for a total symptomatology score as well as 19 individual items. Some of the items with an elevated risk were consistent with exposure tomore » hydrogen chloride, the main pyrolysis product of polyvinyl chloride. Other items with an elevated risk appeared to be related to smoke inhalation while others seemed psychosocial in nature. Analyses conducted within the exposed firefighter group showed that fighting the fire the first day, being a truckman, and residence within 1 mile (1.6 km) of the firehouse were significant risk factors for high total symptom scores. These risk factors may have been associated with level or duration of exposure to the toxic substances produced during the fire.« less

  14. [Survey of plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride toys].

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Miku; Mutsuga, Motoh; Hirahara, Yoshichika; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers in 101 samples of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) toys on the Japanese market were surveyed. No phthalates were detected in designated toys, though bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate and benzyl butyl phthalate were detected in more than half of other toys. 2,2,4-Tributyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate, o-acetyl tributyl citrate, adipates and diacetyl lauroyl glycerol, which are alternative plasticizers to phthalates, were detected. The results of structural analysis confirmed the presence of di(2-ethylhexyl)terephthalate, tributyl citrate, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylate and neopentyl glycol esters; these have not previonsly been reported in Japan. There appears to be a shift in plasticizers used for designated toys from phthalates to new plasticizers, and the number of different plasticizers is increasing.

  15. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung; ...

    2016-03-11

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly-(vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligandsmore » (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42 3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Lastly, adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.« less

  16. Uranium Adsorbent Fibers Prepared by Atom-Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) from Poly(vinyl chloride)- co -chlorinated Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC- co -CPVC) Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Suree; Yue, Yanfeng; Kuo, Li-Jung

    The need to secure future supplies of energy attracts researchers in several countries to a vast resource of nuclear energy fuel: uranium in seawater (estimated at 4.5 billion tons in seawater). In this study, we developed effective adsorbent fibers for the recovery of uranium from seawater via atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from a poly-(vinyl chloride)-co-chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-co-CPVC) fiber. ATRP was employed in the surface graft polymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA), precursors for uranium-interacting functional groups, from PVC-co-CPVC fiber. The [tBA]/[AN] was systematically varied to identify the optimal ratio between hydrophilic groups (from tBA) and uranyl-binding ligandsmore » (from AN). The best performing adsorbent fiber, the one with the optimal [tBA]/[AN] ratio and a high degree of grafting (1390%), demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities that are significantly greater than those of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) reference fiber in natural seawater tests (2.42 3.24 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 5.22 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure, versus 1.66 g/kg in 42 days of seawater exposure and 1.71 g/kg in 49 days of seawater exposure for JAEA). Lastly, adsorption of other metal ions from seawater and their corresponding kinetics were also studied. The grafting of alternative monomers for the recovery of uranium from seawater is now under development by this versatile technique of ATRP.« less

  17. Opioid-sparing effects of the thoracic interfascial plane blocks: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Kaur, Manpreet; Trikha, Anjan; Sinha, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    Background: Thoracic interfascial plane blocks and modification (PECS) have recently gained popularity for analgesic potential during breast surgery. We evaluate/consolidate the evidence on opioid-sparing effect of PECS blocks in comparison with conventional intravenous analgesia (IVA) and paravertebral block (PVB). Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing PECS block to conventional IVA or PVB in patients undergoing breast surgery published till June 2017 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons were made for 24-h postoperative morphine consumption and intraoperative fentanyl-equivalent consumption. Results: Final analysis included nine trials (PECS vs. IVA 4 trials and PECS vs. PVB 5 trials). PECS block showed a decreased intraoperative fentanyl consumption over IVA by 49.20 mcg (95% confidence interval [CI] =42.67–55.74) (I2 = 98.47%, P < 0.001) and PVB by 15.88 mcg (95% CI = 12.95–18.81) (I2 = 95.51%, P < 0.001). Postoperative, 24-h morphine consumption with PECS block was lower than IVA by 7.66 mg (95% CI being 6.23–9.10) (I2 = 63.15, P < 0.001) but was higher than PVB group by 1.26 mg (95% CI being 0.91–1.62) (I2 = 99.53%, P < 0.001). Two cases of pneumothorax were reported with PVB, and no complication was reported in any other group. Conclusions: Use of PECS block and its modifications with general anesthesia for breast surgery has significant opioid-sparing effect intraoperatively and during the first 24 h after surgery. It also has higher intraoperative opioid-sparing effect when compared to PVB. During the 1st postoperative day, PVB has slightly more morphine sparing potential that may however be associated with higher complication rates. The present PECS block techniques show marked interstudy variations and need standardization. PMID:29416465

  18. Opioid-sparing effects of the thoracic interfascial plane blocks: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Kaur, Manpreet; Trikha, Anjan; Sinha, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    Thoracic interfascial plane blocks and modification (PECS) have recently gained popularity for analgesic potential during breast surgery. We evaluate/consolidate the evidence on opioid-sparing effect of PECS blocks in comparison with conventional intravenous analgesia (IVA) and paravertebral block (PVB). Prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing PECS block to conventional IVA or PVB in patients undergoing breast surgery published till June 2017 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons were made for 24-h postoperative morphine consumption and intraoperative fentanyl-equivalent consumption. Final analysis included nine trials (PECS vs. IVA 4 trials and PECS vs. PVB 5 trials). PECS block showed a decreased intraoperative fentanyl consumption over IVA by 49.20 mcg (95% confidence interval [CI] =42.67-55.74) ( I 2 = 98.47%, P < 0.001) and PVB by 15.88 mcg (95% CI = 12.95-18.81) ( I 2 = 95.51%, P < 0.001). Postoperative, 24-h morphine consumption with PECS block was lower than IVA by 7.66 mg (95% CI being 6.23-9.10) ( I 2 = 63.15, P < 0.001) but was higher than PVB group by 1.26 mg (95% CI being 0.91-1.62) ( I 2 = 99.53%, P < 0.001). Two cases of pneumothorax were reported with PVB, and no complication was reported in any other group. Use of PECS block and its modifications with general anesthesia for breast surgery has significant opioid-sparing effect intraoperatively and during the first 24 h after surgery. It also has higher intraoperative opioid-sparing effect when compared to PVB. During the 1 st postoperative day, PVB has slightly more morphine sparing potential that may however be associated with higher complication rates. The present PECS block techniques show marked interstudy variations and need standardization.

  19. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry. PMID:27104860

  20. Poly-(Epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: Morphology and thermal-mechanical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

  1. Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone)(PCL) and poly(hydroxy-butyrate)(PHB) blends containing seaweed fibers: morphology and thermal-mechanical properties.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Massive quantities of marine seaweed, Ulva armoricana are washed onto shores of many European countries and accumulates as waste. Attempts were made to utilize this renewable resource in hybrid composites by blending the algal biomass with biodegradable polymers such as poly(hydroxy-butyrate) and po...

  2. The use of high pressure CO2 -facilitated pH swings to enhance in situ product recovery of butyric acid in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    Through the use of high partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2 ) to facilitate temporary pH reductions in two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs), improved pH dependent partitioning of butyric acid was observed which achieved in situ product recovery (ISPR), alleviating end-product inhibition (EPI) during the production of butyric acid by Clostridium tyrobutyricum (ATCC 25755). Through high pressure pCO2 studies, media buffering effects were shown to be substantially overcome at 60 bar pCO2 , resulting in effective extraction of the organic acid by the absorptive polymer Pebax® 2533, yielding a distribution coefficient (D) of 2.4 ± 0.1 after 1 h of contact at this pressure. Importantly, it was also found that C. tyrobutyricum cultures were able to withstand 60 bar pCO2 for 1 h with no decrease in growth ability when returned to atmospheric pressure in batch reactors after several extraction cycles. A fed-batch reactor with cyclic high pCO2 polymer extraction recovered 92 g of butyric acid to produce a total of 213 g compared to 121 g generated in a control reactor. This recovery reduced EPI in the TPPB, resulting in both higher productivity (0.65 vs. 0.33 g L(-1)  h(-1) ) and yield (0.54 vs. 0.40). Fortuitously, it was also found that repeated high pCO2 -facilitated polymer extractions of butyric acid during batch growth of C. tyrobutyricum lessened the need for pH control, and reduced base requirements by approximately 50%. Thus, high pCO2 -mediated absorptive polymer extraction presents a novel method for improving process performance in butyric acid fermentation, and this technique could be applied to the bioproduction of other organic acids as well. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Collapsing variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by parvovirus B19: case report].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Geraldo Rubens Ramos de; Praxedes, Marcel Rodrigues Gurgel; Malheiros, Denise; Testagrossa, Leonardo; Dias, Cristiane Bitencourt; Woronik, Viktoria

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory profile of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) of the collapsing subtype in association with infection by parvovirus B19 (PVB19). Female patient, 37 years old, mulatto, developed pharyngalgia and fever with partial improvement after penicillin. After one week we observed reduced urinary output and lower limb edema. Smoker, family and personal history negative for hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. Patient presented with olyguria, hypertension and edema, also hypochromic microcytic hypoproliferative anemia, nephritic range proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and renal dysfunction. All rheumatologic investigation, HIV and hepatitis serology were negative. Unremarkable renal ultrasound. PCR positive for PVB19 in bone marrow aspirate and blood and renal biopsy conclusive of collapsing FSGS subtype. Spontaneous remission occurred within two weeks of the profile. The blood PVB19 PCR was repeated within a month and resulted negative. This finding demonstrated PVB19 acute infection or viral reactivation in association with collapsing FSGS. There is demonstrated the temporal association of PVB19 viremia and collapsing FSGS, due primary infection or viral reactivation. The association of collapsing FSGS and PVB19 is described in the literature, demonstrating virus presence in kidney tissue, but the real relationship of virus in the pathogenesis of this glomerulopathy remains unclear.

  4. ALA-Butyrate prodrugs for Photo-Dynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration has led to many applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer. However, the hydrophilic nature of ALA limits its ability to penetrate the cells and tissues, and therefore the need for ALA derivatives became an urgent research target. In this study we investigated the activity of novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of ALA that upon metabolic hydrolysis release active components such as, formaldehyde, and the histone deacetylase inhibitory moiety, butyric acid. Evaluation of these prodrugs under photo-irradiation conditions showed that butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (ALA-BAC) generated the most efficient photodynamic destruction compared to ALA. ALA-BAC stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells which resulted in generation of intracellular ROS, reduction of mitochondrial activity, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of the cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by ALA / ALA-BAC followed by PDT equally activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals and both pathways may occur simultaneously. The main advantage of ALA-BAC over ALA stems from its ability to induce photo-damage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  5. Enhanced Degradation of Polyvinyl Alcohol by Pycnoporus cinnabarinus after Pretreatment with Fenton’s Reagent

    PubMed Central

    Larking, Daniel M.; Crawford, Russell J.; Christie, Gregor B. Y.; Lonergan, Greg T.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was investigated by using a combination of chemical treatment with Fenton’s reagent and biological degradation with the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. Inclusion of the chemical pretreatment resulted in greater degradation of PVA than the degradation observed when biological degradation alone was used. PMID:10103286

  6. Disk Refining and Ultrasonication Treated Sugarcane Bagasse Residues for Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Bio-composites

    Treesearch

    Qingzheng Cheng; Zhaohui Tong; Luisa Dempere; Lonnie Ingram; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Disk refining and ultrasonication treated sugarcane bagasse residues reclaimed from the waste stream of a simplified bioethanol process after fermentation were used to fabricate biobased composites with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by film casting. The morphologies and the size distributions of residue particles were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and...

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of An Essential Oil Blend on Surface-attached Salmonella on Polyvinyl Chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The majority of drinking water lines for broilers are made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and surface attachment of Salmonella on the inner surface of water lines can be the initial stage of biofilm development. These biofilms can be the source of Salmonella infection in water lines and are known to re...

  8. Microbiota-derived butyrate suppresses group 3 innate lymphoid cells in terminal ileal Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae-Hae; Cho, Byeol-Hee; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2017-06-21

    The regional specialization of intestinal immune cells is affected by the longitudinal heterogeneity of environmental factors. Although the distribution of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) is well characterized in the lamina propria, it is poorly defined in Peyer's patches (PPs) along the intestine. Given that PP ILC3s are closely associated with mucosal immune regulation, it is important to characterize the regulatory mechanism of ILC3s. Here, we found that terminal ileal PPs of specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice have fewer NKp46 + ILC3s than jejunal PPs, while there was no difference in NKp46 + ILC3 numbers between terminal ileal and jejunal PPs in antibiotics (ABX)-treated mice. We also found that butyrate levels in the terminal ileal PPs of SPF mice were higher than those in the jejunal PPs of SPF mice and terminal ileal PPs of ABX-treated mice. The reduced number of NKp46 + ILC3s in terminal ileal PPs resulted in a decrease in Csf2 expression and, in turn, resulted in reduced regulatory T cells and enhanced antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. Thus, we suggest that NKp46 + ILC3s are negatively regulated by microbiota-derived butyrate in terminal ileal PPs and the reduced ILC3 frequency is closely associated with antigen-specific immune induction in terminal ileal PPs.

  9. Biomolecular imaging of 13C-butyrate with dissolution-DNP: Polarization enhancement and formulation for in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flori, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Giulio; Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Aquaro, Giovanni Donato; De Marchi, Daniele; Burchielli, Silvia; Frijia, Francesca; Positano, Vincenzo; Landini, Luigi; Menichetti, Luca

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of hyperpolarized isotopically enriched molecules facilitates the non-invasive real-time investigation of in vivo tissue metabolism in the time-frame of a few minutes; this opens up a new avenue in the development of biomolecular probes. Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization is a hyperpolarization technique yielding a more than four orders of magnitude increase in the 13C polarization for in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy studies. As reported in several studies, the dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization polarization performance relies on the chemico-physical properties of the sample. In this study, we describe and quantify the effects of the different sample components on the dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization performance of [1-13C]butyrate. In particular, we focus on the polarization enhancement provided by the incremental addition of the glassy agent dimethyl sulfoxide and gadolinium chelate to the formulation. Finally, preliminary results obtained after injection in healthy rats are also reported, showing the feasibility of an in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy study with hyperpolarized [1-13C]butyrate using a 3T clinical set-up.

  10. Comparison of polyvinyl alcohol and tris-acryl gelatin microsphere materials in embolization for symptomatic leiomyomas: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-12-01

    Use systematic reviews and meta-analyses to assess the effect of polyvinyl alcohol and tris-acryl gelatin microsphere materials in leiomyoma embolization for symptomatic leiomyomas. We included randomised controlled studies published before January 2015 comparing polyvinyl alcohol and tris-acryl gelatin microsphere materials in uterine leiomyoma embolization for women with symptomatic leiomyomas. The main outcome measures included change of overall quality of life, change of overall symptom severity, changes of uterine and leiomyoma volumes, leiomyoma infarction rate, treatment failure and complications. A total of six randomized controlled studies from 335 studies accounting for 351 women with leiomyomas were identified in this meta-analysis. Compared to polyvinyl alcohol, tris-acryl gelatin microsphere showed a significant benefit in improving the overall quality of life and in reducing uterine volume at three and six months, in reducing overall symptom severity at 6 and 12 months, and furthermore in reducing treatment failure. In addition, tris-acryl gelatin microsphere could significantly reduce leiomyoma volume and decrease <90% complete leiomyoma infarction rate at three months. There were no differences in pain severity, other post-procedural symptoms or medication use in the two groups. A better effect of tris-acryl gelatin microsphere in leiomyoma embolization for patients with symptomatic leiomyoma.

  11. Cloning and expression of clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetoacetyl-coenzyme A:acetate/butyrate:coenzyme A-transferase in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.W.; Petersen, D.J.; Bennett, G.N.

    1990-06-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase (acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase (butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase) (EC 2.8.3.9)) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is an important enzyme in the metabolic shift between the acid-producing and solvent-forming states of this organism. The genes encoding the two subunits of this enzyme have been cloned and subsequent subcloning experiments established the position of the structural genes for CoA-transferase. Complementation of Escherichia coli ato mutants with the recombinant plasmid pCoAT4 (pUC19 carrying a 1.8-kilobase insert of C. acetobutylicum DNA encoding CoA-transferase activity) enabled the transformants to grow on butyrate as a sole carbon source. Despite the ability of CoA-transferase to complement the ato defectmore » in E. coli mutants, Southern blot and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses showed showed that neither the C. acetobutylicum genes encoding CoA-transferase nor the enzyme itself shared any apparent homology with its E. coli counterpart. Polypeptides of M{sub r} of the purified CoA-transferase subunits were observed by Western blot and maxicell analysis of whole-cell extracts of E.coli harboring pCoAT4. The proximity and orientation of the genes suggest that the genes encoding the two subunits of CoA-transferase may form an operon similar to that found in E. coli. In the plasmid, however, transcription appears to be primarily from the lac promoter of the vector.« less

  12. Water resistance and thermal properties of polyvinyl alcohol-starch fiber blend film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, M. S. N.; Nor, N. N. Mohamed; Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. Syed

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention of starch fiber (SF) has led to the innovation of Polyvinyl Alcohol-SF (PVA-SF) blends. This blend is regarded as the biodegradable material which aims to reduce the accumulation of synthetic polymer solid waste derived from petroleum. In this study, the thermal blending characterizations of PVA-SF were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The water resistance of the blend was also evaluated to study the polarity of the blends. The blend was prepared by plasticizing the polyvinyl alcohol with glycerol and distilled water with the addition of starch fiber. The incorporation of SF to the blends was at 10 wt% to 50 wt% composition. Based on the thermal analysis, PVA-SF blends were suitable for processing at high temperatures, which can be seen by the shifted onset degradation temperature to a higher temperature. This is because cyclic hemiacetals which were provided by SF can act to prevent the thermal attacks. Conversely, increasing the starch fiber proportion to the film blend reduce the endothermic peak amplitude in the DSC thermogram. It was found that PVA-SF blend at the higher composition of SF had the highest water resistance. This may be attributed to the content of fibre in SF which is hydrophilic.

  13. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for ethylene... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride...

  14. Butyric acid increases transepithelial transport of ferulic acid through upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Kerstin; Kerimi, Asimina; Poquet, Laure; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Ferulic acid is released by microbial hydrolysis in the colon, where butyric acid, a major by-product of fermentation, constitutes the main energy source for colonic enterocytes. We investigated how varying concentrations of this short chain fatty acid may influence the absorption of the phenolic acid. Chronic treatment of Caco-2 cells with butyric acid resulted in increased mRNA and protein abundance of the monocarboxylate transporters SLC16A1 (MCT1) and SLC16A3 (MCT4), previously proposed to facilitate ferulic acid absorption in addition to passive diffusion. Short term incubation with butyric acid only led to upregulation of MCT4 while both conditions increased transepithelial transport of ferulic acid in the apical to basolateral, but not basolateral to apical, direction. Chronic treatment also elevated intracellular concentrations of ferulic acid, which in turn gave rise to increased concentrations of ferulic acid metabolites. Immunofluorescence staining of cells revealed uniform distribution of MCT1 protein in the cell membrane, whereas MCT4 was only detected in the lateral plasma membrane sections of Caco-2 cells. We therefore propose that MCT1 may be acting as an uptake transporter and MCT4 as an efflux system across the basolateral membrane for ferulic acid, and that this process is stimulated by butyric acid. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  16. Hypoxia and Inactivity Related Physiological Changes (Constipation, Inflammation) Are Not Reflected at the Level of Gut Metabolites and Butyrate Producing Microbial Community: The PlanHab Study.

    PubMed

    Šket, Robert; Treichel, Nicole; Debevec, Tadej; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor; Schloter, Michael; Vital, Marius; Chandler, Jenna; Tiedje, James M; Murovec, Boštjan; Prevoršek, Zala; Stres, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O 2 (F i O 2 ) and partial pressure of inspired O 2 (P i O 2 ) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4,000 m simulated altitude), respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal transit spanning Bristol Stool Scale, defecation rates, zonulin, α 1 -antitrypsin, eosinophil derived neurotoxin, bile acids, reducing sugars, short chain fatty acids, total soluble organic carbon, water content, diet composition, and food intake were measured (167 variables). The abundance, structure, and diversity of butyrate producing microbial community were assessed using the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase ( but ) and butyrate kinase ( buk ) genes. Inactivity negatively affected fecal consistency and in combination with hypoxia aggravated the state of gut inflammation ( p < 0.05). In contrast, gut permeability, various metabolic markers, the structure, diversity, and abundance of butyrate producing microbial community were not significantly affected. Rearrangements in the butyrate producing microbial community structure were explained by experimental setup (13.4%), experimentally structured metabolites (12.8%), and gut metabolite-immunological markers (11.9%), with 61.9% remaining unexplained. Many of the measured parameters were found to be correlated and were hence omitted from further analyses. The observed progressive increase in two immunological intestinal markers suggested that the transition from healthy physiological

  17. Hypoxia and Inactivity Related Physiological Changes (Constipation, Inflammation) Are Not Reflected at the Level of Gut Metabolites and Butyrate Producing Microbial Community: The PlanHab Study

    PubMed Central

    Šket, Robert; Treichel, Nicole; Debevec, Tadej; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor; Schloter, Michael; Vital, Marius; Chandler, Jenna; Tiedje, James M.; Murovec, Boštjan; Prevoršek, Zala; Stres, Blaž

    2017-01-01

    We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4,000 m simulated altitude), respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal transit spanning Bristol Stool Scale, defecation rates, zonulin, α1-antitrypsin, eosinophil derived neurotoxin, bile acids, reducing sugars, short chain fatty acids, total soluble organic carbon, water content, diet composition, and food intake were measured (167 variables). The abundance, structure, and diversity of butyrate producing microbial community were assessed using the two primary bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways, butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk) genes. Inactivity negatively affected fecal consistency and in combination with hypoxia aggravated the state of gut inflammation (p < 0.05). In contrast, gut permeability, various metabolic markers, the structure, diversity, and abundance of butyrate producing microbial community were not significantly affected. Rearrangements in the butyrate producing microbial community structure were explained by experimental setup (13.4%), experimentally structured metabolites (12.8%), and gut metabolite-immunological markers (11.9%), with 61.9% remaining unexplained. Many of the measured parameters were found to be correlated and were hence omitted from further analyses. The observed progressive increase in two immunological intestinal markers suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state toward the

  18. Demonstration of in situ product recovery of butyric acid via CO2 -facilitated pH swings and medium development in two-phase partitioning bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric C; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Production of organic acids in solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) is challenging, and highly pH-dependent, as cell growth occurs near neutral pH, while acid sorption occurs only at low pH conditions. CO2 sparging was used to achieve acidic pH swings, facilitating undissociated organic acid uptake without generating osmotic stress inherent in traditional acid/base pH control. A modified cultivation medium was formulated to permit greater pH reduction by CO2 sparging (pH 4.8) compared to typical media (pH 5.3), while still possessing adequate nutrients for extensive cell growth. In situ product recovery (ISPR) of butyric acid (pKa = 4.8) produced by Clostridium tyrobutyricum was achieved through intermittent CO2 sparging while recycling reactor contents through a column packed with absorptive polymer Hytrel® 3078. This polymer was selected on the basis of its composition as a polyether copolymer, and the use of solubility parameters for predicting solute polymer affinity, and was found to have a partition coefficient for butyric acid of 3. Total polymeric extraction of 3.2 g butyric acid with no CO2 mediated pH swings was increased to 4.5 g via CO2 -facilitated pH shifting, despite the buffering capacity of butyric acid, which resists pH shifting. This work shows that CO2 -mediated pH swings have an observable positive effect on organic acid extraction, with improvements well over 150% under optimal conditions in early stage fermentation compared to CO2 -free controls, and this technique can be applied other organic acid fermentations to achieve or improve ISPR. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  20. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) nanocomposites: properties, solubility of carbon dioxide, and foaming

    Treesearch

    Yottha Srithep; Lih-Sheng Turng; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and its nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforced nanocomposites were produced and foamed and its properties-such as the dynamic mechanical properties, crystallization behavior, and solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2)were evaluated. PVOH was mixed with an NFC fiber suspension in water followed by casting. Transmission...

  1. Fabrication of poly(vinyl carbazole) waveguides by oxygen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghailane, Fatima; Manivannan, Gurusamy; Knystautas, Émile J.; Lessard, Roger A.

    1995-08-01

    Polymer waveguides were fabricated by ion implantation involving poly(vinyl carbazole) films. This material was implanted by oxygen ions (O ++ ) of energies ranging from 50 to 250 keV. The ion doses varied from 1010 to 1015 ions / cm2. The conventional prism-film coupler method was used to determine the waveguiding nature of the implanted and unimplanted films. The increase of the surface refractive index in the implanted layer has been studied by measuring the effective refractive index (neff) for different optical modes. Electron spectroscopy chemical analysis measurements were also performed to assess the effect of ion implantation on the polymer matrix.

  2. 77 FR 14342 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-841] Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dustin Ross, AD/CVD Operations, Office 1, Import...

  3. 76 FR 29527 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... submitting comments. E-mail: a-and-r[email protected] . Attn: Docket ID No. EPA- HQ-OAR-2002-0037. Fax: (202...://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your... absolute PVC--polyvinyl chloride and copolymers PVCPU--PVC production process unit RFA--Regulatory...

  4. Effect of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Addition on the Properties of Hydrothermal Derived Calcium Phosphate Cement for Bone Filling Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razali, N. N.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) on hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement has been studied. The precursors used to prepare the cement were calcium oxide (CaO) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4); the reaction was conducted in water at 80-100°C. To improve properties of CPC, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) of 1wt% and 2wt% was added to the liquid phase of CPC and the results were compared to CPC without PVA addition. The addition of PVA was proved to bring remarkable effects on cohesion, setting time and mechanical strength of CPC which make it suitable physically for injectable bone filler applications.

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol coating of polystyrene inertial confinement fusion targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annamalai, P.; Lee, M. C.; Crawley, R. L.; Downs, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target made of polystyrene is first levitated in an acoustic field. The surface of the target is then etched using an appropriate solution (e.g., cyclohexane) to enhance the wetting characteristics. A specially prepared polyvinyl alcohol solution is atomized using an acoustic atomizer and deposited on the surface of the target. The solution is air dried to form a thin coating (2 microns) on the target (outside diameter of about 350-850 microns). Thicker coatings are obtained by repeated applications of the coating solutions. Preliminary results indicate that uniform coatings may be achievable on the targets with a background surface smoothness in the order of 1000 A.

  6. Structural Basis for Recognition of L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino Butyric Acid by Lysine Cyclodeaminase.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyungjin; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Matsuura, Atsushi; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho

    2018-04-30

    L-pipecolic acid is a non-protein amino acid commonly found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. It is a well-known precursor to numerous microbial secondary metabolites and pharmaceuticals, including anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, and several antibiotics. Lysine cyclodeaminase (LCD) catalyzes β-deamination of L-lysine into L-pipecolic acid using β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. Expression of a human homolog of LCD, μ-crystallin, is elevated in prostate cancer patients. To understand the structural features and catalytic mechanisms of LCD, we determined the crystal structures of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis LCD (SpLCD) in (i) a binary complex with NAD + , (ii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-pipecolic acid, (iii) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-proline, and (iv) a ternary complex with NAD + and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. The overall structure of SpLCD was similar to that of ornithine cyclodeaminase from Pseudomonas putida . In addition, SpLCD recognized L-lysine, L-ornithine, and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid despite differences in the active site, including differences in hydrogen bonding by Asp236, which corresponds with Asp228 from Pseudomonas putida ornithine cyclodeaminase. The substrate binding pocket of SpLCD allowed substrates smaller than lysine to bind, thus enabling binding to ornithine and L-2,4-diamino butyric acid. Our structural and biochemical data facilitate a detailed understanding of substrate and product recognition, thus providing evidence for a reaction mechanism for SpLCD. The proposed mechanism is unusual in that NAD + is initially converted into NADH and then reverted back into NAD + at a late stage of the reaction.

  7. Malt in combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases concentrations of butyric acid in the distal colon and serum in rats compared with other barley products but decreases viable counts of cecal bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Bränning, Camilla E; Nyman, Margareta E

    2011-01-01

    Several substances, including glutamine and propionic acid but in particular butyric acid, have been proposed to be important for colonic health. β-Glucans lead to the formation of comparatively high amounts of butyric acid, and germinated barley foodstuff obtained from brewer's spent grain (BSG), containing high amounts of β-glucans and glutamine, has been reported to reduce the inflammatory response in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. The present study examines how 3 barley products, whole grain barley, malt, and BSG, affect SCFA in the hindgut and serum of rats and whether the addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271 to each of these diets would have further effects. Amino acids in plasma and the cecal composition of the microbiota were also analyzed. The butyric acid concentration in the distal colon and serum was higher in the malt groups than in the other groups as was the serum concentration of propionic acid. The concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were higher in the cecum and serum of rats given L. rhamnosus than in those not given this strain. The proportion of plasma glutamine and the cecal number of bifidobacteria were lower in the malt groups than in the other groups. L. rhamnosus decreased the number of cecal bifidobacteria, whereas plasma glutamine was unaffected. We conclude that malt together with L. rhamnosus 271 had greater effects on propionic and butyric acid concentrations in rats than the other barley products. This is interesting when developing food with effects on colonic health.

  8. Safety and efficacy of 0.1% clobetasone butyrate eyedrops in the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Pasquale; Spinella, Rosaria; Rania, Laura; Postorino, Elisa; Sommario, Margherita S; Roszkowska, Anna M; Puzzolo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of a low administration rate and low concentration (0.1%) of clobetasone butyrate eyedrops in patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS).
 This prospective, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 40 subjects divided into 2 treatment groups: group 1 (2% polyvinylpyrrolidone eyedrops and placebo) and group 2 (2% polyvinylpyrrolidone and 0.1% clobetasone butyrate, 1 drop BID). The treatment lasted for 30 days, with visits at enrollment, baseline, day 15, day 30, and after 15 days of treatment discontinuation. At each visit, symptoms questionnaire, tear film break-up time, corneal fluorescein stain, lissamine green stain, conjunctival impression cytology for human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and fundus examination were performed. 
 No changes in IOP or fundus examination were observed in either group at each time point. Group 1 patients showed at day 30 a statistically significant amelioration of symptoms and reduction of HLA-DR expression. No changes in other parameters were detected. Group 2 patients showed at day 15 a statistically significant improvement of corneal and conjunctival stain versus baseline values and group 1 at the same time; after 30 days the symptoms score was statistically significantly better than baseline values and group 1 at the same time. The HLA-DR expression and the epithelial cells area were statistically significantly reduced versus baseline and group 1 at the same time. 
 Anti-inflammatory therapy is critical for the treatment of SS dry eye. Clobetasone butyrate, at low dosage, proved to be safe and effective in treating this condition.

  9. Study of reflection gratings recorded in polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide-based photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Rosa; Fernández, Elena; García, Celia; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2009-12-01

    High-spatial-frequency fringes associated with reflection holographic optical elements are difficult to obtain with currently available recording materials. In this work, holographic reflection gratings were stored in a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide photopolymer. This material is formed of acrylamide photopolymer, which is considered interesting material for optical storage applications such as holographic memories. The experimental procedure for examining the high-spatial-frequency response of this material is explained, and the experimental results obtained are presented. With the aim of obtaining the best results, the performance of different material compositions is compared.

  10. Impact of gut colonization with butyrate producing microbiota on respiratory viral infection following allo-HCT.

    PubMed

    Haak, Bastiaan W; Littmann, Eric R; Chaubard, Jean-Luc; Pickard, Amanda J; Fontana, Emily; Adhi, Fatima; Gyaltshen, Yangtsho; Ling, Lilan; Morjaria, Sejal M; Peled, Jonathan U; van den Brink, Marcel R; Geyer, Alexander I; Cross, Justin R; Pamer, Eric G; Taur, Ying

    2018-04-19

    Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT. Fecal samples from 360 allo-HSCT patients were collected at the time of stem cell engraftment and subjected to deep, 16S rRNA sequencing to determine microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid levels were determined in a nested subset of fecal samples. The development of respiratory viral infections and LRTI was determined for 180 days following allo-HCT. Clinical and microbiota risk factors for LRTI were subsequently evaluated using survival analysis. Respiratory viral infection occurred in 149 (41.4%) patients. Of those, 47 (31.5%) developed LRTI. Patients with higher abundances of butyrate producing bacteria were a five-fold less likely to develop viral LRTI, independent of other factors (adjusted HR=0.22, 95% CI 0.04 - 0.69). Higher representation of butyrate-producing bacteria in the fecal microbiota is associated with increased resistance against respiratory viral infection with LRTI in allo-HCT patients. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  11. Effect of Butyrate and Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Status, Lipid Profile and Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Roshanravan, Neda; Mahdavi, Reza; Alizadeh, Effat; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Hedayati, Mehdi; Ghavami, Abed; Alipour, Shahriar; Alamdari, Naimeh Mesri; Barati, Meisam; Ostadrahimi, Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Studies on humans with diabetes mellitus showed that the crosstalk between the intestinal microbiota and the host has a key role in controlling the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate and high performance inulin supplementation simultaneously or singly on glycemic status, lipid profile, and glucagon-like peptide 1 level in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sixty patients were recruited for the study. The participants were randomly allocated, using randomized block procedure, to one of the four treatment groups (A, B, C, or D). Group A received sodium butyrate capsules, group B received inulin supplement powder, group C was exposed to the concomitant use of inulin and sodium butyrate, and group D consumed placebo for 45 consecutive days. Markers of glycemia, lipid profile, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured pre- and post-intervention. Dietary supplementation in groups A, B, and C significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure in comparison with the placebo group (p<0.05). Also, intra-group statistical analysis showed that only treatment with sodium butyrate + inulin (group C) significantly reduced fasting blood sugar (p=0.049) and waist to hip ratio (p=0.020). Waist circumference in groups B and C reduced significantly after the intervention (p=0.007 and p=0.011; respectively). The post hoc Tukey tests showed significant increase in glucagon-like peptide 1 concentration in groups A and C in comparison with group D (p<0.05). The results suggest that inulin supplementation may be useful to diabetic patients and these effects could be increased with butyrate supplement. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Empirical prediction of net splanchnic release of ketogenic nutrients, acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate in ruminants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loncke, C; Nozière, P; Bahloul, L; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2015-03-01

    For energy feeding systems for ruminants to evolve towards a nutrient-based system, dietary energy supply has to be determined in terms of amount and nature of nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations of the net hepatic flux and net splanchnic release of acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate to changes in diet and animal profiles. A meta-analysis was applied on published data compiled from the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which pools the results from international publications on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes measured in multi-catheterized ruminants. Prediction variables were identified from current knowledge on digestion, hepatic and other tissue metabolism. Subsequently, physiological and other, more integrative, predictors were obtained. Models were established for intakes up to 41 g dry matter per kg BW per day and diets containing up to 70 g concentrate per 100 g dry matter. Models predicted the net hepatic fluxes or net splanchnic release of each nutrient from its net portal appearance and the animal profile. Corrections were applied to account for incomplete hepatic recovery of the blood flow marker, para-aminohippuric acid. Changes in net splanchnic release (mmol/kg BW per hour) could then be predicted by combining the previously published net portal appearance models and the present net hepatic fluxes models. The net splanchnic release of acetate and butyrate were thus predicted from the intake of ruminally fermented organic matter (RfOM) and the nature of RfOM (acetate: residual mean square error (RMSE)=0.18; butyrate: RMSE=0.01). The net splanchnic release of β-hydroxybutyrate was predicted from RfOM intake and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.035), or from the net portal appearance of butyrate and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.050). Models obtained were independent of ruminant species, and presented low interfering factors on the residuals, least

  13. Effects of dry whey powder and calcium butyrate supplementation of corn/soybean-based diets on productive performance, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization in broilers.

    PubMed

    Ocejo, Medelin; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2017-06-26

    Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period. Six hundred one-day-old Ross-308 chickens were placed into 20 ground pens and assigned to one of 4 corn/soybean-based dietary treatments (5 replicates of 30 chicks per treatment) following a randomized complete block design: 1) basal diet with no supplementation as the control, 2) diet supplemented with 6% dry whey powder, 3) diet containing 0.1% coated calcium butyrate, and 4) diet containing 6% whey and 0.1% calcium butyrate. At age 15 days, 6 chickens per pen were experimentally inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. The results showed that supplementation of the corn/soybean-based diet with 6% whey alone or, preferably, in combination with 0.1% coated calcium butyrate improved growth and feed efficiency, had a beneficial effect on duodenal villus integrity, and decreased mortality. These favourable effects were particularly significant during the starter period. Six days after oral challenge, Campylobacter was widespread in the flock, and the birds remained positive until the end of the rearing period. Although Campylobacter was not isolated from environmental samples, it was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dust, air filters, and drinkers while birds shed culturable C. jejuni cells. No differences (p > 0.050) in colonization or shedding levels that could be attributed to the diet

  14. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the post-ruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs (n = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had cathet...

  15. Rheological characterization of solutions and thin films made from amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes and polyvinyl alcohol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rheological properties of aqueous solutions and films made from blends of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes (Hex-Am) were investigated to better understand the polymer interactions and processing parameters. Aqueous solutions of Hex-Am displayed ...

  16. Preparation of polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate film and research of thermal stability and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihui; Song, Yunna; Ma, Zheng; Li, Ning; Niu, Shuai; Li, Yongshen

    2018-05-01

    In this article, flake graphite, nitric acid, peroxyacetic acid and phosphoric acid are used to prepare graphene oxide phosphonic and phosphinic acids (GOPAs), and GOPAs and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are used to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate and phosphinate (PVAGOPs) in the case of faint acidity and ultrasound irradiation, and PVAGOPs are used to fabricate PVAGOPs film, and the structure and morphology of GOPAs, PVAGOPs and PVAGOPs film are characterized, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are investigated. Based on these, it has been proved that GOPAs consist of graphene oxide phosphonic acid and graphene oxide phosphinic acid, and there are CP covalent bonds between them, and PVAGOPs are composed of GOPAs and PVA, and there are six-member lactone rings between GOPAs and PVA, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are improved effectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterisation and in vitro stability of low-dose, lidocaine-loaded poly(vinyl alcohol)-tetrahydroxyborate hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, D H; Osman, M A; El-Gizawy, S A; Faheem, A M; McCarron, P A

    2016-03-16

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with the tetrahydroxyborate anion possess textural and rheological properties that can be used as novel drug-loaded vehicles for application to traumatic wounds. However, addition of soluble drug substances causes concentration-dependent phase separation and rheological changes. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of adding a local anaesthetic, but keeping the concentration low in an attempt to prevent these changes. Cross-linked hydrogels prepared from three grades of poly(vinyl alcohol) were characterised rheologically. Temperature sweep studies showed an elevated complex viscosity upon moving from 25°C to 80°C, which remained high for 48 h following completion of the cycle. Adhesion to model dermal surfaces achieved a maximum of 2.62 N cm(-2) and were greater than that observed to epidermal substrates, with a strong dependence on the rate of detachment used during testing. An optimised formulation (6% w/w PVA (31-50; 99) and 2% w/w THB) containing lidocaine hydrochloride loaded to an upper maximum concentration of 1.5% w/w was assessed for phase separation and drug crystallisation. After six months, crystallisation was present in formulations containing 0.7% and 1.5% lidocaine HCl. Changes in pH in response to increases in lidocaine loading were low. Drug release was shown to operate via a non-Fickian process for all three concentrations, with 60% occurring after approximately 24h. It can be concluded that using a low concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride in hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol) will result in crystallisation. Furthermore, these hydrogels are unlikely to induce rapid anaesthesia due to the low loading and slow release kinetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel reverse osmosis membrane modified by polyvinyl alcohol with maleic anhydride crosslinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samnani, Mohit; Rathod, Harshad; Raval, Hiren

    2018-03-01

    In the era of increasing energy crisis, it is inevitable to decrease process energy consumption to increase process viability and curtail green-house gas emission. The Reverse Osmosis plant requires significant energy to transfer water overcoming the osmotic pressure. This paper focuses on increasing the water flux for Thin Film Composite Reverse Osmosis (TFC RO) membrane without compromising salt rejection performance leading to the environmentally friendly and economically attractive process. The virgin TFC RO membrane was exposed to solution of sodium hypochlorite of concentration 2000 mg l-1 for 1 h to activate the surface of the membrane, followed by the treatment with the mixture of polyvinyl alcohol and maleic anhydride with varying concentrations for 1 h and curing in the oven at 80 °C temperature for 10 min. Out of all the treated membranes, the membrane treated with 2000 mg l-1 polyvinyl alcohol and 1000 mg l-1 maleic anhydride demonstrated the highest salt rejection of 96.83 % with 2% increase as compared to the virgin TFC RO membrane. The water flux of the membrane was around 44% higher than the virgin TFC RO membrane. The membrane samples were characterized by atomic force micrographs, ATR-FTIR, Nuclear magnetic resonance and Dynamic mechanical analysis.

  19. Sodium butyrate attenuates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice by improving gut microbiota and gastrointestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Da; Pan, Qin; Xin, Feng-Zhi; Zhang, Rui-Nan; He, Chong-Xin; Chen, Guang-Yu; Liu, Chang; Chen, Yuan-Wen; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-01-07

    To investigate whether gut microbiota metabolite sodium butyrate (NaB) is an effective substance for attenuating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the internal mechanisms. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups, normal control were fed standard chow and model group were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 wk, the intervention group were fed HFD for 16 wk and treated with NaB for 8 wk. Gut microbiota from each group were detected at baseline and at 16 wk, liver histology were evaluated and gastrointestinal barrier indicator such as zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) were detected by immunohistochemistry and realtime-PCR, further serum or liver endotoxin were determined by ELISA and inflammation- or metabolism-associated genes were quantified by real-time PCR. NaB corrected the HFD-induced gut microbiota imbalance in mice, while it considerably elevated the abundances of the beneficial bacteria Christensenellaceae , Blautia and Lactobacillus . These bacteria can produce butyric acid in what seems like a virtuous circle. And butyrate restored HFD induced intestinal mucosa damage, increased the expression of ZO-1 in small intestine, further decreased the levels of gut endotoxin in serum and liver compared with HF group. Endotoxin-associated genes such as TLR4 and Myd88, pro-inflammation genes such as MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ in liver or epididymal fat were obviously downregulated after NaB intervention. Liver inflammation and fat accumulation were ameliorated, the levels of TG and cholesterol in liver were decreased after NaB intervention, NAS score was significantly decreased, metabolic indices such as FBG and HOMA-IR and liver function indicators ALT and AST were improved compared with HF group. NaB may restore the dysbiosis of gut microbiota to attenuate steatohepatitis, which is suggested to be a potential gut microbiota modulator and therapeutic substance for NAFLD.

  20. Green Synthesis of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hybrid aerogels and their use as superabsorbents

    Treesearch

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–cellulose nanofibril (CNF) hybrid organic aerogels were prepared using an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process. The resulting PVA/CNF aerogel was rendered both superhydrophobic and superoleophilic after being treated with methyltrichlorosilane via a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition process. Successful silanization...

  1. Morphological influence of cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hulls on rheological properties of polyvinyl alcohol/CN suspensions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work aims to extract and characterize fibrous, rod-like and spherical cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) from cottonseed hull and to investigate the structure-morphology-rheology relationships. The rheological behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/CNs suspensions was also examined to guide the solve...

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  3. Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) - 40 CFR 63 Subparts J & HHHHHHH

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the regulations for the Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production Production regarding the emissions of hazardous air pollutants. Find Federal Register citations, read the rule, and find the rule history here.

  4. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer film and studies of thermal stability and surface resistivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongshen; Li, Jihui; Li, Yuehai; Li, Yali; Song, Yunan; Niu, Shuai; Li, Ning

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, flake graphite, nitric acid and acetic anhydride are used to prepare graphene oxide carboxylic acid (GO-COOH) via an ultrasonic-assisted method, and GO-COOH and polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) are used to synthesize graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer (GO-COOPVA) via the ultrasonic-assisted method, and GO-COOPVA is used to manufacture graphene oxide carboxylic acid polyvinyl alcohol polymer film (GO-COOPVA film) via a solidification method, and the structure and morphology of GO-COOH, GO-COOPVA and GO-COOPVA film are characterized, and the thermal stability and surface resistivity are measured in the case of the different amount of GO-COOH. Based on the characterization and measurement, it has been successively confirmed and attested that carboxyl groups implant on 2D lattice of GO to form GO-COOH, and GO-COOH and PVA have the esterification reaction to produce GO-COOPVA, and GO-COOPVA consists of 2D lattice of GO-COOH and the chain of PVA connected in the form of carboxylic ester, and GO-COOPVA film is composed of GO-COOPVA, and the thermal stability of GO-COOPVA film obviously improves in comparison with PVA film, and the surface resistivity of GO-COOPVA film clearly decreases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates oxidative stress and protects human gingival fibroblasts against cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide and butyric acid.

    PubMed

    Zgorzynska, Emilia; Wierzbicka-Ferszt, Anita; Dziedzic, Barbara; Witusik-Perkowska, Monika; Zwolinska, Anna; Janas, Anna; Walczewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative burst of the host cells associated with bacterial pathogen infection contributes to the destruction of periodontal tissue. The present study investigates the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) viability and ROS generation. The cell viability by MTT assay, ROS level using H2DCF-DA probe, and protein thiol content were measured in HGFs after 24h preincubation with different concentrations of DHA followed by treatment with H2O2. The cell death rate was determined by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was examined by MitoTracker Red probe in H2O2- and butyric acid-treated HGFs. The fatty acid composition of plasma membranes after incubation with DHA was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. DHA preincubation in a dose-dependent manner increased the viability of HGFs exposed to H2O2 and decreased ROS generation compared to the control cells. In HGFs preincubated with 30μM DHA, the ΔΨm significantly increased in both H2O2- and butyric acid-treated cells. Moreover, incubation with DHA preserved the protein thiol level as effectively as N-acetylcysteine. Application of 50μM DHA increased the quantity of viable cells, decreased the number of necrotic cells after H2O2 treatment, and protected HGFs from apoptosis induced by butyric acid. DHA in the plasma membranes of these HGFs represented about 6% of the total amount of fatty acids. These results demonstrate that enrichment of HGFs with DHA reduces ROS generation and enhances the mitochondrial membrane potential protecting the fibroblasts against cytotoxic factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Calcium Stearate as an Effective Alternative to Poly(vinyl alcohol) in Poly-Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid Nanoparticles Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cella, Claudia; Gerges, Irini; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina; Argentiere, Simona

    2017-02-13

    Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most studied systems for drug and gene targeting. So far, the synthesis of stable and uniform PLGA NPs has involved the use of a large excess of polyvinyl surfactants such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), whose removal requires multistep purification procedures of high ecological and economic impact. Hence the development of environment-friendly and cost-effective synthetic procedures for the synthesis of PLGA NPs would effectively boost their use in clinics. This work aims to address this issue by investigating more efficacious alternatives to the so far employed polyvinyl surfactants. More specifically, we developed an innovative synthetic process to achieve stable and uniformly distributed PLGA NPs that involves the use of calcium stearate (CSt), gaining benefits of its high biocompatibility and efficacy at low concentrations and avoiding consequently expensive purification steps. With the help of minimum quantities of polysorbate 60 and sorbitane monostearate, CSt-stabilized PLGA NPs with different sizes and structures were synthesized. The influence of CSt on the encapsulation efficiency of bioactive molecules has been also investigated. The effective encapsulation of both hydrophobic (curcumin) and hydrophilic (fibrinogen labeled with Alexa647) biomolecules into NPs was demonstrated by confocal microscopy, and their release quantified by spectrofluorimetric analyses. Finally, degradation and cytotoxicity studies showed that CSt stabilized NPs were stable under physiological conditions and with good biocompatibility, thus looking promising for further investigation as controlled release devices.

  7. Effect of borax concentration on the structure of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J. A. E.; Aswal, V. K.

    2012-06-01

    Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with varying concentrations of borax have been studied using Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and X-Ray Diffraction. The intensity of scattering increases with borax concentration from 1 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml and falls thereafter for 4 mg/ml, increasing again for a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mesoscopic structural changes that cause these trends in the SANS data are in keeping with the variations in the X-ray diffraction patterns pertaining to structures within the PVA chains.

  8. Biochemistry of microbial polyvinyl alcohol degradation.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Fusako; Hu, Xiaoping

    2009-08-01

    Effect of minor chemical structures such as 1,2-diol content, ethylene content, tacticity, a degree of polymerization, and a degree of saponification of the main chain on biodegradability of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is summarized. Most PVA-degraders are Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the Pseudomonads and Sphingomonads, but Gram-positive bacteria also have PVA-degrading abilities. Several examples show symbiotic degradation of PVA by different mechanisms. Penicillium sp. is the only reported eukaryotic degrader. A vinyl alcohol oligomer-utilizing fungus, Geotrichum fermentans WF9101, has also been reported. Lignolytic fungi have displayed non-specific degradation of PVA. Extensive published studies have established a two-step process for the biodegradation of PVA. Some bacteria excrete extracellular PVA oxidase to yield oxidized PVA, which is partly under spontaneous depolymerization and is further metabolized by the second step enzyme (hydrolase). On the other hand, PVA (whole and depolymerized to some extent) must be taken up into the periplasmic space of some Gram-negative bacteria, where PVA is oxidized by PVA dehydrogenase, coupled to a respiratory chain. The complete pva operon was identified in Sphingopyxis sp. 113P3. Anaerobic biodegradability of PVA has also been suggested.

  9. 14 CFR 170.23 - LORAN-C establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ratio of the present value of the LORAN-C life-cycle benefits (PVB) to the present value of LORAN-C life-cycle costs (PVC): PVB/PVC ≥ 1.0 (c) The criteria do not cover all situations that may arise and are not...

  10. 14 CFR 170.23 - LORAN-C establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ratio of the present value of the LORAN-C life-cycle benefits (PVB) to the present value of LORAN-C life-cycle costs (PVC): PVB/PVC ≥ 1.0 (c) The criteria do not cover all situations that may arise and are not...

  11. 78 FR 37794 - Polyvinyl Alcohol from Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... duty order on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) from Taiwan. For these final results, we continue to find that... Department published the preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on... review in accordance with section 751 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). Scope of the Order...

  12. A novel biobased plasticizer of epoxidized cardanol glycidylether: Synthesis and application in soft poly(vinyl chloride) films

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel plasticizer derived from cardanol, epoxied cardanol glycidyl ether (ECGE), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Effects of the ECGE combined with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a commercial plasticizer, in soft poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films were studied. Dynamic mechanical a...

  13. Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Belakavadi, Madesh; Prabhakar, B.T.; Salimath, Bharathi P.

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptoticmore » effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells.« less

  14. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  15. Chitin butyrate coated electrospun nylon-6 fibers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Han Joo; Bhatt, Lok Ranjan; Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Kim, Eun Kyo; Kim, Jeong In; Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Hui, K. S.; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we describe the preparation and characterizations of chitin butyrate (CB) coated nylon-6 nanofibers using single-spinneret electrospinning of blends solution. The physicochemical properties of nylon-6 composite fibers with different proportions of CB to nylon-6 were determined using FE-SEM, TEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed that the nylon-6 and CB were immiscible in the as-spun nanofibers, and phase separated nanofiber morphology becomes more pronounced with increasing amounts of CB. The bone formation ability of composite fibers was evaluated by incubating in biomimetic simulated body fluid. In order to assay the cytocompatibility and cell behavior on the composite scaffolds, osteoblast cells were seeded on the matrix. Results suggest that the deposition of CB layer on the surface of nylon-6 could increase its cell compatibility and bone formation ability. Therefore, as-synthesized nanocomposite fibrous mat has great potentiality in hard tissue engineering.

  16. Efficient etching-free transfer of high quality, large-area CVD grown graphene onto polyvinyl alcohol films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marta, Bogdan; Leordean, Cosmin; Istvan, Todor; Botiz, Ioan; Astilean, Simion

    2016-02-01

    Graphene transfer is a procedure of paramount importance for the production of graphene-based electronic devices. The transfer procedure can affect the electronic properties of the transferred graphene and can be detrimental for possible applications both due to procedure induced defects which can appear and due to scalability of the method. Hence, it is important to investigate new transfer methods for graphene that are less time consuming and show great promise. In the present study we propose an efficient, etching-free transfer method that consists in applying a thin polyvinyl alcohol layer on top of the CVD grown graphene on Cu and then peeling-off the graphene onto the polyvinyl alcohol film. We investigate the quality of the transferred graphene before and after the transfer, using Raman spectroscopy and imaging as well as optical and atomic force microscopy techniques. This simple transfer method is scalable and can lead to complete transfer of graphene onto flexible and transparent polymer support films without affecting the quality of the graphene during the transfer procedure.

  17. An Experimental Approach to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers: Application to Paradox Valley, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, R. J.; Bischoff, J. L.; Koksalan, T.

    2001-12-01

    As part of a Bureau of Reclamation program to decrease the salt load of the lower Colorado River Paradox, Valley Brine (PVB) is being disposed of into the Leadville Formation via a deep-injection well, situated in southwest Colorado. A complex pre-injection process uses nano-filtration to minimize well-plugging scaling caused by elevated downhole temperatures and pressures. We address here the possibility of liquid carbon dioxide as an additive to the injection fluid in an attempt to increase formation porosity. We report here the CO2 solubility results of preliminary experiments on pure water and PVB. We used fixed-volume titanium and flexible gold-cell technology to (1) measure the solubility of CO2 in PVB from surface to downhole conditions and (2) investigate the geochemical interactions between CO2 - charged PVB and rocks from the Leadville Limestone. The apparatus is applicable to the general study of CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers where the understanding of the interaction of CO2 - charged fluids and potential host rocks is important. The experimental procedure is an adaptation of the technology designed to study hydrothermal systems where seawater was reacted with basaltic rocks at high temperature and pressure. This procedure has been used extensively for the investigation of rock-water interactions and the determination of the solubilities of Na-K-Ca-Cl solutions over a wide range of temperature, pressure, and composition, along the vapor pressure curve and from beyond the critical point to the triple point. To validate the experimental design we calibrated the system with published data on the binary CO2 - pure water system. We obtained new data on the solubility of CO2 in pure water and PVB ( ~21% TDS) at 21° C and 50° C from 100 to 600 bars. At 21° C the solubility of CO2 (as wt% CO2/g fluid) in PVB is 2.2, 2.3, and 2.6 at 100, 300 and 600 bars pressure respectively contrasted with 6.5, 7.4 and 8.5 in pure water at similar pressures. At

  18. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/cellulose nanofibril hybrid aerogels with an aligned microtubular porous structure and their composites with polydimethylsiloxane

    Treesearch

    Tianliang Zhai; Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Lih-Sheng Turng; Hesheng Xia; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/ cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogels with a unidirectionally aligned microtubular porous structure were prepared using a unidirectional freeze-drying process, followed by the thermal chemical vapor deposition of methyltrichlorosilane. The silanized aerogels were characterized using various techniques including scanning...

  19. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR INTRAVENOUS AND INHALATION-ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS OF BUTYL ACETATE AND METABOLITES N-BUTANOL AND N-BUTYRIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) can be accomplished with limited toxicity data and pharmacokinetic data for each compound through application of the "family approach" (Barton et al., 2000). The necessary quantita...

  20. Rates of production of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the rumen of lactating dairy cows given normal and low-roughage diets.

    PubMed

    Sutton, J D; Dhanoa, M S; Morant, S V; France, J; Napper, D J; Schuller, E

    2003-11-01

    Five lactating dairy cows with a permanent cannula in the rumen were given (kg DM/d) a normal diet (7.8 concentrates, 5.1 hay) or a low-roughage (LR) diet (11.5 concentrates, 1.2 hay) in two meals daily in a two-period crossover design. Milk fat (g/kg) was severely reduced on diet LR. To measure rates of production of individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen, 0.5 mCi 1-(14)C-acetic acid, 2-(14)C-propionic acid, or 1-(14)C-n-butyric acid were infused into the rumen for 22 h at intervals of 2 to 6 d; rumen samples were taken over the last 12 h. To measure rumen volume, we infused Cr-EDTA into the rumen continuously, and polyethylene glycol was injected 2 h before the morning feed. Results were very variable, so volumes measured by rumen emptying were used instead. Net production of propionic acid more than doubled on LR, but acetate and butyrate production was only numerically lower. Net production rates pooled across both diets were significantly related to concentrations for each VFA. Molar proportions of net production were only slightly higher than molar proportions of concentrations for acetate and propionate but were lower for butyrate. The net energy value (MJ/d) of production of the three VFA increased from 89.5 on normal to 109.1 on LR, equivalent to 55 and 64% of digestible energy, respectively. Fully interchanging, three-pool models of VFA C fluxes are presented. It is concluded that net production rates of VFA can be measured in non-steady states without the need to measure rumen volumes.

  1. Hyper-thermal acid hydrolysis and adsorption treatment of red seaweed, Gelidium amansii for butyric acid production with pH control.

    PubMed

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2017-03-01

    Optimal hyper-thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis conditions for Gelidium amansii were determined to be 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content and 144 mM H 2 SO 4 at 150 °C for 10 min. HT acid hydrolysis-treated G. amansii hydrolysates produced low concentrations of inhibitory compounds and adsorption treatment using 3% activated carbon. An adsorption time of 5 min was subsequently used to remove the inhibitory 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from the medium. A final maximum monosaccharide concentration of 44.6 g/L and 79.1% conversion from 56.4 g/L total fermentable monosaccharides with 120 g dw/L G. amansii slurry was obtained from HT acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification, and adsorption treatment. This study demonstrates the potential for butyric acid production from G. amansii hydrolysates under non-pH-controlled as well as pH-controlled fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum KCTC 1790. The activated carbon treatment and pH-controlled fermentation showed synergistic effects and produced butyric acid at a concentration of 11.2 g/L after 9 days of fermentation.

  2. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. End-of-life of starch-polyvinyl alcohol biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Guo, M; Stuckey, D C; Murphy, R J

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) model comparing the waste management options for starch-polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) biopolymers including landfill, anaerobic digestion (AD), industrial composting and home composting. The ranking of biological treatment routes for starch-PVOH biopolymer wastes depended on their chemical compositions. AD represents the optimum choice for starch-PVOH biopolymer containing N and S elements in global warming potential (GWP(100)), acidification and eutrophication but not on the remaining impact categories, where home composting was shown to be a better option due to its low energy and resource inputs. For those starch-PVOH biopolymers with zero N and S contents home composting delivered the best environmental performance amongst biological treatment routes in most impact categories (except for GWP(100)). The landfill scenario performed generally well due largely to the 100-year time horizon and efficient energy recovery system modeled but this good performance is highly sensitive to assumptions adopted in landfill model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial allergy from polyvinyl chloride gloves.

    PubMed

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Jolanki, Riitta

    2006-10-01

    Contact allergy to plastic gloves is rare. Benzisothiazolinone is a biocide that is mainly used in industrial settings. We first suspected delayed-type contact allergy to benzisothiazolinone from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves in 2004. We looked through our medical records from 1991 to 2005 to find similar cases. We found a total of 8 patients who are allergic to benzisothiazolinone and who had had exacerbations of their hand dermatitis while using PVC gloves. Patch testing revealed that 3 of them had weak allergic or doubtful reactions to the glove materials. Six of them had used Evercare Soft, Medi-Point, or Derma Grip PVC gloves, which in chemical analysis were shown to contain 9 to 32 ppm of benzisothiazolinone. Seven of the patients worked in dentistry or health care and 1 in farming. All of them had had hand dermatitis for many years. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of contact allergy to antimicrobial agents in plastic gloves. Benzisothiazolinone is widely used as a biocide in the manufacture of disposable PVC gloves. Small amounts of benzisothiazolinone in the gloves may sensitize those who already have hand dermatitis. We recommend that all patients with hand dermatitis while using PVC gloves should be patch tested with benzisothiazolinone.

  5. Contralateral cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation changes in patients undergoing thoracotomy with general anesthesia with or without paravertebral block: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mukaihara, Keika; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2017-12-01

    Perioperative analgesia during thoracotomy is often achieved by combining paravertebral block (PVB) with general anesthesia (GA). Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can detect changes in cerebral oxygenation resulting from nociceptive stimuli in the awake state or under sedation. We used NIRS to measure changes in cerebral blood flow provoked by thoracotomy incision made under GA and determine how these changes were influenced by supplementation of GA with PVB. Thirty-four patients undergoing elective thoracotomy were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to a group receiving only GA, or GA combined with PVB (GA + PVB). Changes in cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔO 2 Hb), deoxygenated-Hb (ΔHHb), and total-Hb (ΔtotalHb) were evaluated by NIRS as surgery began. In the GA group, ΔO 2 Hb was significantly higher in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of surgery when the incision was made and 2 min after incision compared with the ipsilateral side (start of surgery, P < 0.01; 2 min, P < 0.05). In contrast, there were no significant changes in the ΔO 2 Hb at any of the time points in the GA + PVB group. Comparable with ΔO 2 Hb, the concentration of ΔtotalHb was significantly higher in the contralateral hemisphere in the GA group at the start of surgery (P < 0.05). Changes in the cerebral O 2 Hb concentration were detected by NIRS immediately after surgical incision under GA, but not in the presence of a PNB. NIRS could be used to monitor surgical pain. PVB inhibited changes in oxygenation induced by incision-provoked pain.

  6. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of eucalyptus lignosulfonate/polyvinyl alcohol composite.

    PubMed

    Ye, De-Zhan; Zhang, Xi; Gu, Shaojin; Zhou, Yingshan; Xu, Weilin

    2017-04-01

    The nonisothermal crystallinization kinetic was performed on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) mixed with eucalyptus lignosulfonate calcuim (HLS) as the biobased thermal stabilizer, which was systematically analyzed based on Jeziorny model, Ozawa equation and the Mo method. The results indicated that the entire crystallization process took place through two main stages involving the primary and secondary crystallization processes. The Mo method described nonisothermal crystallization behavior well. Based on the results of the half time for completing crystallization, k c value in Jeziorny model, F(T) value in Mo method and crystallization activation energy, it was concluded that low loading of HLS accelerated PVA crystallization process, however, the growth rate of PVA crystallization was impeded at high content of HLS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electro–optical properties of poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole composite film

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagat, D. J., E-mail: bhagatd@rediffmail.com; Dhokane, G. R.; Bajaj, N. S.

    2016-05-06

    In present work, electrical and optical properties of poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole (PVAc/PIN) composite film are reported. The prepared composite was characterized via X–ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis spectroscopy and DC conductivity measurements. The polymer chain separation was determined using XRD analysis. An attempt has been made to study the temperature dependence of DC conductivity of PVAc/PIN composite in temperature range 308–373 K. The DC conductivity initially increases and reaches to 2.45×10–7 S/cm. The optical band gap value of composite is determined as 4.77 eV. The semiconducting nature of composite observed from electronic as well as optical band gap and Arrhenius behavior of DCmore » plot.« less

  8. Profile of preoperative fecal organic acids closely predicts the incidence of postoperative infectious complications after major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection: Importance of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Takashi; Sugawara, Gen; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Nagino, Masato

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between preoperative fecal organic acid concentrations and the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The fecal samples of 44 patients were collected before undergoing hepatectomy with bile duct resection for biliary malignancies. The concentrations of fecal organic acids, including acetic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and representative fecal bacteria were measured. The perioperative clinical characteristics and the concentrations of fecal organic acids were compared between patients with and without postoperative infectious complications. Among 44 patients, 13 (30%) developed postoperative infectious complications. Patient age and intraoperative bleeding were significantly greater in patients with postoperative infectious complications compared with those without postoperative infectious complications. The concentrations of fecal acetic acid and butyric acid were significantly less, whereas the concentration of fecal lactic acid tended to be greater in the patients with postoperative infectious complications. The calculated gap between the concentrations of fecal acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap was less in the patients with postoperative infectious complications (median 43.5 vs 76.1 μmol/g of feces, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that an acetic acid plus butyric acid minus lactic acid gap <60 μmol/g was an independent risk factor for postoperative infectious complications with an odds ratio of 15.6; 95% confidence interval 1.8-384.1. The preoperative fecal organic acid profile (especially low acetic acid, low butyric acid, and high lactic acid) had a clinically important impact on the incidence of postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing major hepatectomy with extrahepatic bile duct resection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Poly(vinyl acetate)/clay nanocomposite materials for organic thin film transistor application.

    PubMed

    Park, B J; Sung, J H; Park, J H; Choi, J S; Choi, H J

    2008-05-01

    Nanocomposite materials of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) and organoclay were fabricated, in order to be utilized as dielectric materials of the organic thin film transistor (OTFT). Spin coating condition of the nanocomposite solution was examined considering shear viscosity of the composite materials dissolved in chloroform. Intercalated structure of the PVAc/clay nanocomposites was characterized using both wide-angle X-ray diffraction and TEM. Fracture morphology of the composite film on silicon wafer was also observed by SEM. Dielectric constant (4.15) of the nanocomposite materials shows that the PVAc/clay nanocomposites are applicable for the gate dielectric materials.

  10. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Fabiane, Mopeli; Khamlich, Saleh; Momodu, Damilola; Taghizadeh, Fatemeh; Dangbegnon, Julien; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-02-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/graphene nanofibers. The samples produced were characterized by Raman spectroscopy for structural and defect density analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphological analysis, and thermogravimetric (TGA) for thermal analysis. SEM measurements show uniform hollow PVA fibers formation and excellent graphene dispersion within the fibers, while TGA measurements show the improved thermal stability of PVA in the presence of graphene. The synthesized polymer reinforced nanofibers have potential to serve in many different applications such as thermal management, supercapacitor electrodes and biomedical materials for drug delivery.

  11. Novel composite piezoelectric material for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Guobiene, Asta; Palevicius, Arvydas; Prosycevas, Igoris; Ponelyte, Sigita; Baltrusaitis, Valentinas; Sakalys, Rokas

    2015-04-01

    Past few decades were concentrated on researches related to effective energy harvesting applied in modern technologies, MEMS or MOEMS systems. There are many methods for harvesting energy as, for example, usage of electromagnetic devices, but most dramatic changes were noticed in the usage of piezoelectric materials in small scale devices. Major limitation faced was too small generated power by piezoelectric materials or high resonant frequencies of such smallscale harvesters. In this research, novel composite piezoelectric material was created by mixing PZT powder with 20% solution of polyvinyl butyral in benzyl alcohol. Obtained paste was screen printed on copper foil using 325 mesh stainless steel screen and dried for 30 min at 100 °C. Polyvinyl butyral ensures good adhesion and flexibility of a new material at the conditions that requires strong binding. Five types of a composite piezoelectric material with different concentrations of PZT (40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80 %) were produced. As the results showed, these harvesters were able to transform mechanical strain energy into electric potential and, v.v. In experimental setup, electromagnetic shaker was used to excite energy harvester that is fixed in the custom-built clamp, while generated electric potential were registered with USB oscilloscope PICO 3424. The designed devices generate up to 80 μV at 50 Hz excitation. This property can be applied to power microsystem devices or to use them in portable electronics and wireless sensors. However, the main advantage of the created composite piezoelectric material is possibility to apply it on any uniform or nonuniform vibrating surface and to transform low frequency vibrations into electricity.

  12. A Co-Drug of Butyric Acid Derived from Fermentation Metabolites of the Human Skin Microbiome Stimulates Adipogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: Implications in Tissue Augmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Zhang, Lingjuan; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Wang, Zhenping; Chun, Kimberly Ann; Lee, Tammy Ling; Chen, Ying-Tung; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We show that Staphylococcus epidermidis, a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, produces short-chain fatty acids by glycerol fermentation that can induce adipogenesis. Although the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of short-chain fatty acids have been previously well characterized, little is known about the contribution of short-chain fatty acids to the adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We show that ADSCs differentiated into adipocytes and accumulated lipids in the cytoplasm when cultured with butyric acid, a principal short-chain fatty acid in the fermentation metabolites of S. epidermidis. Additionally, a co-drug, butyric acid 2-(2-butyryloxyethoxy) ethyl ester (BA-DEG-BA), released active butyric acid when it was intradermally injected into mouse ears and induced ADSC differentiation, characterized by an increased expression of cytoplasmic lipids and perilipin A. The BA-DEG-BA-induced adipogenic differentiation was mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Furthermore, intradermal injection of ADSCs along with BA-DEG-BA into mouse ears markedly enhanced the adipogenic differentiation of ADSCs, leading to dermal augmentation. Our study introduces BA-DEG-BA as an enhancer of ADSC adipogenesis and suggests an integral interaction between the human skin microbiome and ADSCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)/kaolinite nanocomposites via in situ polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Xin; Department of Chemistry, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000; Li Yanfeng

    2008-03-04

    Poly(vinyl alcohol)/kaolinite intercalated nanocomposites (Kao-PVA) were prepared via in situ intercalation radical polymerization. Vinyl acetate (VAc) was intercalated into kaolinite by a displacement method using dimethyl sulfoxide/kaolinite (Kao-DMSO) as the intermediate. Then, PVAc/kaolinite (Kao-PVAc) was obtained via radical polymerization with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator. Last, PVAc/kaolinite was saponified via direct-hydrolysis with NaOH solution in order to obtain PVA/kaolinite nanocomposites, which was characterized by Fourier-Transformation spectroscopy (FTIR), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results of the obtained PVA/kaolinite suggested that the thermal properties had an obvious improvement.

  14. DNA-PCR analysis of bloodstains sampled by the polyvinyl-alcohol method.

    PubMed

    Schyma, C; Huckenbeck, W; Bonte, W

    1999-01-01

    Among the usual techniques of sampling gunshot residues (GSR), the polyvinyl-alcohol method (PVAL) includes the advantage of embedding all particles, foreign bodies and stains on the surface of the shooter's hand in exact and reproducible topographic localization. The aim of the present study on ten persons killed by firearms was to check the possibility of DNA-PCR typing of blood traces embedded in the PVAL gloves in a second step following GSR analysis. The results of these examinations verify that the PVAL technique does not include factors that inhibit successful PCR typing. Thus the PVAL method can be recommended as a combination technique to secure and preserve inorganic and biological traces at the same time.

  15. Electron Affinity of Phenyl-C61-Butyric Acid Methyl Ester (PCBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Bryon W.; Whitaker, James B.; Wang, Xue B.

    2013-07-25

    The gas-phase electron affinity (EA) of phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), one of the best-performing electron acceptors in organic photovoltaic devices, is measured by lowtemperature photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. The obtained value of 2.63(1) eV is only ca. 0.05 eV lower than that of C60 (2.68(1) eV), compared to a 0.09 V difference in their E1/2 values measured in this work by cyclic voltammetry. Literature E(LUMO) values for PCBM that are typically estimated from cyclic voltammetry, and commonly used as a quantitative measure of acceptor properties, are dispersed over a wide range between -4.3 and -3.62 eV; themore » reasons for such a huge discrepancy are analyzed here, and the protocol for reliable and consistent estimations of relative fullerene-based acceptor strength in solution is proposed.« less

  16. Biodesulphurization of gasoline by Rhodococcus erythropolis supported on polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Fatahi, A; Sadeghi, S

    2017-05-01

    A new biodesulphurization (BDS) method has been considered using Rhodococcus erythropolis supported on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for BDS of thiophene as a gasoline sulphur model compound in n-hexane as the solvent, subsequently this biocatalyst has been applied to BDS of gasoline samples. The obtained results according to UV-Spectrophotometer analysis at 240 nm showed that 97·41% of thiophene at the optimum condition of primary concentration 80 mg l -1 , pH = 7, by 0·1 g of biocatalyst in 30°C and after 20 h of contact time has been degraded. These optimum conditions have been applied to gasoline BDS and the biodegradation of gasoline thiophenic compounds have been investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). According to GC-MS, thiophene and its 2-methyl, 3-methyl and 2- ethyl derivatives had acceptable biodegradation efficiencies of about 26·67, 21·03, 23·62% respectively. Also, benzothiophene that has been detected in a gasoline sample had 38·89% biodegradation efficiency at optimum conditions, so biomodification of PVA by R. erythropolis produces biocatalysts with an active metabolism that facilitates the interaction of bacterial strain with gasoline thiophenic compounds. The morphology and surface functional groups of supported R. erythropolis on PVA have been investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FT-IR spectroscopy respectively. SEM images suggest some regular layered shape for the supported bacteria. FT-IR spectra indicate a desirable interaction between bacterial cells and polymer supports. Also, the recovery of biocatalyst has been investigated and after three times of using in BDS activity, its biocatalytic ability had no significant decreases. The biomodification of polyvinyl alcohol by Rhodococcus erythropolis described herein produces a new biocatalyst which can be used for significantly reducing the thiophenic compounds of gasoline and other fossil fuels. The immobilization process is to increase the

  17. Dancing on coke: smuggling cocaine dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Lambert, Willy E; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Risseeuw, Martijn D P; Van hee, Paul; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends suggest that cocaine smugglers have become more and more inventive to avoid seizures of large amounts of cocaine transported between countries. We report a case of a mail parcel containing a dance pad which was seized at the Customs Department of Brussels Airport, Belgium. After investigation, the inside of the dance pad was found to contain a thick polymer, which tested positive for cocaine. Analysis was performed using a routine colorimetric swipe test, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The polymer was identified as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and contained 18% cocaine, corresponding to a street value of € 20,000. Laboratory experiments showed that cocaine could be easily extracted from the PVA matrix. This case report reveals a new smuggling technique for the transportation of large amounts of cocaine from one country to another. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-linking methods have been investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. Then pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide-zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  19. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cross-linking methods were investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. The pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide - zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  20. Effect of feeding an encapsulated source of butyric acid (ButiPEARL) on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age.

    PubMed

    Levy, April Waguespack; Kessler, James W; Fuller, Lorraine; Williams, Susan; Mathis, Greg F; Lumpkins, Brett; Valdez, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the optimal level of an encapsulated butyric acid (ButiPEARL) based on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age and to investigate its effects on intestinal morphology. Experiment 1 ( EXP 1: ) consisted of 4 treatments with 12 replicate pens that contained 45 broilers, and Experiment 2 ( EXP 2: ) consisted of 6 treatments with 8 replicate pens that contained 50 broilers. Birds were weighed by pen on d 0, 21, 35, and 42. In EXP 1, the treatments were as follows: 1) control ( C: ); 2) C + 100 g ButiPEARL/ton; 3) C + 200 g ButiPEARL/ton; and 4) C + 300 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 2, the treatments were identical to EXP 1, with 2 additional treatments: 5) C + 400 g ButiPEARL/ton and 6) C + 500 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 1, two 42-d-old broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal and jejunal tissue collection. Only the samples from the broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments were analyzed for histology in EXP 1. For EXP 2, on d 21 and 35, two broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissue collection. For EXP 1 and 2, BW gain increased linearly with increasing butyric acid levels (P < 0.027 and P < 0.001, respectively). For EXP 1 and 2, feed conversion linearly improved with increasing butyric acid from 0 to 42 d (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In EXP 1, there were no differences in any intestinal morphology at 42 d between broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments. In EXP 2, there were no differences in villus height at 21 or 35 d of age with any level of butyric acid. Based on the results of this research related to BW gain and feed conversion, the recommended optimum dosage level for ButiPEARL in broilers reared to 42 d of age is up to 500 g/ton. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Treatment Results of Extracranial Malignant Germ Cell Tumor with Regimens of Cisplatin, Vinblastine, Bleomycin or Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Bleomycin with Special Emphasis on the Sites of Vagina and Testis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jen-Yin; Liu, Hsi-Che; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Sheu, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Chang, Ching-Yi; Liang, Der-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The survival of children with malignant germ cell tumor (GCT) increased over the past 2 decades with platinum-based chemotherapy. This report has three objectives: (1) comparison of PVB (cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin) with JEB (carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) regimens; (2) treatment modality of vaginal GCT; and (3) management of stage I testicular yolk sac tumor (YST) in boys under 2 years old. From January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2010, 81 patients with malignant extracranial GCT were treated. Two consecutive protocols, PVB followed by JEB, were used. Girls with vaginal YST received minimal surgery and chemotherapy. Boys under 2 years old with Stage I testicular YST received surgery with or without chemotherapy. As of June 30, 2012, the 10-year overall survival (OS) was 95 ± 3% (standard error) and the event-free survival (EFS) was 88 ± 4%. With PVB, 35 patients had 10-year OS of 91 ± 5% and EFS of 89 ± 5%. With JEB, 25 patients had 7-year OS of 96 ± 5% and EFS of 96 ± 5%. All five girls with vaginal YST were cured with vagina-preserved strategy. In 32 boys age under 2 years old with stage I YST, 16 with light chemotherapy were all in EFS, whereas two of 16 patients without chemotherapy relapsed. After PVB, six patients developed nephrotoxicity and one had pulmonary fibrosis. Girls with vaginal YST who received minimal surgery and chemotherapy had excellent prognosis and sexual organs were preservable. Light chemotherapy after surgery is a treatment option for boys under 2 years old with stage I YST to decrease relapse rate. Both JEB and PVB are effective. JEB resulted in more myelosuppression but otherwise less serious long-term toxicity than PVB. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Analgesic Choice in Management of Rib Fractures: Paravertebral Block or Epidural Analgesia?

    PubMed

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Hashmi, Ammar; Dove, James; Torres, Denise; Wild, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Rib fractures are commonly encountered in the setting of trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the clinical outcome of rib fracture and epidural analgesia (EA) versus paravertebral block (PVB) using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). Using the 2011 and 2012 versions of the NTDB, we retrieved completed records for all patients above 18 years of age who were admitted with rib fractures. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ICU LOS, mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, development of pneumonia, and development of any other complication. Clinical outcomes were first compared between propensity score-matched EA and PVB patients. Then, EA and PVB patients were combined into the procedure group and the outcomes were compared with propensity score-matched patients that received neither intervention (no-procedure group). A total of 194,766 patients were included in the study with 1073 patients having EA, 1110 patients having PVB, and 192,583 patients having neither procedure. After propensity score matching, comparison of primary and secondary outcomes between EA and PVB patients showed no difference. Comparison of propensity score-matched procedure and no-procedure patients showed prolonged LOS and more frequent ICU admissions in patients receiving a procedure (both P < .0001), yet having no procedure was associated with a significantly increased odds of mortality (odds ratio: 2.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.84; P = .002). Using the NTDB, EA and PVB were not found to be significantly different in management of rib fractures. There was an association between use of a block and improved outcome, but this could be explained by selection of healthier patients to receive a block. Prospective study of this association is recommended.

  3. Poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels at temperatures below the freezing point of water-molecular interactions and states of water.

    PubMed

    Pastorczak, Marcin; Dominguez-Espinosa, Gustavo; Okrasa, Lidia; Pyda, Marek; Kozanecki, Marcin; Kadlubowski, Slawomir; Rosiak, Janusz M; Ulanski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Water interacting with a polymer reveals a number of properties very different to bulk water. These interactions lead to the redistribution of hydrogen bonds in water. It results in modification of thermodynamic properties of water and the molecular dynamics of water. That kind of water is particularly well observable at temperatures below the freezing point of water, when the bulk water crystallizes. In this work, we determine the amount of water bound to the polymer and of the so-called pre-melting water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels with the use of Raman spectroscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, and calorimetry. This analysis allows us to compare various physical properties of the bulk and the pre-melting water. We also postulate the molecular mechanism responsible for the pre-melting of part of water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels. We suggest that above -60 °C, the first segmental motions of the polymer chain are activated, which trigger the process of the pre-melting.

  4. Enhancing Butanol Production under the Stress Environments of Co-Culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Integrated with Exogenous Butyrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Zhao, Yanli; Ding, Jian; Li, Zhigang; He, Zhenni; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation strategy integrating Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culturing system with exogenous butyrate addition, was proposed and experimentally conducted. In solventogenic phase, by adding 0.2 g-DCW/L-broth viable S. cerevisiae cells and 4.0 g/L-broth concentrated butyrate solution into C. acetobutylicum culture broth, final butanol concentration and butanol/acetone ratio in a 7 L anaerobic fermentor reached the highest levels of 15.74 g/L and 2.83 respectively, with the increments of 35% and 43% as compared with those of control. Theoretical and experimental analysis revealed that, the proposed strategy could, 1) extensively induce secretion of amino acids particularly lysine, which are favorable for both C. acetobutylicum survival and butanol synthesis under high butanol concentration environment; 2) enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and over-produce intracellular NADH for butanol synthesis in C. acetobutylicum metabolism simultaneously; 3) direct most of extra consumed glucose into butanol synthesis route. The synergetic actions of effective amino acids assimilation, high rates of substrate consumption and NADH regeneration yielded highest butanol concentration and butanol ratio in C. acetobutylicum under this stress environment. The proposed method supplies an alternative way to improve ABE fermentation performance by traditional fermentation technology. PMID:26489085

  5. Sliding of poly(vinyl chloride) on metals studied by Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1974-01-01

    The sliding of polyvinyl chloride on nickel, iron and S-Monel has been studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. Polymer was not transferred to the metals, rather shear appeared to take place at the interface. The metal was progressively chlorinated as the polymer made multiple passes on the surface. The thickness of this chlorine film was the order of one atomic layer. Electron-induced desorption studies indicate that the chlorine is chemisorbed to the metal. These results are interpreted as evidence for mechanically induced and/or thermal degradation of the polymer during sliding. Degradation products of HCl and Cl2 which chemisorb to the metal are evolved near the interface.

  6. Role of metal oxides in the thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride)

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.C.; Viswanath, S.G.

    Thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) has been studied in the presence of metal oxides by a thermogravimetric method. It follows a two-step mechanism. In the first step chlorine free radical is formed as in the case of pure PVC, and in the second step chlorine free radical replaces oxygen from metal oxide to form metal chloride and oxygen free radical. Subsequently, the oxygen free radical abstracts hydrogen from PVC. Formation of metal chloride is the rate-controlling step. The metal chlorides formed during the thermal degradation either volatilize or decompose simultaneously to lower metallic chlorides depending on the boiling point ormore » the volatilization temperature.« less

  7. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-cellulose nanofibril (CNF)-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid organic aerogels with superior mechanical properties

    Treesearch

    Qifeng Zheng; Alireza Javadi; Ronald Sabo; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–cellulose nanofibril (CNF)–multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) hybrid organic aerogels were prepared using an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process with renewable materials. The material properties of these “green” hybrid aerogels were characterized extensively using various techniques. It was found that adding a small amount of CNFs...

  8. UV-responsive polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers prepared by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Ali, Shamshad; Khatri, Imran; Mayakrishnan, Gopiraman; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2015-07-01

    We report UV-responsive polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers for potential application for recording and erasing quick response (QR) codes. We incorporate 1‧-3‧-dihydro-8-methoxy-1‧,3‧,3‧-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro [2H-1-benzopyran-2,2‧-(2H)-indole] (indole) and,3-dihydro-1,3,3-trimethylspiro [2H-indole-2,3‧-[3H] phenanthr [9,10-b] (1,4) oxazine] (oxazine) into PVA polymer matrix via electrospinning technique. The resultant nanofibers were measured for recording-erasing, photo-coloration and thermal reversibility. The rate of photo-coloration of PVA-indole nanofibers was five times higher than the PVA-oxazine nanofibers, whereas the thermal reversibility found to be more than twice as fast as PVA-oxazine nanofibers. Results showed that the resultant nanofibers have very good capability of recording QR codes multiple times. The FTIR spectroscopy and SEM were employed to characterize the electrospun nanofibers. The UV-responsive PVA nanofibers have great potentials as a light-driven nanomaterials incorporated within sensors, sensitive displays and in optical devices such as erasable and rewritable optical storage.

  9. 14 CFR 170.23 - LORAN-C establishment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ratio of the present value of the LORAN-C life-cycle benefits (PVB) to the present value of LORAN-C life-cycle costs (PVC): PVB/PVC ≥ 1.0 (c) The criteria do not cover all situations that may arise and are not... acceptable for instrument flight rules operations as a result of an airport airspace analysis conducted in...

  10. Adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) from water to a hydrophobic surface: effects of molecular weight, degree of hydrolysis, salt, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Mikhail; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2004-10-12

    The adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) from aqueous solutions to a silicon-supported fluoroalkyl monolayer is described. Thickness, wettability, and roughness of adsorbed films are studied as a function of polymer molecular weight, degree of hydrolysis (from the precursor, poly(vinyl acetate)), polymer concentration, salt type and concentration, and temperature. The data suggest a two-stage process for adsorption of the polymer: physisorption due to a hydrophobic effect (decrease in interfacial free energy) and subsequent stabilization of the adsorbed layer due to crystallization of the polymer. Adsorption of lower-molecular-weight polymers results in thicker films than those prepared with a higher molecular weight; this is ascribed to better crystallization of more mobile short chains. Higher contents of unhydrolyzed acetate groups on the poly(vinyl alcohol) chain lead to thicker adsorbed films. Residual acetate groups partition to the outermost surface of the films and determine wettability. Salts, including sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, promote adsorption, which results in thicker films; at the same time, their presence over a wide concentration range leads to formation of rough coatings. Sodium thiocyanate has little effect on PVOH adsorption, only slightly reducing the thickness in a 2 M salt solution. Increased temperature promotes adsorption in the presence of salt, but has little effect on salt-free solutions. Evidently, higher temperatures favor adsorption but cause crystallization to be less thermodynamically favorable. These competing effects result in the smoothest coatings being formed in an intermediate temperature range. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  11. Preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan/starch blends and studies on thermal and surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasalapure, Anand V.; Chalannavar, Raju K.; Malabadi, Ravindra B.

    2018-05-01

    Biopolymers are abundantly available from its natural sources of extraction. Chitosan(CH) is one of the widely used natural polymer which is perspective natural polysaccharide. Natural polymer blend with synthetic polymer enhances property of the material such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA is nontoxic degradable synthetic polymer and very good film forming polymer. In this study prepared hybrid based film by adding starch into Chitosan/PVA which slighlty increased the surface and thermal property of ternary blend film.

  12. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  13. VALIDATION OF AN EPA METHOD FOR THE ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS USING A POLYVINYL ALCOHOL GEL RESIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the key points of a joint study between the EPA and Metrohm-Peak, Inc., on the use of polyvinyl alcohol [PVA] columns for the ion chromatographic determination of percholorate in aqueous leachates or solutions of fertilizers. A series of fertilizer samples ...

  14. Synthesis and application of a novel environmental C26 diglycidyl ester plasticizer based on castor oil for poly(vinyl chloride)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, for the first time, a castor oil derived diglycidyl ester plasticizer (C26-DGE) was prepared and incorporated into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The chemical structure of the product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (...

  15. Friction loss in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Ojima, J

    1996-01-01

    In order to design proper ductwork for a local exhaust system, airflow characteristics were investigated in straight pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A linear decrease in static pressure was observed downstream at points from the opening of the VU pipes (JIS K 6741) located at distances greater than 10 times the pipe diameter, for velocities ranging between 10.18-36.91 m/s. Roughness inside pipes with small diameters was found to be 0.0042-0.0056 mm and the friction factor was calculated on the basis of Colebrook's equation for an airflow transition zone. An extended friction chart was then constructed on the basis of the roughness value and the friction factor. This chart can be applied when designing a local exhaust system with the ducts of diameters ranging from 40 to 900 mm. The friction loss of the PVC pipe was found to be approximately 2/3 of that of a galvanized steel pipe.

  16. Structural insights into enzymatic degradation of oxidized polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Ren, Feifei; Jia, Dongxu; Wang, Andrew H-J; Guo, Rey-Ting; Chen, Jian; Du, Guocheng

    2014-09-05

    The ever-increasing production and use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) threaten our environment. Yet PVA can be assimilated by microbes in two steps: oxidation and cleavage. Here we report novel α/β-hydrolase structures of oxidized PVA hydrolase (OPH) from two known PVA-degrading organisms, Sphingopyxis sp. 113P3 and Pseudomonas sp. VM15C, including complexes with substrate analogues, acetylacetone and caprylate. The active site is covered by a lid-like β-ribbon. Unlike other esterase and amidase, OPH is unique in cleaving the CC bond of β-diketone, although it has a catalytic triad similar to that of most α/β-hydrolases. Analysis of the crystal structures suggests a double-oxyanion-hole mechanism, previously only found in thiolase cleaving β-ketoacyl-CoA. Three mutations in the lid region showed enhanced activity, with potential in industrial applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Coating gigaporous polystyrene microspheres with cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel as a rapid protein chromatography matrix.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Bo; Huan, Guan-Sheng; Chen, Yan-Li; Zhou, Wei-Qing; Liu, Jian-Guo; Huang, Fang

    2014-08-13

    Gigaporous polystyrene (PS) microspheres were hydrophilized by in situ polymerization to give a stable cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel coating, which can shield proteins from the hydrophobic PS surface underneath. The amination of microspheres (PS-NH2) was first carried out through acetylization, oximation and reduction, and then 4,4'-azobis (4-cyanovaleric acid) (ACV), a polymerization initiator, was covalently immobilized on PS-NH2 through amide bond formation, and the cross-linked poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) was prepared by radical polymerization at the surfaces of ACV-immobilized PS microspheres (PS-ACV). Finally, the cross-linked PVA hydrogel coated gigaporous PS microspheres (PS-PVA) was easily achieved through alcoholysis of PVAc. Results suggested that the PS microspheres were effectively coated with cross-linked PVA hydrogel, where the gigaporrous structure remained under optimal conditions. After hydrophilic modification (PS-PVA), the protein-resistant ability of microspheres was greatly improved. The hydroxyl-rich PS-PVA surface can be easily derivatized by classical chemical methods. Performance advantages of the PS-PVA column in flow experiment include good permeability, low backpressure, and mechanical stability. These results indicated that PS-PVA should be promising in rapid protein chromatography.

  18. Simple, rapid and, cost-effective fabrication of PDMS electrophoresis microchips using poly(vinyl acetate) as photoresist master.

    PubMed

    Lobo-Júnior, Eulício O; Gabriel, Ellen F M; Dos Santos, Rodrigo A; de Souza, Fabrício R; Lopes, Wanderson D; Lima, Renato S; Gobbi, Angelo L; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2017-01-01

    This study describes a simple, rapid, and cost-effective fabrication of PDMS electrophoresis microchips using poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) emulsion as photoresist master. High-relief microfluidic structures were defined on poly(vinyl acetate) previously deposited on printed circuit boards surfaces without cleanroom facilities and sophisticated instrumentation. After a UV exposure, channels with heights ranging from 30 to 140 μm were obtained by controlling the emulsion mass deposited on the master surface. The developing stage was performed using water rather than the organic solvents that are applied for conventional masks. The surface morphology was characterized by optical imaging, profilometry, and SEM. Based on the achieved results, the proposed method offers suitable reproducibility for the prototyping of electrophoresis microchips in PDMS. The feasibility of the resulting PDMS electrophoresis chips was successfully demonstrated with the separation of major inorganic cations within 100 s using a contactless conductivity detection system. The separation efficiencies ranged from ca. 67 900 to 125 600 plates/m. Due to the satisfactory performance and simplified instrumentation, we believe this fabrication protocol presents potential to be implemented in any chemical, biochemical, or biological laboratory. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The effect of bacterial cellulose on the shape memory behavior of polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirahmadi, Pegah; Kokabi, Mehrdad

    2018-01-01

    Most research on shape memory polymers has been confined to neat polymers in their dry state, while, some hydrogel networks are known for their shape memory properties. Hydrogels have low glass transition temperatures which are below 100°C depend on the content of water. But they are usually weak and brittle, and not suitable for structural applications due to their low mechanical strengths because of these materials have large amount of water (>50%), so they could not remember original shape perfectly. Bacterial cellulose nanofibers with perfect properties such as high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, high tensile strength and good biocompatibility can dismiss all the drawbacks. In the present study, polyvinyl alcohol/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite hydrogel prepared by repetitive freezing-thawing method. The bacterial cellulose was used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties and stimuli response. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to obtain the glass transition temperature. Nanocomposite morphology was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and mechanical properties were investigated by standard tensile test. Finally, the effect of bacterial cellulose nanofiber on shape memory behavior of polyvinyl alcohol/bacterial cellulose nanocomposite hydrogel was investigated. It is found that switching temperature of this system is the glass transition temperature of the nano domains formed within the system. The results also show increase of shape recovery, and shape recovery speed due to presence of bacterial cellulose.

  20. Films prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) and amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes with increased surface hydrophobicity and high elongation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, water-soluble amylose-inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and sodium salts of lauric, palmitic, and stearic acid by steam jet cooking. Cast films were prepared by combining the amylose complexes with poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVOH) solution at ratios varying from...

  1. Photo-triggered release from liposomes without membrane solubilization, based on binding to poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety.

    PubMed

    Uda, Ryoko M; Kato, Yutaka; Takei, Michiko

    2016-10-01

    When working with liposomes analogous to cell membranes, it is important to develop substrates that can regulate interactions with the liposome surface in response to light. We achieved a photo-triggered release from liposomes by using a copolymer of poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety (PVAMG). Although PVAMG is a neutral polymer under dark conditions, it is photoionized upon exposure to UV light, resulting in the formation of a cationic site for binding to liposomes with a negatively charged surface. Under UV irradiation, PVAMG showed effective interaction with liposomes, releasing the encapsulated compound; however, this release was negligible under dark conditions. The poly(vinyl alcohol) moiety of PVAMG played an important role in the photo-triggered release. This release was caused by membrane destabilization without lipid solubilization. We also investigated different aspects of liposome/PVAMG interactions, including PVAMG-induced fusion between the liposomes and the change in the liposome morphologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic response of a lenticular microlens array using a polyvinyl chloride gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhou, Zuowei; Ren, Hongwen

    2017-12-01

    We prepared a lenticular microlens array (LMA) using a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gel and an interdigitated electrode. By applying a DC voltage to the electrode, the surface of the PVC gel can be waved with an LMA character. When the voltage is removed, the wavy PVC gel can recover its flat surface gradually. With the aid of a polarity-inverted voltage, the recovering time can be largely reduced. The LMA can present a stable dynamic response when it is repetitively impacted by a pulse voltage. The experimental results are given, and the mechanism of reducing the dynamic response time is explained. Our LMA with improved response time has potential applications in sensing, beam steering, biometrics, and displays.

  3. Electronic properties of electron-doped [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and silylmethylfullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furutani, Sho; Okada, Susumu

    2017-06-01

    Electronic properties of electron-doped chemically decorated C60 fullerenes, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and silylmethylfullerene (SIMEF), by a planar electrode were studied using density functional theory combined with the effective screening medium method to simulate the heterointerface between the chemically decorated C60 and cationic counter materials. We find that the distribution of accumulated electrons and induced electric field depend on the molecular arrangement with respect to the external electric field of the electrode. We also show that the quantum capacitance of the molecule is sensitive to molecular arrangement owing to the asymmetric distribution of the accumulated electrons.

  4. Paravertebral anaesthesia for breast surgery an initial experience at the University Hospital of the West Indies.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Sykes, A M; Chin, D E; Hambleton, I R

    2004-06-01

    Paravertebral blockade (PVB) is a regional anaesthetic technique that allows the injection of local anaesthetic agents into the paravertebral space. It has been used for acute and chronic pain relief and as an anaesthetic technique for unilateral surgery of the chest, breast, shoulder, kidney, and inguinal region. Paravertebral blockade has been performed on a limited basis for breast surgery at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) since 1998. This retrospective review was undertaken to report the initial experience with this block. We reviewed the notes of all patients who were given a PVB alone, or in combination with general anaesthesia (GA). Twenty-one patients had P VB: twenty females and one male, with age range of 24 to 90 years. Six were attempted with PVB alone, but two of these needed supplementation with a GA. Fifteen were done in combination with GA. No complications were recorded The initial experience shows that the performance of PVB is both possible and safe; it may offer an alternative to GA for breast surgery. A randomized prospective study is underway to allow a detailed comparison between the two methods.

  5. Performances of a portable electrospinning apparatus.

    PubMed

    Mouthuy, Pierre-Alexis; Groszkowski, Lukasz; Ye, Hua

    2015-05-01

    To demonstrate that portable electrospinning devices can spin a wide range of polymers into submicron fibres and provide a mesh quality comparable to those produced with benchtop machines. We have designed a small, battery-operated electrospinning apparatus which enables control over the voltage and the flow rate of the polymer solution via a microcontroller. It can be used to electrospin a range of commonly used polymers including poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(p-dioxanone), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinyl acohol) and poly(vinyl butyral). Moreover, electrospun meshes are produced with a quality comparable to a benchtop machine. We also show that the portable apparatus is able to electrospray beads and microparticles. Finally, we highlight the potential of the device for wound healing applications by demonstrating the possibility of electrospinning onto pig and human skins. Portable electrospinning devices are still at an early stage of development but they could soon become an attractive alternative to benchtop machines, in particular for uses that require mobility and a higher degree of flexibility, such as for wound healing applications.

  6. Impact behaviour of an innovative plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) for the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, C. A.; Bahlouli, N.; Wagner-Kocher, C.; Ahzi, S.; Rémond, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PPVC) is widely used in the automotive industry in the design of structural parts for crashworthiness applications. Thus, it is necessary to study and understand the influence of the mechanical response and mechanical properties of PPVC over a wide range of strain rate, from quasi-static to dynamic loadings. The process is also investigated using different sample thicknesses. In this work, the strain rate effect of a new PPVC is investigated over a wide range of strain rates at three temperatures and for three thicknesses. A modelling of the yield stress is also proposed. The numerical prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Ectopic expression of UGT84A2 delayed flowering by indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6 and ARF8 genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Li, Pan; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ectopic expression of auxin glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering through increased indole-3-butyric acid and suppressed transcription of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Auxins are critical regulators for plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is thus an important issue for plant biology. Here, we identified an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-specific glycosyltransferase, UGT84A2, and characterized its role in Arabidopsis flowering development. UGT84A2 could catalyze the glycosylation of IBA, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). UGT84A2 transcription expression was clearly induced by IBA. When ectopically expressing in Arabidopsis, UGT84A2 caused obvious delay in flowering. Correspondingly, the increase of IBA level, the down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, and the down-regulation of flowering-related genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1(SOC1), APETALA1 (AP1), and LEAFY(LFY) were observed in transgenic plants. When exogenously applying IBA to wild-type plants, the late flowering phenotype, the down-regulation of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes recurred. We examined the arf6arf8 double mutants and found that the expression of flowering-related genes was also substantially decreased in these mutants. Together, our results suggest that glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 may be involved in flowering regulation through indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6, ARF8 and downstream flowering pathway genes.

  8. Copper Doped Methylene Blue Sensitized Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Acrylamide Films for Stable Diffraction Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Beena Mary; Joseph, Rani; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.

    2006-11-01

    Copper doped methylene blue sensitized poly(vinyl alcohol) (MBPVA)-acrylamide films were fabricated to improve the storage life of recorded gratings. The films were fabricated using gravity settling method and the copper chloride concentration was optimized as 3.18× 10-3 mol/l for a dye concentration of 6.2× 10-4 mol/l. The gratings recorded on the optimized film constitution could be stored for months with stable diffraction efficiency (24%) without any chemical or thermal fixing techniques. The resolution of the material is found to be unaffected with the addition of copper chloride.

  9. Antifreeze (glyco)protein mimetic behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol): detailed structure ice recrystallization inhibition activity study.

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2013-05-13

    This manuscript reports a detailed study on the ability of poly(vinyl alcohol) to act as a biomimetic surrogate for antifreeze(glyco)proteins, with a focus on the specific property of ice-recrystallization inhibition (IRI). Despite over 40 years of study, the underlying mechanisms that govern the action of biological antifreezes are still poorly understood, which is in part due to their limited availability and challenging synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been shown to display remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity despite its major structural differences to native antifreeze proteins. Here, controlled radical polymerization is used to synthesize well-defined PVA, which has enabled us to obtain the first quantitative structure-activity relationships, to probe the role of molecular weight and comonomers on IRI activity. Crucially, it was found that IRI activity is "switched on" when the polymer chain length increases from 10 and 20 repeat units. Substitution of the polymer side chains with hydrophilic or hydrophobic units was found to diminish activity. Hydrophobic modifications to the backbone were slightly more tolerated than side chain modifications, which implies an unbroken sequence of hydroxyl units is necessary for activity. These results highlight that, although hydrophobic domains are key components of IRI activity, the random inclusion of addition hydrophobic units does not guarantee an increase in activity and that the actual polymer conformation is important.

  10. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Biao

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes.more » The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.« less

  11. Modification of polyvinyl alcohol surface properties by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhova, I. V.; Kurzina, I. A.; Savkin, K. P.; Laput, O. A.; Oks, E. M.

    2017-05-01

    We describe our investigations of the surface physicochemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified by silver, argon and carbon ion implantation to doses of 1 × 1014, 1 × 1015 and 1 × 1016 ion/cm2 and energies of 20 keV (for C and Ar) and 40 keV (for Ag). Infrared spectroscopy (IRS) indicates that destructive processes accompanied by chemical bond (sbnd Cdbnd O) generation are induced by implantation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the implanted silver is in a metallic Ag3d state without stable chemical bond formation with polymer chains. Ion implantation is found to affect the surface energy: the polar component increases while the dispersion part decreases with increasing implantation dose. Surface roughness is greater after ion implantation and the hydrophobicity increases with increasing dose, for all ion species. We find that ion implantation of Ag, Ar and C leads to a reduction in the polymer microhardness by a factor of five, while the surface electrical resistivity declines modestly.

  12. Use of sodium butyrate as an alternative to dietary fiber: effects on the embryonic development and anti-oxidative capacity of rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets--(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)--intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF.

  13. Use of Sodium Butyrate as an Alternative to Dietary Fiber: Effects on the Embryonic Development and Anti-Oxidative Capacity of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Fang, Zheng-feng; Che, Lian-qiang; Xu, Sheng-yu; Wu, De; Wu, Cai-mei; Wu, Xiu-qun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of replacing dietary fiber with sodium butyrate on reproductive performance and antioxidant defense in a high fat diet during pregnancy by using a rat model. Eighty virgin female Sprague Dawley rats were fed one of four diets—(1) control diet (C group), (2) high fat + high fiber diet (HF group), (3) high-fat +5% sodium butyrate diet (SB group), and (4) HF diet + α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHC group)—intraperitoneally on days 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 of gestation. SB and dietary fiber had similar effects on improving fetal number and reducing the abortion rate; however, the anti-oxidant capacity of maternal serum, placenta, and fetus was superior in the HF group than in the SB group. In comparison, CHC injection decreased reproductive performance and antioxidant defense. Both dietary fiber (DF) and SB supplementation had a major but different effect on the expression of anti-oxidant related genes and nutrient transporters genes. In summary, our data indicate that SB and DF showed similar effect on reproductive performance, but SB cannot completely replace the DF towards with respect to redox regulation in high-fat diet; and SB might influence offspring metabolism and health differently to DF. PMID:24852604

  14. Effects of PVA(Polyvinyl Alcohol) on Supercooling Phenomena of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Takizawa, Hiroshi

    In this paper, effects of polymer additive on supercooling of water were investigated experimentally. Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the polymer, and the samples were prepared by dissolving PVA in ultra pure water. Concentration, degree of polymerization and saponification of PVA were varied as the experimental parameters. The sample was cooled, and the temperature at the instant when ice appears was measured. Since freezing of supercooled water is statistical phenomenon, many experiments were carried out and average degrees of supercooling were obtained for each experimental condition. As the result, it was found that PVA affects nucleation of supercooling and the degree of supercooling increases by adding the PVA. Especially, it is found that the average degree of supercooling increases and the standard deviation of average degree of supercooling decreases with increase of degree of saponification of PVA. However, the average degree of supercooling are independent of the degree of polymerization of PVA in the range of this study.

  15. Amphiphilic conjunct of methyl cellulose and well-defined polyvinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Congming; Xia, Cunping

    2013-01-01

    Tailor-made conjunct of methyl cellulose (MC) and polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) was synthesized through the combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene click reaction. MC was firstly transferred into unsaturated MC (UMC), and then covalently connected with well-defined PVAc obtained by RAFT polymerization of vinyl acetate. The structure of the conjunct polymer (MCV) was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). Well-defined MCV was amphiphilic and able to self-assemble into size controllable micelles, which was verified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and size distribution analysis. It was found that the mean diameters of the micelles in aqueous solution were 105.6, 96.0 and 75.9 nm when the number average molecular weights of PVAc segments of MCV were 49,300, 32,500 and 18,200, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol-titanium dioxide composite films for photo-catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shaoqiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Song, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jianling; Yang, Haigang; Jiang, Long; Dan, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol-titanium dioxide (PPy/PVA-TiO2) composite films used as photo-catalysts were fabricated by combining TiO2 sol with PPy/PVA solution in which PPy was synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole (Py) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and loaded on glass. The prepared photo-catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and photoluminescence (PL). The results indicate that the composites have same crystal structure as the TiO2 and extend the optic absorption from UV region to visible light region. By detecting the variation ratio, detected by ultraviolet-vis spectroscopy, of model pollutant rhodamine B (RhB) solution in the presence of the composite films under both UV and visible light irradiation, the photo-catalytic performance of the composite films was investigated. The results show that the PPy/PVA-TiO2 composite films show better photo-catalytic properties than TiO2 film both under UV and visible light irradiation, and the photo-catalytic degradation of RhB follows the first-order kinetics. The effects of the composition of composite films and the concentration of RhB on the photo-catalytic performance, as well as the possible photo-catalytic mechanism, were also discussed. By photo-catalytic recycle experiments, the structure stability of the PPy/PVA-TiO2 composite film was investigated and the results show that the photo-catalytic activity under both UV and visible light irradiation have no significant decrease after four times of recycle experiments, suggesting that the photo-catalyst film is stable during the photo-catalytic process, which was also confirmed by the XRD pattern and FT-IR spectra of the composite film before and after photo-catalytic.

  17. Optical properties of conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenylC61-butyric acid methyl ester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lioudakis, Emmanouil; Othonos, Andreas; Alexandrou, Ioannis; Hayashi, Yasuhiko

    2007-10-01

    In this work, we present the evolution of optical constants as a function of [6,6]-phenylC61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) concentration for conjugated poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenylC61-butyric acid methyl ester composites. The PCBM concentration of the utilized samples varies from 1to50wt%. The dielectric functions for all these composites reveal electronic structural changes as a result of the addition of PCBM. We have deconvoluted the contribution of the substrate using a two-layer Fabry-Pérot structural model. The extracted optical properties contain crucial absorption peaks of singlet exciton states and vibronic sidebands for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) conjugated polymer as well as two PCBM-related states at higher energies. With the addition of PCBM, we have observed a limit of 20wt% PCBM beyond which two discrete energy levels (3.64 and 4.67eV) appear in the spectrum. For the highest concentration composite, the results suggest that the interchain interactions provide a small excitonic contribution in the absorption spectrum at energies where the conjugated polymer absorbs (1.85-2.7eV) and a strong rise of PCBM states (3.64 and 4.67eV) which are responsible for the subsequent exciton dissociation. In addition, the energy gap between the higher occupied molecular orbitals and the lower unoccupied molecular orbitals of the highest concentration composite (50wt%) is 1.85eV. The tuning of the optical properties of P3HT with the addition of PCBM shows that ellipsometry can be used to monitor layer concentration toward optimization of plastic solar cells.

  18. Beneficial effect of butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and L-carnitine combination in preference to each in experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Moeinian, Mahsa; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Mozaffari, Shilan; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Baeeri, Maryam; Navaea-Nigjeh, Mona; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the beneficial effect of the combination of butyrate, Lactobacillus casei, and L-carnitine in a rat colitis model. METHODS: Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral butyrate, L-carnitine, Lactobacillus casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups included negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic, histopathological examinations, and biomarkers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interlukin-1β (IL-1β), myeloperoxidase (MPO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and ferric reduced ability of plasma (FRAP) were determined in the colon. RESULTS: The combination therapy exhibited a significant beneficial effect in alleviation of colitis compared to controls. Overall changes in reduction of TNF-α (114.66 ± 18.26 vs 171.78 ± 9.48 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05), IL-1β (24.9 ± 1.07 vs 33.06 ± 2.16 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05), TBARS (0.2 ± 0.03 vs 0.49 ± 0.04 μg/mg protein, P < 0.01), MPO (15.32 ± 0.4 vs 27.24 ± 3.84 U/mg protein, P < 0.05), and elevation of FRAP (23.46 ± 1.2 vs 15.02 ± 2.37 μmol/L, P < 0.05) support the preference of the combination therapy in comparison to controls. Although the monotherapies were also effective in improvement of colitis markers, the combination therapy was much better in improvement of colon oxidative stress markers including FRAP, TBARS, and MPO. CONCLUSION: The present combination is a suitable mixture in control of experimental colitis and should be trialed in the clinical setting. PMID:25152589

  19. Sodium Butyrate Improves Locomotor Impairment and Early Mortality in a Rotenone-Induced Drosophila Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Robyn; O’Brien, Liam M.; Ahmad, S. Tariq

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting the dopaminergic neurons in the nigrastriatal pathway resulting in debilitating motor impairment in both familial and sporadic cases. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been recently implicated as a therapeutic candidate because of their ability to correct the disrupted HDAC activity in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Sodium butyrate (SB), an HDAC inhibitor, reduces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in a mutant alpha-synuclein Drosophila transgenic model of familial PD. Chronic exposure to the pesticide rotenone also causes selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and causes locomotor impairment and early mortality in a Drosophila model of chemically-induced PD. This study investigated the effects of sodium butyrate on locomotor impairment and early mortality in a rotenone-induced PD model. We show that treatment with 10 mM SB-supplemented food rescued the rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality in flies. Additionally, flies with the genetic knockdown of HDAC activity through Sin3A loss-of-function mutation (Sin3Alof) were resistant to rotenone-induced locomotor impairment and early mortality. Furthermore, SB-supplemented Sin3Alof flies had a modest additive effect for improving locomotor impairment. We also show SB-mediated improvement of rotenone-induced locomotor impairment was associated with elevated dopamine levels in the brain. However, the possibility of SB-mediated protective role through mechanisms independent from dopamine system is also discussed. These findings demonstrate that HDAC inhibitors like SB can ameliorate locomotor impairment in a rotenone-induced PD model. PMID:23623990

  20. Mixture of Arginine, Glutamine, and β-hydroxy-β-methyl Butyrate Enhances the Healing of Ischemic Wounds in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gündoğdu, Rıza Haldun; Temel, Hande; Bozkırlı, Bahadır Osman; Ersoy, Eren; Yazgan, Aylin; Yıldırım, Zuhal

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of an amino acid mixture containing arginine, glutamine, and β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate on secondary healing of ischemic wounds in a rat model (N = 18). After the formation of a bipediculated flap on each rat, 2 full-thickness excisional skin wounds (2 × 2 cm) were created on every flap. The rats were then randomized into the control and treatment groups. Every rat received standardized rat food throughout the study. The rats in the treatment group were administered an extra 200 mg/kg of L-arginine, 200 mg/kg of L-glutamine, and 40 mg/kg of β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate per day. Wound sizes were measured on days 0, 4, 10, and 14. The rats were sacrificed, and the wounds were excised for biochemical and histologic examination on the 14th day. As compared with the control group, the treatment group's wound sizes were significantly smaller on days 10 and 14 ( P < .001), as was its inflammatory cell accumulation score ( P = .008). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in collagen accumulation ( P = .340), granulation tissue maturation ( P = .161), angiogenesis ( P = .387), or reepithelialization ( P = .190) and no significant difference between hydroxyproline concentrations in wounds ( P = .287). This amino acid combination seems to have a positive impact on the secondary healing of experimental ischemic wounds when introduced as a supplement to the standard diet, and the reduction in the inflammatory process appears to play a role in this effect.