Science.gov

Sample records for polyvinylidene fluoride effect

  1. Effects of configurational changes on molecular dynamics in polyvinylidene fluoride and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jalarvo, N. E-mail: abhijit.pramanick@gmail.com; Pramanick, A. E-mail: abhijit.pramanick@gmail.com; Do, C.; Diallo, S. O. E-mail: abhijit.pramanick@gmail.com

    2015-08-24

    We present a comparative study of proton dynamics in unpoled non-ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and in its trifluoroethylene containing ferroelectric copolymer (with 70/30 molar proportion), using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The neutron data reveal the existence of two distinct types of molecular motions in the temperature range investigated. The slower motion, which is characterized in details here, is ascribed to protons jump diffusion along the polymeric carbon chains, while the faster motion could be attributed to localized rotational motion of methylene groups. At temperatures below the Curie point (T{sub c} ∼ 385 K) of the composite polymer, the slower diffusive mode experiences longer relaxation times in the ferroelectric blend than in the bare PVDF, although the net corresponding diffusion coefficient remains comparatively the same in both polymers with characteristic activation energy of E{sub A} ≈ 27–33 kJ/mol. This arises because of a temperature dependent jump length r{sub 0}, which we observe to be effectively longer in the copolymer, possibly due to the formation of ordered ferroelectric domains below T{sub c}. Above T{sub c}, there is no appreciable difference in r{sub 0} between the two systems. This observation directly relates the known dependence of T{sub c} on molar ratio to changes in r{sub 0}, providing fundamental insight into the ferroelectric properties of PVDF-based copolymers.

  2. Effects of configurational changes on molecular dynamics in polyvinylidene fluoride and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Jalarvo, N.; Pramanick, A.; Do, C.; Diallo, S. O.

    2015-08-28

    Here, we present a comparative study of proton dynamics in unpoled non-ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and in its trifluoroethylene containing ferroelectric copolymer (with 70/30 molar proportion), using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The neutron data reveal the existence of two distinct types of molecular motions in the temperature range investigated. Moreover, the slower motion, which is characterized in details here, is ascribed to protons jump diffusion along the polymeric carbon chains, while the faster motion could be attributed to localized rotational motion of methylene groups. At temperatures below the Curie point (T-c similar to 385 K) of the composite polymer, the slower diffusive mode experiences longer relaxation times in the ferroelectric blend than in the bare PVDF, although the net corresponding diffusion coefficient remains comparatively the same in both polymers with characteristic activation energy of E-A approximate to 27-33 kJ/mol. This arises because of a temperature dependent jump length r(0), which we observe to be effectively longer in the copolymer, possibly due to the formation of ordered ferroelectric domains below Tc. Above Tc, there is no appreciable difference in r(0) between the two systems. Our observation directly relates the known dependence of Tc on molar ratio to changes in r(0), providing fundamental insight into the ferroelectric properties of PVDF-based copolymers.

  3. Effects of configurational changes on molecular dynamics in polyvinylidene fluoride and poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) ferroelectric polymers

    DOE PAGES

    Jalarvo, N.; Pramanick, A.; Do, C.; ...

    2015-08-28

    Here, we present a comparative study of proton dynamics in unpoled non-ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and in its trifluoroethylene containing ferroelectric copolymer (with 70/30 molar proportion), using quasi-elastic neutron scattering. The neutron data reveal the existence of two distinct types of molecular motions in the temperature range investigated. Moreover, the slower motion, which is characterized in details here, is ascribed to protons jump diffusion along the polymeric carbon chains, while the faster motion could be attributed to localized rotational motion of methylene groups. At temperatures below the Curie point (T-c similar to 385 K) of the composite polymer, themore » slower diffusive mode experiences longer relaxation times in the ferroelectric blend than in the bare PVDF, although the net corresponding diffusion coefficient remains comparatively the same in both polymers with characteristic activation energy of E-A approximate to 27-33 kJ/mol. This arises because of a temperature dependent jump length r(0), which we observe to be effectively longer in the copolymer, possibly due to the formation of ordered ferroelectric domains below Tc. Above Tc, there is no appreciable difference in r(0) between the two systems. Our observation directly relates the known dependence of Tc on molar ratio to changes in r(0), providing fundamental insight into the ferroelectric properties of PVDF-based copolymers.« less

  4. Microcratering in Polyvinylidene Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Anthony John

    Dust is defined as macroparticles as small as a few molecules up to several micrometers in diameter. In the context of space exploration, it was originally seen only as a technical obstacle to applications; dust can damage instrument surfaces, coat mating surfaces preventing proper seals, and impair or obstruct measurements. Because of the ubiquity of dust in the solar system and its role in the origin of planets and other bodies, the study of dust and related phenomena has evolved to a scientific subdiscipline which can provide us insight into the origins and evolution of our solar system. In order to facilitate this, a hypervelocity dust accelerator has been built at the University of Colorado at Boulder and is being used to probe impact phenomena, dust mitigation techniques, dust detection techniques, and more. One such dust detector is a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) dust detector. The PVDF dust detector is very lightweight and consumes little power. Due to these properties, PVDF detectors can potentially be used on any spacecraft to gain information on the local dust environment. It is not fully understood how this PVDF dust detector signal is generated, so at present can only be used as a dust counter. In this thesis I discuss the importance of the study of dust phenomena, describe the accelerator experiment, and describe a study conducted to determine the underlying physical principles of PVDF dust detectors. This included measuring crater size scaling laws, measuring the detailed shape of craters, and applying this data to simulations of the signals being generated by PVDF detectors.

  5. Enhancing the magnetoelectric response of Metglas/polyvinylidene fluoride laminates by exploiting the flux concentration effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Z.; Lu, S. G.; Li, F.; Datta, S.; Zhang, Q. M.; El Tahchi, M.

    2009-09-01

    Magnetic flux concentration effect of Metglas as a function of its sheet aspect ratio was investigated for Metglas/polyvinylidene fluoride laminates. Taking advantage of this effect, the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of 21.46 V/cm•Oe for a laminate with 1 mm wide and 30 mm long Metglas sheet (25 μm thick) is achieved, which is much higher than those reported earlier in similar laminates without making use of the flux concentration effect. The results demonstrate an effective means to significantly enhance the sensitivity of magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite laminates as weak magnetic field sensors.

  6. In-plane anisotropic converse magnetoelectric coupling effect in FeGa/polyvinylidene fluoride heterostructure films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Yang, Huali; Liu, Yiwei; Li, Run-Wei

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect in the Fe81Ga19/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) heterostructure films. A weak in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in the as-deposited magnetostrictive FeGa films. When a positive (negative) electric field is applied on the ferroelectric PVDF substrates, both the coercivity and the squareness of magnetic hysteresis loops of FeGa films for the magnetic field parallel to the easy axis become larger (smaller), but for the magnetic field parallel to the hard axis the coercivity and the remanence get smaller (larger), indicating an anisotropic CME effect in FeGa/PVDF heterostructure films.

  7. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used... fluoride resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b)...

  8. Effects of substrate on piezoelectricity of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride)-nanofiber-based energy generators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Park, Boongik; Yang, Ho-Sung; Han, Jin Woo; Choong, Chweelin; Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Kihwan; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Jeong, Unyong; Chung, U-In; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Ohyun

    2014-03-12

    We report the effects of various substrates and substrate thicknesses on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-nanofiber-based energy harvesters. The electrospun PVDF nanofibers showed an average diameter of 84.6 ± 23.5 nm. A high relative β-phase fraction (85.2%) was achieved by applying high voltage during electrospinning. The prepared PVDF nanofibers thus generated considerable piezoelectric potential in accordance with the sound-driven mechanical vibrations of the substrates. Slide glass, poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly(ethylene naphthalate), and paper substrates were used to investigate the effects of the intrinsic and extrinsic substrate properties on the piezoelectricity of the energy harvesters. The thinnest paper substrate (66 μm) with a moderate Young's modulus showed the highest voltage output (0.4885 V). We used high-performance 76, 66, and 33 μm thick papers to determine the effect of paper thickness on the output voltage. The thinnest paper substrate resulted in the highest voltage output (0.7781 V), and the numerical analyses of the sound-driven mechanical deformation strongly support the hypothesis that substrate thickness has a considerable effect on piezoelectric performance.

  9. Effect of annealing process on the phase formation in poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Ibtisam Yahya; Yahaya, Muhammad; Jumali, Mohd Hafizuddin Haji; Shanshool, Haider Mohammed

    2014-09-03

    This work reports the initial study on the effect of annealing process on the crystalline phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin film. PVDF powder was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide before spin-coated onto a glass substrate to form a film. The films were annealed at 30°C, 90°C and 110°C for 5 hrs. The crystalline phase of the powder PVDF as received was investigated by using XRD and FTIR techniques. Moreover, the crystalline phases of thin films after annealing were investigated by using the same techniques. XRD analysis showed that in powder form PVDF exists in α-phase. Each annealed PVDF thin films exhibited identical formation of three-phases material namely γ (as major phase) while α and β phases as the minor phases. The FTIR analysis showed that the powder form of PVDF exists in α and β phases. FTIR measurement further confirmed the XRD results implying that the annealing process has no significant effect on the phase formation in PVDF films.

  10. Electrical behavior and positive temperature coefficient effect of graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride composites containing silver nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composites filled with in situ thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRG) and silver nanowire (AgNW) were prepared using solution mixing followed by coagulation and thermal hot pressing. Binary TRG/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited small percolation threshold of 0.12 vol % and low electrical conductivity of approximately 10-7 S/cm. Hybridization of TRGs with AgNWs led to a significant improvement in electrical conductivity due to their synergistic effect in conductivity. The bulk conductivity of hybrids was higher than a combined total conductivity of TRG/PVDF and AgNW/PVDF composites at the same filler loading. Furthermore, the resistivity of hybrid composites increased with increasing temperature, giving rise to a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect at the melting temperature of PVDF. The 0.04 vol % TRG/1 vol % AgNW/PVDF hybrid exhibited pronounced PTC behavior, rendering this composite an attractive material for making current limiting devices and temperature sensors. PMID:25114661

  11. Effect of thermal deformation on giant magnetoresistance of flexible spin valves grown on polyvinylidene fluoride membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luping, Liu; Qingfeng, Zhan; Xin, Rong; Huali, Yang; Yali, Xie; Xiaohua, Tan; Run-wei, Li

    2016-07-01

    We fabricated flexible spin valves on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes and investigated the influence of thermal deformation of substrates on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) behaviors. The large magnetostrictive Fe81Ga19 (FeGa) alloy and the low magnetostrictive Fe19Ni81 (FeNi) alloy were selected as the free and pinned ferromagnetic layers. In addition, the exchange bias (EB) of the pinned layer was set along the different thermal deformation axes α 31 or α 32 of PVDF. The GMR ratio of the reference spin valves grown on Si intrinsically increases with lowering temperature due to an enhancement of spontaneous magnetization. For flexible spin valves, when decreasing temperature, the anisotropic thermal deformation of PVDF produces a uniaxial anisotropy along the α 32 direction, which changes the distribution of magnetic domains. As a result, the GMR ratio at low temperature for spin valves with EB∥ α 32 becomes close to that on Si, but for spin valves with EB∥ α 31 is far away from that on Si. This thermal effect on GMR behaviors is more significant when using magnetostrictive FeGa as the free layer. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374312, 51401230, 51522105, and 51471101) and the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team, China (Grant No. 2015B11001).

  12. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiaolong; Wu, Chunrui

    2013-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites. PMID:24957064

  13. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  16. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  17. Effects of organic solvent and solution temperature on electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai; Kim, Han-Ki; Kimura, Naotaka; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Satou, Hidekazu; Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Young-Hwan; Kim, Ick-Soo

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoethylene) (PVDF) electrospun fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning. Processing parameters, such as solvents and solution temperature were varied to study their influence on fiber dimensions. Electrospun PVDF fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result indicated that the solvent component and temperature have great influence on fiber dimensions. 19% PVDF dissolved in DMF/MEK mixed solvents with the ratio of 8:2 was considered to be most suitable in this study. Furthermore, the increasing of solution temperature can probably induce the formation of beta-phases in electrospun PVDF Fibers.

  18. Polarization effects and phase equilibria in high-energy-density polyvinylidene-fluoride-based polymers.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, V; Yu, L; Nakhmanson, Serge; Bernholc, Jerry; Nardelli, M Buongiorno

    2010-09-01

    Using first-principles calculations, the phase diagrams of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers under an applied electric field are studied and phase transitions between their nonpolar alpha and polar beta phases are discussed. The results show that the degree of copolymerization is a crucial parameter controlling the structural phase transition. In particular, for tetrafluoroethylene (TeFE) concentration above 12%, PVDF-TeFE is stabilized in the beta phase, whereas the alpha phase is stable for lower concentrations. As larger electric fields are applied, domains with smaller concentrations (< or = 12%) undergo a transition from the alpha to the beta phase until a breakdown field of approximately 600 MV m(-1) is reached. These structural phase transitions can be exploited for efficient storage of electrical energy.

  19. Molecular modeling of the piezoelectric effect in the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF).

    PubMed

    Bystrov, Vladimir S; Paramonova, Ekaterina V; Bdikin, Igor K; Bystrova, Anna V; Pullar, Robert C; Kholkin, Andrei L

    2013-09-01

    In this work, computational molecular modeling and exploration was applied to study the nature of the negative piezoelectric effect in the ferroelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and the results confirmed by actual nanoscale measurements. First principle calculations were employed, using various quantum-chemical methods (QM), including semi-empirical (PM3) and various density functional theory (DFT) approaches, and in addition combined with molecular mechanics (MM) methods in complex joint approaches (QM/MM). Both PVDF molecular chains and a unit cell of crystalline β-phase PVDF were modeled. This computational molecular exploration clearly shows that the nature of the so-called negative piezo-electric effect in the ferroelectric PVDF polymer has a self-consistent quantum nature, and is related to the redistribution of the electron molecular orbitals (wave functions), leading to the shifting of atomic nuclei and reorganization of all total charges to the new, energetically optimal positions, under an applied electrical field. Molecular modeling and first principles calculations show that the piezoelectric coefficient d 33 has a negative sign, and its average values lies in the range of d 33 ~ -16.6 to -19.2 pC/N (or pm/V) (for dielectric permittivity ε = 5) and in the range of d 33 ~ -33.5 to -38.5 pC/N (or pm/V) (for ε = 10), corresponding to known data, and allowing us to explain the reasons for the negative sign of the piezo-response. We found that when a field is applied perpendicular to the PVDF chain length, as polarization increases the chain also stretches, increasing its length and reducing its height. For computed value of ε ~ 5 we obtained a value of d31 ~ +15.5 pC/N with a positive sign. This computational study is corroborated by measured nanoscale data obtained by atomic force and piezo-response force microscopy (AFM/PFM). This study could be useful as a basis for further insights into other organic and molecular ferroelectrics.

  20. Electrospinning induced ferroelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers.

    PubMed

    Baji, Avinash; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Li, Qian; Liu, Yun

    2011-08-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers with diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm are produced by electrospinning and the effect of fiber size on the ferroelectric β-crystalline phase is determined. Domain switching and associated ferro-/piezo-electric properties of the electrospun PVDF fibers were also determined. The fibers showed well-defined ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties.

  1. Electrospinning induced ferroelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baji, Avinash; Mai, Yiu-Wing; Li, Qian; Liu, Yun

    2011-08-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers with diameters ranging from 70 to 400 nm are produced by electrospinning and the effect of fiber size on the ferroelectric β-crystalline phase is determined. Domain switching and associated ferro-/piezo-electric properties of the electrospun PVDF fibers were also determined. The fibers showed well-defined ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties.

  2. Effect of polyvinylidene fluoride electrospun fiber orientation on neural stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lins, Luanda C; Wianny, Florence; Livi, Sebastien; Dehay, Colette; Duchet-Rumeau, Jannick; Gérard, Jean-François

    2016-08-29

    Electrospun polymer piezoelectric fibers can be used in neural tissue engineering (NTE) to mimic the physical, biological, and material properties of the native extracellular matrix. In this work, we have developed scaffolds based on polymer fiber architectures for application in NTE. To study the role of such three-dimensional scaffolds, a rotating drum collector was used for electrospinning poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) polymer at various rotation speeds. The morphology, orientation, polymorphism, as well as the mechanical behavior of the nonaligned and aligned fiber-based architectures were characterized. We have demonstrated that the jet flow and the electrostatic forces generated by electrospinning of PVDF induced local conformation changes which promote the generation of the β-phase. Fiber anisotropy could be a critical feature for the design of suitable scaffolds for NTEs. We thus assessed the impact of PVDF fiber alignment on the behavior of monkey neural stem cells (NSCs). NSCs were seeded on nonaligned and aligned scaffolds and their morphology, adhesion, and differentiation capacities into the neuronal and glial pathways were studied using microscopic techniques. Significant changes in the growth and differentiation capacities of NSCs into neuronal and glial cells as a function of the fiber alignment were evidenced. These results demonstrate that PVDF scaffolds may serve as instructive scaffolds for NSC survival and differentiation, and may be valuable tools for the development of cell- and scaffold-based strategies for neural repair. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  3. Polymorphism Control of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianfen; He, Aihua; Li, Junxing; Han, Charles C.

    2008-03-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is well-known for its polymorphism, and can exhibit five different polymorphs depending on its processing conditions. The α-phase is the most common and stable polymorph and the β-phase is the most important one due to its piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. Polymorphism control of PVDF has been realized through electrospinning. PVDF fibrous membranes with fiber diameter in the range of 100 nm to several micrometers were produced by electrospinning and the crystal phase of electrospun PVDF fibers can be adjusted at the same time. Through the control of electrospinning parameters such as the solvent and electrospinning temperature, PVDF fibrous membranes containing mainly α- or β- or γ-phase could be fabricated successfully.

  4. Fabrication and testing of polyvinylidene fluoride capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buritz, R. S.

    1980-06-01

    High energy density capacitors made from metallized polyvinylidene fluoride film were built and tested. Terminations of aluminum-babbitt, tin-babbitt, and all-babbitt were evaluated. All-babbit terminations appeared to be better. The 0.1 microfarad and 2 microfarad capacitors were made of 6 micrometer material. Capacitance, dissipation factor, and insulation resistance measurements were made over the ranges -55 C to 125 C and 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Twelve of forty-one 0.1 microfarad capacitors survived a 5000 hour dc plus ac life test. Under the same conditions, the 2 microfarad capacitors exhibited overheating because of excessive power loss. Some failures occurred after low temperature exposures for 48 hours. No failures were caused by vibration or temperature cycling.

  5. Fabrication and Testing of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buritz, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    High energy density capacitors made from metallized polyvinylidene fluoride film were built and tested. Terminations of aluminum-babbitt, tin-babbitt, and all-babbitt were evaluated. All-babbit terminations appeared to be better. The 0.1 microfarad and 2 microfarad capacitors were made of 6 micrometer material. Capacitance, dissipation factor, and insulation resistance measurements were made over the ranges -55 C to 125 C and 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Twelve of forty-one 0.1 microfarad capacitors survived a 5000 hour dc plus ac life test. Under the same conditions, the 2 microfarad capacitors exhibited overheating because of excessive power loss. Some failures occurred after low temperature exposures for 48 hours. No failures were caused by vibration or temperature cycling.

  6. Effect of a room-temperature ionic liquid on the structure and properties of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chenyang; Guan, Jipeng; Li, Yongjin; Li, Jingye

    2014-03-26

    Novel anti-static nanofibers based on blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], were fabricated using an electrospinning approach. The effects of the RTIL on the morphology, crystal structure, and physical properties of the PVDF nanofibers were investigated. Incorporation of RTIL leads to an increase in the mean fiber diameter and the rough fiber surface of the PVDF/RTIL composite nanofibers compared with the neat PVDF nanofibers. The PVDF in the PVDF/RTIL nanofibers exhibits an extremely high content (almost 100%) of β crystals, in contrast to the dominance of PVDF γ crystals in bulk melt-blended PVDF/RTIL blends. Nonwoven fabrics produced from the electrospun PVDF/RTIL composite nanofibers show better stretchability and higher electrical conductivity than those made from neat PVDF without RTIL, and are thus excellent antielectrostatic fibrous materials. In addition, RTIL greatly improved the hydrophobicity of the PVDF fibers, enabling them to effectively separate a mixture of tetrachloromethane (CCl4) and water. The extremely high β content, excellent antielectrostatic properties, better stretchability, and hydrophobicity of the present PVDF/RTIL nanofibers make them a promising candidate for micro- and nanoscale electronic device applications.

  7. Elastocaloric effect in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) terpolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yukihiro; Yuse, Kaori; Guyomar, Daniel; Capsal, Jean-Fabien; Sebald, Gael

    2016-06-01

    The elastocaloric properties of poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] terpolymer were directly characterized using an infrared imaging camera. At a strain of 12%, a reversible adiabatic temperature variation of 2.15 °C was measured, corresponding to an isothermal entropy variation of 21.5 kJ m-3 K-1 or 11 J kg-1 K-1. In comparison with other elastocaloric materials, P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) appears to represent a trade-off between the large required stresses in shape memory alloys and the large required strains in natural rubber. The internal energy of the P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) polymer was found to be independent of the strain, resulting in complete conversion of the mechanical work into heat, as for pure elastomeric materials. The elastocaloric effect therefore originates from a pure entropic elasticity, which is likely to be related to the amorphous phase of the polymer only.

  8. Effects of polarization of polar semiconductor on electrical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)/ZnO heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Takeshi Fujimura, Norifumi

    2015-06-21

    The electrical properties of heterostructures composed of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) and ZnO with different crystallographic polarities, i.e., O- and Zn-polar ZnO, were investigated. Distinct differences in the capacitance-voltage and polarization-voltage characteristics between the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO were obtained in the depletion regions of ZnO. The band configurations were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) using a synchrotron radiation beam to analyze the differences in the electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/O- and Zn-polar ZnO. The XPS spectra indicated that the valence band maximum of P(VDF-TrFE) is 2.9 and 2.7 eV higher than Zn- and O-polar ZnO, respectively. Thus, both structures have staggered band configurations with large valence band offsets, and the spontaneous polarization of ZnO is less effective on the band lineup. The electrical properties of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO heterostructures are modulated through carrier generation because of the polarization-mediated interface charges and the staggered band alignments of the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZnO with a large valence band offset.

  9. Effects of CO2 activation on electrochemical performance of microporous carbons derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we have prepared microporous carbons (MPCs) derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the physical activation of MPCs using CO2 gas is subsequently carried out with various activation temperatures to investigate the electrochemical performance. PVDF is successfully converted into MPCs with a high specific surface area and well-developed micropores. After CO2 activation, the specific surface areas of MPCs (CA-MPCs) are enhanced by 12% compared with non-activated MPCs. With increasing activation temperature, the micropore size distributions of A-MPCs also become narrower and shift to larger pore size. It is also confirmed that the CO2 activation had developed the micropores and introduced the oxygen-containing groups to MPCs‧ surfaces. From the results, the specific capacitances of the electrodes in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on CA-MPCs are distinctly improved through CO2 activation. The highest specific capacitance of the A-MPCs activated at 700 °C is about 125 F/g, an enhancement of 74% in comparison with NA-MPCs, at a discharge current of 2 A/g in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. We also found that micropore size of 0.67 nm has a specific impact on the capacitance behaviors, besides the specific surface area of the electrode samples.

  10. Some Unusual Rheological Responses of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-Co-Hexafluoropropylene) Solutions in Dimethyl Acetamide and Their Effects on the Electrospinning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jae Sik; Lee, Ki Hyun; Kim, Byoung Chul

    2008-07-01

    The rheological properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) in dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) were investigated to obtain preliminary data for electrospinning. Intrinsic viscosity data suggested that solubility of PVDF-HFP was reduced with increasing temperature. Over the temperature range of 30 to 70 °C, the dynamic viscosity of the concentrated solutions was increased with increasing temperature and Bingham behavior became more noticed. In addition, increase of temperature and concentration of the solutions increased yield stress and relaxation time. Although the dynamic viscosity was increased with increasing temperature, electrospinning temperature had little effects on the resultant fiber morphology on the condition that other spinning conditions were identical.

  11. Synergistic effects of zirconia-coated carbon nanotube on crystalline structure of polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites: electrical properties and flame-retardant behavior.

    PubMed

    Pal, Kaushik; Kang, Dong Jin; Zhang, Zhen Xiu; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2010-03-02

    Pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and zirconia-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ZrO(2)/MWNTs) by isothermal hydrolysis and the traditional chemical precipitation method have been dispersed into polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) copolymer by solution mixing in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The effect of ZrO(2)-coated MWNTs on morphological properties, electrical properties, and flame-retardant behavior has been studied in comparison with virgin PVDF and PVDF/MWNTs nanocomposites. Due to the improved dispersion of the coated nanotubes, the incorporation of 3 wt % of ZrO(2)-coated MWNTs leads to an increase of the thermal stability and dielectric properties and a decrease of the peak heat-release rate.

  12. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Mesh.

    PubMed

    Godazandeh, Gholamali; Mortazian, Meysam

    2012-10-01

    We report the cases of two patients diagnosed with Morgagni hernia who presented with nonspecific abdominal symptoms. Both underwent laparoscopic surgery that used a dual-sided mesh, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF; Dynamesh IPOM®). The procedures were successful and both patients were discharged with no complications. There was no recurrence in 18 months of follow up.Herein is the report of these cases and a literature review.

  13. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Mesh

    PubMed Central

    Godazandeh, Gholamali; Mortazian, Meysam

    2012-01-01

    We report the cases of two patients diagnosed with Morgagni hernia who presented with nonspecific abdominal symptoms. Both underwent laparoscopic surgery that used a dual-sided mesh, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF; Dynamesh IPOM®). The procedures were successful and both patients were discharged with no complications. There was no recurrence in 18 months of follow up.Herein is the report of these cases and a literature review. PMID:24829663

  14. Effects of CO{sub 2} activation on electrochemical performance of microporous carbons derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seul-Yi; Park, Soo-Jin

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we have prepared microporous carbons (MPCs) derived from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the physical activation of MPCs using CO{sub 2} gas is subsequently carried out with various activation temperatures to investigate the electrochemical performance. PVDF is successfully converted into MPCs with a high specific surface area and well-developed micropores. After CO{sub 2} activation, the specific surface areas of MPCs (CA-MPCs) are enhanced by 12% compared with non-activated MPCs. With increasing activation temperature, the micropore size distributions of A-MPCs also become narrower and shift to larger pore size. It is also confirmed that the CO{sub 2} activation had developed the micropores and introduced the oxygen-containing groups to MPCs′ surfaces. From the results, the specific capacitances of the electrodes in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on CA-MPCs are distinctly improved through CO{sub 2} activation. The highest specific capacitance of the A-MPCs activated at 700 °C is about 125 F/g, an enhancement of 74% in comparison with NA-MPCs, at a discharge current of 2 A/g in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. We also found that micropore size of 0.67 nm has a specific impact on the capacitance behaviors, besides the specific surface area of the electrode samples. - Graphical abstract: The A-MPC samples with high specific surface area (ranging from 1030 to 1082 m{sup 2}/g), corresponding to micropore sizes of 0.67 and 0.72 nm, and with the amount of oxygen-containing groups ranging from 3.2% to 4.4% have been evaluated as electrodes for EDLC applications. . Display Omitted - Highlights: • Microporous carbons (MPCs) were synthesized without activation process. • Next, we carried out the CO{sub 2} activation of MPCs with activation temperatures. • It had developed the micropores and introduced the O-functional groups to MPCs. • The highest specific capacitance: 125 F/g, an increase of 74% compared to MPCs.

  15. A biomimetic tactile sensing system based on polyvinylidene fluoride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yi; Tian, Hongying; Guo, Chao; Li, Xiang; Sun, Hongshuai; Wang, Peiyuan; Qian, Chenghui; Wang, Shuhong; Wang, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film has been widely investigated as a sensing material due to its outstanding properties such as biocompatibility, high thermal stability, good chemical resistance, high piezo-, pyro- and ferro-electric properties. This paper reports on the design, test, and analysis of a biomimetic tactile sensor based on PVDF film. This sensor consists of a PVDF film with aluminum electrodes, a pair of insulating layers, and a "handprint" friction layer with a copper foil. It is designed for easy fabrication and high reliability in outputting signals. In bionics, the fingerprint of the glabrous skin plays an important role during object handling. Therefore, in order to enhance friction and to provide better manipulation, the ridges of the fingertips were introduced into the design of the proposed tactile sensor. And, a basic experimental study on the selection of the high sensitivity fingerprint type for the biomimetic sensor was performed. In addition, we proposed a texture distinguish experiment to verify the sensor sensitivity. The experiment's results show that the novel biomimetic sensor is effective in discriminating object surface characteristics. Furthermore, an efficient visual application program (LabVIEW) and a quantitative evaluation method were proposed for the verification of the biomimetic sensor. The proposed tactile sensor shows great potential for contact force and slip measurements.

  16. Resistance switching in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Pramod, K.; Sahu, Binaya Kumar; Gangineni, R. B.

    2015-06-24

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PDVF), one of the best electrically active polymer material & an interesting candidate to address the electrical control of its functional properties like ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity etc. In the current work, with the help of spin coater and DC magnetron sputtering techniques, semi-crystallized PVDF thin films prominent in alpha phase is prepared in capacitor like structure and their electrical characterization is emphasized. In current-voltage (I-V) and resistance-voltage (R-V) measurements, clear nonlinearity and resistance switching has been observed for films prepared using 7 wt% 2-butanone and 7 wt% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents.

  17. Electrospinning of Polyvinylidene Fluoride and Polyetherimide From Mixed Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgret, Leslie D.; Pawlowski, Kristin J.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride and Ultem(TradeMark) polyetherimide were dissolved in 50/50 acetone/N,N dimethylformamide (DMF) and 80/20 tetrahydrofuran/DMF, respectively, and electrospun. Polymer solution concentrations and molecular weights were changed while other spinning parameters (voltage, distance, solution feed rate) were held constant. Fiber diameters in the resulting electrospun mats varied from 0.25 to 4.4 microns, increasing with polymer concentration and molecular weight; trends in diameter were compared with trends in viscosities and surface tensions of the spinning solutions.

  18. Cooperative effect of electrospinning and nanoclay on formation of polar crystalline phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Liao; Li, Ying; Xu, Jun-Ting; Fan, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-06-01

    Poly(vinylidene difluoride)/organically modified montmorillonite (PVDF/OMMT) composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning the solution of PVDF/OMMT precursor in DMF. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that in the bulk of the PVDF/OMMT precursor OMMT platelets are homogeneously dispersed in PVDF and can be both intercalated and exfoliated. It is found that the diameter of the PVDF/OMMT composite nanofibers is smaller than that of the neat PVDF fibers because the lower viscosity of PVDF/OMMT solution, which is attributed to the possible adsorption of PVDF chains on OMMT layers and thus reduction in number of entanglement. The crystal structure of the composite nanofibers was investigated using WAXD and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and compared with that of thin film samples. The results show that the nonpolar alpha phase is completely absent in the electrospun PVDF/OMMT composite nanofibers, whereas it is still present in the neat PVDF electrospun fibers and in the thin films of PVDF/OMMT nanocomposites. The cooperative effect between electrospinning and nanoclay on formation of polar beta and gamma crystalline phases in PVDF is discussed. The IR result reveals that electrospinning induces formation of long trans conformation, whereas OMMT platelets can retard relaxation of PVDF chains and stabilize such conformation due to the possible interaction between the PVDF chains and OMMT layers. This cooperative effect leads to extinction of nonpolar alpha phase and enhances the polar beta and gamma phases in the electrospun PVDF/OMMT composite nanofibers.

  19. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane with highly effective blood compatibility via atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung; Chang, Wan-Ju; Shih, Yu-Ju; Wei, Ta-Chin; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Development of nonfouling membranes to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications. It is always a challenge to control the surface graft copolymerization of a highly polar monomer from the highly hydrophobic surface of a fluoropolymer membrane. In this work, the blood compatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with surface-grafted electrically neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), from atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization, was studied. The effect of surface composition and graft morphology, electrical neutrality, hydrophilicity and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Blood compatibility of the zwitterionic PVDF membranes was systematically evaluated by plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, plasma-clotting time, and blood cell hemolysis. It was found that the nonfouling nature and hydration capability of grafted PSBMA polymers can be effectively controlled by regulating the grafting coverage and charge balance of the PSBMA layer on the PVDF membrane surface. Even a slight charge bias in the grafted zwitterionic PSBMA layer can induce electrostatic interactions between proteins and the membrane surfaces, leading to surface protein adsorption, platelet activation, plasma clotting and blood cell hemolysis. Thus, the optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and the best antifouling, anticoagulant, and antihemolytic activities when comes into contact with human blood.

  20. Low-voltage operation of Si-based ferroelectric field effect transistors using organic ferroelectrics, poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), as a gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-04-01

    Si-based metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) capacitors have been fabricated using poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as a ferroelectric gate. The pinhole-free P(VDF-TrFE) thin films with high resistivity were able to be prepared by spin-coating directly onto hydrogen-terminated Si. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the ferroelectric gate field effect transistor (FeFET) using this MFS structure clearly show butterfly-shaped hysteresis originating from the ferroelectricity, indicating carrier modulation on the Si surface at gate voltages below 2 V. The drain current-gate voltage (I D-V G) characteristics also show counterclockwise hysteresis at gate voltages below 5 V. This is the first report on the low-voltage operation of a Si-based FeFET using P(VDF-TrFE) as a gate dielectric. This organic gate FeFET without any insulator layer at the ferroelectric/Si interface should be one of the promising devices for overcoming the critical issues of the FeFET, such as depolarization field and a decrease in the gate voltage.

  1. Polymorphism Behaviors of Electrospun Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhenxin; Reneker, Darrell

    2009-03-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers have drawn great attention in recent years due to their attractive electrical properties such as ferro-, piezo- and pyro-electricity. Depending on its processing, PVDF can exhibit five different polymorphs. Among them, the beta phase has the highest piezo-, pyro- and ferroelectric activities. Electrospinning was used to produce thin polymer fibers. The polymorphic behavior of electrospun PVDF fibers was observed. Long cylindrical PVDF specimens with cross-sections in the range of 10 nm to 1 micron was obtained by varying the electrospinning conditions. Almost pure beta phase was obtained in electrospun PVDF nanofibers. The morphology and internal structure of single PVDF electrospun nanofibers were studied by transmission electron microscopy.

  2. Polyvinylidene fluoride dust detector response to particle impacts.

    PubMed

    James, D; Hoxie, V; Horanyi, M

    2010-03-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detectors have flown on many space missions since their first use on the Vega 1 and 2 spacecraft. The fundamental operating principle of these detectors is the production of a charge upon impact by a hypervelocity dust particle. This measured signal, N, depends on the speed, v, and mass, m, of the particle. The relationship between N, v, and m was first empirically derived by Simpson and Tuzzolino. All of the PVDF dust instruments prior to the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission use their formula for the calibration of the detectors. This paper provides additional dust impact calibration data, proposes a modification in the exponents for m and v, and investigates the relationship between detector temperature and detector signal.

  3. Minimization of protein adsorption on poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Ademovic, Z; Klee, D; Kingshott, P; Kaufmann, R; Höcker, H

    2002-08-01

    Surfaces covered with polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been shown to be biocompatible because PEG yields nonimmunogenicity, nonantigenicity and protein rejection. To produce a biocompatible surface coating, we have developed a method for grafting PEG onto modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) films. The first step was to create carboxy groups on the PVDF surface following covalente coupling of polyethylenimine (PEI) to achieve high density of amino groups. These surface amines were reacted with formyl-terminated PEG's with various molecular weight. The modified PVDF surface was characterized by means of static contact angle measurements, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of the chain length on lysozyme repellence was investigated by means of surface-MALDI-Tof mass spectrometry (Surface-MALDI-Tof-MS). Lysozyme adsorption was significantly suppressed on the PEG 5000 modified PVDF surface.

  4. Research on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow-fiber hemodialyzer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Lihua; Liu, Juanjuan; Wu, Chunfeng

    2016-06-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow-fiber hemodialysis membranes were prepared by non-solvent-induced phase separation. The PVDF hollow-fiber hemodialyzers were prepared by centrifugal casting. The results showed that the PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation properties when the membrane wall thickness was 40 μm and the N,N-dimethylacetamide in the core was 70 Vol%. Compared with commercial polysulfone hemodialysis membrane (Fresenius F60S membrane), the PVDF membrane had better mechanical property and ultrafiltration (UF) flux of pure water. The PVDF dialyzer's removal efficiency for middle molecules was proven to be much higher than that of the F60S dialyzer. The UF coefficient of a high-flux PVDF dialyzer is 62.6 ml/h/mm Hg, whereas F60S is 42.5 ml/h/mm Hg, which can promote clearance for middle molecules.

  5. Preparation of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Hollow Fiber Hemodialysis Membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Lihua

    2014-02-27

    In this study, the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS). The influences of PVDF membrane thickness and polyethylene glycol (PEG) content on membrane morphologies, pore size, mechanical and permeable performance were investigated. It was found that membrane thickness and PEG content affected both the structure and performance of hollow fiber membranes. The tensile strength and rejection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) increased with increasing membrane thickness, while the Ultrafiltration flux (UF) flux of pure water was the opposite. The tensile strength, porosity and rejection of BSA increased with increasing PEG content within a certain range. Compared with commercial F60S membrane, the PVDF hollow fiber membrane showed higher mechanical and permeable performance. It was proven that PVDF material had better hydrophilicity and lower BSA adsorption, which was more suitable for hemodialysis. All the results indicate that PVDF hollow fiber membrane is promising as a hemodialysis membrane.

  6. Adaptive optics instrumentation in submillimeter/terahertz spectroscopy with a flexible polyvinylidene fluoride cladding hollow waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Takehiko; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Kojou, Jun-Ichiro; Ikari, Tomofumi; Ishikawa, Yoh-Ichi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Kudoh, Akito; Nishizawa, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2007-08-01

    A simple instrument has been developed to carry out temperature dependent submillimeter/terahertz-wave spectroscopy using a polyvinylidene fluoride flexible hollow waveguide and an eggplant-shape launching lens.

  7. Electro-Spun Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Nanofiber Web as Separator for Lithium Ion Batteries: Effect of Pore Structure and Thickness.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Gyu; Jo, Hye-Dam; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hee-Tak; Chang, Duck-Rye

    2016-01-01

    Electro-spun nanofiber web is highly attractive as a separator for lithium ion batteries because of its high electrical properties. In moving toward wider battery applications of the nanofiber separators, a deeper understanding on the structure and property relationship is highly meaningful. In this regard, we prepared electro-spun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) webs with various thicknesses (10.5~100 µm) and investigated their structures and electrochemical performances. As the thickness of the web is decreased, a decrease of porosity and an increase of pore size are resulted in. For the 10.5 µm-thick separator, a minor short-circuit was detected, stressing the importance of reducing pore-size on prevention of short-circuit. However, above the thickness of 21 µm, well-connected, submicron-sized pores are generated, and, with lowering the separator thickness, discharge capacity and rate capability are enhanced owing to the lowered area-specific resistance.

  8. Measurement of flexoelectric response in polyvinylidene fluoride films for piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Gi-Woo

    2017-02-01

    This study presents an investigation on the measurement of flexoelectric response in β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films attached on cantilever beam-based flexible piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs). The flexoelectric response associated with negative strain gradients was simulated through harmonic response analysis by using the finite element method (FEM). The polarization frequency response functions (FRFs) modified by direct flexoelectric effect of PVDF films was experimentally validated by multi-mode FRFs. From quantitative comparisons between experimental observations and simulated estimation of FRFs, it is demonstrated that the direct flexoelectric response can be observed in PVDF films attached on PVEHs.

  9. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/zinc oxide smart composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öğüt, Erdem; Yördem, O. Sinan; Menceloğlu, Yusuf Z.; Papila, Melih

    2007-04-01

    This work aimed at fabrication and electromechanical characterization of a smart material system composed of electroactive polymer and ceramic materials. The idea of composite material system is on account of complementary characteristics of the polymer and ceramic for flexibility and piezoelectric activity. Our preliminary work included Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) as the flexible piezoelectric polymer, and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as the piezoelectric ceramic brittle, but capable to respond strains without poling. Two alternative processes were investigated. The first process makes use of ZnO fibrous formation achieved by sintering PVA/zinc acetate precursor fibers via electrospinning. Highly brittle fibrous ZnO mat was dipped into a PVDF polymer solution and then pressed to form pellets. The second process employed commercial ZnO nanopowder material. The powder was mixed into a PVDF/acetone polymer solution, and the resultant paste was pressed to form pellets. The free standing composite pellets with electrodes on the top and bottom surfaces were then subjected to sinusoidal electric excitation and response was recorded using a fotonic sensor. An earlier work on electrospun PVDF fiber mats was also summarized here and the electromechanical characterization is reported.

  10. Preparation of anticoagulant polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Yang, Shichun; Zhang, Qingzhao; Zhao, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    In this study, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were modified by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chitosan. The influences of PVA and chitosan amount on PVDF membrane mechanical and separation performance were investigated. The results showed that the modified PVDF membranes had better mechanical and separation performance when the amount of PVA and chitosan was 20 mg/m2. At the same time, the biocompatibility of PVDF membranes was also investigated. Compared with virgin PVDF membranes, the modified PVDF membranes showed better anticoagulation, hydrophilicity, less bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, and lower hemolytic ratio. The anticoagulation behavior of modified PVDF membranes coating with PVA had been obviously improved. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the modified PVDF membrane are 44.8 s and 72.5 s while the PT and APTT of virgin PVDF membrane are 15.6 s and 37.3 s. The advancing water contact angle (WCA) and BSA adsorption of the modified PVDF membrane coating with PVA are 24° and 23 mg/m2 while virgin PVDF membrane is 52° and 49 mg/m2. However, further biocompatibility evaluation is needed to obtain a more comprehensive conclusion.

  11. The Effect of Chain Structures on the Crystallization Behavior and Membrane Formation of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenzhong; Yuan, Haoge; Wang, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    The crystallization behaviors of two copolymers of PVDF were studied, and the effect of copolymerized chains on the crystallization behavior was investigated. The results indicated that both copolymers had a lowered crystallization temperature and crystallinity. The crystallization rate was improved by the copolymer with symmetrical units in PVDF chains, but hindered by asymmetrical units, compared with the neat PVDF. The symmetrical units in PVDF chains favored the β-crystals with fiber-like structures. According to the solubility parameter rule, methyl salicylate (MS) can be chosen as a diluent for PVDF copolymers. Both diluted systems had liquid-liquid (L-L) regions in the phase diagrams, which was due to the lowered crystallization temperature. PMID:24957175

  12. Cratering studies in Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Anthony; Bugiel, Sebastian; Grün, Eberhard; Hillier, Jon; Horányi, Mihály; Munsat, Tobin; Srama, Ralf

    2013-12-01

    Thin, permanently polarized Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) films have been used as dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2 to comet 1P/Halley, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission to Saturn, the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons to Pluto, the Dust Flux Monitor Instrument (DFMI) on the Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2, the Space Dust (SPADUS) instrument on the Earth orbiting Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) and the Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE) on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission in orbit around the Earth. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The operation principle behind metal-coated PVDF detectors is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer, exposing the permanently polarized PVDF dielectric underneath. This changes the local electric potential near the crater, and the surface charge of the metal layer, which can be recorded as a transient current. The dimensions of the crater determine the strength of the potential change and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. Currently used scaling laws relating impactor parameters to crater geometry, which are used to predict PVDF response, are suspected to have systematic errors. Work is being undertaken to develop a new crater diameter scaling law using iron particles in PVDF. Cratered samples are analyzed using a 3D reconstruction technique using stereo image pairs taken in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and cross sections taken in a Focused Ion Beam (FIB). We report on the details of the reconstruction techniques and the initial findings of the crater parameter scaling law study.

  13. High energy density and breakdown strength from β and γ phases in poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-bromotrifluoroethylene) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Gadinski, Matthew R; Han, Kuo; Li, Qi; Zhang, Guangzu; Reainthippayasakul, Wuttiichai; Wang, Qing

    2014-11-12

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF-based copolymers represent the state of the art dielectric polymers for high energy density capacitors. Past work on these copolymers has been done with limited emphasis on the effects of copolymer composition and with a limited range of defect monomers, focusing primarily on the commercially available poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-chlorotrifluoroethylene), P(VDF-CTFE), and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene), P(VDF-HFP), and the processing thereof. To expand on this area of research, copolymers of VDF and bromotrifluoroethylene (BTFE) were synthesized examining the composition range where uniaxial stretching was possible. It is found that P(VDF-BTFE) copolymers with small BTFE contents (< 2 mol %) stabilize the γ phase, compared to P(VDF-CTFE)s and P(VDF-HFP)s that are largely α phase in composition. Furthermore, different from P(VDF-CTFE)s and P(VDF-HFP)s, whose energy storage capabilities depend on the reversibility of the α to β phases transformation, high discharged energy densities (i.e., 20.8 J/cm(3) at 716 MV/m) are also achievable through the β and γ phases in P(VDF-BTFE)s without significantly reducing crystallinity and breakdown strength. This study demonstrates new avenues to the development of high energy density ferroelectric copolymers via manipulation of the γ phase through variation of the structure and content of comonomers.

  14. A Basic Experimental Study for Imaging by Monopolar Pulse Radiated from Concave Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooyashiki, Atsuko; Yoshida, Yasuo; Inoue, Hiroshi; Murata, Kenji

    2004-05-01

    Monopolar C-mode imaging using a concaved polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducer was developed. The basic characteristics of the spreading of the ultrasound field are measured and discussed with respect to the imaging, along with the spatial resolution, and the C-mode image of a printed circuit board (PCB) surface.

  15. Synthesis and properties of polyvinylidene fluoride high-temperature treatment products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhivulin, V. E.; Zherebtsov, D. A.; Lebedeva, S. M.; Shtenberg, M. V.; Osipov, A. A.; Pesin, L. A.

    2017-02-01

    Simultaneous thermal, gravimetric and mass spectrometric analyses made it possible to reveal considerable differences in fluorine desorption and changes in weight of filmy samples of original and partly chemically dehydrofluorinated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) under an increase in temperature up to 800°C in argon flow. To determine the thermal treatment effect on the final material's properties, the PVDF film was heated in a backing vacuum (0.5 Torr) up to 600°C with 40-minute isothermal exposure at a maximum temperature. Raman scattering spectroscopy was applied to compare molecular structures of the final products obtained by the high-temperature treatment of all samples and to prove their similarity. The spectrum of the chemically dehydrofluorinated sample, not subjected to a thermal effect, was characterized by a weak band in the region of 2000-2200 cm-1, characteristic of the carbyne-like structures dominated by a polyyne type.

  16. Buffer layer investigations on MFIS capacitors consisting of ferroelectric poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henkel, K.; Seime, B.; Paloumpa, I.; Müller, K.; Schmeißer, D.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we present capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements on metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) capacitors with poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene] (P[VDF/TrFE] as ferroelectric layer and SiO2, Al2O3 and HfO2 as buffering insulator layer. In order to discuss our data in a quantitative manner we perform fits to the data based on a model proposed by Miller and McWorther. The improvement of the polarization values and subsequently its effect on the hysteresis of the CV curve by the successive shrinking of the buffer layer thickness and the following choice of a high-k buffer material is demonstrated. Our data underline that a saturated polarization of P[VDF/TrFE] cannot be controlled with a SiO2 buffer layer and the insertion of a high-k buffer layer is essential for further improvements of the characteristics of MFIS stacks.

  17. Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride-cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Weishan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shengqi; Li, Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting GPEs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge-discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10-3 S cm-1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

  18. Electrically conductive polyaniline-coated electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlini, Claudia; Barra, Guilherme; Ramoa, Sílvia; Contri, Giseli; Almeida, Rosemeire; D´Ávila, Marcos; Soares, Bluma

    2015-02-01

    Electrically conductive polyaniline (PANI)-coated electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) mats were fabricated through aniline (ANI) oxidative polymerization on electrospun PVDF mats. The effect of polymerization condition on structure and property of PVDF/PANI mats was investigated. The electrical conductivity and PANI content enhanced significantly with increasing ANI concentration due to the formation of a conducting polymer layer that completely coated the PVDF fibers surface. The PANI deposition on the PVDF fibers surface increased the Young Modulus and the elongation at break reduced significantly. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) revealed that the electrospun PVDF and PVDF/PANI mats display a polymorph crystalline structure, with absorption bands associated to the β, α and γ phases.

  19. Polydiacetylene-coated polyvinylidene fluoride strip aptasensor for colorimetric detection of zinc(II).

    PubMed

    Wen, Jessica T; Bohorquez, Karen; Tsutsui, Hideaki

    2016-09-01

    We report a new polydiacetylene (PDA) sensor strip for simple visual detection of zinc ions in aqueous solution. The specificity of this sensor comes from Zn(2+) DNA aptamer probes conjugated onto PDA. Effects of aptamer length and structure on the sensitivity of PDA's color transition were first investigated. PDA conjugated with the optimal aptamer sequence was then coated onto a strip of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane and photopolymerized by UV exposure. The newly developed sensor successfully exhibited a blue-to-red chromatic change in a semi-quantitative manner in response to zinc ions. No discernable change was observed in solutions containing other common ions. Advantages of this sensor include its ease of fabrication, high specificity, and equipment-free detection, all of which are desirable for in-field applications and use in resource-limited settings.

  20. Microporous gel electrolytes based on amphiphilic poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shicheng; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang; Tong, Yongfen

    2012-03-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) grafted poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PVDF-HFP-g-PPEGMA) is simply prepared by single-step synthesis directly via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) from poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Thermal, mechanical, swelling and electrochemical properties, as well as microstructures of the prepared polymer electrolytes, are evaluated and the effects of the various contents and average molecular weights of PEGMA on those properties are also been investigated. By phase inversion technique, the copolymer membranes tend to form well-defined microporous morphology with the increase of content and average molecular weight of PEGMA, due to the competition and cooperation between the hydrophilic PEGMA segments and hydrophobic PVDF-HFP. When these membranes are gelled with 1 M LiCF3SO3 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) (1:1, v/v), their saturated electrolyte uptakes (up to 323.5%) and ion conductivities (up to 2.01 × 10-3 S cm-1) are dramatically improved with respect to the pristine PVDF-HFP, ascribing to the strong affinity of the hydrophilic PEGMA segments with the electrolytes. All the polymer electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.7 V versus Li/Li+, and show good mechanical properties. Coin cells based on the polymer electrolytes show stable charge-discharge cycles and deliver discharge capacities to LiFePO4 is up to 156 mAh g-1.

  1. Piezoelectricity and pyroelectricity in polyvinylidene fluoride - Influence of the lattice structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Taylor, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric responses of beta-phase (Phase I) polyvinylidene fluoride are predicted for a model system of polarizable point dipoles. The model incorporates the influence of the orthorhombic crystal structure by including the dependence of the internal electric field on the lattice parameters. Strong anisotropy in the piezoelectric response under uniaxial stress is predicted as a consequence of the orthorhombic lattice structure. Predictions are found to be in reasonable agreement with room-temperature experimental data.

  2. A solution for stripping antibodies from polyvinylidene fluoride immunoblots for multiple reprobing.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E Richard

    2009-06-01

    Available protocols for stripping antibodies from immunoblots involve the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or low-pH buffers. SDS was shown to remove transferred proteins from membranes, and low-pH buffer was shown to inefficiently strip off antibodies. A solution containing 6M guanidine hydrochloride, 0.2% nondenaturing detergent, and a reducing agent can rapidly strip off tightly bound antibodies from aged polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) immunoblots at room temperature without removing significant amounts of transferred protein.

  3. Stable Drop Formation and Deposition Control in Ink Jet Printing of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Nathaniel; Yang, Xin; Sun, Ying; Complex Fluids and Multiphase Transport Lab-Drexel University Team

    2013-11-01

    Using inkjet printing as an additive fabrication method is an enabling technology for low-cost, high-throughput production of flexible electronics and photonics. Polymeric materials, such as Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), are widely used as dielectric materials for microelectronics, batteries, among others. However, due to its large molecular weight and incompatibility with moisture in air, the stable drop formation of PVDF solution is quite challenging. In this study, we examine the effects of solute concentration, nozzle back pressure, ejection waveform, and ambient moisture on the formation of PVDF droplets. The deposition dynamics of inkjet-printed PVDF solutions are then examined as a function of the solvent concentration. Bi-solvents of different surface tensions and vapor pressures are used to induce Marangoni flows in order to suppress the coffee-ring effect. The deposition of a single droplet and the interactions between multiple drops are examined for a better control of the deposition uniformity. Printing of lines and patterns with reduced instability is also discussed.

  4. Preparation of antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes via different coating methods using a zwitterionic copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the fouling resistance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) [poly(MPC-co-BMA)] was coated on a membrane and into its pores from an aqueous solution using two different methods, the immersion and flow-through methods. The effects of poly(MPC-co-BMA) coating on the water flux, surface morphology, and fouling propensity of three types of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with molecular-weight cutoffs ranging from 50 to 250 kDa were investigated. The fouling resistances of modified membranes to bovine serum albumin were compared to those of the unmodified membranes. The evaluation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the modified membranes confirmed that poly(MPC-co-BMA) was coated on the membrane surfaces. Although both modification methods effectively prevented protein fouling, the flow-through coating method demonstrated a better antifouling propensity. The coated copolymer stability results indicated that the coated copolymer layer on the membrane surface using both coating methods was quite stable even after ultrasonic treatment.

  5. Flexible carbon nanofiber/polyvinylidene fluoride composite membranes as interlayers in high-performance Lithiumsbnd Sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yuxiang; Yue, Xinyang; Hao, Xiaoming; Sun, Wang; Rooney, David; Sun, Kening

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally polyvinylidene fluoride membranes have been used in applications such as membrane distillation, wastewater treatment, desalination and separator fabrication. Within this work we demonstrate that a novel carbon nanofiber/polyvinylidene fluoride (CNF/PVDF) composite membrane can be used as an interlayer for Lithiumsbnd Sulfur (Lisbnd S) batteries yielding both high capacity and long cycling life. This PVDF membrane is shown to effectively separate dissolved lithium polysulfide with the high electronic conductivity CNF not only reducing the internal resistance in the sulfur cathode but also helping immobilize the polysulfide through its abundant nanospaces. The resulting Lisbnd S battery assembled with the CNF/PVDF composite membrane effectively solves the polysulfide permeation problem and exhibits excellent electrochemical performance. It is further shown that the CNF/PVDF electrode has an excellent cycling stability and retains a capacity of 768.6 mAh g-1 with a coulombic efficiency above 99% over 200 cycles at 0.5C, which is more than twice that of a cell without CNF/PVDF (374 mAh g-1). In addition, the low-cost raw materials and the simple preparation process of CNF/PVDF composite membrane is also amenable for industrial production.

  6. Synthesis and Application of Ferroelectric Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-co-Trifluoroethylene) Films using Electrophoretic Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jeongjae; No, Kwangsoo; Kim, Yeontae; Park, Eugene; Hong, Seungbum

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the deposition kinetics of polyvinylidene fluoride copolymerized with trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) particles on stainless steel substrates during the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The effect of applied voltage and deposition time on the structure and ferroelectric property of the P(VDF-TrFE) films was studied in detail. A method of repeated EPD and heat treatment above melting point were employed to fabricate crack-free P(VDF-TrFE) thick films. This method enabled us to fabricate P(VDF-TrFE) films with variable thicknesses. The morphology of the obtained films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the formation of β-phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. P(VDF-TrFE) films prepared with various thicknesses showed remnant polarization (Pr) of around 4 μC/cm2. To demonstrate the applicability of our processing recipe to complex structures, we fabricated a spring-type energy harvester by depositing P(VDF-TrFE) films on stainless steel springs using EPD process. Our preliminary results show that an electrophoretic deposition can be applied to produce high-quality P(VDF-TrFE) films on planar as well as three-dimensional (3-D) substrates.

  7. Synthesis and Application of Ferroelectric Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-co-Trifluoroethylene) Films using Electrophoretic Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jeongjae; No, Kwangsoo; Kim, Yeontae; Park, Eugene; Hong, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the deposition kinetics of polyvinylidene fluoride copolymerized with trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) particles on stainless steel substrates during the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The effect of applied voltage and deposition time on the structure and ferroelectric property of the P(VDF-TrFE) films was studied in detail. A method of repeated EPD and heat treatment above melting point were employed to fabricate crack-free P(VDF-TrFE) thick films. This method enabled us to fabricate P(VDF-TrFE) films with variable thicknesses. The morphology of the obtained films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the formation of β-phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. P(VDF-TrFE) films prepared with various thicknesses showed remnant polarization (Pr) of around 4 μC/cm2. To demonstrate the applicability of our processing recipe to complex structures, we fabricated a spring-type energy harvester by depositing P(VDF-TrFE) films on stainless steel springs using EPD process. Our preliminary results show that an electrophoretic deposition can be applied to produce high-quality P(VDF-TrFE) films on planar as well as three-dimensional (3-D) substrates. PMID:27805008

  8. Nanofiltration membranes based on polyvinylidene fluoride nanofibrous scaffolds and crosslinked polyethyleneimine networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seong-Jik; Cheedrala, Ravi Kumar; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Kim, Changmin; Kim, In S.; Goddard, William A.

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of new and ion-selective nanofiltration (NF) membranes using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers and hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) as building blocks. These new nanofibrous composite (NFC) membranes consist of crosslinked hyperbranched PEI networks supported by PVDF nanofibrous scaffolds that are electrospun onto commercial PVDF microfiltration (MF) membranes. A major objective of our study was to fabricate positively charged NF membranes that can be operated at low pressure with high water flux and improved rejection for monovalent cations. To achieve this, we investigated the effects of crosslinker chemistry on membrane properties (morphology, composition, hydrophobicity, and zeta potential) and membrane performance (salt rejection and permeate flux) in aqueous solutions (2,000 mg/L) of four salts (NaCl, MgCl2, Na2SO4, and MgSO4) at pH 4, 6, and 8. We found that an NFC-PVDF membrane with a network of PEI macromolecules crosslinked with trimesoyl chloride has a high water flux ( 30 L m-2 h-1) and high rejections for MgCl2 ( 88 %) and NaCl ( 65 %) at pH 6 using a pressure of 7 bar. The overall results of our study suggest that PVDF nanofibers and hyperbranched PEI are promising building blocks for the fabrication of high performance NF membranes for water purification.

  9. Preparation of polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiber membrane and its antibacterial characteristics with nanosilver or graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Hong, Byungpyo; Jung, Hyemin; Byun, Hongsik

    2013-09-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) (Kynar 761) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning at an external voltage of 6-10 kV, a traveling distance of 7-15 cm and flow rate of 0.4-1 ml/hr. Although the diameter of the fiber was not significantly changed, the electrospinning conditions affected the overall distribution of diameter. This is probably due to the interactions, both attraction and repulsion, of positive charges on polymer solutions and the electrically grounded collector. Especially, the effect of voltage on the distribution of diameter was investigated in this study. The final PVdF nanofiber membrane showed narrow pore-size distribution and high water flux compared with the commercial MF membrane. PVdF nanofiber membranes incorporated nanosilver or graphene oxide were also prepared as nanosilver and graphene have an antibacterial activity. It was found that more than 200 ppm of silver nanoparticles in the PVdF nanofiber had 99.9% of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia. It was also found that 0.2 wt% of graphene oxide in the PVdF electrospinning solution had 99.6% of disinfection property to E-Coli.

  10. Electret Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanofibers Hybridized by Polytetrafluoroethylene Nanoparticles for High-Efficiency Air Filtration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Zhao, Xinglei; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2016-09-14

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a severe environmental concern calling for electret fibrous materials with high filtration efficiency and low pressure drop. However, restraining the dissipation of the electric charges in service to ensure the stabilized electrostatic force of the fibers for effectively adsorbing particles is extremely important and also challenging. Herein, we report novel electret nanofibrous membranes with numerous charges and desirable charge stability using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the matrix polymer and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles (PTFE NPs) as an inspiring charge enhancer through the in situ charging technology of electrospinning. Benefiting from the employment of PTFE NPs and optimized injection energy, the fibrous membranes are endowed with elevated surface potentials from 0.42 to 3.63 kV and reduced decrement of charges from 75.4 to 17.5%, which contribute to the ameliorative stability of filtration efficiency. Significantly, an electret mechanism is proposed, while deepened depth of the energy level and incremental polarized dipole charges with increasing PTFE NP concentrations and injection energy have been confirmed through the measurement of open-circuit thermally stimulated discharge and surface potential decay. Ultimately, the resultant fibrous membrane exhibited a high filtration efficiency of 99.972%, a low pressure drop of 57 Pa, a satisfactory quality factor of 0.14 Pa(-1), and superior long-term service performance. The successful fabrication of such an intriguing material may provide a new approach for the design and development of electret materials for PM2.5 governance.

  11. Synthesis and Application of Ferroelectric Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride-co-Trifluoroethylene) Films using Electrophoretic Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jeongjae; No, Kwangsoo; Kim, Yeontae; Park, Eugene; Hong, Seungbum

    2016-11-02

    In this study, we investigated the deposition kinetics of polyvinylidene fluoride copolymerized with trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) particles on stainless steel substrates during the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The effect of applied voltage and deposition time on the structure and ferroelectric property of the P(VDF-TrFE) films was studied in detail. A method of repeated EPD and heat treatment above melting point were employed to fabricate crack-free P(VDF-TrFE) thick films. This method enabled us to fabricate P(VDF-TrFE) films with variable thicknesses. The morphology of the obtained films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the formation of β-phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. P(VDF-TrFE) films prepared with various thicknesses showed remnant polarization (Pr) of around 4 μC/cm(2). To demonstrate the applicability of our processing recipe to complex structures, we fabricated a spring-type energy harvester by depositing P(VDF-TrFE) films on stainless steel springs using EPD process. Our preliminary results show that an electrophoretic deposition can be applied to produce high-quality P(VDF-TrFE) films on planar as well as three-dimensional (3-D) substrates.

  12. Spontaneous high piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanoribbons produced by iterative thermal size reduction technique.

    PubMed

    Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2014-09-23

    We produced kilometer-long, endlessly parallel, spontaneously piezoelectric and thermally stable poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro- and nanoribbons using iterative size reduction technique based on thermal fiber drawing. Because of high stress and temperature used in thermal drawing process, we obtained spontaneously polar γ phase PVDF micro- and nanoribbons without electrical poling process. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, we observed that PVDF micro- and nanoribbons are thermally stable and conserve the polar γ phase even after being exposed to heat treatment above the melting point of PVDF. Phase transition mechanism is investigated and explained using ab initio calculations. We measured an average effective piezoelectric constant as -58.5 pm/V from a single PVDF nanoribbon using a piezo evaluation system along with an atomic force microscope. PVDF nanoribbons are promising structures for constructing devices such as highly efficient energy generators, large area pressure sensors, artificial muscle and skin, due to the unique geometry and extended lengths, high polar phase content, high thermal stability and high piezoelectric coefficient. We demonstrated two proof of principle devices for energy harvesting and sensing applications with a 60 V open circuit peak voltage and 10 μA peak short-circuit current output.

  13. Inorganic nanotubes reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride composites as low-cost electromagnetic interference shielding materials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Novel polymer nanocomposites comprising of MnO2 nanotubes (MNTs), functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were synthesized. Homogeneous distribution of f-MWCNTs and MNTs in PVDF matrix were confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Electrical conductivity measurements were performed on these polymer composites using four probe technique. The addition of 2 wt.% of MNTs (2 wt.%, f-MWCNTs) to PVDF matrix results in an increase in the electrical conductivity from 10-16S/m to 4.5 × 10-5S/m (3.2 × 10-1S/m). Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) was measured with vector network analyzer using waveguide sample holder in X-band frequency range. EMI SE of approximately 20 dB has been obtained with the addition of 5 wt.% MNTs-1 wt.% f-MWCNTs to PVDF in comparison with EMI SE of approximately 18 dB for 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs indicating the potential use of the present MNT/f-MWCNT/PVDF composite as low-cost EMI shielding materials in X-band region. PMID:21711633

  14. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Dielectric Polarization and Ferroelectricity in Poly(vinylidene fluoride) and Related Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calame, Jeffrey

    Molecular dynamics studies of the dielectric polarization response of a constrained bond length and bond angle, united-atom-based model of lamellar crystals of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) are reported. Classical ferroelectricity is observed in PVDF, and when variations in the basic PVDF-like interaction parameters are allowed, a transition between classical and relaxor ferroelectricity is found to depend systematically on the polymer repeat unit dipole moment and on the united atom radius of the non-CH2 functional group. The effects of step and ramp electric field reversal are studied. A complicated sequence of reorientation processes occurs over a wide range of time scales, including a weak, temperature-independent response of 1-2 ps duration associated with local torsional motion, followed by a slow-rising delay regime lasting 10s of ns or longer that involves trans-gauche (TG) transitions in the amorphous phase. After the delay, a large-amplitude primary reorientation occurs over a relatively short additional duration (0.1 to 2 ns), which is due to rotation of large sub-segments in the crystalline phase with few TG transitions. The overall sequence concludes with a slow terminal rise lasting several 100s of ns involving an improvement in crystalline order. Work supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research.

  15. Fabrication of a self-sensing electroactive polymer bimorph actuator based on polyvinylidene fluoride and its electrostrictive terpolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Leeya; Van Volkinburg, Kyle R.; Ben-David, Moti; Washington, Gregory N.; Krylov, Slava; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the fabrication of a self-sensing electroactive polymer cantilevered bimorph beam actuator and its frequency response. Tip deflections of the beam, induced by applying an AC signal across ferroelectric relaxor polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)), reached a magnitude of 350μm under a field of ~55MV/m and were recorded externally using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). Deflections were determined simultaneously by applying a sensing model to the voltage measured across the bimorph's integrated layer of piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The sensing model treats the structure as a simple Euler- Bernoulli cantilevered beam with two distributed active elements represented through the use of generalized functions and offers a method through which real time tip deflection can be measured without the need for external visualization. When not being used as a sensing element, the PVDF layer can provide an additional means for actuation of the beam via the converse piezoelectric effect, resulting in bidirectional control of the beam's deflections. Integration of flexible sensing elements together with modeling of the electroactive polymer beam can benefit the developing field of polymer microactuators which have applications in soft robotics as "smart" prosthetics/implants, haptic displays, tools for less invasive surgery, and sensing.

  16. Electrical conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites with carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    PubMed

    He, Linxiang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2011-12-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride nanocomposites with low loading levels of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and vapor grown carbon nanofibers were prepared by a versatile coagulation method. The alternating current electrical conductivity of these composites in the frequency range of 40-12 MHz was investigated. The alternating current conductivity of percolating nanocomposites followed a universal dynamic response. Therefore, both the direct current plateau and frequency dependent regime were observed. The percolation threshold of three composite systems was determined to be 1.0, 0.98, and 1.46 vol.%, respectively. Moreover, the percolative nanocomposites exhibited nonlinear current-voltage responses, demonstrating the presence of tunneling conduction.

  17. Preparation of superhydrophobic membranes by electrospinning of fluorinated silane functionalized poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yingbo; Kim, Hern

    2009-05-01

    Fluorinated silane functionalized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is synthesized by graft polymerization of 3-trimethoxylpropyl methylacrylate with PVDF followed by coupling of fluorinated silanes. Flat membrane prepared using this functionalized PVDF has a water contact angle of 140°. Superhydrophobic PVDF membrane with a contact angle larger than 150° is prepared by the electrospinning of the fluorinated silane functionalized PVDF. The morphologies of the membranes are characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The surface composition of the membranes is analyzed using FTIR and the contact angles and water drops on the surface of the membrane are measured using video microscopy.

  18. Magnetoelectric CoFe2O4/polyvinylidene fluoride electrospun nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, R.; Martins, P.; Moya, X.; Ghidini, M.; Sencadas, V.; Botelho, G.; Mathur, N. D.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoelectric 0-1 composites comprising CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer-fibre matrix have been prepared by electrospinning. The average diameter of the electrospun composite fibres is ~325 nm, independent of the nanoparticle content, and the amount of the crystalline polar β phase is strongly enhanced when compared to pure PVDF polymer fibres. The piezoelectric response of these electroactive nanofibres is modified by an applied magnetic field, thus evidencing the magnetoelectric character of the CFO/PVDF 0-1 composites.

  19. Magnetoelectric CoFe2O4/polyvinylidene fluoride electrospun nanofibres.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R; Martins, P; Moya, X; Ghidini, M; Sencadas, V; Botelho, G; Mathur, N D; Lanceros-Mendez, S

    2015-05-07

    Magnetoelectric 0-1 composites comprising CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer-fibre matrix have been prepared by electrospinning. The average diameter of the electrospun composite fibres is ∼325 nm, independent of the nanoparticle content, and the amount of the crystalline polar β phase is strongly enhanced when compared to pure PVDF polymer fibres. The piezoelectric response of these electroactive nanofibres is modified by an applied magnetic field, thus evidencing the magnetoelectric character of the CFO/PVDF 0-1 composites.

  20. Influence of irradiation on the Heterogeneity of polymethylmethacrylate-polyvinylidene fluoride mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lipatov, Y.S.; Bliznyuk, V.N.; Boyarskii, G.Y.; Gomza, Y.P.; Shilov, V.V.

    1985-11-01

    Small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering was used to investigate the phase structure of mixtures of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as function of the thermal treatment and the ..gamma..-radiation dose. Irradiation of 1/ 1 mixtures obtained by quenching from a homogeneous melt with doses of up to 1 Mrd leads to radiation breakdown of the components; on the other hand, irradiation with larger doses leads to radiation crosslinking of PVDF. ..gamma..-Irradiation accelerates phase separation in the system, as a result of which microregions of pure PVDF of colloidal size are formed.

  1. Response of Bauer piezoelectric polymer stress gauges (PVDF) (polyvinylidene fluoride) to shock loading

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.A.; Lee, L.M.; Bauer, F.

    1987-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) stress gauges fabricated from high quality, biaxially stretched film, and electrically poled to high values of remanent polarization are the basis for revolutionary new gauging capabilities. In the present work, a number of PVDF films have been studied under controlled impact loading to maximum impact stresses of 35 GPa. Gauges with various degrees of polarization were studied. In the impact studies, electrical response with good fidelity was obtained to stress of 20 GPa. At 35 GPa the observed response is highly distorted. Remanent polarization is found to have a significant influence on nonlinearity and probably affects the maximum useful stress for shock gauge applications.

  2. Relaxor ferroelectric behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorethylene) copolymer modified by low energy irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Luiz O.; Welter, Cezar; Moreira, Roberto L.

    2006-05-08

    We report a relaxorlike modification in the ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluorethylene) copolymer using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. This behavior is clearly demonstrated by dielectric measurements. Besides the relaxor feature, the ferroelectric character of the material is retained, also exhibiting Curie transition at barely diminished temperatures. UV-Vis absorption measurements suggests that the UV radiation induces conjugated C=C bonds in the copolymer chains. The coexistence of both relaxor and ferroelectric behavior, the lack of chain cross-linking, and a weak reducing in the crystallinity suggest that the UV-induced defects are not sufficient to completely break up the polarization domains.

  3. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nickel nanocomposites from semicrystalline block copolymer precursors.

    PubMed

    Voet, Vincent S D; Tichelaar, Martijn; Tanase, Stefania; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, Marjo C; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-07

    The fabrication of nanoporous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PVDF/nickel nanocomposites from semicrystalline block copolymer precursors is reported. Polystyrene-block-poly(vinylidene fluoride)-block-polystyrene (PS-b-PVDF-b-PS) is prepared through functional benzoyl peroxide initiated polymerization of VDF, followed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene. The crystallization of PVDF plays a dominant role in the formation of the block copolymer structure, resulting in a spherulitic superstructure with an internal crystalline-amorphous lamellar nanostructure. The block copolymer promotes the formation of the ferroelectric β-polymorph of PVDF. Selective etching of the amorphous regions with nitric acid leads to nanoporous PVDF, which functions as a template for the generation of PVDF/Ni nanocomposites. The lamellar nanostructure and the β-crystalline phase are conserved during the etching procedure and electroless nickel deposition.

  4. Freestanding manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride coaxial fiber membrane as anode materials for high performance lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Luo, Zhongping; Xiao, Qizhen; Sun, Tianlei; Lei, Gangtie; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Xiaojing

    2015-11-01

    A novel manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanosheet network grown on nickel/polyvinylidene fluoride (Ni/PVDF) coaxial fiber membrane is successfully fabricated by a three-step route: the polyvinylidene fluoride fiber membrane is prepared by electrospinning method, and then the Ni(shell)/PVDF(core) coaxial fiber membrane with core-shell structure can be obtained by the electroless deposition, and finally the manganese dioxide nanosheet network grown on Ni/PVDF coaxial fiber membrane can be achieved by using a simple hydrothermal treatment. This as-prepared binder-free and flexible composite membrane is directly used as anode for lithium ion batteries. The excellent electrochemical performance of the composite membrane can be attributed to the unique combinative effects of nanosized MnO2 network and conductive Ni/PVDF fiber matrix as well as the porous structure of composite fiber membrane.

  5. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nickel nanocomposites from semicrystalline block copolymer precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voet, Vincent S. D.; Tichelaar, Martijn; Tanase, Stefania; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, Marjo C.; ten Brinke, Gerrit; Loos, Katja

    2012-12-01

    The fabrication of nanoporous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PVDF/nickel nanocomposites from semicrystalline block copolymer precursors is reported. Polystyrene-block-poly(vinylidene fluoride)-block-polystyrene (PS-b-PVDF-b-PS) is prepared through functional benzoyl peroxide initiated polymerization of VDF, followed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene. The crystallization of PVDF plays a dominant role in the formation of the block copolymer structure, resulting in a spherulitic superstructure with an internal crystalline-amorphous lamellar nanostructure. The block copolymer promotes the formation of the ferroelectric β-polymorph of PVDF. Selective etching of the amorphous regions with nitric acid leads to nanoporous PVDF, which functions as a template for the generation of PVDF/Ni nanocomposites. The lamellar nanostructure and the β-crystalline phase are conserved during the etching procedure and electroless nickel deposition.The fabrication of nanoporous poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and PVDF/nickel nanocomposites from semicrystalline block copolymer precursors is reported. Polystyrene-block-poly(vinylidene fluoride)-block-polystyrene (PS-b-PVDF-b-PS) is prepared through functional benzoyl peroxide initiated polymerization of VDF, followed by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene. The crystallization of PVDF plays a dominant role in the formation of the block copolymer structure, resulting in a spherulitic superstructure with an internal crystalline-amorphous lamellar nanostructure. The block copolymer promotes the formation of the ferroelectric β-polymorph of PVDF. Selective etching of the amorphous regions with nitric acid leads to nanoporous PVDF, which functions as a template for the generation of PVDF/Ni nanocomposites. The lamellar nanostructure and the β-crystalline phase are conserved during the etching procedure and electroless nickel deposition. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  6. Modification of polymorphisms in polyvinylidene fluoride thin films via water and hydrated salt.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Xia, Guangmei; Xing, Xueqing; He, Linghao; Zhao, Qiaoling; Ma, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effects of solvent and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) on the polymorphism of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films were systematically investigated. Wherein, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and water with different volume ratio were used as mixed solvents to obtain the solution casting films, P series. In addition, MgCl2·6H2O was comparatively added to prepare PVDF/MgCl2·6H2O hybrid films, P-M series. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were utilized to study the influence of the water content in the mixed solvents and the hydrated salt on crystallization behavior of PVDF. Further, the morphologic images from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), as well as the pizoelectirc d33 test also supplies the corresponding evidences. As indicated, the water in the mixed solvent shows different effect on main crystal forms of PVDF. At low water content, the solvents may favor the polar phase (β- and γ-phase) mainly by hydrogen bonds interactions between PVDF and water, together with dipolar interactions between PVDF and DMF. At high water content, the nonsolvent water will impose confinement effect on polymer chain diffusion and crystal growth which facilitate the formation of α-phase PVDF. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate mainly functioned as the nucleation sites for PVDF crystallization. The result of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) implies the content of water or MgCl2·6H2O has little impact on the structure of the long period.

  7. Time-dependent deformation behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride binder: Implications on the mechanics of composite electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santimetaneedol, Arnuparp; Tripuraneni, Rajasekhar; Chester, Shawn A.; Nadimpalli, Siva P. V.

    2016-11-01

    The majority of existing battery models that simulate composite electrode behavior assume the binder as a linear elastic material due to lack of a thorough understanding of time-dependent mechanical behavior of binders. Here, thin films of polyvinylidene fluoride binder, prepared according to commercial battery manufacturing method, are subjected to standard monotonic, load-unload, and relaxation tests to characterize the time-dependent mechanical behavior. The strain in the binder samples is measured with the digital image correlation technique to eliminate experimental errors. The experimental data showed that for (charging/discharging) time scales of practical importance, polyvinylidene fluoride behaves more like an elastic-viscoplastic material as opposed to a visco-elastic material; based on this observation, a simple elastic-viscoplastic model, calibrated against the data is adopted to represent the deformation behavior of binder in a Si-based composite electrode; the lithiation/delithiation process of this composite was simulated at different C rates and the stress/strain behavior was monitored. It is observed that the linear elastic assumption of the binder leads to inaccurate results and the time-dependent constitutive behavior of the binder not only leads to accurate prediction of the mechanics but is an essential step towards developing advanced multi-physics models for simulating the degradation behavior of batteries.

  8. Sub percolation threshold carbon nanotube based polyvinylidene fluoride polymer-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Cedric Antony

    The study of piezoelectric materials has traditionally focused largely on homogeneous crystalline or semi-crystalline materials. This research focuses on the concept of piezoelectric composites using selective microstructural reinforcement in the piezoelectric material to improve the piezoelectric properties. This is done using a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and carbon nanotube composite as the model system. A multi-tiered engineering approach is taken to understand the material (experimental and computational analyses) and design a composite system which provides an effective platform for future research in piezoelectric improvement. A finite element analysis is used to evaluate the ability of carbon nanotubes to generate a heterogeneous electric field where local improvements in electric field produce an increase in the effective piezoelectric strength. The study finds that weight percent and aspect ratio of the carbon nanotubes are of key importance while formations of percolating networks are detrimental to performance. This motivates investigation into electrospinning into a method of producing sub percolation threshold composites with large carbon nanotube content. However, the electrospun fabrics have too low of a dielectric strength to sustain high strength electric fields. This is studied within the context of high voltage physics and a solution inspired by traditional composites manufacturing is proposed wherein the electrospun fiber mat is used as the fiber reinforcing component of a polymer-polymer composite. This composite is thoroughly analyzed to show that it allows for a high dielectric strength combined with high carbon nanotube content. It is also shown that the PVDF contains the proper crystal structure to allow for piezoelectric properties. Furthermore, the addition of carbon nanotubes greatly improves the strength and stiffness of the composite, as well as affecting the internal electric field response to an applied voltage. These qualities

  9. Polyvinylidene fluoride/nickel composite materials for charge storing, electromagnetic interference absorption, and shielding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargama, H.; Thakur, A. K.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the composites of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/nickel (Ni) prepared through simple blending and hot-molding process have been investigated for dielectric, electromagnetic shielding, and radar absorbing properties. In order to study complex permittivity of the composites in 40 Hz-20 MHz frequency range, impedance spectroscopy (IS) technique is used. Besides, the complex permittivity and permeability in addition to shielding effectiveness (SE), reflection coefficient (backed by air), and loss factor are calculated using scattering parameters measured in X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz) by waveguide method. Further, in X-band, a theoretical analysis of single layer absorbing structure backed by perfect electrical conductor is then performed. A flanged coaxial holder has also been designed, fabricated, calibrated, and tested for electromagnetic interference SE measurement in the broad frequency range (50 MHz-18 GHz). The IS results indicate large enhancement in dielectric constant as a function of Ni loading in the polymer-metal composite (PMC) phase. This result has been explained using interfacial polarization and percolation theory. The frequency dependent response of ac conductivity has been analyzed by fitting the experimental data to the "Johnscher's universal dielectric response law" model. The results obtained for SE (in X-band over broad frequency range) and reflection coefficient indicate that PVDF/Ni composites give better electromagnetic interference shielding and radar absorption properties at filler concentration (fcon) ≥ fc in the PMC, whereas at fc < fcon, the charge storage mechanism dominates in the insulator regime of the composite phase. Therefore, the range of PMC compositions below and above percolation threshold has been observed to have different variety of applications.

  10. High dielectric constant, low loss, and low percolation threshold dielectric composites based on polyvinylidene fluoride and ferroferric oxide nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lili; Fu, Qiong; Li, Ya; Li, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    Dielectric super-capacitors call the excellent dielectric materials with high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss, both of which are not easy to obtain at the same time. The work synthesized the high aspect ratio and good crystalline ferroferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanorods by the hydrothermal process and used them as the filler to effectively reduce the percolation threshold value. It was found that the composites here based on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymer and these Fe3O4 nanorods exhibited ultra-high dielectric constant (>3000) and very low loss (<0.04) at very low filler fraction (0.35%). It was also proved that the high aspect ratio filler could help to improve the dielectric constant and suppress the dielectric loss in the percolative composites.

  11. Highly sensitive microfluidic flow sensor based on aligned piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingling; Yu, Xiaolei; You, Sujian; Liu, Huiqin; Zhang, Cancan; Cai, Bo; Xiao, Liang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2015-12-01

    A microfluidic flow sensor based on aligned piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] nanofibers has been developed. The flow sensor is able to linearly measure low flow rates ranging from 13 μl/h to 301 μl/h with a sensitivity of 0.36 mV per 1 μl/h, and the highest voltage difference of 120 mV at a flow rate of 451 μl/h. Moreover, the viscosity of the ethylene glycol aqueous solution ranging from 1 mPa.s to 16.1 mPa.s at 25 °C can be detected in dynamic flow with a stable output. These findings highlight the potential of piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers in multiferroic applications.

  12. A super hydrophilic modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers: By in situ hydrothermal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Tamboli, Ashif H.; Kim, Hern

    2016-11-01

    Nanofibers fabricated from Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) possesses potential applications in the field of filtrations, because of their excellent resistance towards harsh chemicals. However, the hydrophobicity restricts its further application. In this work, we focus on optimal parameters for post-electrospun tethering of Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as superhydrophilic domain onto each individual PVDF nanofibers by exploiting the in situ hydrothermal approach. The results indicated an increase in nanofiber diameters due to coating of PVA and improved surface wettability of PVDF nanofibers. The tensile tests of nanofibers indicated that mechanical properties of PVDF nanofibers could be sharply tuned from rigid to ductile. Furthermore, the studies strongly suggest that in situ hydrothermal treatment of post-electrospun nanofibers can improve the water contact angle and these nanofibers can be used in varied applications (e.g., in water purification systems).

  13. Western blot membrane composed of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiber membrane and polyethylene terephthalate sheet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eugene; Kim, Chan; Hwang, Cheol Ho; Chang, Duck Rye; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2013-06-01

    In a previous study, an electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiber membrane was developed for Western blotting. The membrane exhibited high sensitivity and high binding capacity for the detection of protein bands that was unlike that observed for conventional, microphase separation-based porous PVDF membranes. Nevertheless, the PVDF nanofiber membrane is quite expensive. The objective of this study was to develop an economical Western blot membrane using a hybrid electrospun PVDF nanofiber and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. The results showed that the detection sensitivity of the 4 gram per square meter (gsm) membrane was similar to those of the electrospun PVDF nanofiber membrane only, and the 7 gsm PVDF nanofiber membranes on a PET sheet and the electrospun PVDF nanofiber membrane. This means the protein detection sensitivity is not proportional to the thickness of the PVDF nanofiber membrane. The 4 gsm PVDF nanofiber membrane on a PET sheet can be used to detect proteins with high sensitivity and economic efficiency.

  14. Electrospinning polyvinylidene fluoride fibrous membranes containing anti-bacterial drugs used as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Wang, Jingnan; Huang, Peilin; Zeng, Baozhen; Li, Haihong; Cao, Qingyun; Zhang, Shiying; Luo, Zhuo; Deng, David Y B; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Wuyi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesis drug-loaded fibrous membrane scaffolds for potential applications as wound dressing. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibrous membranes were loaded with enrofloxacin (Enro) drugs by using an electrospinning process, and their mechanical strength, drug release profile and anti-bacterial properties were evaluated. Enro drug-loaded PVDF membranes exhibited good elasticity, flexibility and excellent mechanical strength. The electrospinning Enro/PVDF membranes showed a burst drug release in the initial 12h, followed by sustained release for the next 3 days, which was an essential property for antibiotic drugs applied for wound healing. The drug-loaded PVDF fibrous membranes displayed excellent anti-bacterial activity toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggest that electrospinning PVDF membrane scaffolds loaded with drugs can be used as wound dressing.

  15. Fabrication of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) Nanofibers Containing Nickel Nanoparticles as Future Energy Server Materials.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Faheem A; Cantu, Travis; Macossay, Javier; Kim, Hern

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we introduce Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers containing nickel (Ni) nanoparticles (NPs) as a result of an electrospinning. Typically, a colloidal solution consisting of PVDF/Ni NPs was prepared to produce nanofibers embedded with solid NPs by electrospinning process. The resultant nanostructures were studied by SEM analyses, which confirmed well oriented nanofibers and good dispersion of Ni NPs over them. The XRD results demonstrated well crystalline feature of PVDF and Ni in the obtained nanostructures. Physiochemical aspects of prepared nano-structures were characterized for TEM which confirmed nanofibers were well-oriented and had good dispersion of Ni NPs. Furthermore, the prepared nano-structures were studied for hydrogen production applications. Due to high surface to volume ratio of nanofibers form than the thin film ones, there was tremendous increase in the rate of hydrogen production. Overall, results satisfactorily confirmed the use of these materials in hydrogen production.

  16. Evolution of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hierarchical morphology during slow gelation process and its superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Zhou, Chong; Du, Runhong; Li, Nana; Han, Xutong; Zhang, Yufeng; An, Shulin; Xiao, Changfa

    2013-06-26

    In the paper, we proposed an evolution process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) macromolecular aggregation in a mixed solvent through the simple and slow gelation process at room temperature. The mixed solvent is prepared with a room-temperature solvent and a high-temperature solvent. The evolution process can be terminated by quenching and exchanging with nonsolvent in a nonsolvent coagulation bath properly, and then the vivid petal-like nanostructure and microspherulite is formed simultaneously. This hierarchical morphology endows PVDF with superhydrophobic and self-cleaning properties, which is useful to PVDF coating and membrane materials. The evolution processes are investigated through the measurements of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the rheological properties of solution, dry gel and wet gel, are explored.

  17. Flexible Sm-Fe/polyvinylidene fluoride heterostructural film with large magnetoelectric voltage output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shifeng; Wan, Jian-guo; Yao, Mengliang; Liu, Jun-ming; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Guanghou

    2010-11-01

    The Sm-Fe/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) heterostructural film was prepared by depositing Sm-Fe nanoclusters onto the flexible PVDF film using cluster beam deposition method. The PVDF film acts as both piezoelectric layer and substrate. The heterostructural film showed the well-defined microstructures in which the Sm-Fe layer was assembled by the nanoparticles, and the interface between Sm-Fe and PVDF layers was clear. The heterostructural film possessed evident magnetic anisotropy with in-plane easy axis and exhibited large voltage output under the magnetic bias. Such flexible heterostructural film with large magnetoelectric output makes it promising to be widely used for the weak magnetic-field detection.

  18. Tensile behaviour of blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) with poly(methyl methacrylate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cebe, Peggy; Chung, Shirley Y.

    1990-01-01

    Blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVF2) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared over a wide concentration range and tested in tension at the same relative temperature below the glass transition. In nearly all blends, under conditions favoring disentanglement, (decrease in strain rate, or increase in test temperature), the yield stress and drawing stress decreased while the breaking strain increased. For materials with about the same degree of crystallinity, those with a higher proportion of amorphous PVF2 exhibited brittle-like behavior as a result of interlamellar tie molecules. In the semicrystalline blends, yield stress remains high as the test temperature approaches Tg, whereas in the amorphous blends the yield stress falls to zero near Tg. Results of physical aging support the role of interlamellar ties which cause semicrystalline blends to exhibit aging at temperatures above Tg.

  19. Enhanced breakdown strength of poly(vinylidene fluoride) utilizing rubber nanoparticles for energy storage application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Ming-Sheng; Zha, Jun-Wei; Yang, Yu; Han, Peng; Hu, Chao-He; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-08-01

    A kind of rubber nanoparticles, methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS), was applied into poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix to fabricate MBS/PVDF composite films. Uniform dispersion and good compatibility of MBS in the matrix were observed. We found that the entanglement state between MBS nanoparticles and random chains of PVDF could diminish gaps in the matrix, which is helpful for high breakdown strength. The composite film with 12 vol. % MBS showed the maximum breakdown strength of 535 MV/m and the high energy density of 9.85 J/cm3, which were 1.7 times and about 2.2 times higher than pure PVDF film, respectively.

  20. Thin crystalline functional group copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) film patterning using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaewu; Manohara, H. M.; Morikawa, E.; Sprunger, P. T.; Dowben, P. A.; Palto, S. P.

    2000-01-01

    The photodegradation mechanism due to synchrotron radiation exposure of crystalline poly[vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroetylene, P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer thin films has been studied with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and mass spectroscopy. Upon increasing exposure to x-ray white light (hν⩽1000 eV), UPS measurements reveal that substantial chemical modifications occur in P(VDF-TrFE) 5 monolayer films, including the emergence of new valence band features near the Fermi level, indicating a semimetallic photodegradeted product. The photodetached fragments of the copolymer consist mainly of H2, HF, CHF, CH2. This x-ray exposure study demonstrates that P(VDF-TrFE) films, possessing unique technologically important properties, can be directly patterned by x-ray lithographic processes.

  1. Pure β-phase formation in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabir, Ekramul; Khatun, M.; Nasrin, L.; Raihan, Mustafa J.; Rahman, M.

    2017-04-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers with a particular semi-crystalline conformation (β) have evolved as lead (Pb)-free alternatives to electroactive perovskite piezo-, pyro-, and ferroelectric materials. In particular, semi-crystalline ferroelectric polymers are suitable for a large variety of flexible devices and have attracted tremendous research interest. Realizing the application potential of this polar form, there have been numerous attempts to enhance and stabilize this β crystalline phase. A completely pure (100%) β crystalline phase has been achieved in a nanocomposite of PVDF with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with proper functionalization. With an emphasis on pure ferroelectric β-phase formation and related issues, this paper presents a timely review of the literature on recent sequential development and understanding of PVDF-CNT composites.

  2. Broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopic study on form II polyvinylidene fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tatsuya; Igawa, Hikaru; Okada, Daichi; Yamamoto, Yohei; Iwamoto, Kei; Toyota, Naoki; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    The complex dielectric constant of semicrystalline form II polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF (II)) in the frequency range from 0.2 to 6.0 THz has been determined by broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The obtained dielectric constant consists of superposition of four vibration modes at 1.60, 2.36, 3.04 and 5.31 THz of crystalline part and a broad relaxation mode with center frequency of 0.68 THz which will be attributed to boson peak of amorphous fraction. In addition, the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant has also been measured, and we have determined the glass transition temperature of amorphous fraction of PVDF (II) as about 192 K by analysis of the temperature variation of peak frequency of the lattice vibration mode.

  3. Polyvinylidene fluoride molecules in nanofibers, imaged at atomic scale by aberration corrected electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolla, Dinesh; Gorse, Joseph; Kisielowski, Christian; Miao, Jiayuan; Taylor, Philip L.; Chase, George G.; Reneker, Darrell H.

    2015-12-01

    Atomic scale features of polyvinylidene fluoride molecules (PVDF) were observed with aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. Thin, self-supporting PVDF nanofibers were used to create images that show conformations and relative locations of atoms in segments of polymer molecules, particularly segments near the surface of the nanofiber. Rows of CF2 atomic groups, at 0.25 nm intervals, which marked the paths of segments of the PVDF molecules, were seen. The fact that an electron microscope image of a segment of a PVDF molecule depended upon the particular azimuthal direction, along which the segment was viewed, enabled observation of twist around the molecular axis. The 0.2 nm side-by-side distance between the two fluorine atoms attached to the same carbon atom was clearly resolved. Morphological and chemical changes produced by energetic electrons, ranging from no change to fiber scission, over many orders of magnitude of electrons per unit area, promise quantitative new insights into radiation chemistry. Relative movements of segments of molecules were observed. Promising synergism between high resolution electron microscopy and molecular dynamic modeling was demonstrated. This paper is at the threshold of growing usefulness of electron microscopy to the science and engineering of polymer and other molecules.Atomic scale features of polyvinylidene fluoride molecules (PVDF) were observed with aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. Thin, self-supporting PVDF nanofibers were used to create images that show conformations and relative locations of atoms in segments of polymer molecules, particularly segments near the surface of the nanofiber. Rows of CF2 atomic groups, at 0.25 nm intervals, which marked the paths of segments of the PVDF molecules, were seen. The fact that an electron microscope image of a segment of a PVDF molecule depended upon the particular azimuthal direction, along which the segment was viewed, enabled observation of

  4. Unipolar poling-induced high switching speed and improved imprint behaviors for poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ying; Lü, Zhaoyue; Pu, Tiansong; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Xiangjian; Xu, Haisheng

    2013-12-01

    The polarization switching and imprint behaviors with different pulse and unipolar poling processes for ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) copolymer ultrathin films have been studied. Compared with results for samples only through the certain protocol we studied previously, the much faster switching speed and lower voltage shift are observed for films with certain protocol as well as certain unipolar poling. The analyses show that these properties are strongly dependent on the directions of the switching and unipolar poling field. The results provide another effective route to design the optimum protocol for ferroelectric random access memory based on P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer ultrathin film.

  5. Chemical modification of the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer surface through fluorocarbon ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, W.-D.; Jang, Inkook; Sinnott, Susan B.

    2007-07-15

    Classical molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the effects of continuous fluorocarbon ion beam deposition on a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-trFE)] surface, a polymer with electromechanical properties. Fluorocarbon plasma processing is widely used to chemically modify surfaces and deposit thin films. It is well accepted that polyatomic ions and neutrals within low-energy plasmas have a significant effect on the surface chemistry induced by the plasma. The deposition of mass selected fluorocarbon ions is useful to isolate the effects specific to polyatomic ions. Here, the differences in the chemical interactions of C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +} and CF{sub 3}{sup +} ions with the P(VDF-trFE) surface are examined. The incident energy of the ions in both beams is 50 eV. The CF{sub 3}{sup +} ions are predicted to be more effective at fluorinating the P(VDF-trFE) surface than C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +} ions. At the same time, the C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +} ions are predicted to be more effective at growing fluorocarbon thin films. The simulations also reveal how the deposition process might ultimately modify the electromechanical properties of this polymer surface.

  6. Random sequential adsorption of human adenovirus 2 onto polyvinylidene fluoride surface influenced by extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruiqing; Li, Qi; Nguyen, Thanh H

    2016-03-15

    Virus removal by membrane bioreactors depends on virus-membrane and virus-foulant interactions. The adsorption of human adenovirus 2 (HAdV-2) on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane and a major membrane foulant, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), were measured in a quartz crystal microbalance. In 3-100mM CaCl2 solutions, irreversible adsorption of HAdV-2 was observed on both pristine and EPS-fouled PVDF surfaces. The HAdV-2 adsorption kinetics was successfully fitted with the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. The applicability of the RSA model for HAdV-2 adsorption is confirmed by comparing the two fitting parameters, adsorption rate constant k(a) and area occupied by each adsorbed HAdV-2 particle a, with experimentally measured parameters. A linear correlation between the fitting parameter k(a) and the measured attachment efficiency was found, suggesting that the RSA model correctly describes the interaction forces dominating the HAdV-2 adsorption. By comparing the fitting parameter d(ads) with the hydrodynamic diameter of HAdV-2, we conclude that virus-virus and virus-surface interactions determine the area occupied by each adsorbed HAdV-2 particle, and thus influence the adsorption capacity. These results provide insights into virus retention and will benefit improving virus removal in membrane filtration.

  7. Preparation and properties of homogeneous-reinforced polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuliang; Xiao, Changfa; Hu, Xiaoyu; Bai, Qianqian

    2013-01-01

    Homogeneous-reinforced (HR) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes include PVDF polymer solutions (coating layer) and the matrix membrane prepared through the dry-wet spinning process. The performance of HR membranes varies with the polymer concentration in the polymer solutions and is characterized in terms of pure water flux, rejection of protein, porosity, infiltration property, a mechanical strength test, and morphology observations by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results of this study indicate that the tensile strength of the HR PVDF membranes decreases slights compared with that of the matrix membrane, but the elongation at break increases much more and the hollow fiber membranes are endowed with better flexibility performance. The HR PVDF hollow fiber membranes have a favorable interfacial bonding between the coating layer and the matrix membrane, as shown by FESEM. The infiltration property is characterized by the contact angle experiments. Pure water flux decreases while the rejection ratio with an increase in polymer concentration increasing. The protein solution flux of the HR PVDF membranes is higher than that of the matrix membrane after 100 min of infiltration.

  8. On the Structure and Morphology of Polyvinylidene Fluoride-nanoclay Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon,D.; Tenneti, K.; Li, C.; Ko, F.; Sics, I.; Hsiao, B.

    2006-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-nanoclay nanocomposites were prepared by both solution casting and co-precipitation methods with the nanoclay loading of 1-6 wt%. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposite were investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. PVDF phase transformation behavior was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and in situ thermal WAXD. All the three typical nanoclay morphologies, namely, exfoliated, partially intercalated and phase separated morphologies, were observed in the PVDF-nanoclay nanocomposites prepared by different methods. In solution-cast samples, phase separation and intercalation occurred depending upon the organic modifiers while complete exfoliation of the nanoclays was observed in the co-precipitated nanocomposites. Furthermore, unique parallel orientation of the nanoclay layers and polymer film surface was achieved in solution-cast samples. {beta}-form PVDF was observed in all the nanocomposites regardless of the nanoclay morphology and contents. Both crystallization and melting temperatures of PVDF were increased with the addition of nanoclay, possibly due to the formation of the {beta}-form PVDF.

  9. Polyvinylidene fluoride molecules in nanofibers, imaged at atomic scale by aberration corrected electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lolla, Dinesh; Gorse, Joseph; Kisielowski, Christian; Miao, Jiayuan; Taylor, Philip L; Chase, George G; Reneker, Darrell H

    2016-01-07

    Atomic scale features of polyvinylidene fluoride molecules (PVDF) were observed with aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy. Thin, self-supporting PVDF nanofibers were used to create images that show conformations and relative locations of atoms in segments of polymer molecules, particularly segments near the surface of the nanofiber. Rows of CF2 atomic groups, at 0.25 nm intervals, which marked the paths of segments of the PVDF molecules, were seen. The fact that an electron microscope image of a segment of a PVDF molecule depended upon the particular azimuthal direction, along which the segment was viewed, enabled observation of twist around the molecular axis. The 0.2 nm side-by-side distance between the two fluorine atoms attached to the same carbon atom was clearly resolved. Morphological and chemical changes produced by energetic electrons, ranging from no change to fiber scission, over many orders of magnitude of electrons per unit area, promise quantitative new insights into radiation chemistry. Relative movements of segments of molecules were observed. Promising synergism between high resolution electron microscopy and molecular dynamic modeling was demonstrated. This paper is at the threshold of growing usefulness of electron microscopy to the science and engineering of polymer and other molecules.

  10. Polyvinylidene fluoride molecules in nanofibers, imaged at atomic scale by aberration corrected electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reneker, Darrell; Gorse, Joseph; Lolla, Dinesh; Kisielowski, Christian; Miao, Jiayuan; Taylor, Philip; Chase, George

    Atomic scale features of polyvinylidene fluoride molecules (PVDF) were observed. Electron micrographs of thin, self-supporting PVDF nanofibers showed conformations and relative locations of atoms in segments of polymer molecules. Rows of CF2 atomic groups, at 0.25 nm intervals, marked the paths of segments of the PVDF molecules. The fact that an electron microscope image of a segment of a PVDF molecule depended upon the particular azimuthal direction, along which the segment was viewed, enabled observation of twist around the molecular axis. The 0.2 nm side-by-side distance between the two fluorine atoms attached to the same carbon atom was clearly resolved. Morphological and chemical changes produced by energetic electrons, ranging from no change to fiber scission, over many orders of magnitude of electrons per unit area, provide quantitative new insights into radiation chemistry. Relative movements of segments of molecules were observed. Synergism between high resolution electron micrographs and images created by molecular dynamic modeling was demonstrated. This paper is at the threshold of growing usefulness of electron microscopy to the science and engineering of polymer and other molecules. Support from Coalescence Filtration Nanofiber Consortium and from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Control of diameter and morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hongjun; Du, Xiaosong; Jiang, Yadong

    2009-11-01

    This paper described a procedure based on electrospinning for generating nanofibers with controllable diameters and morphology. When an acetone and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) mixture solvent containing poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) was injected through a needle under a strong electric field, nanofibers made of PVDF formed as a result of electrostatic jetting. To control the diameter and morphology of PVDF nanofibers, the solution properties and process parameters were investigated, such as polymer concentration, the ratio of the mixture solvent, feeding rate, applied electric field, and needle-to-collector distance. The fabricated fibers were 30-8000 nm in diameter. The increase in the polymer concentration caused an increase in the fiber diameter. However, the increase in the feeding rate and applied electric field decreased the fiber diameter. Variation in the needle-to-collector distance did not result in significant changes in the fiber diameter. The ratio of the solvent also had a very significant impact on electrospinning. The diameter and morphology of the PVDF nanofibers were characterized by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  12. A Novel Polyvinylidene Fluoride Tree-Like Nanofiber Membrane for Microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongjie; Kang, Weimin; Zhao, Huihui; Hu, Min; Wei, Na; Qiu, Jiuan; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-08-19

    A novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tree-like nanofiber membrane (PVDF-TLNM) was fabricated by adding tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC) into a PVDF spinning solution via one-step electrospinning. The structure of the prepared membranes was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and pore size analysis, and the hydrophilic property and microfiltration performance were also evaluated. The results showed that the tree-like nanofiber was composed of trunk fibers and branch fibers with diameters of 100-500 nm and 5-100 nm, respectively. The pore size of PVDF-TLNM (0.36 μm) was smaller than that of a common nanofiber membrane (3.52 μm), and the hydrophilic properties of the membranes were improved significantly. The PVDF-TLNM with a thickness of 30 ± 2 μm showed a satisfactory retention ratio of 99.9% against 0.3 μm polystyrene (PS) particles and a high pure water flux of 2.88 × 10⁴ L·m(-2)·h(-1) under the pressure of 25 psi. This study highlights the potential benefits of this novel PVDF tree-like nanofiber membrane in the membrane field, which can achieve high flux rates at low pressure.

  13. Formation of superhydrophobic microspheres of poly(vinylidene fluoride- hexafluoropropylene)/graphene composite via gelation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zha, Dao-an; Du, Tingting; Mei, Shilin; Shi, Zujin; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2011-07-19

    We report on the spontaneous formation of superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/graphene composite microspheres with uniform size via gelation. When the suspension of PVDF-HFP/graphene (0.25 wt. % with respect to PVDF-HFP) in DMF adsorbs water vapor, it changes to a hybrid gel. A dried porous gel is obtained after solvent exchange and freeze drying. Morphology characterization shows that this hybrid gel is composed of PVDF-HFP/graphene microspheres with a diameter of 8-10 μm. In contrast, PVDF-HFP solution gives rise to a cellular microstructure following the same experimental procedures. We further elucidate the formation mechanism on the basis of the characterization by freeze fracture transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry characterizations. Furthermore, contact angle measurements of water on PVDF-HFP/graphene indicates that the hydrophobic nature of PVDF-HFP combined with the micro/nanoscale hierarchical texture creates a superhydrophobic surface. Such superhydrophobic microspheres may have potential applications as water-repellent catalyst-supporting materials.

  14. A Novel Polyvinylidene Fluoride Tree-Like Nanofiber Membrane for Microfiltration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongjie; Kang, Weimin; Zhao, Huihui; Hu, Min; Wei, Na; Qiu, Jiuan; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    A novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) tree-like nanofiber membrane (PVDF-TLNM) was fabricated by adding tetrabutylammonium chloride (TBAC) into a PVDF spinning solution via one-step electrospinning. The structure of the prepared membranes was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and pore size analysis, and the hydrophilic property and microfiltration performance were also evaluated. The results showed that the tree-like nanofiber was composed of trunk fibers and branch fibers with diameters of 100–500 nm and 5–100 nm, respectively. The pore size of PVDF-TLNM (0.36 μm) was smaller than that of a common nanofiber membrane (3.52 μm), and the hydrophilic properties of the membranes were improved significantly. The PVDF-TLNM with a thickness of 30 ± 2 μm showed a satisfactory retention ratio of 99.9% against 0.3 μm polystyrene (PS) particles and a high pure water flux of 2.88 × 104 L·m−2·h−1 under the pressure of 25 psi. This study highlights the potential benefits of this novel PVDF tree-like nanofiber membrane in the membrane field, which can achieve high flux rates at low pressure. PMID:28335279

  15. Preparation and Preliminary Dialysis Performance Research of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the separation properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were improved by optimizing membrane morphology and structure. The results showed that the PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation properties than Fresenius Polysulfone High-Flux (F60S) membrane. The PVDF membrane tensile stress at break, tensile elongation and bursting pressure were 11.3 MPa, 395% and 0.625 MPa, respectively. Ultrafiltration (UF) flux of pure water reached 108.2 L∙h−1∙m−2 and rejection of Albumin from bovine serum was 82.3%. The PVDF dialyzers were prepared by centrifugal casting. The influences of membrane area and simulate fluid flow rate on dialysis performance were investigated. The results showed that the clearance rate of urea and Lysozyme (LZM) were improved with increasing membrane area and fluid flow rate while the rejection of albumin from bovine serum (BSA) had little influence. The high-flux PVDF dialyzer UF coefficient reached 62.6 mL/h/mmHg. The PVDF dialyzer with membrane area 0.69 m2 has the highest clearance rate to LZM and urea. The clearance rate of LZM was 66.8% and urea was 87.7%. PMID:25807890

  16. Preparation and preliminary dialysis performance research of polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhao, Lihua

    2015-03-19

    In this study, the separation properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were improved by optimizing membrane morphology and structure. The results showed that the PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation properties than Fresenius Polysulfone High-Flux (F60S) membrane. The PVDF membrane tensile stress at break, tensile elongation and bursting pressure were 11.3 MPa, 395% and 0.625 MPa, respectively. Ultrafiltration (UF) flux of pure water reached 108.2 L∙h-1∙m-2 and rejection of Albumin from bovine serum was 82.3%. The PVDF dialyzers were prepared by centrifugal casting. The influences of membrane area and simulate fluid flow rate on dialysis performance were investigated. The results showed that the clearance rate of urea and Lysozyme (LZM) were improved with increasing membrane area and fluid flow rate while the rejection of albumin from bovine serum (BSA) had little influence. The high-flux PVDF dialyzer UF coefficient reached 62.6 mL/h/mmHg. The PVDF dialyzer with membrane area 0.69 m2 has the highest clearance rate to LZM and urea. The clearance rate of LZM was 66.8% and urea was 87.7%.

  17. Positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based magnetic composites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Zhan, Qingfeng; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Huali; Liu, Gang; Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Xie, Yali; Zhu, Xiaojian; Chen, Bin; Wang, Junling; Li, Run-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy is decreased with increasing temperature in normal magnetic materials, which is harmful to the thermal stability of magnetic devices. Here, we report the realization of positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy in a novel composite combining β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with magnetostrictive materials (magnetostrictive film/PVDF bilayer structure). We ascribe the enhanced magnetic anisotropy of the magnetic film at elevated temperature to the strain-induced anisotropy resulting from the anisotropic thermal expansion of the β-phase PVDF. The simulation based on modified Stoner-Wohlfarth model and the ferromagnetic resonance measurements confirms our results. The positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy is estimated to be 1.1 × 102 J m−3 K−1. Preparing the composite at low temperature can enlarge the temperature range where it shows the positive temperature coefficient of magnetic anisotropy. The present results may help to design magnetic devices with improved thermal stability and enhanced performance. PMID:25311047

  18. Immobilized ethanol fermentation coupled to pervaporation with silicalite-1/polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinylidene fluoride composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Changwei; Miao, Qi; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-11-01

    A novel silicalite-1/polydimethylsiloxane/polyvinylidene fluoride hybrid membrane was used in ethanol fermentation-pervaporation integration process. The sweet sorghum bagasse was used as the immobilized carrier. Compared with the conventional suspend cells system, the immobilized fermentation system could provide higher ethanol productivity when coupled with pervaporation. In the long-term of operations, the ethanol productivity, separation factor, total flux and permeate ethanol concentration in the fed-batch fermentation-pervaporation integration scenario were 1.6g/Lh, 8.2-9.9, 319-416g/m(2)h and 426.9-597.2g/L, respectively. Correspondingly, 1.6g/Lh, 7.8-9.8, 227.8-395g/m(2)h and 410.9-608.1g/L were achieved in the continuous fermentation-pervaporation integration scenario, respectively. The results indicated that the integration process could greatly improve the ethanol production and separation performances.

  19. Optical properties and dielectric relaxation of polyvinylidene fluoride thin films doped with gadolinium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Somyia

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the properties of pure and GdCl3-doped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed that the PVDF was composed of mixed α and β phases. Adding GdCl3 to PVDF decreased the crystallinity of the polymer matrix. At room temperature, in the ultraviolet-visible range both the absorbance (a) and extinction coefficient (k) of PVDF decreased with GdCl3 content, demonstrating that the optical response of the doped films improved because of increasing optical energy gap (Eg). We also measured the dielectric loss (ɛ″), electric modulus (M″), and ac conductivity (σac) at 300-450 K and 0.1-3000 kHz. The pure and doped PVDF exhibited different relaxation processes. The activation energy (Ea) of the αc relaxation decreased with increasing GdCl3 content, following an Arrhenius relationship. The behavior of the ac conductivity revealed that the conduction mechanism for studied films followed correlated barrier hopping model. The hopping distance (R) was calculated at different temperatures for all investigated samples.

  20. An examination of polyvinylidene fluoride capacitive sensors as ultrasound transducer for imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Ramírez, B.; García-Segundo, C.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2014-05-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the performance of low-noise capacitive sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric films to sense water-borne ultrasound signals for their use in photoacoustic tomography. We derive a mechanical-to-electrical transfer function of a piezoelectric capacitor sensor of infinite lateral dimensions and arbitrary thickness assuming that an ultrasound wave is normally incident. Then, we analyse the response for obliquely incident ultrasound waves on sensors of large but finite area and derive an expression for the angle dependence of the sensor's response. We also present experimental different measurements with home-made sensors and compare with our theoretical model. We present measurements of the sensors' response to harmonic signals of variable frequency in the range from 0.5 to 50 MHz and of the angular-dependence factor at 6 MHz. Additionally, because of the scope of interest in these kinds of sensors, we also tested the sensors' response for photoacoustic perturbations. These are generated by laser pulses from directly impinging on the sensor and from ultrasound perturbations produced on neoprene by the same kind of laser pulses and then travelling through water to the sensor.

  1. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based flexible and lightweight materials for attenuating microwave radiations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Maya; Singh, Mahander Pratap; Srivastava, Chandan; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2014-12-10

    Two unique materials were developed, like graphene oxide (GO) sheets covalently grafted on to barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles and cobalt nanowires (Co-NWs), to attenuate the electromagnetic (EM) radiations in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based composites. The rationale behind using either a ferroelectric or a ferromagnetic material in combination with intrinsically conducting nanoparticles (multiwall carbon nanotubes, CNTs), is to induce both electrical and magnetic dipoles in the system. Two key properties, namely, enhanced dielectric constant and magnetic permeability, were determined. PVDF/BT-GO composites exhibited higher dielectric constant compared to PVDF/BT and PVDF/GO composites. Co-NWs, which were synthesized by electrodeposition, exhibited saturation magnetization (Ms) of 40 emu/g and coercivity (Hc) of 300 G. Three phase hybrid composites were prepared by mixing CNTs with either BT-GO or Co-NWs in PVDF by solution blending. These nanoparticles showed high electrical conductivity and significant attenuation of EM radiations both in the X-band and in the Ku-band frequency. In addition, BT-GO/CNT and Co-NWs/CNT particles also enhanced the thermal conductivity of PVDF by ca. 8.7- and 9.3-fold in striking contrast to neat PVDF. This study open new avenues to design flexible and lightweight electromagnetic interference shielding materials by careful selection of functional nanoparticles.

  2. Electrospun montmorillonite modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposite separators for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Changjiang; Yang, Shuli; Zhao, Xinfei; Du, Pingfan; Xiong, Jie

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Composite separators of PVDF and MMT for lithium-ion batteries were electrospun. • Thermal dimensional stability and tensile property of composite separators get improved. • Presence of montmorillonite promotes electrical properties of PVDF fibrous separators. • Batteries consisting of PVDF/MMT-5% separator achieve the best performance. - Abstract: Composite separators of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with different contents of montmorillonite (MMT) for Li-ion batteries have been fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology, function group, crystallinity, and mechanical properties of membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile test, respectively. Interlayer spacing of MMT in polymer was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the results of electrochemical measurements suggest that PVDF/MMT-5% composite membrane has maximum ionic conductivity of 4.2 mS cm{sup −1}, minimum interfacial resistance of 97 Ω, and excellent electrochemical stability. The cell comprising PVDF/MMT-5% composite membrane shows higher capacity and more stable cycle performance than the one using commercial Celgard PP membrane.

  3. Superhydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane fabricated by chemical vapor deposition from solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhenrong; Gu, Zhenya; Huo, Ruiting; Ye, Yonghong

    2009-05-01

    Due to the chemical stability and flexibility, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes are widely used as the topcoat of architectural membrane structures, roof materials of vehicle, tent fabrics, and so on. Further modified PVDF membrane with superhydrophobic property may be even superior as the coating layer surface. The lotus flower is always considered to be a sacred plant, which can protect itself against water, dirt, and dust. The superhydrophobic surface of lotus leaf is rough, showing the micro- and nanometer scale morphology. In this work, the microreliefs of lotus leaf were mimicked using PVDF membrane and the nanometer scale peaks on the top of the microreliefs were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition from solution. The surface morphology of PVDF membrane was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Elemental composition analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that the material of the nanostructure of PVDF membrane was polymethylsiloxane. On the lotus-leaf-like PVDF membrane, the water contact angle and sliding angle were 155° and 4°, respectively, exhibiting superhydrophobic property.

  4. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) reinforced by carbon fibers: Structural parameters of fibers and fiber-polymer adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianghong; Wu, Defeng; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Weidong

    2012-10-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composites containing carbon fibers (CFs) with or without surface treatment were prepared via melt mixing. The mechanical properties of the PVDF/CF composites were then studied to explore the relations between the short-range and long-range structures of CFs and the properties of the composites. The results showed that the presence of CFs had a reinforcement effect on the PVDF and the Nielsen model was used to describe the concentration effect of CFs, especially at the lower concentration levels. The short-range aspect ratio structure and the long-range orientation structure of the CFs are the two most important structures that affected the final properties of the composites. The effective aspect ratio and orientation degree of the CFs in the PVDF matrix can be evaluated by the Halpin-Tsai and the Krenchel-COX models, which agree well with the experimental observations. After surface treatment, the CFs show stronger reinforcement effect due to reduced interfacial tension and increased interfacial area between two phases

  5. Ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) thin films on Si substrate with the β phase promoted by hydrated magnesium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Liow, Chung Lee

    2007-11-01

    Solution derived poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer thin films on silicon substrates with the addition of hydrated salt [Mg(NO3)2ṡ6H2O] were systematically investigated. β phase dominant ferroelectric PVDF thin films with a remnant polarization of 77 mC/m2 were achieved by optimizing the concentration of Mg(NO3)2ṡ6H2O and the processing condition. Our experimental results and theoretical analysis indicated that the hydrogen bonds between water in the hydrated salt and the PVDF molecules result in the interchain registration of the all-trans conformation, and the hydrated salt acts as the nucleation agent and promotes the crystallization of the β phase. The obtained effective d33 was -14.5 pm/V, tested with a laser scanning vibrometer, without taking into account the substrate clamping effect. The numerical simulation, after considering the elastic constrain of the substrate, determined that the corresponding actual d33 is -30.8 pm/V, which is comparable to that of uniaxially stretched piezoelectric PVDF films.

  6. High Thermal Gradient in Thermo-electrochemical Cells by Insertion of a Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Syed Waqar; Said, Suhana Mohd; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Hashim, Nur Awanis; Hasnan, Megat Muhammad Ikhsan Megat; Pringle, Jennifer M.; MacFarlane, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Thermo-Electrochemical cells (Thermocells/TECs) transform thermal energy into electricity by means of electrochemical potential disequilibrium between electrodes induced by a temperature gradient (ΔT). Heat conduction across the terminals of the cell is one of the primary reasons for device inefficiency. Herein, we embed Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) membrane in thermocells to mitigate the heat transfer effects - we refer to these membrane-thermocells as MTECs. At a ΔT of 12 K, an improvement in the open circuit voltage (Voc) of the TEC from 1.3 mV to 2.8 mV is obtained by employment of the membrane. The PVDF membrane is employed at three different locations between the electrodes i.e. x = 2 mm, 5 mm, and 8 mm where ‘x’ defines the distance between the cathode and PVDF membrane. We found that the membrane position at x = 5 mm achieves the closest internal ∆T (i.e. 8.8 K) to the externally applied ΔT of 10 K and corresponding power density is 254 nWcm−2; 78% higher than the conventional TEC. Finally, a thermal resistivity model based on infrared thermography explains mass and heat transfer within the thermocells. PMID:27381946

  7. Preparation of polyvinylidene fluoride/cellulose acetate blend membrane with polyethylene glycol additive for apple juice clarification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Shatila Jihadiyah; Widiastuti, Nurul

    2017-03-01

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)/Cellulose Acetate (CA) blend membrane with polyethylene (PEG) addition of casting solution were synthesised to determine its morphology. This purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of PEG addition to membrane performance and its application to the clarification of apple juice. The membranes were prepared from polymer blends of CA and PVDF, dimethyl acetamide (DMAc) as solvent, and PEG as additive. Phase inversion was used to prepare membranes by mixing the polymer blends, solvent and additive to be reacted at temperature 60 °C for 24 hours. The variation of PEG weight percentage were 0, 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The addition of PEG increased porosity and fluxes, but decreased membrane rejection. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were applied to evaluate the morphology of membranes, which investigated increasing of pore size, pore distribution, and surface roughness. Apple juice clarification by membrane with 1% PEG was obtained 95,1% clearer than the pure sample.

  8. Largely enhanced dielectric properties of carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride binary nanocomposites by loading a few boron nitride nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Minhao; Zhao, Hang; He, Delong; Bai, Jinbo

    2016-08-01

    The ternary nanocomposites of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are fabricated via a combination of solution casting and extrusion-injection processes. The effects of BNNSs on the electrical conductivity, dielectric behavior, and microstructure changes of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposites are systematically investigated. A low percolation value (fc) for the CNTs/PVDF binary system is obtained due to the integration of solution and melting blending procedures. Two kinds of CNTs/PVDF binary systems with various CNTs contents (fCNTs) as the matrix are discussed. The results reveal that compared with CNTs/PVDF binary systems at the same fCNTs, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF nanocomposites exhibit largely enhanced dielectric properties due to the improvement of the CNTs dispersion state and the conductive network. The dielectric constant of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposite with 6 vol. % CNTs (fCNTs < fc) shows a 79.59% enhancement from 49 to 88 after the incorporation of 3 vol. % BNNSs. For the other CNTs/PVDF system with 8 vol. % CNTs (fCNTs > fc), it displays a 43.32% improvement from 1325 to 1899 after the addition of 3 vol. % BNNSs. The presence of BNNSs facilitates the formation of the denser conductive network. Meanwhile, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF systems exhibit a low dielectric loss. The adjustable dielectric properties could be obtained by employing the ternary systems due to the microstructure changes of nanocomposites.

  9. Cross-Selectivity Enhancement of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)-Based Sensor Arrays for Detecting Acetone and Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Daneshkhah, Ali; Shrestha, Sudhir; Siegel, Amanda; Varahramyan, Kody; Agarwal, Mangilal

    2017-01-01

    Two methods for cross-selectivity enhancement of porous poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/carbon black (CB) composite-based resistive sensors are provided. The sensors are tested with acetone and ethanol in the presence of humid air. Cross-selectivity is enhanced using two different methods to modify the basic response of the PVDF-HFP/CB sensing platform. In method I, the adsorption properties of PVDF-HFP/CB are altered by adding a polyethylene oxide (PEO) layer or by treating with infrared (IR). In method II, the effects of the interaction of acetone and ethanol are enhanced by adding diethylene carbonate (DEC) or PEO dispersed in DEC (PEO/DEC) to the film. The results suggest the approaches used in method I alter the composite ability to adsorb acetone and ethanol, while in method II, they alter the transduction characteristics of the composite. Using these approaches, sensor relative response to acetone was increased by 89% compared with the PVDF-HFP/CB untreated film, whereas sensor relative response to ethanol could be decreased by 57% or increased by 197%. Not only do these results demonstrate facile methods for increasing sensitivity of PVDF-HFP/CB film, used in parallel they demonstrate a roadmap for enhancing system cross-selectivity that can be applied to separate units on an array. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures and results are presented and discussed. PMID:28294961

  10. Facile fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanodot arrays for organic ferroelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Huajing; Yan, Qingfeng; Geng, Chong; Chan, Ngai Yui; Au, Kit; Yao, Jianjun; Ng, Sheung Mei; Leung, Chi Wah; Li, Qiang; Guo, Dong; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Dai, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Nano-patterned ferroelectric materials have attracted significant attention as the presence of two or more thermodynamically equivalent switchable polarization states can be employed in many applications such as non-volatile memory. In this work, a simple and effective approach for fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays is demonstrated. By using a soft polydimethylsiloxane mold, we successfully transferred the 2D array pattern from the initial monolayer of colloidal polystyrene nanospheres to the imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) films via nanoimprinting. The existence of a preferred orientation of the copolymer chain after nanoimprinting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Local polarization switching behavior was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy, and each nanodot showed well-formed hysteresis curve and butterfly loop with a coercive field of ˜62.5 MV/m. To illustrate the potential application of these ordered P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays, the writing and reading process as non-volatile memory was demonstrated at a relatively low voltage. As such, our results offer a facile and promising route to produce arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodots with improved piezoelectric functionality.

  11. Quantitative verification of thin-film polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducer array performance up to 60 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoda, Christopher; Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.; Rose, Joseph L.

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) transducers are appealing as low cost, light weight, durable, and flexible sensors for structural health monitoring applications in aircraft structures. However, due to the relatively low Curie temperature of PVDF, there is a concern that it's performance will drop below acceptable levels during elevated-temperature operating conditions. To verify acceptable performance in these environmental operating conditions, temperature history data were collected between 23-60 °C. The effect of temperature on the thin-film PVDF was investigated and a temperature-independent damage feature was assessed. The temperature dependence of the signal's peak amplitude was investigated in both the time domain and the spectral domain to get two damage features. It was found that the measurement of the incident guided wave by the thin-film PVDF transducer had a temperature dependence that varied with frequency. A third damage feature, the mode ratio, was also calculated in the spectral domain with the goal of defining a damage feature that is temperature independent. A comparison of how well these damage features performed when used to identify a notch in an aluminum plate was made using receiver operating characteristic curves and their respective area under the curve values. This result demonstrated that a temperature-independent damage feature can be calculated, to some degree, by using a mode ratio between two modes of similar temperature dependence.

  12. Multilayered poly(vinylidene fluoride) composite membranes with improved interfacial compatibility: correlating pervaporation performance with free volume properties.

    PubMed

    An, Quanfu; Chen, Jung-Tsai; De Guzman, Manuel; Hung, Wei-Song; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2011-09-06

    A spin-coating process integrated with an ozone-induced graft polymerization technique was applied in this study. The purpose was to improve the poor interfacial compatibility between a selective layer of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and the surface of a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) substrate. The composite membranes thus fabricated were tested for their pervaporation performance in dehydrating an ethyl acetate/water mixture. Furthermore, the composite membranes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for morphological change observation and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy equipped with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) for surface chemical composition analysis. Effects of grafting density and spin-coating speed on pervaporation performance were examined. The composite membrane pervaporation performance was elucidated by means of free volume and depth profile data obtained with the use of a variable monoenergy slow positron beam (VMSPB). Results indicated that a smaller free volume was correlated with a higher pervaporation performance of a composite membrane consisting of a selective layer of spin-coated PHEMA on a PHEMA-grafted PVDF substrate (S-PHEMA/PHEMA-g-PVDF). The composite membrane depth profile illustrated that an S-PHEMA layer spin-coated at a higher revolutions per minute (rpm) was thinner and denser than that at a lower rpm.

  13. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO2/polyethylene glycol mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xingran; Zheng, Xiang; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO2 was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane.

  14. Novel polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiltration membrane blended with functionalized halloysite nanotubes for dye and heavy metal ions removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangyong; He, Yi; Zhan, Yingqing; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Chunli; Yu, Zongxue

    2016-11-05

    Membrane separation is an effective method for the removal of hazardous materials from wastewater. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by blending with various concentrations of APTES grafted HNTs (A-HNTs). The morphology structure of the membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact angle (CA), pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling capacity of membranes were investigated in detail. In addition, the separation performance of membranes were reflected by the removal of dye and heavy metal ions in simulated wastewater. The results revealed that the hydrophilicity of A-HNTs blended PVDF membrane (A-HNTs@PVDF) was enhanced significantly. Owing to the electrostatic interaction between membrane surface and dye molecules, the dye rejection ratio of 3% A-HNTs@PVDF membrane reached 94.9%. The heavy metal ions rejection ratio and adsorption capacity of membrane were also improved with the addition of A-HNTs. More importantly, A-HNTs@PVDF membrane exhibited excellent rejection stability and reuse performances after several times fouling and washing tests. It can be expected that the present work will provide insight into a new method for membrane modification in the field of wastewater treatment.

  15. Conductivity degradation of polyvinylidene fluoride composite binder during cycling: Measurements and simulations for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Grillet, Anne M.; Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; Roberts, Scott A.; Barringer, David A.; Snyder, Chelsea M.; Janvrin, Madison R.; Apblett, Christopher A.

    2016-07-02

    The polymer-composite binder used in lithium-ion battery electrodes must both hold the electrodes together and augment their electrical conductivity while subjected to mechanical stresses caused by active material volume changes due to lithiation and delithiation. We have discovered that cyclic mechanical stresses cause significant degradation in the binder electrical conductivity. After just 160 mechanical cycles, the conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF):carbon black binder dropped between 45–75%. This degradation in binder conductivity has been shown to be quite general, occurring over a range of carbon black concentrations, with and without absorbed electrolyte solvent and for different polymer manufacturers. Mechanical cycling of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathodes caused a similar degradation, reducing the effective electrical conductivity by 30–40%. Mesoscale simulations on a reconstructed experimental cathode geometry predicted the binder conductivity degradation will have a proportional impact on cathode electrical conductivity, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. Lastly, ohmic resistance measurements were made on complete batteries. Direct comparisons between electrochemical cycling and mechanical cycling show consistent trends in the conductivity decline. This evidence supports a new mechanism for performance decline of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries during operation – electrochemically-induced mechanical stresses that degrade binder conductivity, increasing the internal resistance of the battery with cycling.

  16. Conductivity degradation of polyvinylidene fluoride composite binder during cycling: Measurements and simulations for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Grillet, Anne M.; Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; ...

    2016-07-02

    The polymer-composite binder used in lithium-ion battery electrodes must both hold the electrodes together and augment their electrical conductivity while subjected to mechanical stresses caused by active material volume changes due to lithiation and delithiation. We have discovered that cyclic mechanical stresses cause significant degradation in the binder electrical conductivity. After just 160 mechanical cycles, the conductivity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF):carbon black binder dropped between 45–75%. This degradation in binder conductivity has been shown to be quite general, occurring over a range of carbon black concentrations, with and without absorbed electrolyte solvent and for different polymer manufacturers. Mechanical cycling ofmore » lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) cathodes caused a similar degradation, reducing the effective electrical conductivity by 30–40%. Mesoscale simulations on a reconstructed experimental cathode geometry predicted the binder conductivity degradation will have a proportional impact on cathode electrical conductivity, in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. Lastly, ohmic resistance measurements were made on complete batteries. Direct comparisons between electrochemical cycling and mechanical cycling show consistent trends in the conductivity decline. This evidence supports a new mechanism for performance decline of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries during operation – electrochemically-induced mechanical stresses that degrade binder conductivity, increasing the internal resistance of the battery with cycling.« less

  17. Dependence of the Impact Response of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Sensors on Their Supporting Materials' Elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yunfang; Chen, Xinjuan; Ni, Qingshan; Li, Longhua; Ju, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is popular sensing material because of its unique piezoelectric characteristics. In this work an impact sensor was prepared from a sandwiched structure PVDF film, and the related detection circuits were presented. The dependence of the PVDF sensors' response on the elasticity of the supporting materials was examined and discussed. Here two response indexes were discussed, which were the peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp) and the recovery time. Firstly, falling impact experiments were executed on desk-supported PVDF sensors (100 μm PVDF film) using free falls of different weights from different heights. Then the same shock experiments were repeated on the same sensor, but changing the backstops to a sponge and rubber, respectively. On the desk, the values of Vpp were bigger than when the other two backstops were used; but the changes of the impact energy could not be reflected by the PVDF sensor when it was supported by a hard material. It was found that the biggest sensitivity of the voltage response (about 96.62 V/J) was obtained by the sponge-supported sensor; for the same sensor, when it was supported by rubber, the slope was 82.26 V/J. Moreover, the recovery time for the desk-supported sensor was almost constant, varying from 0.15 to 0.18 s, while for the same sensor supported by sponge or rubber, its recovery time changed with the shifting of the impact energy in the range of 0.02∼0.36 s, but no pattern could be found in the recovery-time characteristics. PMID:23881132

  18. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolyte for paper-based and flexible battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliahmad, Nojan; Shrestha, Sudhir; Varahramyan, Kody; Agarwal, Mangilal

    2016-06-01

    Paper-based batteries represent a new frontier in battery technology. However, low-flexibility and poor ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes have been major impediments in achieving practical mechanically flexible batteries. This work discuss new highly ionic conductive polymer gel electrolytes for paper-based battery applications. In this paper, we present a poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDH-HFP) porous membrane electrolyte enhanced with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulphone)imide (LiTFSI) and lithium aluminum titanium phosphate (LATP), with an ionic conductivity of 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1. Combining ceramic (LATP) with the gel structure of PVDF-HFP and LiTFSI ionic liquid harnesses benefits of ceramic and gel electrolytes in providing flexible electrolytes with a high ionic conductivity. In a flexibility test experiment, bending the polymer electrolyte at 90° for 20 times resulted in 14% decrease in ionic conductivity. Efforts to further improving the flexibility of the presented electrolyte are ongoing. Using this electrolyte, full-cell batteries with lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) electrodes and (i) standard metallic current collectors and (ii) paper-based current collectors were fabricated and tested. The achieved specific capacities were (i) 123 mAh g-1 for standard metallic current collectors and (ii) 99.5 mAh g-1 for paper-based current collectors. Thus, the presented electrolyte has potential to become a viable candidate in paper-based and flexible battery applications. Fabrication methods, experimental procedures, and test results for the polymer gel electrolyte and batteries are presented and discussed.

  19. AC and DC conductivity of ionic liquid containing polyvinylidene fluoride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frübing, Peter; Wang, Feipeng; Kühle, Till-Friedrich; Gerhard, Reimund

    2016-01-01

    Polarisation processes and charge transport in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a small amount (0.01-10 wt%) of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate ({[EMIM]}^+[{NO}_3]^-) are investigated by means of dielectric spectroscopy. The response of PVDF that contains more than 0.01 wt% IL is dominated by a low-frequency relaxation which shows typical signatures of electrode polarisation. Furthermore, the α a relaxation, related to the glass transition, disappears for IL contents of more than 1 wt%, which indicates that the amorphous phase loses its glass-forming properties and undergoes structural changes. The DC conductivity is determined from the low-frequency limit of the AC conductivity and from the dielectric loss peak related to the electrode polarisation. DC conductivities of 10^{-10} to 10^{-2} {S}/{m} are obtained—increasing with IL content and temperature. The dependence of the DC conductivity on the IL content follows a power law with an exponent greater than one, indicating an increase in the ion mobility. The temperature dependence of the DC conductivity shows Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann behaviour, which implies that charge transport is coupled to polymer chain motion. Mobile ion densities and ion mobilities are calculated from the DC conductivity and the dielectric loss related to electrode polarisation, with the results that less than one per cent of the total ion concentration contributes to the conductivity and that the strong increase in conductivity with temperature is mainly caused by a strong increase in ion mobility. This leads to the conclusion that in particular the ion mobility must be reduced in order to decrease the DC conductivity.

  20. [Surface modification of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane by using the zwitterionic substance].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gui-Hu; Xiao, Feng; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ming'; Shi, Jian; Zang, Li

    2013-10-01

    In order to enhance the hydrophilicity of the membrane and improve the antifouling properties, poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacry-late) (poly(HEMA)) was grafted to the surface of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane by using the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. After that, ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as the initiator, N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent, a zwitterionic polymer, poly (3-( methacryloylamino) propyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) (poly(MPDSAH)) were successfully grafted onto the membrane surface by radical polymerization reaction. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle measuring were employed to analyze the property and the morphology of structures before and after the membrane surface-modification. The grafting density (GD) gradually increased, with the grafting time increasing, the pore size of the membrane became smaller, and the porosity decreased, but the surface hydrophilicity of membrane was significantly enhanced at the same time. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) tests and filtration experiments were carried out to investigate anti-fouling performances of membrane before and after modification. With the GD increasing, the amount of adsorption on the film surface significantly reduced in the high-concentration BSA solution. The water contact angle (CA) decreased most, from 77. 2 degrees to 41.7 degrees within 5 s to 0, and a flux recovery ratio up to 94. 961% , when the GD reached 288. 340 microg.cm-2. Therefore, the optimal grafting time was 2 h, with the grafting density of 288. 340 microg.cm-2.

  1. High dielectric permittivity and improved mechanical and thermal properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with low carbon nanotube content: effect of composite processing on phase behavior and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer Kumar, G.; Vishnupriya, D.; Chary, K. Suresh; Umasankar Patro, T.

    2016-09-01

    The composite processing technique and nanofiller concentration and its functionalization significantly alter the properties of polymer nanocomposites. To realize this, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) were dispersed in a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix at carefully selected CNT concentrations by two illustrious methods, such as solution-cast and melt-mixing. Notwithstanding the processing method, CNTs induced predominantly the γ-phase in PVDF, instead of the commonly obtained β-phase upon nanofiller incorporation, and imparted significant improvements in dielectric properties. Acid-treatment of CNT improved its dispersion and interfacial adhesion significantly with PVDF, and induced a higher γ-phase content and better dielectric properties in PVDF as compared to pristine CNT. Further, the γ-phase content was found to be higher in solution-cast composites than that in melt-mixed counterparts, most likely due to solvent-induced crystallization in a controlled environment and slow solvent evaporation in the former case. However, interestingly, the melt-mixed composites showed a significantly higher dielectric constant at the onset of the CNT networked-structure as compared to the solution-cast composites. This suggests the possible role of CNT breakage during melt-mixing, which might lead to higher space-charge polarization at the polymer-CNT interface, and in turn an increased number of pseudo-microcapacitors in these composites than the solution-cast counterparts. Notably, PVDF with 0.13 vol% (volume fraction, f c = 0.0013) of acid-treated CNTs, prepared by melt-mixing, displayed the relative permittivity of ˜217 and capacitance of ˜5430 pF, loss tangent of ˜0.4 at 1 kHz and an unprecedented figure of merit of ˜105. We suggest a simple hypothesis for the γ-phase formation and evolution of the high dielectric constant in these composites. Further, the high-dielectric composite film showed marked improvements in mechanical and thermal properties

  2. Robust Mechanical-to-Electrical Energy Conversion from Short-Distance Electrospun Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Fiber Webs.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hao; Fang, Jian; Wang, Hongxia; Lang, Chenhong; Lin, Tong

    2015-10-14

    Electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiber webs have shown great potential in making mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion devices. Previously, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofibers were produced either using near-field electrospinning (spinning distance<1 cm) or conventional electrospinning (spinning distance>8 cm). PVDF fibers produced by an electrospinning at a spinning distance between 1 and 8 cm (referred to as "short-distance" electrospinning in this paper) has received little attention. In this study, we have found that PVDF electrospun in such a distance range can still be fibers, although interfiber connection is formed throughout the web. The interconnected PVDF fibers can have a comparable β crystal phase content and mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion property to those produced by conventional electrospinning. However, the interfiber connection was found to considerably stabilize the fibrous structure during repeated compression and decompression for electrical conversion. More interestingly, the short-distance electrospun PVDF fiber webs have higher delamination resistance and tensile strength than those of PVDF nanofiber webs produced by conventional electrospinning. Short-distance electrospun PVDF nanofibers could be more suitable for the development of robust energy harvesters than conventionally electrospun PVDF nanofibers.

  3. Phase Change Activation and Characterization of Spray-Deposited Poly(vinylidene) Fluoride Piezoelectric Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riosbaas, Miranda Tiffany

    Structural safety and integrity continues to be an issue of utmost concern in our world today. Existing infrastructures in civil, commercial, and military applications are beginning to see issues associated with age and environmental conditions. In addition, new materials are being put to service that are not yet fully characterized and understood when it comes to long term behavior. In order to assess the structural health of both old and new materials, it is necessary to implement a technique for monitoring wear and tear. Current methods that are being used today typically depend on visual inspection techniques or handheld instruments. These methods are not always ideal for large structures as they become very tedious leading to a substantial amount of both time and money spent. More recently, composite materials have been introduced into applications that can benefit from high strength-to-weight ratio materials. However, the use of more complex materials (such as composites) leads to a high demand of structural health monitoring techniques, since the damage is often internal and not visible to the naked eye. The work performed in this thesis examines the methods that can be used for phase change activation and characterization of sprayable poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) thin films in order to exploit their piezoelectric characteristics for sensing applications. PVDF is widely accepted to exist in four phases: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Alpha phase PVDF is produced directly from the melt and exhibits no piezoelectric properties. The activation or transition from α phase to some combination of beta and/or gamma phase PVDF leads to a polarizable piezoelectric thin film to be used in sensing applications. The work herein presents the methods used to activate phase change in PVDF, such as mechanical stretching, annealing, and chemical composition, to be able to implement PVDF as an impact detection sensor. The results and analysis provided in this thesis will

  4. Impact of ionic liquid-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the crystallization behavior of poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Xing, Chenyang; Zhao, Liping; You, Jichun; Dong, Wenyong; Cao, Xiaojun; Li, Yongjin

    2012-07-19

    The impact of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], and the ionic liquid-modified MWCNTs (IL-MWCNTs) on the crystallization behavior of melt-crystallized poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been investigated. Pristine MWCNTs accelerate crystallization of PVDF as an efficient nucleation agent, while the formed crystals are mainly nonpolar α crystal form with few polar β crystals. Incorporation of only ionic liquid results in depression of the PVDF melt crystallization rate due to the miscibility of IL with PVDF but leads to a higher content of polar crystals (β and γ forms) than MWCNTs. The ionic liquid and MWCNTs show significant synergetic effects on both the nucleation and the formation of polar crystals for PVDF by melt crystallization. Addition of IL-MWCNTs not only improves the MWCNTs dispersion in PVDF matrix but also increases the overall crystallization rate of PVDF drastically. More important, the melt-crystallized PVDF nanocomposites with IL-MWCNTs show 100% polar polymorphs but no α crystal forms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the achievements of full polar crystal form in the melt-crystallized PVDF without mechanical deformation or electric field. The IL to MWCNTs ratio and the IL-MWCNTs loading content effects on the crystallization behavior of PVDF in the nanocomposites were also studied. It is considered that the specific interactions between >CF2 with the planar cationic imidazolium ring wrapped on the MWCNTs surface lead to the full zigzag conformations of PVDF; thus, nucleation in polar crystals (β and γ forms) lattice is achieved and full polar crystals are obtained by subsequent crystal growth from the nuclei.

  5. Improved dielectric properties of nanocomposites based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongrui; Bao, Yaru; Zha, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Jun; Dang, Zhi-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua

    2012-11-01

    In this work, two series of nanocomposites of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) incorporated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-modified rGO (rGO-PVA) were fabricated using solution-cast method and their dielectric properties were carefully characterized. Infrared spectroscopy and atom force microscope analysis indicated that PVA chains were successfully grafted onto graphene through ester linkage. The PVA functionalization of graphene surface can not only prevent the agglomeration of original rGO but also enhance the interaction between PVDF and rGO-PVA. Strong hydrogen bonds and charge transfer effect between rGO-PVA and PVDF were determined by infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The dielectric properties of rGO-PVA/PVDF and rGO/PVDF nanocomposites were investigated in a frequency range from 10² Hz to 10⁷ Hz. Both composite systems exhibited an insulator-to-conductor percolating transition as the increase of the filler content. The percolation thresholds were estimated to be 2.24 vol % for rGO-PVA/PVDF composites and 0.61 vol % for rGO/PVDF composites, respectively. Near the percolation threshold, the dielectric permittivity of the nanocomposites was significantly promoted, which can be well explained by interfacial polarization effect and microcapacitor model. Compared to rGO/PVDF composites, higher dielectric constant and lower loss factor were simultaneously achieved in rGO-PVA/PVDF nanocomposites at a frequency range lower than 1 × 10³ Hz. This work provides a potential design strategy based on graphene interface engineering, which would lead to higher-performance flexible dielectric materials.

  6. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-01-01

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT–Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT–Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10−9 S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT–Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry. PMID:27633958

  7. Plasma-induced graft copolymerization of poly(methacrylic acid) on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber membrane.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Satinderpal; Ma, Zuwei; Gopal, Renuga; Singh, Gurdev; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Matsuura, Takeshi

    2007-12-18

    Electrospun nanofibrous membranes (ENM) which have a porous structure have a huge potential for various liquid filtration applications. In this paper, we explore the viability of using plasma-induced graft copolymerization to reduce the pore sizes of ENMs. Poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) was electrospun to produce a nonwoven membrane, comprised of nanofibers with diameters in the range of 200-600 nm. The surface of the ENM was exposed to argon plasma and subsequently graft-copolymerized with methacrylic acid. The effect of plasma exposure time on grafting was studied for both the ENM and a commercial hydrophobic PVDF (HVHP) membrane. The grafting density was quantitatively measured with toluidine blue-O. The degree of grafting increased steeply with an increase in plasma exposure time for the ENM, attaining a maximum of 180 nmol/mg after 120 s of plasma treatment. However, the increase in the grafting density on the surface of the HVHP membrane was not as drastic, reaching a plateau of 65 nmol/mg after 60 s. The liquid entry permeation of water dropped extensively for both membranes, indicating a change in surface properties. Field emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed an alteration in the surface pore structure for both membranes after grafting. Bubble point measurements of the ENM reduced from 3.6 to 0.9 um after grafting. The pore-size distribution obtained using the capillary flow porometer for the grafted ENM revealed that it had a similar profile to that of a commercial hydrophilic commercial PVDF (HVLP) membrane. More significantly, water filtration studies revealed that the grafted ENM had a better flux throughput than the HVLP membrane. This suggests that ENMs can be successfully engineered through surface modification to achieve smaller pores while retaining their high flux performance.

  8. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-09-01

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT–Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT–Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10‑9 S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT–Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT–Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry.

  9. Molecular modeling of the piezoelectric properties of ferroelectric composites containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and either graphene or graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Bystrov, Vladimir S; Bdikin, Igor K; Silibin, Maksim; Karpinsky, Dmitry; Kopyl, Svitlana; Paramonova, Ekaterina V; Goncalves, Gil

    2017-04-01

    Molecular modeling of ferroelectric composites containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and either graphene (G) or graphene oxide (GO) were performed using the semi-empirical quantum approximation PM3 in HyperChem. The piezo properties of the composites were analyzed and compared with experimental data obtained for P(VDF-TrFE)-GO films. Qualitative agreement was obtained between the results of the modeling and the experimental results in terms of the properties of the measured effective piezoelectric coefficient d 33eff and its decrease in the presence of G/GO in comparison with the average computed piezoelectric coefficient . When models incorporating one or several G layers with 54 carbon atoms were investigated, the average piezoelectric coefficient was found to decrease to -9.8 pm/V for the one-sided model PVDF/G and to -18.98 pm/V for the sandwich model G/PVDF/G as compared with the calculated piezoelectric coefficient for pure PVDF ( = -42.2 pm/V computed in present work, and = -38.5 pm/V, obtained from J Mol Model 35 (2013) 19:3591-3602). When models incorporating one or several GO layers with 98 carbon atoms were considered, the piezoelectric coefficient was found to decrease to -14.6 pm/V for the one-sided PVDF/GO model and to -29.8 pm/V for the sandwich GO/PVDF/GO model as compared with the same calculated piezoelectric coefficient for pure PVDF.

  10. Enhanced dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites filled with nano iron oxide-deposited barium titanate hybrid particles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changhai; Chi, Qingguo; Dong, Jiufeng; Cui, Yang; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Lizhu; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-09-16

    We report enhancement of the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) generated by depositing magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles on the surface of barium titanate (BT) to fabricate BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites. This process introduced an external magnetic field and the influences of external magnetic field on dielectric properties of composites were investigated systematically. The composites subjected to magnetic field treatment for 30 min at 60 °C exhibited the largest dielectric permittivity (385 at 100 Hz) when the BT-Fe3O4 concentration is approximately 33 vol.%. The BT-Fe3O4 suppressed the formation of a conducting path in the composite and induced low dielectric loss (0.3) and low conductivity (4.12 × 10(-9) S/cm) in the composite. Series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced dielectric permittivity of BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT-Fe3O4 hybrid particles. However, the experimental results of the BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites treated by magnetic field agree with percolation theory, which indicates that the enhanced dielectric properties of the BT-Fe3O4/PVDF composites originate from the interfacial polarization induced by the external magnetic field. This work provides a simple and effective way for preparing nanocomposites with enhanced dielectric properties for use in the electronics industry.

  11. Dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites filled with surface coated BaTiO{sub 3} by SnO{sub 2} nanodots

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, Jun-Wei; Meng, Xing; Wang, Dongrui; Dang, Zhi-Min; Li, Robert K. Y.

    2014-02-17

    SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with an average diameter of about 4 nm were coated on the surface of BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) (∼100 nm) by chemical treatment. With the introduction of BT@SnO{sub 2}, the dielectric permittivity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite was significantly increased to 90 at 10{sup 3} Hz, which is ∼40% higher than that of the BT/PVDF composites. It was attributed to the enhanced interfacial polarization in the interlayers between BT and PVDF due to the addition of SnO{sub 2} nanodots. The distance of SnO{sub 2} nanodots on the adjacent BT surfaces is close enough for the electron transport in the matrix by tunneling effect. Besides, the semiconductive SnO{sub 2} leads to the weak insulating-conducting transition close to the percolation threshold.

  12. Oriented polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) films by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition: a synchrotron X-ray diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, W R; Philiph, R L; Chan, D W W; Ayers, C T; Perez, E M; Beckman, S P; Strzalka, J; Chaudhary, S; Vaknin, D

    2015-11-21

    Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene - P(VDF-TrFE)-copolymers possess substantially improved electrocaloric and pyroelectric properties, when compared with conventionally spin-cast films. In order to rationalize this, we prepared single-layered films of P(VDF-TrFE) (70 : 30) using both deposition techniques. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), reveals that Langmuir-Blodgett deposited films have a higher concentration of the ferroelectric β-phase crystals, and that these films are highly oriented with respect to the substrate. Based on these observations, we suggest alternative means of deposition, which may substantially enhance the electrocaloric effect in P(VDF-TrFE) films. This development has significant implications for the potential use of P(VDF-TrFE) in solid-state refrigeration.

  13. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  14. Reflection and transmission coefficient of yttrium iron garnet filled polyvinylidene fluoride composite using rectangular waveguide at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer.

  15. Electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(aminophenylboronic acid) composite nanofibrous membrane as a novel glucose sensor.

    PubMed

    Manesh, K M; Santhosh, P; Gopalan, A; Lee, Kwang-Pill

    2007-01-15

    Electrospinning was used to prepare the nanofibrous membrane (NFM) of the composite comprising poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(aminophenylboronic acid) (PVdF/PAPBA-NFM). The PVdF/PAPBA-NFM displayed an excellent linear response to the detection of glucose for the concentration range of 1 to 15mM with a response time of less than 6s. Further experiments on amperometric sensing of glucose were performed in the presence of interferents such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, acetaminophen, fructose, mannose, etc. using PVdF/PAPBA-NFM. The interferents did not give significant overlapping current signal during the determination of glucose. Also, PVdF/PAPBA-NFM possesses better reproducibility toward glucose detection and storage stability.

  16. Measurement of circumferential Lamb waves using a line-focus poly(vinylidene fluoride) transducer and cross correlation waveform analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-I; Lu, Yan; He, Cunfu; Song, Guorong; Lee, Yung-Chun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring circumferential Lamb waves propagating on a cylindrically curved thin plate. The measurement is carried out using a wideband and line-focused poly(vinylidene fluoride) transducer along with a defocusing waveform measurement method. After synthesizing the acquired waveforms, interference patterns can be obtained and a cross correlation method is developed to accurately extract the wave velocity as a function of wave frequency. Using three stainless steel thin plates of different thicknesses (100, 150, and 300 μm) and a radius of curvature of 10 mm, dispersion curves for several fundamental and higher order modes of circumferential Lamb waves are simultaneously determined. Theoretical dispersion curves are also calculated and compared with their experimental counterparts. Very good agreements are observed, which concludes the measurement accuracy of this measurement method.

  17. Reflection and Transmission Coefficient of Yttrium Iron Garnet Filled Polyvinylidene Fluoride Composite Using Rectangular Waveguide at Microwave Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Hassan; Abbas, Zulkifly; Yahya, Noorhana; Shameli, Kamyar; Soleimani, Hojjatollah; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel method was carried out to synthesize nanosized Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The nanomaterials with ferrite structure were heat-treated at different temperatures from 500 to 1000 °C. The phase identification, morphology and functional groups of the prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. The YIG ferrite nanopowder was composited with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by a solution casting method. The magnitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients of PVDF/YIG containing 6, 10 and 13% YIG, respectively, were measured using rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in X-band frequencies. The results indicate that the presence of YIG in polymer composites causes an increase in reflection coefficient and decrease in transmission coefficient of the polymer. PMID:22942718

  18. Removal of 2-propanol from water by pervaporation using poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane filled with carbon black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardarabadi, Hamideh; Mousavi, Seyed Mahmoud; Saljoughi, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, several filled poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes by the addition of various weight fractions from carbon black (CB) to the casting solution were prepared for the removal of 2-propanol from aqueous solution in pervaporation process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), contact angle and swelling degree measurements were used to study morphology and properties of the prepared membranes. Separation experiments were carried out at a feed temperature of 45 °C and a permeate pressure of 18 mmHg. The results demonstrated that the addition of carbon black filler resulted in formation of the membranes with denser structure; lower permeation flux and degree of swelling; and higher crystallinity, separation factor, contact angle, and pervaporation separation index.

  19. Composites of hybrids BaTiO3/carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride with high dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Benhui; Bai, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    High dielectric composites were prepared based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hybrids BaTiO3-carbon nanotubes (H-BT-CNTs) with a special structure. The hybrids that BT was a core and CNTs grew outside were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. Due to the special structure, composite’s dielectric permittivity reached 1777 at 100 Hz and 80 at 1 MHz, while loss tangent maintained as 6 at 100 Hz and 0.56 at 1 MHz, respectively. Moreover, dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity of composite were further enhanced after annealing process at moderate temperature. These improved properties were originated from the reformation of conductive network and BT-CNTs structure inside PVDF matrix.

  20. Modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes with poly(vinyl alcohol) for fouling control in drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Du, Jennifer R; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M; Feng, Xianshe

    2009-10-01

    A commercial poly(vinylidene fluoride) flat sheet membrane was modified by surface coating with a dilute poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) aqueous solution followed by solid-vapor interfacial crosslinking. The resulting PVA layer increased membrane smoothness and hydrophilicity and resulted in comparable pure water permeation between the modified and unmodified membranes. Fouling tests using a 5 mg/L protein solution showed that a short period of coating and crosslinking improved the anti-fouling performance. After 18 h ultrafiltration of a surface water with a TOC of approximately 7 mg C/L, the flux of the modified membrane was twice as high as that of the unmodified membrane. The improved fouling resistance of the modified membrane was related to the membrane physiochemical properties, which were confirmed by pure water permeation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle, zeta potential and roughness measurements.

  1. Evaluation of adhesive-free crossed-electrode poly(vinylidene fluoride) copolymer array transducers for high frequency imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Sanat; Decharat, Adit; Habib, Anowarul; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Melandsø, Frank

    2016-07-01

    High frequency crossed-electrode transducers have been investigated, both as single and dual layer transducers. Prototypes of these transducers were developed for 4 crossed lines (yielding 16 square elements) on a polymer substrate, using a layer-by-layer deposition method for poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] with intermediate sputtered electrodes. The transducer was characterized using various methods [LCR analyzer, a pulse-echo experimental setup, and a numerical Finite element method (FEM) model] and evaluated in terms of uniformity of bandwidth and acoustical energy output. All 16 transducer elements produced broad-banded ultrasonic spectra with small variation in central frequency and -6 dB bandwidth. The frequency responses obtained experimentally were verified using a numerical model.

  2. Network structure in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) electrostrictive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, G. S.; Roland, C. M.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies of electron-irradiated copolymers of vinylidene fluoride and trifluoroethylene have demonstrated the potential for achieving a large electrostrictive response in these materials. Since the principal effect of the radiation is network formation, alternative methods of achieving improved electromechanical properties are available. In this letter, we use a two-solvent swelling technique to quantify the polymer-solvent interaction parameter for the copolymer networks. This enables determination of their crosslink densities, along with a measure of the degree of degradation accompanying radiolysis. Copolymer networks were then prepared chemically using organic peroxide. These networks were found to be similar to the radiation-crosslinked materials, both in the extent of degradation and with respect to the Curie temperature and crystalline melting behavior. The latter are crucial to the development of better electrostrictive properties.

  3. In Situ Gelation of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Nanospheres for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Analysis on the Efficiency Enhancement upon Gelation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Su-Jin; Lee, Sang Goo; Ha, Jong-Wook; Moon, Jun Hyuk

    2016-08-09

    The in situ gelation that utilizes the dissolution of polymers inside the cell is allowed high concentration polymer gel without concerns regarding high viscous electrolyte incorporation into the cell as in the conventional approach. We demonstrate the in situ gelation of polymer composite electrolytes using poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanospheres (PVdF NSs). The PVdF NSs were synthesized by high pressure emulsion polymerization using gaseous vinylidene fluoride monomers. Compared to the liquid electrolyte (LE) DSCs without PVdF gelation, the PVdF polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) DSCs displayed higher η than the LE DSCs; specifically, the 10 wt % PVdF PGE DSCs display 8.1% of the η, while the LE DSCs only display 6.5%. We characterized the effect of PVdF PGE on the photovoltaic parameters in detail. We also compared the long-term stability of DSCs containing LE and PVdF PGE. The DSCs with PVdF PGE exhibited high stability compared to the LE DSCs, similar to a conventional PGE system. We believe that this facile in situ gelation approach could be utilized for not only the practical application of polymer gel electrolytes DSCs but also for various energy-storage devices.

  4. Grafting N-Isopropyl Acrylamide) from Poly(vinylidene Fluoride) Mirofiltration, Membranes via Direct Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization, and Temperature Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiwang; Xiao, Jichun; Zhou, Weihua; Deng, Qilan; Nie, Huarong; Wan, Meixiang; Bai, Fenglian

    Well-defined poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes on commercial hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) microfiltration membrane surfaces were prepared, via direct atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with the secondary fluorinated site of PVDF as initiator and water as solvent at 80°C. The effect of solvents on the ATRP was studied in detail. The water as reaction solvent was in favor of surface-initiated ATRP of N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAm) from secondary fluoride of PVDF membranes. The chemical composition and structure of the modified PVDF membrane surfaces were determined by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface and cross-section morphology of membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore sizes of the pristine PVDF membrane and the PNIPAAm-grafted PVDF membranes were measured using micro-image analysis and process software. The introduction of the well-defined PNIPAAm on the PVDF membrane gave rise to hydrophilicity. Water contact angles of PVDF membranes reduced after the surface grafting of PNIPAAm. Water fluxes and protein solution permeation experiments revealed that the PNIPAAm-grafted PVDF membranes exhibited temperature-responsive permeability. The unique microstructure of PNIPAAm brushes facilitated hydrophilicity below the lower critical solution temperature.

  5. Highly temperature-dependent performance of a polyvinylidene fluoride Lamb wave device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Kohji; Ikenohira, Kazuo

    1980-11-01

    A Lamb wave device using a polyvinylidene flouride film is described. The transducer of the device consists of interdigital electrodes and a uniform counter-electrode. The performance of the device is highly temperature dependent. The attenuation of the Lamb wave on the film increases with higher frequencies. The attenuation decreases with increasing temperature, while the conversion efficiency of the transducer is nearly constant for the temperature change. The output of the device changes significantly under the influence of irradiation from a black body, and the device is very sensitive in the infrared region.

  6. Classical force field for hydrofluorocarbon molecular simulations. Application to the study of gas solubility in poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Lachet, V; Teuler, J-M; Rousseau, B

    2015-01-08

    A classical all-atoms force field for molecular simulations of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) has been developed. Lennard-Jones force centers plus point charges are used to represent dispersion-repulsion and electrostatic interactions. Parametrization of this force field has been performed iteratively using three target properties of pentafluorobutane: the quantum energy of an isolated molecule, the dielectric constant in the liquid phase, and the compressed liquid density. The accuracy and transferability of this new force field has been demonstrated through the simulation of different thermophysical properties of several fluorinated compounds, showing significant improvements compared to existing models. This new force field has been applied to study solubilities of several gases in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) above the melting temperature of this polymer. The solubility of CH4, CO2, H2S, H2, N2, O2, and H2O at infinite dilution has been computed using test particle insertions in the course of a NpT hybrid Monte Carlo simulation. For CH4, CO2, and their mixtures, some calculations beyond the Henry regime have also been performed using hybrid Monte Carlo simulations in the osmotic ensemble, allowing both swelling and solubility determination. An ideal mixing behavior is observed, with identical solubility coefficients in the mixtures and in pure gas systems.

  7. Uniform distribution of graphene oxide sheets into a poly-vinylidene fluoride nanoparticle matrix through shear-driven aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xinxin; Xie, Delong; Zhang, Xinya; Zhong, Li; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-06

    A general methodology has been developed for preparing nanocomposites with uniform, random distribution of fillers in polymer matrices, purely based on intense shear-driven aggregation, while avoiding filler aggregation. This procedure is demonstrated for a binary colloid composed of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanoparticles (NPs), both negatively charged and stable at rest. On the other hand, the PVDF NPs are shear-active (i.e. aggregation occurs under intensive shear), while the GO sheets are shear-inactive. It is found that when the two suspensions are mixed and the resulting binary colloid is forced to pass through a microchannel (MC) device (at a very high shear rate, G = 1.2 × 10(6) s(-1)), the shear-inactive GO sheets are captured and well distributed inside the PVDF NP clusters or gels. In addition, it is shown that in order to have 100% capture efficiency for the GO sheets, a minimum solid content of the binary colloid is required, which can be identified experimentally as the minimum leading to gelation after passing through the MC only one time.

  8. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes.

  9. Polyvinylidene fluoride/siloxane nanofibrous membranes for long-term continuous CO2 -capture with large absorption-flux enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Feng; Wang, Chi-Sen; Ko, Chia-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Hua; Chang, Kai-Shiun; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2014-02-01

    In a CO2 membrane contactor system, CO2 passes through a hydrophobic porous membrane in the gas phase to contact the amine absorbent in the liquid phase. Consequently, additional CO2 gas is absorbed by amine absorbents. This study examines highly porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/siloxane nanofibrous layers that are modified with hydrophobic fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) functional groups and successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2 O3 membrane. The performance of these materials in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption is also investigated. Compared with pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes, the PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membranes exhibit greater solvent resistance and mechanical strength, making them more suitable for use in CO2 capture by the membrane contactor. The PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous layer in highly porous FAS-modified membranes can prevent the wetting of the membrane by the amine absorbent; this extends the periods of continuous CO2 absorption and results in a high CO2 absorption flux with a minimum of 500 % enhancement over that of the uncoated membranes. This study suggests the potential use of an FAS-modified PVDF/siloxane nanofibrous membrane in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption. The resulting hydrophobic membrane contactor also demonstrates the potential for large-scale CO2 absorption during post-combustion processes in power plants.

  10. Evaluation of asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane-polyvinylidene fluoride composite membrane and incorporated with acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation for butanol recovery.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Du, Guang-Qing; Chen, Li-Jie; Ren, Jian-Gang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-10-20

    The polydimethylsiloxane-polyvinylidene fluoride (PDMS-PVDF) composite membrane was studied for its pervaporation performance to removal of butanol from butanol/ABE solution, fermentation broth as well as incorporated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The total flux and butanol titer in permeate through the PDMS-PVDF membrane were up to 769.6 g/m(2)h and 323.5 g/L at 80 °C, respectively. The butanol flux and total flux increased with increasing the feed temperature as well as the feed butanol titer. The butanol separation factor and butanol titer in permeate decreased slightly in the presence of acetone and ethanol in the feed due to their preferential dissolution and competitive permeation through the membrane. In fed-batch fermentation incorporated with pervaporation, butanol titer and flux in permeate maintained at a steady level with the range of 139.9-154.0 g/L and 13.3-16.3 g/m(2)h, respectively, which was attributed to the stable butanol titer in fermentation broth as well as the excellent hydrophobic nature of the PDMS-PVDF matrix. Therefore, the PDMS-PVDF composite membrane had a great potential in the in situ product recovery with ABE fermentation, enabling the economic production of biobutanol.

  11. Device level optimization of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene)–zinc oxide polymer nanocomposite thin films for ferroelectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    C K, Subash Valiyaneerilakkal, Uvais; Varghese, Soney; Singh, Kulwant

    2015-11-28

    Polymer nanocomposite was prepared using poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowder, which are ferroelectric in nature. Nanocomposite was prepared in various concentrations(0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 wt. %) using probe ultra-sonication, followed by spin coating and annealing at 120 °C for 2 h to improve the formation of β-phase. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor was fabricated using this optimized thin film as a ferroelectric layer. Device level optimization was carried out by polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis studies of this film, which shows polarization enhancement of composite. Various characterization techniques like atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction were used to study the β-phase formation of nancomposite. The capacitance–voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were studied through varying frequency and temperature. C-V measurements show an increase of 79% in the capacitance of polymer nanocomposite, which can be used for the fabrication of ferroelectric devices.

  12. Understanding Nonlinear Dielectric Properties in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film at Both Low and High Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Zhu, Lei; Case Western Reserve University Team; Sichuan University Team

    Understanding nonlinear dielectric behavior in polar polymers is crucial to their potential application as next genera tion high energy density and low loss dielectrics. In this work, we studied nonlinear dielectric properties of a biaxially oriented poly(vinylidene fluoride) (BOPVDF) film under both low and high electric fields. It was observed that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity for the BOPVDF disappeared above 10 Hz at room temperature, suggesting that the low-field dielectric nonlinearity originated from ionic migration of impurity ions rather than dipolar relaxation of the amorphous segments. Above the coercive field (EC ~70 MV/m), bipolar electric displacement-electric field (D-E) loop tests were used to extract the nonlinear behavior for pure PVDF crystals, which had a clear origin of ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains and nonpolar-to-polar (α --> δ --> β) phase transformations. Using HVBDS, it was observed that the ferroelectric switching of polar crystalline dipoles and domains in BOPVDF above the EC always took place between 20 and 500 Hz, regardless of a broad range of temperature from -30 to 100 °C. This behavior was drastically different from the amorphous PVDF dipoles, which had a strong dependence on frequency over orders of magnitude. This work is supported by NSF(DMR-1402733).

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/nanoclay nanocomposite flat sheet membranes for abrasion resistance.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi Yan; Groth, Andrew; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel

    2014-06-15

    Membranes with more resilience to abrasive wear are highly desired in water treatment, especially for seawater desalination. Nanocomposite poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/nanoclay membranes were prepared by phase inversion and then tested for abrasion resistance. Their material properties were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Nanoclay Cloisite(®) 15A was utilised as the inorganic nanoparticle incorporated into PVDF. FTIR results showed a shifting of the PVDF crystalline phase from α to β thus indicating that the nanoclay altered the PVDF host material's structure and mechanical properties in terms of stiffness and toughness. Water permeation test showed that nanoclay at low concentration tended to reduce water flux. All nanocomposite membranes, with between 1 wt% and 5 wt% initial nanoclay loading, were more abrasion resistant than the control PVDF membrane. However, the 1 wt% exhibited superior resistance, lasting two times longer than the reference PVDF membrane under the same abrasive condition. The 1 wt% nanoclay membrane appeared less abraded by SEM observation, while also having the greatest tensile strength improvement (from 4.5 MPa to 4.9 MPa). This membrane also had the smallest agglomerated nanoclay particle size and highest toughness compared to the higher nanoclay content membranes. Nanoclays are therefore useful for improving abrasion resistance of PVDF membranes, but optimal loadings are essential to avoid losing essential mechanical properties.

  14. Highly hydrophilic poly(vinylidene fluoride)/meso-titania hybrid mesoporous membrane for photocatalytic membrane reactor in water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Guang; Jin, Peng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The high hydrophobicity of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane remains an obstacle to be applied in some purification processes of water or wastewater. Herein, a highly hydrophilic hybrid mesoporous titania membrane composed of mesoporous anatase titania (meso-TiO2) materials inside the three-dimensional (3D) macropores of PVDF membrane was successfully prepared by using the dual-templated synthesis method combined with solvent extraction and applied as the photocatalytic membrane reactor for the photodegredation of organic dye in water. The structure and the properties of as-prepared hybrid membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption and contact angle measurements. It was found that the hydrophilicity of PVDF membrane can be significantly improved by filling mesoporous TiO2 inside the 3D macropores of PVDF membrane. Moreover, such a PVDF/meso-TiO2 hybrid membrane exhibits promising photocatalytic degradation of dye in water due to the existence of mesoporous anatase TiO2 materials inside PVDF membrane. This study provides a new strategy to simultaneously introduce hydrophilicity and some desirable properties into PVDF and other hydrophobic membranes. PMID:26754440

  15. Influence of miscibility phenomenon on crystalline polymorph transition in poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic rubber/clay nanocomposite hybrid.

    PubMed

    Abolhasani, Mohammad Mahdi; Naebe, Minoo; Jalali-Arani, Azam; Guo, Qipeng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, intercalation of nanoclay in the miscible polymer blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and acrylic rubber(ACM) was studied. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the formation of nanoscale polymer blend/clay hybrid. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray analysis revealed the coexistence of β and γ crystalline forms in PVDF/Clay nanocomposite while α crystalline form was found to be dominant in PVDF/ACM/Clay miscible hybrids. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (B) was used to further explain the miscibility phenomenon observed. The B parameter was determined by combining the melting point depression and the binary interaction model. The estimated B values for the ternary PVDF/ACM/Clay and PVDF/ACM pairs were all negative, showing both proper intercalation of the polymer melt into the nanoclay galleries and the good miscibility of PVDF and ACM blend. The B value for the PVDF/ACM blend was almost the same as that measured for the PVDF/ACM/Clay hybrid, suggesting that PVDF chains in nanocomposite hybrids interact with ACM chains and that nanoclay in hybrid systems is wrapped by ACM molecules.

  16. Crystallizaion and surface morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(methylmethacrylate) films by solution casting on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaolin

    2008-03-01

    The dependence of surface structure of the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films by solution casting on properties of seven substrates was investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was revealed that the polyblend films obtained by casting onto each substrate contained exclusively β phase PVDF. Higher crystallinity of the film was obtained by casting onto ceramic, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), copper (Cu), stainless steel and glass substrates than that by casting onto aluminium (Al) and polypropylene (PP) substrates, depending on the degree of close lattice matching. The surface crystalline structure of PVDF was strongly affected by the wettability of substrate. The largest size of PVDF spherulitic crystal structure with about 6 μm presented in the casting film grown at the air/solution interface on glass substrate, while the smallest spherulite size with about 3 μm was generated by casting onto PTFE, stainless steel and PP substrates. It implied that the higher surface tension the substrate had, the larger PVDF spherulite grew at the air/solution interface.

  17. Piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) thin film-based power generators using paper substrates for wearable device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Sung Sik; Sheldon, Mackenzie; Mostovych, Nicholas; Kwak, Jiyeon; Chang, Bong-Suk; Ahn, Chang Won; Kingon, Angus I.; Kim, Ill Won; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Solution-derived poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) piezoelectric thin films on cellulose paper substrates were prepared as flexible power generators for wearable device applications. Optimization of appropriate annealing and cooling sequences of the co-polymer films resulted in the formation of dense and uniform microstructures exhibiting a well-developed β-phase. A maximum open-circuit voltage of 1.5 V was generated from the periodic bending and releasing of the paper power generator at approximately 1 Hz. To demonstrate the wearable applications, P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric film-based paper power generators were directly attached on the back of a human hand, and they generated a maximum output open-circuit voltage of 0.4 V at low bending frequencies of 0.25 Hz. Good open-circuit voltage performance at low frequencies makes P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric thin films on paper substrates a strong candidate for future self-powered wearable devices.

  18. Photocatalytic applications of paper-like poly(vinylidene fluoride)-titanium dioxide hybrids fabricated using a combination of electrospinning and electrospraying.

    PubMed

    Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Son, Aseom; Seid, Mingizem Gashaw; Shim, Sujin; Lee, Sang Hyup; Chung, Yun Chul; Lee, Changha; Lee, Jaesang; Hong, Seok Won

    2015-03-21

    A paper-like photocatalyst was fabricated by electrospraying an N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) dispersion of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) on a poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber (PVDF NF) mat prepared by electrospinning. Morphological studies revealed that the TiO2 NPs uniformly deposited as clusters on the surface of the PVDF NF mat. The immobilized amount of TiO2 was found to be 2.08, 2.44, 3.80, and 4.73 mg per 45 cm(2) of PVDF-TiO2 hybrids for the electrospraying of 10, 20, 40, and 60 ml of TiO2-DMF, respectively. The hybrid photocatalysts were effective in degrading bisphenol A (BPA), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), and cimetidine (CMT), which dissolved in both deionized water and secondary wastewater effluents, with activity being proportional to the quantity of TiO2 NPs immobilized. For the highest loading amount of TiO2, BPA, 4-CP, and CMT degraded completely within 100, 100, and 40 min of UV irradiation, respectively. Stable photo-oxidation of CMT was maintained through 10 repeated cycles. During these cycles, it was confirmed that there was no loss of TiO2 NPs by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Our results suggest that effective and stable PVDF-TiO2 hybrid photocatalysts can be fabricated on a large scale by combining electrospinning and electrospraying techniques.

  19. Facile preparation of superamphiphobic epoxy resin/modified poly(vinylidene fluoride)/fluorinated ethylene propylene composite coating with corrosion/wear-resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huaiyuan; Liu, Zhanjian; Wang, Enqun; Zhang, Xiguang; Yuan, Ruixia; Wu, Shiqi; Zhu, Yanji

    2015-12-01

    A robust superamphiphobic epoxy resin (EP)/modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (MPVDF)/fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) composite coating has been prepared through the combination of chemical modification and spraying technique. Nanometer silica (SiO2, 2.5 wt.%) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs, 2.5 wt.%) were added in the coating to construct the necessary reticulate papillae structures for superamphiphobic surface. The prepared EP composite coating demonstrated high static contact angles (166°, 155°) and low sliding angles (3°, 5°) to water and glycerol, respectively. Moreover, the prepared coating can also retain superhydrophobicity under strongly acidic and alkaline conditions. The brittleness of EP can be avoided by introducing the malleable MPVDF. The wear life of the EP composite coating with 25 wt.% FEP was improved to 18 times of the pure EP coating. The increased wear life of the coating can be attributed to the designed nano/micro structures, the self-lubrication of FEP and the chemical reaction between EP and MPVDF. The anti-corrosion performance of the coatings was investigated in 3.5% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that the prepared superamphiphobic composite coating was most effective in corrosion resistance, primarily due to the barrier effect for the diffusion of O2 and H2O molecules. It is believed that this robust superamphiphobic EP/MPVDF/FEP composite coating prepared by the facile spray method can pave a way for the large-scale application in pipeline transport.

  20. Multicore-shell nanofiber architecture of polyimide/polyvinylidene fluoride blend for thermal and long-term stability of lithium ion battery separator.

    PubMed

    Park, Sejoon; Son, Chung Woo; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Cheolmin; Eom, Kwang Sup; Fuller, Thomas F; Joh, Han-Ik; Jo, Seong Mu

    2016-11-11

    Li-ion battery, separator, multicoreshell structure, thermal stability, long-term stability. A nanofibrous membrane with multiple cores of polyimide (PI) in the shell of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) was prepared using a facile one-pot electrospinning technique with a single nozzle. Unique multicore-shell (MCS) structure of the electrospun composite fibers was obtained, which resulted from electrospinning a phase-separated polymer composite solution. Multiple PI core fibrils with high molecular orientation were well-embedded across the cross-section and contributed remarkable thermal stabilities to the MCS membrane. Thus, no outbreaks were found in its dimension and ionic resistance up to 200 and 250 °C, respectively. Moreover, the MCS membrane (at ~200 °C), as a lithium ion battery (LIB) separator, showed superior thermal and electrochemical stabilities compared with a widely used commercial separator (~120 °C). The average capacity decay rate of LIB for 500 cycles was calculated to be approximately 0.030 mAh/g/cycle. This value demonstrated exceptional long-term stability compared with commercial LIBs and with two other types (single core-shell and co-electrospun separators incorporating with functionalized TiO2) of PI/PVdF composite separators. The proper architecture and synergy effects of multiple PI nanofibrils as a thermally stable polymer in the PVdF shell as electrolyte compatible polymers are responsible for the superior thermal performance and long-term stability of the LIB.

  1. Multicore-shell nanofiber architecture of polyimide/polyvinylidene fluoride blend for thermal and long-term stability of lithium ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sejoon; Son, Chung Woo; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Cheolmin; Eom, Kwang Sup; Fuller, Thomas F.; Joh, Han-Ik; Jo, Seong Mu

    2016-11-01

    Li-ion battery, separator, multicoreshell structure, thermal stability, long-term stability. A nanofibrous membrane with multiple cores of polyimide (PI) in the shell of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) was prepared using a facile one-pot electrospinning technique with a single nozzle. Unique multicore-shell (MCS) structure of the electrospun composite fibers was obtained, which resulted from electrospinning a phase-separated polymer composite solution. Multiple PI core fibrils with high molecular orientation were well-embedded across the cross-section and contributed remarkable thermal stabilities to the MCS membrane. Thus, no outbreaks were found in its dimension and ionic resistance up to 200 and 250 °C, respectively. Moreover, the MCS membrane (at ~200 °C), as a lithium ion battery (LIB) separator, showed superior thermal and electrochemical stabilities compared with a widely used commercial separator (~120 °C). The average capacity decay rate of LIB for 500 cycles was calculated to be approximately 0.030 mAh/g/cycle. This value demonstrated exceptional long-term stability compared with commercial LIBs and with two other types (single core-shell and co-electrospun separators incorporating with functionalized TiO2) of PI/PVdF composite separators. The proper architecture and synergy effects of multiple PI nanofibrils as a thermally stable polymer in the PVdF shell as electrolyte compatible polymers are responsible for the superior thermal performance and long-term stability of the LIB.

  2. An Ionic Liquid as Interface Linker for Tuning Piezoresistive Sensitivity and Toughness in Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Carbon Nanotube Composites.

    PubMed

    Ke, Kai; Pötschke, Petra; Gao, Shanglin; Voit, Brigitte

    2017-02-15

    Conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPNCs) have emerged as potential alternatives for metallic foil sensors and semiconductor strain gauges. The simultaneous achievement of high piezoresistive sensitivity and large strain ranges for CPNCs currently presents a great challenge and solving this challenge may extend the applications of CPNCs with self-diagnosis capabilities to many structural health-monitoring (SHM) systems. This paper reports a facile strategy for fabricating highly piezoresistive and tough poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) based CPNCs by tuning the interactions between the polymer matrix and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) using an ionic liquid (IL) as an interface linker/modifier. As a result, the presence of IL achieves homogeneous dispersion of CNTs in PVDF but causes a reduced number of CNT-CNT ohmic contacts with higher electrical contact resistance. According to the lower initial resistivity, piezoresistive sensitivity is greatly improved, and the gauge factor (GF) varies from 7 to 60 upon the addition of IL. It is also shown that IL tunes PVDF-CNT interfacial bonding and, as an effective interface linker/modifier, achieves significantly improved sensing strain ranges (increased from ca. 6 to 21%) and toughness (elongation at break increases from 6 to 130%) of CPNCs. These results substantially advance the understanding of the missing relationship between polymer-filler interface interactions and piezoresistive properties and have important implications for future studies of tuning polymer-filler interface bonding properties and piezoresistive sensitivity.

  3. Advanced FeTiNbO6/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with a high dielectric permittivity near the percolation threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jing; Hou, Yudong; Wei, Qiaoyi; Zheng, Mupeng; Zhu, Mankang; Yan, Hui

    2015-12-01

    FeTiNbO6 (denoted as FTN) is a recently discovered giant dielectric material with high Curie temperature (550 K). In this work, well dispersive FTN particles with mean particle size about 500 nm were synthesized by the improved solid-state reaction method. Using FTN particles as fillers and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (denoted as PVDF) polymer as matrix, multi-volume ratio (0%-60%) homogeneous ceramic/polymer composites have been prepared through a hot-pressing technology. At the same filling content, the FTN/PVDF composites display higher dielectric permittivity compared to the normal reported BaTiO3/PVDF composites, even larger than that of PVDF based composites using giant dielectric CaCu3Ti4O12 as filler. Especially, for 40 vol. % FTN/PVDF composites, the dielectric permittivity is as high as 181 measured at 100 Hz and 25 °C. Through the theoretical analysis correlated with structure evolution observation, it is deduced that the high dielectric performance originates from the combined effect of a variety of factors, such as giant dielectric semiconducting FTN particles, the micro-capacitor structure, and percolation phenomenon at appropriate volume fraction of FTN. Moreover, FTN/PVDF composites present strong dielectric relaxation behavior, which results from the superposition of the dielectric relaxation between PVDF and FTN. These flexible, easy processing FTN/PVDF composites with large dielectric permittivity values could find applications as new generational embedded capacitors.

  4. Highly Aligned Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) Nanofibers via Electrospinning Technique.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae-Hwan; Nirmala, R; Kim, Tae Woo; Navamathavan, R; Kim, Hak Yong; Park, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report on the simple way of obtaining aligned poly(vinylidiene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers by electrospinning process. The collector drum rotation speed was adjusted to prepare well aligned PVDF-HFP nanofibers. The degree of alignment and the orientation of PVDF-HFP nanofibers can be significantly altered by varying the speed of collector drum rotation. The resultant PVDF-HFP nanofibers were systematically characterized. From the scanning electron microscopy data, it was found that the electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were formed with well-aligned nature. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofibers with β-phase can be formed by the increased collector drum rotation speed. Overall, the collector rotation speed during the electrospinning process plays an important role in obtaining well-aligned and improved characteristics of PVDF-HFP nanofibers.

  5. Significantly Enhanced Energy Density in Nanocomposite Capacitors Combining the TiO2 Nanorod Array with Poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Yao, Lingmin; Pan, Zhongbin; Liu, Shaohui; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn H D

    2016-10-05

    A novel inorganic/polymer nanocomposite, using 1-dimensional TiO2 nanorod array as fillers (TNA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as matrix, has been successfully synthesized for the first time. A carefully designed process sequence includes several steps with the initial epitaxial growth of highly oriented TNA on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass. Subsequently, PVDF is embedded into the nanorods by the spin-coating method followed by annealing and quenching processes. This novel structure with dispersive fillers demonstrates a successful compromise between the electric displacement and breakdown strength, resulting in a dramatic increase in the electric polarization which leads to a significant improvement on the energy density and discharge efficiency. The nanocomposites with various height ratios of fillers between the TNA and total film thickness were investigated by us. The results show that nanocomposite with 18% height ratio fillers obtains maximum increase in the energy density (10.62 J cm(-3)) at a lower applied electric field of 340 MV m(-1), and it also illustrates a higher efficiency (>85%) under the electric field less than 100 MV m(-1). Even when the electric field reached 340 MV m(-1), the efficiency of nanocomposites can still maintained at ∼70%. This energy density exceeds most of the previously reported TiO2-based nanocomposite values at such a breakdown strength, which provides another promising design for the next generation of dielectric nanocomposite material, by using the highly oriented nanorod array as fillers for the higher energy density capacitors. Additionally, the finite element simulation has been employed to analyze the distribution of electric fields and electric flux density to explore the inherent mechanism of the higher performance of the TNA/PVDF nanocomposites.

  6. Impact of Nanosilicates on Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Crystal Polymorphism: Part 1. Melt-crystallization at High Supercooling

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Gunduz, B.; Alpern, R; Amare, D; Crawford, J; Dolan, B; Jones, S; Kobylarz, R; Reveley, M; Cebe, P

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphism of poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF, in the presence of Lucentite STN organically modified silicate (OMS) is investigated for PVDF nanocomposites melt-crystallized at high supercooling temperatures where neat PVDF crystallizes exclusively in the alpha crystalline phase. Nanocomposites were prepared from solution with 0-1.0 wt% OMS composition. Here we observed that clay addition promotes gamma phase formation in nanocomposites melt-crystallized at high supercooling (i.e., at low crystallization temperature), whereas previously we showed that even small amount of nanosilicates resulted in beta phase formation in cold-crystallized PVDF nanocomposites. Wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies showed that {alpha}- and {gamma}-phases co-existed in nanocomposites containing up to 0.1 wt% OMS, and the amount of {alpha}-crystals substantially diminished for higher OMS content. Formation of {gamma}-crystal phase was confirmed with morphologic observation of spherulites of low-birefringence using polarizing optical and atomic force microscopies, and their crystalline structures were verified by FTIR and Raman microscopic spectroscopy. We also address in this work the ambiguities in assessing PVDF crystallographic phases, and correct the phase identification errors which have persisted up to this point in the literature based on melting point confusion. The crystal phase identification for PVDF nanocomposites is discussed and clarified, based on X-ray scattering, vibrational spectra, and thermal analysis. For reference, we provide a vibrational band list, indicating the close, or overlapping bands, of the three phases of PVDF: {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma}.

  7. Photovoltaic and thermal properties of electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene)/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young-Wook; Won, Du-Hyun; Kim, Young-Keun; Hwang, Won-Pill; Jang, Sung-Il; Jeong, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Mi-Ra; Lee, Jin-Kook

    2014-08-01

    We prepared electrospun polymer nanofibers by electrospnning method and investigated about their applications to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Electrospun polymer nanofibers applied to the polymer matrix in electrolyte for DSSCs. To improve the stiffness of polymer nanofiber, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene)/Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PVDF-HFP/PMMA) blend nanofibers were prepared and examined. In the electrospun PVDF-HFP/PMMA (1:1) blend nanofibers, the best results of VOC, JSC, FF, and efficiency of the DSSC devices showed 0.71 V, 12.8 mA/cm2, 0.61, and 5.56% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  8. Origin of piezoelectricity in an electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanofiber web-based nanogenerator and nano-pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Dipankar; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin

    2011-06-01

    A single stage electrospinning process can give rise to preferentially oriented induced dipoles in poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] nanofibers. The piezoelectricity of as-electrospun P(VDF-TrFE) nanofiber webs opens up new possibilities for their use as a flexible nanogenerators and nano-pressure sensors. In this work, the origin of the piezoelectricity has been spotlighted by randomization of the induced dipoles at the Curie temperature and analyzed by polarized FT-IR spectroscopic techniques as well as by detecting the piezoelectric signal from a nano-pressure sensor.

  9. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer based nanocomposites with enhanced energy density by filling with polyacrylate elastomers and BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ke; Bai, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yongcun; Niu, Yujuan; Wang, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Polyacrylate elastomers were introduced into poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer-based nanocomposites filled with BaTiO3 nanoparticles and the three-phase nanocomposite films were prepared. The energy discharged of the nanocomposite with 3 vol. % polyacrylate elastomers is 8.8 J/cm3, approximately 11% higher compared to that of the nanocomposite without adding polyacrylate elastomers. Large elastic deformation of the polyacrylate elastomers increases Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and space charge polarization of the nanocomposites with the electric field increasing, which results in increased maximum polarization and energy discharged of the nanocomposites.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of PbO2 electrode modified with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoliang; Xu, Hao; Yan, Wei

    2016-12-01

    A novel PbO2 electrode with a high oxygen evolution potential (OEP) and long service life was successfully fabricated by doping polyvinyl fluoride (PVDF) (marked as PbO2-PVDF) through co-deposition method. The morphology (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX), hydrophobic property (contact angle), crystalline structure (XRD), chemical state (XPS), electrochemical performances (Lsv and EIS) and stability (accelerated life test) were characterized. The results showed that PVDF doping could improve the film morphology, increase oxygen evolution potential (OEP) and reduce the electrode film impedance. In addition, the proportion of adsorbed hydroxyl oxygen (Oad) on the electrode also increased. During the electrochemical oxidation process, the PbO2-PVDF(2.0) electrode showed the best performance on degradation of phenol due to the highest removal rate, lowest energy consumption and minimum Pb dissolution, which could be attributed to its hydrophobic surface, high oxygen evolution potential (OEP) and strong capability of HOrad generation. Furthermore, the stability of the electrodes were greatly improved after PVDF modification. PbO2-PVDF(1.0) electrode showed the longest service life (501 h), which was more than 4 times longer than PbO2 electrode (118.5 h).

  11. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Containing Phosphonic Acid as Anticorrosion Coating for Steel.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sanjib; Wehbi, Mohammad; Manseri, Abdellatif; Mehdi, Ahmad; Alaaeddine, Ali; Hachem, Ali; Ameduri, Bruno

    2017-02-22

    Vinylidene fluoride (VDF)-based copolymers bearing pendant phosphonic acid function for potential application as anticorrosion coatings were synthesized via free radical copolymerization of VDF with a new phosphorus containing 2-trifluoromethacrylate monomer, (dimethoxyphosphoryl)methyl 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylate (MAF-DMP). MAF-DMP was prepared from 2-trifluoromethacrylic acid in 60% overall yield. Radical copolymerizations of VDF with MAF-DMP initiated by tert-amyl peroxy-2-ethylhexanoate at varying ([VDF]0/[MAF-DMP]0) feed ratios led to several poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymers having different molar percentages of VDF (79-96%) and number-average molecular weights (Mn's) up to ca. 10 000 g mol(-1) in fair yields (47-53%). Determination of the composition and microstructure of all the synthesized copolymers was done by (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopies. The monomer reactivity ratios of this new VDF/MAF-DMP pair were also determined (rVDF = 0.76 ± 0.34 and rMAF-DMP = 0 at 74 °C). The resulting poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymers exhibited high melting temperature (162-171 °C, with respect to the VDF content), and the degree of crystallinity reached up to 51%. Finally, the pendant dimethyl phosphonate ester groups of the synthesized poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymer were quantitatively hydrolyzed, giving rise to novel phosphonic acid-functionalized PVDF (PVDF-PA). In comparison to hydrophobic poly(VDF-co-MAF-DMP) copolymers (the water contact angle, WCA, was 98°), the hydrophilic character of the PVDF-PA was found to be surprisingly rather pronounced, exhibiting low WCA (15°). Finally, steel plates coated with PVDF-PA displayed satisfactory anticorrosion properties under simulated seawater environment.

  12. Two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopic study on the crystallization and gelation of poly(vinylidene fluoride) in cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yun; Sun, Bingjie; Wu, Peiyi

    2008-03-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) converts easily into a thermo-reversible gel through crystallization by standing at room temperature in cyclohexanone. In this study, the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were measured continuously at room temperature during the conversion of the solution into a gel. The IR difference spectra derived from these spectra by absorbance subtraction clearly indicate the presence of PVDF alpha-crystallites in the gel due to the presence of absorption bands corresponding to the TG+TG- conformation of the alpha-phase. In the time interval from 25 to 45 min after the beginning of the experiment, the IR bands of PVDF increased dramatically, indicating the conversion of polymer chains from random statistical coils to the ordered TG+TG- conformation (alpha-form). In the time interval from 45 to 90 min, the IR bands of PVDF increased slowly, reflecting no further crystallization. Using two-dimensional (2D) IR analysis, it could be shown that the nu(C=O) absorption band of cyclohexanone changed during the gelation process. During the conformational ordering process (25-45 min), the nu(C=O) absorption band of the cyclohexanone dimer (1707 cm(-1)) decreased while the corresponding band of the monomer at 1718 cm(-1) increased. Furthermore, a new band at 1695 cm(-1) increased, which could be assigned to C=O groups of the solvent interacting with the CF2 groups in the polymer chain. The bands of the crystalline PVDF share positive cross-peaks with the bands of cyclohexanone, which indicates that the chain of PVDF changed prior to the cyclohexanone molecules during the conformational ordering process. However, these positive cross-peaks disappeared during the crystallization process, which means that the chain of PVDF changed synchronously with the solvent molecules. As for the bands of PVDF chains, the band at 762 cm(-1) varied prior to the bands at 873 cm(-1) and 796 cm(-1) during the conformational ordering process. The 762 cm(-1

  13. Zirconium dioxide nanofilled poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) complexed with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate as composite polymer electrolyte for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Puguan, John Marc C.; Chinnappan, Amutha; Kostjuk, Sergei V.; Kim, Hern

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Successful synthesis of electrolyte by blending PVdF-HFP, ZrO{sub 2} and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. • ZrO{sub 2} increased electrolyte conductivity by two orders of magnitude. • ZrO{sub 2} doubled bulk mechanical strength of electrolyte in terms of Young’s modulus. • Electrolytes gave a optimum optical transmittance of 52.6%. - Abstract: Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) polymer electrolyte containing zirconium dioxide nanocrystals (ZrO{sub 2}-NC) and lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) has been synthesized using the conventional solution casting method. The addition of ZrO2-NC into the polymeric substrate gave remarkable properties in terms of the electrolyte’s ionic conductivity as well as its bulk mechanical strength. The enhanced amorphicity of the polymeric substrate due to ZrO{sub 2} and the nanofiller’s high dielectric constant make an excellent combination to increase the ionic conductivity (above 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}). Increasing the nanofiller content raises the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte by two orders of magnitude of which the optimum is 2.65 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} at 13.04 wt% ZrO{sub 2}-NC loading. Also, the Young’s modulus, an indicator of electrolyte’s mechanical stability, dramatically increased to 207 MPa upon loading 13.04 wt% ZrO{sub 2}-NC. Using UV–vis spectroscopy, the electrolytes with 13.04% ZrO{sub 2}-NC scanned from 200–800 nm wavelengths exhibited a maximum optical transmittance of 52.6% at 10 μm film thickness. The enhanced conductivity, high mechanical strength and reasonable optical transmittance shown by our composite polymer electrolyte make an excellent electrolyte for future energy saving smart windows such as electrochromic devices.

  14. Multicore-shell nanofiber architecture of polyimide/polyvinylidene fluoride blend for thermal and long-term stability of lithium ion battery separator

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sejoon; Son, Chung Woo; Lee, Sungho; Kim, Dong Young; Park, Cheolmin; Eom, Kwang Sup; Fuller, Thomas F.; Joh, Han-Ik; Jo, Seong Mu

    2016-01-01

    Li-ion battery, separator, multicoreshell structure, thermal stability, long-term stability. A nanofibrous membrane with multiple cores of polyimide (PI) in the shell of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) was prepared using a facile one-pot electrospinning technique with a single nozzle. Unique multicore-shell (MCS) structure of the electrospun composite fibers was obtained, which resulted from electrospinning a phase-separated polymer composite solution. Multiple PI core fibrils with high molecular orientation were well-embedded across the cross-section and contributed remarkable thermal stabilities to the MCS membrane. Thus, no outbreaks were found in its dimension and ionic resistance up to 200 and 250 °C, respectively. Moreover, the MCS membrane (at ~200 °C), as a lithium ion battery (LIB) separator, showed superior thermal and electrochemical stabilities compared with a widely used commercial separator (~120 °C). The average capacity decay rate of LIB for 500 cycles was calculated to be approximately 0.030 mAh/g/cycle. This value demonstrated exceptional long-term stability compared with commercial LIBs and with two other types (single core-shell and co-electrospun separators incorporating with functionalized TiO2) of PI/PVdF composite separators. The proper architecture and synergy effects of multiple PI nanofibrils as a thermally stable polymer in the PVdF shell as electrolyte compatible polymers are responsible for the superior thermal performance and long-term stability of the LIB. PMID:27833132

  15. Novel electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymer systems and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhimin

    Electroactive polymers (EAPs) are widely used in many areas, such as actuators, sensors and transducers. This research focused on developing new electroactive polymer systems and exploiting applications of EAPs in biosensors. Research objectives were: (1) studying the recrystallization of irradiated P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer to deepen our understanding of EAPs; (2) developing a series of novel high performance and inexpensive EAP systems---P(VDF-TrFE)-based copolymer blends; and (3) exploring new EAP in biosensor applications. The structure and morphology of recrystallized P(VDF-TrFE) with 65/35 mol% copolymer samples that had previously been irradiated were studied using X-ray, FTIR and DSC techniques. The crystalline structure and morphology, as well as the conformation of the polymer chains, were determined by X-ray and FTIR. Their thermal behaviors, including phase transition, were characterized by DSC. It was found that in samples irradiated with doses of less than 60 Mrad, the recrystallized copolymers exhibited similar behaviors to unirradiated samples except for having a lower level of crystallinity. However, for samples irradiated with higher doses, such as 60, 85 and 100 Mrad, the X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystalline structure of the recrystallized copolymers were completely different than unirradiated samples. A systematic study of the crystalline structure and phase transition behavior of these recrystallized P(VDF-TrFE) 65/35 mol% samples is reported here. In order to create inexpensive EAPs, a blending between P(VDF-TrFE) and P(VDF-CTFE) copolymers was developed, both of which are commercially available in their semi-crystalline form is reported. First, the composition effects on miscibility, crystalline structure, and phase transition behavior were evaluated with DSC, X-ray and hysteresis loop measurements. The experimental results showed that stretching the polymer before annealing increases the polarization response. This improved

  16. Facile fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) nanodot arrays for organic ferroelectric memory

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Huajing; Yan, Qingfeng E-mail: jiyan.dai@polyu.edu.hk; Geng, Chong; Li, Qiang; Chan, Ngai Yui; Au, Kit; Ng, Sheung Mei; Leung, Chi Wah; Wa Chan, Helen Lai; Dai, Jiyan E-mail: jiyan.dai@polyu.edu.hk; Yao, Jianjun; Guo, Dong

    2016-01-07

    Nano-patterned ferroelectric materials have attracted significant attention as the presence of two or more thermodynamically equivalent switchable polarization states can be employed in many applications such as non-volatile memory. In this work, a simple and effective approach for fabrication of highly ordered poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays is demonstrated. By using a soft polydimethylsiloxane mold, we successfully transferred the 2D array pattern from the initial monolayer of colloidal polystyrene nanospheres to the imprinted P(VDF-TrFE) films via nanoimprinting. The existence of a preferred orientation of the copolymer chain after nanoimprinting was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Local polarization switching behavior was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy, and each nanodot showed well-formed hysteresis curve and butterfly loop with a coercive field of ∼62.5 MV/m. To illustrate the potential application of these ordered P(VDF-TrFE) nanodot arrays, the writing and reading process as non-volatile memory was demonstrated at a relatively low voltage. As such, our results offer a facile and promising route to produce arrays of ferroelectric polymer nanodots with improved piezoelectric functionality.

  17. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-graft-poly(dopamine methacrylamide) copolymers: A nonlinear dielectric material for high energy density storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Qun Xu, Li; Arabnejad, Saeid; Yao, Kui; Lu, Li; Shim, Victor P. W.; Gee Neoh, Koon; Kang, En-Tang

    2013-12-01

    A nonlinear dielectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-graft-poly(dopamine methacrylamide) [P(VDF-HFP)-g-PDMA] graft copolymer with ultra-high energy density of 33 J/cm3 was obtained by thermally initiated radical graft polymerization. It was observed that the dielectric constant of the graft copolymer films was 63% higher than that of P(VDF-HFP), with a large dielectric breakdown strength (>850 MV/m). Theoretical analyses and experimental measurements showed that the significant improvement in the electric polarization was attributed to the introduction of the highly polarizable hydroxyl groups in the PDMA side chains, and the large breakdown strength arose from the strong adhesion bonding of the catechol-containing graft copolymer to the metal electrode.

  18. Great reduction of loss at high electric field in the polyvinylidene fluoride/aromatic polythiourea blend films along with an irreversible phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Long; Li, Weiping Zhu, Jiujun; Huo, Xiaoyun; Luo, Laihui; Zhu, Yuejin

    2015-02-02

    In this paper, the polarization response of dielectric blend based on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and aromatic polythiourea (ArPTU) was investigated. It is found that the conduction loss at high field has been reduced 2–4 times along with an interesting irreversible transition under high electric field. The loss at 700 MV/m can be kept below 20%, which is better than most other polar dielectric polymers. It is proved that the transition is a phase change from glass phase to polar β phase at a critical field. And the highly polar thiourea groups of ArPTU can act as traps for the electrons, reduce conduction loss greatly and prevent dielectric breakdown by stabilizing the electron energy.

  19. Improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe12O19-poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by incorporating reduced graphene oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongcai; Luo, Feifei; Qian, Neng; Wang, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Three-phase composites of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-BaFe12O19-reduced graphene oxide (PVDF-BFO-RGO) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method and hot-pressing approach. The phase structure, topography of the hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectra. Influence of RGO on their electromagnetic properties was investigated. Especially, improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe12O19-PVDF composites by incorporating RGO were obtained and studied. The PVDF/BFO/RGO sample with m(RGO):m(BFO) = 5:100 shows the best microwave absorption properties with a minimum RL = -32 dB at 11 GHz and with the bandwidth less than -20 dB from 9.6 to 12.8 GHz. The composites were believed to have potential applications as the microwave absorber.

  20. The Effect of Fluoride in Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, L. R.; Gallagher, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of fluoride on bone tissue and the possible role of fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis. At present, fluoride treatment should be restricted to clinical trials until its risks and benefits have been further evaluated. (Author/MT)

  1. On the strain-induced structural evolution upon uniaxial stretching of Poly(VinyliDene Fluoride): influence of secondary crystals and crystalline relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defebvin, Juliette; Barrau, Sophie; Stoclet, Grégory; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc; Polymer Engineering Science Team

    2015-03-01

    Development of more efficient piezoelectric devices tends to innovate and create materials able to combine flexibility and electro-mechanical conversion. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer that exhibits interesting piezoelectric properties. Besides PVDF is able to convert a mechanical solicitation into an electric energy and vice versa. However these physical properties are highly dependent on the polymer crystal structure. PVDF presents at least two main crystalline forms. The most common phase is the α-phase that is non-polar. On the other hand, the β phase is the most polar one and it can be obtained by a stretching of the α-phase. Knowing the influence of the drawing conditions on the strain-induced structural evolution is thus of prime interest. To assess this point the strain-induced structural evolution of PVDF, stretched under different conditions, has been followed in-situ by means of WAXS/SAXS experiments. As a main result, this study shows that drawing conditions strongly affect both the α to β phase conversion degree and the crystalline morphology. Moreover the key role played by the crystalline relaxation of PVDF on the strain-induced structural evolution is also highlighted for the first time.

  2. Enhanced electroactive and mechanical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) by controlling crystallization and interfacial interactions with low loading polydopamine coated BaTiO₃.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Xing, Qian; Liu, Xu; Sun, Jing; Xia, Guangmei; Huang, Wei; Song, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the polar β-phase of PVDF shows superb electroactive properties. In order to enhance the β-phase of PVDF, extreme low content of BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BT-NPs) coated with polydopamine (Pdop) were incorporated into PVDF matrix by solution casting. The β-phase of the resulting PVDF nanocomposites film was dramatically increased and the d33 value reached 34.3±0.4 pCN(-1). It is found that the Pdop layer could improve the dispersibility and stability of the BT NPs in solution and endow the BT NPs good dispersity in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the interfacial interaction between PVDF chains and the surface of BT-Pdop nanoparticles (BT-Pdop NPs) were revealed, in which the CF2 groups on PVDF could interact with the electron-rich plane of aromatic ring of Pdop moiety. This interaction, led to the increase of the crystallization activation energy as derived from the DSC nonisothermal crystallization measurement. The α-β crystal transformation, organization of interfacial interactions as well as the prevention of agglomeration of BT-NPs confer the improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of PVDF, such as toughness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and thermal conductivity.

  3. Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/SiO2 composite membranes prepared by electrospinning and their excellent properties for nonwoven separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng; Ma, Xilan; Cao, Chuanbao; Li, Jili; Zhu, Youqi

    2014-04-01

    PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes exhibiting high safety (thermal stability), high ionic conductivity and excellent electrochemical performances are firstly prepared by electrospinning poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF) homopolymer and silicon dioxide (SiO2) sol synchronously for the separators of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and hot oven tests show that the PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes are thermally stable at a high temperature of 400 °C while the commercial Celgard 2400 PP membrane exhibits great shrinkage at 130 °C, indicating a superior thermal stability of PVdF/SiO2 composite nonwoven membranes than that of Celgard membrane. Moreover, the composite membrane exhibits fairly high ionic conductivity (7.47 × 10-3 S cm-1) that significantly improves the performance of LIBs. The PVdF/SiO2 composite membranes are also evaluated to have higher level of porosity (75-85%) and electrolyte uptake (571-646 wt%), lower interfacial resistance compared to the Celgard separator. The lithium-ion cell (using LiFePO4 cathode) assembled with the composite membrane exhibits more stable cycle performance, higher discharge capacity (159 mAh g-1) and excellent capacity retention which proves that they are promising candidates for separators of high performance rechargeable LIBs.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells using polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) nanofibers by electrospinning method.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Hae; Kim, Ji-Un; Lee, Seong-Yeop; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra

    2008-09-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) devices using polymer electrolytes based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) nanofibers were fabricated and investigated the photovoltaic performances. The electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were prepared by various parameters such as; polymer concentrations, applied voltages, and tip to collector distances (TCD) by the electrospinning method. The open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short circuit current (J(SC)), fill factor (FF), and overall power conversion efficiency (eta) of DSSC devices using electro-spun PVDF-HFP nanofibers were 0.7180-0.7420 V, 9.7200-10.8837 mA/cm2, 0.5610-0.6250, and 4.1700-5.0186%, respectively. When 15 wt% of polymer concentration, 14 kV of applied voltage, and 14 cm of TCD is applied to fabricate the PVDF-HFP nanofiber, the electrospun PVDF-HFP nanofiber should be the regular diameter of a nanofiber, the power conversion efficiency of the DSSC device reached 5.0186% as the best result.

  5. Electrochemical properties and cycle performance of electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based fibrous membrane electrolytes for Li-ion polymer battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Choi, Sung Won; Jo, Seong Mu; Chin, Byung Doo; Kim, Dong Young; Lee, Kwan Young

    Prototype cells were prepared by hot pressing of the cathode and the anode coated with poly(vinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) P(VdF-HFP) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVdF-based fibrous membranes, respectively. Electrochemical properties and cycle performance of them before and after hot pressing were investigated. Pressing of the fibrous membrane resulted in decrease of the apparent porosity and electrolyte uptake. The prototype cell using hot-pressed membrane electrolyte showed continuous fading of the capacity while that using non-pressing fibrous membrane almost retained the initial capacity after 100 cycles at room temperature (0.5 C rate). In the case of cycle test at 80 °C, however, the capacity was slightly decreased after the initial capacity fading of about 6.5% during the first 10 cycles due to the evaporation of liquid electrolytes. Rate performance exhibited about 97% and 72% of the full capacity at the 1 C rate and 2 C rate, respectively. The capacities at 5 C rate and 10 C rate were about 27-28% of the full capacity similarly because of the reduction of the entrapped liquid phase due to the swell of the fibrous structure.

  6. Proton Conductance of a Superior Water-Stable Metal-Organic Framework and Its Composite Membrane with Poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Bin; Wang, Mei; Liu, Shao-Xian; Xue, Chen; Tian, Zheng-Fang; Zou, Yang; Ren, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-22

    Proton-exchange membranes (PEMs) as separators have important technological applications in electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, electrochemical reactors, and electrochromic displays. The composite membrane of a proton-conducting metal-organic framework (MOF) and an organic polymer combines the unique physical and chemical nature of the polymer and the high proton conductivity of the MOF, bringing together the best of both components to potentially fabricate high-performance PEMs. In this study, we have investigated the proton-transport nature of a zirconium(IV) MOF, MOF-808 (1). This superior-water-stability MOF shows striking proton conductivity with σ = 7.58 × 10(-3) S·cm(-1) at 315 K and 99% relative humidity. The composite membranes of 1 and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) have further been fabricated and are labeled as 1@PVDF-X, where X represents the mass percentage of 1 (as X%) in 1@PVDF-X and X = 10-55%. The composite membranes exhibit good mechanical features and durability for practical application and a considerable proton conductivity of 1.56 × 10(-4) S·cm(-1) in deionized water at 338 K as well. Thus, the composite membranes show promising applications as alternative PEMs in diverse electrochemical devices.

  7. Improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by incorporating reduced graphene oxides

    SciTech Connect

    He, Hongcai; Luo, Feifei; Qian, Neng; Wang, Ning

    2015-02-28

    Three-phase composites of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-reduced graphene oxide (PVDF–BFO-RGO) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method and hot-pressing approach. The phase structure, topography of the hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectra. Influence of RGO on their electromagnetic properties was investigated. Especially, improved microwave absorption and electromagnetic properties of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}–PVDF composites by incorporating RGO were obtained and studied. The PVDF/BFO/RGO sample with m(RGO):m(BFO) = 5:100 shows the best microwave absorption properties with a minimum RL = −32 dB at 11 GHz and with the bandwidth less than −20 dB from 9.6 to 12.8 GHz. The composites were believed to have potential applications as the microwave absorber.

  8. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception. PMID:26959026

  9. 3D non-woven polyvinylidene fluoride scaffolds: fibre cross section and texturizing patterns have impact on growth of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Anne; Ross, Robin; Abagnale, Giulio; Joussen, Sylvia; Schuster, Philipp; Arshi, Annahit; Pallua, Norbert; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Gries, Thomas; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Several applications in tissue engineering require transplantation of cells embedded in appropriate biomaterial scaffolds. Such structures may consist of 3D non-woven fibrous materials whereas little is known about the impact of mesh size, pore architecture and fibre morphology on cellular behavior. In this study, we have developed polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) non-woven scaffolds with round, trilobal, or snowflake fibre cross section and different fibre crimp patterns (10, 16, or 28 needles per inch). Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue were seeded in parallel on these scaffolds and their growth was compared. Initial cell adhesion during the seeding procedure was higher on non-wovens with round fibres than on those with snowflake or trilobal cross sections. All PVDF non-woven fabrics facilitated cell growth over a time course of 15 days. Interestingly, proliferation was significantly higher on non-wovens with round or trilobal fibres as compared to those with snowflake profile. Furthermore, proliferation increased in a wider, less dense network. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the MSCs aligned along the fibres and formed cellular layers spanning over the pores. 3D PVDF non-woven scaffolds support growth of MSCs, however fibre morphology and mesh size are relevant: proliferation is enhanced by round fibre cross sections and in rather wide-meshed scaffolds.

  10. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) Binder Degradation in Li-O2 Batteries: A Consideration for the Characterization of Lithium Superoxide.

    PubMed

    Papp, Joseph K; Forster, Jason D; Burke, Colin M; Kim, Hyo Won; Luntz, Alan C; Shelby, Robert M; Urban, Jeffrey J; McCloskey, Bryan D

    2017-02-27

    We show that a common Li-O2 battery cathode binder, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), degrades in the presence of reduced oxygen species during Li-O2 discharge when adventitious impurities are present. This degradation process forms products that exhibit Raman shifts (∼1133 and 1525 cm(-1)) nearly identical to those reported to belong to lithium superoxide (LiO2), complicating the identification of LiO2 in Li-O2 batteries. We show that these peaks are not observed when characterizing extracted discharged cathodes that employ poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) as a binder, even when used to bind iridium-decorated reduced graphene oxide (Ir-rGO)-based cathodes similar to those that reportedly stabilize bulk LiO2 formation. We confirm that for all extracted discharged cathodes on which the 1133 and 1525 cm(-1) Raman shifts are observed, only a 2.0 e(-)/O2 process is identified during the discharge, and lithium peroxide (Li2O2) is predominantly formed (along with typical parasitic side product formation). Our results strongly suggest that bulk, stable LiO2 formation via the 1 e(-)/O2 process is not an active discharge reaction in Li-O2 batteries.

  11. Developing an Ear Prosthesis Fabricated in Polyvinylidene Fluoride by a 3D Printer with Sensory Intrinsic Properties of Pressure and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Suaste-Gómez, Ernesto; Rodríguez-Roldán, Grissel; Reyes-Cruz, Héctor; Terán-Jiménez, Omar

    2016-03-04

    An ear prosthesis was designed in 3D computer graphics software and fabricated using a 3D printing process of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for use as a hearing aid. In addition, the prosthesis response to pressure and temperature was observed. Pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties of this ear prosthesis were investigated using an astable multivibrator circuit, as changes in PVDF permittivity were observed according to variations of pressure and temperature. The results show that this prosthesis is reliable for use under different conditions of pressure (0 Pa to 16,350 Pa) and temperature (2 °C to 90 °C). The experimental results show an almost linear and inversely proportional behavior between the stimuli of pressure and temperature with the frequency response. This 3D-printed ear prosthesis is a promising tool and has a great potentiality in the biomedical engineering field because of its ability to generate an electrical potential proportional to pressure and temperature, and it is the first time that such a device has been processed by the additive manufacturing process (3D printing). More work needs to be carried out to improve the performance, such as electrical stimulation of the nervous system, thereby extending the purpose of a prosthesis to the area of sensory perception.

  12. Optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes highly separated in semiconducting and metallic tubes functionalized with poly(vinylidene fluoride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matea, A.; Baibarac, M.; Baltog, I.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the interaction of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) highly separated in metallic (M) and semiconducting (S) tubes is studied by resonant Raman scattering and FTIR spectroscopy. In this order, the PVDF/SWNTs membranes were prepared by the evaporation of dimethylformamide (DMF) from PVDF solutions containing i) the as-prepared SWNTs samples, i.e., as mixtures of metallic (33%) and semiconducting (66%) tubes (M + S-SWNTs), ii) SWNTs highly separated in metallic tubes (98%, M-SWNTs), and iii) SWNTs highly separated in semiconducting tubes (99%, S-SWNTs). An increase in the PVDF β phase weight, highlighted by the increase in the absorbance of IR band at 843 cm-1, is reported to take place in the presence of M + S-SWNTs and S-SWNTs. An increase of the PVDF γ crystalline phase weight is reported for the PVDF/M + S-SWNTs, PVDF/M-SWNTs and PVDF/S-SWNTs membranes. Using Raman scattering, a donor-acceptor interaction is invoked to take place at the interface PVDF/M + S-SWNTs and PVDF/S-SWNTs. In the case of the membranes based on PVDF and M-SWNTs, the changes reported in Raman spectra of the two constituents are explained on the base induction-interaction forces between the permanent dipole of PVDF and induced dipole of M-SWNTs.

  13. The Structure Design of Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) Polymer-Based Sensor Patch for the Respiration Monitoring under Dynamic Walking Conditions.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kin-Fong; Hsieh, Yi-Zheng; Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-07-31

    This study reports a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer-based sensor patch for respiration detections in dynamic walking condition. The working mechanism of respiration signal generation is based on the periodical deformations on a human chest wall during the respiratory movements, which in turn mechanically stretch the piezoelectric PVDF film to generate the corresponding electrical signals. In this study, the PVDF sensing film was completely encapsulated within the sensor patch forming a mass-spring-damper mechanical system to prevent the noises generated in a dynamic condition. To verify the design of sensor patch to prevent dynamic noises, experimental investigations were carried out. Results demonstrated the respiration signals generated and the respiratory rates measured by the proposed sensor patch were in line with the same measurements based on a commercial respiratory effort transducer both in a static (e.g., sitting) or dynamic (e.g., walking) condition. As a whole, this study has developed a PVDF-based sensor patch which is capable of monitoring respirations in a dynamic walking condition with high fidelity. Other distinctive features include its small size, light weight, ease of use, low cost, and portability. All these make it a promising sensing device to monitor respirations particularly in home care units.

  14. Nanoscale Fabrication of the Ferroelectric Polymer Poly(vinylidene Fluoride with Trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) 75:25 Thin Films by Atomic Force Microscope Nanolithography

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Omar; Delgado, David; Wong, Freddy; Gonzalez, Rosette; Rosa, Luis G.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Thin films of an organic ferroelectric system, poly(vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE, Kureha Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) 75:25 layers, have been deposited on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and silicon dioxide by the horizontal Schaefer method of Langmuir–Blodgett techniques. It is possible to “shave” or mechanically displace small regions of the polymer film by using atomic force microscope nanolithography techniques such as nanoshaving, leaving swaths of the surface cut to a depth of 4 nm and 12 nm exposing the substrate. The results of fabricating stripes by nanoshaving two holes close to each other show a limit to the material “stripe” widths of an average of 153.29 nm and 177.67 nm that can be produced. Due to the lack of adhesion between the substrates and the polymer P(VDF-TrFE) film, smaller “stripes” of P(VDF-TrFE) cannot be produced, and it can be shown by the sequencing of nanoshaved regions that “stripes” of thin films can be removed. PMID:22552972

  15. Improved Dielectric Properties and Energy Storage Density of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposite with Hydantoin Epoxy Resin Coated BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hang; Zhang, Dou; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-04-22

    Energy storage materials are urgently demanded in modern electric power supply and renewable energy systems. The introduction of inorganic fillers to polymer matrix represents a promising avenue for the development of high energy density storage materials, which combines the high dielectric constant of inorganic fillers with supernal dielectric strength of polymer matrix. However, agglomeration and phase separation of inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix remain the key barriers to promoting the practical applications of the composites for energy storage. Here, we developed a low-cost and environmentally friendly route to modifying BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles by a kind of water-soluble hydantoin epoxy resin. The modified BT nanoparticles exhibited homogeneous dispersion in the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) matrix and strong interfacial adhesion with the polymer matrix. The dielectric constants of the nanocomposites increased significantly with the increase of the coated BT loading, while the dielectric loss of the nanocomposites was still as low as that of the pure P(VDF-HFP). The energy storage density of the nanocomposites was largely enhanced with the coated BT loading at the same electric field. The nanocomposite with 20 vol % BT exhibited an estimated maximum energy density of 8.13 J cm(-3), which was much higher than that of pure P(VDF-HFP) and other dielectric polymers. The findings of this research could provide a feasible approach to produce high energy density materials for practical application in energy storage.

  16. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) phase inversion coating as a diffusion layer to enhance the cathode performance in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wulin; Zhang, Fang; He, Weihua; Liu, Jia; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-12-01

    A low cost poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) phase inversion coating was developed as a cathode diffusion layer to enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A maximum power density of 1430 ± 90 mW m-2 was achieved at a PVDF-HFP loading of 4.4 mg cm-2 (4:1 polymer:carbon black), with activated carbon as the oxygen reduction cathode catalyst. This power density was 31% higher than that obtained with a more conventional platinum (Pt) catalyst on carbon cloth (Pt/C) cathode with a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) diffusion layer (1090 ± 30 mW m-2). The improved performance was due in part to a larger oxygen mass transfer coefficient of 3 × 10-3 cm s-1 for the PVDF-HFP coated cathode, compared to 1.7 × 10-3 cm s-1 for the carbon cloth/PTFE-based cathode. The diffusion layer was resistant to electrolyte leakage up to water column heights of 41 ± 0.5 cm (4.4 mg cm-2 loading of 4:1 polymer:carbon black) to 70 ± 5 cm (8.8 mg cm-2 loading of 4:1 polymer:carbon black). This new type of PVDF-HFP/carbon black diffusion layer could reduce the cost of manufacturing cathodes for MFCs.

  17. The Structure Design of Piezoelectric Poly(vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) Polymer-Based Sensor Patch for the Respiration Monitoring under Dynamic Walking Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Kin-Fong; Hsieh, Yi-Zheng; Chiu, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Min-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a piezoelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer-based sensor patch for respiration detections in dynamic walking condition. The working mechanism of respiration signal generation is based on the periodical deformations on a human chest wall during the respiratory movements, which in turn mechanically stretch the piezoelectric PVDF film to generate the corresponding electrical signals. In this study, the PVDF sensing film was completely encapsulated within the sensor patch forming a mass-spring-damper mechanical system to prevent the noises generated in a dynamic condition. To verify the design of sensor patch to prevent dynamic noises, experimental investigations were carried out. Results demonstrated the respiration signals generated and the respiratory rates measured by the proposed sensor patch were in line with the same measurements based on a commercial respiratory effort transducer both in a static (e.g., sitting) or dynamic (e.g., walking) condition. As a whole, this study has developed a PVDF-based sensor patch which is capable of monitoring respirations in a dynamic walking condition with high fidelity. Other distinctive features include its small size, light weight, ease of use, low cost, and portability. All these make it a promising sensing device to monitor respirations particularly in home care units. PMID:26263992

  18. Identification and quantification of the crystalline structures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) sutures by wide-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Lafrance, C P; Prud'homme, R E; Guidoin, R

    1998-02-01

    The outstanding biocompatibility of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) monofilament suture together with other desirable characteristics, such as ease of handling and resistance to biodegradation, makes it an attractive alternative monofilament suture material for cardiovascular surgery. However, to achieve a high performance suture, the polymeric raw material must be exposed to different treatments, which lead to different degrees and types of crystallization. Since these crystalline modifications deeply influence the mechanical characteristics and the biostability of the sutures, the authors hereby propose a method of quantifying the different structures of PVDF using wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The commercial devices are achieved by coloring and processing the polymeric raw material. The white and unprocessed 4-0 unswaged suture presents 19% of the alpha phase, 38% of the beta structure, and no gamma form. Coloration increases the amount of the beta phase by 5-9% at the expense of the alpha phase. On the other hand, processing the fibers lead to the conversion of some of the amorphous phase to the gamma structure, the importance of which is 6-7%. Finally, tensile measurements performed on the different PVDF fibers clearly proves that their mechanical characteristics depend on the presence of these crystalline forms in the polymeric structure of PVDF.

  19. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of poly(vinylidene fluoride)/poly(N-dodecylacrylamide) Langmuir-Blodgett nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huie; Gao, Yu; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-03-01

    Our earlier research prepared ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) homopolymer monolayers at the air-water interface using amphiphilic poly(N-dodecylacrylamide) (pDDA) nanosheets with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. However, the miscibility of solvent for PVDF with the water sub-phase in the Langmuir trough makes the film composition unclear in spite of the feeding ratio of \\text{PVDF}:\\text{pDDA} (50:1). In this study, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS) was used to investigate the surface chemical composition and the depth profile of the PVDF/pDDA LB nanofilms. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra confirmed by the detection of fluorine atoms that PVDF molecules were deposited successfully onto the substrate. The constant chemical composition with increasing takeoff angle from 15 to 75° reflects a well-regular layer structure of the PVDF LB nanofilm. The mixing ratio of \\text{PVDF}:\\text{pDDA} is 33:1, which contributes 89.8 wt % PVDF and 10.2 wt % in the PVDF/pDDA LB nanofilms.

  20. Sulfonic Acid- and Lithium Sulfonate-Grafted Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Electrospun Mats As Ionic Liquid Host for Electrochromic Device and Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Liu, Wanshuang; Leong, Yew Wei; Xu, Jianwei; Lu, Xuehong

    2015-08-05

    Electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats loaded with ionic liquids (ILs) are promising nonvolatile electrolytes with high ionic conductivity. The large cations of ILs are, however, difficult to diffuse into solid electrodes, making them unappealing for application in some electrochemical devices. To address this issue, a new strategy is used to introduce proton conduction into an IL-based electrolyte. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) copolymer is functionalized with sulfonic acid through covalent attachment of taurine. The sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats consist of interconnected nanofibers, leading to remarkable improvement in dimensional stability of the mats. IL-based polymer electrolytes are prepared by immersing the modified mats in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMIM(+)BF4(-)). It is found that the SO3(-) groups can have Lewis acid-base interactions with the cations (BMIM(+)) of IL to promote the dissociation of ILs, and provide additional proton conduction, resulting in significantly improved ionic conductivity. Using this novel electrolyte, polyaniline-based electrochromic devices show higher transmittance contrast and faster switching behavior. Furthermore, the sulfonic acid-grafted P(VDF-HFP) electrospun mats can also be lithiated, giving additional lithium ion conduction for the IL-based electrolyte, with which Li/LiCoO2 batteries display enhanced C-rate performance.

  1. Preparation and characterization of pH-sensitive and antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) microfiltration membranes blended with poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Ju, Junping; Wang, Chao; Wang, Tingmei; Wang, Qihua

    2014-11-15

    Functional terpolymer of poly(methyl methacrylate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(MMA-HEMA-AA)) was synthesized via a radical polymerization method. The terpolymer could be directly blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) to prepare the microfiltration (MF) membranes via phase separate process. The synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), the nuclear magnetic resonance proton spectra ((1)H NMR). The membrane had the typical asymmetric structure and the hydrophilic side chains tended to aggregate on the membrane surface. The surface enrichment of amphiphilic copolymer and morphology of MF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The contact angle (CA) and water uptake were also tested to assess the hydrophilicity and wetting characteristics of the polymer surface. The water filtration properties were measured. It was found the modified membranes showed excellent pH-sensitivity and pH-reversibility behavior. Furthermore, the hydrophilicity of the blended membranes increased, and the membranes showed good protein antifouling property.

  2. Design of poly(vinylidene fluoride)-g-p(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) membrane via surface modification for enhanced fouling resistance and release property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guili; Chen, Wei Ning

    2017-03-01

    Thermo-sensitive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), hydrophilic polymer poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and copolymer p(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) [P(HEMA-co-NIPAAm)] were synthesized onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in order to improve not only fouling resistance but also fouling release property. The physicochemical properties of membranes including hydrophilicity, morphology and roughness were examined by contact angle analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The antifouling property of membranes was improved remarkably after surface modification according to protein and bacterial adhesion testing, and filtration experiment. Minimum protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion were both obtained on PVDF-g-P(HEMA-co-NIPAAm) membrane, with reduction by 44% and 71% respectively compared to the pristine membrane. The minimum bacterial cells after detachment at 25 °C were observed on the PVDF-g-P(HEMA-co-NIPAAm) membrane with the detachment rate of 77%, indicating high fouling release property. The filtration testing indicated that the copolymer modified membrane exhibited high resistance to protein fouling and the foulant on the surface was released and removed easily by washing, suggesting high fouling release and easy-cleaning capacity. This study provides useful insight in the combined "fouling resistance" and "fouling release" property of P(HEMA-co-NIPAAm) for PVDF membrane modification, even for other types of the membrane in wide application.

  3. Semicrystalline Structure-Dielectric Property Relationship and Electrical Conduction in a Biaxially Oriented Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Film under High Electric Fields and High Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lianyun; Ho, Janet; Allahyarov, Elshad; Mu, Richard; Zhu, Lei

    2015-09-16

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based homopolymers and copolymers are attractive for a broad range of electroactive applications because of their high dielectric constants. Especially, biaxially oriented PVDF (BOPVDF) films exhibit a DC breakdown strength as high as that for biaxially oriented polypropylene films. In this work, we revealed the molecular origin of the high dielectric constant via study of a commercial BOPVDF film. By determination of the dielectric constant for the amorphous phase in BOPVDF, a high value of ca. 21-22 at 25 °C was obtained, and a three-phase (i.e., lamellar crystal/oriented interphase/amorphous region) semicrystalline model was proposed to explain this result. Meanwhile, electronic conduction mechanisms in BOPVDF under high electric fields and elevated temperatures were investigated by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) spectroscopy and leakage current studies. Space charge injection from metal electrodes was identified as a major factor for electronic conduction when BOPVDF was poled above 75 °C and 20 MV/m. In addition, when silver or aluminum were used as electrodes, new ions were generated from electrochemical reactions under high fields. Due to the electrochemical reactions between PVDF and the metal electrode, a question is raised for practical electrical applications using PVDF and its copolymers under high-field and high-temperature conditions. A potential method to prevent electrochemical degradation of PVDF is proposed in this study.

  4. Fluoride effects: the two faces of janus.

    PubMed

    Gazzano, E; Bergandi, L; Riganti, C; Aldieri, E; Doublier, S; Costamagna, C; Bosia, A; Ghigo, D

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of fluoride ions in the human organism is a classic example of double-edged sword. On the one hand the daily supplementation with fluoride is undoubtedly an important preventing factor in protecting teeth from caries, and, as an important mitogenic stimulus for osteoblasts, it may enhance mineral deposition in bone, but on the other hand fluoride, above a threshold concentration, has been demonstrated to be toxic. We present here a brief review of fluoride metabolism and exposure, its use in caries prevention and its effects on bone, followed by an updating about the main hypotheses concerning its mechanism of action and toxicity. The effects of fluoride have been related mainly to its ability to evoke the activation of G proteins and the inhibition of phosphotyrosine phosphatases, leading to an intracellular increase of tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and its capacity to cause generation of reactive oxygen species. We present also a unifying hypothesis accounting for these apparently different effects, although the available experimental models and conditions are highly variable in the literature. A lot of experiments still need to be performed to clarify the positive and negative effects of fluoride. Finding the mechanisms accounting for fluoride toxicity is an important point: indeed, the use of fluoride has been proposed in the preparation of new biomaterials to be inserted in the bone, in order to improve their stable and safe integration.

  5. Xenon fluoride solutions effective as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyman, H. H.; Quarterman, L. A.; Sheft, I.

    1967-01-01

    Solutions of xenon fluorides in anhydrous hydrogen fluoride have few disruptive effects and leave a residue consisting of gaseous xenon, which can be recovered and refluorinated. This mild agent can be used with materials which normally must be fluorinated with fluorine alone at high temperatures.

  6. Surface-modified Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 nanofibers by polyvinylpyrrolidone filler for poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with enhanced dielectric constant and energy storage density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaohui; Xue, Shuangxi; Xiu, Shaomei; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2016-05-17

    Ferroelectric-relaxor behavior of Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 nanofibers (BZT NF) with a large aspect ratio were prepared via electrospinning and surface modified by PVP as dielectric fillers. The nanocomposite flexible films based on surface modified BZT NF and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were fabricated via a solution casting. The results show that the surface-modified BZT NF fillers are highly dispersed and well integrated in the PVDF nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibit enhanced dielectric constant and reduced loss tangents at a low volume fraction of surface-modified BZT NF. The polymer nanocomposites maintain a relatively high breakdown strength, which is favorable for enhancing energy storage density in the nanocomposites. The nanocomposite containing of 2.5 vol. % of PVP modified BZT NF exhibits energy density as high as 6.3 J/cm(3) at 3800 kV/cm, which is more than doubled that of the pure PVDF of 2.8 J/cm(3) at 4000 kV/cm. Such significant enhancement could be attributed to the combined effects of the surface modification and large aspect ratio of the BZT NF. This work may provide a route for using the surface modified ferroelectric-relaxor behavior of ceramic nanofibers to enhance the dielectric energy density in ceramic-polymer nanocomposites.

  7. Enhanced energy storage density in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites by a small loading of suface-hydroxylated Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Shaohui, Liu; Jiwei, Zhai; Jinwen, Wang; Shuangxi, Xue; Wenqin, Zhang

    2014-02-12

    The ceramic-polymer nanocomposites consisting of Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers (BST60 NF) with a large aspect ratio prepared via electrospinning and employing surface hydroxylated as fillers and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as matrix have been fabricated by a solution casting method. The nanocomposites exhibit enhanced permittivity, reduced loss tangents and improved breakdown electric field strength at a low volume fraction of hydroxylated BST60 NF. The energy density of the nanocomposites is significantly enhanced, and the maximal energy density of 6.4 J/cm(3) is obtained in the composite material with 2.5 wt % hydroxylated BST60 NF, which is more than doubled as compared with the pure PVDF. Such significant enhancements result from combined effect of the large aspect ratio, the surface modification and the improved crystallinity of the nanocomposites induced by the hydroxylated BST60 NF. This work may provide a route for using the hydroxylated ceramic nanofibers to enhance the dielectric energy density in ceramic-polymer nanocomposites.

  8. Surface-modified Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 nanofibers by polyvinylpyrrolidone filler for poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with enhanced dielectric constant and energy storage density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaohui; Xue, Shuangxi; Xiu, Shaomei; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric-relaxor behavior of Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 nanofibers (BZT NF) with a large aspect ratio were prepared via electrospinning and surface modified by PVP as dielectric fillers. The nanocomposite flexible films based on surface modified BZT NF and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were fabricated via a solution casting. The results show that the surface-modified BZT NF fillers are highly dispersed and well integrated in the PVDF nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibit enhanced dielectric constant and reduced loss tangents at a low volume fraction of surface-modified BZT NF. The polymer nanocomposites maintain a relatively high breakdown strength, which is favorable for enhancing energy storage density in the nanocomposites. The nanocomposite containing of 2.5 vol. % of PVP modified BZT NF exhibits energy density as high as 6.3 J/cm3 at 3800 kV/cm, which is more than doubled that of the pure PVDF of 2.8 J/cm3 at 4000 kV/cm. Such significant enhancement could be attributed to the combined effects of the surface modification and large aspect ratio of the BZT NF. This work may provide a route for using the surface modified ferroelectric-relaxor behavior of ceramic nanofibers to enhance the dielectric energy density in ceramic-polymer nanocomposites.

  9. Surface-modified Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 nanofibers by polyvinylpyrrolidone filler for poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites with enhanced dielectric constant and energy storage density

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Xue, Shuangxi; Xiu, Shaomei; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2016-01-01

    Ferroelectric-relaxor behavior of Ba(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 nanofibers (BZT NF) with a large aspect ratio were prepared via electrospinning and surface modified by PVP as dielectric fillers. The nanocomposite flexible films based on surface modified BZT NF and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were fabricated via a solution casting. The results show that the surface-modified BZT NF fillers are highly dispersed and well integrated in the PVDF nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibit enhanced dielectric constant and reduced loss tangents at a low volume fraction of surface-modified BZT NF. The polymer nanocomposites maintain a relatively high breakdown strength, which is favorable for enhancing energy storage density in the nanocomposites. The nanocomposite containing of 2.5 vol. % of PVP modified BZT NF exhibits energy density as high as 6.3 J/cm3 at 3800 kV/cm, which is more than doubled that of the pure PVDF of 2.8 J/cm3 at 4000 kV/cm. Such significant enhancement could be attributed to the combined effects of the surface modification and large aspect ratio of the BZT NF. This work may provide a route for using the surface modified ferroelectric-relaxor behavior of ceramic nanofibers to enhance the dielectric energy density in ceramic-polymer nanocomposites. PMID:27184360

  10. Hemocompatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane grafted with network-like and brush-like antifouling layer controlled via plasma-induced surface PEGylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung; Shih, Yu-Ju; Ko, Chao-Yin; Jhong, Jheng-Fong; Liu, Ying-Ling; Wei, Ta-Chin

    2011-05-03

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of PEGylated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) microporous membranes with varying grafting coverage and structures via plasma-induced surface PEGylation was studied. Network-like and brush-like PEGylated layers on PVDF membrane surfaces were achieved by low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment. The chemical composition, physical morphology, grafting structure, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability of prepared membranes were determined to illustrate the correlations between grafting qualities and hemocompatibility of PEGylated PVDF membranes in contact with human blood. Plasma protein adsorption onto different PEGylated PVDF membranes from single-protein solutions and the complex medium of 100% human plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Hemocompatibility of the PEGylated membranes was evaluated by the antifouling property of platelet adhesion observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the anticoagulant activity of the blood coagulant determined by testing plasma-clotting time. The control of grafting structures of PEGylated layers highly regulates the PVDF membrane to resist the adsorption of plasma proteins, the adhesion of platelets, and the coagulation of human plasma. It was found that PVDF membranes grafted with brush-like PEGylated layers presented higher hydration capability with binding water molecules than with network-like PEGylated layers to improve the hemocompatible character of plasma protein and blood platelet resistance in human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PEGylated polymers by controlling grafting structures gives them great potential in the molecular design of antithrombogenic membranes for use in human blood.

  11. Development of dye-sensitized solar cells composed of liquid crystal embedded, electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) nanofibers as polymer gel electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung Kwang; Ban, Taewon; Sakthivel, P; Lee, Jae Wook; Gal, Yeong-Soon; Lee, Jin-Kook; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2012-04-01

    In order to overcome the problems associated with the use of liquid electrolytes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a new system composed of liquid crystal embedded, polymer electrolytes has been developed. For this purpose, three types of DSSCs have been fabricated. The cells contain electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVdF-co-HFP) polymer gel electrolyte, with and without doping with the liquid crystal E7 and with a liquid electrolyte. The morphologies of the newly prepared DSSCs were explored using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Analysis of the FE-SEM images indicate that the DSSC composed of E7 embedded on e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte has a greatly regular morphology with an average diameter. The ionic conductivity of E7 embedded on e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte was found to be 2.9 × 10(-3) S/cm at room temperature, a value that is 37% higher than that of e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte. The DCCS containing the E7 embedded, e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte was observed to possess a much higher power conversion efficiency (PCE = 6.82%) than that of an e-PVdF-co-HFP nanofiber (6.35%). In addition, DSSCs parameters of the E7 embedded, e-PVdF-co-HFP polymer gel electrolyte (V(oc) = 0.72 V, J(sc) = 14.62 mA/cm(2), FF = 64.8%, and PCE = 6.82% at 1 sun intensity) are comparable to those of a liquid electrolyte (V(oc) = 0.75 V, J(sc) = 14.71 mA/cm(2), FF = 64.9%, and PCE = 7.17%, both at a 1 sun intensity).

  12. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane surface with stably anti-protein-fouling performance via a two-step surface polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Bi, Qiu-Yan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Lin

    2012-03-01

    A zwitterionic polymer, poly(3-(methacryloylamino) propyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) (poly(MPDSAH)) was successfully grafted in high density from the surface of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane via a two-step polymerization. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)) chains were firstly grafted from outside surface of PVDF membrane through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to provide the initiation sites for subsequent cerium (Ce (IV))-induced graft copolymerization of polyMPDSAH in the presence of N,N'-ethylene bisacrylamide (EBAA) as a cross-linking agent. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the EBAA could stimulate zwitterionic polymers grafting onto the membrane surface. The dense poly(MPDSAH) layers on the PVDF membrane surface were revealed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical property of PVDF membrane was improved by the zwitterionic surface layers. The gravimetry results indicated the grafting amount increased to 520 μg/cm2 for a copolymerization time of more than 3 h. Static and dynamic water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of the PVDF membranes was significantly enhanced. As the grafting amount reached 513 μg cm-2, the value of contact angle dropped to 22.1° and the amount of protein adsorption decreased to zero. The cyclic experiments for BSA solution filtration demonstrated that the extent of protein fouling was significantly reduced and most of the fouling was reversible. The grafted polymer layer on the PVDF membrane showed a good stability during the membrane cleaning process. The experimental results concluded a good prospect in obtaining the sulfobetaine-modified PVDF membranes with high mechanical strength, good anti-protein-fouling performance, and long-term stability via the two-step polymerization.

  13. 2-Acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic Acid Grafted Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-Based Acid-/Oxidative-Resistant Cation Exchange for Membrane Electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi P; Das, Arindam K; Shahi, Vinod K

    2015-12-30

    For developing acid-/oxidative-resistant aliphatic-polymer-based cation-exchange membrane (CEM), macromolecular modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-co-HFP) was carried out by controlled chemical grafting of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS). To introduce the unsaturation suitable for chemical grafting, dehydrofluorination of commercially available PVDF-co-HFP was achieved under alkaline medium. Sulfonated copolymer (SCP) was prepared by the free radical copolymerization of dehydofluorinated PVDF-co-HFP (DHPVDF-co-HFP) and AMPS in the presence of free radical initiator. Prepared SCP-based CEMs were analyzed for their morphological characteristics, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, conductivity, and stabilities (mechanical, chemical, and thermal) in comparison with state-of-art Nafion117 membrane. High bound water content avoids the membrane dehydration, and most optimal (SCP-1.33) membrane exhibited about ∼2.5-fold high bound water content in comparison with that of Nafion117 membrane. Bunsen reaction of iodine-sulfur (I-S) was successfully performed by direct-contact-mode membrane electrolysis in a two-compartment electrolytic cell using different SCP membranes. High current efficiency (83-99%) confirmed absence of any side reaction and 328.05 kJ mol-H2(-1) energy was required for to produce 1 mol of H2 by electrolytic cell with SCP-1.33 membrane. In spite of low conductivity for reported SCP membrane in comparison with that of Nafion117 membrane, SCP-1.33 membrane was assessed as suitable candidate for electrolysis because of its low-cost nature and excellent stabilities in highly acidic environment may be due to partial fluorinated segments in the membrane structure.

  14. A self-powered vibration sensor based on electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibres with enhanced piezoelectric response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xumin; Wang, Zhao; Cao, Zilan; Zhang, Shenqiu; He, Yahua; Zhang, Youdong; Chen, Kansong; Hu, Yongming; Gu, Haoshuang

    2016-10-01

    The development of self-powered vibration sensors using polymeric piezoelectric nanomaterials has attracted great attention owing to their outstanding flexibility and energy harvesting behaviours. In this study, ultra-long poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibres with optimised β-phase content were synthesised through electrospinning method with different DC voltages. The increase in the β-phase content of the PVDF nanofibres greatly enhanced their piezoelectric response with nearly tripled output voltage and current under the same strain condition. Moreover, the output voltage exhibited linear correlations with both the amplitude and frequency of the strain. Under a fixed frequency of 1.54 Hz, the output voltage exhibited a linear correlation to the strain amplitude with strain sensitivity up to 0.92 V rad-1 and 0.61 V mm-1. The frequency-dependent strain sensing behaviour also confirmed the necessity for frequency calibration to the measured results of vibration. Accordingly, the sensor can be used for self-powered monitoring of the vibration state of a metal foil and measuring the intrinsic resonance frequency of the objects without any powering source.

  15. Preparation and characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride): A high dielectric performance nano-composite for electrical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, S.; Obaid, A.; Al-Marzouki, F. M.

    We have prepared films of polymer nano-composite (PNC) of poly[vinylidene-fluoride] (PVDF) and bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) nanoparticles. The α and γ electro-active phases were detected, and the addition of BiVO4 drastically increases the formation of the α-phase. Addition of BiVO4 produces up to 98% of electro-active phases. Robust electrostatic interactions arise between charges at the BiVO4-surfaces, and differences in electron affinity between CH2 and CF2 groups created dielectric dipoles. The addition of BiVO4 has not only enhanced the formation of the electrically active phases but also makes each dipole in the phase has its specific characteristics for example its own relaxation time. The AC-electrical permittivity showed that the dielectric constant of 10%wt- BiVO4 nanoparticles in PVDF has a value 44 ε0, which is four times more than the dielectric constant of the as-prepared PVDF films. These data show the importance of these polymers as easy, flexible, and durable energy storage materials.

  16. Temperature dependent structural, elastic, and polar properties of ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and trifluoroethylene (TrFE) copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fu-Chang; Dongare, Avinash; Asandei, Alexandru; Alpay, Pamir; Nakhmanson, Serge; University of Connecticut Team

    We use molecular dynamics to calculate the structural, elastic, and polar properties of crystalline ferroelectric β-poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF (-CH2-CF2-)n with randomized trifluoroethylene TrFE (-CHF-CF2-)n as a function of TrFE content (0-50%) in the temperature range of 0-400 K. There is a very good agreement between the experimentally obtained and the computed values of the lattice parameters, thermal expansion coefficients, elastic constants, polarization, and pyroelectric coefficients. A continuous decrease in Young's modulus with increasing TrFE content was observed and attributed to the increased intramolecular and intermolecular repulsive interactions between fluorine atoms. The computed polarization displayed a similar trend, with the room temperature spontaneous polarization decreasing by 44% from 13.8 μC/cm2 (pure PVDF) to 7.7 μC/cm2 [50/50 poly(VDF-co-TrFE)]. Our results show that molecular dynamics can be used as a practical tool to predict the mechanical and polarization-related behavior of ferroelectric poly(VDF-co-TrFE). Such an atomistic model can thus serve as a guide for practical applications of this important multifunctional polymer.

  17. Phase Behavior of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) in Alcohol-Water System: Coexistence of LCST and UCST.

    PubMed

    Kuila, Atanu; Maity, Nabasmita; Chatterjee, Dhruba P; Nandi, Arun K

    2016-03-10

    A thermoresponsive polymer poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PMeO2MA) is grafted from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) backbone by using a combined ATRC and ATRP technique with a high conversion (69%) of the monomer to produce the graft copolymer (PD). It is highly soluble polymer and its solution property is studied by varying polarity in pure solvents (water, methanol, isopropanol) and also in mixed solvents (water-methanol and water-isopropanol) by measuring the hydrodynamic size (Z-average) of the particles by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The variation of Z-average size with temperature of the PD solution (0.2%, w/v) indicates a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase transition (T(PL)) in aqueous medium, an upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type phase transition (T(PU)) in isopropanol medium, and no such phase transition for methanol solution. In the mixed solvent (water + isopropanol) at 0-20% (v/v) isopropanol the TPL increases, whereas the T(PU) decreases at 92-100% with isopropanol content. For the mixture 20-90% isopropanol, PD particles having larger sizes (400-750 nm) exhibit neither any break in Z-average size-temperature plot nor any cloudiness, indicating their dispersed swelled state in the medium. In the methanol + water mixture with methanol content of 0-30%, T(PL) increases, and at 40-60% both UCST- and LCST-type phase separations occur simultaneously, but at 70-90% methanol the swelled state of the particles (size 250-375 nm) is noticed. For 50 vol % methanol by varying polymer concentration (0.07-0.2% w/v) we have drawn a quasibinary phase diagram that indicates an approximate inverted hourglass phase diagram where a swelled state exists between two single phase boundary produced from LCST- and UCST-type phase transitions. An attempt is made to understand the phase separation process by temperature-dependent (1)H NMR spectroscopy along with transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Differences in loosely bound fluoride formation and anticaries effect of resin-based fluoride varnishes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Jorge R S; Junior, Italo M Faraco; Lodi, Carolina S; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE.  Our in vitro study evaluated calcium fluoride formation in enamel and the anticaries effect of seven resin-based varnishes under cariogenic challenge. METHODS.  Enamel blocks were subjected to pH cycling. The experimental groups received fluoride varnish application, the positive control received topical fluoride gel treatment, and the negative control did not receive any treatment. The pH cycling surface hardness (SH1 ) and integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN) were then determined. We measured the amount of fluoride released into the demineralizing and remineralizing (DE-RE) solutions used in pH cycling. The fluoride concentration in the enamel was determined 24 h after application of the products as loosely bound fluoride and firmly bound fluoride. RESULTS.  Higher deposits of loosely bound fluoride were observed for Duofluorid, followed by Biophat. For Duraphat, Bifluorid, Duraflur, and Duofluorid, no difference was observed in the SH1 and ΔKHN values, with the lowest mineral loss compared to the other groups. The Bifluorid and Duofluorid groups released high fluoride amounts into the DE-RE, and statistically significant difference was noted between them. CONCLUSIONS.  The anticaries effect showed no correlation with higher deposited fluoride amounts, resin type, or fluoride source.

  19. Effect of electrospinning on the ferroelectric phase content of polyvinylidene difluoride fibers.

    PubMed

    Andrew, J S; Clarke, D R

    2008-02-05

    Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) fibers were prepared by electrospinning from dimethyl formamide (DMF) solutions. The effects of the electrospinning processing conditions on the formation of the alpha and beta phases of PVDF were studied using infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. We have shown that beta-phase PVDF fibers can be electrospun directly from a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution with a maximum fraction of beta phase, F(beta)max, of 0.75. The fraction of beta phase is found to be greater for smaller-diameter fibers and those spun at an increased voltage.

  20. N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide-electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride composite electrolytes: characterization and lithium cell studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yundong; Wang, Xiaoen; Zhu, Haijin; Armand, Michel; Forsyth, Maria; Greene, George W; Pringle, Jennifer M; Howlett, Patrick C

    2017-01-18

    Using the organic ionic plastic crystal N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide ([C2mpyr][FSI]) with electrospun nanofibers, LiFSI doped [C2mpyr][FSI]-PVdF composites were developed as solid state, self-standing electrolyte membranes. Different lithium salt concentration were investigated, with 10 mol% LiFSI found to be optimal amongst those assessed. Composites with different weight ratios of plastic crystal and polymer were prepared and 10 wt% polymer gave the highest conductivity. In addition, the effects of PVdF incorporation on the morphological, thermal, and structural properties of the organic ionic plastic crystal were investigated. Ion mobilities were also studied using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The electrolytes were then assembled into lithium symmetric cells and cycled galvanostatically at 0.13 mA cm(-2) at both ambient temperature and at 50 °C, for more than 500 cycles.

  1. The effective use of fluorides in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher-than-acceptable levels. PMID:16211158

  2. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  3. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Aim: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Methods: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Results: Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother’s milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Conclusion: Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their

  4. Radiation effects in fluoride glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, K.; Sibley, W. A.; Suscavage, M.; Drexhage, M.

    1985-12-01

    Radiation-induced defects in Zr-based fluoride glasses have been characterized using optical absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) techniques. The optical absorption bands due to interstitial fluorine atoms, the F2(-), FC1(-), C12(-) centers, and Zr(3+) centers have been identified by correlating optical absorption and ESR measurements. Polarized bleaching experiments indicate that the hole-type centers, and the Zr(3+) centers have anisotropic defect configurations. X-ray excitation at 14 K generates a broad, asymmetric emission band at 337 nm (3.68 eV), which is assigned to a localized-excited state similar to that for self-trapped excitons in halide crystals. The intensity of the X-ray induced emission provides further evidence that radiolysis defect production occurs in this material. The optical tail of the radiation-induced Zr(3+) absorption affects infrared transmission. Evidence is presented that the CC14 reactive-atmosphere process introduces a significant amount of Cl(-) (about 5 percent) in the glass.

  5. Amorphous SiO2 NP-Incorporated Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Electrospun Nanofiber Membrane for High Flux Forward Osmosis Desalination.

    PubMed

    Obaid, M; Ghouri, Zafar Khan; Fadali, Olfat A; Khalil, Khalil Abdelrazek; Almajid, Abdulhakim A; Barakat, Nasser A M

    2016-02-01

    Novel amorphous silica nanoparticle-incorporated poly(vinylidine fluoride) electrospun nanofiber mats are introduced as effective membranes for forward osmosis desalination technology. The influence of the inorganic nanoparticle content on water flux and salt rejection was investigated by preparing electrospun membranes with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 wt % SiO2 nanoparticles. A laboratory-scale forward osmosis cell was utilized to validate the performance of the introduced membranes using fresh water as a feed and different brines as draw solution (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 M NaCl). The results indicated that the membrane embedding 0.5 wt % displays constant salt rejection of 99.7% and water flux of 83 L m(-2) h(-1) with 2 M NaCl draw solution. Moreover, this formulation displayed the lowest structural parameter (S = 29.7 μm), which represents approximately 69% reduction compared to the pristine membrane. Moreover, this study emphasizes the capability of the electrospinning process in synthesizing effective membranes as the observed water flux and average salt rejection of the pristine poly(vinylidine fluoride) membrane was 32 L m(-2) h(-1) (at 2 M NaCl draw solution) and 99%, respectively. On the other hand, increasing the inorganic nanoparticles to 5 wt % showed negative influence on the salt rejection as the observed salt flux was 1651 mol m(-2) h(-1). Besides the aforementioned distinct performance, studies of the mechanical properties, porosity, and wettability concluded that the introduced membranes are effective for forward osmosis desalination technology.

  6. The effects of sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride on the surface roughness of intraoral magnet systems.

    PubMed

    Obatake, R M; Collard, S M; Martin, J; Ladd, G D

    1991-10-01

    Four types of intraoral magnets used for retention of overdentures and maxillofacial prostheses were exposed in vitro to SnF2 and NaF to determine the effects of fluoride rinses on surface roughness. The surface roughness (Ra) was measured, after simulated 1, 2, and 5 years' clinical exposure to fluoride (31, 62, and 155 hours). The mean change in Ra was calculated for each period of simulated exposure to fluoride for each magnet type. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare mean change in Ra between magnets within fluorides, and between fluorides within magnets. Paired t tests were used to compare mean change in Ra within fluorides within magnets. The mean change in Ra increased for all magnets after simulated 1, 2, and 5 years of exposure to SnF2 and NaF (p less than 0.03). Using the change in Ra as an indicator for corrosion, PdCo encapsulated SmCo5 magnets and their keepers demonstrated the least corrosion with either fluoride.

  7. Arsenic from community water fluoridation: quantifying the effect.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Emily; Shapiro, Howard; Li, Ye; Minnery, John G; Copes, Ray

    2016-04-01

    Community water fluoridation is a WHO recommended strategy to prevent dental carries. One debated concern is that hydrofluorosilicic acid, used to fluoridate water, contains arsenic and poses a health risk. This study was undertaken to determine if fluoridation contributes to arsenic in drinking water, to estimate the amount of additional arsenic associated with fluoridation, and compare this to the National Sanitation Foundation/American National Standards Institute (NSF/ANSI) standard and estimates from other researchers. Using surveillance data from Ontario drinking water systems, mixed effects linear regression was performed to examine the effect of fluoridation status on the difference in arsenic concentration between raw water and treated water samples. On average, drinking water treatment was found to reduce arsenic levels in water in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated systems by 0.2 μg/L. However, fluoridated systems were associated with an additional 0.078 μg/L (95% CI 0.021, 0.136) of arsenic in water when compared to non-fluoridated systems (P = 0.008) while controlling for raw water arsenic concentrations, types of treatment processes, and source water type. Our estimate is consistent with concentrations expected from other research and is less than 10% of the NSF/ANSI standard of 1 μg/L arsenic in water. This study provides further information to inform decision-making regarding community water fluoridation.

  8. Preparation and pre-characterization of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) / poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (ENR/PVDF) thin film composite membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mod, Norliyana; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2015-09-01

    Epoxidised Natural Rubber (ENR) / Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) (ENR/PVDF) (60:40 wt%) thin film composite membrane was prepared by using solution casting technique. The focuses of this paper are to prepare ENR/PVDF membrane with ratio of ENR to PVDF 60:40 wt%, and to study the effectiveness of treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using the membrane. The prepared membrane was analyzed using optical microscope and the treatment of POME was investigated using dead-end stirred cell. Treated and untreated POME was analyzed to test the percentage of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Optical microscope micrographs showed that the surface of the membrane was slightly uneven. The rate of flux which passed through the membrane was 0.60 L/hm2. Both BOD and COD decreased by 23.6 % and 49.32 % respectively, after single treatment. This showed that the membrane can be used for POME treatment. The value of BOD and COD removal can be increased by recycling the treated POME for more than two cycles, which will be further studied by authors.

  9. Highly efficient gel-state dye-sensitized solar cells prepared using propionitrile and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, Shanmuganathan; Hidayati, Noor; Liu, I.-Ping; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-12-01

    Propionitrile (PPN) solvent based iodide/triiodide liquid-electrolyte is utilized to prepare highly efficient poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells, aiming at improving the energy conversion efficiency as well as the stability of gel-state DSSCs. The concentrations effect of the PVdF-HFP on the properties of PGEs and the performance of the corresponding cells are studied. The results show that the in-situ gelation is performed for the PVdF-HFP concentration range of 8-18% at room temperature. However, increasing the concentration of polymer in the PGEs triggers a decrease in the diffusivity and conductivity of the PGEs, but an increase in the phase transition temperature of the PGEs. A high phase transition temperature is obtained for the PGEs with 18 wt% PVdF-HFP, which increase the long-term stability of the gel-state DSSC. By using the 18 wt% PVdF-HFP in the presence of 5 wt% TiO2 nanofillers (NFs), gel-state cells with an efficiency of 8.38% can be obtained, which is higher than that achieved by liquid-state cells (7.55%). After 1000 h test at room temperature (RT) and 50 °C, the cell can retain 96% and 82%, respectively, of its initial efficiency.

  10. Electromagnetic interference shielding in 1-18 GHz frequency and electrical property correlations in poly(vinylidene fluoride)-multi-walled carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Sudheer; Vishnupriya, D; Joshi, Anupama; Datar, Suwarna; Patro, T Umasankar

    2015-08-21

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties in the 1-18 GHz frequency range for multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composites are reported. A simple and gentle acid-treatment of MWNT showed a percolation threshold (PT) of 0.15 wt% in the PVDF matrix as against 0.35 wt% for unfunctionalized MWNT. Acid-treatment of MWNT significantly improves dispersion, interfacial adhesion with the matrix and the EMI shielding properties of PVDF composites. Further, the EMI shielding properties are correlated with the electrical properties. Using composite films of 0.3 mm thickness, the maximum shielding effectiveness (SET) values for 4 wt% unfunctionalized MWNT composites are found to be about 110, 45, 30, 26, and 58 dB for L (1-2 GHz), S (2-4 GHz), C (4-5.8 GHz), J (5.8-8 GHz), and X (8-12 GHz) bands, while the corresponding values for only 0.5 wt% acid functionalized MWNT composites are about 98, 45, 26, 19, and 47 dB, respectively. The electrical conductivity for both the cases is ∼10(-3) S cm(-1) and the weight contents of CNTs are higher than the PT for the respective composites. The comparable EMI SE and electrical conductivity values for both the composites at different weight fractions of CNTs suggest that there is a critical electrical conductivity above which the composites attain improved EMI shielding properties. Further, the shielding mechanism was found to be dominated by absorption loss. Therefore, the composites may also serve as a radar absorbing material.

  11. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  12. Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants. IX. Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Ensminger, J.T.; Hammons, A.S.; Holleman, J.W.; Lewis, E.B.; Preston, E.L.; Shriner, C.R.; Towill, L.E.

    1980-09-01

    This study is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of fluoride on microorganisms, plants, wild and domestic animals, and humans. More than 1000 references are cited. Human intake of fluoride is chiefly through the diet; drinking water is normally the largest single source. Low concentrations of fluoride in water (approximately 1 ppM) benefit mammalian systems, making bone and tooth apatite less soluble, but long-term ingestion of water containing more than 8 ppM fluoride causes fluorosis in humans. Fluoride salts are lethal to humans when ingested in doses of about 3 g or more. At concentrations normally encountered by the general public, fluoride is not teratogenic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic to humans, but chronic fluoride toxicosis of both livestock and wildlife is an important problem in many areas of the United States. The principal manifestations of chronic fluoride toxicosis in livestock are dental fluorosis, osteofluorosis, lameness, and impaired performance. Among domestic animals, dairy cattle are the most sensitive to excessive fluoride exposure.

  13. Improved dielectric constant and breakdown strength of γ-phase dominant super toughened polyvinylidene fluoride/TiO2 nanocomposite film: an excellent material for energy storage applications and piezoelectric throughput.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Mehebub; Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Sarkar, Debabrata; Sen, Shrabanee; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-01-06

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded γ-phase containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite (PNC) film turns to an excellent material for energy storage application due to an increased dielectric constant (32 at 1 kHz), enhanced electric breakdown strength (400 MV m(-1)). It also exhibits a high energy density of 4 J cm(-3) which is 25 times higher than that of virgin PVDF. 98% of the electroactive γ-phase has been acheived by the incorporation of TiO2 NPs and the resulting PNC behaves like a super-toughened material due to a dramatic improvement (more than 80%) in the tensile strength. Owing to their electroactive nature and extraordinary mechanical properties, PNC films have a strong ability to fabricate the piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) that have recently been an area of focus regarding mechanical energy harvesting. The feasibility of piezoelectric voltage generation from PNGs is demostrated under the rotating fan that also promises further utility such as rotational speed (RPM) determination.

  14. Comparison of fouling characteristics of two different poly-vinylidene fluoride microfiltration membranes in a pilot-scale drinking water treatment system using pre-coagulation/sedimentation, sand filtration, and chlorination.

    PubMed

    Chae, So-Ryong; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Keiichi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2008-04-01

    Two pilot-scale hybrid water treatment systems using two different poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration (MF) membranes (i.e. symmetric and composite) were operated at a constant permeate flux of 104.2l m(-2)h(-1) (=2.5 md(-1)) with a pre-coagulation/sedimentation, sand filtration (SF), and chlorination to produce potable water from surface water. Turbidity was removed completely. And humic substances, Al, and Fe were removed very well by the pilot-scale membrane system. To control microbial growth and mitigate membrane fouling, a NaOCl solution was injected into the effluent from SF before reaching the two membranes (pre-chlorination). However, it adversely affected membrane fouling due to the oxidization and adsorption of inorganic substances such as Al, Fe, and Mn. In the next run, the NaOCl was introduced during backwash (post-chlorination). As compared with the result of pre-chlorination, this change increased the operating period of the symmetric and the composite membranes from about 10 and 50 days to about 60 and 200 days, respectively.

  15. Improved dielectric constant and breakdown strength of γ-phase dominant super toughened polyvinylidene fluoride/TiO2 nanocomposite film: an excellent material for energy storage applications and piezoelectric throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehebub Alam, Md; Ghosh, Sujoy Kumar; Sarkar, Debabrata; Sen, Shrabanee; Mandal, Dipankar

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded γ-phase containing polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite (PNC) film turns to an excellent material for energy storage application due to an increased dielectric constant (32 at 1 kHz), enhanced electric breakdown strength (400 MV m-1). It also exhibits a high energy density of 4 J cm-3 which is 25 times higher than that of virgin PVDF. 98% of the electroactive γ-phase has been acheived by the incorporation of TiO2 NPs and the resulting PNC behaves like a super-toughened material due to a dramatic improvement (more than 80%) in the tensile strength. Owing to their electroactive nature and extraordinary mechanical properties, PNC films have a strong ability to fabricate the piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) that have recently been an area of focus regarding mechanical energy harvesting. The feasibility of piezoelectric voltage generation from PNGs is demostrated under the rotating fan that also promises further utility such as rotational speed (RPM) determination.

  16. Water fluoridation: a critical review of the physiological effects of ingested fluoride as a public health intervention.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Stephen; Awofeso, Niyi

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed.

  17. Water Fluoridation: A Critical Review of the Physiological Effects of Ingested Fluoride as a Public Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine is the world's 13th most abundant element and constitutes 0.08% of the Earth crust. It has the highest electronegativity of all elements. Fluoride is widely distributed in the environment, occurring in the air, soils, rocks, and water. Although fluoride is used industrially in a fluorine compound, the manufacture of ceramics, pesticides, aerosol propellants, refrigerants, glassware, and Teflon cookware, it is a generally unwanted byproduct of aluminium, fertilizer, and iron ore manufacture. The medicinal use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries began in January 1945 when community water supplies in Grand Rapids, United States, were fluoridated to a level of 1 ppm as a dental caries prevention measure. However, water fluoridation remains a controversial public health measure. This paper reviews the human health effects of fluoride. The authors conclude that available evidence suggests that fluoride has a potential to cause major adverse human health problems, while having only a modest dental caries prevention effect. As part of efforts to reduce hazardous fluoride ingestion, the practice of artificial water fluoridation should be reconsidered globally, while industrial safety measures need to be tightened in order to reduce unethical discharge of fluoride compounds into the environment. Public health approaches for global dental caries reduction that do not involve systemic ingestion of fluoride are urgently needed. PMID:24719570

  18. High throughput study of fuel cell proton exchange membranes: Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/acrylic polyelectrolyte blends and nanocomposites with zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata B., Pedro Jose

    Sustainability is perhaps one of the most heard buzzwords in the post-20 th century society; nevertheless, it is not without a reason. Our present practices for energy supply are largely unsustainable if we consider their environmental and social impact. In view of this unfavorable panorama, alternative sustainable energy sources and conversion approaches have acquired noteworthy significance in recent years. Among these, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being considered as a pivotal building block in the transition towards a sustainable energy economy in the 21st century. The polyelectrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a vital component, as well as a performance-limiting factor, of the PEMFC. Consequently, the development of high-performance PEM materials is of utmost importance for the advance of the PEMFC field. In this work, alternative PEM materials based on semi-interpenetrated networks from blends of poly(vinyledene fluoride) (PVDF) (inert phase) and sulfonated crosslinked acrylic polyelectrolytes (PE) (proton-conducting phase), as well as tri-phase PVDF/PE/zirconium-based composites, are studied. To alleviate the burden resulting from the vast number of possible combinations of the different precursors utilized in the preparation of the membranes (PVDF: 5x, PE: 2x, Nanoparticle: 3x), custom high-throughput (HT) screening systems have been developed for their characterization. By coupling the data spaces obtained via these systems with the appropriate statistical and data analysis tools it was found that, despite not being directly involved in the proton transport process, the inert PVDF phase plays a major role on proton conductivity. Particularly, a univocal inverse correlation between the PVDF crystalline characteristics (i.e., crystallinity and crystallite size) and melt viscosity, and membrane proton conductivity was discovered. Membranes based on highly crystalline and viscous PVDF homopolymers exhibited reduced proton

  19. [Fluoride effect on bone formation--an overview].

    PubMed

    Mohr, H

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate our present knowledge of fluoride effect on bone formation on basis of the literature. It is likely that fluoride affects the remodelling processes of the skeleton as well as growth related bone formation. During bone remodelling the amount of bone and osteoid tissue is increased by alteration of the balance between resorption and formation. This finding may be accompagnied by impaired mineralization. In studies of fluoride effect on growth related bone formation a number of quantitative histologic alterations have been observed. These include reduction in epiphyseal plate thickness and changes in cellular morphology as well as a retardation of mineralization. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind the observed effects and the variation in tissue response are still unexplained. Fluoride may have a direct cellular effect causing disturbances in cell morphology and metabolism, but the effects may also involve local supracellular mechanisms as well as the general homeostasis of the individual.

  20. Comment on "Energy storage via polyvinylidene fluoride dielectric on the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells" by Jiang et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Van-Duong

    2017-01-01

    A recent paper by Jiang et al. [1] provides a modifying of counter electrode (CE) with a poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) composite could be generated both energy conversion and storage. As the results, the generation of energy storage is due to the high dielectric constant of PVDF layer. Herein, we pointed out the energy storage can be formed with electrolyte consisted of Li+ ions and without using PVDF layer. This study also discusses the formation of energy storage at the CE. The finding in this work may pay the way for further development of an efficient CE for the large-scale applications of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) in the future, and energy storage of DSCs.

  1. Effects of different kinds of fluorides on enolase and ATPase activity of a fluoride-sensitive and fluoride-resistant Streptococcus mutans strain.

    PubMed

    van Loveren, C; Hoogenkamp, M A; Deng, D M; ten Cate, J M

    2008-01-01

    Enolase and ATPase are sensitive to fluoride. It is unclear whether this sensitivity differs for F-sensitive and F-resistant cells or for different types of fluoride. Permeabilized cells of the fluoride-sensitive strain Streptococcus mutans C180-2 and its fluoride-resistant mutant strain C180-2 FR were preincubated at pH 7 or 4 with NaF, the amine fluorides Olaflur and Dectaflur and amine chloride controls. After preincubations, enolase and ATPase activities of the cells were assessed. Enolase activity was more inhibited after preincubation at pH 7 with NaF than with Olaflur. Amine chloride stimulated, although not with statistical significance, the enolase activity of both strains. After preincubation at pH 4 the enolases were strongly inactivated, but the fluoride-resistant strain's enolase to a lesser extent. The results suggested that amine acts to protect enolase activity against the detrimental low pH effect. Gene sequencing showed that the enolase genes of the fluoride-resistant and fluoride-sensitive strain were identical. ATPase activity was not reduced after NaF preincubation at either pH 7 or pH 4. The amine fluorides and their chloride controls in the preincubation mixture reduced the ATPase activity significantly at both pH values. In conclusion, our results showed that preincubation with amine fluoride did not inhibit enolase activity more effectively than NaF. The amine part of the molecule may protect enolase activity against preincubations at low pH. ATPase activity was not inhibited by NaF preincubation but was significantly inhibited after preincubation with amine fluorides and amine chlorides.

  2. Systemic fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that fluoride, through different applications and formulas, works to control caries development. The first observations of fluoride's effects on dental caries were linked to fluoride naturally present in the drinking water, and then from controlled water fluoridation programs. Other systemic methods to deliver fluoride were later suggested, including dietary fluoride supplements such as salt and milk. These systemic methods are now being questioned due to the fact that many studies have indicated that fluoride's action relies mainly on its post-eruptive effect from topical contact with the tooth structure. It is known that even the methods of delivering fluoride known as 'systemic' act mainly through a topical effect when they are in contact with the teeth. The effectiveness of water fluoridation in many geographic areas is lower than in previous eras due to the widespread use of other fluoride modalities. Nevertheless, this evidence should not be interpreted as an indication that systemic methods are no longer relevant ways to deliver fluoride on an individual basis or for collective health programs. Caution must be taken to avoid excess ingestion of fluoride when prescribing dietary fluoride supplements for children in order to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis, particularly if there are other relevant sources of fluoride intake - such as drinking water, salt or milk and/or dentifrice. Safe and effective doses of fluoride can be achieved when combining topical and systemic methods.

  3. Effect of xylitol and fluoride on enamel erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chunmuang, Siriwan; Jitpukdeebodintra, Suwanna; Chuenarrom, Chanya; Benjakul, Pojjanut

    2007-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the anti-erosive effects of xylitol, fluoride and a xylitol/fluoride combination used as an additive in an acidic drink or as mouthrinse after enamel was exposed to an acidic drink, in vitro. Human third molars were divided into 7 groups (A-G). Samples from groups A to D were immersed for 5 min in orange juice only (A), orange juice plus either 25% xylitol (B), F(-) 1 ppm (C) or a 25% xylitol/F(-) 1 ppm combination (D), respectively. Samples from groups E to G were immersed in orange juice for 5 min and then in either 40% xylitol (E), F(-) 227 ppm (F) or a 40% xylitol/F(-) 227 ppm combination (G), for 1 min respectively. This process was performed four times daily for 14 days. Mineral loss was determined from the lesion depth and surface hardness. Erosion depth progressively increased in all groups, except E, where erosion depth was significantly lower than group A. Surface microhardness progressively decreased in all groups, except E, where hardness was significantly higher than group A. This study demonstrated that addition of xylitol, fluoride or a xylitol/fluoride combination to an acidic drink or post-treatment with fluoride or a xylitol/fluoride combination could reduce, but not prevent, enamel erosion.

  4. Effects of fluoride emissions on enzyme activity in metabolism of agricultural plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moeri, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fluoride on the activity of malatedehydrogenase (MDH) in rape seed and rye grass have been investigated. Fluoride, which has been absorbed from the air, seems to act differently from fluoride added to the soil. The action of airborne fluoride compounds resorbed by the plant on the activity of MDH significantly correlated with the distance from an aluminum plant, crop yield, and fluoride content. 5 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Fluoride varnishes with calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride release and effect on in vitro enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Peters, Bianca Glerean; Rios, Daniela; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Sampaio, Fabio Correia; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bönecker, Marcelo José Strazzeri

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess the amount of fluoride (F) released from varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) and (2) to assess the effect of the experimental varnishes on in vitro demineralization. Six test groups using 5 varnishes: base varnish (no active ingredients); Duraphat® (2.26% NaF); Duofluorid® (5.63% NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 1 (1% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 2 (5% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2); and no varnish were set up. In stage 1, 60 acrylic blocks were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n = 10). Then 300 µg of each varnish was applied to each block. The blocks were immersed in deionized water, which was changed after 1, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Fluoride concentration in the water was analyzed using a fluoride electrode. In stage 2, 60 bovine enamel samples were distributed into 6 groups (n = 10), and treated with 300 µg of the respective varnish. After 6 h the varnish was removed and the samples were subjected to a 7-day in vitro pH cycle (6 h demineralization/18 h remineralization per day). The demineralization was measured using surface hardness. The results showed that both experimental varnishes released more fluoride than Duofluorid® and Duraphat® (p < 0.05), but Duraphat® showed the best preventive effect by decreasing enamel hardness loss (p < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that even though (1) the experimental varnishes containing CaGP released greater amounts of F, (2) they did not increase in the preventive effect against enamel demineralization.

  6. Quantitative determination of lattice fluoride effects on the solubility and crystallinity of carbonated apatites with incorporated fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yan, G; Moribe, K; Otsuka, M; Papangkorn, K; Higuchi, W I

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the effects of fluoride on the solubility and crystallinity of carbonated apatites (CAPs) after its incorporation into the crystal lattice using the metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) distribution method. Fluoride-incorporated CAPs (F-CAPs) of two different carbonate levels (3 and 5%) and fluoride contents from 0 to 20,000 µg/g were synthesized. X-ray diffraction experiments and Rietveld analysis were conducted to obtain crystallite microstrain and unit cell parameters. Acetate buffer MES solution media were prepared at two solution fluoride concentrations (0.2 and 2.0 mg/l) and at two pHs (5.0 and 5.7). The unit cell a-axis values of the F-CAPs were found to decrease as the fluoride content increased, consistent with the fluoride being incorporated into the crystal lattice. The fluoride concentrations in the MES solution media were high enough to provide a 'swamping' effect such that the fluoride released from the F-CAPs during dissolution was minimal in changing the solution fluoride concentration. Employing the MES distribution superposition method, it was shown that the surface complex possessing the fluorapatite (FAP) stoichiometry [Ca10(PO4)6F2] accounted for the MES distribution behavior of all experiments. In addition, the mean pIFAP [the value of -log(aCa(10)aPO4(6)aF(2)) calculated from the ionic activity product based on FAP stoichiometry of the MES dissolution media in which 50% of the F-CAPs had dissolved] correlated well with the crystallite microstrain parameters of the F-CAPs. The incorporated fluoride in the F-CAPs showed only modest effects on F-CAP crystallinity and solubility.

  7. Effects of a documented hydrogen fluoride leak

    SciTech Connect

    Feder, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    At about 6 a.m. on June 19, 1984, 1037 liters of pressurized HF liquid escaped from a storage tank through a 2 mm diameter hole. 48 hours after the leak was discovered and sealed, visible injury to vegetation was observed 2 miles downwind of the source in a tear drop pattern. Injury symptoms ranged from a slight browning of leaves and needles to death of twigs and leaves and needles. Poplar, white pine, spruce, oak, red maple and several herbaceous plant species were injured. Ragweed was not injured but sensitive fern was severely injured. Goldenrod was also injured but recovered within 3 weeks after exposure. White pine trees within 1/4 of a mile from the source were killed. Fluoride analysis of tissues from upwind and downwind trees and herbaceous plants revealed fluoride tissue levels ranging from 5 to 34,000 ppm. Examples of distance/concentration are given. Soils revealed fluoride levels of about 1 ppm at all locations.

  8. Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    V Zohoori, Fatemeh; Innerd, Alison; Azevedo, Liane B; Whitford, Gary M; Maguire, Anne

    2015-11-19

    An understanding of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is critical to identify its biological effects and avoid fluoride toxicity in humans. Fluoride metabolism and subsequently its body retention may be affected by physiological responses to acute exercise. This pilot study investigated the effect of exercise on plasma fluoride concentration, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride renal clearance following no exercise and three exercise intensity conditions in nine healthy adults after taking a 1-mg Fluoride tablet. After no, light, moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively, the mean (SD) baseline-adjusted i) plasma fluoride concentration was 9.6(6.3), 11.4(6.3), 15.6(7.7) and 14.9(10.0) ng/ml; ii) rate of urinary fluoride excretion over 0-8 h was 46(15), 44(22), 34(17) and 36(17) μg/h; and iii) rate of fluoride renal clearance was 26.5(9.0), 27.2(30.4), 13.1(20.4) and 18.3(34.9) ml/min. The observed trend of a rise in plasma fluoride concentration and decline in rate of fluoride renal clearance with increasing exercise intensity needs to be investigated in a larger trial. This study, which provides the first data on the effect of exercise with different intensities on fluoride metabolism in humans, informs sample size planning for any subsequent definitive trial, by providing a robust estimate of the variability of the effect.

  9. Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    V. Zohoori, Fatemeh; Innerd, Alison; Azevedo, Liane B.; Whitford, Gary M.; Maguire, Anne

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is critical to identify its biological effects and avoid fluoride toxicity in humans. Fluoride metabolism and subsequently its body retention may be affected by physiological responses to acute exercise. This pilot study investigated the effect of exercise on plasma fluoride concentration, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride renal clearance following no exercise and three exercise intensity conditions in nine healthy adults after taking a 1-mg Fluoride tablet. After no, light, moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively, the mean (SD) baseline-adjusted i) plasma fluoride concentration was 9.6(6.3), 11.4(6.3), 15.6(7.7) and 14.9(10.0) ng/ml; ii) rate of urinary fluoride excretion over 0–8 h was 46(15), 44(22), 34(17) and 36(17) μg/h; and iii) rate of fluoride renal clearance was 26.5(9.0), 27.2(30.4), 13.1(20.4) and 18.3(34.9) ml/min. The observed trend of a rise in plasma fluoride concentration and decline in rate of fluoride renal clearance with increasing exercise intensity needs to be investigated in a larger trial. This study, which provides the first data on the effect of exercise with different intensities on fluoride metabolism in humans, informs sample size planning for any subsequent definitive trial, by providing a robust estimate of the variability of the effect. PMID:26581340

  10. Effects of fluoride in mulberry leaves on the growth and development of silkworm

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chia-hsi; Qian Da-fu; Li Zheng-fang; Gao Xu-ping

    1980-01-01

    The effects of fluorides on mulberry and silkworm were investigated. The results had shown that polluted mulberry leaves which contain more than 30 parts per million fluorides (dry wt.) may induce acute damage to silkworm. 6 tables.

  11. Significantly Enhanced Dielectric Performance of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropylene)-based Composites Filled with Hierarchical Flower-like TiO₂ Particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nuoxin; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Xiao, Xingrong; Yang, Hui; Yu, Enjie

    2015-12-16

    In this study, we report a feasible strategy for fabricating high-dielectric-constant polymer composites for applications in energy storage devices and embedded capacitors. Hierarchical flower-like TiO2 particles were prepared via a facile solvothermal process and incorporated into the P(VDF-HFP) matrix. The temperature and frequency dependent dielectric properties of flower-like TiO2/P(VDF-HFP) composites as well as commercial TiO2/P(VDF-HFP) composites were investigated. The results reveal that the flower-like TiO2 particles are more effective in increasing the dielectric constant of P(VDF-HFP) when compared with commercial TiO2. Typically, the dielectric constant of the P(VDF-HFP) composite filled with 20 vol % flower-like TiO2 reaches 83.1 at 100 Hz, in contrast to 43.4 for the composite filled with 20 vol % commercial TiO2 and 11.3 for pristine P(VDF-HFP). Also, the flower-like TiO2-filled composites exhibit similar characteristic breakdown strengths to their commercial TiO2-filled counterparts. The significant improvement in the dielectric constant could be attributed to the enhancement of Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization, which originates from the sophisticated morphology of flower-like TiO2 particles.

  12. Effects of light exposure on irradiated barium fluoride crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Mauger, G.J.

    1993-04-20

    Small barium fluoride crystals have been irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma rays under various illumination conditions to establish the effect of photo-bleaching of the radiation-induced color centers. This paper describes results of a few different experiments conducted at LLNL over the past few weeks.

  13. Effects of daily fluoride exposures on fluoride release by glass ionomer-based restoratives.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Rick; Diefenderfer, Kim E

    2003-01-01

    It is well documented that glass ionomer cements absorb and release fluoride following single fluoride exposures. This study examined fluoride release among three glass ionomer-based restorative materials following multiple daily exposures to three topical fluoride regimens. Using a Delrin mold, 32 cylindrical specimens, each of a glass ionomer (Ketac-Fil), resin-modified glass ionomer (Photac-Fil) and polyacid-modified resin (Dyract AP) were created. Each specimen was subjected to one of four daily treatments (n = 8): (1) no fluoride treatment (control); (2) application of a fluoride dentifrice (1000 ppm) for one minute once daily; (3) application of the same dentifrice for one minute twice daily; (4) the same regimen as (3), plus immersion in a 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) mouth rinse (225 ppm) for one minute immediately following the second dentifrice application. Each specimen was suspended in a polyethylene test tube containing 1.0 ml demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) at 37 degrees C for six hours, then transferred to a new test tube containing 1.0 ml remineralizing solution (pH 7.0) at 37 degrees C for 18 hours. Fluoride treatments were completed at the time of transfer daily for seven days. Media solutions were buffered with equal volumes of TISAB II; fluoride levels were measured using a digital ion analyzer and fluoride electrode. Fluoride release decreased significantly from Day 1 to Day 3 for all materials regardless of fluoride treatment (Repeated Measures ANOVA, Tukey HSD, p < 0.05). All specimens released significantly more fluoride in demineralizing solution than in remineralizing solution. For Days 2-7, Treatment 4 produced greater fluoride release than both the control and Treatment 2 for all three materials (p < 0.05); For each material, the fluoride release produced by Treatments 3 and 4 was statistically similar on most days throughout the study. By Day 7, Photac-Fil demonstrated both the greatest total fluoride release and the greatest

  14. Effect of fluoridated water on intelligence in 10-12-year-old school children

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, A.; Dhanya, R. S.; Narayan, Ajay; Sam, George; Adarsh, V. J.; Kiran, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of drinking water fluoride levels with children's intelligence quotient (IQ). Materials and Methods: Water was collected from initially identified endemic fluoride regions according to the geological research of Government of India. Fluoride concentration of the water was assessed by utilizing fluoride ion selective electrode, Orion 9609BN, and categorized on the basis of fluoride concentration into low, medium, and high-fluoride regions, i.e., Virajpet (low fluoride level < 1.2 ppm), Banavara (Medium fluoride level 1.2–2 ppm), and Mastihalli (High fluoride levels > 3 ppm). Government school from all three villages were selected randomly and IQ levels were assessed by using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. This test was conducted on each child in the study sample. Results: A significant inverse relationship was found between the fluoride concentration in drinking water and IQ (r value = −0.204; P < 0.000). It was observed that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride concentration in drinking water. Conclusion: It is concluded that IQ level was negatively correlated with fluoride level in drinking water. Factors that might affect children's IQ need to be considered, and it is necessary to devise solutions for preventing the harmful effects of excessive intake of fluoride ion to the body. PMID:28217543

  15. The effect of fluoride on the developing tooth.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C; Connell, S; Kirkham, J; Brookes, S J; Shore, R C; Smith, A M

    2004-01-01

    This review aims to outline the effects of fluoride on the biological processes involved in the formation of tooth tissues, particularly dental enamel. Attention has been focused on mechanisms which, if compromised, could give rise to dental fluorosis. The literature is extensive and often confusing but a much clearer picture is emerging based on recent more detailed knowledge of odontogenesis. Opacity, characteristic of fluorotic enamel, results from incomplete apatite crystal growth. How this occurs is suggested by other changes brought about by fluoride. Matrix proteins, associated with the mineral phase, normally degraded and removed to permit final crystal growth, are to some extent retained in fluorotic tissue. Fluoride and magnesium concentrations increase while carbonate is reduced. Crystal surface morphology at the nano-scale is altered and functional ameloblast morphology at the maturation stage also changes. Fluoride incorporation into enamel apatite produces more stable crystals. Local supersaturation levels with regard to the fluoridated mineral will also be elevated facilitating crystal growth. Such changes in crystal chemistry and morphology, involving stronger ionic and hydrogen bonds, also lead to greater binding of modulating matrix proteins and proteolytic enzymes. This results in reduced degradation and enhanced retention of protein components in mature tissue. This is most likely responsible for porous fluorotic tissue, since matrix protein removal is necessary for unimpaired crystal growth. To resolve the outstanding problems of the role of cell changes and the precise reasons for protein retention more detailed studies will be required of alterations to cell function, effect on specific protein species and the nano-chemistry of the apatite crystal surfaces.

  16. Effect of fluoride on the intestinal epithelial cell brush border membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, R.; Upreti, R.K.; Kidwai, A.M.

    1987-07-01

    Fluoride consumed by man and animals is chiefly absorbed in the intestine. Chronic fluoride exposure causes mottled teeth and osteosclerosis. Over-fluoridation (126 mM) of drinking water have been reported to cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Furthermore, the effect of acute and low concentrations of fluoride on gastric secretion, ion transport and other disorders have also been studied. Fluoride also causes alterations in the permeability of membranes and membrane bound enzymes. The intestinal cell lining plays an important role in digestion and absorption. It automatically becomes the most exposed site of contact to fluoride following ingestion. Earlier study have shown significant alterations in the formation of lipid peroxides in rat intestine following oral administration of fluoride. The present study was undertaken to investigate the damage of rat intestinal epithelium in situ caused by relatively high and low fluoride concentrations.

  17. Effects of treatment with sodium fluoride and subsequent starvation on fluoride content of earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    The two experiments described here originated during a long-term investigation into the occurrence and movement of pollutant fluoride in a terrestrial ecosystem. Moles (Talpa europaea) whose diet consist largely of various species of earthworm Lumbricidae, are one of the species under investigation. Bone fluoride in moles was found to be higher, on average, than in foxes or small rodents. Moles probably acquire fluoride from their earthworm diet. Earthworms do not have any readily identifiable tissue in which to store large amounts of fluoride but, for their size, they have a considerable amount of soil in their gut, up oto 20% of their dry weight. Preliminary measurements of fluoride in whole earthworms suggested that observed levels could probably be accounted for by fluoride bound in the mineral part of contained soil and released during preparatory ashing. Two experiments to investigate this situation are described; here their aims were: to expose earthworms kept in soil to different concentrations of sodium fluoride; to measure resulting fluoride in earthworms when soil was removed from their gut by starvation for varying periods of time; and to compare amounts of fluoride in whole starved earthworms with those in starved earthworms from which remaining soil had also been physically removed by dissection and washing.

  18. Effect of Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Fluoride-chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and the Prevalence of Oral Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Sadat Sajadi, Fatemeh; Moradi, Mohammad; Pardakhty, Abbas; Yazdizadeh, Razieh; Madani, Faezeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Streptococcus mutans is the main pathogenic agent involved in dental caries, and may be eliminated using mouthwashes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of fluoride, chlorhexidine, and fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwashes on salivary S. mutans count after two weeks of use and determine the prevalence of their side effects on the oral mucosa. Materials and methods. In this clinical trial, 120 12-14 year-old students were selected and divided into three groups. Each group was given one of fluoride, chlorhexidine, or fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwashes. They were asked to use it twice a day for two weeks. Salivary samples were collected at baseline and after two weeks. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In all the study groups, there were statistically significant reductions in salivary S. mutans counts two weeks after using the mouthwashes (P < 0.05). In addition, fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwash had a significant effect on the reduction of S. mutans count in comparison with fluoride alone. The prevalence of oral side effects in fluoride-chlorhexidine mouth-wash was more than 90%. Conclusion. Adding fluoride to chlorhexidine mouthwash can significantly decrease salivary S. mutans count after two weeks. Fluoride-chlorhexidine has the highest rate of oral side effects between the evaluated mouthwash compounds.

  19. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Badjatia, Rini G; Thanveer, K; Krishnan, Ajith CG

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of fluoride varnish on Streptococcus mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. Materials and methods A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fluoride varnish on S. mutans count in saliva among 12-year-old school children. A total of 42 school-going children attending schools in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India, were divided into two groups. Group I was treated with fluoride varnish and group II received no treatment. Assessment of S. mutans was carried out at baseline and 3 to 6 months postfluoride varnish application. Friedman analysis of variance test and post hoc test were applied to detect statistically significant differences between baseline, 3 to 6 months of fluoride varnish application, and also between groups I and II. Results The mean number of salivary S. mutans value found in case group at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 31.23 ± 1.119, 9.27 ± 0.852, and 9.39 ± 0.908 × 104 colony-forming unit CFU/mL respectively. The difference in S. mutans count from baseline to 3 to 6 months was highly statistically significant (p = 0.000), but the difference from 3 to 6 months was not statistically significant (p = 0.142). In control group, the mean S. mutans value found at baseline, 3 to 6 months was 30.63 ± 1.436, 31.23 ± 1.351, and 31.40 ± 1.374 × 104 CFU/mL respectively. The differences between these values were not statistically significant (p = 0.11). Conclusion Statistically significant reduction in S. mutans count in saliva was seen 3 to 6 months after fluoride varnish application. How to cite this article Badjatia S, Badjatia RG, Thanveer K, Krishnan ACG. Effects of Fluoride Varnish on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):62-66. PMID:28377658

  20. Effects of Systemic Fluoride and in vitro Fluoride Treatment on Enamel Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, H.; Czajka-Jakubowska, A.; Spencer, N.J.; Mansfield, J.F.; Robinson, C.; Clarkson, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    Systemically administered fluoride at a concentration of 75 ppm increases the surface roughness of developing enamel crystals in rats, which may be significant in advancing our understanding of the biological mechanism of fluorosis. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the increased surface roughness may be a result of surface restructuring by the direct action of fluoride at the crystal surface. We examined the fluoride dose-dependent roughening of enamel crystal surfaces in vivo, in the rat, and whether this roughening could be mimicked by the in vitro treatment of rat enamel crystals with neutral pH fluoride solutions. Our results showed that enamel crystal surface roughness increased after treatment with increasing fluoride ion concentrations, whether applied in vitro or administered systemically. This suggests a mechanism, alongside others, for the increased surface roughness of crystals in fluorotic enamel. PMID:17062747

  1. Structural, mechanistic, and computational analysis of the effects of anomeric fluorines on anomeric fluoride departure in 5-fluoroxylosyl fluorides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Seo; Greig, Ian R; Vocadlo, David J; McCarter, John D; Patrick, Brian O; Withers, Stephen G

    2011-10-12

    The effects of fluorine substitution at the C-5 center of pyranosyl fluorides on the reactivity at the C-1 anomeric center was probed by studying a series of 5-fluoroxylosyl fluoride derivatives. X-ray structures of their per-O-acetates detailed the effects on the ground-state structures. First-order rate constants for spontaneous hydrolysis, in conjunction with computational studies, revealed that changes in the stereochemistry of the 5-fluorine had minimal effects on the solvolysis rate constants and that the observed rate reductions were broadly similar to those caused by additional fluorine substitution at C-1 but significantly less than those due to substitution at C-2. Differences in the trapping behavior of 5- versus 2-fluoro-substituted glycosyl fluorides with α- and β-glycosidases arise more from differences in steric effects and hydrogen-bonding interactions than from intrinsic reactivity differences.

  2. Fluoride glass starting materials - Characterization and effects of thermal treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, William; Dunn, Bruce; Shlichta, Paul; Neilson, George F.; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    The production of heavy metal fluoride (HMF) glasses, and the effects of thermal treatments on the HMF glasses are investigated. ZrF4, BaF2, AlF3, LaF3, and NaF were utilized in the synthesis of zirconium-barium-lanthanum-aluminum-sodium fluoride glass. The purity of these starting materials, in particular ZrF4, is evaluated using XRD analysis. The data reveal that low temperature heating of ZrF4-H2O is effective in removing the water of hydration, but causes the production of ZrF4 and oxyfluorides; however, dehydration followed by sublimation results in the production of monoclinic ZrFe without water or oxyfluoride contaminants.

  3. Effects of Gravity on Processing Heavy Metal Fluoride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the crystal nucleation of heavy metal fluoride fibers have been studied in preliminary experiments utilizing NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft and a microgravity sounding rocket flight. Commercially produced fibers were heated to the crystallization temperature in normal and reduced gravity. The fibers processed in normal gravity showed complete crystallization while the fibers processed in reduced gravity did not show signs of crystallization.

  4. The effect of different fluoride application methods on the remineralization of initial carious lesions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of single and combined applications of fluoride on the amount of fluoride release, and the remineralization and physical properties of enamel. Materials and Methods Each of four fluoride varnish and gel products (Fluor Protector, FP, Ivoclar Vivadent; Tooth Mousse Plus, TM, GC; 60 Second Gel, A, Germiphene; CavityShield, CS, 3M ESPE) and two fluoride solutions (2% sodium fluoride, N; 8% tin(ii) fluoride, S) were applied on bovine teeth using single and combined methods (10 per group), and then the amount of fluoride release was measured for 4 wk. The electron probe microanalysis and the Vickers microhardness measurements were conducted to assess the effect of fluoride application on the surface properties of bovine teeth. Results The amount of fluoride release was higher in combined applications than in single application (p < 0.05). Microhardness values were higher after combined applications of N with FP, TM, and CS than single application of them, and these values were also higher after combined applications of S than single application of A (p < 0.05). Ca and P values were higher in combined applications of N with TM and CS than single application of them (p < 0.05). They were also increased after combined applications of the S with A than after single application (p < 0.05). Conclusions Combined applications of fluoride could be used as a basis to design more effective methods of fluoride application to provide enhanced remineralization. PMID:27200280

  5. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p < 0.05). After fluoride addition, flexibility was 15.45-20.27%, and the recovery from deformation did not change except one material. Compressive strength after fluoride addition was 0.36-1.12 MPa. Addition of NaF or SnF2 in an alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  6. Effects of flossing and rinsing with a fluoridated mouthwash after brushing with a fluoridated toothpaste on salivary fluoride clearance.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, R M; Horay, C; Huntington, E; Mehta, V

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that flossing after brushing with a fluoridated toothpaste may lower salivary fluoride (F), and to evaluate the consequence of subsequent F mouthwash use. Twenty adults used 3 oral hygiene regimes in a randomised order: A, brushing with an NaF toothpaste; B, as A but followed by professional flossing; C, as B followed by rinsing with an NaF mouthwash. Saliva samples were collected up to 120 min after each regime and analysed for F. The mean area under the clearance curve value for regime C was statistically significantly greater than the corresponding values for A and B (p < 0.0001), which differed little. The regime that included the mouthwash may provide better anticaries protection.

  7. Dentifrice Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  8. Effect of water fluoridation on the development of medial vascular calcification in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pardillos, Ana; Sosa, Cecilia; Millán, Ángel; Sorribas, Víctor

    2014-04-06

    Public water fluoridation is a common policy for improving dental health. Fluoride replaces the hydroxyls of hydroxyapatite, thereby improving the strength of tooth enamel, but this process can also occur in other active calcifications. This paper studies the effects of water fluoridation during the course of vascular calcification in renal disease. The effect of fluoride was studied in vitro and in vivo. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells were calcified with 2mM Pi for 5 days. Fluoride concentrations of 5-10 μM--similar to those found in people who drink fluoridated water--partially prevented calcification, death, and osteogene expression in vitro. The anticalcifying mechanism was independent of cell activity, matrix Gla protein, and fetuin A expressions, and it exhibited an IC50 of 8.7 μM fluoride. In vivo, however, fluoridation of drinking water at 1.5mg/L (concentration recommended by the WHO) and 15 mg/L dramatically increased the incipient aortic calcification observed in rats with experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD, 5/6-nephrectomy), fed a Pi-rich fodder (1.2% Pi). Fluoride further declined the remaining renal function of the CKD animals, an effect that most likely overwhelmed the positive effect of fluoride on calcification in vitro. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that fluoride did not modify the Ca/P atomic ratio, but it was incorporated into the lattice of in vivo deposits. Fluoride also converted the crystallization pattern from plate to rode-like structures. In conclusion, while fluoride prevents calcification in vitro, the WHO's recommended concentrations in drinking water become nephrotoxic to CKD rats, thereby aggravating renal disease and making media vascular calcification significant.

  9. Effects of Excess Fluoride and Iodide on Thyroid Function and Morphology.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yaqiu; Guo, Xiujuan; Sun, Qiuyan; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to high levels of iodide in Cangzhou, Shandong Province, China has been associated with increased incidence of thyroid disease; however, whether fluoride can affect the thyroid remains controversial. To investigate the effects of excess fluoride, we evaluated thyroid gland structure and function in rats exposed to fluoride and iodide, either alone or in combination. Five-week-old Wistar rats (n = 160 total) were randomly divided into eight groups: three groups that were given excess fluoride (15, 30, or 60 ppm F); one group given excess iodide (1200 μg/L I); three groups given excess iodide plus fluoride (1200 μg/L I plus 15, 30, or 60 ppm F); and one control group. The serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones TT3 and TT4 on day 150 were significantly reduced for certain fluoride groups; however, no significant differences were observed in concentrations for the pituitary hormone TSH among any groups. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that iodide causes an increase in the areas of the colloid lumens and a decrease in the diameters of epithelial cells and nuclei; however, fluoride causes an increase in nuclear diameters. The damage to follicular epithelial cells upon fluoride or iodide treatment was easily observed by transmission electron microscopy, but the effects were most dramatic upon treatment with both fluoride and iodide. These results suggest that iodide causes the most damage but that fluoride can promote specific changes in the function and morphology of the thyroid, either alone or in combination with iodide.

  10. Protective effect of ascorbic acid and Ginkgo biloba against learning and memory deficits caused by fluoride.

    PubMed

    Jetti, Raghu; Raghuveer, C V; Mallikarjuna, Rao C

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is present in the ground water, World Health Organization permitted level of fluoride in the ground water is 0.5 ppm. Tooth pastes, mouth washes, tea and sea fish are the sources of fluoride. Exposure to these multiple sources results in several adverse effects in addition to the fluorosis. The present study aimed to test the effect of vitamin C and Ginkgo biloba against the behavioural deficits caused by fluoride. Rats were divided into five groups with six animals in each group (n = 6). Control group received ordinary tap water with 0.5 ppm of fluoride, the remaining groups received 100 ppm of fluoride for 30 days prior to fluoride exposure. Two groups of animals received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C and G. biloba for 15 days prior to fluoride exposure. After 45 days, behavioural studies (T-Maze, passive avoidance) were conducted on the experimental animals. The results of the present study showed no behavioural deficits in the control group of animals however, the rats that received fluoride water exhibited impairment in their spatial learning and memory deficits. The deficits are not marked in the vitamin C and G. biloba groups. To conclude chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride causes severe impairment in the spatial learning and memory, these deficits can be ameliorated with the vitamin C and G. biloba.

  11. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Tadano, M; Yamamoto, S; Tamura, K; Asanuma, S; Watanabe, T; Kondo, T; Sakurai, S; Ji, R; Liang, C; Chen, X; Hong, Z; Cao, S

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  12. Effect of fluoridated carbamide peroxide gels on enamel microtensile bond strength.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Shu-Fen; Chen, Hui-Ping; Chang, Chih-Han; Liu, Jia-Kuang

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the resin bond strength on enamel treated with different fluoridated bleaching agents. Forty-eight bovine incisors were divided into four groups to receive bleaching treatments, over a 14-d period, as follows: no treatment; 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching; 10% CP containing 0.11% fluoride; and 10% CP containing 0.37% fluoride. Immediately, and 7 and 14 d after bleaching, the enamel surfaces were respectively bonded with composite and sectioned to create resin-enamel beams. These beams were subjected to the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) test, then assessed for failure mode under scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the 0.37% fluoridated group demonstrated a microTBS equivalent to that of the unbleached group at all stages. Non-fluoridated and 0.11% fluoridated groups showed a weaker microTBS after bleaching but regained the bond strength after 14 or 7 d of storage, respectively. In the non-fluoridated group, adhesive failure was the predominant fracture pattern that comprised the enamel prism demineralization change and widely dispersed voids on the resin-enamel interfaces. No evident enamel erosion and fewer microporosities were found in the 0.37% fluoridated group. Accordingly, treatment with 0.37% fluoridated CP maintained the microTBS as effectively as the unbleached enamel. Additional fluoride in the bleaching agents may facilitate subsequent restorative treatment by inhibiting enamel demineralization.

  13. Effect of high fluoride and high fat on serum lipid levels and oxidative stress in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyan; Gao, Yanhui; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Hui; Sun, Dianjun

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of high fluoride and high fat on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rabbits. A factorial experimental design was used, with two factors (fluoride and fat) and three levels. Seventy-two male rabbits were randomly assigned into nine groups according to initial weight and serum lipid levels. The rabbits were fed with basic feed, moderate fat feed or high fat feed and drank tap water, fluoridated water at levels of 50 and 100mgfluorion/L freely. Biological materials were collected after 5 months, and serum lipid, T-AOC, LPO, and MDA levels were then measured. Using these data, the separate and interactive effects of high fluoride and high fat were analyzed. High fluoride and high fat both increased serum levels of TC, HDL-C and LDL-C significantly (P<0.05), and there was also a synergistic effect between high fluoride and high fat (P<0.05). High fluoride and high fat had different effects on TG levels: high fat significantly increased TG levels (P<0.01) whereas high fluoride had nothing to do with TG levels (P>0.05). High fat significantly elevated LPO and MDA levels and lowered T-AOC levels in serum (P<0.05). Similarly, high fluoride significantly increased LPO and MDA levels in serum (P<0.05). However, there was no interactive effect between high fat and high fluoride on these indexes. In summary, high fluoride and high fat increased serum TC and LDL-C levels individually and synergistically, and this would cause and aggravate hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. At the same time, high fluoride and high fat both made the accumulation of product of oxidative stress in experimental animals.

  14. Method of Evaluating the Thermal Stability of the Pyroelectric Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Effects of Poling Temperature and Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    samples in Table I. Fig. 4 Relative pyroelectric response vs. temperatura of a PVF 2 smple which was poled for 10 minutes at 109 °C with iMV/cm, as the...Profeseor Garch Vil.ke Saudis Laboratories Departmec of Chemical Engineering Saudi& Corporation VTirints. Polytaehnia Inetitute and Albuquerque, Noev .uco

  15. Effects of Fluoride on DNA Damage and Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis in the Liver of Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo Hua; Huang, Fu Bing; Gao, Ji Ping; Liu, Mao Lin; Pang, Wen Biao; Li, Wei bin; Yan, Xiao Yan; Huo, Mei Jun; Yang, Xia

    2015-08-01

    Fluoride compounds are abundant and widely distributed in the environment at a variety of concentrations. Further, fluoride induces toxic effects in target organs such as the liver. In this study, we investigated liver histopathology, DNA damage, apoptosis, and the mRNA and protein expressions of caspase-3 and -9 in the rat livers by administering varying concentrations of fluoride (0, 50, 100, 200 mg/L ) for 120 days. The results showed fluoride-induced morphological changes and significantly increased apoptosis and DNA damage in rats exposed to fluoride, especially in response to higher doses. The immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR results indicated that caspase-3, caspase-9 protein positive expression and mRNA relative expression enhanced with increasing NaF concentration. In summary, our findings suggest that chronic exposure to fluoride causes damages to liver histopathology and leads to liver apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways.

  16. Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

  17. Effects of fluoridated drinking water on dental caries in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Slade, G D; Sanders, A E; Do, L; Roberts-Thomson, K; Spencer, A J

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews produce conflicting conclusions regarding dental caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation in adults. The authors investigated the relationship using data from the nationally representative 2004-2006 Australian National Survey of Adult Oral Health. Effects were compared between the pre-fluoridation cohort born before 1960 (n = 2,270) and the cohort born between 1960 and 1990 (n = 1,509), when widespread implementation of fluoridation increased population coverage from < 1% to 67%. Residential history questionnaires determined the percentage of each person's lifetime exposed to fluoridated water. Examiners recorded decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF-Teeth) and decayed and filled tooth surfaces (DF-Surfaces). Socio-demographic and preventive dental behaviors were included in multivariable least-squares regression models adjusted for potential confounding. In fully adjusted models, > 75% of lifetime exposure to fluoridation relative to < 25% of lifetime exposure was associated with 11% and 10% fewer DMF-Teeth in the pre-1960 (p < .0001) and 1960-1990 cohorts (p = .018), respectively. Corresponding reductions in DF-Surfaces were 30% (p < .001) and 21% (p < .001). Findings for intermediate fluoridation exposure suggested a dose-response relationship. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses accounting for missing data. In this nationally representative sample of Australian adults, caries-preventive effects of water fluoridation were at least as great in adults born before widespread implementation of fluoridation as after widespread implementation of fluoridation.

  18. Effects of individual and combined exposure to sodium arsenite and sodium fluoride on tissue oxidative stress, arsenic and fluoride levels in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Megha; Flora, S J S

    2006-08-25

    Arsenic and fluoride are potent toxicants, widely distributed through drinking water and food and often result in adverse health effects. The present study examined the effects of sodium meta-arsenite (100 mg/l in drinking water) and sodium fluoride (5 mg/kg, oral, once daily), administered either alone or in combination for 8 weeks, on various biochemical variables indicative of tissue oxidative stress and cell injury in Swiss albino male mice. A separate group was first exposed to arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride exposure. Exposure to arsenic or fluoride led to a significant depletion of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. These changes were accompanied by increased level of blood and tissues reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. An increase in the level of liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) along with a concomitant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced GSH content were observed in both arsenic and fluoride administered mice. The changes were significantly more pronounced in arsenic exposed animals than in fluoride. It was interesting to observe that during combined exposure the toxic effects were less pronounced compared to the effects of arsenic or fluoride alone. In some cases antagonistic effects were noted following co-exposure to arsenic and fluoride. Arsenic and fluoride concentration increased significantly on exposure. Interestingly, their concentration decreased significantly on concomitant exposure for 8 weeks. However, the group which was administered arsenic for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of fluoride administration showed no such protection suggesting that the antagonistic effect of fluoride on arsenic or vice versa is possible only during interaction at the gastro intestinal sites. These results are new and interesting and require further exploration.

  19. The effect of fluoride on the structure, function, and proteome of a renal epithelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Ligia S; Jeggle, Pia; MacVinish, Lesley J; Bartram, James C; Miller, Henry; Jarvis, Gavin E; Levy, Flávia M; Santesso, Mariana R; Leite, Aline L; Oliveira, Rodrigo C; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Edwardson, J Michael

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of fluoride in the body may cause toxic effects. Here, we investigated the effects of fluoride on the structure, function, and proteome of a cortical collecting duct epithelium in vitro. Kidney tubule cells (M-1) were chosen because the concentration of fluoride in the kidney is 4-5-fold higher than that in plasma. Mouse M-1 cell monolayers were incubated in fluoride-containing media, and the amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current and transepithelial resistance were measured. The Young's modulus of the epithelium was determined using atomic force microscopy, and the effect of fluoride on epithelial structure was assessed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Differences in the expression of membrane proteins were evaluated using proteomics and bioinformatics. Fluoride exposure reduced both transepithelial Na(+) transport and resistance. The IC50 for fluoride was ∼300 µM for both effects, and the half-times for the decays of ion transport and resistance were 8.4 h and 3.6 days, respectively. Fluoride treatment did not affect the sensitivity of Na(+) transport to amiloride. The Young's modulus of the epithelium was also unaffected by fluoride; however, the functional effects of fluoride were accompanied by marked structural effects. Proteomic analysis revealed changes in expression of a number of proteins, and particularly mitochondrial proteins. Treatment with fluoride had profound effects on the structure, function and proteome of a model cortical collecting duct epithelium. Significantly, however, these effects were produced only at concentrations considerably higher than those likely to be encountered in vivo. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1455-1467, 2017.

  20. Effects of fluoride on the interactions between amelogenin and apatite crystals.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, K; Le, T; Zhu, L; Chen, J; Featherstone, J D B; Li, W; DenBesten, P

    2008-01-01

    Fluorosed enamel is more porous and less mineralized, possibly related to altered amelogenin-modulated crystal growth. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of fluoride in interactions between amelogenin and apatite crystals. Recombinant human amelogenin (rh174) was bound to carbonated hydroxyapatite containing various amounts of fluoride, and analyzed by protein assay, SDS PAGE, and AFM. Interactions between rh174 and fluoride were assayed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The initial binding rate of rh174, as well as total amount of rh174 bound to fluoride-containing carbonated hydroxyapatite, was greater than that in the control carbonated hydroxyapatite. Fluoride in solution at physiologic (5.3 micromolar, or 0.1 ppm) concentrations showed no significant effect on binding, but higher fluoride levels significantly decreased protein binding. ITC showed no interactions between fluoride and rh174. These results suggest that fluoride incorporation into the crystal lattice alters the crystal surface to enhance amelogenin binding, with no direct interactions between fluoride and amelogenin.

  1. Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali).

    PubMed

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, C; Fourati, R; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment under open air conditions was carried out to investigate the uptake, accumulation and toxicity effects of fluoride in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown in a soil spiked with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Six different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM NaF) of soil spiking were applied through NaF to irrigation water. At the end of the experiment, total fluoride content in soil was 20 and 1770mgFkg(-1) soil in control and 100mM NaF treatments, respectively. The comparative distribution of fluoride partitioning among the different olive tree parts showed that the roots accumulated the most fluoride and olive fruits were minimally affected by soil NaF spiking as they had the lowest fluoride content. In fact, total fluoride concentration varied between 12 and 1070µgFg(-1) in roots, between 9 and 570µgFg(-1) in shoots, between 12 and 290µgFg(-1) in leaves, and between 10 and 29µgFg(-1) in fruits, respectively for control and 100mM NaF treatments. Indeed, the fluoride accumulation pattern showed the following distribution: roots>shoots>leaves>fruits. On the other hand, fluoride toxicity symptoms such as leaf necrosis and leaf drop appeared only in highly spiked soils (60, 80 and 100mM NaF).

  2. THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT USING ALUMINUM SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on the Information Collection Rule survey results of 600 large utilities, approximately 50% of them fluoridate their water and of those, 15-20% do so at the location of coagulant addition. In this case, the effect of fluoride on the coagulation process, floc properties, coa...

  3. Effect of 1-Minute Fluoride Treatment on Potential Virulence and Viability of a Cariogenic Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Santosh; Cai, Jian-Na; Jung, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is a well-studied and widely used agent for the prevention of dental caries. Although dental caries is strongly related to cariogenic biofilms, the effect of brief fluoride treatment on the virulence properties of biofilms has not been well studied. This study evaluated the effect of a 1-min fluoride treatment on the virulence properties and viability of cariogenic biofilms, using a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. For this study, 46-hour-old S. mutans biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs and were treated with fluoride (0, 30, 300, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm F(-)) for 1 min. Viability and changes in acidogenicity, aciduricity and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) formation of the biofilms were analyzed using biochemical and microbiological methods (pH drop, H(+) permeability, acid killing, and bacterial colony-forming unit assays). Laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy study was also performed. After the 1-min fluoride treatment, acidogenicity, aciduricity, and EPS formation of 46-hour-old S. mutans biofilms were significantly reduced when treated with concentrations ≥300 ppm F(-). The antivirulence activities of the 1-min fluoride treatment increased in a concentration-dependent pattern. However, the 1-min fluoride treatments did not affect viability, biovolume, and microcolony appearance of biofilm bacteria, even at high concentrations. These results suggest that the brief treatment with fluoride at concentrations ≥300 ppm F(-) is an effective measure for controlling cariogenic biofilms.

  4. Plaque growth-inhibiting effects of an abrasive fluoride-chlorhexidine toothpaste and a fluoride toothpaste containing oxidative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Etemadzadeh, H; Ainamo, J; Murtomaa, H

    1985-08-01

    The aim of this 4 times cross-over double-blind clinical trial was to test the plaque-inhibiting effect of 2 fluoride-containing toothpastes. One toothpaste contained 0.8% chlorhexidine together with amine fluoride (0.1% F degrees) and a suitable abrasive agent. The other contained 1.7 U/g glucose oxidase and 8.0 U/g amyloglucosidase, added to an amine fluoride (0.1% F degrees) toothpaste. 1% Hibitane dental gel was used as a positive and a conventional fluoride toothpaste (Vademecum MFP Fluor) as a negative control. 9 dental students, in a randomized sequence, applied the 4 dentifrices twice daily from Monday afternoon to Friday morning with cap splints, designed to cover the teeth and about 2 mm of gingiva. No other oral hygiene measures were allowed during the 4 test periods. On Fridays, the teeth were cleaned professionally and good oral hygiene was maintained during the week-ends. At the beginning and at the end of each test period, per student plaque thickness was recorded using the plaque index, the visible plaque index, and plaque fresh weight as parameters, and the area of plaque as related to the area of the tooth surface was recorded planimetrically and according to the PLQ index. The best plaque growth-inhibiting effect was recorded for the positive control (CHX) with the test chlorhexidine toothpaste (TX) as next best. The enzyme-containing toothpaste (TE) did not differ significantly from the negative control (C). All the significant differences in anti-plaque effect between the 4 toothpastes were obtained by recordings of plaque thickness and none on the basis of area of plaque.

  5. Potential mechanism for the laser-fluoride effect on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Hsu, C-Y S; Teo, C M J; Teoh, S H

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced prevention of dental caries has been studied extensively. However, the cariostatic mechanisms of a combined fluoride-laser treatment are not well-understood. Using micro- computed tomography (micro-CT), we quantified the effect of fluoride and/or Er:YAG laser treatment on enamel demineralization. The mean mineral loss (%/V) for each group was 4,870 ± 1,434 (fluoride followed by laser treatment), 6,341 ± 2,204 (laser treatment), 7,669 ± 2,255 (fluoride treatment), and 10,779 ± 2,936 (control). The preventive effect of the laser (p < 0.001) and fluoride (p = 0.010) treatment was statistically significant. Characterized by micro-x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, the significant contraction in the a-axis after both laser and combined laser/fluoride treatment was revealed (both p < 0.05). In conclusion, subablative low-energy Er:YAG laser irradiation following fluoride treatment may instantaneously transform enamel hydroxyapatite into fluoridated hydroxyapatite to reduce enamel solubility as a preventive treatment for enamel demineralization.

  6. The combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine teeth surface microhardness.

    PubMed

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of xylitol and fluoride in varnish on bovine tooth surface microhardness. Thirty caries-free bovine teeth were sectioned and embedded in self-cured acrylic resin and the buccal enamel surfaces were ground flat. Each tooth was then placed in demineralization solution for 40 hours. After demineralization, the teeth were randomly divided into 3 equal groups: group 1 was the control group (no treatment); group 2 was treated with fluoride varnish (Duraphat); group 3 was treated with a xylitol and fluoride varnish (Flor-Opal). All the specimens were then subjected to pH-cycling for 7 days, consisting of demineralization for 6 hours and remineralization for 18 hours repeated daily for five days followed by remineralization for 2 days. Surface microhardness was checked in each tooth at baseline, after demineralization and after pH-cycling. The results were recorded and the data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. The mean surface microhardness values of the teeth treated with the fluoride varnish and the fluoride with xylitol varnish were not significantly different from each other and showed significantly better remineralization than control group. The fluoride and xylitol varnish combination was beneficial for preventing enamel demineralization but no better than in fluoride varnish alone in vitro. Adding xylitol to fluoride tooth varnish does not appear to give any significant benefit in vitro.

  7. The effects and underlying mechanism of excessive iodide on excessive fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Qiang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Zhao, Liang; Hou, Changchun; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Gang; Liu, Yeming; Jiang, Chunyang; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-07-01

    In many regions, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide coexist in groundwater, which may lead to biphasic hazards to human thyroid. To explore fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity and the mechanism underlying the effects of excessive iodide on fluoride-induced cytotoxicity, a thyroid cell line (Nthy-ori 3-1) was exposed to excessive fluoride and/or excessive iodide. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, apoptosis, and the expression levels of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were detected. Fluoride and/or iodide decreased cell viability and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. ROS, the expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), IRE1, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) were enhanced by fluoride or the combination of the two elements. Collectively, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide have detrimental influences on human thyroid cells. Furthermore, an antagonistic interaction between fluoride and excessive iodide exists, and cytotoxicity may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis.

  8. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated.

  9. Radiolytic effects on fluoride impurities in a triuranium octaoxide matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Icenhour, Alan Scott

    The safe handling and storage of radioactive materials require an understanding of the effects of radiolysis on those materials. Radiolysis may result in the production of gases (e.g., corrosives) or pressures that are deleterious to storage containers. A study has been performed to address these concerns as they relate to the radiolysis of residual fluoride compounds in uranium oxides. The interactions of radiation with crystalline solids, based on the bonding characteristics of the crystal, were described. Samples of UO 2F2O·xH2O and U3 O8, (with ˜1.4 wt % fluorine content) were irradiated in a 60Co source and in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Container pressures were monitored throughout the irradiations, and gas and solid samples were analyzed after the irradiations. The irradiation of UO2F 2·xH2O produced O2---with G(O2)-values ranging from 0.007 to 0.03 molecules O2 produced per 100 eV. Neither F2 nor HF was produced by the irradiations. Chemical analysis of solid samples showed that some of the uranium was reduced from U(VI) to U(IV). A saturation damage limit for the UO2F 2-xH2O was demonstrated by using the HFIR SNF elements, and the limit was found to be 7--9% (at ˜108 rad/h). It is shown that the covalently bonded oxygen is more susceptible to radiation damage than is the ionically bonded fluorine. Irradiation of U3O 8 (with ˜1.4 wt % fluorine content) resulted in neither gas production nor a pressure increase. These experiments led to the conclusion that U 3O8 is safe during long-term storage from overpressurization and the production of corrosives caused by gamma radiolysis of residual fluorides.

  10. Toxic effects of sodium fluoride on cell proliferation and apoptosis of Leydig cells from young mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo hua; Wang, Rui Li; Chen, Zhao Yang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Hai Long; Liu, Mao Lin; Gao, Ji Ping; Yan, Xiao Yan

    2014-09-01

    The biological effects of fluoride on human health are often extensive, either beneficial or detrimental. Among the various effects of fluoride exposure in different organs, the reproductive tract is particularly susceptible to disruption by fluoride at a sufficient concentration. It has attracted much attention to the effect of sodium fluoride on male fertility, gestational female, and offspring. Herein, we applied a widespread natural compound sodium fluoride (NaF) and investigated the effects of acute NaF exposure on Leydig cells, including their proliferation, apoptosis, and signal pathway changes. Our results demonstrated that high dosage of NaF could inhibit cell proliferation by stress-induced apoptosis, which was confirmed by cellular and molecular evidences. We found that fluoride exposure affected the expression levels of stress response factors, signal transduction components, and apoptosis-related proteins, including caspase-3/caspase-9, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Bax. This study suggests that the complex effects of fluoride on Leydig cells are closely related to its dosage.

  11. Perspectives in the effective use of fluoride in Asia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Phantumvanit, P

    2012-02-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease affecting human populations worldwide. The diverse disease patterns across and within countries are related to socio-behavioral determinants, demographic factors, environmental conditions, and the availability and accessibility of oral health services, in particular, exposure to disease prevention programs (Petersen, 2003, 2008a). Benefits of fluoride for caries prevention have been substantiated in many countries (Petersen and Lennon, 2004; Jones et al., 2005). In the second half of the 20th century, this focus shifted to the development and evaluation of fluoride toothpastes and rinses and, to a lesser extent, to alternatives to water fluoridation, such as salt and milk fluoridation. Most recently, efforts have been made to summarize this extensive database through systematic reviews of fluoride administration (McDonagh et al., 2000; Marinho et al., 2003; Australian Government, 2007). The Asian workshop held in Phan-Nga, Thailand, during March 22-24, 2011, aimed to discuss current information on fluoride and dental caries, as well as to try identifying barriers and opportunities that countries of Asia may have for implementing such programs. In addition, the intention was to give recommendations for including fluoride schemes within national public health programs.

  12. Effects of fluoride residue on thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Y.; Ozaki, S.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-06-19

    We have investigated the effects of fluoride residue on the thermal stability of a Cu/barrier metal (BM)/porous low-k film (k < 2.3) structure. We confirmed that the Cu agglomerated more on a BM/inter layer dielectric (ILD) with a fluoride residue. To consider the effect of fluoride residue on Cu agglomeration, the structural state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with a cross-section transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In addition, the chemical bonding state at the Cu/BM interface was evaluated with the interface peeling-off method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Moreover, we confirmed the ionization of fluoride residue and oxidation of Cu with fluoride and moisture to clarify the effect of fluoride residue on Cu. Our experimental results indicated that the thermal stability in Cu/porous low-k interconnects was degraded by enhancement of Cu oxidation with fluoride ions diffusion as an oxidizing catalyst.

  13. Short-term effects of hydrogen fluoride on Nicotiana tabacum L.

    PubMed

    Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Ciçek, Arzu; Kara, Serap

    2003-09-01

    Data on the short-term effects of fumigation with hydrogen fluoride (HF) on the response behavior of the Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. St. Karabalar 6265 are being presented. Growth rate, fluoride accumulation in leaves and soils, and degradation in chlorophyll and nicotine contents of the plant species against the variations in two experimental factors, namely the exposure concentration and exposure time parameters, were investigated. Resulting data reveals that the variety selected for this study is not so tolerant to fluoride as generally reported in the literature, if only the individual effects of the pollutant is considered.

  14. Electrospinning of polyvinylidene difluoride with carbon nanotubes: synergistic effects of extensional force and interfacial interaction on crystalline structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu; Yee, Wu Aik; Tjiu, Wuiwui Chauhari; Liu, Ye; Kotaki, Masaya; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Ma, Jan; Liu, Tianxi; Lu, Xuehong

    2008-12-02

    Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) solutions containing a very low concentration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) of similar surface chemistry, respectively, were electrospun, and the nanofibers formed were collected using a modified rotating disk collector. The polymorphic behavior and crystal orientation of the nanofibers were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, while the nanotube alignment and interfacial interactions in the nanofibers were probed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the interfacial interaction between the SWCNTs and PVDF and the extensional force experienced by the nanofibers in the electrospinning and collection processes can work synergistically to induce highly oriented beta-form crystallites extensively. In contrast, the MWCNTs could not be well aligned along the nanofiber axis, which leads to a lower degree of crystal orientation.

  15. Effects of fluoride on the removal of cadmium and phosphate by aluminum coagulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Bao; Zhu, Lijun; He, Zan; Ju, Jiawei; Lan, Huachun; Liu, Huijuan

    2015-06-01

    This study focuses on the effects of pH and fluoride at different molar ratios of fluoride to Al (RF:Al) on the removal of cadmium (Cd2+) and phosphate by Al coagulation. Fluoride at RF:Al≥3:1 inhibits the removal of Cd over wide Al dose ranges from 5 to 10 mg/L as Al. The removal of phosphate decreases significantly at high RF:Al of 10:1 whereas at lowered RF:Al (i.e., ≤6:1), an adverse effect is observed only at insufficient Al doses below 2 mg/L. Fluoride shows inhibitive effects towards the removal of Cd at pH7 and 8 and that of phosphate at pH6. Fluoride decreases the ζ-potential in both systems, and the decreasing extent is positively correlated to the elevated RF:Al. The Al fluoride interactions include the formation of Al-F complexes and the adsorption of fluoride onto Al(OH)3 precipitates, i.e., the formation of Al(OH)nFm. Al-F complex formation inhibits Al hydrolysis and increases residual Al levels, and a more significant increase was observed at lower pH. Al-F complexes at high RF:Al complicate the coagulation behavior of Al towards both negative and positive ionic species. Moreover, fluoride at low RF:Al shows little effect on Al coagulation behavior towards Cd2+ and phosphate, and the spent defluoridation adsorbent, i.e., aluminum (Al) hydro(oxide) with adsorbed fluoride at RF:Al of below 0.1:1, may be reclaimed as a coagulant after being dissolved.

  16. The effect of temperature change on fluoride uptake from a mouthrinse by enamel specimens

    PubMed Central

    Baglar, Serdar; Nalcaci, Adil; Tastekin, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of temperature on fluoride uptake by enamel specimens from a 0.05% NaF-fluoridated mouthrinse (Oral-B Advantage; Oral-B Laboratories, Newbridge, UK). Methods: Enamel specimens were prepared from extracted human maxillary central incisors. A fluoride-specific ion electrode was used to measure the uptake from a 2 ppm fluoride solution containing 50.0 mL of distilled water, total ion strength adjustment buffer, and fluoridated rinse at 3 different temperatures (room temperature, 25°C; human body temperature, 37°C; hyper-fever temperature, 43°C). One-way analysis of variance and least significant difference were used to assess intragroup and intergroup differences (P<.05). Results: The study found that both the amount and the rate of fluoride uptake increased significantly with increase in temperature. This effect was particularly noticeable at 43°C. Conclusions: The temperature of the NaF mouthrinse may easily and safely be increased beyond room temperature by placing a container of the NaF mouthrinse in a bowl of hot water, allowing greater fluoride penetration into the enamel from the mouthrinse when used at home as a routine prophylactic agent. PMID:23077414

  17. Dose-response effects of zinc and fluoride on caries lesion remineralization.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F

    2012-01-01

    The present mechanistic in vitro study aimed to investigate dose-response effects of zinc and fluoride on caries lesion remineralization and subsequent protection from demineralization. Artificial caries lesions were created using a methylcellulose acid gel system. Lesions were remineralized for 2 weeks using citrate-containing artificial saliva which was supplemented with zinc (0-153 μmol/l) and fluoride (1.1 or 52.6 μmol/l) in a 7 × 2 factorial design. Lesions were also remineralized in the absence of zinc and citrate, but in the presence of fluoride. After remineralization, all lesions were demineralized for 1 day under identical conditions. Changes in mineral distribution characteristics of caries lesions after remineralization and secondary demineralization were studied using transverse microradiography. At 1.1 μmol/l fluoride, zinc exhibited detrimental effects on remineralization in a dose-response manner and mainly by preventing remineralization near the lesion surface. At 52.6 μmol/l fluoride, zinc retarded remineralization only at the highest concentration tested. Zinc enhanced overall remineralization at 3.8-15.3 μmol/l. At 76.5 and less so at 153 μmol/l, zinc showed extensive remineralization of deeper parts within the lesions at the expense of remineralization near the surface. Citrate did not interfere with remineralization at 1.1 μmol/l fluoride, but enhanced remineralization at 52.6 μmol/l fluoride. Lesions exhibiting preferential remineralization in deeper parts showed higher mineral loss after secondary demineralization, suggesting the formation of more soluble mineral phases during remineralization. In summary, zinc and fluoride showed synergistic effects in enhancing lesion remineralization, however only at elevated fluoride concentrations.

  18. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and professional fluoride application on enamel demineralization and on fluoride retention.

    PubMed

    Ana, P A; Tabchoury, C P M; Cury, J A; Zezell, D M

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation and professional fluoride application on enamel demineralization and on fluoride formation and retention. In a blind in vitro study, 264 human enamel slabs were distributed into 8 groups: G1--untreated; G2--treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF gel, 1.23% F) for 4 min; G3, G4 and G5--irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG at 2.8, 5.6 and 8.5 J/cm2, respectively; G6, G7 and G8--preirradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG at 2.8, 5.6 and 8.5 J/cm2, respectively, and subjected to APF gel application. Twenty slabs of each group were submitted to a pH-cycling regimen, and enamel demineralization was evaluated in 10 slabs of each group. In the other 10 slabs, CaF2-like material was determined. To evaluate F formed, 10 additional slabs of each group, not subjected to the pH cycling, were submitted to analysis of CaF2-like material and fluorapatite, while the other 3 slabs of each group were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The F content was also measured in all pH-cycling solutions. Laser at 8.5 J/cm2 and APF treatment reduced enamel demineralization compared to the control (p < 0.05), but the combination of these treatments was not more efficient than their isolated effect. A higher concentration of retained CaF2-like material was found in laser groups followed by APF in comparison with the APF gel treatment group. The findings suggest that laser treatment at 8.5 J/cm2 was able to decrease hardness loss, even though no additive effect with APF was observed. In addition, laser treatment increased the formation and retention of CaF2 on dental enamel.

  19. Surface and interfacial effect of filler particle on electrical properties of polyvinyledene fluoride/nickel composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Maheswar; Srinivas, V.; Thakur, A. K.

    2008-12-01

    The effect of processing conditions and filler particle size/surface area on the dielectric behavior of polyvinyledene fluoride/nickel composites is reported. Large enhancement of low frequency dielectric constant with reduction in metal particle size in a metal-polymer composite is observed. Enhancement in the dielectric constant has been attributed to increase in interfacial area and consequent interfacial polarization with reduction in metal particle size. The increased interparticle contacts from the nearest neighbors result in enhanced tunneling probability leading to lowering of percolation threshold for nanosized nickel/polyvinyledene fluoride composites as compared to micron nickel/polyvinyledene fluoride composites.

  20. Ameliorative effect of resveratrol against fluoride-induced alteration of thyroid function in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chaitali; Pal, Sudipta

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol (3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenol and well-known natural antioxidant has been evaluated for its protective effect against fluoride-induced metabolic dysfunctions in rat thyroid gland. Fluoride, the most abundant anions present in groundwater throughout the world, creates a major problem in safe drinking water and causes metabolic, structural, and functional injuries in different organ systems. Sub-acute exposure to sodium fluoride at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w./day orally to rat for 30 days induces thyroidal dysfunction including suppressed synthetic machinery of the thyroid gland to produce nucleic acids and thyroid hormones, mainly T3 and T4. Other functional changes are alteration of certain metabolic enzyme activities like Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, thyroid peroxidase, and 5,5'-deiodinase. Structural abnormality of thyroid follicles by fluoride intoxication clearly indicates its thyrotoxic manifestation. Resveratrol supplementation in fluoride-exposed animals appreciably prevented metabolic toxicity caused by fluoride and restored both functional status and ultra-structural organization of the thyroid gland towards normalcy. This study first establishes the therapeutic efficacy of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant in thyroprotection against toxic insult caused by fluoride.

  1. The effect of point-of-use water conditioning systems on community fluoridated water.

    PubMed

    Brown, M D; Aaron, G

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of several point-of-use water conditioning systems on the fluoride concentration in community fluoridated water. Point-of-use water conditioning systems attach at the sink to provide the user with protection from certain water contaminants. A sampling apparatus was constructed to allow collection of water samples before and after conditioning. The apparatus connected the following types of point-of-use water conditioning systems: a faucet water filter, a cellulose fiber filter, an activated carbon filter, a reverse osmosis system, and a distillation unit. These samples were tested by an independent laboratory using colorimetric determination of fluoride concentration. All point-of-use water conditioning systems tested caused a statistically significant reduction in fluoride (P less than .001). Of particular note were reductions in fluoride concentration by the activated carbon filter (81%), the reverse osmosis system (84%), and the distillation unit (99%). These reductions are clinically significant, and necessitate supplementation for optimal fluoride intake. Patients using these water conditioning systems should be advised to have their water tested, and to consider fluoride supplementation to ensure adequate benefit from this caries prevention method.

  2. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  3. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Water Fluoridation Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... because of tooth decay. History of Fluoride in Water In the 1930s, scientists examined the relationship between ...

  4. Effect of fluoridated water on plasma insulin levels and glucose homeostasis in rats with renal deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2011-05-01

    Glucose intolerance in fluorosis areas and when fluoride is administered for the treatment of osteoporosis has been reported. Controlled fluoridation of drinking water is regarded as a safe and effective measure to control dental caries. However, the effect on glucose homeostasis was not studied so far. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the intake of fluoridated water supply on glucose metabolism in rats with normal and deficient renal function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups of four rats. Renal insufficiency was induced in four groups (NX) which received drinking water containing 0, 1, 5, and 15 ppm F (NaF) for 60 days. Four groups with simulated surgery acted as controls. There were no differences in plasma glucose concentration after a glucose tolerance test between controls and NX rats and among rats with different intakes of fluoride. However, plasma insulin level increased as a function of fluoride concentration in drinking water, both in controls and in NX rats. It is concluded that the consumption of fluoridated water from water supply did not affect plasma glucose levels even in cases of animals with renal disease. However, a resistance to insulin action was demonstrated.

  5. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the effect of fluoride on the acquired enamel pellicle.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Walter L; Bakkal, Meltem; Xiao, Yizhi; Sutton, Jennifer N; Mendes, Fausto M

    2012-01-01

    The acquired enamel pellicle (AEP) is a thin film formed by the selective adsorption of salivary proteins onto the enamel surface of teeth. The AEP forms a critical interface between the mineral phase of teeth (hydroxyapatite) and the oral microbial biofilm. This biofilm is the key feature responsible for the development of dental caries. Fluoride on enamel surface is well known to reduce caries by reducing the solubility of enamel to acid. Information on the effects of fluoride on AEP formation is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of fluoride treatment on hydroxyapatite on the subsequent formation of AEP. In addition, this study pioneered the use of label-free quantitative proteomics to better understand the composition of AEP proteins. Hydroxyapatite discs were randomly divided in 4 groups (n = 10 per group). Each disc was exposed to distilled water (control) or sodium fluoride solution (1, 2 or 5%) for 2 hours. Discs were then washed and immersed in human saliva for an additional 2 hours. AEP from each disc was collected and subjected to liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for protein identification, characterization and quantification. A total of 45 proteins were present in all four groups, 12 proteins were exclusively present in the control group and another 19 proteins were only present in the discs treated with 5% sodium fluoride. Relative proteomic quantification was carried out for the 45 proteins observed in all four groups. Notably, the concentration of important salivary proteins, such as statherin and histatin 1, decrease with increasing levels of fluoride. It suggests that these proteins are repulsed when hydroxyapatite surface is coated with fluoride. Our data demonstrated that treatment of hydroxyapatite with fluoride (at high concentration) qualitatively and quantitatively modulates AEP formation, effects which in turn will likely impact the formation of oral biofilms.

  6. Effect of fluoride in phosphate buffer solution on bonding to artificially carious enamel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shimada, Yasushi; Tagami, Junji

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on resin bonding to artificially carious enamel. Specimens from demineralized human enamel sections were prepared using two commercially available adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray; Single Bond, 3M) and a composite resin (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray) according to manufacturers' instructions. They were then immersed in phosphate buffered saline solution with varied fluoride concentrations at 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 10 ppm. After immersion in each solution for one, three, or seven days, microshear bond strength was measured. The bond strengths of both adhesive systems to artificially carious enamel significantly increased after immersion in fluoride-phosphate buffer solution. Based on the findings obtained, we thus proposed not to remove the white enamel lesions for bonding in the clinic. They might be preserved and treated using fluoride applications.

  7. Vapor pressure isotope effect in liquid methylene fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, A.; Ishida, T.

    1986-10-01

    The vapor pressures of the isotopic methylene fluorides /sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/, /sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and /sup 13/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/ have been measured at temperatures between 149 and 244/sup 0/K by differential manometric techniques in a precision cryostat. Over the entire temperature range of the measurements, P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) > P(/sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) < P(/sup 13/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/). The data are best represented by T 1n(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = (632.26 +- 97.62)/T + (19.175 +- 1.016) - (0.0532 +- 0.0025)T for the D/H effect and by T 1n(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = -(31.64 +- 1.97)/T - (0.4069 +- 0.0107) for the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C effect. A series of calculations using Wilson's FG matrix method and a modified Schachtschneider-Snyder program resulted in temperature dependent interactions between the HCF angle bending motions and the molecular rotations about the z and y axes. These interactions in the liquid give satisfactory explanation of the D/H and /sup 13/C//sup 12/C vapor pressure isotope effects, spectroscopic data, and are qualitatively consistent with the structure of CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/ clusters obtained by ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

  8. Vapor-pressure isotope effects in liquid methylene fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, A.

    1987-01-01

    The vapor pressures of the isotopic methylene fluorides /sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/, /sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/ and /sup 13/CH''F/sub 2/ have been measured at temperatures between 149 and 244 K by differential manometric techniques in a precision cryostat. Over the entire temperature range of the measurements, P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) > P(/sup 12/CD/sub 2/F/sub 2/) and P(/sup 12/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/) < P(/sup 13/CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/). The data are best represented by T ln(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = (632.26 +/- 97.62)/T + (19.175 +/- 1.016) - (0.0532 +/- 0.0025)T for the D/H effect and by T ln(f/sub c//f/sub g/) = -(31.64 +/- 1.97)/T-(0.4069 +/- 0.0107) for the /sup 13/C//sup 12/C effect. A series of calculations using Wilson's FG matrix method and a modified Schachtschneider-Snyder program resulted in temperature dependent interactions between the HCF angle bending motions and the molecular rotations about the z and y axes. These interactions in the liquid give satisfactory explanation of the D/H and /sup 13/C//sup 12/C vapor pressure isotope effects, spectroscopic data, and are qualitatively consistent with the structure of CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/ clusters obtained by ab initio molecular orbital calculations.

  9. Suppressive effects of sodium fluoride on cultured splenic lymphocyte proliferation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hengmin; Chen, Lian; Guo, Hongrui; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Zhao, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride-induced immunotoxicity has been documented in vivo, but limited reports have focused on the effects of fluoride on lymphocytes in vitro. Therefore, we have examined the suppressive effects of sodium fluoride on cultured splenic lymphocytes in mice. CD3+ T lymphocytes, CD19+ B lymphocytes, cytokines, and cell-cycle markers were analyzed through the use of a cell-counting kit, western blot, and flow cytometery. Splenic lymphocytes were isolated from 3-week-old male ICR mice and exposed to sodium fluoride (0, 100, 500, and 1000 μmol/L) for 24 h. The percentages of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD19+ B lymphocytes were decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in the sodium fluoride-exposed cells. This finding was correlated with the alterations in expression levels of cytokine proteins and with evidence of cell-cycle arrest. Thus, protein expression levels of IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β were decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and IL-10 protein expression levels were increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The percentage of lymphocyte in G1 phase was significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while expression levels of cyclin E/D and CDK2/4 were markedly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These findings demonstrate that sodium fluoride exposure suppresses splenic lymphocyte proliferation, which is represented by reducing populations and activation of splenic T and B lymphocytes. Alterations of cytokine protein expression and cell cycle arrest are the molecular basis of the sodium fluoride-suppressed splenic lymphocyte proliferation, while reduction of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes is the explanation of sodium fluoride-decreased splenic immune function in vitro. PMID:27542206

  10. Effect of siRNA PERK on fluoride-induced osteoblastic differentiation in OS732 cells.

    PubMed

    Lü, Peng; Li, Xining; Ruan, Lihong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Qinyi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the action of fluoride on osteoblastic function through knocking down double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) mRNA in OS732 cells (human osteoblast-like cell line). The previous researches had demonstrated that fluoride induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses in other cells or tissues. PERK as one branch of UPR to combat ER stress played a role in mediating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast. The mechanism of skeletal fluorosis by which fluoride regulated osteoblast was not fully defined. We used the real-time PCR and small interfering RNA techniques to determine the expression PERK signaling and osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation-related factors and investigated the role of PERK signaling in fluoride-stimulated osteoblastic function. Cells transfected with 50 nM small interfering RNA (siRNA)-PERK showed effectively decreased protein and gene expression of PERK and reduced protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Meantime, cells transfected with siRNA significantly decreased the protein level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in cells under fluoride exposure. It suggested that knockdown of PERK expression hardly stimulated osteoblastic and osteoclastic early differentiation induced by fluoride. Conversely, there were littler effect of siRNA PERK on expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in cells, but fluoride exposure markedly stimulated their expression. This study proved that the mechanism underlying fluoride induced osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation possible was due to activation of ALP and RANKL mediated by PERK in OS732 cells.

  11. The short-term effects of diammine silver fluoride on tooth sensitivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castillo, J L; Rivera, S; Aparicio, T; Lazo, R; Aw, T-C; Mancl, L L; Milgrom, P

    2011-02-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common clinical problem. This multi-center randomized clinical trial assessed the effectiveness and safety of topical diammine silver fluoride. From two sites (Lima and Cusco, Peru), 126 adults with at least one tooth sensitive to compressed air were randomly assigned to either the experimental treatment or sterile water, and pain was assessed by means of a 100-mm visual analogue scale at 24 hours and 7 days. The diammine silver fluoride reduced pain at 7 days at both sites. At the Lima site, the average change in pain scores between baseline and day 7 for the silver fluoride group was -35.8 (SD = 27.7) mm vs. 0.4 (SD = 16.2) mm for the control group (P < 0.001). In Cusco, the average change in pain scores for the silver fluoride group was -23.4 (SD = 21.0) mm and -5.5 (18.1) mm for the control group (P = 0.002). No tissue ulceration, white changes, or argyria was observed. A small number of participants in the silver fluoride group experienced a mild but transient increase in erythema in the gingiva near the tooth. No changes were observed in the Gingival Index. We concluded that diammine silver fluoride is a clinically effective and safe tooth desensitizer.

  12. Effect of Catalase and Sodium Fluoride on Human Enamel bleached with 35% Carbamide Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Shigli, Anand L; Sharma, Divya S; Thakur, Gagan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the effects of postbleaching antioxidant application fluoridation treatment on the surface morphology and microhardness of human enamel. Materials and methods: Ten freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were cut at cementoenamel junction. Crown portion was sectioned into six slabs which were divided into five groups: group A – untreated controls; group B – 35% carbamide peroxide (CP); group C – 35% CP and catalase; group D – treatment with 35% CP and 5% sodium fluoride; group E – 35% CP, catalase and 5% sodium fluoride. Thirty-five percent carbamide peroxide application included two applications of 30 minutes each at a 5-day interval. After treatment, the slabs were thoroughly washed with water for 10 seconds and stored in artificial saliva at 37°C until the next treatment. Two percent sodium fluoride included application for 5 minutes. Three catalase included application for 3 minutes. Results: After 5 days, groups B and C showed significantly decreased enamel microhardness compared to control. Group D specimens showed relatively less reduction in enamel micro-hardness than group C specimens. There is a marked increase in enamel microhardness in group E specimens. Conclusions: Fluoride take up was comparatively enhanced after catalase application resulting in less demineralization and increased microhardness. How to cite this article: Thakur R, Shigli AL, Sharma DS, Thakur G. Effect of Catalase and Sodium Fluoride on Human Enamel bleached with 35% Carbamide Peroxide. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):12-17. PMID:26124575

  13. Development of a fluoride chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Cathy A; Lee, Danny H Y; Chapman, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    Canada has an interim water-quality guideline for fluoride for protection of freshwater aquatic life that dates from 2002, and 1 Canadian province has a different interim water-quality guideline for fluoride that dates to 1995. The United States does not have a national benchmark for fluoride in freshwater, and only 1 US state has such a benchmark. There are no other national or regional benchmarks for fluoride chronic toxicity in freshwater. In the present study, available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of fluoride to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 11.5 to >800 mg/L fluoride (F(-) ). The majority of chronic effects occur at concentrations between 1.8 mg/L and 195 mg/L. A total of 10 chronic studies representing 16 species (5 fish, 7 invertebrates, and 4 algae/aquatic plants) were used to derive a chronic effects benchmark of 1.94 mg/L F(-) , applying the species sensitivity distribution approach.

  14. Effect of Fluoride Gels on Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    China, Ana L.P; Souza, Nayara M; Gomes, Yasmin do S. B. de L; Alexandrino, Larissa D; Silva, Cecy M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of bleaching treatments containing added calcium and combined with neutral or acidic fluoride gels on tooth enamel was investigated in vitro through Knoop microhardness (KHN) and surface roughness (SR) measurements. A total of 60 bovine incisors were tested, including 30 for SR measurements and 30 for KHN measurements. The specimens were divided into 12 groups and subjected to a bleaching agent with hydrogen peroxide 35% (Whiteness HP 35% Maxx, FGM) or hydrogen peroxide 35% with calcium (Whiteness HP 35% Blue Calcium, FGM) and a fluoride treatment flugel acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) or flugel neutral fluoride (NF). Control specimens were submitted to bleaching treatments without fluoride. Microhardness tests were performed using a Knoop indentor. Roughness measurements were obtained using a roughness analyzer. Measurements were obtained before and after treatment. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C between treatments. The results were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Treatments using APF combined with 35% HP caused a decrease in microhardness, while NF combined with HP 35% Ca increased the enamel hardness. Fluoride gels did not alter the SR of the bleached enamel. PMID:25419249

  15. Destabilization effect of transition metal fluorides on sodium borohydride.

    PubMed

    Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N; Guzik, Matylda N; Deledda, Stefano; Heyn, Richard H; Muller, Jiri; Hauback, Bjørn C

    2014-10-14

    The effect of transition metal fluorides on the decomposition of NaBH4 has been investigated for NaBH4 ball milled with TiF3, MnF3 or FeF3. The compounds were examined by thermal programmed desorption with residual gas analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis and volumetric measurements using a Sieverts-type apparatus. The phase formation process during thermal decomposition was studied by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction on the as-milled powders. NaBF4 was among the products in all mechano-chemical reactions. (11)B-NMR spectra analysis gave NaBF4 : NaBH4 ratios of 1 : 150 for Na-Ti, 1 : 40 for Na-Mn, and 1 : 10 for Na-Fe. Pure NaBH4 possessed a hydrogen release onset temperature of 430 °C. The hydrogen release in the NaBH4-MnF3 system began as low as 130 °C. FeF3 decreased the onset temperature to 161 °C and TiF3 to 200 °C. TiF3 reacted completely with NaBH4 below 320 °C. All the examined systems have negligible emissions of diborane species. H-sorption studies performed at selected temperatures above 300 °C exhibited relatively fast desorption kinetics. Partial hydrogen re-absorption was observed for the Na-Mn and Na-Fe samples.

  16. Validation of a Cariogenic Biofilm Model to Evaluate the Effect of Fluoride on Enamel and Root Dentine Demineralization

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Due to gingival recession both enamel and root dentine are at risk of developing caries. Both tissues are exposed to a similar environment, however there is not a validated model to evaluate the effect of fluoride on these dental substrates simultaneously. Hence, this study aimed to validate a caries model to evaluate the effect of fluoride to prevent demineralization on enamel and root-dentine. Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms were formed on saliva-coated bovine enamel and root dentine slabs (n = 12 per group) mounted in the same well of culture plates. The biofilms were exposed 8×/day to 10% sucrose and treated 2×/day with fluoridated solutions containing 0, 150, 450, or 1,350 ppm F; thus, simulating the use of low to high fluoride concentration toothpastes. The pH values of the culture medium was monitored 2×/day as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. After 96 h, biofilms were collected for fluoride concentration analysis. The percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) was calculated for slabs. The fluoride uptake by the enamel and dentine was also determined. The model showed a dose-response because the biofilm and fluoride uptake increased and %SHL decreased at increasing fluoride concentrations (p < 0.05). Fluoride in the biofilm formed on dentine and fluoride uptake by dentine were higher than those for enamel. With the same fluoride concentration treatment, the percentage of reduction of demineralization was lower for dentine than for enamel. In conclusion, the model was validated in terms of a dose-response effect of fluoride on enamel and root dentine. Furthermore, the findings support the clinical data, suggesting that higher fluoride concentrations are necessary to control caries of root dentine than of enamel. PMID:26731743

  17. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.

  18. Effects of Interphase Modification and Biaxial Orientation on Dielectric Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Multilayer Films.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kezhen; Zhou, Zheng; Schuele, Donald E; Wolak, Mason; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Recently, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based multilayer films have demonstrated enhanced dielectric properties, combining high energy density and high dielectric breakdown strength from the component polymers. In this work, further enhanced dielectric properties were achieved through interface/interphase modulation and biaxial orientation for the poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP)] three-component multilayer films. Because PMMA is miscible with P(VDF-HFP) and compatible with PET, the interfacial adhesion between PET and P(VDF-HFP) layers should be improved. Biaxial stretching of the as-extruded multilayer films induced formation of highly oriented fibrillar crystals in both P(VDF-HFP) and PET, resulting in improved dielectric properties with respect to the unstretched films. First, the parallel orientation of PVDF crystals reduced the dielectric loss from the αc relaxation in α crystals. Second, biaxial stretching constrained the amorphous phase in P(VDF-HFP) and thus the migrational loss from impurity ions was reduced. Third, biaxial stretching induced a significant amount of rigid amorphous phase in PET, further enhancing the breakdown strength of multilayer films. Due to the synergistic effects of improved interfacial adhesion and biaxial orientation, the PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP) 65-layer films with 8 vol % PMMA exhibited optimal dielectric properties with an energy density of 17.4 J/cm(3) at breakdown and the lowest dielectric loss. These three-component multilayer films are promising for future high-energy-density film capacitor applications.

  19. Effects of fluoride on in vitro enamel demineralization analyzed by ¹⁹F MAS-NMR.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, N R; Kent, N W; Lynch, R J M; Karpukhina, N; Hill, R; Anderson, P

    2013-01-01

    The mechanistic action of fluoride on inhibition of enamel demineralization was investigated using (19)F magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). The aim of this study was to monitor the fluoride-mineral phase formed on the enamel as a function of the concentration of fluoride ions [F(-)] in the demineralizing medium. The secondary aim was to investigate fluorapatite formation on enamel in the mechanism of fluoride anti-caries efficacy. Enamel blocks were immersed into demineralization solutions of 0.1 M acetic acid (pH 4) with increasing concentrations of fluoride up to 2,262 ppm. At and below 45 ppm [F(-)] in the solution, (19)F MAS-NMR showed fluoride-substituted apatite formation, and above 45 ppm, calcium fluoride (CaF2) formed in increasing proportions. Further increases in [F(-)] caused no further reduction in demineralization, but increased the proportion of CaF2 formed. Additionally, the combined effect of strontium and fluoride on enamel demineralization was also investigated using (19)F MAS-NMR. The presence of 43 ppm [Sr(2+)] in addition to 45 ppm [F(-)] increases the fraction of fluoride-substituted apatite, but delays formation of CaF2 when compared to the demineralization of enamel in fluoride-only solution.

  20. Comparative evaluation and effect of organic and inorganic fluoride dentifrices on enamel microhardness: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Krishna Prasad; Satish, S. V.; Gouda, Veerbhadra; Badade, Abhishek Rajpal; Gouda, Basavana; Patil, Snehalata

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare and evaluate the microhardness of enamel surface after the application of organic fluoride and inorganic fluoride dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Twenty freshly extracted premolars were collected and decoronation of all the teeth was done at cementoenamel junction. The crowns were sectioned mesiodistally into two halves with the help of diamond disc, and then the subsequent forty samples kept in 1% citric acid for the demineralization and divided into two groups by simple randomization, that is, Group A (inorganic sodium fluoride dentifrice) and Group B (organic amine fluoride dentifrice). They were treated using same protocol for 3 min, daily twice for 7 days. Those samples preserved in artificial saliva in between treatment. The enamel surface microhardness evaluated using Vickers hardness test at base level, after demineralization, as well as after remineralization. Statistical analysis of surface microhardness obtained at different stages done by Student's t-test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The samples which were treated with sodium fluoride (Group A) could not restore the mean microhardness after treatment to that of preoperative level whereas amine fluoride (Group B) treated samples showed a statistically significant increase in mean surface microhardness from baseline. Conclusion: Organic fluoride (amine fluoride) remineralization was more effective in restoring enamel microhardness than inorganic fluoride (sodium fluoride) remineralization. PMID:27114952

  1. Effect of Fluoride Concentration on Reduction of Enamel Demineralization According to the Cariogenic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Mayara Dos Santos; Romão, Dayse Andrade; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride present in toothpaste at 1,100 µg/g is considered effective on caries control. However, under high cariogenic challenge due to increasing sugar exposure, higher fluoride concentration (5,000 µg/g) could be necessary to compensate the unbalance on caries process. This was tested in a pH-cycling regimen, which evaluated the effect of fluoride concentration relative to toothpaste on reduction of enamel demineralization under conditions of two levels of cariogenic challenge. Enamel slabs (n=20) were subjected to two pH-cycling regimens, simulating 8x and 16x/day sugar exposure and were treated with solutions containing: 0 (no fluoride), 275 or 1,250 µg F/mL, resulting in 6 treatment groups: 4-h/0-F; 8-h/0-F; 4-h/275-F; 8-h/275-F; 4-h/1,250-F and 8-h/1,250-F. The 275 and 1,250 µg F/mL concentrations simulate mouth salivary dilution when 1,100 and 5,000 µg/g toothpastes are used. Enamel demineralization was assessed by surface (%SHL) and cross-sectional hardness. Fluoride taken up by enamel was also evaluated. Data were analyzed by ANOVA one-way and Tukey's test. The treatment with 1,250 µg F/mL significantly reduced %SHL compared with 275 µg F/mL (p<0.05), irrespective the level of cariogenic challenge (4-h/1,250-F vs. 4-h/275-F and 8-h/1,250-F vs 8-h/275-F comparisons, respectively). These data were supported by fluoride concentration found in enamel. These findings suggest that higher fluoride concentrations could partly compensate the greater caries risk under higher cariogenic challenge due to increasing sugar exposure.

  2. Effect of Sodium Fluoride on the endogenous MMP Activity of Dentin Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Brackett, Martha Goël; Agee, Kelli A.; Brackett, William W.; Key, William O.; Sabatini, Camila; Kato, Melissa T.; Buzalaf, Marilia A.R.; Tjäderhane, Leo; Pashley, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effect of incorporating increasing concentrations of sodium fluoride in incubation media, on the loss of dry mass and solubilization of collagen from demineralized dentin beams incubated for up to 7 days. The effect of fluoride on the inhibition of matrix-bound metalloproteinases (MMPs) was also measured. Methods Dentin beams were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. After baseline measurements of dry mass, the beams were divided into six groups (n=10) and incubated at 37°C either in buffered media containing sodium fluoride (NaF) at 75, 150, 300, 450, 600 ppm or in fluoride-free media (control) for seven days. Following incubation, dry mass was re-measured. The incubation media was hydrolyzed with HCl for the quantitation of hydroxyproline (HYP) as an index of solubilization of collagen by endogenous dentin proteases. Increasing concentrations of fluoride were also evaluated for their ability to inhibit rhMMP-9. Results Addition of NaF to the incubation media produced a progressive significant reduction (p<0.05) in the loss of mass of dentin matrices, with all concentrations demonstrating significantly less mass loss than the control group. Significantly less HYP release from the dentin beams was found in the higher fluoride concentration groups, while fluoride concentrations of 75 and 150 ppm significantly reduced rhMMP-9 activity by 6.5% and 79.2%, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that NaF inhibits matrix-bound MMPs and therefore may slow the degradation of dentin matrix by endogenous dentin MMPs. PMID:26052548

  3. The effects of airborne fluorides on oral conditions in Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Haikel, Y.; Cahen, P.M.; Turlot, J.C.; Frank, R.M. )

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries and dental fluorosis, as well as various other oral conditions, in 2378 subjects (ages seven to 60) living in the fluoridated area of Khouribga and the non-fluoridated area of Beni Mellal, Morocco. The community index of dental fluorosis (CFI) ranged from 1.99 to 2.80 in the high-fluoride area: Over 90% of the population was affected, and more than one-third of the subjects showed moderate dental fluorosis. However, in Beni Mellal, more than 96% of the dentate subjects examined were free of dental fluorosis, and the CFI of 0.02 was considered not significant. Significant differences were observed between the two areas with respect to caries prevalence. DMFT and DMFS indices were markedly lower in the fluorosis area of Khouribga. The oral conditions of subjects appeared to be better in Khouribga, where the gingival and calculus indices were significantly lower than in Beni Mellal. The analyses of covariance showed no significant differences in plaque accumulation (PI) between the Khouribga and Beni Mellal samples. However, a close statistical correlation was found between PI and GI in Beni Mellal and Khouribga.

  4. Laser-matrix-fluoride effects on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C Y; Jordan, T H; Dederich, D N; Wefel, J S

    2001-09-01

    Laser and fluoride have been shown to inhibit enamel demineralization. However, the role of organic matrix and their interactions remains unclear. This study investigated the interaction among CO2 laser irradiation, fluoride, and the organic matrix on the demineralization of human enamel. Twenty-four molars were selected and cut into halves. One half of each tooth was depleted of its lipid and protein. The other half served as a matched control. Each tooth half had two window areas, treated with a 2.0% NaF gel. All left windows then received a laser treatment. Next, the tooth halves were subjected to a four-day pH-cycling procedure that created caries-like lesions. Tooth sections were cut from the windows, and microradiographs were used for quantification of the demineralization. The combined fluoride-laser treatment led to 98.3% and 95.1% reductions in mineral loss for enamel with and without organic matrix, respectively, when compared with sound enamel.

  5. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: Effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R; Alvarez, Jason R; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-05-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions, and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transformed infrared and X-ray diffraction. The concentration of fluoride and the supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP)=10.2±2.0 with 1.5±0.5 mg l(-1) fluoride and 40±10 μg ml(-1) amelogenin, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarizes the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management.

  6. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R.; Alvarez, Jason R.; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by FE-SEM, ATR-FTIR and XRD. The concentration of fluoride and supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP) = 10.2±2.0 with fluoride 1.5±0.5 mg/L and amelogenin 40±10 µg/mL, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarized the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management. PMID:21256987

  7. Effect of home-use fluoride gels on resin-modified glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    El-Badrawy, W A; McComb, D

    1998-01-01

    Acidic fluoride gels have been found to significantly damage conventional glass-ionomer cements. In this study the effect to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) and neutral fluoride gels on the recently introduced resin-modified glass ionomers and a polyacid-modified composite resin (Variglass) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Five materials were examined: Photac-Fil, Fuji II LC, Vitremer, Variglass, and Ketac-Fil (control). Groups of five specimens of each material were treated for 24 hours with one of the following: 1) distilled water, 2) neutral fluoride gel, 3) APF gel. Surface micro-structure of treated specimens was examined using SEM, and microphotographs were evaluated using a three-point scale. APF was found to have a deleterious effect on all examined materials, while minimal effects resulted from the neutral fluoride gel compared to the control group. Although showing greater resistance to the APF gel than conventional glass-ionomer cements, resin-modified glass-ionomer materials revealed characteristic immersion and erosion behavior, substantiating their differentiation from a hybrid material containing a preponderance of resin.

  8. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  9. Fluoride bioaccumulation and toxic effects on the survival and behavior of the endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet).

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Sierra, Arantxa; Alonso, Alvaro; Camargo, Julio A

    2013-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to examine the toxic effects of fluoride (F(-)) on the survival and behavior of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Body fluoride contents (bioaccumulation) of test crayfish were also examined. No significant differences between male and female crayfish regarding mortality, escape (tail-flip) response, and fluoride bioaccumulation were detected. For mortality, 48-, 72-, 96-, 120-, 144-, 168-, and 192-h median lethal concentrations (LC50) were estimated to be 93.0, 55.3, 42.7, 36.5, 32.9, 30.6, and 28.9 mg F(-)/l, respectively. For the escape response, 48-, 72-, 96-, 120-, 144-, 168- and 192-h median effective concentrations (EC50) were estimated to be 18.4, 11.1, 8.6, 7.4, 6.7, 6.2 and 5.9 mg F(-)/l, respectively. Average food consumption in test crayfish tended to decrease with increasing water fluoride concentration with a 192-h lowest-observed effect concentration of 10.7 mg F(-)/l. These results indicate that the escape response was the most sensitive end point to fluoride toxicity followed by food consumption and mortality. Fluoride bioaccumulation in test crayfish increased with increasing water fluoride concentration and exposure time. The exoskeleton accumulated more fluoride than muscle. A comparison of the obtained results with previous data for other freshwater invertebrates shows that white-clawed crayfish are relatively tolerant to fluoride toxicity. We conclude that fluoride pollution in freshwater ecosystems should not be viewed as an important risk factor contributing to the catastrophic decrease of A. pallipes in many European countries. Our results indicate that fluoride bioaccumulation in A. pallipes might be used as a bioindicator of fluoride pollution in freshwater ecosystems where it is present.

  10. The effects of fluoride on cell migration, cell proliferation, and cell metabolism in GH4C1 pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Schulz, A; Solano-Agama, C; Arreola-Mendoza, L; Reyes-Márquez, B; Barbier, O; Del Razo, L M; Mendoza-Garrido, M E

    2009-10-28

    The consumption of drinking water rich in fluoride has toxic effects on the central nervous system. In cell biology research, fluoride is currently used as a phosphatase inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride on different physiological processes in GH4C1 pituitary tumour cells. We used a range of different fluoride concentrations, from levels below normal human serum concentrations (0.23 and 1.2 micromol/L) to those observed in chronically exposed persons (10.7 micromol/L) and above (107 and 1072 micromol/L). Treatment of 10.7 micromol/L fluoride resulted in a discrete induction of DNA synthesis, without a change in cell number. Cell migration, a behaviour stimulated by growth factors, was increased in cells treated with 2.4 micromol/L. At this fluoride concentration, changes in phosphorylation status of both cytoskeletal and cytosolic protein fractions, as well as in actin cytoskeletal arrangements were observed. The GH4C1 fluoride treated cells had significantly less cellular protein than control cells, suggesting an effect of fluoride on hormone secretion and protein synthesis in this endocrine cell. The bioreduction of MTT was significantly increased with a wide range of fluoride concentrations. With the highest fluoride concentration, 1072 micromol/L, all of the analysed parameters were significantly reduced, suggesting that this dose is highly toxic in GH4C1 cells. Our results show that biologically relevant concentrations of fluoride are capable of increasing cell migration in tumour cells, suggesting that exposure to fluoride could stimulate tumour invasion.

  11. In vitro effect of sodium fluoride on antioxidative enzymes and apoptosis during murine odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jacinto-Alemán, L F; Hernández-Guerrero, J C; Trejo-Solís, C; Jiménez-Farfán, M D; Fernández-Presas, A M

    2010-10-01

    Excessive fluoride ingestion has been identified as a risk factor for fluorosis and oxidative stress. The oxidative stress results from the loss of equilibrium between oxidative and antioxidative mechanisms that can produce kinase activation, mitochondrial disturbance and DNA fragmentation, resulting in apoptosis. Actually many people are exposed to no-adverted fluoride consumption in acute or chronic way. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium fluoride on first molar germ in relation to its effect on antioxidative enzymes immunoexpression and apoptosis. Thirty first molar germs from 1-day-old Balb/c mice were cultured for 24 h with sodium fluoride (0 mM, 1 mM and 5 mM). Immunoexpression determination of CuZnSod, MnSod, catalase, Bax, Bid, caspase 8, caspase 9, caspase 3 and TUNEL assay were performed. Cellular disorganization in ameloblast and odontoblast-papilla zones was observed. CuZnSod and MnSod immunoexpression decrease in experimental groups. Caspase 8, caspase 3, Bax, Bid increase expression and more TUNEL positive cells in both experimental groups than control, suggest that apoptosis induced by fluoride is related to oxidative stress due to reduction of the enzymatic antioxidant.

  12. Effect of fluoride intoxication on the levels of intestinal antioxidants studied in rats.

    PubMed

    Shanthakumari, D; Srinivasalu, S; Subramanian, S

    2007-03-01

    High concentration of fluorine is noxious to the health of humans and animals. Analysis of fluoride in water samples meant for human consumption in the Vellore District of Tamil Nadu, India, revealed its presence above the permissible limit (4.56 ppm). The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects of oral administration of the water sample that contains the highest fluoride content on the status of pathophysiological parameters and lipid peroxidation in experimental rats. A positive control group orally treated with 4.5 ppm of fluoride was also included in the study. The assay of pathophysiological enzymes and histological observations made on the stomach and intestinal tissue have revealed the toxic effects of fluoride intoxication. The observed increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) both in plasma and in intestinal epithelium, with a concomitant decrease in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the plasma of experimental rats, revealed that the altered antioxidant status during fluoride intoxication may be due to increased free radical generation.

  13. The pH effect of solvent in silanization on fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing fluoride-releasing filler.

    PubMed

    Nakornchai, Natha; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization on the amount of fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing a silanized fluoride-releasing filler. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; non-silanized, acidic-adjusted pH, non-adjusted pH, and no filler as control. For fluoride measurement, each specimen was placed in deionized water which was changed every day for 7 days, every week for 7 weeks and measured. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were evaluated after aging for 48 h, 1, and 2 months. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among groups, storage times, and its interaction in fluoride measurement and flexural modulus. For flexural strength, there was significant difference only among groups. Acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization enhanced the amount of fluoride released from acrylic resin, while non-adjusted pH of solvent exhibited better flexural strength of acrylic resin.

  14. Micropatterning of the Ferroelectric Phase in a Poly(vinylidene difluoride) Film by Plasmonic Heating with Gold Nanocages.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Yang, Miaoxin; Sun, Xiaojun; Yang, Xuan; Xue, JiaJia; Zhu, Chunlei; Liu, Hong; Xia, Younan

    2016-10-24

    Polymer thin films with patterned ferroelectric domains are attractive for a broad range of applications, including the fabrication of tactile sensors, infrared detectors, and non-volatile memories. Herein, we report the use of gold nanocages (AuNCs) as plasmonic nanostructures to induce a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition in a poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin film by leveraging its photothermal effect. This technique allows us to generate patterned domains of ferroelectric PVDF within just a few seconds. The incorporation of AuNCs significantly enhances the pyroelectric response of the ferroelectric film under near-infrared irradiation. We also demonstrate the use of such patterned ferroelectric films for near-infrared sensing/imaging.

  15. Effect of strong acids on red mud structural and fluoride adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wentao; Couperthwaite, Sara J; Kaur, Gurkiran; Yan, Cheng; Johnstone, Dean W; Millar, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    The removal of fluoride using red mud has been improved by acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid. The acidification of red mud causes sodalite and cancrinite phases to dissociate, confirmed by the release of sodium and aluminium into solution as well as the disappearance of sodalite bands and peaks in infrared and X-ray diffraction data. The dissolution of these mineral phases increases the amount of available iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites that are accessible for the adsorption of fluoride. However, concentrated acids have a negative effect on adsorption due to the dissolution of these iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxide sites. The removal of fluoride is dependent on the charge of iron and aluminium oxide/hydroxides on the surface of red mud. Acidifying red mud with hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acid resulted in surface sites of the form ≡SOH2(+) and ≡SOH. Optimum removal is obtained when the majority of surface sites are in the form ≡SOH2(+) as the substitution of a fluoride ion does not cause a significant increase in pH. This investigation shows the importance of having a low and consistent pH for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions using red mud.

  16. Effect of bleaching agent and topical fluoride application on color and gloss of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Vicente, Sergio Augusto de Freitas; Tonani, Rafaella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 16% carbamide peroxide and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride application and their association with a change in color (ΔE*) and brightness of dental ceramic submitted to different finishing procedures. A total of 120 test specimens were fabricated and randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 40) according to the type of finishing: glazing; polishing; or polishing and glazing. Initial color and brightness readouts were taken, and the finished specimens were divided into groups (n = 10) according to the treatment to which they were submitted: fluoride; bleaching; bleaching and fluoride; or control. After this, final color and brightness readouts were taken. The type of polishing had no influence on ΔE* or brightness (P > 0.05). Regardless of which solution was used, a decrease in brightness occurred only for the group treated with bleach and fluoride (P < 0.05). The results showed the use of fluoride after bleaching may interfere with the esthetics of a restoration.

  17. Effects of fluoride treatment on phosphoric acid-etching in primary teeth: an AFM observation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Rhee, Yeri; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Park, Jae-Hong; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride application on 37% phosphoric acid-etching by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in primary tooth samples based on a clinical protocol used in a pediatric dental hospital. Enamel samples were prepared from 36 exfoliated and non-carious primary teeth. Primary tooth samples were randomly assigned to one of the four groups based on the timing of acid-etching with 37% phosphoric acid after an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) pre-treatment. Group 1 received no fluoride application, Group 2 was pre-treated with fluoride and then received acid-etching 2 weeks later. One week separated the fluoride treatment and the acid-etching in Group 3, while Group 4 received acid-etching immediately after the fluoride treatment. The vestibular enamel surfaces of each primary tooth sample were scanned in air at a resolution of 512 x 512 pixels and a scan speed of 0.8 line/s. On the enamel surfaces of the primary teeth after APF pre-treatment, debris were observed although the teeth were smoother than they were prior to APF. As a result, it was concluded that APF treatment is responsible for decreased primary tooth surface roughness. The enamel surfaces etched for 20s showed that acid-etching was effective not only in removing scratches and debris, but also for evaluating enamel rod characteristics. Primary tooth enamel surfaces after etching showed minute structures caused by the decreased hydroxyapatite nanoparticle space, compared to those before etching. Also, acid-etching showed significantly increased roughness effects (p<0.0001, n=9). Finally, as more time elapsed after APF pre-treatment, the roughness was decreased to a lesser degree (p=0.005, n=9). We suggest that primary teeth etching 2 weeks after APF pre-treatment used clinically in pediatric hospitals may be effective to obtain properly etched enamel surfaces.

  18. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Willing, Marcia C.; Reis, Steven E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of nonamelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N=3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-byfluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p<0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p<0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  19. Effect of Fluoride Varnish Combined with Er:YAG Laser on the Permeability of Eroded Dentin: An In Situ Study.

    PubMed

    Nemezio, Mariana Alencar; Carvalho, Sandra Chiga; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Colucci, Vivian; Galo, Rodrigo; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of fluoride varnish and Er:YAG laser on the permeability of eroded bovine root dentin. After initial erosive challenge followed by a remineralization period, the specimens were divided in two groups according to the treatment - fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish - and were subdivided according to the irradiation protocol: Er:YAG laser (100 mJ, 3 Hz, 12.8 J/cm2per pulse, non-contact and defocus mode) and non-irradiated. After a lead-in period, 7 volunteers wore a palatal device containing 4 specimens that were subjected to erosive challenges. At the first experimental phase, 4 volunteers used specimens treated with fluoride varnish and fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser and 3 volunteers used specimens treated with non-fluoride varnish and non-fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser. After a washout period, volunteers were crossed to treatments, characterizing a 2x2 crossover experiment. At the end of the experimental phase, the quantitative response variable was obtained by permeability analysis and the qualitative response by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer's test revealed that specimens treated with fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser showed the lowest permeability and a significant difference was found between this group and the others. When varnish (fluoride/non-fluoride) was applied in the absence of Er:YAG laser, higher permeability was found when compared to the laser-treated groups. SEM evaluations showed partially or completely obliterated dentinal tubules when specimens were treated with fluoride varnish+Er:YAG laser. It may be concluded that Er:YAG laser was able to control the permeability of eroded root dentin and the combination with fluoride varnish increased laser action.

  20. Optimal Fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Optimal fluoridation has been defined as that fluoride exposure which confers maximal cariostasis with minimal toxicity and its values have been previously determined to be 0.5 to 1 mg per day for infants and 1 to 1.5 mg per day for an average child. Total fluoride ingestion and urine excretion were studied in Marin County, California, children in 1973 before municipal water fluoridation. Results showed fluoride exposure to be higher than anticipated and fulfilled previously accepted criteria for optimal fluoridation. Present and future water fluoridation plans need to be reevaluated in light of total environmental fluoride exposure. PMID:1130041

  1. Graphite fluoride lubrication - The effect of fluorine content, atmosphere, and burnishing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Eight different graphite fluoride compounds with fluorine to carbon ratios varying from 0.25 to 1.1 were evaluated as burnished films in order to determine the effect of fluorine content on the solid lubricant properties of graphite fluoride. For comparison, similar experiments were conducted on graphite burnished films. It was found that even a small amount of fluorine in graphite fluoride with fluorine to carbon ratio of 0.25 improved the lubricating properties of graphite. However, such factors as burnishing atmosphere, burnishing technique, test atmosphere, and specimen temperature affected the results as much as varying the fluorine to carbon ratio of the compound. Best life was found for films that were machine-burnished in moist air and tested in moist air.

  2. Graphite fluoride lubrication: The effect of fluorine content, atmosphere, and burnishing technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Eight different graphite fluoride compounds with fluorine to carbon ratios varying from x = 0.25 to 1.1 were evaluated as burnished films in order to determine the effect of fluorine content on the solid lubricant properties of graphite fluoride. For comparison, similar experiments were conducted on graphite burnished films. It was found that even a small amount of fluorine in graphite fluoride (CF sub 0.25) sub n improved the lubricating properties of graphite. Such factors as burnishing atmosphere, burnishing technique, test atmosphere, and specimen temperature affected the results as much as varying the fluorine to carbon ratio of the compound. Best life was found for films that were machine-burnished in moist air and tested in moist air.

  3. The effect of monoalkyl phosphates and fluoride on dissolution of hydroxyapatite, and interactions with saliva.

    PubMed

    Jones, S B; Rees, G D; Shellis, R P; Barbour, M E

    2013-01-01

    The aims were to investigate the effect of monoalkyl phosphates (MAPs) and fluoride on dissolution rate of native and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (HA). Fluoride at 300 mg/l (as NaF) inhibited dissolution of native HA by 12%, while potassium and sodium dodecyl phosphates (PDP, SDP), at 0.1% or higher, inhibited dissolution by 26-34%. MAPs, but not fluoride, also showed persistence of action. MAPs at 0.5% and fluoride at 300 mg/l were then tested separately against HA pre-treated with human saliva for 2 or 18 h. Agents were applied with brushing to half the specimens, and without brushing to the other half. In control (water-treated) specimens, pre-treatment of HA with human saliva reduced dissolution rate on average by 41% (2 h) and 63% (18 h). Brushing did not have a statistically significant effect on dissolution rate of saliva-coated specimens. In brushed specimens, fluoride significantly increased the inhibition due to 2- or 18-hour saliva pre-treatment. It is hypothesised that brushing partially removes the salivary film and allows KOH-soluble calcium fluoride formation at the surfaces of HA particles. Inhibition was reduced by PDP in 2-hour/non-brushed specimens and in 18-hour/brushed specimens. PDP did not affect dissolution rates in the remaining groups and SDP did not affect dissolution rate in any group. Possible reasons for these variable results are discussed. The experiments show that pre-treatment with saliva can significantly modify results of tests on potential anti-erosive agents and it is recommended that saliva pre-treatment should be a routine part of testing such agents.

  4. Effect of Fluoride-Releasing Adhesive Systems on the Mechanical Properties of Eroded Dentin.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Moda, Mariana Dias; Suzuki, Thaís Yumi Umeda; Godas, André Gustavo de Lima; Sundfeld, Renato Herman; Briso, André Luiz Fraga; Santos, Paulo Henrique dos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of erosive pH cycling with solutions that simulate dental erosion on Martens hardness (HMV) and elastic modulus (Eit) of dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems. Twenty-seven bovine dentin slabs were restored with three adhesive systems: Adper Single Bond 2 total-etch adhesive system, One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect fluoride-containing self-etching adhesive systems. The restorations were made with Filtek Z250. The HMV and Eit values at distances of 10, 30, 50 and 70 µm from the interface were evaluated using a dynamic ultra microhardness tester before and after immersion in deionized water, citric acid and hydrochloric acid (n=9). Data were submitted to repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD tests (=0.05). After erosive cycling, HMV values of dentin decreased in all groups. For dentin restored with Adper Single Bond 2, the lowest values were found closer to the hybrid layer, while for One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect, the values remained unaltered at all distances. For dentin restored with fluoride-releasing adhesive systems, a decrease in Eit was found, but after 30 µm this difference was not significant. The acid substances were able to alter HMV and Eit of the underlying dentin. For fluoride-releasing adhesives, the greater the distance from bonded interface, the lower the Eit values. The fluoride in One Up Bond F and Clearfil SE Protect was able to protect the underlying dentin closer to the materials. In this way, the fluoride from adhesive systems could have some positive effect in the early stages of erosive lesions.

  5. Effect of pH of amine fluoride containing toothpastes on enamel remineralization in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Haase, Anabel; Hacklaender, Julia; Gintner, Zeno; Bánóczy, Jolan; Gaengler, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background One of the important factors of the demineralization and remineralization equilibrium of enamel is the pH of the surrounding solutions. Effort has been laid in the formulation of different fluoride compounds and the fluoride content in toothpastes but much less is known about the influence of the pH of the toothpastes on their effectiveness. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the influence of different pH levels on enamel remineralization in an in vitro experiment using polarization light microscopy and EDX quantitative element analysis. Methods A 5 × 5 mm window on the enamel surface of 40 caries free extracted human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 8 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. Each group was then immersed in toothpaste slurry containing amine fluoride (1400 ppm) at pH 4.1, 4.5, 5.1 and 6.9 or control toothpaste slurry without fluoride at pH 4.3, 4.7, 5.3 and 7.0. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarization light microscopy and quantitative EDX element analysis. Results The PLM results showed a decreased porous volume of the body of the lesion after incubation with fluoridated toothpaste at pH 4.53 and 5.16. No differences between the experimental window and the control window were found in the other groups. The quantitative element analysis showed no differences in the element content of any of the groups. Conclusion From the results it can be concluded that slightly acidified fluoridated dentifrices may have a certain positive effect on enamel remineralization. PMID:17941981

  6. Effect of fluoride intoxication on endometrial apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in rats: role of vitamins E and C.

    PubMed

    Guney, Mehmet; Oral, Baha; Take, Gulnur; Giray, Seren Gulsen; Mungan, Tamer

    2007-03-07

    Fluoride is a strong, hard anion and cumulative toxic agent. The effect of fluoride intoxication on lipid peroxidation in endometrial tissue and the protective effects of combinations of vitamins E and C in rats were studied. Additionally, the apoptotic changes in endometrial tissue were examined. Experimental groups were as follows: control group; a group treated with 100 mg/l fluoride (F group); and a group treated with 100 mg/l fluoride plus vitamins E and C (F+Vit group). The F and F+Vit groups were treated orally with fluoride for 30 days. Vitamins E and C were injected simultaneously at doses of 50 mg/kg day i.m. and 20 mg/kg day body weight i.p. Extensive formation of DNA strand breaks, the typical biochemical feature of apoptosis, was detected with the use of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick and labeling (TUNEL) method. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in uterine tissue of rats. Fluoride caused a significant increase in MDA levels (an important marker of lipid peroxidation) in the fluoride group compared with the controls (p<0.05). Vitamins E and C significantly reduced the fluoride-induced lipid peroxidation in the F+Vit group compared with the F group (p<0.05). Diffuse apoptosis in glandular epithelium and stromal cells was found in endometrial tissues of F treated rats by TUNEL method. The severity of these lesions was reduced by the administration of vitamins. From these results, it can be concluded that subchronic fluoride administration causes endometrial apoptosis, and lipid peroxidation may be a molecular mechanism involved in fluoride-induced toxicity. Furthermore, treatment with a combination of vitamins E and C reduced endometrial apoptosis caused by fluoride.

  7. Effect of topical fluoride application on titanium alloys: a review of effects and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Fragou, Stella; Eliades, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this review were to: summarize the currently available evidence on the effect of fluoride on titanium alloys; discuss the mechanisms involved; and assess the clinical relevance and validity of statements deriving from in vitro approaches. The spectrum of effects noted include: morphological variations, such as increased roughness with adverse effects on sliding mechanics; mechanical properties of the wires, which may entail effects on the superelastic plateau of nickel-titanium wires, or reduction in the strength of wires, which can result in frequent intraoral failures; and release of ions during service. Reduced nickel release rates have been documented, however, from retrieved nickel-titanium wires presumably due to the passive layer formed. In relevant research, forming oxide on titanium alloys has been proposed to provide immunity to further degradation and ionic release, since nickel ions must diffuse through this layer to be released. The described evidence of fluoride on titanium alloys derives mostly from in vitro research, which includes oversimplifications in simulating the oral environment. The reactivity in laboratory experiments is dramatically increased relative to the actual clinical conditions, which exaggerates the effects noted. The effects shown have not been validated in vivo, since the only available evidence on intraorally fractured nickel-titanium archwires did not support the implication of hydrogen embrittlement as a failure mechanism. Rather, fractures were found to be related to: (1) mechanical factors associated with loading of the wire in specific arch sites; and (2) the masticatory forces. Clinically, the use of fluoride varnishes at specific, caries-risk sites may provide protection while minimizing the potential risk of adverse effects.

  8. Radiolytic Effects on Fluoride Impurities in a U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2000-05-01

    The safe handling and storage of radioactive materials require an understanding of the effects of radiolysis on those materials. Radiolysis may result in the production of gases (e.g., corrosives) or pressures that are deleterious to storage containers. A study has been performed to address these concerns as they relate to the radiolysis of residual fluoride compounds in uranium oxides.

  9. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, David M; Manolopoulos, David E; Dang, Liem X

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  10. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  11. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the water exchange reactions are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium, and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium. LXD was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  12. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of nanoporous polyvinylidence fluoride (PVDF) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Wang, Shifa; Kadlec, Alec

    2016-04-01

    A nanoporous polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) thin film was developed for applications in energy harvesting, medical surgeries, and industrial robotics. This sponge-like nanoporous PVDF structure dramatically enhanced the piezoelectric effect because it yielded considerably large deformation under a small force. A casting-etching method was adopted to make films, which is effective to control the porosity, flexibility, and thickness of the film. The films with various Zinc Oxide (ZnO) mass fractions ranging from 10 to 50% were fabricated to investigate the porosity effect. The piezoelectric coefficient d33 as well as dielectric constant and loss of the films were characterized. The results were analyzed and the optimal design of the film with the right amount of ZnO nanoparticles was determined.

  13. [Effects of nano-selenium on antioxidant capacity and histopathology of Cyprinus carpio liver under fluoride stress].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Jie; Cao, Jin-Ling; Luo, Yong-Ju; Li, Ju-Yin

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the protection effect of nano-selenium (NSe) on the antioxidant capacity and histopathology of Cyprinus carpio liver under fluoride stress, a total of 750 C. carpio individuals were randomly divided into five groups, i. e., no fluoride stress and NSe addition (CK), fluoride (100 mg F- x L(-1))-stressed (FS), and fluoride-stressed plus NSe added with a dosage of 0.1 mg Se x L(-1) (NSe L), 0.5 mg Se x L(-1) (NSe M), and 1.0 mg Se x kg(-1)(NSe H). The NSe was mixed with fish foods, and the fishes of FS and NSe groups were exposed to the fluoride stress for 30 days. As compared with CK, fluoride stress decreased the SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities and increased the MDA content of C. carpio liver, and induced a definite damage on the histopathology of the liver. Compared with FS, NSe increased the liver SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities, decreased the liver MDA content, and mitigated the damage of fluoride stress on the histopathology of the liver. The results demonstrated that in some extent, the addition of NSe into fish foods could alleviate the decline of the antioxidant capacity of C. carpio liver and the damage on the liver histopathology caused by fluoride stress.

  14. The future of water fluoridation and other systemic fluorides.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, H S

    1990-02-01

    School and community water fluoridation, salt fluoridation, and use of dietary fluoride supplements have abundant scientific support as effective caries-preventive methods. Because caries has declined greatly in many developed countries from use of topical fluorides, the absolute caries reduction will be considerably smaller when systemic fluoride methods are implemented now than it was 20 to 40 years ago. For countries with most of the population living in cities with communal water supplies, community fluoridation is the most logical approach from the standpoints of cost-effectiveness and total caries-preventive impact. In countries with a mostly rural population without central water supplies, salt fluoridation is more practical. Dietary fluoride supplements can be recommended only for regions where neither water fluoridation nor salt fluoridation is possible, or as a temporary measure. Although divergent views exist concerning the relative caries-preventive effects of pre-eruptive and post-eruptive fluoride administration, the effectiveness of systemic fluoride methods for preventing dental caries remains unchallenged. Persuasive scientific and public health arguments exist to justify implementing and sustaining their use. The future of these methods will be influenced by the findings of new clinical and epidemiological research. Social, political, economic, and educational factors will be of equal, if not greater, importance. Perceptions of the current severity of dental caries as a health problem and of risks associated with preventing the problem may affect the future uses of systemic fluorides more than will recommendations of scientists.

  15. The toxic effects of sodium fluoride on the reproductive system of male rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Khan, T I; Agrawal, D; Kachhawa, J B S

    2007-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fluoride toxicity on the reproductive system of male rats. Sexually mature male Wistar rats were exposed to 2, 4, and 6 ppm sodium fluoride in their drinking water for 6 months ad libitum. Sperm motility and density in cauda epididymis were assessed. Biochemical and histological analysis were performed in reproductive organs. Fluoride treatment brought about a significant decrease in the weight of testis, epididymis, and ventral prostate. The sperm motility and density were significantly reduced. There was a marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte, and spermatids. The Sertoli cell counts and their cross sectional surface areas were significantly decreased. The Leydig cell nuclear area and the number of mature Leydig cells were also significantly decreased. The protein content of the testis and epididymis were significantly reduced. Fructose in the seminal vesicles and cholesterol in testes were increased significantly. In conclusion, sodium fluoride administrated in drinking water of 2, 4, and 6 ppm concentration for 6 months to male rats adversely affected their fertility and reproductive system.

  16. Effects of fluoride on development and growth of Rana chensinensis embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lihong; Dong, Suiming; Zhao, Hongfeng; Deng, Hongzhang; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the adverse effects of fluoride exposure on embryos and larvae of Rana chensinensis. Survival, morphological abnormalities, growth and development, time to metamorphosis and size at metamorphic climax of R. chensinensis were examined. Our results showed that embryos malformation occurred in all fluoride treatments. Morphological abnormalities of embryos are characterized by axial flexures, the extrusion of fin axis, edema, and ruffled dorsal and ventral fin. Additionally, 4.1mg F(-)/L and above could significantly inhibit embryos growth and development. On day 15, total length and weight of tadpole were significantly lower in 19.6 and 42.4 mg F(-)/L treatments compared to control. However, significant reductions in total length and weight were observed only at 42.4 mg F(-)/L on day 30. Moreover, significant metamorphic delay and decrease in the size at metamorphic climax were found in larvae exposed to 42.4 mg F(-)/L. Taken together, embryos of R. chensinensis are more vulnerable to fluoride exposure than their tadpoles. Our results suggested that the presence of high concentrations fluoride might increase mortality risk and a reduction in juvenile recruitment in the field by increasing embryos malformation, delaying metamorphosis and decreasing size at metamorphosis.

  17. Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: Teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on reproduction in screech owls (Otus asio) of chronic dietary sodium fluoride administration at 0, 40, and 200 ppm were examined. Fluoride at 40 ppm resulted in a significantly smaller egg volume, while 200 ppm also resulted in lower egg weights and lengths. Day-one hatchlings in the 200 ppm group weighed almost 10% less than controls and had shorter crown-rump lengths. No gross abnormalities were apparent. Skeletal clearing and staining revealed significantly shorter tibiotarsus lengths in the 40 ppm and 200 ppm groups and a shorter radius-ulna length in the 200 ppm group. By 7 days of age, body weights and lengths did not differ from controls, but the tibiotarsus in the 200 ppm group remained shorter. No significant differences were detected in hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma calcium or alkaline phosphatase. Plasma phosphorus levels were higher in the 40 ppm group than in controls. These results, in combination with the findings of Pattee et al. [25], revealed significant impairment of overall reproduction, suggesting that sodium fluoride could cause slight to moderate reproduction disorders in owls in fluoride-polluted areas.

  18. Physical exercise ameliorates the toxic effect of fluoride on the insulin-glucose system.

    PubMed

    Lombarte, Mercedes; Fina, Brenda L; Lupo, Maela; Buzalaf, Marília A; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2013-07-01

    Daily intake of water with fluoride concentrations >1.5 mg/l produces insulin resistance (IR). On the other hand, physical activity increases insulin sensitivity in the muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity on IR in rats treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n=10/group): Control (drinking water without NaF), NaF (drinking water with NaF 15 mg/l for 30 days), and Exercise (daily running on a treadmill for 60 min at 2.25 m/min and drinking water with NaF 15 mg/l for 30 days). IR was evaluated with the homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index using fasting plasma levels of glucose and insulin. IR increased in rats treated with 15 mg/l NaF in drinking water. A decrease in IR was observed in rats that performed physical activity and drank water with 15 mg/l NaF; the Exercise group also showed an increase in the amounts of bone fluoride. The variation in the HOMA-IR values could be the consequence of variation in the sensitivity of tissues to insulin or decrease in plasma fluoride levels due to bone fluoride intake. These findings indicate that the performance of daily physical activity could reduce the negative effects of the chronic ingestion of NaF on glucose homeostasis.

  19. The effect of casein phosphopeptide toothpaste versus fluoride toothpaste on remineralization of primary teeth enamel.

    PubMed

    Yimcharoen, Veeritta; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Kiatchallermwong, Warawan

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a CPP-containing toothpaste and compared it with fluoride-containing toothpastes on remineralization of caries-like lesions in primary teeth enamel, using polarized light microscopy. Forty-eight sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1x1 mm windows before being placed in a demineralizing solution for 4 days. After demineralization, all the specimens were coated with nail varnish over one window and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A to D; n = 12). Group A teeth were exposed to distilled water. Group B teeth were exposed to a CPP-containing toothpaste (Hi Herb). Group C teeth were exposed to a 260 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste (Smile baby toothgel). Group D teeth were exposed to a 500 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste (Oralmed Kid). Polarized light microscopy was used to evaluate lesion depth, before and after a 7-day pH cycle. Lesion depth was measured using a computerized method with the Image-Pro Plus program. Differences in mean lesion depth within groups and between groups were analysed using the paired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test at a 95% level of confidence. Mean lesion depths in Groups A, B, C and D significantly increased by 110.1, 36.1, 40.2 and 18.2%, respectively. The mean lesion depths for all the toothpaste groups (B, C and D) were significantly different from the control group (A). Comparisons made among treatment groups showed Group D was significantly different from Groups B and C. All toothpastes were effective for inhibiting progression of carious lesions. However, a 500 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste inhibited lesion progression better than a CPP-containing toothpaste and a 260 ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste.

  20. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  1. Piezoelectric Response of Polyvinylidene Fluoride to Combined Compression and Shear.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    Uproj" 0.27 km/s PVDF Element Figure 2. Configuration of inclined-impact experiments (a thin metalic film element is vapor deposited onto the impact...thick. Electrodes are vapor - deposited onto each side of the circular 0.5-cm- diameter sensitized area in the center of each 2.54-cm-diameter film . The...and coworkers 1, 2 at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). The sensing element in the NBS stress gage is a double layer of the thin , polymer film

  2. Robotic Tactile Sensor Fabricated from Piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    with IC Emphasis t ............ PVDF Film Thickness V ............ Volts Vbias ......... Bias Voltage Vdd .......... Amplifier Supply Voltage VdS... pressure sensitivity and coupling (mechanical and electrical) of several sensor configurations. The critical variables will be the PVDF film thickness and...the relative thinness of the films - (7:2.25-2.26). Despite these disadvantages, PVDF film has found its way into a myriad of applications because it

  3. The effects of 1% pyrophosphate and 0.02% sodium fluoride on artificial caries lesions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mellberg, J R; Petrou, I D; Deutchman, M; Grote, N

    1988-12-01

    We evaluated the potential of a pyrophosphate-fluoride solution to affect the remineralizing-demineralizing equilibrium, i.e., caries-inhibiting/-promoting effects on enamel in vivo. Fifteen subjects carried dentin blocks and enamel thin sections with artificial caries lesions in removable partial dentures for periods of two weeks, during which time they rinsed twice daily in a double-blind, randomized cross-over design with solutions containing (a) 90 ppm F, (b) 90 ppm F and 1% pyrophosphate, or (c) no active agents (placebo). A severe cariogenic challenge provided to the lesions by plaque under a stainless steel mesh cover resulted in the placebo-treated lesions losing 70.2% +/- 72.1% mineral. The pyrophosphate rinse with fluoride held the mineral loss to only 28.1 +/- 52.8%, while the fluoride rinse without pyrophosphate held the loss to 24.2 +/- 50.1%. The differences between the fluoride and placebo results were significant (p less than 0.01), but the difference between the two fluoride groups was not. A large amount of fluoride was deposited in the dentin lesions. In the surface layer, the concentration was increased from 1000 ppm F to more than 2300 ppm F by both fluoride treatments. The concentration of fluoride in both groups of fluoride-treated lesions further increased to more than 3500 ppm F in the approximate center of the lesion before declining in deeper layers toward the level found in the placebo-treated group. The findings from both mineral change and fluoride uptake phases of this study show that in the presence of 90 ppm F, 1% pyrophosphate did not promote demineralization of artificial caries lesions.

  4. FLUORIDE EFFECTS ON BONE FORMATION AND MINERALIZATION ARE INFLUENCED BY GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Mousny, M.; Omelon, S.; Wise, L.; Everett, E. T.; Dumitriu, M.; Holmyard, D. P.; Banse, X.; Devogelaer, J. P.; Grynpas, M. D

    2008-01-01

    Introduction A variation in bone response to fluoride (F−) exposure has been attributed to genetic factors. Increasing fluoride doses (0ppm, 25ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm) for three inbred mouse strains with different susceptibilities to developing dental enamel fluorosis (A/J, a “susceptible” strain; SWR/J, an “intermediate” strain; 129P3/J, a “resistant” strain) had different effects on their cortical and trabecular bone mechanical properties. In this paper, the structural and material properties of the bone were evaluated to explain the previously observed changes in mechanical properties. Materials and Methods This study assessed the effect of increasing fluoride doses on the bone formation, microarchitecture, mineralization and microhardness of the A/J, SWR/J and 129P3/J mouse strains. Bone microarchitecture was quantified with microcomputed tomography and strut analysis. Bone formation was evaluated by static histomorphometry. Bone mineralization was quantified with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and powder x-ray diffraction. Microhardness measurements were taken from the vertebral bodies (cortical and trabecular bone) and the cortex of the distal femur. Results Fluoride treatment had no significant effect on bone microarchitecture for any of the strains. All three strains demonstrated a significant increase in osteoid formation at the largest fluoride dose. Vertebral body trabecular bone BSE imaging revealed significantly decreased mineralization heterogeneity in the SWR/J strain at 50ppm and 100ppm F−. The trabecular and cortical bone mineralization profiles showed a non-significant shift towards higher mineralization with increasing F− dose in the three strains. Powder x-ray diffraction showed significantly smaller crystals for the 129P3/J strain, and increased crystal width with increasing F− dose for all strains. There was no effect of F− on trabecular and cortical bone microhardness. Conclusion Fluoride treatment had no significant

  5. Effect of maternal fluoride exposure on developing CNS of rats: protective role of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, N; Basha, P Mahaboob; Rai, Puja; Ahmed, Fiyaz; Prasad, G Ravi

    2010-08-01

    Fluoride is toxic to neuronal development and its excessive intake during pregnancy cause adverse effects on neonatal development. The present study examined the presence of oxidative stress during maternal exposure of fluoride and the therapeutic strategy of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum extracts in functional prevention of fluoride led oxidative stress. The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 100 ppm fluoride in drinking water and pups born to them were supplemented with phytoextracts daily. On 21st postpartum day, the pups were sacrificed to analyse fluoride and oxidative stress markers. Fluoride exposure significantly increased its accumulation, lipid peroxidation and decreased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of pups indicating oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant defense. The results implied the vulnerability of developing CNS to fluoride toxicity. On phytoextract supplementation, the oxidant devastation was suppressed by regaining antioxidant homeostasis near normal level proving efficacy and therapeutic strategy. Among the phytoextracts supplemented the Ocimum sanctum is found to be more effective.

  6. Evaluation of Effect of Brushite-Calcite and Two Indigenous Herbs in Removal of Fluoride from Water

    PubMed Central

    Naveenkumar, Puvvadi Gopalakrishna; Prashant, Gouder Manjunath; Sakeenabi, Basha; Allamaprabhu; Vijetha, Kothyala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5mg/l. Excess fluoride in drinking water causes fluorosis. Fluorosis is an important public health problem in India. Several treatment technologies suggested in the past for removing excess fluoride generated and causes various chemical byproductswhich are hazardous to public. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest to use natural materials due to cost and associated health and environmental concerns of synthetic organic polymers and inorganic chemicals. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the defluoridating capability of the brushite-calcite with that of two indigenous herbs, tulsi and wheat grass. Materials and Methods One gram of brushite-calcite combination, tulsi and wheat grass were separately added to 10 containers, each containing 1.0 l of prepared distilled water with a fluoride concentration of 5ppm and naturally fluoridated water at 2ppm. Half of the samples were boiled for one minute in a domestic electric kettle for one minute and allowed to cool. The remaining half of the samples was left un-boiled. Fluoride concentration in all the samples was assessed at the end of 30 minutes and 24 hours using fluoride ion selective electrode method. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results For water with 2ppm and 5ppm fluoride, brushite-calcite had shown highest de-fluoridation capacity (p=0.001) at the end of both 30 minutes and 24 hours in boiled samples whereas tulsi (p=0.001) was most effective in un-boiled samples. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that tulsi can be used for domestic water defluoridation as it is economic, safe and effective. PMID:27504417

  7. Temperature effect on the zeta potential and fluoride adsorption at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface.

    PubMed

    López Valdivieso, A; Reyes Bahena, J L; Song, S; Herrera Urbina, R

    2006-06-01

    The effect of temperature and pH on the zeta potential of alpha-Al2O3 and adsorption of fluoride ions at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface has been investigated through electrophoretic mobility measurements and adsorption studies, to delineate mechanisms involved in the removal of fluoride ions from water using alumina as adsorbent. When the temperature increases from 10 to 40 degrees C, the pH of the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) shifts to smaller values, indicating proton desorption from the alumina surface. The pH(pzc) increases linearly with 1/T, which allowed estimation of the standard enthalpy change for the surface-deprotonation process. Fluoride ion adsorption follows a Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm and is affected by the electric charge at the alpha-Al2O3/aqueous solution interface and the surface density of hydroxyl groups. Such adsorption occurs through an exchange between fluoride ions and surface-hydroxyl groups and it depends on temperature, pH, and initial fluoride ion concentration. At 25 and 40 degrees C, maximum fluoride adsorption density takes place between pH 5 and 6. Increasing the temperature from 25 to 40 degrees C lowers the adsorption density of fluoride.

  8. Perovskite-like fluorides and oxyfluorides: Phase transitions and caloric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flerov, I. N.; Gorev, M. V.; Tressaud, A.; Laptash, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the effect that chemical and hydrostatic pressures have on the thermodynamic properties of perovskite-like fluorine-oxygen compounds A 2 A' MeO x F6 - x has revealed that materials under-going order-disorder transitions and having significant external-pressure compliance have the highest caloric efficiency. Some of the fluorides and oxyfluorides under study can be considered promising solid coolants.

  9. Effect of sodium fluoride, ampicillin, and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans biofilm detachment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Ling, Jun-Qi; Zhang, Kai; Huo, Li-Jun; Ning, Yang

    2012-08-01

    We examined the effect of three clinically used antimicrobials on Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilm detachment under flow conditions. Sodium fluoride (NaF) and chlorhexidine at MIC levels promoted biofilm detachment and inhibited detachment when concentrations were higher than the MIC and reduced detached-cell viability only at high concentrations. Ampicillin at all concentrations tested inhibited detachment and reduced the percentage of viable biofilm-detached cells. All the three antimicrobial treatments reduced biofilm live/dead cell ratios.

  10. Protective effect of Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp diet supplement in fish (Gambusia affinis Baird & Girard) exposed to sublethal concentration of fluoride, aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K P; Upreti, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, S

    2012-12-01

    Protective role of diet supplements (Spirulina, tamarind fruit pulp and their combination) on a freshwater fish G. affinis exposed at sublethal concentration of fluoride (F-) (10 ppm), Al(+3) (3 ppm) and aluminum fluoride (AlF3) (35.4 ppm) in the microcosms (15 L sized) for 30-60 days in winter (90 days in summer) has been reported. Toxic effects of chemicals were manifested as higher fish mortality (4-50%) and acid (approximately -30%) and alkaline phosphatase (25-50%) contents, but reduction in RBC counts (5-55%) and protein content (approximately -29%) compared with controls. Alterations in values of these parameters were found maximum in aluminum exposed fish suggesting it as the most toxic among the tested chemicals. Diet supplements reduced toxicity of tested chemicals, especially when Spirulina and tamarind were given together.

  11. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  12. Evaluation of a new hardness tester (Cariotester): Comparison with transverse microradiography for assessing the inhibitory effect of fluoride application on bovine root dentin demineralization.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Toyotaro; Nakashima, Syozi; Shimizu, Akihiko; Tagami, Junji; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between CT depth, indentation depth determined by a new hardness tester (Cariotester), and the transverse microradiography (TMR) parameters, i.e., lesion depth and mineral loss. For that purpose, this study evaluated the feasibility of using Cariotester as a root caries diagnostic system and capability of Cariotester to detect effect of fluoride application on inhibiting dentin demineralization. Fluorides were applied to bovine root dentin specimens, which were subsequently demineralized for 1-21 days and then CT depth and TMR parameters were assessed. There were significant correlations between CT depth and TMR parameters in fluoride and non-fluoride groups. There were significant differences between fluoride and non-fluoride groups for CT depth and TMR parameters respectively. Current results suggested that Cariotester may be capable of providing an objective evaluation of root caries progression and the fluoride effect on inhibiting dentin demineralization.

  13. Saliva substitutes in combination with highly concentrated fluorides and brushing: in vitro effects on enamel subsurface lesions.

    PubMed

    Tschoppe, P; Siegel, A; Meyer-Lueckel, H

    2010-01-01

    Hyposalivation is often associated with high caries activity, in particular in patients undergoing irradiation in the head/neck area. Besides the use of saliva substitutes to relieve the oral symptoms, daily application of fluoride gels or toothpaste (5,000 μg F⁻/g) is recommended for caries prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate potentially remineralising effects of these fluoride agents in combination with saliva substitutes on enamel subsurface lesions. Demineralised bovine specimens were either stored in mineral water [control; saturation with respect to octacalcium phosphate (S(OCP)): 0.8], a demineralising saliva substitute (Glandosane; S(OCP): 0.3) or in a modified (with respect to S(OCP)) saliva substitute [Saliva natura (SN); S(OCP): 1.9] for 5 weeks (37°C). The following treatments were applied twice daily (11-13/group): no treatment (0), ProSchmelz fluoride gel (PS; 10 min application), Duraphat toothpaste (DP; 10 s; brushing with toothpaste/storage solution slurry), combination of DP+PS. Mineral parameters before/after storage were evaluated from microradiographs. Storage in Glandosane led to significant demineralisation (p < 0.05; paired t test), whereas additional use of fluoride agents neutralised the demineralising effect (p > 0.05). Storage in water alone resulted in no changes in mineral parameters (p > 0.05), whereas in combination with fluorides remineralisation could be shown (p < 0.05). For SN alone, remineralisation was observed (p < 0.05), but no additional beneficial effects of fluorides were detected. Under the conditions chosen, the fluoride agents reduce the demineralising effects of Glandosane and promote the remineralisation of specimens stored in water. Remineralising effects of SN could not be enhanced by the fluorides.

  14. Ameliorative effects of boron on serum profile in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed high fluoride ration.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-02-01

    An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the protective role of boron on the serum profile of buffalo calves fed a high fluoride ration. Twelve male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves of 6-8 months age, divided into three groups of four calves in each, were fed basal diets and supplemented with sodium fluoride (NaF, 60 ppm) alone or in combination with borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O, 140 ppm) for 90 days. Boron (B) was added in the ration as borax to make @140 ppm boron (elemental B) on DM basis in treatment II. Dietary F caused a significant (p<0.05) depressing effect on serum Ca and Zn on day 90 which was improved with B supplementation. However, serum Fe and Cu did not show any significant change on F or F+B supplementation. The serum ALP and phosphorus level were increased significantly (p<0.05) on F feeding but declined significantly (p<0.05) when B was fed. The findings suggested beneficial effect of boron on serum minerals and ALP in buffalo calves fed high fluoride ration.

  15. [Comparative effects of fluoride on three enzymes, hydrolyzing pyrophosphate - acid and alkaline phosphatases and inorganic pyrophosphatase].

    PubMed

    Kasho, V N; Baĭkov, A A; Avaeva, S M

    1982-08-01

    The effects of fluoride on the activities of acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) from potato and alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) from E. coli during pyrophosphate and p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolysis and on the activities of inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.1) from baker's yeast during pyrophosphate hydrolysis were compared. For both phosphatases the type of interaction was found to be independent on the nature of substrate. For acid phosphatase and inorganic pyrophosphatase the inhibition was of non-competitive and uncompetitive types, respectively. In the case of alkaline phosphatase fluoride increased the rate of p-nitrophenol release during p-nitrophenylphosphate hydrolysis at pH greater than or equal to 7.9 without affecting the rate of phosphate release, which is indicative of fluorophosphate formation in the course of the transphosphorylation reaction. The data obtained suggest the existence of essential differences in the mechanisms of fluoride effects on the three enzymes under study.

  16. Stability against brushing abrasion and the erosion-protective effect of different fluoride compounds.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Schneider, S; Sener, B; Roos, M; Attin, T

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the impact of brushing on the protective effect of different fluoride solutions on enamel and dentin erosion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were rinsed once with TiF4, AmF, SnF2 (0.5 M F, 2 min) or water (control). Specimens were either left unbrushed or brushed with 10, 20, 50, 100 or 500 brushing strokes in an automatic brushing machine (2 N, non-fluoridated toothpaste slurry). Ten specimens per group were eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl) (pH 2.3) for 60 s, and calcium release into the acid was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, enamel and dentin surfaces were analysed by X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (n = 6/group) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (n = 2/group) before brushing and after 500 brushing strokes. Statistical analysis (p < 0.05) was performed by three- and one-way ANOVA (calcium release) or repeated measures ANOVA (EDS). TiF4, AmF and SnF2 reduced the erosive calcium loss in unbrushed specimens to 58-67% (enamel) and 23-31% (dentin) of control. Calcium release increased with increasing brushing strokes prior to erosion and amounted to 70-88% (enamel) and 45-78% (dentin) of control after 500 brushing strokes. Brushing reduced the surface concentration of fluoride (AmF), tin (SnF2) and titanium (TiF4). SEM revealed that surface precipitates were affected by long-term brushing. Brushing reduced the protective potential of TiF4, AmF and SnF2 solutions. However, considering a small number of brushing strokes, the protective effect of fluoride solutions is only slightly affected by brushing abrasion.

  17. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  18. THE EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONVENTIONAL COAGULATION/FLOCCULATION/SEDIMENTATION USING ALUMINUM SULFATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act states that no drinking water facility is reuqired to fluoridate their water, however, any facility fluoridating their water is bound by the Maximum contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 mg/L. A survey of 600 large water utilities was conducted in conjunction w...

  19. Effect of fluoride varnish on caries prevention of partially erupted of permanent molar in high caries risk.

    PubMed

    Suwansingha, Orawan; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effectiveness of fluoride varnish as a public health intervention to prevent caries on partially erupted first and second permanent molars among 6-11 year old children at high risk for caries. In a six-month clinical trial, 105 children were randomly divided into a fluoride varnish (Duraphat) group (117 molars) or a control group (117 molars). The chi-square test used to compare caries occurrence in each group with a 95% level of confidence (p<0.05) at the intervals of 3 months. Compared to control, fluoride varnish resulted in 79% and 77.5% caries reduction in partially erupted permanent molars at 3 and 6 months, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in caries progression between the groups at 3 and 6 months. Fluoride varnish significantly reduced carious lesions in partially erupted molars at six months among high caries risk children.

  20. Effect of fluoride on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched human enamel.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y; Sun, Z; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2-10 microm wide) were formed. With 1-10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20-30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro.

  1. Effect of Fluoride on the Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Crystals Grown on Acid-Etched Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y.; Sun, Z.; Moradian-Oldak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2–10 μm wide) were formed. With 1–10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20–30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro. PMID:19321991

  2. Effect of fluoride concentration in adhesives on morphology of acid-base resistant zones.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Masaru; Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of fluoride concentration in adhesives on morphology of acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ). Seven experimental adhesives with different concentrations of NaF (0 wt%; F0 to 100 wt%: F100) were prepared based on the formulation of a commercially available adhesive (Clearfil Protect Bond, F100). The resin-dentin interface of the bonded specimen was subjected to demineralizing solution and NaOCl, sectioned, polished and argon-ion etched for SEM observation. Fluoride release from each adhesive was measured using an ion-selective electrode. Fluoride ion release from the adhesive linearly increased with higher NaF concentration. The ABRZ area increased significantly with higher NaF concentration except for F0, F10, and F20 (p<0.05). F100 showed the largest ABRZ, where a slope of acid-resistant dentin was clearly observed at the bottom of the ABRZ. The concentration of NaF in the two-step self-etching adhesive resin influenced the amount of dentin structure remaining after acid-challenge.

  3. Fluoride toxicity effects in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Nayak, A K; Sharma, Y K

    2009-07-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under controlled condition to investigate the accumulation, uptake and toxicity effects of fluoride (F) in onion (Allium cepa L.) grown on the soil contaminated by inorganic fluoride (NaF). Six different levels of soil contamination were used by adding 0, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg NaFkg(-1) to the soil. The F concentration in shoot, bulb and root varied between 16.3 and 109.1mg Fkg(-1), 15.8 and 54.3mg Fkg(-1) and 18.6 and 151.6 mg Fkg(-1), respectively. The visible symptoms of F toxicity in terms of tip burning and death of the plant was noticed in highly contaminated soils (>400mg NaFkg(-1) soil). The phyto-toxic threshold limit (LC(50)) in onion shoot was found to be 55 mg Fkg(-1), beyond which the biomass yield decreased by 50%. It was also inferred from the study that there is a partitioning of F in onion, with more accumulation in roots and shoots than in bulbs. The order of retention of fluoride in onion found to be roots>shoot>bulb.

  4. Effect of fluoride pollution on genetic diversity of a medicinal tree, Syzygium cumini.

    PubMed

    Khan, Suphiya; Baunthiyal, Mamta; Kumari, Alka; Sharma, Vinay

    2012-07-01

    Syzygium cumini Linn. (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal tree (Jamun) used worldwide in treatment of diabetes. However, no molecular data is available on genetic polymorphism and its relationship, if any with fluoride pollution. In the present study, the genetic variability of two populations of S. cumini growing in fluoride rich soils and normal soils located in Rajasthan and Haryana regions of India, respectively was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Different measures of diversity in Rajasthan populations: Shannon's index of phenotypic diversity (I) = 0.440; Nei's genetic diversity (h) = 0.292; effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) = 1.497; total species diversity (Hsp) = 0.307 and within population diversity (Hpop) = 0.158 showed high diversity in comparison to Haryana populations. Thus, it seems that Rajasthan population responds with increased genetic variation resulting possibly from new mutation that affect allele frequencies as a consequence of adaptation to contaminated environment. This may imply that the increased diversity levels may act as a buffer to combat fluoride stress. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) results showed mixing between the populations.

  5. Oriented polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene (P(VDF–TrFE)) films by Langmuir–Blodgett deposition: A synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, W. R.; Philiph, R. L.; Chan, D. W. W.; Ayers, C. T.; Perez, E. M.; Beckman, S. P.; Strzalka, J.; Chaudhary, S.; Vaknin, D.

    2015-10-07

    Langmuir–Blodgett films of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene – P(VDF–TrFE)-copolymers possess substantially improved electrocaloric and pyroelectric properties, when compared with conventionally spin-cast films. In order to rationalize this, we prepared single-layered films of P(VDF–TrFE) (70:30) using both deposition techniques. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), reveals that Langmuir–Blodgett deposited films have a higher concentration of the ferroelectric β-phase crystals, and that these films are highly oriented with respect to the substrate. Based on these observations, we suggest alternative means of deposition, which may substantially enhance the electrocaloric effect in P(VDF–TrFE) films. As a result, this development has significant implications for the potential use of P(VDF–TrFE) in solid-state refrigeration.

  6. Oriented polyvinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene (P(VDF–TrFE)) films by Langmuir–Blodgett deposition: A synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    DOE PAGES

    Lindemann, W. R.; Philiph, R. L.; Chan, D. W. W.; ...

    2015-10-07

    Langmuir–Blodgett films of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene – P(VDF–TrFE)-copolymers possess substantially improved electrocaloric and pyroelectric properties, when compared with conventionally spin-cast films. In order to rationalize this, we prepared single-layered films of P(VDF–TrFE) (70:30) using both deposition techniques. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), reveals that Langmuir–Blodgett deposited films have a higher concentration of the ferroelectric β-phase crystals, and that these films are highly oriented with respect to the substrate. Based on these observations, we suggest alternative means of deposition, which may substantially enhance the electrocaloric effect in P(VDF–TrFE) films. As a result, this development has significant implications for the potentialmore » use of P(VDF–TrFE) in solid-state refrigeration.« less

  7. A biocompatible and novelly-defined Al-HAP adsorption membrane for highly effective removal of fluoride from drinking water.

    PubMed

    He, Junyong; Chen, Kai; Cai, Xingguo; Li, Yulian; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Kaisheng; Jin, Zhen; Meng, Fanli; Wang, Xuguang; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-03-15

    A biocompatible and novelly-defined adsorption membrane for rapid removal of fluoride was prepared. Both adsorption and membrane techniques were used in this research. Al(OH)3 nanoparticles modified hydroxyapatite (Al-HAP) nanowires were developed and made into Al-HAP membrane. The adsorption data of Al-HAP adsorbent could be well described by Freundlich isotherm model while the adsorption kinetic followed pseudo-second-order model. The maximum of adsorption capacity was 93.84mg/g when the fluoride concentration was 200mg/L. The adsorption mechanism was anion exchanges and electrostatic interactions. The contribution rates of HAP nanowires and Al(OH)3 nanoparticles in fluoride removal were 36.70% and 63.30%, respectively. The fixed-bed column test demonstrate that the Al-HAP was biocompatible and in a good stability during the process of water treatment. The fluoride removal abilities of Al-HAP membrane with 0.3mm thickness could reach 1568L/m(2) when fluoride concentrations were 5mg/L. This study indicated that the Al-HAP membrane could be developed into a very viable technology for highly effective removal of fluoride from drinking water.

  8. The effect of water fluoride concentration on dental caries and fluorosis in five Iran provinces: A multi-center two-phase study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani, Gholamhossein; Valaie, Nasser; Rakhshan, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water fluoride level is unknown in many regions of Iran. Besides, only few non-controlled studies world-wide have assessed the effect of water fluoride on dental fluorosis and caries. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of 76 water supplies in 54 cities and evaluate the effect of fluoride on dental caries and fluorosis in a large multi-project study. Materials and Methods: In the first phase (cross-sectional), fluoride levels of 76 water tanks in 54 cities/villages in five provinces of Iran were randomly evaluated in five subprojects. In the second phase (retrospective cohort), 1127 middle school children (563 cohort and 564 control subjects) in the high and low ends of fluoride concentration in each subproject were visited. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) and fluorosis states were assessed. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and independent-samples t-test (α = 0.05). Results: Mean fluoride level was 0.298 ± 0.340 mg/L in 54 cities/villages. Only eight water tanks had fluoride levels within the normal range and only one was higher than normal and the rest (67 tanks) were all at low levels. Overall, a significant association was observed between fluoride level and fluorosis. However, this was not the case in all areas, as in 2 of 5 provinces, the effect of fluoride on fluorosis was not confirmed. In 4 of the 5 areas studied, there was a significant link between fluoride level and DMFT. Conclusion: Extremely low fluoride levels in Iran cities are an alarming finding and need attention. Higher fluoride is likely to reduce dental caries while increasing fluorosis. This finding was not confirmed in all the areas studied. PMID:25709672

  9. Effective use of fluorides in the People's Republic of China--a model for WHO Mega Country initiatives.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Kwan, S; Zhu, L; Zhang, B X; Bian, J Y

    2008-12-01

    Poor dental health has been reported in the Chinese National Surveys of Oral Health. With the changing lifestyle and growing consumption of sugars, the incidence of dental caries may well continue to rise, compounded by limited access to professional care. The increasing oral disease burden could become a major public health problem in China, leading to considerable personal and health service costs. There is a desperate need for systematic implementation of preventive programmes. Currently, China is strengthening the prevention of chronic diseases, which provides an excellent opportunity to integrate oral disease prevention into the overall non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention programmes. In order to address this growing public health problem, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Oral Health Programme advocates the effective use of fluoride as an essential approach to prevent dental caries in the 21st century--part of the WHO Global Oral Health Strategy. Population-wide automatic fluoridation measures are considered the most effective, complemented by appropriate use of toothpastes containing fluoride. There are wide variations of fluoride levels in drinking water in China and, in many areas, the levels of fluoride in drinking water are lower than the recommended levels. The use of toothpaste containing fluoride is still too low in some areas and decreases with age. Those who live in rural areas have limited access to affordable toothpastes containing fluoride. In March 2006, as part of the WHO Mega Country Health Promotion Network initiatives, the WHO Global Oral Health Programme organised a three-day symposium in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The aim of the symposium was to bring together international experience and Chinese expertise to facilitate policy development for effective use of fluoride in China, highlighting the benefits of, and barriers to, the implementation of different fluoridation programmes at the strategic levels as well as

  10. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  11. Polarization induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric vinylidene-fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect

    Usui, S. Nakajima, T.; Hashizume, Y.; Okamura, S.

    2014-10-20

    We observed a clear polarization reversal-induced resistance switching effect in ferroelectric Vinylidene-fluoride (VDF)/Trifluoroethylene (TrFE) copolymer thin films. Pt and Au were used as the bottom and top electrodes, respectively, and the thickness of the VDF/TrFE copolymer film was adjusted to be 10 nm. The conduction current was 100 times higher in the case of the spontaneous polarization of the VDF/TrFE film towards the Au electrode than that in the case of the opposite direction. This resistance switching was confirmed to be reproducible after 10 successive polarization reversals.

  12. A novel ultrasonication method in the preparation of zirconium impregnated cellulose for effective fluoride adsorption.

    PubMed

    Barathi, M; Kumar, A Santhana Krishna; Rajesh, N

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, we propose for the first time a novel ultrasound assisted methodology involving the impregnation of zirconium in a cellulose matrix. Fluoride from aqueous solution interacts with the cellulose hydroxyl groups and the cationic zirconium hydroxide. Ultrasonication ensures a green and quick alternative to the conventional time intensive method of preparation. The effectiveness of this process was confirmed by comprehensive characterization of zirconium impregnated cellulose (ZrIC) adsorbent using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The study of various adsorption isotherm models, kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction validated the method.

  13. Quantum spin Hall effect in nanostructures based on cadmium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Bagraev, N. T.; Guimbitskaya, O. N.; Klyachkin, L. E.; Koudryavtsev, A. A.; Malyarenko, A. M.; Romanov, V. V.; Ryskin, A. I.; Shcheulin, A. S.

    2010-10-15

    Tunneling current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and temperature dependences of static magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x}/p-CdF{sub 2}-QW/CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x} planar sandwich structures formed on the surface of an n-CdF{sub 2} crystal have been studied in order to identify superconducting properties of the CdB{sub x}F{sub 2-x} {delta} barriers confining the p-type CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well. Comparative analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and conductance-voltage dependences (measured at the temperatures, respectively, below and above the critical temperature of superconducting transition) indicates that there is an interrelation between quantization of supercurrent and dimensional quantization of holes in the p-CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well. It is noteworthy that detection of the Josephson peak of current in each hole subband is accompanied by the appearance of the spectrum of the multiple Andreev reflection (MAR). A high degree of spin polarization of holes in the edge channels along the perimeter of the p-CdF{sub 2} ultranarrow quantum well appears as a result of MAR and makes it possible to identify the quantum spin Hall effect I-V characteristics; this effect becomes pronounced in the case of detection of nonzero conductance at the zero voltage applied to the vertical gate in the Hall geometry of the experiment. Within the energy range of superconducting gap, the I-V characteristics of the spin transistor and quantum spin Hall effect are controlled by the MAR spectrum appearing as the voltage applied to the vertical gate is varied. Beyond the range of the superconducting gap, the observed I-V characteristic of the quantum spin Hall effect is represented by a quantum conductance staircase with a height of the steps equal to e{sub 2}/h; this height is interrelated with the Aharonov-Casher oscillations of longitudinal and depends on the voltage applied to the vertical gate.

  14. Effect of different fluoride concentrations of experimental dentifrices on enamel erosion and abrasion.

    PubMed

    Moretto, M J; Magalhães, A C; Sassaki, K T; Delbem, A C B; Martinhon, C C R

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that fluoride products are able to reduce erosive tooth wear. Thus, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with different fluoride concentrations as well as of a low-fluoridated dentifrice supplemented with trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel erosion and abrasion. One hundred twenty bovine enamel blocks were assigned to the following experimental dentifrices: placebo, 1,100 microg F/g, 500 microg F/g plus 3% TMP and 5,000 microg F/g. The groups of enamel blocks were additionally subdivided into conditions of erosion (ERO) and of erosion plus abrasion (ERO + ABR). For 7 days, the blocks were subjected to erosive challenges (immersion in Sprite 4 times a day for 5 min each time) followed by a remineralizing period (immersion in artificial saliva between erosive challenges for 2 h). After each erosive challenge, the blocks were exposed to slurries of the dentifrices (10 ml/sample for 15 s). Sixty of the blocks were additionally abraded by brushing using an electric toothbrush (15 s). The alterations of the enamel were quantified using the Knoop hardness test and profilometry (measurements in micrometers). The data were analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA test followed by a Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). In in vitro conditions, the 5,000 microg F/g and 500 microg F/g plus 3% TMP dentifrices had a greater protective effect when compared with the 1,100 microg F/g dentifrice, under both ERO and ERO + ABR conditions. The results suggest that dentifrices alone are not capable of completely inhibiting tooth wear.

  15. Effect of a steel mesh and human dental plaque on fluoride uptake in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mellberg, J R; Fletcher, R; Grote, N E

    1991-01-01

    Blocks of bovine enamel, covered with a steel mesh or a steel mesh plus plaque or with neither, were treated in vitro with a 20% slurry of a fluoride dentifrice for 1 h. An initial experiment showed that fluoride in blocks without mesh or plaque increased significantly, whereas fluoride in blocks covered with a steel mesh harboring intraorally accumulated plaque did not. A follow-up experiment showed that enamel blocks covered with the mesh but without plaque acquired a small amount of fluoride, but significantly less than the blocks without mesh. These experiments indicate that covering enamel specimens with mesh, as is done during in situ experiments, may significantly influence the transport of fluoride to the enamel and, therefore, the amount of fluoride acquired by the specimens and perhaps the degree of de- or remineralization. They also suggest that the fluoride distribution to some areas of the natural dentition may be inadequate.

  16. Impact of structural changes on dielectric and thermal properties of vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-based terpolymer/copolymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casar, G.; Li, X.; Malič, B.; Zhang, Q. M.; Bobnar, V.

    2015-03-01

    We report dielectric and thermal properties of the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE), a member of the relaxor polymer family that exhibits fast response speeds, giant electrostriction, high electric energy density, and large electrocaloric effect] blended with the ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer, P(VDF-TrFE). Although the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) clearly reveals that both components form separate crystalline phases, at low copolymer content blends entirely exhibit a relaxorlike linear dielectric response, since the interfacial couplings to the bulky defects in the terpolymer convert the normal ferroelectric copolymer into a relaxor. On the other hand, dielectric experiments evidence that in blends with 20-50 wt% of P(VDF-TrFE) the ferroelectric and relaxor states coexist. This coexistence is confirmed by DSC results, which further reveal the influence of blending on the terpolymer crystallinity and melting point. At last, the crystallinity data appropriately explain the variation of the dielectric constant in P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)/P(VDF-TrFE) blends.

  17. Effect of pretreatment with an Er:YAG laser and fluoride on the prevention of dental enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    dos Reis Derceli, Juliana; Faraoni-Romano, Juliana Jendiroba; Azevedo, Danielle Torres; Wang, Linda; Bataglion, César; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23% acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L--Er:YAG laser; L+F--laser + fluoride; F+L--fluoride + laser; L/F--laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2 Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.

  18. The effect of topical fluorides, after acid etching of enamel, on the bond strength of directly bonded orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Hirce, J D; Sather, A H; Chao, E Y

    1980-10-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of topical fluoride can be realized without reducing the bond strength of the resin adhesive. Twenty-eight groups of four teeth (third molars and premolars) were extracted from twenty-eight patients and stored in distilled water. Twin brackets on Ormesh pads were bonded to all teeth with Endur adhesive. One tooth from each group was bonded according to the manufacturer's instructions. These teeth, Subgroup I, served as controls. Subgroup II teeth were etched for 4 minutes with 50% phosphoric acid containing 2 percent sodium fluoride. Subgroup III teeth received a 3-minute application of a basic phosphate fluoride solution (10(-2)M NA3PO4, 10(3) ppm F) after 1 minute of etching with 50 percent phosphoric acid. Subgroup IV teeth received a 4-minute application of 8 percent stannous fluoride solution after 1 minute of etching with 50 percent phosphoric acid. Each tooth was mounted in a block of improved dental stone; guide wires were used to reproduce bracket orientation. The M.T.S. materials-testing apparatus was used to generate a torsional moment on the bracket at a rate of 1 degree per second. Fluoride uptake by enamel has been shown to be greater in an acid medium or after acid etching. The application of directly bonded orthodontic brackets and pit-and-fissure sealants requires acid etching of the enamel surface. This study supports the use of topical fluoride after acid etching, a procedure that achieves the benefits of increased fluoride uptake without changing the bond strength of the resin adhesive.

  19. The effect of zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite versus fluoride on enamel surfaces after interproximal reduction.

    PubMed

    Alessandri Bonetti, G; Pazzi, E; Zanarini, M; Marchionni, S; Checchi, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively investigate the effects of a zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite (Zn-CHA) containing toothpaste on stripped enamel morphology in a pH cycling model in vitro and to compare the efficacy of this toothpaste versus fluoride one which still represent the gold standard to remineralize early enamel lesions. Twenty-one extracted lower incisors underwent to interproximal enamel reduction with metal strips (Horico 80 µm) on both mesial and distal surfaces. They were then sliced into mesial and distal halves and the 42 samples obtained were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 14 enamel specimens each. For 8 days, teeth were placed in lactic acid solution for 2 h three times a day with 2 h distilled water preservation in between. After each demineralization bath, samples of Group A were brushed with Zn-CHA containing toothpaste while samples of Group B were brushed with 1,400 ppm fluoride dentifrice for 5 min before immersion into water. Group C of untreated samples served as control. All the samples were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. A score rating system was used to perform a non-parametric statistical analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between the samples brushed with fluoride toothpaste and those untreated (Groups B and C) where the highest grade of damage was found, while the lowest grade was recorded in the samples brushed with Zn-CHA (Group A) and there was a statistically significant difference between this group and the other two groups.

  20. Effect of different topical fluoride applications on the surface roughness of a colored compomer

    PubMed Central

    AVŞAR, Aysun; TULOGLU, Nuray

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral sodium fluoride (NNaF) gel and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on the surface roughness of colored compomer (Twinky Star), conventional compomer (Compoglass F) and resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC) (Photac-Fil). Material and Methods A total of 45 standardized disc-shaped specimens were prepared for each material. After 24 h, finishing and polishing of specimens were done with aluminum oxide disc. Surface treatments with topical fluoride agents or distilled water (control) were performed four times, and interspersed with 8 pH cycles, simulating high cariogenic challenges. After the treatment, the surface roughness (Ra) was determined using a profilometer. In each group, specimens with Ra closest to the mean were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at ×1,000 and ×3,500 magnifications. Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate Ra measurements, and the differences in Ra values between subgroups for each material and each topical applications were compared by Tukey’s highly significant difference pairwise comparisons. Results No statistically significant difference in Ra between the Twinky Star and Compoglass F was found. However, Photac Fil showed significantly higher Ra than these materials after all surface treatments. There was a general trend of Ra increase from controls to NNaF and APF gels for all materials. SEM observations revealed that the surface micromorphology of Twinky-Star did not differ significantly from that of Compoglass F. Conclusion Both the compomers and the RMGIC showed significantly higher surface roughness when subjected to APF gel application. PMID:20485929

  1. [Effect of sucrose-containing gum and fluoridated dentifrice on in situ remineralization of artificial caries].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, R R; de Oliveira, J A; Taga, E M; Buzalaf, M A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in bovine enamel in situ. Artificial carious lesions were produced and fixed in removable lower appliances in the region of the lingual surfaces of first molars, in six volunteers with ages between 18 and 22 years, who were subjected to 3 distinct experimental periods of 1 week each. In the first period (control group), patients brushed their teeth with a non-fluoridated dentifrice 4 times a day (after meals), and, in the second period (group I), patients used a dentifrice containing 1,500 ppm of fluorine (in the form of MFP). In the third period (group II) volunteers brushed their teeth with non-fluoridated dentifrice and used chewing gum containing 60% of sucrose during 20 minutes, 4 times a day (after meals). Before and after each treatment, the specimens underwent Vicker's hardness test (200 g of load), and the remineralization percentage (alpha) was calculated. The control group showed 2.78% of demineralization, and groups I and II showed 3.36 and 5.21% of remineralization, respectively. Statistical analysis (with Kruskal-Wallis and Miller's tests) showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between the control and experimental groups (I and II). Group II showed greater alpha than group I, but this difference was not significant. These results suggest that the use of sucrose-containing chewing gum and fluoridated dentifrice has a considerable effect on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions and may be a valuable alternative for their prevention.

  2. Effects of fluoride on proliferation and mineralization in periodontal ligament cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, K.Q.; Jia, S.S.; Ma, M.; Shen, H.Z.; Xu, L.; Liu, G.P.; Huang, S.Y.; Zhang, D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride, which is often added to toothpaste or mouthwash in order to protect teeth from decay, may be a novel therapeutic approach for acceleration of periodontal regeneration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of fluoride on proliferation and mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells in vitro. The periodontal ligament cells were stimulated with various concentrations of NaF added into osteogenic inductive medium. Immunohistochemistry of cell identification, cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay, Alizarin red S staining and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed. Moderate concentrations of NaF (50-500 μmol/L) had pro-proliferation effects, while 500 μmol/L had the best effects. ALP activity and calcium content were significantly enhanced by 10 μmol/L NaF with osteogenic inductive medium. Quantitative RT-PCR data varied in genes as a result of different NaF concentrations and treatment periods. We conclude that moderate concentrations of NaF can stimulate proliferation and mineralization in periodontal ligament cells. These in vitro findings may provide a novel therapeutic approach for acceleration of periodontal regeneration by addition of suitable concentrations of NaF into the medication for periodontitis treatment, i.e., into periodontal packs and tissue patches. PMID:27409336

  3. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, Daniel L.

    2014-01-29

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  4. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems.

  5. The effect of daily fluoride mouth rinsing on enamel erosive/abrasive wear in situ.

    PubMed

    Stenhagen, K R; Hove, L H; Holme, B; Tveit, A B

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether application of fluoride agents on enamel results in lasting resistance to erosive/abrasive wear. We investigated if one daily mouth rinse with sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous fluoride (SnF(2)) or titanium tetrafluoride (TiF(4)) solutions protected enamel against erosive/abrasive wear in situ (a paired, randomised and blind study). Sixteen molars were cut into 4 specimens, each with one amalgam filling (measurement reference surface). Two teeth (2 × 4 specimens) were mounted bilaterally (buccal aspects) on acrylic mandibular appliances and worn for 9 days by 8 volunteers. Every morning, the specimens were brushed manually with water (30 s) extra-orally. Then fluoride solutions (0.4% SnF(2) pH 2.5; 0.15% TiF(4) pH 2.1; 0.2% NaF pH 6.5, all 0.05 M F) were applied (2 min). Three of the specimens from each tooth got different treatment, and the fourth served as control. At midday, the specimens were etched for 2 min in 300 ml fresh 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and rinsed in tap water. This etch procedure was repeated in the afternoon. Topographic measurements were performed by a white-light interferometer. Mean surface loss (±SD) for 16 teeth after 9 days was: SnF(2) 1.8 ± 1.9 µm, TiF(4) 3.1 ± 4.8 µm, NaF 26.3 ± 4.7 µm, control 32.3 ± 4.4 µm. Daily rinse with SnF(2), TiF(4) and NaF resulted in 94, 90 and 18% reduction in enamel erosive/abrasive wear, respectively, compared with control (p < 0.05). The superior protective effect of daily rinse with either stannous or titanium tetrafluoride solutions on erosive/abrasive enamel wear is promising.

  6. Effect of dietary fluoride derived from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) meal on growth of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata).

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Bunji; Nagano, Ichiro

    2012-03-01

    Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) is the most important cultured marine fish in Japan. Dietary fish meal for yellowtail in aquaculture was replaced with 0.0%, 15.4% and 100.0% Antarctic krill meal (KM0, KM15, and KM100) and with 0.0%, 15.4%, and 100.0% low-fluoride krill meal (LFK0, LFK15 and LFK100). The fish was fed to duplicate fish groups for 92d (KM trial) or 75d (LFK trial), and fish growth was monitored. Dietary fluoride (F(-)) concentrations (mgkg(-1)) were 110, 160, and 580 (KM0, KM15, and KM100, respectively) and 98, 120, and 190 (LFK0, LFK15, and LFK100, respectively). The growth during the experimental period, weight gain, feed intake, specific growth rate, and feed efficiency in fish fed the KM100 diet were markedly lower than the other experimental groups, which showed no marked differences in growth performance. After the experiment, dorsal muscle fluoride concentrations in each group were below the detectable limit (1 mg kg(-1)), but vertebral bone fluoride concentrations increased with increasing proportion of KM to 655 (KM0), 870 (KM15), and 2150 (KM100) mgkg(-1). With increasing LFK in the feed, vertebral bone fluoride concentrations (mgkg(-1)) increased slightly from 500 (LFK0) to 655 (LFK15), and 695 (LFK100). No histopathological changes were detected in the liver tissue in any experimental group. It has been reported that the fluoride bioavailability was reduced with increasing water hardness, however, the dietary fluoride derived from KM exoskeleton accumulates in vertebral bones of marine fish with growth inhibition, as has already been shown for freshwater fish. Vertebral bone fluoride concentrations in two krill-eating Antarctic marine fish in the wild were 33000mgkg(-1) (Champsocephalus gunnari) and 15000mgkg(-1) (Notothenia rossii), but they did not show any adverse effect of growth. Therefore, fish bone fluoride accumulation apparently depends on fish species rather than the salinity of the habitat. Consequently, krill exoskeleton

  7. Effects of fluoride and dissolved oxygen concentrations on the corrosion behavior of pure titanium and titanium alloys.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masaharu; Matsuya, Shigeki; Udoh, Koichi

    2002-06-01

    The effects of dissolved-oxygen concentration and fluoride concentration on the corrosion behaviors of commercial pure titanium, Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys and experimentally produced Ti-0.2Pd and Ti-0.5Pt alloys were examined using the corrosion potential measurements. The amount of dissolved Ti was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. A decrease in the dissolved-oxygen concentration tended to reduce the corrosion resistance of Ti and Ti alloys. If there was no fluoride, however, corrosion did not occur. Under low dissolved-oxygen conditions, the corrosion of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys might easily take place in the presence of small amounts of fluoride. They were corroded by half or less of the fluoride concentrations in commercial dentifrices. The Ti-0.2Pd and Ti-0.5Pt alloys did not corrode more, even under the low dissolved-oxygen conditions and a fluoride-containing environment, than pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys. These alloys are expected to be useful as new Ti alloys with high corrosion resistance in dental use.

  8. Effect of fluoride-treated enamel on indirect cytotoxicity of a 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching gel to pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Soares, Diana Gabriela; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Dias; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Sacono, Nancy Tomoko; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of fluoride solutions applied to enamel to protect pulp cells against the trans-enamel and transdentinal cytotoxicity of a 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching gel. The CP gel was applied to enamel/dentin discs adapted to aicial pulp chambers (8 h/day) during 1, 7 or 14 days, followed by fluoride (0.05% or 0.2%) application for 1 min. The extracts (culture medium in contact with dentin) were applied to MDPC-23 cells for 1 h, and cell metabolism (MTT assay), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cell membrane damage (flow cytometry) were analyzed. Knoop microhardness of enamel was also evaluated. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests (α=0.05). For the MTT assay and ALP activity, significant reductions between the control and the bleached groups were observed (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference occurred among bleached groups (p>0.05), regardless of fluoride application or treatment days. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated 30% of cell membrane damage in all bleached groups. After 14 days of treatment, the fluoride-treated enamel presented significantly higher microhardness values than the bleached-only group (p<0.05). It was concluded that, regardless of the increase in enamel hardness due to the application of fluoride solutions, the treated enamel surface did not prevent the toxic effects caused by the 16% CP gel to odontoblast-like cells.

  9. The effect of fluoride surface modification of ceramic TiO2 on the surface properties and biological response of osteoblastic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tiainen, H; Monjo, M; Knychala, J; Nilsen, O; Lyngstadaas, S P; Ellingsen, J E; Haugen, H J

    2011-08-01

    This study investigates the effect of fluoride surface modification on the surface properties of polycrystalline ceramic TiO(2) and the biological response of murine osteoblast cells to fluoride-modified TiO(2) in vitro. Fluoride concentrations up to 9 at.% were detected and the fluoride was found to bind to the surface in a ligand exchange reaction between surface hydroxyl groups and the fluoride anions from the HF. No significant changes in the surface topography were detected. In vitro experiments were performed in order to evaluate the biological response of the MC3T3-E1 cells to the fluoride-modified ceramic TiO(2) surfaces. No difference in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was seen in comparison to unmodified samples, apart from the highest fluoride concentration (∼9 at.%) which was found to be more toxic to the cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed no conclusive evidence for the fluoride-induced promotion of osteoblast differentiation as no significant increase in the collagen-1, osteocalcin, or BMP-2 mRNA levels was detected on the fluoride-modified ceramic TiO(2) surfaces apart from one group, which showed an elevated osteocalcin level and higher number of cells. Since the observed grain boundary corrosion is also anticipated to reduce the mechanical properties of ceramic TiO(2), this surface modification method may not be an ideal method for improving the osteogenic response of ceramic TiO(2) scaffolds.

  10. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis: Effect of sodium fluoride during five weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor S.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt was made to modify factors which promote disuse osteoporosis and thereby prevent it from occurring. Since fluoride is currently used to enhance bone formation in the treatment of low turnover osteoporosis, it was hypothesized that if the fluoride ion was available over a long period of time that it would slow the demonstrated loss of calcium by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. This study was used to determine whether oral medication with sodium F will modify or prevent 5 weeks of bed rest induced disuse osteoporosis, to determine the longitudinal effects of 5 weeks of bed rest on PTH, CT and calcitriol, to measure muscle volume changes and metabolic activity by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy during prolonged bed rest, to measure changes in peak muscle strength and fatigability, and to measure bone turnover in bone biopsies. Subjects were studied during 1 week of equilibration, 4 weeks of control ambulation, 5 weeks of bed rest, and 1 week of reambulation.

  11. The effect of low fluoride concentrations on microdamage accumulation in mouse tibias under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing; Chen, Nan; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Rong, Qi-Guo

    2015-12-01

    Microdamage accumulation in bone is one of the mechanisms for energy dissipation during the fracture process. Changes in the ultrastructure and composition of bone constituents due to aging or diseases could affect microdamage accumulation. Low concentration (1 mM) of sodium fluoride (NaF) has been used in this study to investigate the effect of ultrastructural changes on microdamage accumulation in mouse tibias following free-fall impact loadings. Twenty-two tibias were divided randomly into control and NaF-treated groups. Free-fall impact loading was conducted twice on each tibia to produce microdamage. The elastic modulus of NaF-treated tibias decreased significantly after the impact loadings, while there was no significant difference in the modulus of untreated samples between pre- and post-damage loadings. Microdamage morphology analysis showed that less and shorter microcracks existed in NaF-treated tibias compared with control bones. Meanwhile, more and longer microcracks were observed in tensile regions in untreated samples compared with that in compressive regions, whereas no significant difference was observed between tensile and compressive regions in NaF-treated bones. The results of this study indicate that more energy is required to generate microcracks in NaF-treated bone than in normal bone. A low concentration of fluoride treatment may increase the toughness of bone under impact loading.

  12. Effect of fluoride-substituted apatite on in vivo bone formation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Miho; Rodriguez, Andrea P; Nagai, Noriyuki; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Inoue, Masahisa; Kishimoto, Etsuo; Takagi, Shin

    2011-05-01

    Biological apatites are characterized by the presence of minor constituents such as magnesium (Mg), chloride (Cl), or fluoride (F) ions. These ions affect cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation during bone tissue formation. F-substituted apatites are being explored as potential bonegraft materials. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mechanism of bone formation induced by fluoride-substituted apatite (FAp) by analyzing the effect of FAp on the process of in vivo bone formation. FAps containing different F concentrations (l-FAp: 0.48 wt%, m-FAp: 0.91 wt%, h-FAp: 2.23 wt%) and calcium-deficient apatite (CDA), as positive control, were implanted in rat tibia and bone formation was evaluated by histological examination, immuhistochemistry, in situ hybridization and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase examinations. The results showed that l-FAp, m-FAp, h-FAp, and CDA biomaterials allowed migration of macrophages, attachment, proliferation, and phenotypic expression of bone cells leading to new bone formation in direct apposition to the particles. However, the l-FAp preparation allowed faster bone conduction compared to the other experimental materials. These results suggest that FAp with low F concentration may be an efficient bonegraft material for dental and medical application.

  13. The effect of fluoride on mineralization during tooth germ development in neonatal hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tros, G. H. J.; Lyaruu, D. M.; Vis, R. D.

    1990-04-01

    The effect of fluoride on calcium and phosphorus content (a measure for mineralization) in maxillary first molar tooth germs from neonatal hamsters (4 to 5 days old, 4 to 5 g body weight) was analysed using the proton nuclear microprobe PIXE setup of the Vrije Universiteit. A 3 MeV proton beam of about 500 pA with a spot size of 5 × 20 μm 2 was used to perform scans of about 400 μm, each taking about 20 to 30 minutes. The smaller beam dimension was always tuned parallel to the scan direction. Line scans with a lateral resolution of 5 μm were made across the enamel organ of germs from animals injected with 20 mg NaF/kg body weight 24 h prior to dissection. The control animals were injected with NaCl. Fluoride administration induced the formation of sub-ameloblastic cystic lesions under some (but not all) populations of transitional and secretory ameloblasts, accompanied by hypermineralization (deposition of more mineral than that found in the controls) of the underlying enamel surface. These hypermineralized regions had been shown in earlier studies to contain elevated fluorine content [1,2].

  14. Effect of lead fluoride incorporation on the structure and luminescence properties of tungsten sodium phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Rachel Prado Russo Delorenzo; Braz, Celso Eduardo; de Camargo, Andrea S. S.; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.; Rocha, Lucas A.; Cassanjes, Fábia Castro; Poirier, Gael

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten phosphate glasses are known to be promising materials for several applications in optics such as non linear optical properties, lower phonon energy or photochromic effects related with tungsten oxide incorporation inside the phosphate network. In this study, lead fluoride has been incorporated in a 60NaPO3-40WO3 glass composition according to the ternary molar compositions (100 - x)[0.6NaPO3-0.4WO3]-xPbF2 with x varying from 0 to 60 mol%. The structural changes as a function of composition were investigated by thermal analysis, UV-visible absorption, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction of the crystallized samples, and Eu3+ emission in the visible. While DSC analyzes points out a strong decrease in the glass network connectivity and higher crystallization tendency with increasing PbF2 contents, Raman spectra clearly identify a progressive incorporation of PbF2 in the phosphate network with the formation of terminal Psbnd F and Wsbnd F bonds. These results are also in agreement with the crystallization of β-PbF2 observed for the most lead fluoride concentrated samples. Investigation of Eu3+ emission data in the visible showed longer 5D0 excited state lifetime values and higher quantum efficiencies. These results are discussed in terms of the assumption of higher local symmetry around Eu3+ with increasing PbF2 contents.

  15. The toxic effect of fluoride on MG-63 osteoblast cells is also dependent on the production of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Bergandi, Loredana; Aina, Valentina; Malavasi, Gianluca; Morterra, Claudio; Ghigo, Dario

    2011-04-25

    Some soda-lime-phospho-silicate glasses, such as Hench's Bioglass(®) 45S5, form bone-like apatite on their surface when bound to living bone. To improve their osteointegration for clinical purposes, the fluoride insertion in their structure has been proposed, but we recently showed that fluoride causes oxidative damage in human MG-63 osteoblasts, via inhibition of pentose phosphate oxidative pathway (PPP) and its key enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In the same cells we have now investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in these effects. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses and NaF caused, as expected, release of lactate dehydrogenase in the extracellular medium, accumulation of intracellular malonyldialdehyde, inhibition of PPP and G6PD: we have now observed that these effects were significantly reverted not only by superoxide dismutase (SOD) plus catalase (scavengers of reactive oxygen species), but also by N-monomethyl l-arginine (l-NMMA, a NOS inhibitor) and 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO, a NO scavenger). Moreover the two highest concentrations of both fluoride-containing bioglasses and NaF caused increase of nitrite (a stable derivative of NO) levels in the culture supernatant, which was inhibited by l-NMMA, erythrocytes, PTIO and SOD/catalase, and increase of intracellular NO synthase (NOS) activity. The incubation with bioglasses or NaF increased also the phosphorylation of Ser(1177) in the endothelial NOS isoform. Furthermore, the NO donor spermine NONOate was able to inhibit G6PD activity in vitro, and this effect was partly reverted by PTIO. Therefore our results suggest that most cytotoxic effects of fluoride are mediated by the production of NO: reactive oxygen species are important, causing NOS phosphorylation. We also observed, for the first time, that Tempol, but not SOD/catalase, besides inhibiting the oxidative stress induced by fluoride, also scavenges fluoride ions. For this reason it is not a

  16. Effect of humic substances aggregation on the determination of fluoride in water using an ion selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Junjie; Gagliardi, Simona; McCoustra, Martin R S; Arrighi, Valeria

    2016-09-01

    The control of drinking water quality is critical in preventing fluorosis. In this study humic substances (HS) are considered as representative of natural organic matter (NOM) in water. We show that when HS aggregate the response of fluoride ion selective electrodes (ISE) may be perturbed. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) results of both synthetic solutions and natural water sample suggest that low pH and high ionic strength induce HS aggregation. In the presence of HS aggregates, fluoride concentration measured by ISE has a reduction up to 19%. A new "open cage" concept has been developed to explain this reversible phenomenon. The interference of HS aggregation on fluoride measurement can be effectively removed by centrifugation pretreatment.

  17. Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Liang, C; Slemenda, C W; Ji, R; Sun, S; Cao, J; Emsley, C L; Ma, F; Wu, Y; Ying, P; Zhang, Y; Gao, S; Zhang, W; Katz, B P; Niu, S; Cao, S; Johnston, C C

    2001-05-01

    Findings on the risk of bone fractures associated with long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water have been contradictory. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of bone fracture, including hip fracture, in six Chinese populations with water fluoride concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.97 parts per million (ppm). A total of 8266 male and female subjects > or =50 years of age were enrolled. Parameters evaluated included fluoride exposure, prevalence of bone fractures, demographics, medical history, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. The results confirmed that drinking water was the only major source of fluoride exposure in the study populations. A U-shaped pattern was detected for the relationship between the prevalence of bone fracture and water fluoride level. The prevalence of overall bone fracture was lowest in the population of 1.00-1.06 ppm fluoride in drinking water, which was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the groups exposed to water fluoride levels > or =4.32 and < or =0.34 ppm. The prevalence of hip fractures was highest in the group with the highest water fluoride (4.32-7.97 ppm). The value is significantly higher than the population with 1.00-1.06 ppm water fluoride, which had the lowest prevalence rate. It is concluded that long-term fluoride exposure from drinking water containing > or =4.32 ppm increases the risk of overall fractures as well as hip fractures. Water fluoride levels at 1.00-1.06 ppm decrease the risk of overall fractures relative to negligible fluoride in water; however, there does not appear to be similar protective benefits for the risk of hip fractures.

  18. Amido-Schiff base derivatives as colorimetric fluoride sensor: Effect of nitro substitution on the sensitivity and color change.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumen; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    A series of Schiff bases synthesized by the condensation of benzohydrazide and -NO2 substituted benzaldehyde have been used as selective fluoride ion sensor. Test paper coated with these synthetic Schiff bases (test kits) can detect fluoride ion selectively with a drastic color change and detection can be achieved by just using the naked-eye without the help of any optical instrument. Interestingly, the position of -NO2 group in the amido Schiff bases has an effect on the sensitivity as well as on the change of color of species.

  19. Combination effect of fluoride dentifrices and varnish on deciduous enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Alessandra; Camargo, Lucila Basto; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticaries potential of 500 or 1100 ppm F dentifrices combined with fluoride varnish using a pH-cycling regimen. Seventy primary canines were covered with nail polish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on their buccal surface, and randomly assigned into 7 groups (n = 10): S: sound enamel not submitted to the pH-cycling regimen or treatment; N: negative control, submitted to the pH-cycling regimen without any treatment; D1 and D2: subjected to the pH-cycling regimen and treated twice daily with 1100 or 500 ppm F dentifrice, respectively; VF: fluoride varnish (subjected to F-varnish before and in the middle of the pH-cycling regimen); and VF+D1 and VF+D2. After 10 days, the teeth were sectioned, and enamel demineralization was assessed by cross-sectional hardness at different distances from the dental surface. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Dentifrice with 1100 ppm F and the combination of F-varnish with the dentifrices significantly reduced enamel demineralization compared with the negative control (p < 0.05), but the isolated effects of F-varnish and dentifrice with low concentration were not significant (p > 0.05). The effect of combining F-varnish with the dentifrices was not greater than the effect of the dentifrices alone (p < 0.05). The data suggest that the combination of F-varnish with dentifrices containing 500 and 1100 ppm F is not more effective in reducing demineralization in primary teeth than the isolated effect of dentifrice containing 1100 ppm F.

  20. Fate of over 480 million inhabitants living in arsenic and fluoride endemic Indian districts: Magnitude, health, socio-economic effects and mitigation approaches.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Chatterjee, Amit; Das, Dipankar; Das, Bhaskar; Nayak, Biswajit; Pal, Arup; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Ahmed, Sad; Biswas, Bhajan Kumar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Samanta, Gautam; Chakraborty, Sanjana; Roy, M M; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Saha, Khitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhas Chandra; Pati, Shyamapada; Kar, Probir Bijoy

    2016-12-01

    During our last 27 years of field survey in India, we have studied the magnitude of groundwater arsenic and fluoride contamination and its resulting health effects from numerous states. India is the worst groundwater fluoride and arsenic affected country in the world. Fluoride results the most prevalent groundwater related diseases in India. Out of a total 29 states in India, groundwater of 20 states is fluoride affected. Total population of fluoride endemic 201 districts of India is 411 million (40% of Indian population) and more than 66 million people are estimated to be suffering from fluorosis including 6 million children below 14 years of age. Fluoride may cause a crippling disease. In 6 states of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain (GB-Plain), 70.4 million people are potentially at risk from groundwater arsenic toxicity. Three additional states in the non GB-Plain are mildly arsenic affected. For arsenic with substantial cumulative exposure can aggravate the risk of cancers along with various other diseases. Clinical effects of fluoride includes abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs, spine etc. The affected population chronically exposed to arsenic and fluoride from groundwater is in danger and there is no available medicine for those suffering from the toxicity. Arsenic and fluoride safe water and nutritious food are suggested to prevent further aggravation of toxicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) points out that social problems arising from arsenic and fluoride toxicity eventually create pressure on the economy of the affected areas. In arsenic and fluoride affected areas in India, crisis is not always having too little safe water to satisfy our need, it is the crisis of managing the water.

  1. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  2. Effects of long-term repeated topical fluoride applications and adhesion promoter on shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Toshiya; Ishida, Rieko; Komatsuzaki, Akira; Sanpei, Shinya; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sekimoto, Tsuneo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of long-term repeated topical application of fluoride before bonding and an adhesion promoter on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 bovine incisors were collected and divided equally into four groups. In group 1, the brackets were bonded without topical fluoride application or adhesion promoter. In group 2, before bonding, the adhesion promoter was applied to nonfluoridated enamel. In group 3, the brackets were bonded without the application of the adhesion promoter to enamel, which had undergone long-term repeated topical fluoride treatments. Teeth in group 4 received the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride, and the brackets were bonded using the adhesion promoter. All the brackets were bonded using BeautyOrtho Bond self-etching adhesive. The shear bond strength was measured and the bond failure modes were evaluated with the use of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) after debonding. Results: The mean shear bond strength was significantly lower in group 3 than in groups 1, 2, and 4, and there were no significant differences between the groups except for group 3. There were significant differences in the distribution of ARI scores between groups 2 and 3, and between groups 3 and 4. Conclusions: The adhesion promoter can recover the bond strength reduced by the long-term repeated topical applications of fluoride to the prefluoridation level and had a significantly great amount of adhesives left on either fluoridated or nonfluoridated enamel. PMID:25512720

  3. The effect of sodium fluoride on the stability of cyanide in postmortem blood samples from fire victims.

    PubMed

    McAllister, J L; Roby, R J; Levine, Barry; Purser, David

    2011-06-15

    Assigning a level of significance to cyanide concentrations found in the blood of fire victims is often hampered by the fact that cyanide is inherently unstable in cadavers and in stored blood samples. A few researchers have proposed that sodium fluoride can be used to minimize the instability of cyanide in blood samples; however, controlled studies have not been performed to support validation of this hypothesis. To test the sodium fluoride hypothesis, both treated and control blood samples from 14 autopsied fire victims were tested over a 25-30 day period. A 2% concentration of sodium fluoride was added to the blood samples at the start of testing and the samples were refrigerated between testing intervals. Cyanide concentrations in the treated and control samples were measured between 9 and 11 days post treatment and between 25 and 30 days post treatment. A statistically significant difference was not present between blood cyanide concentrations in treated and control samples between 9 and 11 days. During this time period, although there were small statistically significant increases in both treated and untreated samples the fluctuations were minor. Since the treated and control samples did not exhibit instability between 9 and 11 days, it is not surprising that the sodium fluoride appeared to have no effect. However, a statistically significant difference between blood cyanide concentrations in treated and control samples was observed between 25 and 30 days. Those samples treated with sodium fluoride showed a reduction in blood cyanide variability with virtually no overall change, over a 25-30 day period when compared to control samples, while unconditioned samples showed a significant, average increase of 35%. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that 2% sodium fluoride be added to blood samples obtained from fire victims to reduce cyanide instability due to bacteriological activity.

  4. Effects of simulated solar radiation on the transmission of magnesium fluoride and cryolite thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heslin, T.

    1974-01-01

    Thin films of cryolite magnesium fluoride on fused silica substrates were exposed to 1126 equivalent sun-hours of radiation. The optical transmissions of the samples were measured before and after irradiation. The results indicate that, after the degradation of the silica substrate is accounted for, the cryolite is severely affected by the simulated solar radiation, but the magnesium fluoride is only slightly affected.

  5. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Fluoride on Na+,K+ ATPase Activity in Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    A, Shashi; G, Meenakshi

    2015-12-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the role of long-term consumption of excessive fluoride on electrolyte homeostasis and their transporting mechanisms in erythrocytes of subjects afflicted with dental and skeletal fluorosis. A total of 620 adult (20-50 years) Indian residents participated in this study: 258 men and 242 women exposed to high concentrations of fluoride and 120 age and gender-matched control subjects. Erythrocytes were isolated from blood samples, washed, and used for the estimation of intraerythrocyte sodium and potassium concentrations. Na+,K+ ATPase activity was determined spectrophotometrically from a ghost erythrocyte membrane prepared by osmotic lysis. Erythrocyte analytes were correlated with the water and serum fluoride concentrations by Pearson's bivariate correlation and regression analysis. Results indicated a significant increase in intraerythrocyte sodium (F=14306.265, P<0.0001) in subjects from endemic fluorosis study groups as compared to controls. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation of intracellular sodium was found with water and serum fluoride concentrations. Mean concentration of intraerythrocytic potassium ions showed significant reduction (F=9136.318, P<0.0001) in subjects exposed to fluoride. A significant (P<0.05) negative correlation of potassium ions was noted with water and serum fluoride concentrations. Na+,K+ ATPase activity was significantly declined (F=1572.763, P<0.0001) in subjects exposed to fluoride. A significant (P<0.05) inverse relationship of Na+,K+ ATPase activity was revealed with water and serum fluoride concentrations.

  7. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  8. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  9. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  10. Poly (vinylidene fluoride) / Poly (acrylonitrile)-based Superior Hydrophobic Piezoelectric Solid Derived by Aligned Carbon Nanotube in Electrospinning: Fabrication, the Phase Conversion and Surface Energy.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Salem M; Wang, Zhe; Than, Lisa; Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional materials have attracted many interests from both fundamental and practical aspects, such as field-effect transistor, electric protection, transducers and biosensor. Here we demonstrated the first superior hydrophobic piezoelectric surface based on the polymer blend of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-polyacrilonitrile (PAN) assisted with functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), by a modified electrospinning method. Typically the β-phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was considered as the excellent piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials. However, polar β-phase of PVDF exhibited a natural high hydrophilicity. As a well-known fact, the wettability of the surface is dominated by two major factors: surface composition and surface roughness. The significant conversions derived by the incorporation of MWNTs, from nonpolar α-phase to highly polar β-phase of PVDF, were confirmed by FTIR. Meanwhile, the effects of MWNTs on the improvement of the roughness and the hydrophobicity of polymer blend were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA). Molar free energy of wetting of the polymer nanocomposite decreases with increasing the wt.% of MWNTs. All molar free energy of wetting of PVDF-PAN/MWNTs were negative, which means the non-wettability of film. The combination of surface roughness and low-surface-energy modification in nanostructured composites leads to high hydrophobicity. Particularly, fabrication of superior hydrophobic surfaces not only has fundamental interest but also various possible functional applications in micro- and nano-materials and devices.

  11. Poly (vinylidene fluoride) / Poly (acrylonitrile)–based Superior Hydrophobic Piezoelectric Solid Derived by Aligned Carbon Nanotube in Electrospinning: Fabrication, the Phase Conversion and Surface Energy

    PubMed Central

    Aqeel, Salem M.; Than, Lisa; Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional materials have attracted many interests from both fundamental and practical aspects, such as field–effect transistor, electric protection, transducers and biosensor. Here we demonstrated the first superior hydrophobic piezoelectric surface based on the polymer blend of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)–polyacrilonitrile (PAN) assisted with functionalized multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), by a modified electrospinning method. Typically the β–phase polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was considered as the excellent piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials. However, polar β–phase of PVDF exhibited a natural high hydrophilicity. As a well–known fact, the wettability of the surface is dominated by two major factors: surface composition and surface roughness. The significant conversions derived by the incorporation of MWNTs, from nonpolar α–phase to highly polar β–phase of PVDF, were confirmed by FTIR. Meanwhile, the effects of MWNTs on the improvement of the roughness and the hydrophobicity of polymer blend were evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA). Molar free energy of wetting of the polymer nanocomposite decreases with increasing the wt.% of MWNTs. All molar free energy of wetting of PVDF–PAN/MWNTs were negative, which means the non–wettability of film. The combination of surface roughness and low–surface–energy modification in nanostructured composites leads to high hydrophobicity. Particularly, fabrication of superior hydrophobic surfaces not only has fundamental interest but also various possible functional applications in micro– and nano–materials and devices. PMID:26989486

  12. Protective effect of lycopene on fluoride-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis through oxidative stress-mediated Caspase pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Weishan; Jiang, Binghua; Cao, Xianglin; Xie, Yongjiang; Huang, Ting

    2017-01-05

    Fluoride is an environmental toxicant and induces dental fluorosis and oxidative stress. Lycopene (LYC) is an effective antioxidant that is reported to attenuate fluoride toxicity. To determine the effects of LYC on sodium fluoride (NaF) -induced teeth and ameloblasts toxicity, rats were treated with NaF (10 mg/kg) and/or LYC (10 mg/kg) by orally administration for 5 weeks; ameloblasts were treated with NaF (5 mM) and/or LYC (2 μM) for 6 h. We found that the concentrations of fluoride, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expressions of Bax were significantly decreased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated rats group; concentrations of MDA and ROS, gene expressions and activities of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3, and the gene expression of Bax, and ameloblasts apoptosis rate were significantly decreased, while the activities of SOD and GPX, the gene expression of Bcl-2 were significantly increased in the LYC + NaF-treated ameloblasts group. These results suggest that LYC significantly combated NaF-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis by attenuation oxidative stress and down-regulation Caspase pathway.

  13. Effectiveness of probiotic, chlorhexidine and fluoride mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans – Randomized, single-blind, in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Jothika, Mohan; Vanajassun, P. Pranav; Someshwar, Battu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the short-term efficiency of probiotic, chlorhexidine, and fluoride mouthwashes on plaque Streptococcus mutans level at four periodic intervals. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind, randomized control study in which each subject was tested with only one mouthwash regimen. Fifty-two healthy qualified adult patients were selected randomly for the study and were divided into the following groups: group 1- 10 ml of distilled water, group 2- 10 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, group 3- 10 ml of 500 ppm F/400 ml sodium fluoride mouthwash, and group 4- 10 ml of probiotic mouthwash. Plaque samples were collected from the buccal surface of premolars and molars in the maxillary quadrant. Sampling procedure was carried out by a single examiner after 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days, respectively, after the use of the mouthwash. All the samples were subjected to microbiological analysis and statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc test. Results: One-way ANOVA comparison among groups 2, 3, and 4 showed no statistical significance, whereas group 1 showed statistically significant difference when compared with groups 2, 3, and 4 at 7th, 14th, and 30th day. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, and probiotic mouthwashes reduce plaque S. mutans levels. Probiotic mouthwash is effective and equivalent to chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthwashes. Thus, probiotic mouthwash can also be considered as an effective oral hygiene regimen. PMID:25984467

  14. In situ protocol for the determination of dose-response effect of low-fluoride dentifrices on enamel remineralization

    PubMed Central

    AFONSO, Rebeca Lima; PESSAN, Juliano Pelim; IGREJA, Bruna Babler; CANTAGALLO, Camila Fernandes; DANELON, Marcelle; DELBEM, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2013-01-01

    No in situ protocol has assessed the dose-response effects of fluoride dentifrices involving low-fluoride formulations. Objective To assess the ability of an in situ remineralization model in determining dose-response effects of dentifrices containing low fluoride concentrations ([F]) on bovine enamel. Material and Methods Volunteers wore palatal appliances containing demineralized enamel blocks and brushed their teeth and devices with the dentifrices supplied (double-blind, crossover protocol) separately for 3 and 7 days. Surface hardness (SH), integrated subsurface hardness (ΔKHN) and [F] in enamel were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey's test and Pearson's correlation (p<0.05). Results Dose-response relationships were verified between [F] in dentifrices and SH, ΔKHN and enamel [F]. Higher correlation coefficients between enamel [F] and SH and ΔKHN were obtained for the 3-day period. Significant differences in SH and ΔKHN were observed among all groups for the 3-day period, but not between 0-275, 275-550, and 550-1,100 µg F/g dentifrices for the 7-day period, nor between 3- and 7-day periods for the 1,100 µg F/g groups. Conclusions Considering that the peak remineralization capacity of the conventional dentifrice (1,100 µg F/g) was achieved in 3 days, this experimental period could be used in future studies assessing new dentifrice formulations, especially at low-fluoride concentrations. PMID:24473718

  15. Drinking Water Fluoride Levels for a City in Northern Mexico (Durango) Determined Using a Direct Electrochemical Method and Their Potential Effects on Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Molina Frechero, Nelly; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; Castañeda Castaneira, Enrique; Oropeza Oropeza, Anastasio; Gaona, Enrique; Salas Pacheco, José; Bologna Molina, Ronell

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is ingested primarily through consuming drinking water. When drinking water contains fluoride concentrations >0.7 parts per million (ppm), consuming such water can be toxic to the human body; this toxicity is called “fluorosis.” Therefore, it is critical to determine the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water of the city of Durango. The wells that supply the drinking water distribution system for the city of Durango were studied. One hundred eighty-nine (189) water samples were analyzed, and the fluoride concentration in each sample was quantified as established by the law NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. The fluoride concentrations in such samples varied between 2.22 and 7.23 ppm with a 4.313 ± 1.318 ppm mean concentration. The highest values were observed in the northern area of the city, with a 5.001 ± 2.669 ppm mean value. The samples produced values that exceeded the national standard for fluoride in drinking water. Chronic exposure to fluoride at such concentrations produces harmful health effects, the first sign of which is dental fluorosis. Therefore, it is essential that the government authorities implement water defluoridation programs and take preventative measures to reduce the ingestion of this toxic halogen. PMID:24348140

  16. Drinking water fluoride levels for a city in northern Mexico (durango) determined using a direct electrochemical method and their potential effects on oral health.

    PubMed

    Molina Frechero, Nelly; Sánchez Pérez, Leonor; Castañeda Castaneira, Enrique; Oropeza Oropeza, Anastasio; Gaona, Enrique; Salas Pacheco, José; Bologna Molina, Ronell

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is ingested primarily through consuming drinking water. When drinking water contains fluoride concentrations>0.7 parts per million (ppm), consuming such water can be toxic to the human body; this toxicity is called "fluorosis." Therefore, it is critical to determine the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The objective of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in the drinking water of the city of Durango. The wells that supply the drinking water distribution system for the city of Durango were studied. One hundred eighty-nine (189) water samples were analyzed, and the fluoride concentration in each sample was quantified as established by the law NMX-AA-077-SCFI-2001. The fluoride concentrations in such samples varied between 2.22 and 7.23 ppm with a 4.313±1.318 ppm mean concentration. The highest values were observed in the northern area of the city, with a 5.001±2.669 ppm mean value. The samples produced values that exceeded the national standard for fluoride in drinking water. Chronic exposure to fluoride at such concentrations produces harmful health effects, the first sign of which is dental fluorosis. Therefore, it is essential that the government authorities implement water defluoridation programs and take preventative measures to reduce the ingestion of this toxic halogen.

  17. Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture.

    PubMed

    Hillier, S; Inskip, H; Coggon, D; Cooper, C

    1996-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures constitute a major public health problem. These fractures typically occur at the hip, spine and distal forearm. Their pathogenesis is heterogeneous, with contributions from both bone strength and trauma. Water fluoridation has been widely proposed for its dental health benefits, but concerns have been raised about the balance of skeletal risks and benefits of this measure. Fluoride has potent effects on bone cell function, bone structure and bone strength. These effects are mediated by the incorporation of fluoride ions in bone crystals to form fluoroapatite, and through an increase in osteoblast activity. It is believed that a minimum serum fluoride level of 100 ng/ml must be achieved before osteoblasts will be stimulated. Serum levels associated with drinking water fluoridated to 1 ppm are usually several times lower than this value, but may reach this threshold at concentrations of 4 ppm in the drinking water. Animal studies suggest no effect of low-level (0-3 ppm) fluoride intake on bone strength, but a possible decrease at higher levels. Sodium fluoride has been used to treat established osteoporosis for nearly 30 years. Recent trials of this agent, prescribed at high doses, have suggested that despite a marked increase in bone mineral density, there is no concomitant reduction in vertebral fracture incidence. Furthermore, the increase in bone density at the lumbar spine may be achieved at the expense of bone mineral in the peripheral cortical skeleton. As a consequence, high dose sodium fluoride (80 mg daily) is not currently used to treat osteoporosis. At lower doses, recent trials have suggested a beneficial effect on both bone density and fracture. The majority of epidemiological evidence regarding the effect of fluoridated drinking water on hip fracture incidence is based on ecological comparisons. Although one Finnish study suggested that hip fracture rates in a town with fluoridated water were lower than those in a matching town

  18. Drinking water fluoridation and bone.

    PubMed

    Allolio, B; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water fluoridation has an established role in the prevention of dental caries, but may also positively or negatively affect bone. In bone fluoride is incorporated into hydroxylapatite to form the less soluble fluoroapatite. In higher concentrations fluoride stimulates osteoblast activity leading to an increase in cancellous bone mass. As optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/l) is widely used, it is of great interest, whether long-term exposition to artificial water fluoridation has any impact on bone strength, bone mass, and -- most importantly -- fracture rate. Animal studies suggest a biphasic pattern of the effect of drinking water fluoridation on bone strength with a peak strength at a bone fluoride content of 1200 ppm followed by a decline at higher concentrations eventually leading to impaired bone quality. These changes are not paralleled by changes in bone mass suggesting that fluoride concentrations remain below the threshold level required for activation of osteoblast activity. Accordingly, in most epidemiological studies in humans bone mass was not altered by optimal drinking water fluoridation. In contrast, studies on the effect on hip fracture rate gave conflicting results ranging from an increased fracture incidence to no effect, and to a decreased fracture rate. As only ecological studies have been performed, they may be biased by unknown confounding factors -- the so-called ecological fallacy. However, the combined results of these studies indicate that any increase or decrease in fracture rate is likely to be small. It has been calculated that appropriately designed cohort studies to solve the problem require a sample size of >400,000 subjects. Such studies will not be performed in the foreseeable future. Future investigations in humans should, therefore, concentrate on the effect of long-term drinking water fluoridation on bone fluoride content and bone strength.

  19. Effects of the CO II laser combined with fluoridated toothpaste on human dental enamel demineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Lidiany Karla; Alvarez Vidigal, Evelyn; Silva Soares, Luís Eduardo; Abrahão Martin, Airton; Brugnera-Júnior, Aldo; Aparecida Zanin, Fátima Antonia; Nobre dos Santos, Marinês

    2006-02-01

    This in vitro pilot study investigated the CO II laser effects on demineralization inhibition in sound human dental enamel. Thirty six human enamel specimens were used and randomly assigned to 6 groups, as follows: I) Control; II) 1W; III) 2W; IV) 3W; V) 4W; VI) 5W. Group I one was kept as control and others were irradiated using a pulsed CO II laser (λ=10.6 μm) with low crescent potencies. Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of specimens after irradiation. One specimen from each group was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and the remaining ones were submitted to an 8-day pH cycling model with use of fluoridated toothpaste twice a day. After pH-cycling, the cross-sectional microhardness was performed for mineral loss (ΔZ) quantification. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tuckey test (α=0.05). No changes were found either in SEM photomicrographies or RAMAN Spectra of the specimens in all groups. The ΔZ values (n=5; mean+/-SD) for I-VI groups were: 1741.6+/-725.3a 1782.7+/-639.0a 1427.2+/-237.0a 1780.6+/-552.4a 1385.2+/-602.2a 943.1+/-228.1a respectively. The highest percentage of caries inhibition was found in group VI (45.8%); however the differences between ΔZ of the groups were not statistically significant. The use of CO II laser with low fluencies did not prevent more caries development than the use of fluoridated toothpaste, even though group VI had present good results in caries inhibition. Energy densities higher than 0.0125 J/cm 2 should be used to promote chemical or morphological changes on enamel surface, which are able of inhibiting mineral.

  20. Combinatorial Effects of Aromatic 1,3-Disubstituted Ureas and Fluoride on In vitro Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Balamurugan, P.; Uma Maheswari, C.; Anitha, A.; Princy, S. Adline

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries occur as a result of disequilibrium between acid producing pathogenic bacteria and alkali generating commensal bacteria within a dental biofilm (dental plaque). Streptococcus mutans has been reported as a primary cariogenic pathogen associated with dental caries. Emergence of multidrug resistant as well as fluoride resistant strains of S. mutans due to over use of various antibiotics are a rising problem and prompted the researchers worldwide to search for alternative therapies. In this perspective, the present study was aimed to screen selective inhibitors against ComA, a bacteriocin associated ABC transporter, involved in the quorum sensing of S. mutans. In light of our present in silico findings, 1,3-disubstituted urea derivatives which had better affinity to ComA were chemically synthesized in the present study for in vitro evaluation of S. mutans biofilm inhibition. The results revealed that 1,3-disubstituted urea derivatives showed good biofilm inhibition. In addition, synthesized compounds exhibited potent synergy with a very low concentration of fluoride (31.25–62.5 ppm) in inhibiting the biofilm formation of S. mutans without affecting the bacterial growth. Further, the results were supported by confocal laser scanning microscopy. On the whole, from our experimental results we conclude that the combinatorial application of fluoride and disubstituted ureas has a potential synergistic effect which has a promising approach in combating multidrug resistant and fluoride resistant S. mutans in dental caries management. PMID:27375583

  1. Effects of Fluoride on Expression of P450, CREM and ACT Proteins in Rat Testes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhu, Yuchen; Liang, Chen; Qie, Mingli; Niu, Ruiyan; Sun, Zilong; Wang, Jinming; Wang, Jundong

    2017-01-01

    Fluoride (F) is an essential trace element that humans and animals ingest from water, air, and fluoride-containing products; however, excessive fluoride absorption can damage a variety of organs and tissues, including the male reproductive system. Our previous studies found that fluoride exposure lowered sperm quality and interfered with spermatogenesis; however, the exact mechanism remained unclear. Proteins cytochrome P450 (P450), cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activator of CREM in testis (ACT) play the key roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility. To investigate whether fluoride affects the expression of P450, CREM, and ACT, we used immunohistochemical techniques to determine expression levels of these proteins in testes of rats administered 100 mg NaF/L for 2 weeks via drinking water. The results showed that P450 expression was decreased while CREM and ACT expression was increased in the fluoride group, compared to the control. These data suggest that fluoride can impair male reproduction by affecting expression of P450, CREM, and ACT in the testes.

  2. Effects of new formulas of bleaching gel and fluoride application on enamel microhardness: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana B; Mazur, Rui Fernando

    2007-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the new formulas of bleaching products and the effect of subsequent applications of fluoride on the hardness of enamel during and after tooth bleaching. The crowns of 60 extracted intact human molars were sectioned longitudinally; the buccal part was embedded in acrylic resin, the occlusal part was ground flat, exposing enamel and dentin, and then polished. Baseline Knoop microhardness (KHN) of enamel was determined. The specimens were then randomly divided into six groups of 10 specimens, and each group was assigned to a specific 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) bleaching agent. A: Opalescence, B: Opalescence PF (3% potassium nitrate and 0.11% fluoride), C: Nite White Excel 3 (ACP), D: Opalescence + F (acidulated phosphate fluoride 1.23%), E: Opalescence PF + F, F: Nite White Excel 3 + F. The teeth were bleached for eight hours; after each procedure, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. Immediately after day 21 of bleaching, the specimens in groups D, E and F received fluoride 1.23% for five minutes. KHN tests w ere performedbefore (baseline = control), during (14, 21) and two weeks (35 days) after the bleaching procedure and were statistically compared using ANOVA/Tukey's t-test (alpha < 0.05). The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference among the bleaching materials (p = 0.123). A significant enamel KHN reduction (p < 0.001) was observed for all bleaching materials, with no difference among them. Two weeks after bleaching, all the groups that received fluoride showed a significant increase in microhardness. For the new bleaching formulas, the enamel was restored to a value similar to baseline.

  3. Fluoride - is it capable of fighting old and new dental diseases? An overview of existing fluoride compounds and their clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, E

    2001-01-01

    Since researchers first became aware of the anticaries action of fluoride, they have been investigating the effect of this preventive agent in inhibiting or arresting caries development. Many forms of systemic or topical fluoride have been studied and tested for clinical application. Water, salt, milk fluoridation and the use of fluoride supplements were introduced for systemic fluoridation mainly using sodium fluoride. Solutions, gels, toothpastes and rinses of sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, amine fluorides, acidulated phosphate fluoride and monofluorophosphate were used for topical fluoridation. More recently nonaqueous fluoride varnishes in an alcoholic solution of natural resins and difluorosilane agents in a polyurethane matrix were introduced. Although all of these fluoridation methods have a caries-preventive action, these benefits and the ease of application is variable. As fluoride is a key component of oral health promotion a coordinated approach on a community and individual basis seems to be needed to maximize the cost-benefit ratio of prevention.

  4. Proximity effects in the palladium-catalyzed substitution of aryl fluorides.

    PubMed

    Bahmanyar, S; Borer, Bennett C; Kim, Young Mi; Kurtz, David M; Yu, Shu

    2005-03-17

    [reaction: see text] The aryl fluoride bond has long been considered inert toward Pd-catalyzed insertion reactions. This paper reports for the first time that aryl fluorides bearing an o-carboxylate group can undergo Pd-catalyzed couplings. On the basis of this computational study and subsequent experimental verifications of its predictions, we herein report that such reactions are facilitated by stabilization of the transition state by proximal oxyanions.

  5. In-Office Application of Fluoride Gel or Varnish: Cost-Effectiveness and Expected Value of Perfect Information Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwendicke, Falk; Stolpe, Michael

    2017-04-08

    Application of fluoride gel/varnish (FG/FV) reduces caries increments but generates costs. Avoiding restorative treatments by preventing caries might compensate for these costs. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of dentists applying FG/FV in office and the expected value of perfect information (EVPI). EVPI analyses estimate the economic value of having perfect knowledge, assisting research resource allocation. A mixed public-private-payer perspective in Germany was adopted. A population of 12-year-olds was followed over their lifetime, with caries increments modelled using wide intervals to reflect the uncertainty of caries risk. Biannual application of FV/FG until age 18 years was compared to no fluoride application. Effectiveness parameters and their uncertainty were derived from systematic reviews. The health outcome was caries increment (decayed, missing, or filled teeth; DMFT). Cost calculations were based on fee catalogs or microcosting, including costs for individual-prophylactic fluoridation and, for FG, an individualized tray, plus material costs. Microsimulations, sensitivity, and EVPI analyses were performed. On average and applied to a largely low-risk population, no application of fluoride was least costly but also least effective (EUR 230; 11 DMFT). FV was more costly and effective (EUR 357; 7 DMFT). FG was less effective than FV and also more costly when using individualized trays. FV was the best choice for payers willing to invest EUR 39 or more per avoided DMFT. This cost-effectiveness will differ in different settings/countries or if FG/FV is applied by other care professionals. The EVPI was mainly driven by the individual's caries risk, as FV/FG were significantly more cost-effective in high-risk populations than in low-risk ones. Future studies should focus on caries risk prediction.

  6. Investigation of effect of fluoride on corrosion of 2S-0 aluminum and 347 stainless steel in fuming nitric acid at 170 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiler, Charles E; Morrell, Gerald

    1954-01-01

    The effect of small additions of fluoride on the corrosion of 2S-0 aluminum and 347 stainless steel by fuming nitric acid at 170 degrees F has been evaluated quantitatively by the determination of the weight loss of metal specimens immersed in the acid. The ratio of metal surface area to volume of acid was approximately 7.5 inch (superscript)-1 in all cases. It was found that for acids containing no fluorides the weight loss of aluminum was approximately 1/5 that of stainless steel. Addition of 1 percent fluoride ion to the acid reduced the weight loss of both metals to practically zero even after 26 days of exposure to the acid at 170 degrees F. The minimum quantity of fluoride ion required to inhibit corrosion was found to be approximately 0.25 and 0.5 percent for aluminum and stainless steel, respectively, in white fuming nitric acid and 0.5 and 1 percent in red fuming nitric acid (18 percent nitrogen dioxide). These fluoride percentages were based on the total weight of acid. Provided the concentration of fluoride ion was sufficient to inhibit corrosion, the source of these ions was immaterial. Additional information concerning the effect of fluorides on corrosion was obtained by measuring the electrode potentials of the metals against a platinum reference electrode.

  7. Effects of combined oleic acid and fluoride at sub-MIC levels on EPS formation and viability of Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Na; Kim, Mi-A; Jung, Ji-Eun; Pandit, Santosh; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of fluoride, dental caries, a biofilm-related disease, remains an important health problem. This study investigated whether oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, can enhance the effect of fluoride on extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) formation by Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels, via microbiological and biochemical methods, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and real-time PCR. The combination of oleic acid with fluoride inhibited EPS formation more strongly than did fluoride or oleic acid alone. The superior inhibition of EPS formation was due to the combination of the inhibitory effects of oleic acid and fluoride against glucosyltransferases (GTFs) and GTF-related gene (gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD) expression, respectively. In addition, the combination of oleic acid with fluoride altered the bacterial biovolume of the biofilms without bactericidal activity. These results suggest that oleic acid may be useful for enhancing fluoride inhibition of EPS formation by S. mutans biofilms, without killing the bacterium.

  8. Effectiveness of sulfuryl fluoride for control of different life stages of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera).

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, M Jamie; Hasan, M Mahbub; Throne, James E

    2012-02-01

    With the phase-out and impending ban of methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride is among the most promising alternative fumigant insecticides for control of stored-product insect pests. It has been evaluated for control of several stored-product insect pests, but there are few data available on its efficacy for control of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera). We evaluated sulfuryl fluoride for control of different life stages of the psocids Liposcelis paeta Pearman, L. entomophila (Enderlein), L. bostrychophila Badonnel, L. decolor Pearman, and Lepinotus reticulatus Enderlein (Trogiidae) in 48-hr trials at 27.5 degrees C. Adults and nymphs were susceptible to sulfuryl fluoride. Complete (100%) adult and nymphal mortality was recorded at concentrations between 4 and 8 g/m3, except for L. decolor for which all adults were only killed at 24 g/m3. Eggs were tolerant to sulfuryl fluoride. Complete egg mortality was achieved at 24 and 72 g/m3 for L. reticulatus and L. decolor, respectively. Survival of L. paeta eggs was recorded even after exposure to 96 g/m3. Given that the highest United States label concentration for sulfuryl fluoride for a 48-h exposure interval is 31.25 g/m3, our study indicates that high doses and/or longer exposures are needed for complete mortality of eggs of L. decolor and L. paeta. Moreover, the present work suggests that there is considerable variation in efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride for control of different psocid species.

  9. Effect of fluoride exposure on the intelligence of school children in Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Sudhanshu; Sahay, Anjali; Goel, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between exposure to different drinking water fluoride levels and children's intelligence in Madhya Pradesh state, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 12-year-old school children of Madhya Pradesh state, India. The children were selected from low (< 1.5 parts per million) and high (≥1.5 parts per million) fluoride areas. A questionnaire was used to collect information on the children's personal characteristics, residential history, medical history, educational level of the head of the family, and socioeconomic status of the family. Levels of lead, arsenic, and iodine in the urine and the levels of fluoride in the water and urine were analyzed. The children's intelligence was measured using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Data analysis was done using the chi-square, one way analysis of variance, simple linear regression, and multiple linear regression tests. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Differences in participant's sociodemographic characteristics, urinary iodine, urinary lead, and urinary arsenic levels were statistically not significant (P>0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the urinary fluoride levels (P 0.000). Reduction in intelligence was observed with an increased water fluoride level (P 0.000). The urinary fluoride level was a significant predictor for intelligence (P 0.000). Conclusion: Children in endemic areas of fluorosis are at risk for impaired development of intelligence. PMID:22865964

  10. In postmenopausal osteoporosis the bone increasing effect of monofluorophosphate is not dependent on serum fluoride.

    PubMed

    Rigalli, A; Pera, L; Morosano, M; Masoni, A; Bocanera, R; Tozzini, R; Puche, R C

    1999-01-01

    According to previous pharmacokinetic studies the bioavailability of fluorine (F) from sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) doubles that of sodium fluoride (NaF). This paper reports a study designed to verify whether the vertebral bone mass increasing effect of NaF (30 mg F/day) was comparable to that of MFP (15 mg F/day), given for 18 months to osteoporotic postmenopausal women. The BMD of lumbar vertebrae of both groups showed significant increases (MFP: 60 +/- 15 mg/cm2, NaF: and 71 +/- 12 mg/cm2) over basal levels (P < 0.001). The difference between treatments was not significant (P = 0.532). The serum levels of ionic F (the mitogenic species on osteoblasts) were not related to the above mentioned effects. In NaF-treated patients, the fasting levels of total serum F increased significantly (6.7 +/- 0.9 microM vs. Basal: 2.0 +/- 0.8 microM; P < 0.001). This phenomenon was accounted for by ionic fluoride that increased over 20-fold (6.5 +/- 1.9 microM vs. Basal: 0.3 +/- 0.04 microM). In MFP-treated patients the fasting serum levels of total (7.0 +/- 0.7 microM vs. Basal: 2.2 +/- 0.9 M) and diffusible F (0.5 +/- 0.02 microM vs. Basal 0.2 +/- 0.02 microM) increased significantly (P < 0.001). The increase in the non diffusible F fraction is accounted for by protein-bound F, probably by the complexes formed between MFP and alpha 2-macroglobulin and C3. Serum diffusible F was formed by two fractions: ionic F and F bound to low molecular weight macromolecule/s (2,200 +/- 600 Da), in approximately equal amounts. The general information afforded by the present observations support the hypothesis that ionic F is released progressively during the metabolism of MFP bound to alpha 2-macroglobulin and C3. These phenomena explain why comparable effects to those obtained with 30 mg F/d of NaF could by obtained with one half the dose of MFP.

  11. Effects of fluoride and chloride on the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Wu, Y Y; Wu, Y D

    2013-01-01

    To compare the toxic action of fluoride (F(-)) and chloride (Cl(-)) on freshwater algae, effects of F(-) and Cl(-) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa growth were investigated by determination of the algal biomass and model analysis. Results showed that the exponential growth equation (D = D0 + ae(bT)) may be used to fit the relationship between cell density (D) of C. pyrenoidosa and exposure time (T), but F(-) and Cl(-) have significantly different effects on parameters a (initial quantity of algae at the exponential growth stage) and b (growth constant). In the range of experimental concentrations, F(-) inhibited C. pyrenoidosa growth, and percent inhibition increased with increasing exposure time and F(-) concentration. By contrast, Cl(-) either inhibited or enhanced C. pyrenoidosa growth depending on Cl(-) concentration and exposure time, and percent inhibition increased with increasing Cl(-) concentration but decreased with increasing exposure time. The dose-response equation: I = min + (max - min)/(1 + 10(lgEC50-lgC)) may be used to fit the relationship between percent inhibition (I) and F(-) or Cl(-) concentration (C); however, F(-) was distinct from Cl(-) in terms of effects on parameter 'min'. The EC50 values of F(-) and Cl(-) ranged from 118 to 170 mg/L and 19.73 to 36.33 g/L, respectively; the latter is much higher than the former. Thus F(-) has higher toxicity than Cl(-).

  12. Effects of XeCl excimer lasers and fluoride application on artificial caries-like lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Phan, T.; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Berns, Michael W.

    1994-09-01

    In this study the affects of a pulsed excimer laser emitting at 308 nm (XeCl) on enamel susceptibility to artificial caries-like lesions were investigated. Additional effects of fluoride (F) application were also studied and SEC examinations performed. Sixty-four extracted human molar teeth were coated with acid resistant varnish leaving four windows, then sectioned, leaving one window on each tooth quarter. The windows were treated in one of the following ways: untreated (control), or lased, or exposed to 4 min. APF (1.23% F) before lasing, or exposed to 4 min. APF (1.23% F) after lasing. After lasing, microhardness profiles were obtained and SEM was performed. Caries resistance was generally increased at moderate fluences. F application combined with lasing enhanced caries resistance at some parameters. SEM showed effects ranging from minimal to localized effects to extended glazing. Pulsed excimer laser irradiation, especially combined with topical F application can inhibit development of artificial caries-like lesions.

  13. A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601

  14. Effect of excess dietary fluoride on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Miao, L P; Zhou, M Y; Zhang, X Y; Yuan, C; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-03-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens. A total of 576 laying hens, 51 wk old, was randomly divided into 6 groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 16 hens. Graded amounts of sodium fluoride (NaF) were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 16 (control), 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg F, respectively. Dietary F at 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased ADFI, laying rate, and average egg weight, and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level or catalase (CAT) concentration among all the treatments, while hens fed F at 800 and 1,000 mg/kg had higher activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group. Compared with the control group, dietary F at 400 mg/kg increased liver MDA concentration (P < 0.001), and decreased CAT concentration of liver (P < 0.001); 600 mg/kg F decreased liver T-AOC levels (P < 0.001); and 800 mg/kg of F decreased liver total superoxide dismutases (T-SOD) activity (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, feeding F at 600 mg/kg decreased kidney T-AOC levels and T-SOD activity (P < 0.001), and increased MDA concentration of kidney (P < 0.001), while dietary 1,000 mg/kg of F decreased kidney GSH-PX activity (P < 0.05) and CAT concentration (P < 0.001). In conclusion, these results indicated that excessive F ingestion had an adverse effect on laying performance by inducing oxidative stress and impairing the antioxidant system of laying hens.

  15. Effect of fluoride on the corrosion behavior of Ti and Ti6Al4V dental implants coupled with different superstructures.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Eman M; Kheiralla, Lamia S; Tammam, Riham H

    2011-06-01

    The effect of fluoride ion concentration on the corrosion behavior of Ti and Ti6Al4V implant alloys, when coupled with either metal/ceramic or all-ceramic superstructure, was examined by different electrochemical methods in artificial saliva solutions. It was concluded that increased fluoride concentration leads to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of all tested couples. The type of the superstructure also showed a significant effect on the corrosion resistance of the couple.

  16. Determining the optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions in South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S; Aditya, G

    2009-10-01

    Fluoride ion in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through drinking water owing to more than 90% bioavailability. The objective of this study is to predict optimal fluoride level in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions by comprising the levels of fluoride and other water quality parameters in drinking water, prevalence of fluorosis, fluoride intake through water, food and beverages such as tea and coffee and also considering the progressive accumulation of fluoride in animal bones, by comparing with non fluoride endemic areas comprise of the same geological features with the aid of regression analysis. Result of this study shows that increase of fluoride level above 1.33 mg/l in drinking water increases the community fluorosis index (CFI) value more than 0.6, an optimum index value above which fluorosis is considered to be a public health problem. Regression plot between water fluoride and bone fluoride levels indicates that, every increase of 0.5mg/l unit of water fluoride level increases the bone fluoride level of 52 mg/kg unit within 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, the consumption of drinking water containing more than 0.65 mg/l of fluoride can raise the total fluoride intake per day more than 4 mg, which is the optimum fluoride dose level recommended for adults by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. From the result, the people in fluoride endemic areas in South India are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level within the limit of 0.5 to 0.65 mg/l to avoid further fluorosis risk.

  17. The effect of dentifrice quantity and toothbrushing behaviour on oral delivery and retention of fluoride in vivo.

    PubMed

    Creeth, Jonathan; Zero, Domenick; Mau, Melissa; Bosma, Mary Lynn; Butler, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    While toothpaste F(-) concentration and rinsing regimen have well-characterised impacts on fluoride's effectiveness, other aspects of brushing regimen have much less well-established effects, in particular, dentifrice quantity and brushing duration. An in vivo study (n = 42) of oral fluoride delivery (i.e. oral disposition post-brushing), and retention (i.e. concentration of F(-) in saliva post-brushing, a known efficacy predictor), was performed to compare effects observed with those of dentifrice F(-) concentration and rinsing regimen. Subjects brushed with a NaF-silica dentifrice (Aquafresh Advanced, 1,150 ppm F(-) ) or a control dentifrice (250 ppm F(-) , same base), for 45, 60, 120 or 180 seconds with 0.5 or 1.5 g dentifrice, and rinsed with 15 ml water once or three times in a cross-over design. The F(-) concentration was measured in post-brushing expectorate, rinse and toothbrush washing samples, and in saliva between 5-120 minutes after brushing. Using 1.5 g versus 0.5 g dentifrice increased F(-) in all samples: oral retention of F(-) was almost doubled by this increase. Increasing duration of brushing had more complex effects. The amount of F(-) in the expectorate increased but decreased in both rinse and toothbrush washing samples. Oral F(-) retention increased, but only in the period 30-120 minutes after brushing. Over the ranges investigated, the order of importance on oral F(-) retention was: dentifrice F(-) concentration > quantity > rinsing regimen > brushing duration. Hence, increasing dentifrice quantity and, to a lesser extent, the duration of brushing, can elevate oral fluoride post-brushing. Evidence is accumulating that the importance of these variables to fluoride efficacy may have been underestimated.

  18. Anti-erosive effects of fluoride and phytosphingosine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Yönel, Nermin; Bikker, Floris J; Lagerweij, Maxim D; Kleverlaan, Cees J; van Loveren, Cor; Özen, Bugra; Çetiner, Serap; van Strijp, Augustinus J P

    2016-08-01

    A selection of commercially available products containing stannous fluoride (SnF2 )/sodium fluoride (NaF), SnF2 /amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), SnF2 /NaF/ACP, tin (Sn)/fluorine (F)/chitosan were compared with phytosphingosine (PHS) with respect to their anti-erosive properties in vitro. One-hundred and twenty bovine enamel specimens were immersed in the respective product slurries for 2 min, twice daily. The formulations were diluted with either remineralization solution or artificial saliva. After each treatment, an erosive challenge was performed for 10 min, twice daily, using citric acid, pH 3.4. The specimens were stored in remineralization solution or artificial saliva until the next treatment-erosion challenge. After 10 d, tissue loss was determined using profilometry. Enamel softening was determined through surface microhardness measurements. Tissue-loss values (measured in μm and expressed as mean ± SD) for PHS, SnF2 /NaF, SnF2 /ACP, SnF2 /ACP/NaF, and Sn/F/chitosan treatment groups and for the negative-control group, were, respectively, 35.6 ± 2.8, 15.8 ± 1.8, 22.1 ± 2.0, 22.9 ± 1.8, 16.2 ± 1.2, and 51.2 ± 4.4 in the presence of remineralization solution and 31.7 ± 3.3, 15.6 ± 2.9, 16.5 ± 2.7, 16.8 ± 2.1, 13.1 ± 3.0, and 50.7 ± 2.8 in the presence of artificial saliva. There were no significant differences in surface microhardness measurements between the treatment groups. In conclusion, PHS resulted in a significant reduction of tissue loss compared with the negative control, but in comparison, the toothpastes containing Sn(2+) and F(-) ions were significantly more effective compared with PHS.

  19. The effects of artificial saliva and topical fluoride treatments on the degradation of the elastic properties of orthodontic chains.

    PubMed

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Coffelt, M T; Orbell, G M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of artificia