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Sample records for pomatoschistus minutus pallas

  1. Co-phylogeographic study of the flatworm Gyrodactylus gondae and its goby host Pomatoschistus minutus.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Tine; Oeyen, Merel; Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2017-04-01

    We performed a comparative phylogeographic study on the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus gondae Huyse, Malmberg & Volckaert 2005 (Gyrodactylidae) and its sand goby host Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas, 1770) (Gobiidae). G. gondae is a host-specific parasite with a direct life cycle and a very short generation time. These properties are expected to increase the chance to track the genealogical history of the host with genetic data of the parasite ('magnifying glass principle'). To investigate this hypothesis we screened nine sand goby populations (n=326) along the Atlantic coasts of Europe for Gyrodactylus specimens. Low parasite prevalence resulted in partially overlapping host and parasite datasets. Ninety-two G. gondae collected on five sand goby populations were subsequently sequenced for a 460bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (coxII) fragment, which, in combination with previously published haplotype data for the hosts, allowed for partially overlapping host and parasite datasets. Haplotype diversity was lowest in the Irish Sea while nucleotide diversity was highest in the Southern North Sea. The host population also showed the lowest diversity in the Irish Sea but the highest nucleotide diversity, based on cytochrome b sequences of 850bp, was found in Skagerrak. Phylogeographic networks suggest postglacial expansion in both the host and the parasite. Pair-wise population differentiation was however not consistently higher in the parasite than in the host, rejecting the magnifying glass hypothesis for this host-parasite system. The parasite network offered limited resolution and was characterized by many extinctions and/or missing haplotypes, which could be attributed to 1) sampling bias, 2) size fluctuations in the parasite populations resulting in frequent extinctions and genetic drift and 3) the relatively young age of the host-parasite association. A more exhaustive study including a broader geographical and genomic coverage is needed to discriminate among

  2. Effects of local and large-scale climate patterns on estuarine resident fishes: The example of Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyitrai, Daniel; Martinho, Filipe; Dolbeth, Marina; Rito, João; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale and local climate patterns are known to influence several aspects of the life cycle of marine fish. In this paper, we used a 9-year database (2003-2011) to analyse the populations of two estuarine resident fishes, Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus, in order to determine their relationships with varying environmental stressors operating over local and large scales. This study was performed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Firstly, the variations in abundance, growth, population structure and secondary production were evaluated. These species appeared in high densities in the beginning of the study period, with subsequent occasional high annual density peaks, while their secondary production was lower in dry years. The relationships between yearly fish abundance and the environmental variables were evaluated separately for both species using Spearman correlation analysis, considering the yearly abundance peaks for the whole population, juveniles and adults. Among the local climate patterns, precipitation, river runoff, salinity and temperature were used in the analyses, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and sea surface temperature (SST) were tested as large-scale factors. For P. microps, precipitation and NAO were the significant factors explaining abundance of the whole population, the adults and the juveniles as well. Regarding P. minutus, for the whole population, juveniles and adults river runoff was the significant predictor. The results for both species suggest a differential influence of climate patterns on the various life cycle stages, confirming also the importance of estuarine resident fishes as indicators of changes in local and large-scale climate patterns, related to global climate change.

  3. Disruption of sexual selection in sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus) by 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, an endocrine disruptor.

    PubMed

    Saaristo, Minna; Craft, John A; Lehtonen, Kari K; Björk, Heikki; Lindström, Kai

    2009-04-01

    In aquatic environments, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with the reproductive physiology of males form a threat to the reproduction of populations. This is often manifested as decreased sexual performance or sterility among males. We show that exposure to EDCs can directly affect the mating system of a marine fish, the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). We exposed males for 1 to 4 weeks to two different concentrations (5 ng L(-1) and 24 ng L(-1)) of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2); a synthetic compound mimicking estrogen and a water control. The sand goby exhibits a polygynous mating system, in which male mating success is typically skewed towards the largest males, resulting in strong sexual selection for increased male size. Our experiment shows that when males have been exposed to EE2, male size has a smaller effect on mating success, resulting in weaker sexual selection on male size as compared to the control. There was an interaction between treatment and exposure time on the expression of vitellogenin and zona radiata protein mRNAs. Males exposed to high EE2 reached much higher expression levels than males exposed to low EE2. Of the somatic markers, the hepatosomatic index was lower in males exposed to high EE2 than in the low EE2 and control males. Our results suggest that exposure to EDCs can have effects on the mating system before physiological changes are observable. These effects can be of profound nature as they interfere with sexual selection, and may in the long run lead to the loss of traits maintained through sexual selection.

  4. How cuckoldry can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection: data and theory from a genetic parentage analysis of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus.

    PubMed

    Jones, A G; Walker, D; Kvarnemo, C; Lindström, K; Avise, J C

    2001-07-31

    Alternative mating strategies are common in nature and are generally thought to increase the intensity of sexual selection. However, cuckoldry can theoretically decrease the opportunity for sexual selection, particularly in highly polygamous species. We address here the influence of sneaking (fertilization thievery) on the opportunity for sexual selection in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a marine fish species in which males build and defend nests. Our microsatellite-based analysis of the mating system in a natural sand goby population shows high rates of sneaking and multiple mating by males. Sneaker males had fertilized eggs in approximately 50% of the assayed nests, and multiple sneakers sometimes fertilized eggs from a single female. Successful males had received eggs from 2 to 6 females per nest (mean = 3.4). We developed a simple mathematical model showing that sneaking in this polygynous sand goby population almost certainly decreases the opportunity for sexual selection, an outcome that contrasts with the usual effects of cuckoldry in socially monogamous animals. These results highlight a more complex and interesting relationship between cuckoldry rates and the intensity of sexual selection than previously assumed in much of the literature on animal mating systems.

  5. Investment in testes, sperm-duct glands and lipid reserves differs between male morphs but not between early and late breeding season in Pomatoschistus minutus.

    PubMed

    Kvarnemo, C; Svensson, O; Manson, W

    2010-05-01

    This study of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a nest-holding fish with paternal care, focused on gonadal investment among males of different sizes collected early and late in the breeding season. All males caught at the nest had breeding colour, whereas trawl-caught fish consisted of males both with and without colour. The absence or presence of breeding colour was a good predictor of testes investment. Compared to males with breeding colour, males without colour were smaller in body size but had extraordinarily large testes. In absolute terms, testes mass of males without breeding colour was on average 3.4 times greater than those of males with breeding colour. Since small colourless males are known to reproduce as sneaker males, this heavy investment in testes probably reflects that they are forced to spawn under sperm competition. Contrary to testes size, sperm-duct glands were largest among males with breeding colour. These glands produce mucins used for making sperm-containing mucous trails that males place in the nest before and during spawning. Since both sneakers and nest-holders potentially could benefit from having large glands, this result is intriguing. Yet, high mucus production may be more important for nest-holders, because it also protects developing embryos from infections. There was no significant effect of season on body size, testes or sperm-duct glands size, but colourless males tended to be less common late in the season. Possibly this may indicate that individual small colourless males develop into their more colourful counterparts within the breeding season.

  6. Effects of 17α-ethinyl estradiol exposure on estrogen receptors α and β and vitellogenins A, B and C mRNA expression in the liver of sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus).

    PubMed

    Humble, Joseph L; Saaristo, Minna; Lindström, Kai; Lehtonen, Kari K; Craft, John A

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to characterize the estrogen receptor (er) in sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) and determine the temporal effects of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on erα and vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression in males. Two partial cDNA sequences (erα and erβ1) are presented showing conserved structural features with ers of other species. Transcript levels for both ers were low in control fish but EE2 exposure (11 ng/L, for 29 days) increased both to a pattern similar to vitellogenic females. The relative expression of three vtg genes (vtga, vtgb and vtgc) along with erα was determined in control and male fish exposed to EE2 (11 ng/L) at multiple time-points over 29 days. All four transcripts were significantly induced due to exposure and expression rose during the time course with distinct temporal patterns and vtga reached a substantially higher level at the end of the time course coinciding with rapid elevation in erα expression.

  7. Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, Silvia S.; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  8. Courtship sounds advertise species identity and male quality in sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. gobies.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Silvia S; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, Maria Clara P

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study.

  9. Secular obliquity variations of Ceres and Pallas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Scott, Bryan R.

    2017-03-01

    We examine variations in the orientations of the orbit poles and spin poles of Ceres and Pallas, on time scales of a few million years. We consider these two bodies together because they have similar orbits, but very different present states of knowledge concerning internal mass distribution and spin pole orientation. For Ceres, the Dawn mission has recently provided accurate estimates of the current spin pole orientation, and the degree 2 spherical harmonics of the gravitational potential. The polar moment of inertia is not as well constrained, but plausible bounds are known. For Pallas, we have estimates of the shape of the body, and spin pole orientation and angular rate, all derived from optical light curves. Using those input parameters, and the readily computed secular variations in the orbit pole, we can compute long term variations in the spin pole orientation. This provides information concerning long term variations in insolation, which controls stability of surface volatiles.

  10. Visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh, Zahra; Haghighi, Siavosh

    2015-01-01

    Visceral urate deposition (visceral gout) is a common finding during post-mortem examination of poultry. Rare cases of visceral gout may occur in wild birds. A rare case of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) is reported here. In May 2013, carcass of a little bittern was submitted for necropsy to the Clinic of Poultry Diseases (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University) by local authorities of Iran Department of Environment. At necropsy, white chalky deposits were observed on the heart and thoracic air sacs of the bird. To confirm the presence of urates, chalky deposits were collected from pericardium and tested by muerxide test. Heart and kidneys were sampled, preserved in 10% neutral-buffered formalin solution and submitted to laboratory for histopathology. Murexide test was positive for presence of uric acid in chalky deposits collected from pericardium. Light microscopy of affected organs confirmed the condition as visceral urate deposition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of visceral urate deposition in a little bittern. PMID:26261716

  11. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus.

  12. New records of Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Orussidae) represent a significant western range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Amber; Szalanski, Allen; Dowling, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Orussus minutus is an uncommonly collected parasitoid sawfly known from the eastern United States. New information We report specimens Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983, from Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and Manitoba, which represent new state and province records and significantly expand the known range of the species west from previous records; provide collection information for unpublished specimens housed in the United States National Museum collection, which includes new state records for West Virginia and Michigan; and report two specimens housed in the Biological Museum at Lund University that represent new state records for Connecticut. PMID:26379466

  13. Morphological responses of mitochondria-rich cells to hypersaline environment in the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus.

    PubMed

    Itoki, Naoko; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Masahiro; Takeda, Tatsusuke; Ishimatsu, Atsushi

    2012-07-01

    A population of the Australian mudskipper, Periophthalmus minutus, was found to inhabit mudflat that remained uncovered by tide for more than 20 days in some neap tides. During these prolonged emersion periods, P. minutus retreated into burrows containing little water, with a highest recorded salinity of 84 ± 7.4 psu (practical salinity unit). To explore the mechanical basis for this salinity tolerance in P. minutus, we determined the densities of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in the inner and outer opercula and the pectoral fin skin, in comparison with P. takita, [corrected] from an adjacent lower intertidal habitat, and studied morphological responses of MRCs to exposure to freshwater (FW), and 100% (34-35 psu) and 200% seawater (SW). Periophthalmus minutus showed a higher density of MRCs in the inner operculum (3365 ± 821 cells mm(-2)) than in the pectoral fin skin (1428 ± 161) or the outer operculum (1100 ± 986), all of which were higher than the MRC densities in p. takita. [corrected]. No mortality occurred in 100% or 200% SW, but half of the fish died within four days in FW. Neither 200% SW nor FW exposure affected MRC density. Transfer to 200% SW doubled MRC size after 9-14 days with no change in the proportion of MRCs with apical pits or plasma sodium concentration. In contrast, transfer to FW resulted in a rapid closing of pits and a significant reduction in plasma sodium concentration. These results suggest that P. minutus has evolved morphological and physiological mechanisms to withstand hypersaline conditions that they may encounter in their habitat.

  14. Molecular characterization and distribution of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae): a pathogenic avian parasite.

    PubMed

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Križanauskienė, Asta; Markovets, Mikhail Yu; Bensch, Staffan; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2013-08-01

    Recently, the lineage hTURDUS2 of Haemoproteus minutus (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) was reported to cause mortality in captive parrots. This parasite lineage is widespread and prevalent in the blackbird Turdus merula throughout its entire distribution range. Species identity of other closely related lineages recently reported in dead parrots remains unclear, but will be important to determine for a better understanding of the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based and microscopic methods, we analyzed 265 blood samples collected from 52 species of wild birds in Eurasia (23 samples from Kamchatka Peninsula, 73 from Sakhalin Island, 150 from Ekaterinburg and 19 from Irkutsk regions of Russia). Single infections of the lineages hTURDUS2 (hosts are redwing Turdus iliacus and fieldfare Turdus pilaris), hTUPHI1 (song thrush Turdus philomelos) and hTUCHR01 (fieldfare, redwing, song thrush and brown-headed thrush Turdus chysolaus) were detected. We identified species of these haemoproteids based on morphology of their blood stages and conclude that these lineages belong to H. minutus, a widespread parasite of different species of thrushes (genus Turdus), which serve as reservoir hosts of this haemoproteid infection. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the lineages hTURDUS2, hTUCHR01 and hTUPHI1 of H. minutus are closely related to Haemoproteus pallidus (lineages hPFC1 and hCOLL2), Haemoproteus pallidulus (hSYAT03), and Haemoproteus sp. (hMEUND3); genetic distance among their mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) lineages is small (<1% or<4 nucleotides). All these blood parasites are different in many morphological characters, but are similar due to one feature, which is the pale staining of their macrogametocytes' cytoplasm with Giemsa. Because of the recent publications about mortality caused by the lineages hTUPHI1 and hTURDUS2 of H. minutus in captive parrots in Europe, H. minutus and the closely related H. pallidus and H. pallidulus are

  15. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus.

    PubMed

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J; Orrico, Victor G D; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J R; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F B; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered.

  16. High Levels of Diversity Uncovered in a Widespread Nominal Taxon: Continental Phylogeography of the Neotropical Tree Frog Dendropsophus minutus

    PubMed Central

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J.; Orrico, Victor G. D.; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S.; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P.; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J. M.; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J. Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. PMID:25208078

  17. Cantharimide dimers from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takafumi; Jinpo, Katsuaki; Noda, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Five cantharidin-related compounds were isolated from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS (Meloidae). Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Three of them were identified as cantharimide dimers, which consist of two units of cantharimide combined with a tri-, tetra-, or penta-methylene group.

  18. Age and growth of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps, on the south coast of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouda, M. M.; Miller, P. J.

    1981-02-01

    Seasonal changes in scale appearance and body growth pattern have been studied in a Teign Estuary (Devon) population of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer), with additional material from St. Anthony, on Gillan Harbour, Cornwall. Examination of caudal peduncle scales showed similarity in annulus formation with other populations earlier investigated around the British Isles. The time of scale annulus formation in the Teign estuary was established from monthly changes in mean terminal sclerite width. After the first winter of life, an annulus of narrow sclerites is produced on resumption of growth in spring, and a second annulus laid down in summer between early June and August, corresponding to growth retardation during the peak of the long breeding season (April to August). The growth pattern shows a period of rapid growth in immature fish during the first summer and early autumn of life and declines or ceases in late autumn and winter. Vigorous resumption of growth in spring and early summer is followed by a decline in growth rate during the peak breeding season, and then growth recovery in September and October. Change in monthly mean terminal sclerite width of scales reflects somewhat earlier changes in somatic growth. Back-calculated growth suggests a static population during the breeding season. Various influences on growth are noted, including reproduction and scale regeneration.

  19. Biomarkers of endocrine disruption in juveniles and females of the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps.

    PubMed

    Dias, Lídia C A; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Ferreira, Abel L G; Santos, Cátia S; Monteiro, Marta S

    2014-07-15

    The presence of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic compartments, including estuaries, has been object of major concern. However, the effects of EDCs on autochthonous estuarine fish species are far less known than in freshwater fish. Therefore, the response of biomarkers in the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps was evaluated after 21-days of exposure to different EDCs: 17β-estradiol (E2); PCB-77 and p,p'DDE. In juveniles, Vtg (vitellogenin)-like proteins were significantly induced by E2. PCB-77 led to a decrease of Vtg-like proteins in juveniles, while in female liver they increased at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting a mode of action of PCB-77 that depends on the fish life stage. p,p'-DDE did not induce significant changes in Vtg-like proteins. Overall, P. microps juveniles seemed to respond to environmental relevant concentrations of EDCs. Thus, the evaluation of Vtg-like proteins in this life stage seems to be a promising tool to track EDC contamination in biomonitoring studies.

  20. Temperature dependence of production of structured triacylglycerols in the alga Trachydiscus minutus.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Lukavský, Jaromír; Sigler, Karel; Nedbalová, Linda; Vítová, Milada

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the identification of regioisomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerols of C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the alga Trachydiscus minutus cultivated at different temperatures using reversed- and chiral-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The use of the two different phases contributes to ready identification, both qualitative and semiquantitative, of regioisomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerols containing eicosapentaenoic and arachidonic in the molecule. The ratio of regioisomers and enantiomers of triacylglycerols (TAG) depends on the temperature of cultivation; with lowering temperature the proportion of the achiral TAG increases and the enantiomer ratio diverges from 1:1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A

    2009-10-09

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration.

  2. [Apate terebrans (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) attacking neem trees in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rodolfo M; dos Anjos, Norivaldo; Mourão, Sheila A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and records the attack of adults Apate terebrans (Pallas) to a neem plantation located in Guarani, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in March 2007. The damage was characterized by a hole in the trunk, from where the shot-hole-borer enters constructing tunnels and feeding on the wood. This is the first record of A. terebrans attacking neem trees in Brazil.

  3. Health status of Pomatoschistus microps populations in relation to pollution and natural stressors: implications for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Laura; Medina, Matias H; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2012-02-01

    Effects induced on wild populations by recurrent environmental contamination may difficult the ecological risk assessment of punctual pollution events such as oil spills. Here, the issue was addressed by comparing the health status of Pomatoschistus microps populations from four NW Iberian estuaries, using an integrated chemical-biological monitoring. Despite high seasonal variability, the parameters measured discriminated estuaries with different contamination levels and associated biological effects with chemical and abiotic stress. The decreased health status of fish from polluted sites strengthens the need of considering pollution-induced background effects and seasonal variability when assessing impacts and risks of oil and other chemical spills.

  4. Arboreal locomotion in Eurasian harvest mice Micromys Minutus (Rodentia: Muridae): The gaits of small mammals.

    PubMed

    Karantanis, Nikolaos-Evangelos; Rychlik, Leszek; Herrel, Anthony; Youlatos, Dionisios

    2017-03-23

    Body size imposes significant constraints on arboreal locomotion. Despite the wealth of research in larger arboreal mammals, there is a lack of data on arboreal gaits of small mammals. In this context, the present study explores arboreal locomotion in one of the smallest rodents, the Eurasian harvest mice Micromys minutus (∼10 g). We examined gait metrics (i.e., diagonality, duty factor [DF], DF index, velocity, stride length, and stride frequency) of six adult male mice on simulated arboreal substrates of different sizes (2, 5, 10, and 25 mm) and inclinations (0(0) and 45(0) ). Micromys minutus employed slow, lateral sequence symmetrical gaits on the smaller substrates, which shifted to progressively faster symmetrical gaits of higher diagonality on larger substrates. Both ascents and descents were associated with a higher diagonality, and ascents with a higher DF index compared to horizontal locomotion, underscoring the role of the grasping hind feet. Velocity increase was brought about primarily by an increase in stride frequency, a pattern often encountered in other small mammals, with a secondary and significant contribution of stride length. These findings indicate that, except for velocity and the way it is regulated, there are no significant differences in gait metrics between larger and smaller arboreal mammals. Moreover, the locomotor adaptations of Eurasian harvest mice represent behavioral mechanisms that promote stable, safe, and continuous navigation along slender substrates and ultimately contribute to the successful exploitation of the arboreal milieu.

  5. Environmental variables, habitat discontinuity and life history shaping the genetic structure of Pomatoschistus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Vergara-Chen, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Coastal lagoons are semi-isolated ecosystems exposed to wide fluctuations of environmental conditions and showing habitat fragmentation. These features may play an important role in separating species into different populations, even at small spatial scales. In this study, we evaluate the concordance between mitochondrial (previous published data) and nuclear data analyzing the genetic variability of Pomatoschistus marmoratus in five localities, inside and outside the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain) using eight microsatellites. High genetic diversity and similar levels of allele richness were observed across all loci and localities, although significant genic and genotypic differentiation was found between populations inside and outside the lagoon. In contrast to the F ST values obtained from previous mitochondrial DNA analyses (control region), the microsatellite data exhibited significant differentiation among samples inside the Mar Menor and between lagoonal and marine samples. This pattern was corroborated using Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances. The habitat fragmentation inside the coastal lagoon and among lagoon and marine localities could be acting as a barrier to gene flow and contributing to the observed genetic structure. Our results from generalized additive models point a significant link between extreme lagoonal environmental conditions (mainly maximum salinity) and P. marmoratus genetic composition. Thereby, these environmental features could be also acting on genetic structure of coastal lagoon populations of P. marmoratus favoring their genetic divergence. The mating strategy of P. marmoratus could be also influencing our results obtained from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Therefore, a special consideration must be done in the selection of the DNA markers depending on the reproductive strategy of the species.

  6. Asexual Queen Succession mediates an accelerated colony life cycle in the termite Silvestritermes minutus.

    PubMed

    Fougeyrollas, R; Křivánek, J; Roy, V; Dolejšová, K; Frechault, S; Roisin, Y; Hanus, R; Sillam-Dussès, D

    2017-03-09

    Mixed modes of reproduction, combining sexual processes with thelytokous parthenogenesis, occur in all major clades of social insects. In several species of termites, queens maximize their genetic input into non-dispersing replacement queens through parthenogenesis, while maintaining genetically diverse sterile offspring and dispersing reproductives via sexual reproduction. This so-called Asexual Queen Succession (AQS) has multiple independent origins and its presumed advantages are diverse as well, ranging from multiplication of colony reproductive potential to extension of its lifespan beyond that of the foundress. However, how AQS shapes colony life cycles under natural conditions remains poorly known. The neotropical termite Silvestritermes minutus inhabits small but conspicuous nests, offering a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of AQS on life history. We report on its breeding system, life cycle and sex allocation using social structure census in 137 nests and genotyping of 12 colonies at 12 microsatellite loci. We show that colonies are established by an outbred pair of primary reproductives. In less than two years, the foundress is replaced by multiple neotenic queens, arising mostly through automixis with central fusion. Sterile castes, male and most (93%) female dispersers are produced sexually. Colony reproduction is usually restricted to a single dispersal of alates with unbiased sex ratio, taking place after three years. We conclude that S. minutus benefits from AQS to maximize colony growth rate and alate production within a very short life cycle rather than to extend colony lifespan. This highlights the versatile role of AQS in different cases of its polyphyletic origin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Dr. Nicholas Ionescu-Pallas at His 70-th Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Valentin I.

    The article is devoted to 70-th Anniversary of Dr. Nicholas Ionescu-Pallas (borne on July 30, 1932 in Pallas village close to the town of Constanţa, Romania as the son of Ion Ionescu and Maria Dincă), an outstanding Romanian physicist with contributuions in a large area of theoretical and experimental physics, from Theoretical Classical and Quantum Mechanics to General Relativity and Gravitation. He was graduated from the University of Bucharest (1955), a disciple of Professor Ion Agârbiceanu, Doctor of Physics in 1971. He is the author of more than 300 scientific papers and 3 fundamental monographs in these areas, unique in Romania, and of great international circulation. He was one of the creators of the First Romanian Laser. He was elected the Honorary President of the Romanian Society on Genereal Relativity and Gravitation. A great erudition by Ionescu-Pallas allowed him to make also contributions in History of Sciencs. He has been a member of the Academic Commitee for the Philosophy and history of science, of the European Physical Society (1971), of the European Group for Atomic spectroscopy (1970), of the Institute for Scientific Culture E. Majorana (1976), of the International Society of Gravitation and General Relativity (1978) and of the Astronomical Society of India (1982). He was a representative of the intellectuals in the Scientific Council of the Institute for Atomic Physics, 1970-1975; a member of the National Commitee for physics in 1970, and a member of the Coordinating Commitee for the Romanian Enclclopaedia of Physics in 1983. His biographical data are available in Men of Achievement, Who's Who in the World, and Short History of the Romanian Scientific and Technical Creativeness.

  8. Pallas From The NUV To IR: A 4-Telescope Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Britney E.; Thomas, P. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Li, J. Y.; McFadden, L. A.; Mutchler, M. J.; Parker, J. W.; Stern, S. A.; Hicks, M. D.

    2008-09-01

    In July through September of 2007, we observed the third largest asteroid 2 Pallas from NUV-IR with Hubble Space Telescope, Palomar Observatory's 200-inch Hale Telescope, IRTF and Table Mountain Observatory. Using WFPC2/PC on HST, we determined Pallas’ size, shape and rotation pole: 291 x 278 x 250 km(±9), RA= 42o, Dec=-12o, (±10o). Employing the mass estimate of 1.17x10-10 +/- 0.03 Msun [1], Pallas’ density then becomes 2747 +/- 290 kg/m3, intermediate between basaltic Vesta and icy Ceres. This size is larger than most previous measurements that range from 287 x 262 x 250.5 km, ±10; km [2] to 275±3; x 252.5±2; x 234±9; km [3], with densities from 2.95-3.44 g/cm3. We explore the implications of Pallas' size and density. Pallas’ surface from the UV to the IR was characterized using HST, TMO, IRTF and Palomar. We observed Pallas with WFPC2 in 5 filters from 336 to 814nm in September 2007, and include the 2001 WFPC2 data of Storrs from 439-1042nm. We combined these with observations from TMO and will present Pallas’ colors, reflectance and phase curve. We observe surface variation of 6% in the NUV-visible light curve amplitudes, greater than previous limits from ground based AO. We will also present photometry and a phase curve from Palomar in the near-IR. Pallas’ spectrum has long been known to contain hydrated minerals[4], and we obtained new spectra from IRTF in the 3-micron region centered at different sub-Earth latitudes and longitudes. The spectra are consistent with one another within uncertainties, suggesting similar amounts of hydrated minerals across Pallas' surface on regional and hemispheric scales. [1] Goffin, B. (2001) Astronomy & Astrophysics 365, 627-630. [2] Dunham et al. (1990) Astronomical Journal 99, 1636-1652. [3] Drummond, J. D., personal communication. [4] Larson, H.P., et al. (1979) Icarus 39, 257-271.

  9. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity.

    PubMed

    Basso, W; Edelhofer, R; Zenker, W; Möstl, K; Kübber-Heiss, A; Prosl, H

    2005-03-01

    Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schönbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens; 58 % of kittens died between the 2nd and the 14th week of life, mostly due to acute toxoplasmosis. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats was examined and a control strategy to protect the kittens from fatal toxoplasmosis was developed. One 12-week-old kitten from a litter of 6 born in 2001 died of generalized toxoplasmosis. This kitten had shed T. gondii oocysts that were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated in tissue culture inoculated with tissues of these mice. The surviving animals were immediately treated with clindamycin for 16 weeks; they acquired a natural infection and seroconverted by the end of this time without clinical signs.

  10. Interaction between digoxin and dronedarone in the PALLAS trial.

    PubMed

    Hohnloser, Stefan H; Halperin, Jonathan L; Camm, A John; Gao, Peggy; Radzik, David; Connolly, Stuart J

    2014-12-01

    Elevated serum digoxin concentration can cause toxicity, including death. Dronedarone increases digoxin concentration by P-glycoprotein interaction. In Permanent Atrial Fibrillation Outcome Study Using Dronedarone On Top Of Standard Therapy Trial (PALLAS), dronedarone was associated with both increased cardiovascular death and heart failure in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. The present analysis examines whether the dronedarone-digoxin interaction might explain these adverse outcomes. Subgroup analysis was performed to compare outcomes of patients on digoxin at baseline or not. In PALLAS, 1619 patients were randomized to dronedarone and 1617 to placebo, of whom 544 (33.6%) and 526 (32.5%) were receiving digoxin, respectively. Median (Q1,Q3) digoxin serum concentration on day 7 was 1.1 (0.7,1.5) ng/mL on dronedarone and 0.7 (0.5,1.1) ng/mL on placebo (P<0.001). Among patients on digoxin, there were 15 (8.6%/year) cardiovascular deaths on dronedarone and 2 (1.2%/year) on placebo (adjusted hazard ratio, 7.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.66-32.20; P=0.009). Among patients not on digoxin, there were 6 cardiovascular deaths on dronedarone (1.7%/year) and 8 on placebo (2.2%/year; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-1.95; P=0.46; interaction P value 0.01). In patients on digoxin, there were 11 arrhythmic deaths on dronedarone and none on placebo; and in patients not on digoxin, there were 2 arrhythmic deaths on dronedarone and 4 on placebo (P value for interaction 0.002). There was no interaction between baseline digoxin use and the adverse effect of dronedarone on heart failure events. In PALLAS, there was a strong effect of concurrent digoxin use on the adverse effect of dronedarone on cardiovascular death, but not on occurrence of heart failure. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01151137. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The size and shape of (2) Pallas from the 1983 occultation of 1 Vulpeculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, David W.; Dunham, Joan Bixby; Binzel, Richard P.; Evans, David S.; Freuh, Marian

    1990-01-01

    The analysis and results of an occultation of the spectroscopic binary star 1 Vulpeculae by the asteroid (2) Pallas, observed from 130 locations, are presented. Combination of solutions from this and previous occultations shows the triaxial shape of Pallas to be elongated, but not severely, with the ratio of the largest to the smallest axes being less than 1.15. The data provide a separation and a position angle of the secondary component of 1 Vulpeculae and indicate that the star's actual parallax is probably near 0.008 arcsec, half of the published value. The analysis gives a calibration of the accuracy and the reaction time corrections for visual observations of asteroidal occultations. The absence of any confirmed secondary extinctions shows that any satellites of Pallas must be rare or small. The photometric observations seem to rule out a substantial cloud of dust surrounding Pallas postulated previously.

  12. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  13. Germ cell dynamics during the annual reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Lia Raquel de Souza; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; de Oliveira, Classius

    2011-11-01

    Thirty male specimens of Dendropsophus minutus Peters, 1972, were collected from April 2004 to March 2005 in the region de Sao José do Rio Preto/SP, to conduct a histological study during the seasonal and annual cycles. Testicular activity was inferred based on the volume occupied by each type of cellular cyst present in the seminiferous tubules, as well as the quantity of germ cells in the final development stage, the spermatozoids. All data analyzed were correlated with climatic variables (temperature, rainfall and photoperiod) registered in the region where specimens were collected. A significant variation was verified in the quantity of spermatozoids as well as in the volume occupied by spermatids and spermatozoids throughout the year and between the cold/dry and hot/ humid seasons. It has also been reported that environmental conditions are important factors closely related to species reproduction and that production of germ cells and volume occupied by germ cysts is independent of anatomical aspect of the gonads. Thus, it was possible to verify that although the species reproduces throughout the year, individuals exhibit a preferential reproduction season, resulting in a reproductive (October to the end of February) and a post-reproductive period.

  14. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of Atrazine Atanor 50 SC on Dendropsophus minutus Peters, 1872 (Anura: Hylidae) developmental larval stages.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Macks Wendhell; Marins de Campos, Calebe Bertolino; Batista, Vinícius Guerra; da Cruz, Aparecido Divino; de Marco Junior, Paulo; Bastos, Rogério Pereira; de Melo E Silva, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    The potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine were investigated in different developmental stages of Dendropsophus minutus tadpoles. These animals were exposed to 4 nominal concentrations of atrazine (2.25, 4.5, 9, and 18 mg/L) and 40 mg/L of Cyclophosphamide as a positive control, for 96 h. Negative controls were also added to the experiment. The tadpoles were divided into three groups according to Gosner's developmental stages, namely GS 25-33 as premetamorphic, GS 36-39 as prometamorphic, and GS 42-43 as metamorphic climax. Our results showed that the premetamorphic and metamorphic stages were more sensitive than the prometamorphic stage to the herbicide. A comet assay and micronucleus test for the sensitive stages demonstrated DNA damage in a concentration-dependent curve. Although a dose-response effect was not observed for the prometamorphic stage, a statistically significant difference was found between the treatment of 18 mg/L and the negative control. Moreover, the highest concentration of atrazine showed both the largest amount of DNA damage and the highest micronucleus frequency regardless of the developmental stage of D. minutus. In conclusion, atrazine was genotoxic and mutagenic for D. minutus in a dose-sensitive manner, dependent on larval developmental stages. Considering the prometamorphic stages showed no dose-response effect to atrazine, we suggest caution when using this stage in biomonitoring studies in order to avoid false negative results. Amphibians have been proven to be useful bioindicators, and we suggest replicating biomonitoring studies using different species to represent ecosystems' environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-Specific Manipulation of Gammarid Behaviour by P. minutus Parasite Enhances Their Predation by Definitive Bird Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a “collateral damage”, manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  16. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  17. [Occurrence of Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus (Schneider, 1866) (Nematoda, Oxyuridae) in Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 (Primates, Atelidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Souza, Danielle de Paiva; Magalhães, Cecilia Maria da Fonseca Ribeiro; Vieira, Fabiano Matos; Souzalima, Sueli de

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to register the occurrence of Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus in Alouatta guariba clamitans, in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Two specimens of A. guariba clamitans, died accidentally, have been necropsied for parasitological studies. Only the large intestine and caecum were infected by T. minutus. The parasitism intensity was 6650 parasites and the density was 2.6 parasites/cm3 of large intestine. In the caecum, the mean intensity was 6753 +/- 490.73 parasites, with mean density of 6.23 +/- 5.13 parasites/cm3. The present study supplies information on adult nematodes biometry and this is the first record of T. (T.) minutus in A. guariba clamitans from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

  18. Myxobolus albi n. sp. (Myxozoa) from the Gills of the Common Goby Pomatoschistus microps Krøyer (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Picon-Camacho, Sara M; Holzer, Astrid S; Freeman, Mark A; Morris, David J; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    A recent investigation into the myxozoan fauna of common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, from the Forth Estuary in Scotland, revealed numerous myxosporean cysts within the gill cartilage. They were composed of polysporous plasmodia containing myxobolid spores that were morphologically different from the other known species of Myxobolus and from the myxosporeans previously recorded from this host (i.e. the ceratomyxid Ellipsomyxa gobii, infecting the gall bladder, and the kudoid Kudoa camarguensis, infecting the muscle tissues). Spores were ovoid, 9.4 x 9.1 microm with a thickness of 6.6 microm, with two pyriform polar capsules, the polar filaments of which had four to five turns. Molecular analysis of the parasite's small subunit rDNA region, based upon a contiguous sequence of 1,558 base pairs, discriminated it from other myxosporean species that have been characterized so far. A comparison of the spore morphology and the molecular sequences determined for this new isolate with other myxozoans described to date, confirmed its identity as a previously unknown myxobolid supporting the proposal that this isolate be elevated to the species level as a new species within the genus Myxobolus. A phylogenetic analysis places this new myxobolid, Myxobolus albi n. sp., in a basal position of a clade containing the majority of Henneguya spp. sequenced to date and various Myxobolus spp.

  19. Overlapping patterns of morphometric and genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean goby Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in Tunisian lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Randa; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hassine, Nesrine; Arculeo, Marco; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and morphological variations of Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 were studied in samples collected from three Tunisian lagoons. The morphological analysis included 18 morphometric measurements and was based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), whereas the genetic analysis was based on the 16S-rRNA and COI mitochondrial genes. Both analyses differentiated the populations and demonstrated consistently a well-supported differentiation between the western Mediterranean samples (Bizerta and Tunis South lagoons) and the eastern Mediterranean sample (El Bibane lagoon). The observed differentiation could be explained in terms of the geographic isolation of the various populations and the influence of environmental factors, which differ greatly between the different sites. The molecular results revealed that the populations are characterised by unique haplotypes which are well defined in relation to limited gene flow and restricted dispersal abilities. Additionally, it seems that local selective pressures have modelled biometrical variation. Morphological results can reflect a differential habitat use revealed in the cephalic features and a different response to hydrodynamic constraints developed in dissimilar dorsal and pelvic fin lengths. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Ellipsomyxa gobii (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei: Gobiidae) uses Nereis spp. (Annelida: Polychaeta) as invertebrate hosts.

    PubMed

    Køie, Marianne; Whipps, Christopher M; Kent, Michael L

    2004-03-01

    Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller and N. succinea Frey et Leuckart (Polychaeta, Nereidae) living in brackish shallow areas in Denmark are naturally infected with tetractinomyxon actinospores. Infected Nereis spp. were experimentally fed to various potential fish hosts, and the actinosporean stages developed into myxosporean stages of Ellipsomyxa gobii Køie, 2003 (Ceratomyxidae) in the gallbladder of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) (Gobiidae). The European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.), three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L., small sand eel Ammodytes tobianus L., flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), European plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. and common sole Solea solea (L.) did not become experimentally infected. In Danish shallow brackish areas P. microps is naturally infected with E. gobii, in some areas with a prevalence >90%. We compared small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of the actinosporean with E. gobii from P. microps. Sequences were identical, which further verifies that both forms belong to the same organism. This is the first myxozoan two-host life cycle in the marine environment.

  1. Penial morphology in three species of Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    PubMed

    Rocha-Barbosa, O; Bernardo, J S L; Loguercio, M F C; Freitas, T R O; Santos-Mallet, J R; Bidau, C J

    2013-02-01

    The present study analyses the glans penis and baculum morphology of three Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830, Ctenomys minutus Nehring, 1887 and Ctenomys flamarioni Travi, 1981, in order to identify possible variations and understand some more about this taxonomically complex group. We used fixed penis from 15 previously listed adult specimens. For a more detailed baculum analysis, the penis underwent dissection and diaphanisation, whereas to analyse the glans penis surface we used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed striking differences in baculum morphology among the three species. While C. minutus have a particular V-shaped proximal baculum tip, C. flamarioni baculum is thin throughout the shaft with rounded proximal and distal tips. Ctenomys torquatus have a shorter and larger baculum, similar to what has previously been described for the species. Glans penis surface microstructure analyses also revealed inter-specific differences, with penial spines varying in shape, size and, especially density. Although C. torquatus has a relatively small penis, it has the largest penial spine density, which suggests a more complex penial ornamentation in this species.

  2. Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus (Schneider, 1866) among Alouatta guariba clamitans (Cabrera, 1940) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alynne da Silva; Dib, Laís Verdan; Uchôa, Claudia M Antunes; Bastos, Otilio Machado Pereira; Pissinatti, Alcides

    2017-03-27

    This study reports on infection by Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) minutus among Alouatta guariba clamitans through biometry on adults and eggs. A total of 58 adult helminths were recovered from the small segment of the animal's large intestine. This study is the first report of this parasite among A. guariba clamitans in Rio de Janeiro.

  3. Speciation and host-parasite relationships in the parasite genus Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Platyhelminthes) infecting gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus (Gobiidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Huyse, Tine; Audenaert, Vanessa; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2003-12-01

    Using species-level phylogenies, the speciation mode of Gyrodactylus species infecting a single host genus was evaluated. Eighteen Gyrodactylus species were collected from gobies of the genus Pomatoschistus and sympatric fish species across the distribution range of the hosts. The V4 region of the ssrRNA and the internal transcribed spacers encompassing the 5.8S rRNA gene were sequenced; by including published sequences a total of 30 species representing all subgenera were used in the data analyses. The molecular phylogeny did not support the morphological groupings into subgenera as based on the excretory system, suggesting that the genus needs systematic revisions. Paraphyly of the total Gyrodactylus fauna of the gobies indicates that at least two independent colonisation events were involved, giving rise to two separate groups, belonging to the subgenus Mesonephrotus and Paranephrotus, respectively. The most recent association probably originated from a host switching event from Gyrodactylus arcuatus, which parasitises three-spined stickleback, onto Pomatoschistus gobies. These species are highly host-specific and form a monophyletic group, two possible "signatures" of co-speciation. Host specificity was lower in the second group. The colonising capacity of these species is illustrated by a host jump from gobiids to another fish order (Anguilliformes), supporting the hypothesis of a European origin of Gyrodactylus anguillae and its intercontinental introduction by the eel trade. Thus, allopatric speciation seems to be the dominant mode of speciation in this host-parasite system, with a possible case of sympatric speciation.

  4. [Mycobacteria in the digestive tract of pink Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas)].

    PubMed

    Rollin, P E; Rollin, D; Baylet, R; Johnson, A R

    1981-01-01

    Cloacal swabs were taken from 37 young wild Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas) in Camargue (South of France). Neither pathogenic strain, nor environmental one were found. The absence of the latter could be attributed to the high NaCl levels of the ecosystems.

  5. Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Koch; Robert C. Venette; William D. Hutchison

    2006-01-01

    The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, has recently been detected in South America after successfully invading North America and Europe. This coccinellid is a voracious predator; therefore, it is popular and effective in biological control. Unfortunately, H. axyridis also has associated...

  6. Radar Observations of Asteroids 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, and 4 Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Ostro, Steven J.; Hudson, R. Scott; Rosema, Keith D.; Campbell, Donald B.; Velez, Reinaldo; Chandler, John F.; Shapiro, Irwin I.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Yeomans, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    Asteroids 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, and 4 Vesta were observed with the 13-cm Arecibo radar and the 3.5-cm Goldstone radar during several apparitions between 1981 and 1995. These observations help to characterize the objects' surface properties. Echoes from Ceres and Pallas are approximately 95% polarized (muon(sub C) = sigm(sub SC)/sigma(sub OC) equivalent to 0.05) in the sense expected for specular (mirror) reflection yet broadly distributed in Doppler frequency, thus revealing surfaces that are smoother than the Moon at decimeter scales but much rougher (rms slopes > 20 deg) on larger scales. Slopes on Ceres appear to be somewhat higher when viewed with the 3.5-cm wavelength, a trend that is observed for the terrestrial planets and the Moon. In contrast, echoes from Vesta are significantly depolarized, indicating substantial near-surface complexity at scales near 13 cm (muon(sub C) = 0.24 +/- 0.04) and 3.5 cm (muon(sub C) = 0.32 +/- 0.04), which is probably a consequence of Vesta's relatively strong basaltic surface material and may be a signature of large impact features inferred to be present on the surface. The low radar albedos of Ceres (circumflex-sigma(sub C) = 0.042 +/- 0.006) and Pallas (circumfle-sigma(sub C) = 0.075 +/- 0.011) are in the range expected for surfaces with a carbonaceous chondrite mineralogy. Pallas' distinctly higher albedo implies a approximately 35% higher surface density, which could result from a lower regolith porosity and/or a higher specific gravity (zero-porosity density). Given a porosity of 45%, the specific gravities of the surface materials on Ceres and Pallas would be approximately 2.3 and approximately 3.0 g/cc, respectively, which would be consistent with (1) the presence of an additional silicate component on Pallas' surface (as inferred from spectroscopic observations) and (2) recent mass estimates, which suggest a higher mean (volume-averaged) density for Pallas than for Ceres.

  7. Effects of multi-stressors on juveniles of the marine fish Pomatoschistus microps: Gold nanoparticles, microplastics and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Carvalho, Felix; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on multi-stressors effects required for environmental and human risk assessments is still limited. This study investigated the combined effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), microplastics (MP) and temperature increase on Pomatoschistus microps, an important prey for several higher level predators, including some species edible to humans. Four null hypotheses were tested: H01: P. microps juveniles do not take up Au-NP through the water; H02: Au-NP (ppb range) are not toxic to juveniles; H03: the presence of MP do not influence the effects of Au-NP on juveniles; H04: temperature increase (20-25°C) does not change the effects of the tested chemicals on juveniles. Wild juveniles were acclimated to laboratory conditions. Then, they were exposed to Au-NP (≈5nm diameter) and MP (polyethylene spheres, 1-5μm diameter), alone and in mixture, at 20°C and 25°C, in semi-static conditions. After 96h of exposure to Au-NP, fish had gold in their body (0.129-0.546μg/g w.w.) leading to H01 refusal. Exposure to Au-NP alone caused a predatory performance decrease (≈-39%, p<0.05) leading to H02 refusal. MP did not change the Au-NP toxicity leading to H03 acceptance. Temperature rise significantly increased the concentration of gold in fish exposed to Au-NP (≈2.3 fold), and interacted with chemical effects (e.g. glutathione S-transferases activity) leading to H04 refusal. Thus, the results of this study highlight the importance of further investigating the effects of multi-stressors on marine fish, particularly the effects of temperature on the uptake, biotransformation, elimination and effects of nanoparticles and microplastics, either alone or in mixture. This knowledge is most important to improve the basis for environmental and human risk assessments of these environmental contaminants of high concern.

  8. Molecular and morphological comparisons between Gyrodactylus ostendicus n. sp. (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and G. harengi Malmberg, 1957 on Clupea harengus membras L.

    PubMed

    Huyse, Tine; Malmberg, Göran

    2004-06-01

    Gyrodactylus ostendicus n. sp. was exclusively found on fins of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer). The haptoral hard parts are among the smallest described for species of Gyrodactylus. A presumed similarity between the new species and G. harengi Malmberg, 1957 (subgenus Metanephrotus Malmberg, 1964) encouraged a comparative approach. A morphological analysis showed the marginal hook sickles of G. ostendicus to be of quite a different type and similar to those of G. arcuatus Bychowsky sensu Bychowsky & Poljansky (1953) (subgenus Mesonephrotus Malmberg, 1964). The new species has a pharynx with short pharyngeal processes. Its protonephridial system has small bladders, indicating an association with the subgenera Mesonephrotus or Metanephrotus. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, including all of the species of Mesonephrotus and Metanephrotus currently available on the GenBank database, suggested that the new species belongs to Mesonephrotus. Combined morphological and molecular studies of the new species show that G. ostendicus is more closely related to G. arcuatus than to G. harengi.

  9. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness.

  10. Detection of seasonal weight loss and a serologic survey of potential pathogens in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) of the Daurian Steppe, Russia.

    PubMed

    Naidenko, Sergey V; Pavlova, Ekaterina V; Kirilyuk, Vadim E

    2014-04-01

    We measured seasonal changes in body mass and pathogen exposure in wild Pallas' cats (Felis [Otocolobus] manul) in the Daurian Steppe of Russia in 2010-11. Pallas' cats lost about 30% of body mass over winter. Tests for antibodies to 15 potential pathogens showed that Pallas' cats were exposed to four pathogens. Two of 16 cats had antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Two had antibodies to Mycoplasma sp., and one each had antibodies to Influenza A virus and Feline leukemia virus. The percentage of antibody-positive wild Pallas' cats was lower than results reported for other wild felids in the Russian Far East.

  11. New Light on the Evolutionary History of the Common Goby (Pomatoschistus microps) with an Emphasis on Colonization Processes in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tougard, Christelle; Folly, Joy; Berrebi, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Through the study of the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps, the influence of Quaternary climatic changes on the evolutionary history of coastal and marine fishes is investigated. Because of its sedentary life cycle in Mediterranean lagoons, it is also a good model to study more specifically if the formation of lagoons during the Holocene had an impact on population structure and demography. Mitochondrial sequences of Northeastern Atlantic and Western Mediterranean specimens were used for phylogenetic reconstructions as well as divergence time estimates, demographic history and population structure analyses. Pomatoschistus microps was a highly supported monophyletic clade including four lineages. It may have appeared 77,000 yr ago, and the divergence of its lineages likely occured shortly thereafter (between 61,000 and 54,000 yr). Most lineages had polytomic topologies, low nucleotide diversity and demographic analyses providing evidence of population expansion. Each lineage was characterized by a large number of private haplotypes. Most haplotypes found in Mediterranean localities were endemic, and one was dominant. Complex reticulated relationships connecting North European, Atlantic and Mediterranean haplotypes were observed. Moderate to high population structure was underlined. Contrary to previous published studies, no significant differentiation was observed between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations, indicating that the Gibraltar Strait is not a phylogeographic break for P. microps. Indeed, molecular dating combined with the tree topologies, phylogeographic and demographic analyses as well as high haplotype diversity underline a recent and rapid population divergence during the last glacial. However, population structure indicates that differentiation is an ongoing process. From an ancestral population trapped in the Atlantic, this goby colonized first northern Europe and later the Mediterranean

  12. New light on the evolutionary history of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps) with an emphasis on colonization processes in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Tougard, Christelle; Folly, Joy; Berrebi, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Through the study of the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps, the influence of Quaternary climatic changes on the evolutionary history of coastal and marine fishes is investigated. Because of its sedentary life cycle in Mediterranean lagoons, it is also a good model to study more specifically if the formation of lagoons during the Holocene had an impact on population structure and demography. Mitochondrial sequences of Northeastern Atlantic and Western Mediterranean specimens were used for phylogenetic reconstructions as well as divergence time estimates, demographic history and population structure analyses. Pomatoschistus microps was a highly supported monophyletic clade including four lineages. It may have appeared 77,000 yr ago, and the divergence of its lineages likely occured shortly thereafter (between 61,000 and 54,000 yr). Most lineages had polytomic topologies, low nucleotide diversity and demographic analyses providing evidence of population expansion. Each lineage was characterized by a large number of private haplotypes. Most haplotypes found in Mediterranean localities were endemic, and one was dominant. Complex reticulated relationships connecting North European, Atlantic and Mediterranean haplotypes were observed. Moderate to high population structure was underlined. Contrary to previous published studies, no significant differentiation was observed between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations, indicating that the Gibraltar Strait is not a phylogeographic break for P. microps. Indeed, molecular dating combined with the tree topologies, phylogeographic and demographic analyses as well as high haplotype diversity underline a recent and rapid population divergence during the last glacial. However, population structure indicates that differentiation is an ongoing process. From an ancestral population trapped in the Atlantic, this goby colonized first northern Europe and later the Mediterranean

  13. Fluctuating asymmetry in grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pallas, 1811 inhabiting polluted and unpolluted area in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Lotfi; Guarred, Taher; Hamza, Asma; Messaoudi, Imed; Hellal, Ahmed Noureddine

    2014-08-15

    Fluctuating asymmetry, a random deviation of bilateral traits, is assessed on grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pallas, 1811 living in one disturbed site and in one unpolluted site Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia). Statistical analysis showed that assessed asymmetries are fluctuating. FA of orbital diameter, sub-orbital distance, pectoral fin and post-orbital length are higher in polluted site compared to control. Chemical pollution seems to be responsible for this high FA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Pallas's squirrel Callosciurus erythraeus (Rodentia: Sciuridae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lanlin; Peng, Rui; Zou, Fangdong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pallas's squirrel (Callosciurus erythraeus) from Sichuan Province was sequenced and characterized in detail. It was 16,550 bp in length and composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 control region. The mitochondrial genome of C. erythraeus presented in this report will be useful for species identification, genetic variability and clarifying the controversial taxonomic status of genus Callosciurus.

  15. Purification and characterization of a novel antinociceptive peptide from venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Li, Mingyang; Chen, Xuelan

    2013-04-01

    Venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas can control severe pain such as cancer pain and neuropathic pain, but it is made up of complicated components. Aim of this study is to separate major analgesic fraction from venom of A. halys Pallas, and to reveal its biochemical and pharmacological properties. Three steps with ion exchange column first and molecular sieve columns next were used to separate and purify the fractions of venom. Analgesic effects were evaluated by hot plate tests and writhing tests in mice. The molecular weight (MW), isoelectric point, amino acid sequence, purity were respectively determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, Edman degradation and HPLC. The dependence and tolerance were observed by withdrawal test in rats, and analgesic effects were observed in mice during 7 days administration. Fourteen fractions were obtained by separation; the best analgesic fraction named Pallanalgesin was selected by ED50 and LD50. It had single band in electrophoresis, relative purity 92.16 %, MW 16.6 kDa, isoelectric point 8.8, and former sequence of ten amino acids H-L-L-Q-F-R-K-M-I-K. It showed significant analgesic effect without tolerance and dependence. As a novel analgesic, Pallanalgesin has been found to explain the function of venom of A. halys Pallas on severe pain control in traditional uses.

  16. Seasonal Variation in the Food Habits of the Eurasian Harvest Mouse (Micromys minutus) from Western Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamao, Kanako; Ishiwaka, Reiko; Murakami, Masaru; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2016-12-01

    A previous quantitative analysis of the food composition of the Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) in Japan showed that it is insectivorous and granivorous. This supports the expectation that such a small mammal requires highly nutritious foods. Other studies have analyzed the feces of harvest mice, but these were only collected during winter in order to minimize disturbance of the animals. In the present study, we collected samples from all four seasons in order to understand changes in diet throughout the year. Results showed apparent seasonal differences in the diet of harvest mice. Insects accounted for ca. 30% of the diet in summer and autumn and seeds increased from 27% in winter to 50% in spring, suggesting the insectivorous nature of the harvest mouse in summer and autumn and graminivorous nature in winter and spring. These results strongly suggest that the harvest mouse is an opportunistic feeder. It has previously been thought that the harvest mice capture insects in the stalk zone of tall grassland community, but here, DNA analysis shows that harvest mice feed on ground-dwelling invertebrates, such as pill bugs (Armadillidium sp.) and carrion beetles (Calosilpha sp. or Ptomascopus sp.). This suggests that the harvest mouse goes down to the ground to feed on them.

  17. Post-hatching growth and development of the pectoral and pelvic limbs in the black noddy, Anous minutus.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael B

    2008-06-01

    The black tern (Anous minutus) uses a semi-precocial growth strategy. Terrestrial locomotor capacity occurs soon after hatching, but pectoral limb development is delayed and flight is not possible until about post-hatching day 50. A growth series (hatchlings to fledglings) was used to explore how limb musculoskeletal development varied with body mass. In the pelvic limb, bone lengths scaled isometrically or with negative allometry. Gastrocnemius muscle mass and the failure load and stiffness of the tibiotarsus scaled isometrically. In the pectoral limb, pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle masses increased with strong positive allometry that was mirrored by increases in wing bone strength and stiffness. Bending strength (sigma(ult)) and modulus (E) remained fairly constant throughout development to fledging for all limb bones. The moment of inertia (I) scaled with negative allometry for the tibiotarsus and with strong positive allometry in the wing bones. Differences in sigma(ult) and E of the tibiotarsus between pre-fledged chicks and adults was due, primarily, to increases in bone density rather than increases in the moment of inertia of the skeletal elements, whereas sigma(ult) of wing bones was a function of increases in both bone density and I. Early development of functional pelvic limbs in tree-nesting birds is relatively unusual, and presumably reflects a familial trait that does not appear to compromise breeding success in this species.

  18. The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus).

    PubMed

    Lopes, C M; Ximenes, S S F; Gava, A; de Freitas, T R O

    2013-10-01

    Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype-polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers (ANs) ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex geological history, with several potential geographical barriers acting on different time scales. We assessed the geographical genetic structure of C. minutus, examining 340 individuals over the entire distributional range and using information from chromosomal rearrangements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 14 microsatellite loci. The mtDNA results revealed seven main haplogroups, with the most recent common ancestors dating from the Pleistocene, whereas clustering methods defined 12 populations. Some boundaries of mtDNA haplogroups and population clusters can be associated with potential geographical barriers to gene flow. The isolation-by-distance pattern also has an important role in fine-scale genetic differentiation, which is strengthened by the narrowness of the coastal plain and by common features of subterranean rodents (that is, small fragmented populations and low dispersal rates), which limit gene flow among populations. A step-by-step mechanism of chromosomal evolution can be suggested for this species, mainly associated with the metapopulation structure, genetic drift and the geographical features of the southern Brazilian coastal plain. However, chromosomal variations have no or very little role in the diversification of C. minutus populations.

  19. The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, C M; Ximenes, S S F; Gava, A; de Freitas, T R O

    2013-01-01

    Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype–polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers (ANs) ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex geological history, with several potential geographical barriers acting on different time scales. We assessed the geographical genetic structure of C. minutus, examining 340 individuals over the entire distributional range and using information from chromosomal rearrangements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 14 microsatellite loci. The mtDNA results revealed seven main haplogroups, with the most recent common ancestors dating from the Pleistocene, whereas clustering methods defined 12 populations. Some boundaries of mtDNA haplogroups and population clusters can be associated with potential geographical barriers to gene flow. The isolation-by-distance pattern also has an important role in fine-scale genetic differentiation, which is strengthened by the narrowness of the coastal plain and by common features of subterranean rodents (that is, small fragmented populations and low dispersal rates), which limit gene flow among populations. A step-by-step mechanism of chromosomal evolution can be suggested for this species, mainly associated with the metapopulation structure, genetic drift and the geographical features of the southern Brazilian coastal plain. However, chromosomal variations have no or very little role in the diversification of C. minutus populations. PMID:23759727

  20. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance.

  1. A refined 'standard' thermal model for asteroids based on observations of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Sykes, Mark V.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of ground-based thermal IR observations of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in light of their recently determined occultation diameters and small amplitude light curves has yielded a new value for the IR beaming parameter employed in the standard asteroid thermal emission model which is significantly lower than the previous one. When applied to the reduction of thermal IR observations of other asteroids, this new value is expected to yield model diameters closer to actual values. The present formulation incorporates the IAU magnitude convention for asteroids that employs zero-phase magnitudes, including the opposition effect.

  2. Testing the FLI in the region of the Pallas asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorović, N.; Novaković, B.

    2015-08-01

    Computation of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI) is one of the most efficient numerical ways to characterize dynamical nature of motion and to detect phase-space structures in a large variety of dynamical models. Despite its effectiveness, FLI was mainly used for symplectic maps or simple Hamiltonians, but it has never been used to study dynamics of asteroids to a greater extent. This research shows that FLI could also be successfully applied to real (Solar system) dynamics. For this purpose, we focus on the main belt region where the Pallas asteroid family is located. By using the full Solar system model, different sets of initial conditions and different integration times, we managed not only to visualize a large multiplet of resonances located in the region, but also their structures, chaotic boundaries, stability islands therein and the positions of their mutual interaction. In the end, we have identified some of the most dominant resonances present in the region and established a link between these resonances and chaotic areas visible in our maps. We have illustrated that FLI once again has shown its efficiency to detect dynamical structures in the main belt, e.g. in the Pallas asteroid family, with a surprisingly good clarity.

  3. Genomic analyses of the Formosan harvest mouse (Micromys minutus) and comparisons to the brown Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Lin, Liang-Kong; Ma, Gwo-Chin; Chen, Tze-Ho; Lin, Wen-Hsiang; Lee, Dong-Jay; Wen, Pao-Ying; Wu, Sheng-Hai; Chen, Ming

    2013-10-01

    The harvest mouse, Micromys minutus (MMIN), has a very wide range of distribution (from the British Isles across the Euroasian continent to Japan and Taiwan). We studied an isolated population of MMIN in Taiwan, which is at the southeastern margin of the species' geographic distribution, and compared its genetic complement with those of the same species previously reported from other geographic locations and with two model rodent species, the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). The diploid number (2N) of MMIN was 68, consistent with that reported for other populations. However, variations were noted in the fundamental number (FN) and the shape and banding patterns of the individual chromosomes among populations. The FN of MMIN was estimated to be 72, including 2 bi-armed autosomes, 31 one-armed autosomes, and one pair of one-armed sex chromosomes. Here, we propose the first ideogram for MMIN. C-banding, Ag-NOR, and the locations of 18S rRNA gene sequences (MMIN chromosomes no. 10, 14, 19, 29, 31, 33, and X) mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are also reported. Additionally, we compared the 18S rDNA sequences and performed cross-species X chromosome painting (FISH) for M. minutus, M. musculus, and R. norvegicus. The results indicate that both genetic elements are rather conserved across species. Thus, implications for the phylogenetic position of Micromys were limited.

  4. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors.

  5. Floating marine litter as a raft for drifting voyages for Planes minutus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) and Liocarcinus navigator (Crustacea: Decapoda: Polybiidae).

    PubMed

    Tutman, P; Kapiris, K; Kirinčić, M; Pallaoro, A

    2017-07-15

    The Columbus crab Planes minutus and Arch-fronted swimming crab Liocarcinus navigator, within their distribution ranges in the Mediterranean, were found rafted on plastic macro-litter floating on the open south Adriatic. While P. minutus was recorded from inanimate flotsam outside of the Mediterranean, L. navigator is herein reported for the first time on floating marine litter. The role of floating litter as habitat or as a dispersal agent for marine invertebrates has received quite attention however, records of decapod crabs drifting on litter has been relatively sparse. Our results suggests that vast quantities of floating debris, comprised primarily of non-biodegradable plastic polymers, probably will augment natural floating substrates in the marine environment, potentially facilitating the spread of invasive species. The dispersion of rafting crabs through floating debris should be investigated given the high potential ecological risk of invasion by exotic species due to the increase in waste production (ecological risk assessment). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new species of the genus Promacrolaelaps (Acari: Laelapidae) associated with Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.

  7. Species composition and dietary relationships in a brackish shallow water fish assemblage in the Bothnian Sea, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan; Wiederholm, Anne-Marie

    1984-09-01

    A nearshore fish assemblage inhabiting a shallow bay in the southern Bothnian Sea, Sweden, with demanding environmental conditions (c. 5‰; >15°C during 4 months 1980 and 1 month 1981) was studied during a two-year period, in 1980 and 1981. Seasonal distribution patterns, dietary relationships, and growth rates were studied in Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas.), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The structure of the juvenile populations changed both over seasons and years but the adult populations remained constant. Lower water temperature, fewer individuals, lower and delayed fish growth, and lower interspecific food overlaps were found in 1981 compared to 1980. Few significant correlations were found in both years between the following community parameters: diversity, niche width, food overlap, and the proportion of each species in the fish assemblage. According to these results it is suggested that food competition and resource partitioning were of minor importance for the structuring of the fish community in the present area. Rather, the extreme salinity and the fluctuations in temperature regulated the fish populations. One may conclude that the populations of juveniles were more influenced by short-term changes in the environment than those of the adults.

  8. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  9. Impact of chemical exposure on the fish Pomatoschistus microps Krøyer (1838) in estuaries of the Portuguese Northwest coast.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M; Quintaneiro, C; Nogueira, A J A; Morgado, F; Soares, A M V M; Guilhermino, L

    2007-01-01

    Juveniles of the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps were collected from autumn 2001 to summer 2002 in five stations along the Portuguese Northwest coast with different types and/or levels of environmental contamination: two reference sites with low levels of contamination (R1 and R2) and three differently impacted areas with higher levels of contamination. UI is located in an estuary under the influence of urban and industrial effluents, AA in a channel that receives intensive agriculture run-off and IE in a highly impacted industrial area. The activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) were used as environmental biomarkers on P. microps. A significant seasonality effect on all the enzymatic activities was found, lower levels being registered in winter and spring on AChE, in autumn on LDH, and in winter on GST and EROD. The battery of biomarkers used was capable of discriminating sites with different types and/or levels of contamination, R1 and UI being the highest discriminated (91.7% and 66.7%, respectively). At R1 significantly lower levels of AChE and LDH were found, and EROD was significantly inducted at UI. Furthermore, IE presented higher levels of GST, and R2 and AA an inhibition of AChE in winter and spring. The results indicated that the battery of biomarkers used in this study seems to be a useful tool to distinguish between different types of environmental contamination in estuarine systems, and that P. microps is a suitable species to be used as bioindicator.

  10. An abundant small sized fish as keystone species? The effect of Pomatoschistus microps on food webs and its trophic role in two intertidal benthic communities: A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockberger, Moritz; Kellnreitner, Florian; Ahnelt, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild; Asmus, Harald

    2014-02-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) was used to study the effects of Pomatoschistus microps on energy transport through the food web, its impact on other compartments and its possible role as a keystone species in the trophic webs of an Arenicola tidal flat ecosystem and a sparse Zostera noltii bed ecosystem. Three ENA models were constructed: (a) model 1 contains data of the original food web from prior research in the investigated area by Baird et al. (2007), (b) an updated model 2 which included biomass and diet data of P. microps from recent sampling, and (c) model 3 simulating a food web without P. microps. A comparison of energy transport between the different models revealed that more energy is transported from lower trophic levels up the food chain, in the presence of P. microps (models 1 and 2) than in its absence (model 3). Calculations of the keystone index (KSi) revealed the high overall impact (measured as εi) of this fish species on food webs. In model 1, P. microps was assigned a low KSi in the Arenicola flat and in the sparse Z. noltii bed. Calculations in model 2 ranked P. microps first for keystoneness and εi in both communities, the Arenicola flat and the sparse Z. noltii bed. Taken together, our results give insight into the role of P. microps when considering a whole food web and reveal direct and indirect trophic interactions of this small-sized fish species. These results might illustrate the impact and importance of abundant, widespread species in food webs and facilitate further investigations.

  11. Acute effects of Benzo[a]pyrene, anthracene and a fuel oil on biomarkers of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, L R; Sousa, A; Frasco, M F; Lima, I; Morgado, F; Guilhermino, L

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two different PAHs and a complex petrochemical mixture on the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps, using selected biomarkers as effect criteria. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and anthracene were used as reference substances, while the water accommodated fraction of #4 fuel-oil (#4 WAF) was used as an example of a petrochemical mixture. P. microps was used since it is both a suitable bioindicator and a good test organism. Groups of fish were exposed to different concentrations of each of the test substances for 96 h and the activities of several enzymes commonly used as biomarkers were determined at the end of the bioassays. All the substances inhibited P. microps acetylcholinesterase (AChE) indicating that they have at least one mechanism of neurotoxicity in common: the disruption of cholinergic transmission by inhibition of AChE. An induction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was found in fish exposed to BaP or to anthracene, suggesting an increase of the anaerobic pathway of energy production. On the contrary, inhibition of LDH was found in fish exposed to #4 WAF, suggesting a distinct effect of the mixture. An induction of P. microps glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was found in fish exposed to BaP or to #4 WAF, while an inhibition was observed after exposure to anthracene. These results suggest that GST is involved in the detoxification of BaP and #4 WAF, but not of anthracene. All the substances increased catalase activity and isolated PAHs also increased superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, while #4 WAF did not cause significant alterations on these enzymes. These results suggest that all the substances may induce oxidative stress on P. microps, with BaP and anthracene apparently having more oxidative stress potential than #4 WAF.

  12. Does Manila clam cultivation affect habitats of the engineer species Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?

    PubMed

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Retière, Christian; Olivier, Frédéric

    2008-08-01

    The major French site of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeves, 1850) cultivation is located in the Chausey Archipelago where the associated practices are highly mechanized: every steps of production are made with tractor-driven machinery. The Manila clam concessions are concentrated on Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) bioherms, which are known to increase alpha-diversity and to locally modify sediment dynamics. This study focus on the impacts of Manila clam cultivation on (i) the natural populations of L. conchilega and on (ii) the structure of the associated benthic assemblages during the different steps of the farming production cycle. We found that the L. conchilega populations are significantly affected within the concessions where their total abundances drastically decrease, their spatial patterns are modified and the associated benthic assemblages are significantly altered. Our results are discussed in a context of a sustainable management of the Manila clam cultivation in coastal areas.

  13. Rabies in the insectivorous Pallas's mastiff bat (Molossus molossus) in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Jeann Leal; Nascimento, Eduardo Melo; Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Galiza, Glauco José N; Pedroso, Pedro Miguel Ocampos; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-10-01

    We describe the pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in five cases of rabies in the insectivorous Pallas's mastiff bat (Molossus molossus) in the city of Patos, state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. All cases were found during the day, in different neighborhoods, prostrate and unable to fly. No significant lesions were observed at necropsy or on histologic examination. The brains of the five bats showed strong immunohistochemical labeling for rabies virus in the form of large corpuscles or multiple clusters of granules within the perikarya of neurons in different areas of the brain, mainly in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Three bats tested by direct immunofluorescence and mouse inoculation were also positive for rabies. These data demonstrate that M. molossus may be infected with the rabies virus and develop rabies, even without histologic lesions in the central nervous system, and can be a source of infection for humans and domestic animals.

  14. Reproduction of the estuarine and marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas) in laboratory for toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Peters, Carolin; Ahlf, Wolfgang

    2005-04-01

    The acute whole sediment bioassay with the estuarine and marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas) is broadly used within Europe. Hitherto, the test is carried out with field-collected animals. In order to provide a more standardized and continuously available test organism reproduction and growth experiments were performed for a period of one year in laboratory under simulated summer conditions (light/dark 16:8 at 15, 19, and 23 degrees C). C. volutator was the first time reproduced successfully in laboratory for several generations and independent from its natural life cycle also in winter. The females produced two to three broods with a mean number of 96 offspring. A mean growth rate of 0.07 mm per day was determined at 15 degrees C. The reproduction and growth experiments provide consequently the essential base for the development of a chronic toxicity test with C. volutator.

  15. Secondary new particle formation in Northern Finland Pallas site between the years 2000 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kivekäs, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Komppula, M.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-09-01

    Secondary new particle formation affects atmospheric aerosol and cloud droplet numbers and thereby, the aerosol effects on climate. In this paper, the frequency of nucleation events and the associated particle formation and growth rates, along with their seasonal variation, was analysed based on over ten years of aerosol measurements conducted at the Pallas GAW station in northern Finland. The long-term measurements also allowed a detailed examination of factors possibly favouring or suppressing particle formation. Effects of meteorological parameters and air mass properties as well as vapour sources and sinks for particle formation frequency and event parameters were inspected. In addition, the potential of secondary particle formation to increase the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sized particles was examined. Findings from these long-term measurements confirmed previous observations: event frequency peaked in spring and the highest growth rates were observed in summer, affiliated with increased biogenic activity. Events were almost exclusively observed in marine air masses on sunny cloud-free days. A low vapour sink by the background particle population as well as an elevated sulphuric acid concentration were found to favour particle formation. These were also conditions taking place most likely in marine air masses. Inter-annual trend showed a minimum in event frequency in 2003, when also the smallest annual median of growth rate was observed. This gives further evidence of the importance and sensitivity of particle formation for the condensing vapour concentrations at Pallas site. The particle formation was observed to increase CCN80 (>80 nm particle number) concentrations especially in summer and autumn seasons when the growth rates were the highest. When the growing mode exceeded the selected 80 nm limit, on average in those cases, 211 ± 114 % increase of CCN80 concentrations was observed.

  16. Secondary new particle formation in Northern Finland Pallas site between the years 2000 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, E.; Kivekäs, N.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Komppula, M.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hatakka, J.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Secondary new particle formation affects atmospheric aerosol and cloud droplet numbers and thereby, the aerosol effects on climate. In this paper, the frequency of nucleation events and the associated particle formation and growth rates, along with their seasonal variation, was analysed based on over ten years of aerosol measurements conducted at the Pallas GAW station in northern Finland. The long-term measurements also allowed a detailed examination of factors possibly favouring or suppressing particle formation. Effects of meteorological parameters and air mass properties as well as vapour sources and sinks for particle formation frequency and event parameters were inspected. In addition, the potential of secondary particle formation to increase the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sized particles was examined. Findings from these long-term measurements confirmed previous observations: event frequency peaked in spring and the highest growth rates were observed in summer, affiliated with increased biogenic activity. Events were almost exclusively observed in marine air masses on sunny cloud-free days. A low vapour sink by the background particle population as well as an elevated sulphuric acid concentration were found to favour particle formation. These were also conditions taking place most likely in marine air masses. Inter-annual trend showed a minimum in event frequency in 2003, when also the smallest annual median of growth rate was observed. This gives further evidence of the importance and sensitivity of particle formation for the condensing vapour concentrations at Pallas site. The particle formation was observed to increase CCN80 (>80 nm particle number) concentrations especially in summer and autumn seasons when the growth rates were the highest. When the growing mode exceeded the selected 80 nm limit, on average in those cases, 211 ± 114% increase of CCN80 concentrations was observed.

  17. Ultrastructure of the oocyst wall formation in Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917, a coccidian parasite of Glossobalanus minutus (Kow.) (Enteropneusta, Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, I; Benito, J; Pardos, F

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the developing oocyst of Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917 was studied from the ventral digestive epithelium of the hepatic region of Glossobalanus minutus (Enteropneusta). A possible building mechanism of the oocyst wall is deduced and discussed from the present data and the available literature. During oocyst wall formation a total of 5 membranes were observed at or near the surface of the parasite among which some wall-forming materials will be stored. The origin and fate of such wall-forming materials are discussed and compared with data from other coccidians. The apparently full-formed wall is made up of an outer, dense layer, a median layer showing a labyrinthic-tubular lattice substructure, and an inner, homogeneous and osmiophilic layer. A micropyle measuring 0.35 micron in diameter is also described.

  18. The valid generic name for red-backed voles (Muroidea: Cricetidae: Arvicolinae): restatement of the case for Myodes Pallas, 1811

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Michael D.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Pavlinov, Igor Ya.; Musser, Guy G.

    2014-01-01

    In view of contradictions in the recent literature, the valid genus-group name to be applied to northern red-backed voles—Myodes Pallas, 1811, or Clethrionomys Tilesius, 1850—is reviewed. To develop the thesis that Myodes (type species, Mus rutilus Pallas, 1779) is the correct name, our discussion explores the 19th-century taxonomic works that bear on the relevant taxa, the transition in zoological codes apropos the identification of type species, and past nomenclatural habits in cases where no type species was originally indicated. We conclude that Myodes is the senior name to use for the genus-group taxon that includes the Holarctic species rutilus and frame this conclusion within a synonymy of the genus.

  19. DNA polymorphism among barley NILs of cv. Pallas, carrying genes for resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei).

    PubMed

    Czembor, Paweł Cz; Czembor, Jerzy H

    2004-01-01

    Barley powdery mildew, caused by the pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is an important disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to detect DNA polymorphism among 7 Pallas near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying Mla3, Mla12, Mlk, Mlp, Mlat, Mlg and MlLa genes for resistance to B. graminis f. sp. hordei. From among 500 random 10-mer primers tested, 3 were specific for NIL P2 (Mla3), 1 for P10 (Mla12), 6 for P17 (Mlk), 46 for P19 (Mlp), 4 for P20 (Mlat), 6 for P21 (Mlg), and 4 for P23 (MlLa). The results of this study demonstrated that the RAPD technique is a useful tool for detecting DNA polymorphism among Pallas NILs.

  20. 10 years of cloud droplet activation data from Pallas, Northern Finland - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivekäs, Niku; Asmi, Eija; Brus, David; Komppula, Mika; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Activation of atmospheric aerosol particles into cloud droplets has been studied in situ at Pallas measurement station in Finnish Lapland from year 2005 to present day. The site is located on a hill top, about 300 m above the surrounding lowlands, and it is inside a cloud for 15 % of time. Here in-cloud periods are defined as periods when visibility was below 1000 m. There are two parallel Differential Mobility Particle Sizers (DMPS) at the site, measuring the number concentration and dry size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. One DMPS is connected to a PM2.5 inlet, the other to a total air inlet with no cut-off diameter. After each inlet the particles are dried to evaporate any water in them. This way it is possible to measure simultaneously the dry number-size-distribution of all particles, and that of particles with wet diameter smaller than 2.5 m. As the latter does not include cloud droplets, the difference between the two measurements represents the number concentration and size distribution of those particles that have activated into cloud droplets. The number concentration of particles at Pallas has a clear seasonal cycle, being highest during summer and lowest during winter. The monthly mean number concentration of particles with diameter larger than 100 nm varied from 38 cm-3 in November to 270 cm-3 in July. During in-cloud periods the monthly mean number concentration of activated particles of this same size class showed a similar pattern, varying from 23 cm-3 (November) to 110 cm-3 in April. The monthly mean D50 activation diameter (diameter at which 50 % of particles activate) varied from 85 nm (February) to 189 nm (July), showing an average 0.1 nm increase for each added particle with diameter > 100 nm. The activated fraction of particles in all sizes decreased sharply when visibility exceeded 1000 m. The highest activated fractions of particles were not observed during the periods of the thickest clouds, but during clouds with in

  1. Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948.

    PubMed

    Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H

    2015-09-16

    Cercariae and metacercariae of three species of the Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 were found in snails and crustaceans from tributaries of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948, which have previously been reported in Queensland, were found as cercariae in the tateid gastropod Posticobia brazieri (Smith) and as metacercariae of M. brevisacciferum in the atyid shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman and of M. minutus in the parastacid crayfish Cherax dispar Reik. Combined analysis of morphological and molecular data, based on newly generated ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data, linked cercariae and metacercariae for both species. This is the first report of the first intermediate hosts of M. brevisacciferum and M. minutus. Infections of another unidentified microphallid metacercariae, Microphallidae gen. sp., were found in P. brazieri and C. indistincta. The sequences of metacercarial isolates from both hosts were identical. The data on the Microphallidae from Australia and species that develop in freshwater invertebrates were examined in detail.

  2. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  3. Skull Anatomy and Ontogeny of Legless Lizard Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775): Heterochronic Influences on Form.

    PubMed

    Klembara, Jozef; Dobiašová, Karolína; Hain, Miroslav; Yaryhin, Oleksandr

    2017-03-01

    Pseudopus apodus (Pallas, 1775) is the largest extant legless species of the subfamily Anguinae (Anguimorpha, Anguidae) living mostly in the sub-arid territories ranging from the Balkan area in Europe to Kazakhstan in Asia. The species of other two genera live in North America, South-East Asia and North Africa (Ophisaurus) and Europe and South-West Asia (Anguis). The interrelationships of Anguinae are unresolved; this is in part the consequence of the insufficient knowledge of the cranial, postcranial and integumentary anatomy of the individual anguine species. The aim of this article is to fulfill this gap in our knowledge of the anguine anatomy. Now, in the first part of the project, the individual bones of the exocranium and visceral endocranium of the anguine legless lizard P. apodus are described in detail. In the present study, P. apodus is revealed to have autoapomorphic features of the skull which clearly distinguish it from Anguis and Ophisaurus. In addition, the study of posthatchling ontogeny of exocranium of P. apodus revealed some features, such as a nasal process of premaxilla being slightly widened in about its mid-length, that are also typical for adults of the Ophisaurus and Anguis species as well as extinct species of Pseudopus. This strongly indicates that peramorphic heterochronic process played role in the evolution of the P. apodus skull. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:460-502, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Viper metalloproteinase (Agkistrodon halys pallas) with antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Chow, Vincent T K; Ho, Bow

    2008-07-01

    Metalloproteinases are abundant enzymes in crotalidae and viperidae snake venoms. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) comprise a family of zinc-dependent enzymes, which display many different biological activities. A 23.1 kDa protein was isolated from Agkistrodon halys (pallas, Chinese viper) snake venom. The toxin is a single chain polypeptide with a molecular weight of 23146.61 and an N-terminal sequence (MIQVLLVTICLAVFPYQGSSIILES) relatively similar to that of other metalloprotein-like proteases isolated from the snake venoms of the Viperidae family. The antibacterial effect of Agkistrodon halys metalloproteinase (AHM) on Burkholderia pseudomallei (strains TES and KHW), Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacterium) was studied at a concentration 120 microM. Interestingly, we found that the metalloproteinase exhibited antibacterial properties and was more active against S. aureus, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis and multi-drug resistant B. pseudomallei (strain KHW) bacteria. AHM variants with high bacteriostatic activity (MIC 1.875-60 microM) also tended to be less cytotoxic against U-937 human monocytic cells up to 1 mM concentrations. These results suggest that this metalloprotein exerts its antimicrobial effect by altering membrane packing and inhibiting mechanosensitive targets. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  6. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  7. Invasions by Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Western Hemisphere: implications for South America.

    PubMed

    Koch, Robert L; Venette, Robert C; Hutchison, William D

    2006-01-01

    The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), native to Asia, has recently been detected in South America after successfully invading North America and Europe. This coccinellid is a voracious predator; therefore, it is popular and effective in biological control. Unfortunately, H. axyridis also has associated adverse impacts (i.e., as a household pest, pest of fruit production, and threat to non-target organisms). To predict the potential geographic extent of impacts of H. axyridis in South America we review the history of its invasion in the Western Hemisphere and address various factors critical to the future invasion (i.e., arrival, establishment, and spread) of new areas of South America. The likelihood of continued introductions (i.e., arrival) of H. axyridis to South America seems high, due to its popularity as a biological control agent and through accidental introductions. Establishment also seems likely in broad regions of South America. Climate matching with the native range suggested that much of southern South America may be suitable for establishment. In contrast, habitat matching with the native range suggested that northern South America may be more suitable. In addition, prey availability should not limit establishment of this predator. Once established, H. axyridis seems likely to spread by flight and human-assisted means. Overall, the invasion of H. axyridis over broad areas in South America seems likely.

  8. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis pallas, to sesquiterpene semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Verheggen, François J; Fagel, Quentin; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Lognay, Georges; Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric

    2007-11-01

    The role of two volatile sesquiterpenes, (E)-beta-farnesene and (-)-beta-caryophyllene, in the chemical ecology of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, was investigated by using both electrophysiological and behavioral techniques. (E)-beta-Farnesene is the major component of the alarm pheromone of most aphid species, which are preyed on by H. axyridis. (-)-beta-Caryophyllene was previously isolated from the headspace volatiles above overwintering and aggregated H. axyridis females. These sesquiterpenes elicited significant electroantennogram (EAG) activity from both H. axyridis male and female antennae. In a four-arm olfactometer, male and female H. axyridis were highly attracted toward (E)-beta-farnesene, whereas only males were attracted to (-)-beta-caryophyllene. In a bioassay technique that used a passively ventilated plastic box, both male and female H. axyridis aggregated in the (-)-beta-caryophyllene-treated side of the box. These results support the potential usefulness of (E)-beta-farnesene and (-)-beta-caryophyllene in push-pull strategies that use H. axyridis as a biological control agent in aphid-infested sites or to control this new urban pest in residential structures.

  9. Seasonal movements and migration of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus from Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Douglas, D.C.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Palm, E.C.; Newman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the seasonal movements and migration often Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus trom Qinghai Lake to assess migratory routes and stopover areas. Each individual was captured and equipped with an 18 g solar-powered Platform Transmitter Terminal (PIT) to track its movements from September 2007 to May 2008. Six individuals remained near Qinghai Lake until the PTTs stopped transmitting. Three individuals flew 50-330 km from Qinghai Lake to nearby salt lakes. One individual departed on 8 December and flew over 1,700 km south-west to arrive at coastal Bangladesh on 9 January 2008. Two individuals flew in October to the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India, remaining in the area for at least one month until one stopped transmitting. The second individual travelled southwest to coastal Bangladesh. Of the two individuals overwintering in Bangladesh, one remained for 67 days before migrating north. The second bird departed after 96 days, and it returned to Qinghai on 10 May 2008 after 48 days in migration. Both individuals that overwintered in coastal Bangladesh arrived much later than the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HP AI H5N I) in poultry in 2007. This disparity in timing would tentatively suggest that this species was not involved in long-distance movements of the virus. Instead, the converse may be true: previous work demonstrates the potential for virus spill-over trom poultry into gulls and other wild bird species upon arrival into locations with widespread HPAI H5NI outbreaks and environmental contamination.

  10. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  11. Effects of mercury on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas).

    PubMed

    Linšak, Željko; Linšak, Dijana Tomić; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Glad, Marin; Milin, Čedomila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate risks of long-term exposure to mercury in hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas), with a chemical-analytical approach evaluating median mass fraction of toxic mercury in the hares organs (liver, kidney, muscle and brain). To obtain better insight into possible effects of mercury, the study included screening of the oxidative status after long term exposure to low concentrations of mercury. Hares organs were analyzed for total mercury concentration by AAS. Glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes status was also investigated. The median mercury concentrations (wet weight) in the liver, kidney, muscle and brain of the hares ranged from 0.058-0.189, 0.138-0.406, 0.013-0.046 and 0.022-0.102 μg/g respectively. Concentration of the glutathione (GSH), glutathione-peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-reductase (GR) activity increased with the mercury concentration. However, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity decreased with the mercury concentration. The results of this study show the impact of environmentally absorbed mercury on the antioxidant status of the examined hares. Further research on long-term exposure to low concentrations of mercury is needed.

  12. Genetic variability and phylogeography of the invasive zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Astanei, Iulian; Gosling, Elizabeth; Wilson, Jim; Powell, Eithne

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), a bivalve species originally native to the Black and Caspian seas, has invaded Ireland in the last decade. Five microsatellite loci were used to investigate genetic diversity and population structure in 10 populations across Europe (Ireland, UK, the Netherlands and Romania) and the Great Lakes (Lake Ontario and Lake St Clair). Levels of allelic diversity and mean expected heterozygosity were high for all populations (mean number of alleles/locus and H(E) were 10-15.2 and 0.79-0.89, respectively). High levels of polymorphism observed in Irish populations suggest that the Irish founder population(s) were large and/or several introductions took place after foundation. Significant deficits of heterozygotes were recorded for all populations, and null alleles were the most probable factor contributing to these deficits. Pairwise comparisons using Fisher exact tests and F(ST) values revealed little genetic differentiation between Irish populations. The UK sample was not significantly differentiated from the Irish samples, most probably reflecting an English origin for Irish zebra mussels. No significant differentiation was detected between the two Great Lakes populations. Our data support a northwest rather than a central or east European source for North American zebra mussels.

  13. Chromosome homology between mouse and three Muridae species, Millardia meltada, Acomys dimidiatus and Micromys minutus, and conserved chromosome segments in murid karyotypes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Taro; Matsubara, Kazumi; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Tsuchiya, Kimiyuki; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    Comparative chromosome painting with mouse (Mus musculus, MMU) chromosome-specific DNA probes was performed for three Muridae species, the Indian soft-furred field rat (Millardia meltada), the spiny mouse (Acomys dimidiatus) and the harvest mouse (Micromys minutus). All probes except for the Y probe were successfully hybridized to the chromosomes of all species, and homologous chromosome segments between mouse and the three species were identified at the molecular level. Comparison of our data with the published data of six other genera (Mus, Rattus, Apodemus, Otomys, Rhabdomys and Cricetulus) of the Muridae suggested that the associations MMU1b/17a, 2b/13a, 5b/11a, 7/19, 10b/17b, 10c/17c, 11b/16a, 12/17d and 13b/15, and the single painted chromosomes and chromosome segments MMU3, 4, 5a, 8a, 8b, 16b, 18 and X were probably contained by the ancestral karyotype of the Muridae, and have been strongly conserved throughout murid evolution.

  14. Do weaponless males of the hermit crab Pagurus minutus give up contests without escalation? Behavior of intruders that lack their major cheliped in male-male contests.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Chiaki I; Koga, Tsunenori

    2016-01-01

    In dyadic contests, theoretical studies have predicted that weaker contestants are less likely to engage in fights to minimize the cost of aggression. Since the major cheliped of decapod crustaceans is critically important as a weapon, contestants without a major cheliped should be more likely to give up the contests. We therefore examined whether loss of the major cheliped by the hermit crab Pagurus minutus would affect their decision to escalate male-male contests over guarded females. Intruders without a major cheliped showed no difference in the frequency of escalation compared with intact intruders, and the decision to give up was affected by the body size difference between the contestants. After escalation, compared with intact intruders, intruders without a major cheliped had significantly decreased success of takeover of a female from opponents, suggesting a strong disadvantage of losing their major cheliped. Although the decision of weaponless intruders to escalate seems irrational, several factors, such as poor accuracy of resource holding potential assessment, the influence of body size, and a high benefit to cost ratio of male-male contests, may have affected their behavior.

  15. Description of Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Anseriformes, Anatidae) in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Marinova, Margarita H; Georgiev, Boyko B; Vasileva, Gergana P

    2015-07-01

    Diorchis thracica n. sp. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Hymenolepididae) is described from the ruddy shelduck Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas) (Aves, Anseriformes, Anatidae), collected in the vicinities of Radnevo, Stara Zagora Region, Bulgaria. The new species is differentiated from other members of Diorchis Clerc, 1903 by possessing rostellar hooks with length of 36 µm, a thick-walled cirrus-sac with strong longitudinal muscular fibres in its middle part and a copulatory vagina with two sphincters. Main morphological criteria for distinguishing species of the genus Diorchis are discussed.

  16. Ambient flow velocity and resulting clearance rates of the terebellid polychaete Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, L.; Desroy, N.; Ropert, M.

    2007-10-01

    A laboratory flume study was conducted to determine the effect of flow velocity on clearance rates of the Polychaeta Terebellidea Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1966). Using sets of 75 individuals collected along the east coast of the English Channel, we measured clearance rates at five flow velocities of ≈4, 9, 15, 22 and 27 cm s - 1 with a culture of the diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans as food source. During each control (without polychaetes) or clearance (with Lanice conchilega) experiment, in vivo fluorescence was continuously monitored. Further HPLC analysis confirmed the sediment resuspension for the highest flow velocities tested, indicating the need for 'corrections' from control experiments. The global pattern resulted in a dome-shaped curve, with a corrected clearance rate per individual increasing with flow velocity from an average value of 0.091 ± 0.041 L h - 1 gDW - 1 at 4 cm s - 1 up to a maximal value of 0.171 ± 0.046 L h - 1 ind - 1 at 15 cm s - 1 and decreasing for higher flow velocity (0.063 ± 0.029 L h - 1 ind - 1 at 27 cm s - 1 ). When normalised to average Dry Weight (DW), the clearance rates varied in a wider range, with maximal clearance rates of up to 0.749 L h - 1 gDW - 1 and a marked dome-shaped structure for small individuals (11.9 ± 5.4 mg Ash Free Dry Weight), whereas larger individuals (up to 30 mg AFDW) showed maximal clearance rates of around 0.400 L h - 1 gDW - 1 . Our results indicate the need to take flow velocity into account in estimating the ecological impact of filter-feeding polychaetes on available food, as large budget underestimates may arise from clearance rates measured in non-controlled flow velocity.

  17. Thermal Emission Spectra of Phobos, Vesta, Ceres, and Pallas: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet, visual, and near-infrared spectra of Phobos, obtained by Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiters, were interpreted to suggest a compositional similarity with carbonaceous chrondrites. Such a composition would be inconsistent with the moon's origin in the proto-Mars region, as Mars is composed chiefly of differentiated silicates. This interpretation was used to suggest that the moons originated in the main-asteroid belt, with subsequent capture and orbital evolution into their current locations. Interpretations of more recent visual and near-infrared spectra, obtained by Phobos-2 and Mars Pathfinder, have demonstrated that the Phobos spectrum is more similar to spectra of other classes of asteroids and lunar soils. If lunar mare soil is the correct analogy, then such a composition suggests a formation of Phobos from materials similar to that on Mars, i.e. basalts, and would not require a dynamically difficult capture and orbital evolution. During the science phasing orbits of the Mars Global Surveyor mission Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of Phobos were acquired at each of four encounters. The spectral variability observed for localized surface regions on Phobos has been previously reported and is greatest near the northern wall of Stickney crater. Interpretation of the thermal infrared spectra of airless bodies, based upon most existing laboratory measurements, is complicated by the absence of interstitial gases on the celestial objects that would act to minimize potential thermal gradients in the upper layers of the surface. As an aid to interpretation of the TES Phobos spectra are compared to telescopic and airborne thermal infrared spectra of asteroids from several classes, including Ceres (G), Pallas (B), and Vesta (V). The asteroid spectra provide a direct analogy to the physical situation encountered at the surface of Phobos, albeit different thermal gradients may exist for each surface. This work is supported by NASA RTOP's 344

  18. Role of long-chain hydrocarbons in the aggregation behaviour of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Durieux, Delphine; Fischer, Christophe; Brostaux, Yves; Sloggett, John J; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Vandereycken, Axel; Joie, Emilie; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J

    2012-06-01

    The multicoloured Asian ladybirds, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), form large aggregations inside dwellings to survive cold winters, causing annoyance to householders due to their abundance, allergenic properties and problems consequent on reflex bleeding. Flight to overwintering sites and macrosite choice of this species is well documented. H. axyridis shows a hypsotactic behaviour and a clear preference for contrasting visual elements. However, how the microsite is selected remains undocumented, although a better understanding of the factors implicated could lead to the development of new control methods for this pest. In this work, we hypothesised that non-volatile compounds are involved in the microsite choice and aggregation of this beetle. Long chain hydrocarbons were identified at aggregation sites, comprising saturated and unsaturated homologues. An aggregation bioassay was then conducted on overwintering individuals, highlighting the retention capacity of the identified compounds on the tested ladybirds. Additional investigations showed that H. axyridis males and females, originating from overwintering sites, deposit a similar blend of molecules while walking. A Y-shaped tube assay revealed that this blend is used by male and female congeners as cue allowing individuals to orientate towards the treated side of the olfactometer. These results suggest the use of two different blends of long chain hydrocarbons by H. axyridis during its aggregative period, the first one to lead conspecifics towards aggregation sites (microsites) and the second to ensure the cohesion of the aggregation. These findings support the potential use of these blends, in association with volatiles, in the design of traps in order to control infestations of this species in dwellings.

  19. Naphthalene disrupts pheromone induced mate search in the amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Krång, Anna-Sara

    2007-11-15

    Many crustaceans communicate with pheromones during mating. In the infaunal amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas), females release gender-specific waterborne pheromones that guide males in their search for receptive burrowed females. Pollutants that affect the pheromone release or impair the ability of males to detect and respond to chemosensory cues, could profoundly affect mating. C. volutator is commonly found on shallow soft sediments in estuaries and coastal waters, and their reproductive season coincides with intense traffic of leisure boats, which discharge high concentrations of fuel into the water and sediment of these areas. This study shows that sublethal exposure to naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundant in motor fuel, disturbs chemical communication in C. volutator. This was demonstrated in Y-maze bioassays, where males were allowed to follow female pheromones after separately exposing the males or females to naphthalene spiked sediments (0, 0.5, 5 or 50 microg g(-1) dw, nominal concentrations) for 3 days. The results show that exposure to naphthalene at the two lower concentrations significantly affects the males' response to female pheromones (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Male search activity was reduced by 27-45% and males could no longer find females by the use of the olfactory sense. Analysed sediment samples, however, indicate that the naphthalene concentrations causing this effect were 2-20 times lower than nominal concentrations. At the highest naphthalene treatment, no significant difference from the controls was found, probably explained by a different exposure regime for these amphipods since they seemingly avoided burrowing in sediments. Female C. volutator produce and release pheromones, despite naphthalene exposure. Disrupted chemical communication in C. volutator may affect the reproductive fitness of males and females with possible consequences for populations in contaminated areas.

  20. Thermal Emission Spectra of Phobos, Vesta, Ceres, and Pallas: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet, visual, and near-infrared spectra of Phobos, obtained by Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiters, were interpreted to suggest a compositional similarity with carbonaceous chrondrites. Such a composition would be inconsistent with the moon's origin in the proto-Mars region, as Mars is composed chiefly of differentiated silicates. This interpretation was used to suggest that the moons originated in the main-asteroid belt, with subsequent capture and orbital evolution into their current locations. Interpretations of more recent visual and near-infrared spectra, obtained by Phobos-2 and Mars Pathfinder, have demonstrated that the Phobos spectrum is more similar to spectra of other classes of asteroids and lunar soils. If lunar mare soil is the correct analogy, then such a composition suggests a formation of Phobos from materials similar to that on Mars, i.e. basalts, and would not require a dynamically difficult capture and orbital evolution. During the science phasing orbits of the Mars Global Surveyor mission Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of Phobos were acquired at each of four encounters. The spectral variability observed for localized surface regions on Phobos has been previously reported and is greatest near the northern wall of Stickney crater. Interpretation of the thermal infrared spectra of airless bodies, based upon most existing laboratory measurements, is complicated by the absence of interstitial gases on the celestial objects that would act to minimize potential thermal gradients in the upper layers of the surface. As an aid to interpretation of the TES Phobos spectra are compared to telescopic and airborne thermal infrared spectra of asteroids from several classes, including Ceres (G), Pallas (B), and Vesta (V). The asteroid spectra provide a direct analogy to the physical situation encountered at the surface of Phobos, albeit different thermal gradients may exist for each surface. This work is supported by NASA RTOP's 344

  1. Bi-autogenous ovarian cycles in Egyptian Aedes caspius Pallas (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Farid, H A; Gad, A M; Hassan, M M

    1989-01-01

    Autogenous Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius Pallas from Aswan deposits 1 to 2 egg batches without a blood meal. Repeated ovarian developmental cycles were responsible for the bi-ovipositional pattern as indicated by the presence of 2 dilatations in the ovariolar pedicel of bi-autogenous females and by the early stages of development of the ovaries (II and II B) observed 1-3 days following initial oviposition, later stages of maturation occurred progressively. Three levels of autogeny were distinguished within the population: mono-autogenous females that deposited 1 egg batch and were unable to initiate further oogenesis (54.4%), mono-autogenous females in which various degrees of vitellogenesis developed posterior to initial sole oviposition (40%) and bi-autogenous females (5.6%) that deposited 2 autogenous egg batches but were unable to develop any further oogenesis. The fecundity of mono-autogenous females (about 56 eggs) whether they could develop a 2nd autogenous cycle or not, was comparable to that of bi-autogenous mosquitoes in their initial egg batch (53 eggs), suggesting that ability to develop a subsequent autogenous follicular cycle is determined by factors independent of nutrient reserves accumulated during the larval stage. The 2nd egg batch of bi-autogenous females was smaller (21 eggs) than the initial batch. The total reproductive effort of bi-autogenous individuals (about 74 eggs) was superior to that of mono-autogenous females. However, bi-autogenous females laid the totality of their eggs within about 16 days, whereas the average initial gonotrophic cycle of mono-autogenous females was 6 days. It is concluded that bi-autogeny in Ae. caspius would be of little value in the population increase although it may contribute maintaining the species when the host is not available.

  2. High efficiency protocol of DNA extraction from Micromys minutus mandibles from owl pellets: a tool for molecular research of cryptic mammal species.

    PubMed

    Buś, Magdalena M; Zmihorski, Michał; Romanowski, Jerzy; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Cichocki, Jan; Balčiauskas, Linas

    2014-01-01

    Owl pellets have high potential as a source of DNA. However, this noninvasive method of collecting DNA is rarely used, and its methodological aspects are poorly understood. We investigated the methodology for DNA extraction and amplification from owl pellets containing the smallest European rodent-the Harvest mouse Micromys minutus-as an example. We used mandibles identified in owl pellets for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA amplification. For DNA extraction, we tested two commercial protocols and utilized a protocol being a combination of two commercial kits which ensured high efficiency of DNA extraction. Additionally, we recorded that the amount of DNA was five times higher in extracts from teeth as compared to DNA extracts from jawbones derived from the same mandible. The quantity of DNA was significantly positively correlated with biological sample weight; however, the age of the pellet remains had an impact on the level of inhibition. We recorded inhibition in 40 % of mtDNA extracts derived from pellets older than 150 months, whereas in DNA extracts from pellets younger than 80 months, we did not observe a negative impact of inhibition on PCR efficiency. The amplification success rate was 89.9 % for the mitochondrial fragment and 39.4 % in the case of the nuclear fragment. We observed partial degradation of DNA evidenced by the fact that the longest fragments that we were able to amplify in the case of mtDNA were 450 and 200 bp for nuDNA. The study shows that pellets can be considered as a source of DNA and have high potential for molecular research in the case of threatened species and species that are difficult to study using standard field techniques.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep) - numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, L.; Bielecka, L.; Mudrak, S.

    2006-07-01

    A population dynamics model for copepods is presented describing a seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdansk Deep). The copepod model was coupled with an one-dimensional physical and biological upper layer model for nutrients (total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate), phytoplankton, microzooplankton and an early juvenile of herring as predator. In this model, mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods) has been introduced as animals having definite patterns of growth in successive stages, reproduction and mortality. The populations are represented by 6 cohorts in different developmental stages, thus assuming, that recruitment of the next generation occurs after a fixed period of adult life. The copepod model links trophic processes and population dynamics, and simulates individual growth within cohorts and the changes in biomass between cohorts. The simulations of annual cycles of copepods contain one complete generation of Pseudocalanus and two generations of Acartia in the whole column water, and indicate the importance of growth of older stages of 6 cohorts each species to total population biomass. The peaks of copepods biomass, main, at the turn of June and July for Pseudocalanus and smaller, in July for Acartia, lag that phytoplankton by ca. two mouths due to growth of cohorts in successive stages and egg production by females. The numerical results show that the investigated species could not be the main factor limiting the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Gdansk Deep, because the initial development was slow for Acartia and faster for Pseudocalanus, but main development formed after the bloom, in both cases. However, the simulated microzooplankton biomass was enough high to conclude, in our opinion, that, in this case, it was major cause limiting phytoplankton bloom. Model presented here is a next step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the southern Baltic Sea interact

  4. Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; de León, J.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Kelley, M. S. P.; Hanuš, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. B-type asteroids constitute a peculiar spectral class within the C-complex. Previous work has pointed out the difference between the visible geometric albedos of B-types and those of the Pallas collisional family (PCF), whose few members with observed spectra are B-types (one exception out of eight objects). This has been interpreted as being due to compositional differences. However, the PCF members are typically smaller than the spectroscopically classified B-types, and the following possibilities have not been ruled out: the albedo differences might be related to a size-albedo dependence and/or to the generally larger errors of the WISE data and best-fitting values of the derived parameters expected for smaller objects. Aims: We compare albedos and beaming parameters of PCF members and B-types of similar sizes and re-examine our conclusion on the different composition of the PCF. Methods: By modelling their WISE/NEOWISE data, we derived sizes and albedos of all objects whose Sloan Digital Sky Survey reflectances are similar to the typical B-type reflectance spectra. In particular, we derived the so-called infrared beaming parameters (η), effective diameters (D), and corresponding visible geometric albedos (pV), and studied their value distributions. Results: We obtained the effective diameter and geometric visible albedo for ~600 B-type asteroids whose sizes range between 2 and 100 km, approximately half of which have fitted η-values that are inversely correlated to size. We found that the albedo distributions of the PCF is significantly different from that of other B-types in the same size range (2-20 km), and we rule out any size-albedo dependency or biases related to the lower quality of the pV-values of smaller objects. In addition, we also found differences between the η-value distribution of the PCF and the other similarly-sized B-types. Conclusions: The differences in the visible albedos of PCF members and the other B-types of similar sizes is

  5. Genomic organization, expression and antimicrobial activity of a hepcidin from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Shaowu; Zhao, Jingzhuang; Liu, Hongbai; Lu, Tongyan; Yin, Jiasheng

    2016-09-01

    Hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide, plays a crucial role in innate immune system of teleost fish. As a cysteine-rich peptide, hepcidin possesses a dual function including iron regulation and innate immunity. In the present study, a full-length hepcidin cDNA (HtHep) was cloned and characterized by RT-PCR and RACE techniques from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas), which is a type of rare, precious and cold-water fish species in China. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 267 bp encoding 88 amino acid (aa), with 170 bp located in the 5(') untranslated region (UTR) and 151 bp in the 3' UTR. The genomic sequences analysis showed that the HtHep gene consisted of three exons and two introns (with the length 94 and 251 bp, respectively). With a predicted molecular mass of 2881.4 Da and a theoretical pI of 8.53, the deduced amino acid encodes a signal peptide of 24 aa, prodomain of 39 aa and mature peptide of 25 aa. The signal peptidase (SA-VP) and the motif RX (K/R)R of propeptide convertase suggested the cleavage site of signal and mature peptide. Eight conserved cysteine residues were also identified and formed four disulfide bonds. Pair-wise alignments showed that HtHep clustered together with two fish species of Salmonidae family (Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss) in HAMP1 branch. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of HtHep were detected in a wide range of tissues and the highest level was detected in the liver. Its expression was also detected early during embryonic stage and could be up-regulated in the liver when challenged with pathogenic bacteria (Yersinia ruckeri). The recombinant HtHep (rHtHep) had antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive (Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Our results suggested that HtHep might be involved in the innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens in taimen.

  6. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects.

  7. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Alberson, Neely R; Woodyard, Ethan T; Mischke, Charles C; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2016-07-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in some host records. In the summer of 2013, thirteen adult smallmouth buffalo were seined from a 0.1-acre (0.04-hectare) experimental research pond at the Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Two previously unknown species of Myxobolus were observed parasitising the gills. Plasmodia of the two species differed from each other in both size and shape. Morphologically the two species were distinct from one another and from other Myxobolus spp. previously reported from buffalo fish. Myxospores of Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. were spherical and measured 12.7-14.5 (13.9 ± 0.4) µm in length and 10.7-13.6 (12.5 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 10.3-14.8 (12.6 ± 2.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 5.6-7.4 (6.6 ± 0.4) µm in length and 3.7-4.9 (4.5 ± 0.8) µm in width and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Myxospores of Myxobolus minutus n. sp. were circular in shape and measured 7.4-9.6 (8.6 ± 0.7) µm in length and 7.5-9.9 (8.8 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 6.5-7.3 (6.7 ± 0.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 3.6-4.9 (4.3 ± 0.3) µm in length and 2.8-3.8 (3.3 ± 0.3) µm and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Supplemental 18S rRNA gene sequencing identified unique sequences for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences demonstrated a strong clustering of both isolates with other species of Myxobolus from cypriniform fish.

  8. Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep) - numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, L.; Bielecka, L.; Mudrak, S.

    2006-12-01

    A population dynamics model for copepods is presented, describing the seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep). The copepod model was coupled with a one-dimensional physical and biological upper layer model for nutrients (total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate), phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and an early juvenile of herring as a predator. In this model, mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods) has been introduced as an animal having definite patterns of growth in successive stages, reproduction and mortality. The populations are represented by 6 cohorts in different developmental stages, thus assuming that recruitment of the next generation occurs after a fixed period of adult life. The copepod model links trophic processes and population dynamics, and simulates individual growth within cohorts and the changes in biomass between cohorts. The simulations of annual cycles of copepods contain one complete generation of Pseudocalanus and two generations of Acartia in the whole column water, and indicate the importance of growth in the older stages of 6 cohorts of each species, to arrive at a total population biomass. The peaks of copepods' biomass are larger at the turn of June and July for Pseudocalanus and smaller in July for Acartia, lagging that of phytoplankton by ca. two mouths, due to the growth of cohorts in successive stages and egg production by females. The numerical results show that the investigated species could not be the main factor limiting the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Gdańsk Deep, because the initial development was slow for Acartia and faster for Pseudocalanus, but the main development formed after the bloom, in both cases. The phytoplankton bloom is very important in the diet of the adults of the copepods, but it is not particularly important for the youngest part of new generation (early nauplii). However, the simulated microzooplankton biomass was enough high to

  9. Observations of atmospheric methane concentrations and sources at two supersites Tiksi, northern Siberia and Pallas-Sodankylä, northern Finland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Aalto, T.; Lohila, A.; Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Ivakhov, V.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makshtas, A. P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Uttal, T.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic and Boreal regions are important in the global methane budget mainly because emissions are large from the extensive wetlands. Recently the potential for increased emissions from methane hydrates under sediments at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean has been recognized. Resource exploitation in the Arctic is expanding and includes gas and oil drilling. Together with climate warming, we may expect changes in methane emissions from high northern latitudes. The main tools to probe the effect of this development on atmospheric methane are atmospheric methane observations and local emission measurements by micrometeorological and chamber methods. To better understand emissions at small and large scales, so called supersites have been introduced. At these sites, both atmospheric concentrations and emissions from representative ecosystems, together with suite of other environmental information, are measured continuously. We are running two of these supersites: Pallas-Sodankylä in northern Finland and Tiksi in Siberia on the coast of the Laptev Sea. In spite of the fact that both sites are north of the Arctic Circle, environmental conditions differ very much. In northern Scandinavia, climate is relatively marine, and wetland methane emissions are active throughout the year. In continental Tiksi the active layer is 30-80 cm and methane emissions cease during the coldest months when soil temperature is close to -20°C. Air mass advection is either from continental Siberia or from the Siberian seas. Forest and tundra fires are relatively common. At Pallas, advection is from the forested boreal and industrialized areas of Europe or the Norwegian or Barents Sea. In this presentation, we show seasonal variations of atmospheric methane concentrations at World Meteorological Organization - Global Atmosphere Watch sites: Pallas-Sodankylä and Tiksi. Source areas have been analyzed by trajectories. The main sources of methane in Tiksi were wetlands and the Laptev Sea, which is

  10. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively.

  11. [Mitochondrial DNA genetic differentiation of the muksun Coregonus muksun (Pallas) and related Siberian species of Coregonus (Coredonidae, Salmoniformes)].

    PubMed

    Baldina, S N; Gordon, N Iu; Politov, D V

    2008-07-01

    Restriction enzyme analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragment encoding subunit 1 of the NADH dehydrogenase complex (ND-1) amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to obtain data on genetic differentiation of muksun Coregonus muksun (Pallas) populations. Population polymorphism with respect to the restriction sites of 18 endonucleases has been described. It has been demonstrated that the muksun is genetically related to the pidschian C. pidschian (Gmelin), its sympatric species in Siberian waters. Analysis of the median network of mtDNA haplotypes has shown that haplotypes of muksun from various Siberian basins form a common group with haplotypes of pidschian of the Arctic Ocean basin, some frequent haplotypes been found in both forms. This raises the question as to the validity of the muksun as a species. Differences within this group of haplotypes are much smaller than those typical of species of the genus Coregonus. The possibility of a hybrid origin of the muksun from a pidschian-like ancestor and species of the cisco-peled (C. sardinella-C. peled) complex is discussed.

  12. Pseudanthessius tortuosus Stock, 1967 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata (Pallas) in the western Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Rivera, Beatriz; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2008-03-01

    The copepod order Cyclopoida contains mainly forms that have been found as symbionts of different vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. One of these groups is the family Pseudanthessiidae, found mainly on echinoderms but very rarely on polychaetes. In this contribution, we report and confirm the occurrence of the pseudanthessiid copepod Pseudanthessius tortuosus Stock, 1967 as a symbiont of the benthic amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata (Pallas) in the western Caribbean. These specimens showed subtle morphological but important size differences with respect to the specimens from the type-locality in the eastern Caribbean. Data are provided on the sex-ratio, the distribution of the copepods on the polychaete body and the finding of pairs in amplexus. The position of the copepods on the body, mainly on the dorsal branchiae, rather than on the lateral ones, allows them to avoid the friction related to the displacement mechanism of the polychaete, involving the lateral branchiae. This is the first record of the species and the symbiotic association in the western Caribbean and in Mexican waters. It is also recorded herein for the first time in the US Virgin Islands, near the type-locality. Hitherto, P. tortuosus has not been recorded since its original description forty years ago. This finding supports the hypothesis that this copepod is associated to H. carunculata throughout the entire Caribbean Basin, but its relation with other amphinomids remains unconfirmed.

  13. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  14. Influence of cadmium on metallothionein expression and products of lipid peroxidation in the organs of hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas).

    PubMed

    Linšak, Dijana Tomić; Linšak, Zeljko; Spirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Glad, Marin; Cenov, Arijana; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Milin, Cedomila

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium occurs naturally in the environment and as an anthropogenic pollutant. Exposure to low concentrations of cadmium is inevitable and may produce toxic effects. Another important aspect of cadmium toxicity is its interaction, often antagonistic, with essential elements such as selenium. The aim of this study was to highlight the risks of long-term exposure to low cadmium concentrations, using a scientific and chemical approach and hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as model organisms in a field study. Two study areas were monitored. Levels of cadmium and selenium were quantified in the organs of hares, the expression of metallothioneins I + II and the products of lipid peroxidation were determined. The median cadmium concentrations (wet weight) in the muscle, liver, kidney and brain of hares from an exposed group ranged from 0.033 to 0.037, 0.763 to 1.054, 3.090 to 16.594 and 0.016 to 0.087 µg g(-1), respectively; whereas, the median selenium concentrations (wet weight) ranged from 0.100 to 0.108, 0.153 to 0.332, 0.677 to 0.701 and 0.078 to 0.116 µg g(-1), respectively. Expression of the metallothioneins I + II proteins was observed in tissues. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents, increased with the cadmium concentration. Further research on long-term exposure to low concentrations of cadmium in the environment is needed.

  15. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  16. Parasites of Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas 1814) and Neogobius kessleri (Guenther 1861) (Osteichthyes, Gobiidae) from the Danube River in Austria.

    PubMed

    Mühlegger, J M; Jirsa, F; Konecny, R; Frank, C

    2010-03-01

    Two invasive fish species, the round goby Apollonia melanostoma syn. Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas 1814) and the bighead goby Neogobius kessleri (Günther, 1861), have established a firm population in Austrian waters during the past 15 years. As there have been no records of the parasite fauna from these populations, a total of 79 specimens of A. melanostoma and 12 specimens of N. kessleri were examined for parasites between May and October 2007 from three different sampling sites from the Danube River in Austria. In total 12 parasite taxa were recovered. The protozoans Trichodina sp. and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis from the gills and skin; two crustacean species, Paraergasilus brevidigitus and Ergasilus sieboldi, from the gills; and the two monogeneans Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp., from the skin and gills respectively, all occurred at low prevalence and intensities. Furthermore, cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus lucii were found in the body cavity. Metacercariae of the digeneans Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata were found in the lens of the eye and the vitreous humour, respectively. Adults of two digeneans, Nicolla skrjabini and Bunodera nodulosa, were found in the intestine. In addition, during this survey metacercariae of the Holarctic digenean Bucephalus polymorphus, encysted in the skin and fins, with prevalence up to 78%, were recorded for the first time in Austria.

  17. Learning where to feed: the use of social information in flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Rose, Andreas; Kolar, Miriam; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-03-01

    Social learning is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates that influences various patterns of behaviour and is often reported with respect to foraging behaviour. The use of social information by foraging bats was documented in insectivorous, carnivorous and frugivorous species, but there are little data whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) can acquire information about food from other individuals. In this study, we conducted an experiment with a demonstrator-observer paradigm to investigate whether flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina) are able to socially learn novel flower positions via observation of, or interaction with, knowledgeable conspecifics. The results demonstrate that flower-visiting G. soricina are able to use social information for the location of novel flower positions and can thereby reduce energy-costly search efforts. This social transmission is explainable as a result of local enhancement; learning bats might rely on both visual and echo-acoustical perception and are likely to eavesdrop on auditory cues that are emitted by feeding conspecifics. We additionally tested the spatial memory capacity of former demonstrator bats when retrieving a learned flower position, and the results indicate that flower-visiting bats remember a learned flower position after several weeks.

  18. Morphological polymorphism in tapeworms: redescription of Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) and characterisation of its morphotypes from different fish hosts.

    PubMed

    Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Miklisová, Dana; Kirin, Diana; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-02-01

    Recent morphological and molecular data have shown that one of the most common parasites of freshwater fish in the Palaearctic Region, the cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (Eucestoda: Caryophyllidea), is highly polymorphic. Five distinct morphotypes of C. laticeps, largely corresponding to different fish hosts and representing separate, yet closely related genetic lineages, have been recognised and they are characterised in the present paper. Morphotype 1 from breams, Abramis brama (L.) (type-host) and Ballerus spp., corresponds to the original Taenia laticeps Pallas, 1781 and its neotype (paragenophore ex A. brama in Russia) is designated. This morphotype is characterised by a slender body and flabellate scolex. Morphotype 2 was found in the Macedonian vimba Vimba melanops (Heckel) and the vimba bream V. vimba (L.); it is typified by a more robust body, with most anterior extent of the vitelline follicles near the scolex and the cirrus-sac situated more anteriorly than in other morphotypes. Morphotype 3 is represented by worms from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. that possess a cuneicrispitate scolex (having the form of a wedge with shallow indentations on anterior margin). Morphotype 4 from the common nase Chondrostoma nasus (L.) has a large, robust body and a wide scolex with numerous superficial grooves (wrinkles) in its anterior part. Morphotype 5 is represented by worms from the white-eye bream Ballerus sapa (Pallas); its typical characteristics are a festoon-like anterior margin of the scolex, the absence of vitelline follicles posterior to the cirrus-sac and the absence of a well-developed internal seminal vesicle. Discriminant analysis of 15 morphometric variables readily separated Morphotypes 3, 4 and 5 and confirmed the key discriminating power of traits related to the reproductive system, especially the terminal reproductive organs. Morphological polymorphism and the genetic divergence of different morphotypes of C. laticeps correspond

  19. Population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) during the initial invasion of the Upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hightower, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document and model the population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), USA, for five consecutive years (1992-1996) following their initial discovery in September 1991. Artificial substrates (concrete blocks, 0.49 m2 surface area) were deployed on or around the first of May at two sites within each of two habitat types (main channel border and contiguous backwater). Blocks were removed monthly (30 ?? 10 d) from the end of May to the end of October to obtain density and growth information. Some blocks deployed in May 1995 were retrieved in April 1996 to obtain information about overwinter growth and survival. The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. The average May-October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. Model estimates of the average survival rate varied from 21 to 100% per month. Estimated recruitment varied substantially among months, with highest levels occurring in September-October of 1994 and 1996, and in July of 1995. Recruitment and density in both habitat types increased by two orders of magnitude in 1996. Follow-up studies will be necessary to assess the long-term stability of zebra mussel populations in the UMR; this study provides the critical baseline information needed for those future comparisons. ?? Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London 2006.

  20. Gonadogenesis and annual reproductive cycles of an endangered cyprinid fish, the lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Hliwa, Piotr; Król, Jarosław; Sikorska, Justyna; Wolnicki, Jacek; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Kamiński, Rafał; Stabińska, Agnieszka; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    In this study, gonadogenesis, the effect of temperature (15, 20 and 25°C) on sex differentiation, and annual changes in the gonads of mature lake minnow Eupallasella percnurus (Pallas, 1814) were determined. The lake minnow was found to be a primary gonochoristic fish species, where gonads are formed directly in the ovaries or testes. The morphological differentiation of gonads was initiated 35days post hatch (DPH) when two types of gonadal anlages were visible: a pear-shaped gonad attached by a single mesentery string and a spindle-shaped gonad attached on both sides to the peritoneum. Gonadogenesis occurred faster in females than in males, with the first previtellogenic oocytes and ovarian lamellae being already observed in 45 DPH fish. In males, cytological differentiation occurred approximately 85 DPH, when the fish reached an average body weight of more than 400mg. No significant effect of rearing temperature on sex ratio in lake minnow juveniles was observed. The proportion of males and females was similar (close to 1:1) in all of the thermal-treated groups, although there were effects of temperature on the final sizes of fish. Histological examination of wild, mature lake minnow ovaries during the annual cycle (from May to February the following year) showed asynchronous oocyte maturation. The testes were characteristic of multi-batch spawning fish. Quantitative dominance of spermatids and mature spermatozoa in May was observed, while the presence of primary and secondary spermatocytes in all other periods was confirmed. These changes were also reflected in the seasonal variation in the gonado-somatic index in both sexes, with the highest mean values of 11.2% (females) and 4.0% (males) in May, which were found to be significantly different to all other periods. The data presented in this study provide an important contribution to our understanding of the biology and reproductive strategy of the endangered lake minnow.

  1. Intracellular crystal-bearing vesicles in the epidermis of scleractinian corals, Astrangia danae (Agassiz) and Porites porites (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Hayes, R L; Goreau, N I

    1977-02-01

    Orthorhombic aragonitic crystals, embedded with a granular lipo-protein matrix and surrounded by a trilaminar membrane, are localized in the apical cytoplasm of epidermal cells of Scleractinian corals. Adult specimens of Astrangia danae (Agassiz) and settled planulae of Porites porites (Pallas) contain crystals averaging 0.7 mu by 0.1 mu by 0.3 mu within Golgi-derived vesicles. Short-term labelling with 45Ca reveals distribution of radioactivity amont a basic tissue fraction (92%) an acid tissue fraction (5%) and a skeletal fraction (3%). Identification of the primordial crystal population within membrane-bound visicles provides overwhelming evidence for the intracellular mode of calcification in Scleractinia. Moreover, it permits development of a novel concept of cellular regulation over these dynamic events. The membrane-bound vesicel is a miniature crystal fabrication station and a vehicle responsible for transportation of seed crystals and an organic matrix material to sites of discharge from the cell. The vesicle membrane becomes a probable locus of active transport and enzymatic activity as well as a physical barrier to be penetrated for release of vesicle contents into the extracellular milieu. Contact between the vesicle membrane and the plasmalemma would result in exocytosis and the onset of skeletogenesis. Principles governing crystal growth would prevail from then on. The released crystal becomes a nucleation catalyst and the organic matrix, a supply of ionic calcium for self-limiting crystallization. Crystals are produced by the organism spontaneously and continuously from shortly after larval attachment throughout the life of the polyp. Therefore, these membrane-bound vesicles signal the dynamic process by which initiation, differentiation, growth and limitation of the coral skeleton is regulated.

  2. Pseudorhabdosynochus argus n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from Cephalopholis argus, P. minutus n. sp. and Diplectanum nanus n. sp. from C. sonnerati and other monogeneans from Cephalopholis spp. (Perciformes: Serranidae) off Australia and New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou

    2007-11-01

    Monogeneans from three species of Cephalopholis, namely C. argus, C. sonnerati and C. boenak, are described from fish caught off New Caledonia, South Pacific, with comparisons with material from off Queensland, Australia. Pseudorhabdosynochus argus n. sp. from C. argus is present off New Caledonia and Australia; it is characterised by its male quadriloculate organ with very elongate cone, and its sclerotised vagina with anterior trumpet, coiled primary canal and distal part with two chambers and an accessory part. C. boenak has no monogeneans off New Caledonia, but off Australia it harbours Pseudorhabdosynochus sp., a new species which is morphologically related to P. argus. P. minutus n. sp. from C. sonnerati is characterised by its minute body and a sclerotised vagina with two spherical chambers. Diplectanum nanus n. sp. from C. sonnerati is characterised by its very small funnel-shaped male copulatory organ and minute body. A new species, Haliotrema sp. from C. sonnerati is characterised by a very elongate tubular penis; it is distinct from H. cromileptis Young, 1968 (redescribed herein from specimens collected from Cromileptes altivelis off New Caledonia). The species described here include the first members of Pseudorhabdosynochus and the first diplectanids described from species of Cephalopholis. There is no evidence for a clade of Pseudorhabdosynochus species specific to members of Cephalopholis, since the species described here share similarities with other species from Epinephelus. However, it is suggested that the gill structure of Cephalopholis spp. imposes selection toward small body sizes for monogeneans.

  3. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-06-13

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions.

  4. Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution and 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Estrada-Peña, A; Mangold, A J; Barros-Battesti, D M; Labruna, M B; Martins, J R; Venzal, J M; Arzua, M; Keirans, J E

    2003-05-01

    DNA sequences of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) and Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844 were obtained to determine genetic differences between these tick species. Collections of these species are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Seven ticks collections (four from Brazil, one from Argentina, one from Uruguay and one from USA) house a total of 1272 A. aureolatum (224 males, 251 females, 223 nymphs and 574 larvae) and 1164 A. ovale (535 males, 556 females, 66 nymphs and 7 larvae). The length of the sequenced mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment for A. aureolatum was 370bp and for A. ovale was 373bp. The DNA sequence analysis showed a 13.1% difference between the two species. Apart from one male A. ovale found on a toad, all adult ticks were found on mammals. The majority of adult specimens of both tick species were removed from Carnivora (96.1 and 84.3% of A. aureolatum and A. ovale, respectively), especially from dogs (53.1% of A. aureolatum, and 46.4% of A. ovale). Collections on wild Canidae were higher for A. aureolatum (23.3%) than for A. ovale (7.1%). On the other hand, collections of A. ovale adults on wild Felidae were higher (18.3%) than findings of A. aureolatum (9.2%). The contribution of other mammalian orders as hosts for adults of A. aureolatum and A. ovale was irrelevant, with the exception of Perissodactyla because Tapiridae contributed with 13.0% of the total number of A. ovale adults. Adults of both tick species have been found occasionally on domestic hosts (apart of the dog) and humans. Most immature stages of A. aureolatum were found on Passeriformes birds, while rodents and carnivores were the most common hosts for nymphs and larvae of A. ovale. A. aureolatum has been found restricted to the Neotropical region, covering the eastern area of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including northeastern Argentina, eastern Paraguay, southeastern Brazil and French Guiana. A. ovale showed a distribution that covers the Neotropical region

  5. Temperature rise and microplastics interact with the toxicity of the antibiotic cefalexin to juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): Post-exposure predatory behaviour, acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Fonte, Elsa; Ferreira, Pedro; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of cefalexin to Pomatoschistus microps juveniles in relation to the presence of microplastics in the water and temperature rise. After acclimatization, groups of wild juveniles were exposed for 96h to artificial salt water (control), microplastics alone (0.184mg/l), cefalexin alone (1.3-10mg/l) and in mixture with microplastics (cefalexin: 1.3-10mg/l; microplastics: 0.184mg/l) at 20 and 25°C. Effect criteria were mortality, post-exposure predatory performance (PEPP), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and lipid peroxidation levels (LPO). At 20°C, concentrations of cefalexin alone≥5mg/l significantly reduced PEPP (up to 56%; 96h-EC50=8.4mg/l), indicating toxicity of the antibiotic to juveniles after short-term exposure to water concentrations in the low ppm range. At 20°C, fish exposed to microplastics alone did not have significant differences in any of the parameters tested relative to the control group but tended to have an inhibition of the PEPP (23%) and AChE (21%); at 25°C, microplastics alone caused mortality (33%) and PEPP inhibition (28%). Thus, microplastics are toxic to P. microps juveniles. At 20°C, under simultaneous exposure to cefalexin and microplastics, the PEPP was significantly reduced (at cefalexin concentrations≥1.25mg/l). Moreover, at 25°C, the toxicity curves of cefalexin (PEPP based), alone and in mixture with microplastics, were significantly different (p<0.05; 96h-EC50 of 3.8 and 5.2mg/l, respectively), and the integrated data analysis indicated significant interactions between the two substances for all biomarkers. Thus, the presence of microplastics in the water influenced the toxicity of cefalexin. The rise of water temperature (from 20°C to 25°C), increased the microplastics-induced mortality (from 8 to 33%), and the inhibitory effects of cefalexin on the PEPP (up to 70%). Significant differences (p<0.05) between the toxicity curves of cefalexin alone at distinct

  6. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    PubMed

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    Toxicological interactions between microplastics (MP) and other environmental contaminants are of grave concern. Here, the potential influence of MP in the short-term toxicity of chromium to early juveniles of Pomatoschistus microps was investigated. Three null hypotheses were tested: (1) exposure to Cr(VI) concentrations in the low ppm range does not induce toxic effects on juveniles; (2) the presence of microplastics in the water does not influence the acute toxicity of Cr(VI) to juveniles; (3) the environmental conditions of the natural habitat where fish developed do not influence their sensitivity to Cr(VI)-induced acute stress. Fish were collected in the estuaries of Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian Peninsula) that have several abiotic differences, including in the water and sediment concentrations of various environmental contaminants. After acclimatization to laboratory conditions, two 96h acute bioassays were carried out with juveniles from both estuaries to: (i) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) alone; (ii) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) in the presence of MP (polyethylene spheres 1-5μm ∅). Cr(VI) alone induced mortality (96h-LC50s: 14.4-30.5mg/l) and significantly decreased fish predatory performance (≤74%). Thus, in the range of concentrations tested (5.6-28.4mg/l) Cr(VI) was found to be toxic to P. microps early juveniles, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 1. Under simultaneous exposure to Cr(VI) and MP, a significant decrease of the predatory performance (≤67%) and a significant inhibition of AChE activity (≤31%) were found. AChE inhibition was not observed in the test with Cr(VI) alone and MP alone caused an AChE inhibition ≤21%. Mixture treatments containing Cr(VI) concentration ≥3.9mg/l significantly increased LPO levels in L-est fish, an effect that was not observed under Cr(VI) or MP single exposures. Thus, toxicological interactions between Cr(VI) and MP occurred, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 2. In the

  7. Purification of glutathione S-transferase from Van Lake fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas) muscle and investigation of some metal ions effect on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Mine; Ozaslan, M Serhat; Kufrevioglu, O Irfan

    2016-08-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important enzyme family which play a critical role in detoxification system. In our study, GST was purified from muscle tissue of Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas with 301.5-fold purification and 19.07% recovery by glutathione agarose affinity chromatography. The purity of enzyme was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, showing a two band, because of having heterodimer structure. KM values were 1.59 and 0.53 mM for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Vmax values for CDNB and GSH were also determined as 5.58 and 1.88 EU/mL, respectively. In addition, inhibition effects of Ag(+), Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Fe(3+), Pb(2+), Cr(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) metal ions were investigated on the enzyme activity and IC50, Ki values were calculated for these metal ions.

  8. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) (Diptera: Hypodermatinae) from wild plateau pikas(Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Li, Wei; Duo, Hong; Guo, Zhihong; Dang, Zhisheng; Shen, Xiuying; Peng, Mao; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) from wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China. The third-stage larvae of O. leporina were examined by scanning electron microscopy revealing morphology characteristics of the spines on the cephalic, the thoracic segments, the abdominal segments and the spiracular plates. The coding regions of 25 cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of O. leporina were investigated. Eighty-one variable sites and 21 haplotypes were identified and the nucleotide and haplotype diversities were 0.04456 and 0.9767, respectively, indicating a rich genetic diversity in O. leporina. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequences of COI revealed two distinct lineages. These findings revealed ultrastructure and molecular characterization among the O. leporina from plateau pikas in Qinghai province, China and had implications for studying morphological identification, molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. leporina. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of the multispecies freshwater biomonitor to assess behavioral changes of Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in response to toxicant exposure in sediment.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Anita J; Gerhardt, Almut; Dick, Jaimie T A; McKenna, Maria; Berges, John A

    2006-07-01

    Automated sediment toxicity testing and biomonitoring has grown rapidly. This study tested the suitability of the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) for sediment biomonitoring using the Multispecies Freshwater Biomonitor (MFB). Two experiments were undertaken to (1) characterize individual behaviors of C. volutator using the MFB and (2) examine behavioral changes in response to sediment spiked with the pesticide Bioban. Four behaviors were visually identified (walking, swimming, grooming and falling) and characterized in the MFB as different patterns of locomotor activity (0-2 Hz range). Ventilation was not visually observed but was detected by the MFB (2-8 Hz). No clear diel activity patterns were detected. The MFB detected an overall increase in C. volutator locomotor activity after Bioban addition to the sediments (56, 100, 121 mg kg(-1)). C. volutator was more active (both locomotion and ventilation) in the water column than the spiked sediment. C. volutator appears a sensitive and appropriate species for behavioral sediment toxicity assessment and biomonitoring.

  10. A morphological study of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda: Diplodiscidae) adults from the accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813) (Caenogastropoda: Viviparidae).

    PubMed

    Cichy, Anna; Żbikowska, Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    A phenomenon of switching of the parasite in the food chain to an accidental host is commonly observed in nature. However, there is little available data concerning the morphological descriptions of parasites that passively get into the atypical hosts and are capable, at least to some degree, of somatic growth and development of reproductive structures. A morphological survey of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) adults isolated from a digestive tract of an accidental host, Viviparus contectus (Millet, 1813), was carried out. Diplodiscus subclavatus individuals identified in prosobranch snails were morphologically similar to adult forms of the parasite described from amphibians, typical final hosts in the life cycle of this paramphistomid. The observed forms of D. subclavatus had a fully developed reproductive system, sperm in the seminal vesicle and oocytes in the ovary. The number of eggs in the uterus ranged from 3 to 17. Our research indicates that D. subclavatus individuals reach the sexual maturity in the accidental, invertebrate hosts.

  11. Metazoa parasites of the invasive round goby Apollonia melanostoma (Neogobius melanostomus) (Pallas) (Gobiidae: Osteichthyes) in the Gulf of Gdańsk, Baltic Sea, Poland: a comparison with the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Kvach, Yuriy; Skóra, Krzysztof E

    2007-03-01

    The known metazoa parasite fauna of the invasive round goby Apollonia melanostoma (formerly Neogobius melanostomus) consists of 12 species. The core of the parasite fauna comprises two species: Cryptocotyle concavum and Diplostomum spathaceum; secondary species are absent; satellite species include Cercariae gen. sp. and Ergasilus sieboldi; rare species are Acanthocephalus lucii, Anguillicola crassus, Bothriocephalus sp., Dichelyne minutus, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Pomphorhynchus laevis, Piscicola geometra, and Tylodelphys clavata. Fifty percent of metazoa parasites that occurred in the invasive round goby in the Gulf of Gdańsk (an invasion that was first detected in 1990) are also typically found in the native Gulf of Gdańsk gobiids. The round goby hosts common fish parasite species: C. concavum and D. minutus, but none that are unique to the species and no Ponto-Caspian parasites. Notably, the parasite species of the invasive round goby in the Gulf of Gdańsk includes species that are atypical for this species in its native habitat. In its new habitat, the round goby variously serves the roles of definitive, second intermediate, and paratenic host for different parasite species. The fish species is involved in a parasitic system that includes fish-eating birds, fishes of different ecological groups (predatory, planktivorous, and benthivorous), and invertebrates.

  12. Energy budgets and predation impact of dominant epibenthic carnivores on a shallow soft bottom community at the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Sverker

    1984-06-01

    The energy flow through the epibenthic community on a shallow soft bottom in Gullmar Fjord, Sweden, is evaluated. The interaction between the dominant epibenthic predators: brown shrimp Crangon crangon L., juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. and sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), and their food supply is examined, and the fate of the biomass produced within the shallow water ecosystem is described. A steady state model is presented which describes the amounts, pathways and annual rates of energy flowing through the shallow water community. Field and laboratory studies are performed in order to validate the consumption rates of the fish and shrimp species. The brown shrimp occupies a key position in this ecosystem. It represents food, consisting of newly settled juveniles, both to its conspecifics and to other epibenthic species in shallow water. Sixty to eighty per cent of the annual production of shrimps in shallow water is consumed by the epibenthic predators. The brown shrimp constitutes a main predator on other epibenthic species and, by providing such feedback loops, the shrimp constitutes a highly significant regulator of epibenthic carnivores in shallow water. A loss from the benthic community will occur due to predation, maximally amounting to 24-34% of the annual production, which is a high value compared to similar areas. A dynamic simulation is also performed in order to calculate the seasonal change of energy in the epibenthic community in shallow water. Based on mortality calculations, the total output from the shallow nursery should amount to 0·6 g m -2 year -1 (dry wt).

  13. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  14. Black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) feeding damage across timber harvest edges in northern California coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens[D. Don] Endl.) forests, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; Carnell, K.; McBride, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding damage to trees by black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) was recorded in proximity to timber harvest edges in harvested and old-growth stands of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) in northern California, USA. Bears exhibited distinct preference in their feeding patterns related to stand structure and composition and to distance from the timber-harvest edge. Most damage was recorded within regenerating stands. Regression analysis indicated that density of damaged trees was negatively correlated with distance from timber harvest edges within old-growth stands. A significant negative correlation was also found between the density of trees damaged by bears and habitat diversity (H') as measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition, bears exhibited preference for pole-size trees (dbh = 10-50 cm) over all other size classes, and coast redwood over other species. In general, damage by bears appeared to act as a natural thinning agent in even-aged stands. No damage was recorded in old-growth stands except in close proximity to the timber-harvest edge where subcanopy recruitment was high.

  15. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    PubMed

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  16. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization. PMID:27966611

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia.

  18. Identification of Development-Related Genes in the Ovaries of Adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) Lady Beetles Using a Time- Series Analysis by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Du, Wenxiao; Zeng, Fanrong

    2016-12-14

    Adults of the lady beetle species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) are bred artificially en masse for classic biological control, which requires egg-laying by the H. axyridis ovary. Development-related genes may impact the growth of the H. axyridis adult ovary but have not been reported. Here, we used integrative time-series RNA-seq analysis of the ovary in H. axyridis adults to detect development-related genes. A total of 28,558 unigenes were functionally annotated using seven types of databases to obtain an annotated unigene database for ovaries in H. axyridis adults. We also analysed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between samples. Based on a combination of the results of this bioinformatics analysis with literature reports and gene expression level changes in four different stages, we focused on the development of oocyte reproductive stem cell and yolk formation process and identified 26 genes with high similarity to development-related genes. 20 DEGs were randomly chosen for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of the RNA-seq results. This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of key genes using high-throughput sequencing and the identification of a class of development-related genes for characterization.

  19. [Mass-transfer, utilization, and diffusion of oxygen in skeletal muscles of the stenohaline goby Gobius cobitus Pallas under conditions of hypoosmotic medium].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Effect of hypoosmotic conditions of medium on oxygen regime of skeletal muscles of the stenohalin goby Gobius cobitus Pallas was studied under conditions of experiment. The control fish group was maintained at 12-14 %o, the experimental one - at 4.8-5.6 per thousand. Duration of the experiment - 44-45 days, water temperature - 15 +/- 1 degrees C, photoperiod - 12 day/12 night. It was established that under conditions of external hypoosmia there occurred hydration of the goby skeletal muscles and a decrease of their diffusion capability with respect to oxygen. The latter was accompanied by the tissue P(O2) decrease, which is indicated by low values of P(O2) in the venous blood outflowing from muscles. For the first 14-16 days of adaptation to the hypoosmotic medium there were restricted processes of mass transfer and oxygen utilization, which was associated with a decrease of the voluminous tissue blood flow and the blood oxygen concentration. These changes occurred on the background of the blood plasma hydration and a decrease of the number of circulated erythrocytes, and then they were completely compensated.

  20. Effects of lead on anatomy, ultrastructure and concentration of nutrients in plants Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth) Palla: a species with phytoremediator potential in contaminated watersheds.

    PubMed

    Alves, Laize Queiroz; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Souza, Vânia Lima; Mangabeira, Pedro Antônio Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Lead (Pb) has been highlighted as a major pollutant of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, causing negative impacts to these environments. The concentration of Pb in plants has increased in recent decades, mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This study has as a hypothesis that the species Oxycaryum cubense (Poep. & Kunth) Palla, abundant in aquatic environments, has the potential to be used a phytoremediator. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system with Pb in increasing concentrations (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg l(-1)) for 15 days. Inductively coupled mass spectrometer (ICP OES) was used to determine the concentration of mineral nutrients and lead. Optical and transmission electron microscopy were used for the analysis of cellular damage induced by lead in roots and leaves. Ultrastructural alterations were observed as disorganization of thylakoids in the chloroplast and disruption of mitochondrial membranes in cells of leaf tissues of plants subjected to increasing Pb concentrations. There was accumulation of Pb, especially in the root system, affecting the absorption and translocation of some mineral nutrients analysed. In roots, there was reduction in the thickness of the epidermis in plants treated with Pb. This species was shown to be tolerant to the Pb concentrations evaluated, compartmentalizing and accumulating Pb mainly in roots. Due to these results, it may be considered a species with phytoremediation capacity for Pb, with potential rizofiltration of this metallic element in contaminated watersheds.

  1. First stage zoeal morphology of four ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Chen; Liu, Hong-Chang; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-03

    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the first zoeal stage of four ghost crabs, Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897. Finding diagnostic characters to distinguish between the four species proved difficult because their setal appendage patterns were identical. However the rectangular and pockmarked patterns on the ventral carapace are rather pronounced in O. ceratophthalmus and O. stimpsoni but weak in O. cordimanus and O. sinensis. The spinulation on the furca of the telson is less in O. cordimanus than in the other three species.

  2. Artificial insemination of captive European brown hares (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778) with fresh and cryopreserved semen derived from free-ranging males.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Roellig, K; Goeritz, F; Fassbender, M; Krieg, R; Blottner, S; Behr, B; Hermes, R

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to establish artificial insemination (AI) protocols to predictably initiate pregnancy during the breeding season in the European brown hare (EBH) (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778). Semen was collected from seven captive and eight free-ranging males by means of electroejaculation. Semen from the free-ranging males was cryopreserved using directional freezing. Total motility/integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed semen was 91.6%/87.7% and 46.9%/53.8%, respectively. Ovulation was induced in ultrasonographically preselected females using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue. Each female was inseminated with 1 mL fresh (Group A, n=16) or frozen-thawed semen (Group B, n=9) at a concentration of 100x10(6) spermatozoa/mL. The use of ultrasonography (10 to 22 MHz) confirmed the intracervical semen deposit, the success of artificial ovulation induction (formation of postovulatory corpus luteum), and permitted the monitoring of individual pregnancies. Although sperm motility/integrity was significantly different between groups, no significant difference was detected in conception rates (A, 87.50%; B, 77.78%). Because of embryonic resorption, there was a slight difference in fertility rate between groups (A, 62.5%; B, 77.78%). Overall, AI in captive EBH using fresh and frozen-thawed semen achieved successful fertility rates. Long-term cryopreserved semen was used to bring new genetic material from the wild into a genetically limited captive population without extensive animal transport. Therefore, AI has the potential to enhance breeding programs for EBH especially when cryopreserved semen from wild donors is used.

  3. Anti-viral activity of water extract of Paeonia lactiflora pallas against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzeng-Jih; Wang, Kuo-Chih; Lin, Chun-Ching; Chiang, Lien-Chai; Chang, Jung-San

    2013-01-01

    Paeonia lactiflora Pallas (P. lactiflora, Ranunculaceae) is a common ingredient of Sheng-Ma-Ge-Gen-Tang (SMGGT; Shoma-kakkon-to) and Ge-Gen-Tang (GGT; kakkon-to). SMGGT and GGT are different prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine with different ingredients designed for airway symptoms. Both SMGGT and GGT have anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). Therefore, P. lactiflora was hypothesized to be the effective ingredient of both SMGGT and GGT against HRSV. However, P. lactiflora does not have any proven antiviral activity. This study used both human upper (Human larynx epidermoid carcinoma cell line, HEp-2) and lower (human lung carcinoma cell line, A549) respiratory tract cells to test the hypothesis that a hot water extract of P. lactiflora could effectively inhibit plaque formation induced by HRSV infection. The ability of P. lactiflora to stimulate anti-viral cytokines was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results showed that P. lactiflora was time-dependently and dose-dependently effective against HRSV in HEp-2 and A549 cells, particularly supplemented before viral inoculation (p < 0.0001). 10 μg/ml P. lactiflora had a comparable anti-HRSV activity with 10 μg/ml ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. P. lactiflora was dose-dependently effective against viral attachment (p < 0.0001), with a better effect on A549 cells (p < 0.0001). P. lactiflora was time-dependently (p < 0.0001) and dose-dependently (p < 0.0001) effective against viral penetration. Moreover, P. lactiflora stimulated IFN-β secretion without any effect on TNF-α secretion. Therefore, P. lactiflora could be beneficial at preventing HRSV infection by inhibiting viral attachment, internalization, and stimulating IFN secretion.

  4. Ephemeral bio-engineers or reef-building polychaetes: how stable are aggregations of the tube worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?

    PubMed

    Callaway, Ruth; Desroy, Nicolas; Dubois, Stanislas F; Fournier, Jérôme; Frost, Matthew; Godet, Laurent; Hendrick, Vicki J; Rabaut, Marijn

    2010-08-01

    Dense aggregations of tube-worms can stabilize sediments and generate oases for benthic communities that are different and often more diverse and abundant than those of the surroundings. If these features are to qualify as biogenic reefs under nature-conservation legislation such as the EC Habitats Directive, a level of stability and longevity is desirable aside from physical and biological attributes. Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) is widely distributed around the European coast and aggregations of this tube-dwelling polychaete are known to have a positive effect on the biodiversity of associated species in inter- and sub-tidal areas. This increases the value of L. conchilega-rich habitats for higher trophic levels such as birds and fish. However, L. conchilega is currently not recognized as a reef builder primarily due to uncertainty about the stability of their aggregations. We carried out three studies on different spatial and temporal scales to explore a number of properties relating to stability: (1) Individual aggregations of L. conchilega of ∼1 m(2) were monitored for up to 1 year, (2) records of L. conchilega from a 258-ha area over a 35-year period were analyzed, (3) the recovery of a population of L. conchilega subjected to disturbances by cultivation of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) was followed over 3 years. The studies provided evidence about the longevity of L. conchilega aggregations, their resistance to disturbance, their resilience in recovering from negative impact and their large-scale persistence. The results showed that populations of L. conchilega were prone to considerable fluctuation and the stability of aggregations depended on environmental factors and on recruitment. The tube-worms proved to be susceptible to disturbance by cultivation of Manila clams but demonstrated the potential to recover from that impact. The long-term monitoring of a large L. conchilega population in the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (France) indicated that

  5. Release of free and conjugated forms of the putative pheromonal steroid 11-oxo-etiocholanolone by reproductively mature male round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Katare, Yogesh Kumar; Scott, Alexander P; Laframboise, Alyson J; Li, Weiming; Alyasha'e, Zena; Caputo, Christopher B; Loeb, Stephen J; Zielinski, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814), an invasive fish species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, have shown that this species has the ability to both synthesize and smell steroids that have a 5 beta-reduced and 3 alpha-hydroxyl (5 beta,3 alpha) configuration. An enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) for 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione (11-O-ETIO) has been used to show a substantial rise in the rate of release of immunoreactive compounds into the water when males are injected with salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue. Similar increases were noted for 11-ketotestosterone and 17,20 beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. Partitioning of the extracts between diethyl ether and water showed the presence of both free and conjugated immunoreactive 11-O-ETIO. Only conjugated immunoreactivity was found in urine (implying that free steroid is released via the gills). The identity of the conjugates was probed by using HPLC, EIA, and mass spectrometry and removal of sulfate and glucosiduronate groups. Immunoreactivity in the conjugated fraction was found to be due mainly to 3 alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-11-one 17-sulfate. However, the evidence was also strong for the presence in water extracts of substantial amounts of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione 3-glucosiduronate (which could be detected only by EIA after removal of the glucosiduronate group with beta-glucuronidase). There were also small amounts of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione 3-sulfate and 3 alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-11-one 17-glucosiduronate. These studies give some idea of the types, amounts, and ratios of 11-O-ETIO derivatives that are released by reproductive N. melanostomus and will aid further research into the putative pheromonal roles of 5 beta,3 alpha-reduced androgens in this species.

  6. [Genetic characterization of the Batken virus (BKNV) (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) isolated from the Ixodidae ticks Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 and the mosquitoes Aedes caspius Pallas, 1771, as well as the Culex hortensis Ficalbi, 1889 in the Central Asia].

    PubMed

    Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; L'vov, D N; L'vov, S S; Samokhvalov, E I; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The prototype strain LEIV-K306 of the Batken virus (BKNV) was isolated from the Ixodidae ticks Hyalomma marginatum Koch, 1844 collected from sheep near town Batken (Kirgizstan) in the April 1970. Later, the BKNV was isolated in Kirgizstan from the mixed pool of the Aedes caspius Pallas, 1771 and Culex hortensis Ficalbi, 1889 mosquitoes. From the very beginning, the BKNV was discussed to be very close to the Dhori virus (DHOV) (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) isolated from the Ixodidae ticks Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 in India. In this work, virtually complete genome sequence (MiSeq, Illumina) of the BKNV was determined (ID GenBank KJ396672-4). Structural and non-structural proteins of the BKNV have a high level of homology with DHOV - 98% (PB1) and 96% (PB2, PA, NP, M). Homology of HA protein between the BKNV and DHOV is 90%, which accounts for antigenic difference between these close relative viruses. Since the differences in the other structural and non-structural proteins are about 96-98%, the BKNV could be suggested as the topotypic DHOV strain for Central Asia, Transcaucasia, and Northern Caspian region. The evolution divergence of the BKNV and DHOV for HA could be explained by local ecologic peculiarities of the BKNV areal.

  7. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Results Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). Conclusions The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities

  8. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) infecting the south European toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from a hypersaline environment in Italy.

    PubMed

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Huyse, Tine; Shinn, Andrew P

    2011-06-09

    Historically, non-native species of Gambusia (Poeciliidae) have been used to control larval stages of the Asian tiger mosquito, Stegomyia albopicta Reinert, Harbach et Kitching, 2004 throughout Italy. The potential utility of indigenous populations of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes) (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) as an appropriate alternative biological control is currently being explored. A sub-sample of ten fish collected from Cervia Saline, Italy (salinity 65 ppt; 30°C) to assess their reproductive capability in captivity, harboured a moderate infection of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). A subsequent morphological and molecular study identified this as being a new species. Gyrodactylus salinae n. sp. is described from the skin, fins and gills of A. fasciatus. Light and scanning electron microscopical (SEM) examination of the opisthaptoral armature and their comparison with all other recorded species suggested morphological similarities to Gyrodactylus rugiensoides Huyse et Volckaert, 2002 from Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas). Features of the ventral bar, however, permit its discrimination from G. rugiensoides. Sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene and a comparison with all species listed in GenBank confirmed they are unique and represent a new species (most similar to Gyrodactylus anguillae Ergens, 1960, 8.3% pair-wise distance based on 5.8S+ITS2). This represents the first species of Gyrodactylus to be described from Aphanius and, to date, has the longest ITS1 (774 bp) sequenced from any Gyrodactylus. Additional sampling of Cervia Saline throughout the year, found G. salinae n. sp. to persist in conditions ranging from 35 ppt and 5°C in December to 65 ppt and 30°C in July, while in captivity a low level of infection was present, even in freshwater conditions (0 ppt). The ability of G. salinae n. sp. to tolerate a wide range of salinities and temperatures shows its

  9. Purification and characterization of AHPM, a novel non-hemorrhagic P-IIIc metalloproteinase with α-fibrinogenolytic and platelet aggregation-inhibition activities, from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiajia; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Mingchun; Yan, Xincheng; Wang, Shasha; Gao, Shang

    2013-04-01

    A novel non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinase, AHPM, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas by a combination of ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. AHPM is a dimeric glycoprotein with multiple pIs around pH 7.9 and has a molecular mass of 110 kDa with two blocked N-terminuses. Partial sequence of AHPM obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis together with its dimeric nature reveals that it is a P-IIIc snake venom metalloproteinase composed of metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains. AHPM has a conserved DECD sequence in the disintegrin-like domain. AHPM hydrolyzes casein and fibrinogen and also dissolves fibrin clots and the proteolytic activity is abolished by EDTA, but not by PMSF, suggesting that it is a metalloproteinase. The protease hydrolyzes rapidly the Aα-chain of fibrinogen followed by the Bβ-chain and does not cleave the γ-chain. AHPM contains endogenous Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions at a molar ratio of 1:1.9 and 1:4.2, respectively, and Zn(2+) ions are essential for its proteolytic activity. AHPM inhibits collagen-and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 200 ± 8 nM and 280 ± 10 nM, respectively. EDTA markedly attenuates the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by AHPM, indicating that the fibrinogenolytic activity of AHPM is involved in its inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. AHPM is devoid of hemorrhagic activity when injected (up to 30 μg) subcutaneously into mice. AHPM is so far identified as first non-hemorrhagic P-IIIc SVMP which has both fibrinolytic and platelet aggregation-inhibition activities. The bifunctional enzyme may have a potential clinical application as a thrombolytic agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic analysis reveals the diversity of larval Gobiidae in a temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Ojaveer, H; Gross, R; Laur, K; Arula, T; Klais, R

    2017-10-01

    Using molecular tools to examine Gobiidae, the second most abundant taxon in ichthyoplankton samples in the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea), the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus was the most abundant taxon (82% of all individuals analysed), the common goby Pomatoschistus microps constituted 12% and the black goby Gobius niger 6%. The spatiotemporal distribution of P. microps and G. niger indicated a preference for habitats closer to the river inlet and their abundances increased slightly towards the end of the sampling period in summer. The species composition was interpreted in the context of the prevailing habitat conditions, characterized by extremely low water transparency, low salinity, limited spread of vegetated area and dominance of sandy-muddy substrata. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Trophic niche partitioning of littoral fish species from the rocky intertidal of Helgoland, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hielscher, N. N.; Malzahn, A. M.; Diekmann, R.; Aberle, N.

    2015-12-01

    During a 3-year field study, interspecific and interannual differences in the trophic ecology of littoral fish species were investigated in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland island (North Sea). We investigated trophic niche partitioning of common coexisting littoral fish species based on a multi-tracer approach using stable isotope and fatty acids in order to show differences and similarities in resource use and feeding modes. The results of the dual-tracer approach showed clear trophic niche partitioning of the five target fish species, the goldsinny wrasse Ctenolabrus rupestris, the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus, the short-spined sea scorpion Myoxocephalus scorpius and the long-spined sea scorpion Taurulus bubalis. Both stable isotopes and fatty acids showed distinct differences in the trophic ecology of the studied fish species. However, the combined use of the two techniques added an additional resolution on the interannual scale. The sand goby P. minutus showed the largest trophic plasticity with a pronounced variability between years. The present data analysis provides valuable information on trophic niche partitioning of fish species in the littoral zones of Helgoland and on complex benthic food webs in general.

  12. New method for visualization of C-heterochromatin in synaptonemal complex spreads

    PubMed Central

    Lisachov, Artem P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract DAPI staining of the metaphase chromosomes pretreated with barium hydroxide generates a C-like banding pattern. In this work a protocol for visualizing similar pattern at the synaptonemal complex (SC) spreads after immunostaining is suggested. This method was used to visualize centromeric and sex heterochromatin at the SC spreads of guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859). The efficiency of this method was further confirmed at SC spreads of the northern red-backed vole (Myodes rutilus (Pallas, 1779)), the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, 1758)), and the pigmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus, 1766). PMID:24260695

  13. Hurry-up and hatch: selective filial cannibalism of slower developing eggs.

    PubMed

    Klug, Hope; Lindström, Kai

    2008-04-23

    Filial cannibalism (the consumption of one's own offspring) is thought to represent an adaptive strategy in many animals. However, little is known about the details of which offspring are consumed when a parent cannibalizes. Here, we examined patterns of within-brood filial cannibalism in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Males spawned sequentially with two females, and we asked whether males cannibalized selectively with regard to egg size or the order in which eggs were received. Males preferentially consumed the larger eggs of the second female they spawned with. Because larger eggs took longer to hatch, and because female 2's eggs were up to 1 day behind those of female 1, such preferential cannibalism might allow males to decrease the time spent caring for the current brood and re-enter the mating pool sooner. More work is needed to understand the fitness consequences of such selective cannibalism.

  14. Odour cues from suitors' nests determine mating success in a fish.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-05-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be 'intrinsic' excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that 'extrinsic' chemical cues in the males' nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females' initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection.

  15. Estuarine production of resident and nursery fish species: Conditioning by drought events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbeth, M.; Martinho, F.; Viegas, I.; Cabral, H.; Pardal, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    The production of resident ( Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus microps) and marine juvenile fish species using the Mondego estuary (central Portugal) as nursery grounds ( Dicentrarchus labrax, Platichthys flesus, Solea solea), was assessed in order to: (1) understand the potential of the estuary for fish production; (2) know the production of nursery fish species likely to be exported to the coastal stocks; and (3) how anthropogenic and natural stress could influence the estimated production. Sampling occurred from June 2003 to May 2006 and together the 5 species in study comprised around 70% of the whole fish community numbers and biomass. Increasing drought conditions were observed, starting with a normal hydrological year in 2003 until attaining a severe drought in 2005, which resulted in low river discharges (1/3 of the mean river discharges in 2003). Additionally, high water temperatures were observed in 2003 and 2005 (24 and 26 °C, night temperatures). The secondary production was estimated using the increment summation method, after recognition of the cohorts. Production was in general lower in the Mondego estuary when compared to other systems, which was associated to the estuary's small area (only 3.4 km 2, less than 1/4 of area compared to other studied systems). Dicentrarchus labrax was among the most productive species. Production decreased in the drought year for all species, especially evident for D. labrax, P. minutus and P. flesus. No direct effects could be attributable to the salinity and temperature variations and to the low freshwater discharges (resulting from the drought and high temperatures), yet these were pointed as probable major reasons for the decreased production. A significant reduction (15-45% reduction in the estuarine production) was also concluded for the potential production to be exported for coastal areas by the nursery species in the drought conditions.

  16. PCBs in the fish assemblage of a southern European estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    The Mondego estuary fish assemblage was studied for the accumulation of PCBs. Three sampling stations were visited along an estuarine salinity gradient, and, in total, 15 species were collected. Analysis of PCBs revealed no significant differences among the sampling stations, although differences were observed among the fish assemblages. Fish assemblages could be divided into three groups. The first group comprised those with higher concentration (more than 10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Gobius niger, Sardina pilchardus, Anguilla anguilla, Pomatoschistus microps, Chelidonichthys lucerna and Liza ramada; the second group with medium concentration (5-10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Pomatoschistus minutus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Diplodus vulgaris, Platichthys flesus and Cilata mustela; and a third group with low concentration (less than 5 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Solea solea and Callionymus lyra. A positive correlation was found between lipid content and PCB concentrations. To evaluate the influence of the residence time of species on the accumulation of PCBs, species were divided into two groups: species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary, and species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. Species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary presented higher concentrations than species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. CBs 138 and 153 had higher concentration, and tended to increase with time spent in the estuary.

  17. Small-sized euryhaline fish as intermediate hosts of the digenetic trematode Cryptocotyle concavum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Kollra, H.-G.; Antholz, B.; Meyer, W.; Westphal, D.

    1984-03-01

    Cercariae of the trematode Cryptocotyle concavum, which encyst in skin and/or kidney of sticklebacks and gobies, were studied in the Schlei Fjord (western Baltic Sea). Mean incidence of dermal cysts was 48 % in Gasterosteus aculeatus and 37 % in Pungitius pungitius. No cysts were found in the kidneys of sticklebacks. While 97 % of Pomatoschistus microps had encysted metacercariae in the kidneys, only 2 % had cysts in the skin. Pomatoschistus minutus, however, showed hardly any cyst infestation of either skin or kidney. In P. microps the intensity of infestation by metacercariae was frequently more than 50 cysts; in contrast, sticklebacks rarely exhibited more than 5 dermal cysts. Infested fish were larger than 10 mm in total length, the incidence rate increasing with growth. Parasitic infestation depends on ambient salinity: C. concavum was not found at salinities below 4 ‰. In contrast to the high incidence in fish, the first hosts — the snails Hydrobia stagnalis and H. neglecta — showed remarkably low infection rates (3 to 5 %). The findings reported are related to the distribution of C. concavum, the mode of life of infested fish, the feeding habits of the final hosts and the infestation of P. microps by other parasites. Evidently, P. microps represents an optimal second host for C. concavum.

  18. [The factors determining temporal variation in Brachionus calyciflorus pallas (rotatoria)].

    PubMed

    Halbach, Udo

    1970-09-01

    1. In the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus a pair of posterolateral spines (PL) is subjected to extensive temporal variation. The length of these spines may vary from complete absence to more than lorica length. Production of spines is induced by starvation, low temperature, and a substance produced by the predatory rotifer Asplanchna. The aim of this study was, by comparing the effectiveness of these factors, to gain insight into the physiological mechanisms involved, and to assess their relative significance in natural populations. 2. The other spines of the lorica vary in accordance with PL (Fig. 1), however, they never disappear. In the absence of PL, they continue to vary in the same sense (Table 2). 3. In the laboratory starvation and low temperature induce only short PL. To elicit long spines the Asplanchna-substance is always necessary (Fig. 2). The effects of the three factors are additive. High temperature seems to inhibit spine production. The type of the inducing factor has no recognizable influence on the variability of the reaction (Figs. 3 and 4); even under conditions where the reaction is maximal no reduction of the standard deviation is found. 4. There is no clearly recognizable short-term inheritance of spine length: almost the full reaction to each of the inducing factors is realized in the first generation following induction (Fig. 5). 5. Low temperature increases body size. Analysis shows that this temperature effect consists of two components, one acting on egg size, the other on the animals growth after hatching (Figs. 6 and 7). 6. The final spine length is always determined before hatching (Fig. 5). The inducing factors determine the body proportions of the neonates; after hatching the spine length grows allometrically. The average growth rate of the PL relative to that of the body was k=0.54, i.e. the growth rate of the spines is smaller than that of the body (negative allometry). The value of k appears to be a constant, at least it is not influenced by the type of spine induction, the initial spine length, and the conditions after hatching (Table 4 and Fig. 9). 7. Using the allometric relation, an index of spine length (I D ) was defined, which is independent of body size. ID permits the quantitative comparison of populations with different age structures, and of age (size) classes within the same sample. Differences between the I D -values of the age classes of a sample indicate fluctuations of spine inducing factors (Fig. 10). It is thus possible to estimate the strength of spine inducing factors during previous periods by studying a single plankton sample (Figs. 11 and 12). 8. A reproducible bio-assay was developed to test the spine inducing activity of the medium. A relative unit of Asplanchna-substance (as) was defined. The quantity of substance produced per unit volume and per unit time is proportional to Asplanchna density and is influenced by temperature (within 10 to 25\\dg C: Q 10=4). The amount of substance produced by 1 Asplanchna in 25 sec at 20\\dg C in 1 ml medium will induce just recognizable spines in the experimental clone of Brachionus. Further data of substance production at 10, 15, and 25\\dg C are given in Table 6. The substance decomposes exponentially (Fig. 14a). The velocity of this decomposition is influenced by temperature. Within the temperature range studied the half-life varies from 1 to 3 days (Fig. 14b). Theoretically, a specific equilibrium concentration of active substance corresponds to each population density of Asplanchna. This concentration can be computed using the data of production and decomposition (Table 6). However, in experimental populations as well as in the field, the actual concentrations were always considerably lower than expected on the basis of the Asplanchna density. This fact suggests that Brachionus incorporates the substance. Therefore, a pragmatic correction of the theoretical balance of the Asplanchna-substance was introduced by assuming that there is no accumulation of substance for more than 24 hours. With this correction, there is good agreement between the expected and the observed spine-indices in laboratory and field populations. 9. A quantitative comparison of the effectiveness of the three spine inducing factors shows that under natural conditions, long spines (mean I D >0.3) cannot be induced by temperature and starvation, but must be due to Asplanchna-substance (Fig. 17). 10. In the field the Asplanchna-substance is the most important agent. Bioassays show that water of all ponds containing Asplanchna possesses spine inducing activity (Table 7). Both Asplanchna sieboldi (s. 1.) and A. priodonta are effective. The spine-indices of neonate Brachionus show a good correlation with the prevailing Asplanchna density (Figs. 20\\2-22). The correlations of the indices of adult Brachionus show time-lags which correspond to the age of the animals. After the disappearance of Asplanchna, the spine-indices decrease with age-dependent time-lag. The spine-inducing influence of temperature is lower in the field than in the laboratory (Fig. 23). The possible effects of unknown factors in the field are discussed. 11. The reaction norms of two stocks from different ponds were tested. They exhibited remarkable and significantly different I D -values at identical conditions of induction (Fig. 2), which occured at all three inducing factors. 12. Hypothetical mechanisms of spine production are discussed; possible differences in the physiological mechanisms of the three spine-inducing factors are indicated. Some aspects of the adaptive value of spine length variation are discussed.

  19. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  20. Possible causes for growth variability and summer growth reduction in juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veer, Henk W.; Jung, Alexa Sarina; Freitas, Vânia; Philippart, Catharina J. M.; Witte, Johannes IJ.

    2016-05-01

    Growth variability within individuals and among groups and locations and the phenomenon of summer growth reduction has been described for juvenile flatfish in a variety of European coastal areas whereby the underlying causes still remain elusive. Potential mechanisms were tested for juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, by analysing published and unpublished information from long-term investigations (1986-present). Growth variability did occur and could be explained by differences induced by environmental variability (water temperature), and by non-genetic irreversible adaptation and sex. Dynamic Energy Budget analysis indicated that especially sexually-dimorphic growth in combination with variability in sex ratio could explain most of the variability in growth and the increase in the range of the size of individuals within the population over time. Summer growth reduction was not only observed among 0-group plaice in the intertidal, but also in the subtidal and tidal gullies as well as among I- and II-group plaice. Intraspecific competition for food was not detected but some support for interspecific competition with other predators was found. Also resource competition (due to crowding) with the other abundant epibenthic species (0-, I- and II-group flounder Platichthys flesus; the brown shrimp Crangon crangon; the shore crab Carcinus maenas; the goby species Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus microps) could not explain the summer growth reduction. The observed growth reduction coincided with a decrease in stomach content, especially of regenerating body parts of benthic prey items. It is hypothesised that macrozoobenthos becomes less active after the spring phytoplankton bloom, reducing prey availability for juvenile plaice in summer, causing a reduction in food intake and hence in growth.

  1. Seasonal variation of assemblage and feeding guild structure of fish species in a boreal tidal basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellnreitner, Florian; Pockberger, Moritz; Asmus, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Species composition, abundance, feeding relationships and guild structure of the fish assemblage in the Sylt-Rømø bight, a tidal basin in the northern Wadden Sea, were investigated to show seasonal differences and the importance of functional groups in this area. The tidal flats and in shallow subtidal areas were sampled using a beach seine and a bottom trawl net was used for deeper subtidal areas and tidal gullies. Species richness of fish was highest in summer where 26 species were caught, while the lowest richness was recorded in winter (17 species). Clear differences in species richness and abundance were found between shallow areas and deeper parts of the bight. Clupea harengus and Ammodytes tobianus were the most abundant species in deeper areas, while Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus dominated shallower waters. Gut contents of 27 fish species were identified and the guild structure analyzed by UPGMA clustering of niche overlaps. Calanoid copepods (19.9%), Crangon crangon (18.2%) and mysid shrimps (8.4%) were the most abundant prey items of all fish species combined. Seven feeding guilds were present in the fall and winter, and eight and six in spring and summer, respectively. Fish feeding on calanoid copepods and C. crangon were present year round, whereas the occurrence of other guilds varied between seasons. Species composition of prey changed through seasons and, for some fish species, even the feeding mode itself varied with season. Most noticeable, 11 fish species changed guilds between seasons. We found a convergence in summer towards abundant prey items, whereas in winter diet overlap was lower. This is the first investigation of guild structure of almost all fish species present in a Wadden Sea area, and shows that consideration of seasonal differences is essential when determining feeding relationships of fish in temperate areas.

  2. Four-year monitoring of parasite communities in gobiid fishes of the southwest Baltic: III. parasite species diversity and applicability of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zander, C Dieter

    2005-01-01

    The parasite infrapopulations of five goby species (Pomatoschistus minutus, P. pictus, P.microps, Gobiusculus flavescens and Gobius niger) were investigated during spring, summer and autumn of the years 1997-2000. In total, 34 parasite species were found: 17 Digenea, 6 Nematoda, 5 Cestoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 2 Protozoa, and 1 Monogenea. The dominant parasites were the digeneans Podocotyle atomon and Cryptocotyle concavum, which represent different ecological groups in terms of their modes of transmission, either indirectly by prey or directly by larvae. The relationship between the parasite Cryptocotyle concavum and the host P. microps is a special one which results in a mean intensity of several hundred cysts (max. 1,329) which settle in the kidney. The diversity of the parasite component community was highest in autumn, but low in spring and summer, with the exception of P. microps for which high values were already found in spring when direct parasites were disregarded. These results depend on the respective seasonal variation in species, some of which occur in huge numbers in some hosts. The diversity of the prey parasite assemblage is higher in Pomatoschistus microps and Gobius niger than in the whole parasite spectrum; the other hosts present the opposite trend. A combination of the island theory of biogeography as modified for parasite infection with the theory of screens and filters leads to a model which considers three handicaps or distances for parasite colonisation: genetic, phylogenetic and ecological. Long-term investigations, as performed here over a time-span of 4 years, can detect more than 80% of parasite species in single hosts after 3 years, and in the whole goby guild after 2 years. Long-term investigations can be useful for finding rare parasites, in analysing parasite diversity, and for determining the seasonality of parasites.

  3. Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Urophora quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae), evidence for interaction and impact on spotted knapweed in Arkansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Competition between seed-feeding insects is well noted in the literature, with many of these interactions being asymmetrical and causing a disadvantage for one of the species involved. While often effective, the use of the “cumulative stress” approach to biological control (where multiple natural e...

  4. Density, growth and annual food consumption of gobiid fish in the saline Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.; Twisk, F.

    Within the scope of a study of the carbon budget of the 108 km 2 saline Lake Grevelingen, investigations were made on density, mortality, growth and food consumption of the main gobiid fish during the period 1980 to 1982. In August 1980 the O-group of Pomatoschistus minutus was estimated at 424 million individuals (on average 3.9 fishes per m 2) with a biomass of 203 tons FW. In 1981 and 1982 peak numbers were less high. O-group P. microps accounted for 282 million individuals (2.6 fishes per m 2) and 133 tons FW in September 1981. By far the highest density was found in the 0 to 0.6 m zone, 15 common gobies per m 2 (7 g FW·m -2). With approximately 5.1 million individuals (13 tons FW) Gobius niger was most abundant in 1982. For adult G. niger a monthly mortality of 27% was estimated. Mortality rates in P. minutus and P. microps were found to be fairly constant over the year. The estimated rates of annual mortality of 99.9% (˜46% per month) and 99.996% (˜57% per month), respectively, appear to be much higher than recorded for estuarine populations. Approximately 60% of the decline in numbers of demersal gobiid fish could be accounted for by the predation of two species of flatfish and two species of piscivorous birds. Young of the year of over 20 mm total length of both species were first caught in June. At the end of the first growing season, the average length and weight of P. microps was 39 mm and 0.6 g FW. In their second year they attained an average size of 51 mm. In O-group P. minutus, the 1980 and 1981 year classes reached an average length of 45 mm and 57 mm, respectively. In their second year, however, the difference disappeared and the mean length in both classes approximated 62 mm. Juvenile G. niger were first caught in August at a length of approximately 3.5 cm. They attained an average size of 4 to 5 cm in the first year, 8 to 8.5 cm in the second and 11 to 12.5 cm in the third year. The maximum production of P. minutus and P. microps, although

  5. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  6. Parasite transfer from crustacean to fish hosts in the Lübeck Bight, SW Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Groenewold, S.; Strohbach, U.

    1994-03-01

    Four helminth parasites out of 19 species found in the Lübeck Bight, Baltic Sea, were chosen for investigations on the transfer from invertebrate to small-sized fish hosts: larvae of the tapeworms Schistocephalus sp. and Bothriocephalus sp. (Cestoda) living in planktonic copepods as primary hosts; Podocotyle atomon (Digenea) and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda) were found in benthic crustaceans, especially Gammarus spp. These hosts were the prey of 3 gobiid fishes, Gobiusculus flavescens (feeding mainly on plankton), Pomatoschistus minutus (preferring benthos), and P. pictus (feeding more on plankton than benthos). Because the fishes selected smaller sizes of crustaceans, they ingested all stages of the copepods but only the smaller-sized groups of gammarids which were often less infested by parasites. In order to evaluate the probability for a fish to be parasitized by a helminth, an infestation potential index (IP) was calculated. Podocotyle atomon and Hysterothylacium sp. revealed an IP which was far lower in gobies than expected when the prevalences of the previous hosts were taken into consideration. The IP of tapeworm larvae was mainly influenced by the feeding pressure of the gobiid predators, which might change with developmental stage and season. It is concluded that parasite transfer to the next host decreases when sizes of prey and predator differ only moderately. This mechanism can reduce the numbers of parasites transferred to less suitable or wrong hosts.

  7. Effects of salinity on nest-building behaviour in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Wong, Bob B M; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2016-02-29

    Parental allocation and reproductive success are often strongly influenced by environmental factors. In this respect, salinity is a key factor influencing species distributions and community structure in aquatic animals. Nevertheless, the effects of salinity on reproductive behaviours are not well known. Here, we used the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish inhabiting a range of different salinities, to experimentally assess the effects of changes in salinity on nesting behaviour, a key component of reproduction in sand gobies and many other taxa. We found that salinity levels influenced some aspects of male nesting behaviour (i.e. nest entrance size) but not others (i.e. latency to build a nest, choice of nest site, sand on top of nest) and that small and large individuals were differently affected. In particular, the importance of body size in adjustment of nest entrance depended on the salinity level. The results support the prediction that geographically widespread aquatic species, such as sand gobies, are able to perform well under a range of salinity levels. The phenotype by environment interaction found between male size and behavioural responses to salinity can, in turn, help to explain the notable variation observed in nest-building (and other) behaviours closely linked to reproduction.

  8. Hypoxia increases the risk of egg predation in a nest-guarding fish

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Andrén, Maria Norevik; Larsson, Therése

    2016-01-01

    For fish with parental care, a nest should meet both the oxygenation needs of the eggs and help protect them against predators. While a small nest opening facilitates the latter, it impedes the former and vice versa. We investigated how the presence of potential egg predators in the form of shore crabs Carcinus maenas affects nest building, egg fanning, defensive displays and filial cannibalism of egg-guarding male sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus under two levels of dissolved oxygen. In the high oxygen treatment, males retained their nest opening size in the presence of crabs, while males in low oxygen built large nest openings both in the absence and presence of crabs, despite the fact that crabs were more likely to successfully intrude into nests with large entrances. Males in low oxygen also fanned more. In the presence of crabs males increased their defensive displays, but while males in high oxygen reduced fanning, males in low oxygen did not. Filial cannibalism was unaffected by treatment. Sand gobies thus prioritize egg ventilation over the protection afforded by small nest openings under hypoxia and adopt defensive behaviour to avert predator attention, even though this does not fully offset the threat from the egg predators. PMID:27853611

  9. Odour cues from suitors’ nests determine mating success in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Topi K.; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be ‘intrinsic’ excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that ‘extrinsic’ chemical cues in the males’ nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females’ initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection. PMID:25948566

  10. Mate sampling and choosiness in the sand goby

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Kai; Lehtonen, Topi K.

    2013-01-01

    To date, mate choice studies have mostly focused on establishing which mates are chosen or how the choices are performed. Here, we combined these two approaches by empirically testing how latency to mate is affected by various search costs, variation in mate quality and female quality in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Our results show that females adjust their mating behaviour according to the costs and benefits of the choice situation. Specifically, they mated sooner when access to males was delayed and when the presence of other females presented a mate sampling cost. We also found a positive link between size variation among potential mating partners and spawning delay in some (but not all) experimental conditions. By contrast, we did not find the number of available males or the females' own body size (‘quality’) to affect mating latency. Finally, female mating behaviour varied significantly between years. These findings are notable for demonstrating that (i) mate sampling time is particularly sensitive to costs and, to a lesser degree, to variation among mate candidates, (ii) females' mating behaviour is sensitive to qualitative rather than to quantitative variation in their environment, and (iii) a snapshot view may describe mate sampling behaviour unreliably. PMID:23804620

  11. Interval timing behavior in Pallas's long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Toelch, Ulf; Winter, York

    2013-11-01

    Timing behavior in animals and its underlying mechanisms have been investigated extensively in the peak procedure, a variant of fixed interval procedures. In such experiments, individuals typically start responding with high frequency after an initial inactive time interval and continue their responses after peak time if rewards are omitted. This begs the so far unexplored question as to how timing behavior is influenced when such continuous responses are suppressed. Here, we present results from a nectar-feeding bat species, Glossophaga soricina, that was tested in a modified version of the peak procedure at three fixed time intervals (5 s, 11 s, 20 s). In contrast to standard peak procedures we imposed metabolic costs on individual responses which effectively suppressed trains of rapid responses during trials. Under this manipulation, bats' aggregated responses showed clear peaks around the peak time in the 5-s and 11-s schedules. Bats' responses in the 20-s schedule, however, did not peak around the fixed interval time. Crucially, an analysis of time intervals between successive revisits in all schedules revealed that bats revisited feeders at accurately timed intervals in all three conditions. The individual within trial behavioral responses showed clear oscillatory patterns throughout nonrewarded trials. These findings follow predictions from mechanistic timing models, like the striatal beat frequency model, and are discussed with regard to these models.

  12. Serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx Pallas, 1776).

    PubMed

    Greth, A; Calvez, D; Vassart, M; Lefèvre, P C

    1992-12-01

    Tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (Taif, Riyadh and Mahazat as Said, Saudi Arabia; San Diego, United States of America [USA]; Shaumari, Jordan; Qatar; and Bahrain). No antibodies to Pasteurella multocida type E or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. Antibodies to Brucella abortus, P. multocida type B, P. multocida type D, lumpy skin disease virus and Akabane virus were detected in 2, 1, 5, 2 and 1 animals, respectively. Evidence of P. multocida type A, Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydia psittaci and parainfluenza 3 virus was found in 3 herds (prevalence in the main herd [n = 78]: 8%), 3 herds (8%), 6 herds (7%) and 5 herds (15%), respectively. Evidence of antibodies against bluetongue virus was found in five oryx from the USA and in one oryx from the Taif herd. Antibody vaccinal titres against rinderpest virus (and the virus of peste des petits ruminants, due to cross-reactions) were found in almost all the herds. This is the first report of antibodies against B. abortus, C. burnetti, C. psittaci, parainfluenza 3 virus and Akabane virus in the genus Oryx.

  13. The near and far wake of Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Wolf, Marta; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York; Spedding, Geoffrey R; Hedenström, Anders

    2008-09-01

    The wake structures of a bat in flight have a number of characteristics not associated with any of the bird species studied to this point. Unique features include discrete vortex rings generating negative lift at the end of the upstroke at medium and high speeds, each wing generating its own vortex loop, and a systematic variation in the circulation of the start and stop vortices along the wingspan, with increasing strength towards the wing tips. Here we analyse in further detail some previously published data from quantitative measurements of the wake behind a small bat species flying at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 7 m s(-1) in a wind tunnel. The data are extended to include both near- and far-wake measurements. The near-/far-wake comparisons show that although the measured peak vorticity of the start and stop vortices decreases with increasing downstream distance from the wing, the total circulation remains approximately constant. As the wake evolves, the diffuse stop vortex shed at the inner wing forms a more concentrated vortex in the far wake. Taken together, the results show that studying the far wake, which has been the standard procedure, nevertheless risks missing details of the wake. Although study of the far wake alone can lead to the misinterpretation of the wake topology, the net, overall circulation of the main wake vortices can be preserved so that approximate momentum balance calculations are not unreasonable within the inevitably large experimental uncertainties.

  14. Genetic variability between complete mitochondrion genomes of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Galván-Tirado, Carolina; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Angel; Delgado-Vega, Rigoberto; García-De León, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Genbank accession KP777542) is 16,507 bp in size and contains the typical 37 genes (13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA) found in teleosts mitogenomes. The genome varies in 118 positions with respect to another mitogenome sablefish specimen.

  15. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions. PMID:26435571

  16. The complete mitogenome of the ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs.

  17. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

    2015-03-01

    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 μm and 135.9 μm, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1.

  18. Distribution and ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (pallas) and Dreissena bugensis (andrusov) in the upper Volga basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shcherbina, G. Kh; Buckler, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents data on contemporary distribution patterns of two species of Dreissenidae, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the Quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), and their role in ecosystem processes in the Ivan'kovo, Uglich, Rybinsk, and Gorky Reservoirs of the Upper Volga River basin. The role of zebra mussel was also studied in experimental mesocosms of 15 m3. Maximum abundance and species diversity of macroinvertebrates, especially of leeches, polychaetes, crustaceans, and heterotopic insects, were attained in the portions of reservoirs where Dreissenidae were present and in experimental mesocosms where zebra mussel biomass was the highest. In the mesocosm studies, the presence of zebra mussel druses (colonies) provided shelter for macroinvertebrates, reducing their vulnerability to predation by perch (Perca fluviatills) larvae and yearlings, thereby increasing macroinvertebrate species diversity. It was shown that in addition to its role in aquatic biocenosis (ecological community) formation and water purification, Dreissenidae are important food objects for benthophagous fishes, especially roach (Rutilus rutilus). Examination of intestines of benthophagous fishes showed that the length of Dreissenidae ranged from 5 to 20 mm in roach; from 4 to 14 mm in silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and from 2 to 10 mm in bream (Abramis brama). The largest mussels consumed were Quagga mussels up to 30 mm, noted in the predatory cyprinid, ide (Leuciscus idus). Copyright ?? 2006 by ASTM International.

  19. Crystal structure of agkistrodotoxin, a phospholipase A2-type presynaptic neurotoxin from agkistrodon halys pallas.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Zhou, Y C; Lin, Z J

    1998-09-11

    The crystal structure of agkistrodotoxin containing eight copies of molecules in the asymmetric unit has been determined at 2.8 A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 0.207 by the molecular replacement technique. Two spatially adjacent regions of agkistrodotoxin molecule, turn 55-61 and stretch 85-91, are remarkably different from those of non-neurotoxic isoforms in conformation and electrostatic characteristics. These regions are likely to be involved in the recognition of agkistrodotoxin towards the specific receptor at the presynaptic membrane. The structural comparison of the interfacial recognition site with non-neurotoxic isoforms reveals a decreased hydrophobicity and lack of residues with bulky hydrophobic side-chains (i.e. Trp) to serve as membrane anchors. This structural feature of agkistrodotoxin may be related to the reduced non-specific binding of the toxin to non-targeted membrane before it arrives at the presynaptic membrane and recognizes the putative receptor. A unique hydrophobic patch including residues I19, P20, F21, A23, F24, M118 and F119 is found on the surface of the molecule near the entrance of the hydrophobic channel which plays an important role in crystal packing. The interaction mode between the patches might give a clue to the binding of the neurotoxin on the membrane. The agkistrodotoxin molecules in the asymmetric unit form two tetramers and each tetramer exhibits a novel "dimer of dimers"-like structure. A molecule-spanning four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet is formed by the beta-wings of two molecules within a tetramer. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  20. Preliminary study on 2 colour patterns in Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Toma, Luciano; Severini, Francesco; Romi, Roberto; Di Luca, Marco

    2016-08-30

    Ochlerotatus caspius is a mosquito of medical and veterinary relevance both for its synanthropy and for its potential role in transmission of viruses and nematodes in the areas that it inhabits. Due to its wide range and the marked variability in the adult colour pattern, some authors have recognized Ochlerotatus caspius as a complex of species. In this study, we purposed to evaluate the possible taxonomic heterogeneity between 2 chromatic forms by using both morphological and molecular approaches. The preliminary results based on the identity of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) lead us to believe the 2 forms as a single species with a chromatic polymorphism.

  1. Diplectanids (Monogenea) on the archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas) (Toxotidae) off Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, L H S

    2006-05-01

    Two new and two previously described species of diplectanid monogeneans (Heteroplectanum flabelliforme n. sp., Diplectanum sumpit n. sp., D. jaculator Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969 and D. toxotes Mizelle & Kritsky, 1969) were collected from archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix off the Island of Langkawi, Kedah and off Perak, Malaysia. The reproductive systems and squamodiscs of D. jaculator and D. toxotes are described for the first time. D. sumpit n. sp. differs from D. toxotes and D. jaculator in a having a small curved copulatory tube with a distinct accessory piece, compared to the long, tubular copulatory tube of D. jaculator and the slender tube of D. toxotes. D. sumpit n. sp. also differs from D. toxotes in having a larger ventral bar and larger squamodiscs. H. flabelliforme n. sp. differs from all known Heteroplectanum species in the shape and size of the squamodiscs, the arrangement of the sclerites in the squamodiscs, the extremely large ventral bar and the short, curved, non-spinous copulatory tube.

  2. Environmental regulation of mitochondria-rich cells in Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas, 1811) during reproductive migration.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R

    2013-03-01

    Chalcalburnus tarichi is an anadromous cyprinid fish that has adapted to extreme conditions (salinity 22 ‰, pH 9.8 and alkalinity 153 mEq × l⁻¹) in Lake Van in eastern Turkey. Changes in immunoreactivity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in gill tissue and osmolarity and ion levels in plasma were investigated in C. tarichi during reproductive migration. Physicochemical characteristics and ion levels in Lake Van were high compared freshwater. Plasma osmolality and plasma ion concentrations ([Na⁺], [K⁺] and [Cl⁻]) increased after transfer from freshwater to Lake Van. The mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gill were stained in both filament and lamellar epithelia of C. tarichi by immunocytochemistry with a specific antiserum for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in river fish samples. Density and area of MR cells were decreased in lake-adapted fishes. These results indicated that freshwater acclimation capacity is correlated with the size and distribution of MR cells in C. tarichi, in contrast to many teleost fishes.

  3. Effects of pesticide formulations and active ingredients on the coelenterate Hydra attenuata (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Demetrio, Pablo M; Bulus Rossini, Gustavo D; Bonetto, Carlos A; Ronco, Alicia E

    2012-01-01

    Lethal effects of active ingredients and formulations of widely used soybean pesticides were assessed with the Hydra attenuata toxicity test. Studied pesticides were insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin, and herbicide glyphosate. Results indicate the following toxicity trend: chlorpyrifos > cypermethrin > glyphosate. Tested active ingredients of insecticides and respective formulations did not significantly differ between them. Glyphosate formulation exhibited higher toxicity at low concentrations (LC(1-10)) respect to active ingredient, reversing this behavior at higher concentrations (LC(50-90)). Comparing H. attenuata sensitivity with existent toxicity data for aquatic organisms indicates that this species is poorly sensitive to tested insecticides and highly sensitive to the herbicide.

  4. Vitellogenin in the male Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811).

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R; Kaptaner, Burak; Unal, Guler

    2015-02-01

    Chalcalburnus tarichi is an endemic cyprinid species living in Lake Van, Turkey. In the present study, we investigated vitellogenin (Vtg) in the plasma of adult male C. tarichi, sampled monthly from Edremit, Campus and Çarpanak sites of Van Edremit Gulf (VEG) of lake, between October 2004 and May 2005. The fish living around VEG winters in deep water around Edremit site. University and Çarpanak sites are also on fish migration way from VEG to fresh water (Karasu River). The levels of measured plasma Vtg changed from trace levels to 26.35 µg/mL. The highest level of plasma Vtg was detected in April, with a concentration of 21.60 ± 1.29 µg/mL. We also performed immunohistochemical Vtg staining in the liver sections of male fish and determined Vtg positive hepatocytes in the liver of 1/10 sampled fish. Our results indicated that C. tarichi living in Lake Van might be exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

  5. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain.

    PubMed

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-08-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions.

  6. Effects of starvation on the carbohydrate metabolism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zuo-Kun; Wang, Su; Wang, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Yan-Xia; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Trehalose plays an important role in energy storage, metabolism, and protection from extreme environmental conditions in insects. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, and it can be rapidly used as an energy source in times of need. To elucidate the mechanisms of the starvation response, we observed the effects of starvation on trehalose and glycogen, trehalase activity, and the relative gene expression of genes in the trehalose and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis. Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8 h of starvation, while the relative expression of HaTreh1-1 increased. While trehalose remained nearly constant at a relatively high level from 8 to 24 h, glycogen levels decreased significantly from 8 h to 24 h of starvation. Likewise, glycogen phosphorylase (HaGP) expression was significantly higher at 12 to 24 h starvation than the first 8 h, while the expression of glycogen synthase (HaGS) was relatively stable. Furthermore, trehalose decreased significantly from 24 h starvation to 72 h starvation, while trehalase activities and the relative expression of some HaTreh genes generally increased toward the end of the starvation period. The expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (HaTPS) increased significantly, supporting the increase in trehalose synthesis. These results show that trehalose plays a key role in the energy provided during the starvation process through the molecular and biochemical regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism. PMID:28606937

  7. Effects of starvation on the carbohydrate metabolism in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Shi, Zuo-Kun; Wang, Su; Wang, Shi-Gui; Zhang, Lu; Xu, Yan-Xia; Guo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Bin

    2017-07-15

    Trehalose plays an important role in energy storage, metabolism, and protection from extreme environmental conditions in insects. Trehalose is the main blood sugar in insects, and it can be rapidly used as an energy source in times of need. To elucidate the mechanisms of the starvation response, we observed the effects of starvation on trehalose and glycogen, trehalase activity, and the relative gene expression of genes in the trehalose and glycogen metabolic pathways in the invasive beetle Harmonia axyridis Our results show that trehalose levels and the activities of two types of trehalases decreased significantly in the first 8 h of starvation, while the relative expression of HaTreh1-1 increased. While trehalose remained nearly constant at a relatively high level from 8 to 24 h, glycogen levels decreased significantly from 8 h to 24 h of starvation. Likewise, glycogen phosphorylase (HaGP) expression was significantly higher at 12 to 24 h starvation than the first 8 h, while the expression of glycogen synthase (HaGS) was relatively stable. Furthermore, trehalose decreased significantly from 24 h starvation to 72 h starvation, while trehalase activities and the relative expression of some HaTreh genes generally increased toward the end of the starvation period. The expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (HaTPS) increased significantly, supporting the increase in trehalose synthesis. These results show that trehalose plays a key role in the energy provided during the starvation process through the molecular and biochemical regulation of trehalose and glycogen metabolism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. [Population variation of elytral ridge occurrence in ladybirds Harmonia axyridis Pallas].

    PubMed

    Blekhman, A V

    2008-11-01

    Intra- and interpopulation variation of occurrence of elytral ridge (neutral morphological character with the known genetic determination) in some populations of Harmonia axyridis from the Russian part of the species area was studied for the first time. Comparative analysis of the frequencies of the recessive allele r of a corresponding gene and the frequencies of recessive homozygotes in 32 samples from 16 localities has shown the lack of temporal and microgeographic variations of this trait. The character of its geographic variation confirms the hypothesis advanced earlier on the basis of analysis of elytral pattern variation about the existence of two subspecies of H. axyridis and suggests the existence of a zone of secondary hybridization between them in the central part of the area.

  9. The distribution, abundance and ecology of the blue coral Heliopora coerulea (Pallas) in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zann, Leon P.; Bolton, Lesley

    1985-09-01

    Heliopora coerulea (Alcyonaria, Coenothecalia), widespread since the Cretaceous, is today found in the Indo-Western Pacific between 25° N and 25° S but is uncommon throughout most of its range. Studies around its reported southern and eastern limits of distribution (Great Barrier Reef, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, Tuvalu, Gilbert Group) suggest that ocean temperature (a lower marginal isotherm of 22°C), duration of larval life-span, prevailing currents, and the geological and climatic history of isolated archipelagoes determine distribution. Heliopora was found to be far more abundant in the equatorial Central Pacific sites (Tuvalu and Gilbert growps) than in the Western Pacific (Great Barrier Reef, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Ponape, Palau). Heliopora comprised up to 16% of beach sediments in Tuvalu atolls, and was the dominant coral (averaging 40% of substrate between 6 m and 10 m on reef slopes) in coral assemblages on Tarawa Atoll. From ecological studies in Tarawa it is suggested that competition from the more specialized and “aggressive” Scleractinia (particularly Acroporidae and Faviidae) is the major factor limiting abundance in the equatorial Western Pacific.

  10. Potential semiochemicals in urine from free ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo Pallas, 1780)

    Treesearch

    William F. Wood; Jeffrey P. Copeland; Richard E. Yates; Iman K. Horsey; Lynne R. McGreevy

    2009-01-01

    Urine deposition has been observed as an important scent-marking behaviour among wolverines (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) of headspace volatiles of the urine from free ranging wolverines were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine samples were collected directly from the bladder of live-trapped animals...

  11. A molecular comparison of Alaskan and North East Atlantic Halicondria panicea (Pallas 1766) (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Knowlton, Anne L.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Highsmith, Ray C.; van Soest, Rob W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The intraspecific relationships between populations of Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea are the subjects of ongoing research. In this study we compare CO1 sequences of Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea with North East Atlantic Halichondria panicea and its sister species Halichondria bowerbanki. Alaskan Halichondria cf. panicea form a well-supported sister group to the European Halichondria panicea/ H. bowerbanki species complex in the resulting gene tree and cluster distantly from their European conspecifics.

  12. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183(T) (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475(T) (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103(T) (=NRRL B-65309(T) = CMAA 1378(T)) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  13. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus.

  14. Accuracy of pitfall traps for monitoring populations of the amphipod Orchestia gammarella (Pallas 1766) in saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzouki, Evanthia; Ysnel, Frédéric; Carpentier, Alexandre; Pétillon, Julien

    2012-11-01

    The intertidal amphipod Orchestia gammarella displays a key role in the functioning of sand and salt marsh habitats, mainly due to its role in decomposition processes and as a main prey item for fish and birds. This study evaluates the accuracy of two sampling methods for estimating population size, biomass and cohort composition. Pitfall trapping, a passive and easily displayed method, was compared with the depletion of quadrats, an active and time-consuming method, considered here as the reference method. Sampling took place in North-West European saltmarshes (Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France) during the summer, 2003 (64 replicates per method). Linear regression revealed that activity-densities (number of individuals per trap) were strongly and positively correlated with densities (number of individuals per quadrat). Dry biomasses obtained from the two sampling methods were also significantly and positively correlated, but with a low coefficient of correlation. Cohort composition differed between the methods, with proportionally less juveniles and more intermediates in pitfall traps. We conclude that pitfall traps can be used for easily monitoring changes in the size, and to a lesser extent for measuring the biomass, of an amphipod population, but not for estimating its cohort composition.

  15. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Silva-Briano, Marcelo; Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro

    2012-03-01

    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green® analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of mercury on the life table demography of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Pérez, Teresa; Sarma, S S S; Nandini, S

    2004-08-01

    Mercury is highly toxic to a variety of aquatic organisms including zooplankton. The functioning of freshwater ecosystems can be altered if rotifers, being a natural food link between phytoplankton and fish larvae, are contaminated by mercuric compounds. In order to detect age-specific responses of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus to mercury toxicity (5 nominal concentrations as chloride viz. 0, 0.000625, 0.00125, 0.0025 and 0.005 mg l(-1)), we used the standard life table method at two different food (Chlorella vulgaris) levels (0.5 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(6) cells ml(-1)). Data indicated that increase in mercury concentration had an increasingly intense negative effect on many of the life history variables, while at higher food levels, its impact was less. A nearly rectangular survivorship pattern was obtained in controls, especially at higher food levels. This trend gradually changed to a steep fall as the concentration of the heavy metal in the medium increased from 0 to 0.005 mg l(-1). At any given food density, increase in the mercury concentration resulted in decreased age-specific reproduction. A maximum of 3.5 offspring female(-1) was observed in controls at higher food density. The average lifespan varied from 6 to 8 days at low food level, depending on the heavy metal concentration in the medium. The corresponding values at high food level varied from 8 to 12 days. Regardless of mercury concentration in the medium, gross and net reproductive values varied from 10 to 33 and 4 to 19 offspring female(-1). The longest generation time (about 9 days) of B. calyciflorus was obtained at 1.5 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) food density in control, while the shortest was 5 days at low food level and high (0.005 mg l(-1)) mercury concentration in the medium. Depending on the food level and heavy metal concentration in the medium, the rate of population growth (r) varied from 0.32 to 0.62 d(-1). In general, higher food level resulted in higher r. Except generation time, all other derived variables were significantly influenced by food level and the heavy metal concentration in the medium.

  17. Effects of removing symbiotic green algae on the response of Hydra viridissima (Pallas 1776) to metals.

    PubMed

    Karntanut, W; Pascoe, D

    2005-03-01

    Hydra viridissima is distinctively green due to symbiotic algae within the endodermal cells. The current investigation was designed to see if these algae influenced the response of Hydra to pollutants, by comparing the toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc to both symbiotic and aposymbiotic (free of their endosymbiotic algae) H. viridissima. The results demonstrated that the toxicity of the metals was generally similar for both groups of Hydra. However, at the lowest copper concentrations there was a difference between the two group of polyps, with aposymbiotic animals dying at concentrations where symbiotic Hydra survived. The lowest observed effect concentrations were 0.0068 and 0.016 mg/L for aposymbiotic and symbiotic Hydra, respectively. It is suggested that the symbiotic Hydra derive benefits from the association that enable them to better tolerate the toxicant. This work demonstrated that experimental manipulation of symbionts can help to explain their complex interactions and the ways in which they respond to pollutants.

  18. Biology of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) (Acari: Ixodidae) on some laboratory hosts in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sobreira Rodrigues, Daniel; Avila de Carvalho, Henrique; Almeida Fernandes, André; Freitas, Carolina Maria Viana; Cerqueira Leite, Romário; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto

    2002-09-01

    The ixodid Amblyomma aureolatum is suspected to play a role in the epidemiology of wild life-cycle hemoparasites, which frequently infect dogs in rural and hunting areas in Brazil. Little is known about its bionomics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate some bionomic aspects of A. aureolatum ticks in Brazil. One engorged female, collected from a dog (Canis familiaris) in São Sebastião das Aguas Claras, State of Minas Gerais, was used to establish a colony in the laboratory. Subsequently its parasitic stage progeny were fed on domestic dogs and laboratory animals. The free-living stages were incubated at 27 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C and minimum 70% relative humidity in a BOD incubator. The egg incubation period ranged from 31 to 34 days; the parasitic period of larvae ranged from 4 to 6 days and ecdysis to nymphs occurred from day 19 up to day 22. The parasitic period of nymphs ranged from 5 to 8 days and the period of ecdysis to adults from 31 to 33 days. The parasitic period of adults ranged from 11 to 15 days, the pre-oviposition period from 6 to 12 days, and the oviposition period from 9 to 38 days. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 116 to 168 days.

  19. Can turbidity caused by Corophium volutator (Pallas) activity be used to assess sediment toxicity rapidly?

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew D; Greenwood, Naomi; Grant, Alastair

    2003-04-01

    The standard toxicity test organism, Corophium volutator, exhibits a behavioural response to contaminated sediments that causes increased turbidity of overlying water. We quantify the effects of this response to an estuarine sediment spiked with copper and hydrocarbon contaminated sediments from an oil installation in the North Sea. Turbidity measured 24 h after the start of a toxicity test shows a strong relationship with contaminant concentrations and with mortality after 10 days. Turbidity measurements can therefore give a rapid indication of sediment toxicity, permitting a reduction in storage time of sediments to be used in dilution series and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests, reducing the likelihood of contaminants degrading prior to testing.

  20. Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766 (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Massaro, F C; Rocha, O

    2008-05-01

    Hydras, the most representative freshwater Cnidaria, are of common occurrence in bodies of water in every continent except Antarctica. This study was planned with the aim of maintaining a population of Hydra viridissima in laboratory culture to enable the determination of the individual and population growth-rates of this species, as well as its population doubling time and generation time, with a view to employing these common animals as test-organisms in ecotoxicological assays. The organisms were maintained in reconstituted water at 20 +/- 2 degrees C, illuminated at 800 lux with a photoperiod of 12 hours light: 12 hours dark, and were fed on neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia silvestrii (3 or 4 neonates per hydra, 3 times a week). The individual growth-rate (k) of the species was 0.43, the maximum length of the column 2.53 mm and the generation time 6.6 +/- 1.5 days on average. The hydra population showed an intrinsic growth-rate (r) of 0.0468, according to the fitted curve, and a doubling time of 14.8 +/- 2.63 days. Hydra viridissima is easy to grow in the laboratory and performs well in the conditions used in this study. It is thus a promising candidate test-organism for ecotoxicological studies.

  1. Effect of four organochlorine pesticides on the reproduction of freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yi-Long; Chu, Zhao-Xia; Xu, Xiao-Ping

    2007-08-01

    Effects of four organochlorine pesticides, including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dicofol, endosulfan, and lindane, on the reproduction of freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were studied by 3-d population growth tests. Compared to the control, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at 0.64 mg/L, dicofol at 0.8 and 1.2 mg/L, endosulfan at 7.0 mg/L, and lindane at 14.0 mg/L all significantly decreased the population growth rate of the rotifers. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at concentrations higher than 0.16 mg/L, dicofol at concentrations higher than 0.025 mg/L, endosulfan at concentrations higher than 0.875 mg/L, and lindane at 14.0 mg/L all significantly decreased the mictic rate of the rotifers. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at 0.24 and 0.32 mg/L increased significantly the fertilization rate, but DDT at 0.64 mg/L inhibited completely the occurrence of fertilized mictic females. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at 0.32 and 0.64 mg/L, dicofol at 1.2 mg/L, and endosulfan at 7.0 mg/L all significantly decreased the ratio of ovigerous females to nonovigerous females, but the reverse was true for lindane at 7.0 mg/L. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane at 0.0025 and 0.01 mg/L increased significantly the ratio of mictic females to amictic females, but the reverse was true for dicofol at 0.8 mg/L. Both population growth rate and mictic rate of the rotifers were suitable endpoints for assessing the effects of the four organochlorine insecticides on the reproduction of the rotifers, and the latter was more sensitive.

  2. Ultrasonographic characterisation of prenatal development in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778): an evolutionary approach.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Kathleen; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2010-01-01

    The European brown hare is one species in which reproduction appears to be particularly complex. Therefore, we studied the reproductive tract and prenatal development using high-resolution ultrasound of 159 pregnancies in 45 captive female hares. Consecutive examination of live hares was particularly useful in evaluating the very early stages of gestation. As such, it was possible to detect corpora lutea by Day 3 and embryonic vesicles, representing the earliest uterine embryonic stages, by Day 6. On Day 11, the heart beat of the embryo was detectable for the first time. We defined ultrasonographic milestones that were characteristic of the different stages of pregnancy. We also calculated growth models using eight different morphological parameters, including development of the corpus luteum. On the basis of these results, it is now possible to estimate the gestational age of a pregnant doe without knowing the date of conception. In contrast with the European rabbit, a distant relative, European hares give birth to precocial young. A comparison of the prenatal growth rate of both species suggests that the precocial state of the hare neonate is a more recently derived evolutionary characteristic, whereas the altricial condition of rabbits represents the ancestral mode.

  3. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Jabłoński, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare.

  4. Resource allocation and post-reproductive degeneration in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra oligactis (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Tökölyi, Jácint; Ősz, Zsófia; Sebestyén, Flóra; Barta, Zoltán

    2017-02-01

    Freshwater hydra are among the few animal groups that show negligible senescence and can maintain high survival and reproduction rates when kept under stable conditions in the laboratory. Yet, one species of Hydra (H. oligactis) undergoes a senescence-like process in which polyps degenerate and die after sexual reproduction. The ultimate factors responsible for this phenomenon are unclear. High mortality in reproducing animals could be the consequence of increased allocation of resources to reproduction at the expense of somatic maintenance. This hypothesis predicts that patterns of reproduction and survival are influenced by resource availability. To test this prediction we investigated survival and reproduction at different levels of food availability in 10 lineages of H. oligactis derived from a single Hungarian population. Sexual reproduction was accompanied by reduced survival, but a substantial proportion of animals regenerated after sexual reproduction and continued reproducing asexually. Polyps belonging to different lineages showed differences in their propensity to initiate sexual reproduction, gonad number and survival rate. Food availability significantly affected fecundity (number of eggs or testes produced), with the largest number of gonads being produced by animals kept on a high food regime. On the other hand, survival rate was not affected by the amount of food. These results show that survival is conserved at the expense of reproduction in this population when food is low. It remains a question still to be answered why survival is prioritized over reproduction in this population.

  5. Ecology and demographics of Pacific sand lance, Ammodytes hexapterus Pallas, in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Distinct sand lance populations occur within the relatively small geographic area of Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marked meso-scale differences in abundance, growth, and mortality exist as a consequence of differing oceanographic regimes. Growth rate within populations (between years) was positively correlated with temperature. However, this did not extend to inter-population comparisons where differing growth rates were better correlated to marine productivity. Most sand lance reached maturity in their second year. Field observations and indices of maturity, gonad development, and ova-size distribution all indicated that sand lance spawn once each year. Sand lance spawned intertidally in late September and October on fine gravel/sandy beaches. Embryos developed over 67 days through periods of intertidal exposure and sub-freezing air temperatures. Mean dry-weight energy value of sand lance cycles seasonally, peaking in spring and early summer (20.91 kJg-1 for males, 21.08 kJg-1 for females), and subsequently declining by about 25% during late summer and fall (15.91 kJg-1 for males, 15.74 kJg-1 for females). Sand lance enter the winter with close to their minimum whole body energy content. Dry weight energy densities of juveniles increased from a minimum 16.67 kJg-1 to a maximum of 19.68 kJg-1 and are higher than adults in late summer.

  6. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Castostomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in ...

  7. Identification of Hepatozoon erhardovae Krampitz, 1964 from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and fleas in Southern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Rigó, Krisztina; Majoros, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; Molnár, Imola; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence and life cycle of apicomplexan parasites, small mammals were live-trapped with modified Sherman traps in Southern Hungary between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 528 rodents (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771, Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780, Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761, Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 and Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771) were collected and four shrews (Sorex spp.) were by-catched. Captured animals belonging to non-protected species were euthanized, and spleen samples were preserved for histological and molecular analyses. During the examination of spleen smears, Hepatozoon parasites were observed in eight out of 48 bank voles (M. glareolus). DNA was isolated from altogether 221 spleen samples, and 18S rDNA was amplified using two different PCR protocols. The eight bank vole samples were positive with PCR, but none of the other M. glareolus spleen samples or any of the tissue samples from other species were found to be infected. Sequenced amplicons were very similar to Hepatozoon spp. detected in M. glareolus in Spain and Poland. Ectoparasites were collected from the small mammal carcasses and from the vegetation. Hepatozoon DNA was not found in the 181 ticks removed from the small mammals or in the 162 ticks collected with flagging, but was detected in all three flea species (4/43 Megabothris turbidus Rothschild, 1909, 3/10 Ctenophthalmus assimilis Taschenberg, 1880 and 7/78 Ctenophthalmus agyrtes Heller, 1896). Based on gamont morphology, vertebrate and arthropod host species and DNA sequences, the parasites in our study can be identified as Hepatozoon erhardovae.

  8. Does the invasive plant Elymus athericus modify fish diet in tidal salt marshes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaille, P.; Pétillon, J.; Parlier, E.; Valéry, L.; Ysnel, F.; Radureau, A.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2005-12-01

    The invasion of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay salt marshes (France) by a grass species ( Elymus athericus) has led to important changes in vegetation cover, which is likely to modify the habitat for many invertebrates. Some of them constitute the main food items for several fish species, such as young sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) and sand goby ( Pomatoschistus minutus), that feed in salt marsh creeks during high tides. As a result, fish nursery functions of salt marshes could be modified by the E. athericus invasion. In order to test this hypothesis, gut contents of the two most abundant fish species (sea bass and sand goby) were compared before and after E. athericus invasion in the same salt marsh creek and using the same methodology. The accessibility and availability of the main food item, the semi-terrestrial amphipod Orchestia gammarella, were estimated and compared between invaded (dominated by E. athericus) and original areas (dominated by Atriplex portulacoides). Gut content analysis showed a significantly greater percentage of fish leaving with empty guts from E. athericus areas than from A. portulacoides areas. The sea bass diet composition study showed a major shift in the relative importance of the main food items: before E. athericus invasion, diets were dominated by the semi-terrestrial species O. gammarella, whereas after the E. athericus invasion they were dominated by a marine mysid Neomysis integer. The same trend was found for sand gobies, with a shift of the main food item from O. gammarella before invasion to the polychaete Hediste diversicolor after invasion. These trophic changes may be explained by the lower accessibility and availability of O. gammarella in invaded communities than in natural ones. The E. athericus invasion, observed throughout northern Europe, is thus likely to disturb trophic function of natural salt marshes for fish. This preliminary study of the E. athericus invasion is also an illustration that invasive species are an

  9. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaille, P.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2000-10-01

    At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt marshes) of Mont Saint-Michel Bay. These and other comparable shallow marine coastal waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has been paid to the value of tidal salt marshes for fishes. Between March 1996 and April 1999, 120 tides were sampled in a tidal creek. A total of 31 species were caught. This community was largely dominated by mullets ( Liza ramada represent 87% of the total biomass) and sand gobies ( Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi represent 82% of the total numbers). These species and also Gasterosteus aculeatus , Syngnathus rostellatus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Mugil spp., Liza aurata and Sprattus sprattus were the most frequent species (>50% of monthly frequency of occurrence). In Europe, salt marshes and their creeks are flooded only during high spring tides. So, fishes only invade this environment during short immersion periods, and no species can be considered as marsh resident. But, the salt marsh was colonized by fish every time the tide reached the creek, and during the short time of flood, dominant fishes fed actively and exploited the high productivity. Nevertheless, this study shows that there is little interannual variation in the fish community and there are three ' seasons ' in the fish fauna of the marsh. Marine straggler and marine estuarine dependent species colonize marshes between spring (recruitment period in the bay) and autumn before returning into deeper adjacent waters. Estuarine fishes are present all year round with maximum abundances in the end of summer. The presence of fishes confirms that this kind of wetland plays an important trophic and nursery role for these species. Differences in densities and stages distribution of these species into Mont Saint-Michel systems (tidal mudflats, estuaries and tidal salt marshes) can reduce the trophic

  10. Phospholpid studies of marine organisms: 2.(1) Phospholipids, phospholipid-bound fatty acids and free sterols of the spongeAplysina fistularis (Pallas) formafulva (Pallas) (=Verongia thiona)(2). Isolation and structure elucidation of unprecedented branched fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Walkup, R D; Jamieson, G C; Ratcliff, M R; Djerassi, C

    1981-09-01

    The free sterols and phospholipids of the demospongeAplysina fistularis were isolated and analyzed. The free sterols consisted mainly of the unusual 26-methylated sterols aplysterol (53%) and 24(28)-dehydroaplysterol (7%) together with 7 commonly occurring sterods. The major phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acyl components of the phospholipids consisted of 85% C14-C20 acids, including the unprecedented 2,6,10-trimethyl-5-tetradecenoic acid and 11-methyloctadecanoic acid. The remaining 15% were C27-C30 demospongic acids, including 2 novel acids tentatively assigned the structures 5,9,23-octacosatrienoic acid and 5,9,23-nonacosatrienoic acid, and 3 novel acids proven to be 5,9,21-octacosatrienoic acid, Z,Z-20-methyl-5,9-hexacosadienoic acid and Z,Z-22-methyl-5,9-octacosadienoic acid. The biosyntheses of the novel demospongic acids are proposed to occur by chain elongation of monoenoic or branched precursors followed by desaturation. The large quantities of typically bacterial phospholipids and fatty acids found implied the presence of bacteria in the sponge, in agreement with microscopic studies. Analysis of the phospholipid-bound fatty acids in a sponge cell-enriched fraction indicated that the demospongic acids, including the 2 branched structures, were the major acids of the sponge cells. The presence inA. fistularis of demospongic acids containing membrane disordering groups-methyl branches or double bonds-on the ω7 carbon is proposed to be due to the need by the sponge for membranes possessing fluidity near the middle of the phospholipid bilayer. It is also proposed that the C26 methyl group of aplysterol causes disordering of the phospholipid bilayer in the same region, and thus also evolved in response to this need.

  11. Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.

    2014-01-01

    The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

  12. [Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus Pallas, 1814 (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae): mediated gene introgression?].

    PubMed

    Shed'ko, S V; Ginatulina, L K; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A

    2007-02-01

    In 41 individuals of South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus, nucleotide sequences of tRNA-Pro gene fragment (27 bp) and mtDNA control region (483-484 bp) were analyzed. The fish were collected in 20 localities covering virtually the whole range of the species: Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island. and Primorye. In addition, six individuals of three other char species (S. albus, S. malma, and S. leucomaenis), which are closely related to S. curilus and inhabit the Russian Far East, were examined. In all, we detected 12 different variants of mtDNA haplotypes that formed three distinct groups differing in 14--20 nucleotide positions. The first group consisted of six haplotypes found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and Primorye (mtDNA phylogroup OKHOTSKIA). The second group comprised four haplotypes representing the mtDNA phylogroup BERING, which had been described earlier (Brunner et al, 2001); they were found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, as well as in S. albus and S. malma in Kamchatka and northern Kurils. The third group included two haplotypes detected in S. leucomaenis. The existence of two mtDNA lineages (OKHOTSKIA and BERING) in S. curilus from Kurils and Sakhalin was explained by hybridization and DNA transfer from S. malma to S. curilus. The absence of the BERING haplotypes in S. curilus from Primorye water reservoirs is related to the physical isolation of the Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan basins in past epochs. On the basis of comparing phylogenetic trees, constructed from the data on allozyme and mtDNA variation, we suggest that in this case, an indirect transfer of mtDNA in Alpinoid chars--> S. malma-->S. curilus chain could occur.

  13. Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Wolf, Marta; Johansson, L Christoffer; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2010-06-15

    To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats.

  14. Purification, characterization and bactericidal activities of basic phospholipase A2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys (Chinese pallas).

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, R; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Ho, Bow; Chow, Vincent T K

    2008-09-01

    Agkistrodon snake venoms contain a variety of phospholipases (PLA2), some of which are myotoxic. In this study, we used reverse-phase HPLC to purify PLA2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys. The enzyme named as AgkTx-II, a basic Asp49 PLA2, has a molecular masses of 13,869.05. The amino acid sequence and molecular mass of AgkTx-II was identical to those of an Asp49 basic myotoxic PLA2 previously isolated from this venom. Antibacterial activities were tested by susceptibility and broth-dilution assays. AgkTx-II exerted a potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. The MIC values of AgkTx-II ranged between 85 and 2.76microM and was most effective against S. aureus, P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis (MIC of 21.25microM) and B. pseudomallei (MIC of 10.25microM). This AgkTx-II rapidly killed S. aureus, P. vulgaris and B. pseudomallei in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of the AgkTx-II on bacterial membranes was evaluated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. AgkTx-II caused morphological alterations apparent on their cellular surfaces, suggesting a killing mechanism based on membrane permeabilization and damage. Cytotoxicity was measured by XTT tetrazolium (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays using U-937 cells (monocytes). The AgkTx-II did not affect cell viability up to 500microM concentrations but cell death was evident at 1000microM concentration after 24 and 48h. Furthermore, the repeated exposure of AgkTx-II (2-14microM) treated mice showed different tissue alterations, mainly at the brain and kidney; the toxicological potential of AgkTx-II remains to be elucidated. The AgkTx-II exhibits no hemolytic action even at high doses (10-100microM) in human erythrocytes. However, the AgkTx-II is believed to exert its bactericidal effect by permeabilizing the bacterial membrane by forming pores. In addition, the basic PLA2 AgkTx-II displays a bactericidal effect, which may be either dependent or independent of catalysis.

  15. Effects of temporal fluctuation in population processes of intertidal Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) aggregations on its ecosystem engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Renata M. S.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Vincx, Magda; Van Colen, Carl

    2017-03-01

    Ecosystem engineers contribute to ecosystem functioning by regulating key environmental attributes, such as habitat availability and sediment biogeochemistry. While autogenic engineers can increase habitat complexity passively and provide physical protection to other species, allogenic engineers can regulate sediment oxygenation and biogeochemistry through bioturbation and/or bioirrigation. Their effects rely on the physical attributes of the engineer and/or its biogenic constructs, such as abundance and/or size. The present study focused on tube aggregations of a sessile, tube-building polychaete that engineers marine sediments, Lanice conchilega. Its tube aggregations modulate water flow by dissipating energy, influencing sedimentary processes and increasing particle retention. These effects can be influenced by temporal fluctuations in population demographic processes. Presently, we investigated the relationship between population processes and ecosystem engineering through an in-situ survey (1.5 years) of L. conchilega aggregations at the sandy beach of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France). We (1) evaluated temporal patterns in population structure, and (2) investigated how these are related to the ecosystem engineering of L. conchilega on marine sediments. During our survey, we assessed tube density, demographic structure, and sediment properties (surficial chl-a, EPS, TOM, median and mode grain size, sorting, and mud and water content) on a monthly basis for 12 intertidal aggregations. We found that the population was mainly composed by short-lived (6-10 months), small-medium individuals. Mass mortality severely reduced population density during winter. However the population persisted, likely due to recruits from other populations, which are associated to short- and long-term population dynamics. Two periods of recruitment were identified: spring/summer and autumn. Population density was highest during the spring recruitment and significantly affected several environmental properties (i.e. EPS, TOM, mode grain size, mud and water content), suggesting that demographic processes may be responsible for periods of pronounced ecosystem engineering with densities of approx. 30 000 ind·m-2.

  16. Finding of Anopheles (Anopheles) hyrcanus (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera, Culicidae) during the entomological surveillance for West Nile virus in Umbria, Italy.

    PubMed

    Toma, Luciano; Catalani, Monica; Catalano, Antonella; Goffredo, Maria; Romi, Roberto; Di Luca, Marco

    2016-08-03

    This study reports the mosquito collections conducted in July-August 2013 in Castiglione del Lago (Umbria Region, Italy) during the entomological surveillance within the West Nile national control program. The mosquito collections showed the noteworthy occurrence of Anopheles hyrcanus s.l. (n = 156; 35.8% of the whole sample), a relatively rare mosquito species in Italy, with molecular analyses con rming that these mosquitoes belong to An. hyrcanus s.s. The same catching site was characterized by a relevant richness in mosquito species, in particular the following were found: Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (n = 146; 33.5% composed by 80% Anopheles melanoon, 13.3% Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and 6.7% Anopheles atroparvus), Culex pipiens s.l. (n = 116; 26.6% composed by 90% Cx. p. pipiens, 5% Cx. p. molestus and 5% Cx. p. pipiens/molestus), Culiseta annulata (n = 10; 2.3%), Aedes albopictus (n = 3; 0.7%), and Anopheles claviger (n = 5; 100%).

  17. Natural Leishmania infection in rock hyrax, Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766) order: Hyracoidea, trapped in Najran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; al Dakhil, M A; el Bahrawy, A F

    1997-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (zoonotic, ZCL) and L. tropica (anthroponotic, ACL) is found in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Phlebotomus papatasii is the proven vector of L. major and rodents Rhombomys opimus, Psammomys obesus, Meriones spp. and Gerbillus spp. serve as animal reservoirs. Ph. sergenti is the vector of L. tropica in the majority of endemic foci. On the other hand; in the Eastern African highlands (mainly Ethiopia and Kenya), stable foci of L. aethiopica are maintanined by hyraxes and transmitted by Ph. longipes and Ph. pedifer. In this paper, natural Leishmania sp. infection was demonstrated serologically (IHAT) and parasitologically (smear examination) in two out of four rock hyraxes trapped in the highlands of Najran, southern part of the Kingdom. It is concluded that the identity of the Leishmania parasite(s)in such a focus is essential since it has implication in control and treatment. Also, passive case-detection and isolates from man and sandfly in the vicinity of Najran for typing is a must.

  18. Heterozygosity and fitness: No strong association in Great Lakes populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena Polymorpha (Pallas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, K.M.; Feder, J.L.; Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies have found positive associations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness surrogates (e.g., body size and growth rate) for marine molluscs. We investigated whether similar relationships exist for freshwater populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Only one significant correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length was observed for a total of 22 D. polymorpha populations surveyed from midwestern U.S.A. lakes and streams, and the result was not significant on a table-wide basis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant common correlation coefficient (effect magnitude) between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length across all 22 sites (rc = 0.052, P = 0.019, 1557 df). However, the variance in shell length explained by multi-locus heterozygosity was small (rc2 = 0.0027), implying a weak causal relationship if any. Also, we saw no relationship between heterozygosity and growth rate in a one-year field enclosure experiment. A significant heterozygosity-shell length correlation previously reported for a zebra mussel population at Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio, may have been the product of unique population dynamics, rather than natural selection. Similar demographic considerations may contribute to inconsistencies in heterozygosity-fitness correlations seen for other molluscs.

  19. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    PubMed

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years.

  20. Gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices of the freshwater fish Notopterus notopterus (Pallas) in response to some heavy metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Sindhe, V R; Kulkarni, R S

    2004-07-01

    Area wise, the measurement of LC50 for pollutants is of great value in predicting the safe concentration dose of the contaminant in the environment on different aquatic species. The lethality of toxic substances including heavy metals to the aquatic organisms are usually assessed by following static bio-assay or continuous flow methods. The toxicity tests for mercuric chloride (HgCl2), cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and their mixture on Notopterus notopterus was determined by using 96h LC50 concentration on fish N. notopterus which indicated that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was less toxic and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was most highly toxic. The order of toxicity is mercuric chloride > mixture > cadmium chloride. On the basis of gonadosomatic index the reproductive cycle of N. notopterus can be categorised into immature, developing, maturing, mature, ripe and spent stages. Liver forms important organ of the body, which has a role in the ovarian development. On exposure to heavy metals at sublethal concentration both GSI (gonadosomatic index) and HSI (hepatosomatic index) are reduced.

  1. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 7. 5-14 microns Spectroscopy of the Asteroids Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Roush, Ted; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane

    1996-01-01

    We describe our efforts to seek "closure" in our infrared absolute calibration scheme by comparing spectra of asteroids, absolutely calibrated through reference stars, with "Standard Thermal Models" and "Thermophysical Models" for these bodies. Our use of continuous 5-14 microns airborne spectra provides complete sampling of the rise to, and peak, of the infrared spectral energy distribution and constrains these models. Such models currently support the absolute calibration of ISO-PHOT at far-infrared wave- lengths (as far as 300 microns), and contribute to that of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the "Infrared Telescope in Space" in the 6-12 microns region. The best match to our observed spectra of Ceres and Vesta is a, standard thermal model using a beaming factor of unity. We also report the presence of three emissivity features in Ceres which may complicate the traditional model extrapolation to the far-infrared from contemporaneous ground-based N-band photometry that is used to support calibration of, for example, ISO-PHOT. While identification of specific materials that cause these features is not made, we discuss families of minerals that may be responsible.

  2. Influence of diet on fecundity, immune defense and content of 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in Harmonia axyridis Pallas.

    PubMed

    Kögel, Susanne; Eben, Astrid; Hoffmann, Christoph; Gross, Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    Food type can affect all functional aspects of an insect's life. We investigated the effects of different diet regimes on life history parameters of the ladybird beetle Harmonia axyridis. Furthermore, we tested the importance of elytral color, sex, and diet on chemical and immune defense in this species. We also compared hemolymph from cohorts of H. axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) fed different diets to examine effects on the 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) content in these beetles. No effects of diet on the duration of larval development and on adult weight were found. We detected, however, significantly higher fecundity and oviposition rates when female H. axyridis were reared on pea aphids than when reared on eggs of Ephestia kuehniella. Males and females did not differ in their immune response. Elytral color affected both immune defense and chemical defense. The antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph differed only when morphotypes were tested against E. coli. Moreover, we observed an effect of elytral pigmentation on IPMP content. The succinea 2 type (orange without dots) had the lowest IPMP content in two out of three feeding regimes compared to the succinea 1 (orange with dots) type. Depending on diet, IPMP contents differed in both species leading to higher contents either in H. axyridis or C. septempunctata. Furthermore, aphid species ingested during larval development significantly affected IPMP content in adult beetles. These results implicate new aspects for risk assessment of H. axyridis in viticulture.

  3. Biological and biochemical characteristics for quality control of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) reared on a liver-based diet.

    PubMed

    Sighinolfi, Luca; Febvay, Gérard; Dindo, Maria L; Rey, Marjolaine; Pageaux, Jeanfrançois; Baronio, Piero; Grenier, Simon

    2008-05-01

    Biological and biochemical parameters of a flightless strain of Harmonia axyridis, fed on a pork liver-based artificial diet and on Ephestia kuehniella eggs as controls, were compared. The diet-grown larvae showed a significantly longer developmental time and a lower adult emergence rate compared to control larvae. The weights of the newly emerged adults were significantly higher for adults fed E. kuehniella eggs during their larval stages than fed the artificial diet. In contrast, larval food source had no effect on the duration of the pre-oviposition period or adult longevity. For adults fed on E. kuehniella eggs as larvae, a significantly longer pre-oviposition period, lower daily weight gain and fecundity were found for the diet-fed females compared to those fed on E. kuehniella eggs throughout the life span. The adult food source had no significant effect on longevity and fertility. Lower amino acid and fatty acid contents (in particular C16:1 and C18:3n-3) were found for the prepupae and newly emerged females obtained from diet-reared larvae compared to controls. Deficiencies in fatty acids C16:1 and C18:3n-3 were also observed in females obtained from E. kuehniella egg-reared larvae and fed on diet from adult emergence. The analyses of the foods showed deficiencies in artificial diet, especially for some amino and fatty acids. The results suggest a non-optimal composition of the artificial diet and some possibilities for its improvement. However, this polyphagous predator could be reared from first instar larvae to fully reproductive adults on a pork liver-based artificial diet. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Total sialic acid profile in regressing and remodelling organs during the metamorphosis of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Bas, Serap Sancar; Inceli, Meliha Sengezer

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional relationship of sialic acid in regressing and remodelling organs such as the tail, small intestine and liver during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus. For this purpose, four groups were composed according to developmental periods by considering Gosner's criteria (1964). Our findings showed that the sialic acid content of the larval tail has an opposite profile to cell death process. Although the sialic acid content of the small intestine and liver did not change evidently during metamorphosis, it increased after the completion of metamorphosis. Frog tail extensively exhibited cell death process and decreased proliferative activity and underwent complete degeneration during metamorphic climax. In spite of increased apoptotic index, a decreased sialic acid level in the tail tissues during climax can be the indication of a death cell removal process. However, the intestine and the liver included both cell death and proliferative process and remodelling in their adult forms. Thus, their sialic acid profiles during metamorphosis were different from the tail's profile. These data show that sialic acid may be an indicator of the presence of some cellular events during metamorphosis and that it can have different roles in the developmental process depending on the organ's fate throughout metamorphosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. trans-Dichloridobis{tris-[4-(trifluoro-methyl)phen-yl]phosphane-κP}palla-dium(II) dichloro-methane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Davis, Wade L; Muller, Alfred

    2012-12-01

    The title compound, [PdCl2(C21H12F9P)2]·CH2Cl2, crystallizes with two independent complex molecules (each having the Pd(II) atom situated on an inversion centre) and a dichloro-methane molecule in the asymmetric unit. The independent Pd(II) atoms are in perfectly linear orientations of the ligands in mutually trans positions, but distortions of the Cl-Pd-P angles ranging from 86.151 (19) to 93.849 (19)° are evident. The effective cone angles for the tris-[4-(trifluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]phosphane ligand were calculated to be 159 and 161°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯Cl/F inter-actions create a three-dimensional supramolecular network. Loose packing at two of the -CF3 groups resulted in large thermal vibrations which were treated as two-component disorders [occupancy ratios 0.50:0.50 and 0.628 (15):0.372 (15)].

  6. The effect of trehalose on post-thaw viability and fertility of European brown hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kozdrowski, Roland

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of a different trehalose concentration on the post-thaw viability and fertility of European brown hare spermatozoa. The semen was collected under general anaesthesia with electroejaculation method from 4 males. Immediately after collection, the semen was diluted with an extender of the following composition: Tris 250mM, citric acid 80mM, glucose 70mM, DMSO 1.0M, egg yolk (17%, v/v), and kanamycin (80mg/l)-Protocol I. In Protocols II and III, respectively, 50mM and 100mM of trehalose were added to the extender. Immediately after thawing and after 3h incubation at 37 degrees C, motility characteristics of frozen/thawed semen were assessed with computer-assisted semen analysis system, and a percentage of viable, acrosome intact spermatozoa was evaluated using flow cytometry. Immediately after thawing spermatozoa motility (MOT), average path velocity (VAP), straight velocity (VSL) and curvilinear velocity (VCL) were the highest in the semen frozen without addition of trehalose (P<0.01). After 3h of incubation, MOT and spermatozoa with progressive motility (PMOT) were the lowest in the semen frozen with supplementation of 100mM of trehalose (P<0.01) and VAP, VSL, VCL and amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) were significantly lower in the semen frozen with supplementation of 50mM and 100mM of trehalose compared to the semen frozen without the addition of trehalose (P<0.01), which indicates an unfavourable effect of trehalose on the motility characteristics of European brown hare spermatozoa. However, the effect of trehalose on a percentage of viable, acrosome intact spermatozoa was not observed. As a result of artificial insemination, 54.55% females became pregnant after insemination with the semen frozen according to Protocol I, 72.73% and 50% females became pregnant after insemination with the semen supplemented with 50mM and 100mM of trehalose, respectively. The number of young born was 1.67+/-0.52, 1.75+/-1.04 and 1.60+/-0.55, in each group, respectively. There were not any significant differences in the results of artificial insemination between groups. Summing up, it should be stated that the addition of trehalose to the extender did not have a favourable effect on post-thaw viability of European brown hare spermatozoa and an influence of trehalose on the results of artificial insemination was not found, either.

  7. Morphological alterations in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1766 (Rotifera: Monogononta) caused by vinclozolin chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Adabache-Ortíz, Araceli; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a dicarboximide fungicide widely used on fruits, vegetables and wines, effective against fungi plagues. In this study we characterized the effects of VZ using a 4-day reproductive chronic assay with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The assay included observations of several features of asexual and sexual reproduction. Our results indicate that VZ: (a) increased asexual and sexual reproduction, (b) caused severe abnormality in females and (c) these abnormalities were inherited by sexual and asexual reproduction. At 1.2 mg/L three abnormal females were found out of 457 total females (0.66 %). This low percentage is consistent and reproducible according to further analysis, where we increased the number of replicates and total females exposed to 1.2 mg/L of VZ, and found 18 abnormal females out of 2868 total females (0.63 % abnormality). Interestingly, abnormal females found at 5.6 mg/L VZ exposure, were able to show mating behavior. Our results suggest that VZ behaves as a strong endocrine disruptor whose effects show the characteristic inverted-U-shape exposure concentration response curve regarding the intrinsic population increase and the percentage of abnormalities as endpoints.

  8. Comparison of population dynamics between slow- and fast-growing strains of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus pallas in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Bennett, William N; Boraas, Martin E

    1989-12-01

    The population dynamics of a slow- and a fast-growing strain of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus are compared. Rotifers were grown in steady-states, at various specific growth rates (μ), in both two-stage chemostat and turbidostat cultures on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Population variables, including specific ingestion (I), loss (L) and filtration (F) rates, yield (Y), production (P) and half-saturation coefficient of growth (K g), were calculated using a growth model based on saturation kinetics. I, L, F and K g were shown to be higher and Y and P lower for the fast-growing strain. Differences between the two strains with regard to these variables may represent tradeoffs associated with the faster potential growth rate. Steady-state relationships between these values and μ for the fast-growing strain, however, deviated from model predictions which suggest a possible shift from carbon to non-carbon growth limitation.

  9. Lectin binding properties of liver, small intestine and tail of metamorphosing marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Sengezer Inceli, Meliha; Sancar Bas, Serap

    2013-07-01

    In this present study, localization and variations of specific sugar moieties in the terminal carbohydrate chains of glycoconjugates in the small intestine, liver and tail have been investigated during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus larvae. For this purpose, four lectins were used: wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), in different larval stages of the frog. Some cells stained specifically in the intestinal mucosa and in tail epidermal cells with the lectins and their affinity changed during metamorphic transformation. For the most part, they decreased in the climax and postmetamorphic periods. It was also found that WGA, DBA and UEA-I lectins exhibited strong affinity to white blood cells in the liver and their binding affinities were the highest in prometamorphosis and they gradually decreased until the end of metamorphosis. These results suggest that the changes of lectin binding in metamorphosis may be an indication of some cellular events occurring in larval metamorphosis such as cell differentiation and damage of cell adhesion between death and differentiating cells. They also can be useful markers for detection of white blood cells in amphibian hematopoietic organs.

  10. First record of Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772) (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing Alouatta guariba (Humboldt) (Primata: Atelidae) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, João R; Salomão, Edson L; Doyle, Rovaina L; Teixeira, Mariana C; Onofrio, Valeria C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M

    2006-01-01

    A female of Amblyomma aureolatum was found on the howler monkey Alouatta guariba, in Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. This is the first record of this tick species parasitizing this primate species in Brazil.

  11. The highly specialized vocal tract of the male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa Pallas, 1777 – Mammalia, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, R; Gebler, A

    2003-01-01

    The entire head and neck of a wild adult male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa) was dissected with special reference to its enlarged larynx. Two additional adult male specimens taken from the wild were analysed by computer tomography. The sternomandibularis, omohyoideus, thyrohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles are particularly enlarged and improve laryngeal suspension and stabilization. The epiglottis is exceptionally large. A permanent laryngeal descent is associated with the evolution of an unpaired palatinal pharyngeal pouch. A certain momentary descent seems to occur during vocalization. The high lateral walls of the thyroid cartilage are ventrally connected by a broad keel. The large thyroarytenoid muscle is divided into two portions: a rostral ventricularis and a caudal vocalis muscle. A paired lateral laryngeal ventricle projects between these two muscles. The massive vocal fold is large and lacks any rostrally directed flexible structures. It is supported by a large cymbal-like fibroelastic pad. Vocal tract length was measured in the course of dissection and in computer tomographic images. Two representative spectrograms, one of an adult male and one of a juvenile, recorded in the natural habitat of the Mongolian gazelle are presented. In the spectrograms, the centre frequency of the lowest band is about 500 Hz in the adult male and about 790 Hz in the juvenile. The low pitch of the adult male's call is ascribed to the evolutionary mass increase and elongation of the vocal folds. In the habitat of P. gutturosa a call with a low pitch and, thus, with an almost homogeneous directivity around the head of the vocalizing animal may be optimally suited for multidirectional advertisement calls during the rut. The signal range of an adult male's call in its natural habitat can therefore be expected to be larger than the high-pitched call of a juvenile. PMID:14635800

  12. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters*

    PubMed Central

    Simon, K. D.; Bakar, Y.; Samat, A.; Zaidi, C. C.; Aziz, A.; Mazlan, A. G.

    2009-01-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aLb) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422±0.009 and 3.420±0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges. PMID:19946954

  13. Dynamics of cell and tissue genesis in the male reproductive system of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Amblyomma cajennense [corrected] (Fabricius, 1787) and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772): a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2014-04-01

    Ticks are classified into three families: Argasidae, Ixodidae, and Nutalliellidae. The taxonomy and phylogeny within Ixodidae are still discussed by the specialists, thus requiring further studies. Amblyomma cajennese and Amblyomma aureolatum (Brazil) belong to two species complexes known as "cajennese" and "ovale", respectively, and are directly related to the transmission of the Brazilian spotted fever. This confirms the medical and veterinary significance of these species, as well as the need for further morphological studies that will bring a better understanding of their taxonomy, phylogeny, and control. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize the morphology of the male reproductive system of A. cajennese and A. aureolatum when unfed and after 4 days of feeding, thereby seeking to: (a) distinguish the two species or "complexes", and (b) study an internal system which has the potential to be targeted by acaricides. Therefore, males from both species (unfed and after 4 days of feeding) were cold-anesthetized, dissected, and had their reproductive systems removed for histological analysis. The results showed that the morphology of the male reproductive system is generally similar between both species, like in other Ixodidae ticks, exhibiting a multilobed accessory gland complex related to seminal fluid secretion, a pair of vasa deferentia and a pair of testes housing germ cells (spermatocytes) in different stages. The main differences were found in the development of the accessory gland complex cells and germ cells, showing that the maturation of the male reproductive system starts later in A. aureolatum, when compared to A. cajennese. However, during the blood meal, A. aureolatum development is increased, thus making germ cell maturation and gland complex activity higher than in A. cajennese. This study shows the differences in the development of the male reproductive systems of both species, while providing information that can assist in the establishment of new control methods.

  14. Studies on the minor constituents of the Caribbean gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum Pallas. Isolation and structure determination of the eunicellin-based diterpenoids briarellins E--I.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A D; Cóbar, O M

    1995-11-01

    Five new eunicellin-type diterpenoids, briarellins E--I, along with several known diterpenoids of the asbestinane, briarane and eunicellane classes, were isolated from the Caribbean gorgonian octocoral Briareum asbestinum collected in Puerto Rico. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  15. The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM. PMID:18254941

  16. Ichthyophonus-infected walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma (Pallas) in the eastern Bering Sea: a potential reservoir of infections in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    White, V C; Morado, J F; Friedman, C S

    2014-07-01

    In 2003, the Alaska walleye pollock industry reported product quality issues attributed to an unspecified parasite in fish muscle. Using molecular and histological methods, we identified the parasite in Bering Sea pollock as Ichthyophonus. Infected pollock were identified throughout the study area, and prevalence was greater in adults than in juveniles. This study not only provides the first documented report of Ichthyophonus in any fish species captured in the Bering Sea, but also reveals that the parasite has been present in this region for nearly 20 years and is not a recent introduction. Sequence analysis of 18S rDNA from Ichthyophonus in pollock revealed that consensus sequences were identical to published parasite sequences from Pacific herring and Yukon River Chinook salmon. Results from this study suggest potential for Ichthyophonus exposures from infected pollock via two trophic pathways; feeding on whole fish as prey and scavenging on industry-discharged offal. Considering the notable Ichthyophonus levels in pollock, the low host specificity of the parasite and the role of this host as a central prey item in the Bering Sea, pollock likely serve as a key Ichthyophonus reservoir for other susceptible hosts in the North Pacific. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Paramphistomoidea, Diplodiscidae), an intestinal fluke of the pool frog Rana lessonae (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, A J S; Torres, J; Shimalov, V V; Bâ, C T; Miquel, J

    2011-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in Diplodiscus subclavatus begins with the formation of the zone of differentiation presenting two centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. The latter presents seven electron-dense layers with a fine central plate and three plates on both sides. The external pair of these electron-dense layers is formed by a granular row. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum, both of them growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. After the flagellar rotation and before the proximodistal fusion of both flagella with the median cytoplasmic process four attachment zones were already observed in several cross-sections indicating the area of fusion. Spinelike bodies are also observed in the differentiation zone before the fusion of flagella. Finally, the constriction of the ring of arched membranes gives rise to the young spermatozoon that detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of D. subclavatus shows all the classical characters observed in Digenea spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different length of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as a well-developed lateral expansion associated with external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies combined with their area of appearance distinguish the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cells of D. subclavatus from those of other digeneans.

  18. Pectoral fin development in the Baikalian viviparous golomyankas (Comephoridae; Cottoidei), with a remark on eggs and embryos of Comephorus baicalensis (Pallas)

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Michał; Tugarina, Polina Y; Żuwała, Krystyna

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of pectoral fin (PF) growth in relation to standard body length (SL) for Comephorus dybowskii (SL: 14–126 mm) and C. baicalensis (SL: 22–173 mm) were made and compared with corresponding data obtained for 13 other Baikalian cottoid species (sculpins). The allometry for the PF/SL relationships (Y = a + bX) is clearly biphasic. Expressed in percentages, these values for the larval period of C. dybowskii [Yp = −28.886 + (2.419X)] are much higher than for C. baicalensis [Yp = −11.904 + (1.233X)]. The postnatal period of development of the golomyanka up to 30–35 mm SL is considered to be the larval stage. In the postlarval period, growth of pectoral fin and the body in C. dybowskii are directly proportional [Yp′ = 48.92 + (−0.009X)] whereas in C. baicalensis they rise slightly [Yp′ = 30.966 + (0.0505X)]. Absence of the air bladder characterizes all Baikalian cottoid species, including the golomyankas. Various species of the golomyanka differ in the ways of obtaining neutral buoyancy. It is supposed that large pectoral fins guarantee behavioural buoyancy in small species such as C. dybowskii, whereas in C. baicalensis, obtaining much larger body size but lower PFp/SL index, the buoyancy is gained mainly due to the accumulation of large amount of lipids. This paper also documents the ovary and advanced embryos of C. baicalensis. PMID:14529048

  19. Embryonic resorption in context to intragestational corpus luteum regression: a longitudinal ultrasonographic study in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778).

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Drews, B; Roellig, K; Goeritz, F; Hildebrandt, T B

    2013-09-15

    Embryonic resorption is frequently observed in polytocous mammals. Often it occurs as partial litter resorption affecting only single conceptuses of a whole litter. The aim of the study was to describe the incidence and morphology of embryonic resorption in the European brown hare (Lepus europaeus). In 154 pregnancies viable conceptuses, conceptuses undergoing resorption and CL of pregnancy were ultrasonographically monitored during the entire gestation period. Resorptions were classified into (1) "pre-implantation resorptions," (2) "peri-implantation resorptions," and (3) "post-implantation resorptions." The incidence of resorption in the pre-implantation period was 9%, in the peri-implantation period 9%, and in the post-implantation period 24%. Post-implantation resorptions were found up to late pregnancy stages when fetal development was already in progress. The highest daily incidence of resorption was on Day 8 of the 42-day pregnancy. In 91% of the cases, the regression of one CL was observed, while an embryo was undergoing resorption at the same time. The number of resorptions did not significantly differ from the number of CL in regression during gestation, suggesting an interesting one-resorption-to-one-regression relationship. The ultrasonographic appearance of the luteal regression during pregnancy was similar to the morphology characteristic for postpartal luteolysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of carbonic anhydrase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase in the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774).

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mandrioli, Mauro; Mola, Lucrezia

    2014-04-01

    Sequencing of the amphioxus genome revealed that it contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling. Despite the availability of genomic data, up till now no studies have been addressed on the comprehension of the amphioxus osmoregulation. Using primers designed on Branchiostoma floridae carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase, a 100bp long region, containing the protein region recognized by the respective antibodies, has been amplified and sequenced in B. lanceolatum indicating the presence of hortologous V-ATPase, CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II genes in Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Immunohistochemical results showed that all three transporting proteins are expressed in almost 90% of epithelial cells of the skin in B. lanceolatum adults with a different degree of positivity in different regions of body wall and with a different localization in the cells. The comparison of results between young and adult lancelets showed that the distribution of these transporters is quite different. Indeed, in the young specimens the expression pattern of all tested molecules appears concentrated at the gut level, whereas in adult the gut loses its key role that is mostly supported by skin.

  1. Population growth, trophic level, and reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus, Hamilton 1822 and Toxotes jaculatrix, Pallas 1767) inhabiting Malaysian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Simon, K D; Bakar, Y; Samat, A; Zaidi, C C; Aziz, A; Mazlan, A G

    2009-12-01

    Population growth, trophic level, and some aspects of reproductive biology of two congeneric archer fish species, Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix, collected from Johor coastal waters, Malaysia, were studied. Growth pattern by length-weight relationship (W=aL(b)) for the sexes differed, and exhibited positive allometric growth (male, female and combined sexes of T. chatareus; female and combined sexes of T. jaculatrix) and isometric growth (male samples of T. jaculatrix only). Trophic levels of both species were analyzed based on 128 specimens. The results show that, in both species, crustaceans and insects were the most abundant prey items, and among crustaceans the red clawed crab Sesarma bidens and Formicidae family insects were the most represented taxa. The estimated mean trophic levels for T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were 3.422+/-0.009 and 3.420+/-0.020, respectively, indicating that they are largely carnivores. Fecundity of T. chatareus ranged from 38 354 to 147 185 eggs for females with total length ranging from 14.5 to 22.5 cm and total body weight from 48.7 to 270.2 g, and T. jaculatrix 25 251 to 150 456 eggs for females with total length ranging from 12.2 to 23.0 cm and total body weight from 25.7 to 275.0 g. Differences in values of gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes calculated for both species in this study may have resulted from uneven sample size ranges.

  2. The behavioural ecology of two sympatric talitrid species, Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas) on a Tyrrhenian sandy beach dune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, Isabella; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Rossano, Claudia; Scapini, Felicita; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The behavioural ecology of a sub-population of Talitrus saltator living on the sandy shore of the Maremma Regional Park (Italy) was compared with that of Orchestia gammarellus inhabiting the retrodunal dune slack area. Monthly monitoring over a year determined the mean distribution patterns, their changes and whether these overlapped. Standard pitfall traps were placed along transects across the beach-dune-dune slack area. Experiments analysed the diel activity rhythms during spring and the activity patterns of the different age classes and the two sexes were compared within and between species. Local environmental conditions were registered with a microclimatic station. During May and September, plant hummocks were monitored to see whether surface movements of O. gammarellus could be restricted to certain periods of the year and to estimate densities within the vegetation. The plant biomass and moisture conditions within the hummocks were also recorded and substratum samples were collected at the base of the shrubs for laboratory analysis. To test for visual cues, orientation experiments with and without landscape view were carried out on the beach during morning and afternoon hours and contemporaneously for each species. Experiments to test the diel variation of scototaxis to a black shape were also performed over a 24 h period of time under controlled conditions. There was a spatial partitioning of the two species, with T. saltator moving along a sea-land axis according to diel and seasonal changes and with some individuals reaching the back of the dune in particular environmental conditions. No spatial overlap with the zonation patterns of O. gammarellus was observed, which was restricted to the dune slack area. Nocturnal surface activity was observed for both species with juveniles peaking at dawn and with O. gammarellus being strictly more nocturnal than T. saltator. Orientation experiments showed a higher ability of T. saltator to orient towards the shoreline using solar and local cues, whereas O. gammarellus seemed to have a stronger scototaxis. Differences in the behavioural responses are discussed in terms of the species ecological adaptations to their particular habitats.

  3. Toxicity and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the development and fecundity of a non-specific predator, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Muhammad; Cai, Wanlun; Jing, Zhao; Zhou, Xingmiao; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Hua, Hongxia

    2017-07-01

    In order to further develop integrated pest management (IPM) approaches for controlling insect pests, it is important to estimate the effects of pesticides. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effects of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole on a non-specific predator, the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis, were evaluated and life table parameter data were analyzed statistically using the age-stage, two-sex life table procedure. The results of this study show that the development time of second and fourth instar larvae as well as pupa was significantly prolonged in populations treated with LC10 (2.42 mg (a.i.) L(-1)) and LC30 (12.06 mg (a.i.) L(-1)), while adult longevity and fecundity were both significantly reduced and the preoviposition period (POP) was significantly prolonged following treatment compared to the control. In addition, the net reproductive rate (R0), as well as the intrinsic (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly decreased in groups treated with the insecticide. These results reveal that because sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole impair the population growth of H. axyridis, more attention should be paid to the use of this chemical as a component of IPM strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. trans-Di-μ-chlorido-bis-{chlorido[tris-(3,5-dimethyl-phen-yl)phosphane-κP]palla-dium(II)} dichloro-methane monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Davis, Wade L; Muller, Alfred

    2012-12-01

    In the dimeric title compound, [Pd2Cl4{P(C8H9)3}2]·CH2Cl2, the metal complex molecule is situated about an inversion centre and is accompanied by a dichloro-methane solvent mol-ecule situated on a twofold rotation axis. The Pd(II) atom has a slightly distorted square-planar coordination sphere. The effective cone angle for the tris-(3,5-dimethyl-phen-yl)phos-phane ligand was calculated to be 169°. In the crystal, the metal complex and solvent mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯Cl inter-actions, generating chains along [10-2]. There are also C-H⋯π and weak π-π inter-actions present [centroid-centroid distance = 3.990 (2) Å, plane-plane distance = 3.6352 (15) Å and ring slippage = 1.644 Å], forming of a three-dimensional structure.

  5. Microwave-assisted extraction of coumarin and related compounds from Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas as an alternative to Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Martino, Emanuela; Ramaiola, Ilaria; Urbano, Mariangela; Bracco, Francesco; Collina, Simona

    2006-09-01

    Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and microwaves-assisted extraction (MAE) in closed system have been investigated to determine the content of coumarin, o-coumaric and melilotic acids in flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis. The extracts were analyzed with an appropriate HPLC procedure. The reproducibility of extraction and of chromatographic analysis was proved. Taking into account the extraction yield, the cost and the time, we studied the effects of extraction variables on the yield of the above-mentioned compounds. Better results were obtained with MAE (50% v/v aqueous ethanol, two heating cycles of 5 min, 50 degrees C). On the basis of the ratio extraction yield/extraction time, we therefore propose MAE as the most efficient method.

  6. Mercury in hares organs (Lepus europaeus Pallas) in the vicinity of the mercury-contaminated natural gas treatment plant in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Crnić, Andreja Prevendar

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades (1990-2008), as part of a comprehensive monitoring of the eco-system, hares were collected in the vicinity of the mercury contaminated natural gas production and treatment plant Molve, Croatia. Their organs (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) were analyzed for total mercury concentration by cold vapor AAS. The range of the median mercury concentration values (wet weight) in hares organs were 0.001-0.005, 0.007-0.045, 0.022-0.126 and 0.0006-0.015 μg/g for muscle, liver, kidney and brain, respectively. The results of mercury measurements in hares organs during the period of last twenty years demonstrate a small but constant decline in concentration values. Comparing the results obtained in this study with results published in available data and literature on mercury concentration in hare's tissue it can be concluded that area investigated in this research belongs to low mercury contaminated region. Nevertheless, further eco-monitoring and mercury measurements in various hares organs are valuable and necessary and will be continued.

  7. The mitochondrial phylogeography and intraspecific taxonomy of the Steppe Racerunner, Eremias arguta (Pallas) (Lacertidae: Sauria, Reptilia), reflects biogeographic patterns in Middle Asia.

    PubMed

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Orlova, Valentina F; Chirikova, Marina A

    2014-12-15

    Steppe racerunner, Eremias (Eremias) arguta, is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Eremias). Several subspecies were traditionally recognized however, morphological variability is so high that delimitation of these subspecies was always problematic. Here we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this species based on cytochrome b sequences (55 samples from 35 populations, 900 bp partial sequences), infer it biogeography and the revise its subspecific structure. Six major phylogenetic lineages were revealed. The southernmost populations (E. a. uzbekistanica) from Uzbekistan form a clade together with the Issyk-Kul Lake subspecies (E. a. darevskii) based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Within more northern populations, there is a split between populations from Northern Caucasus, Europe and Western Kazakhstan (E. a. deserti) and Central and Eastern Kazakhstan populations (E. a. arguta). Transcaucasian (E. a. transcaucasica) steppe racerunners are grouped with Middle Asian populations. Finally, the easternmost samples, assigned to "E. a. potanini" are nested within the E. a. arguta clade. Populations from the Ili River Valley form a separate lineage sister to the clade joining all other E. arguta lineages and might represent a yet undescribed taxon. Species distribution in relation to historical biogeography of Middle Asia is discussed. 

  8. Age and growth comparisons of Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens Dorogostaisky, 1923), Baikal grayling (T. baicalensis Dybowski, 1874), and lenok (Brachymystax lenok Pallas, 1773) in lentic and lotic habitats of Northern Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsogtsaikhan, Pureviin; Mendsaikhan, Budiin; Jargalmaa, Ganzorigiin; Ganzorig, Batsaikhanii; Weidel, Brian C.; Filosa, Christopher; Free, Christopher; Young, Talia; Jensen, Olaf P.

    2017-01-01

    Despite concern over the conservation status of many Mongolian salmonids and the importance of their ecological role in Mongolia's aquatic ecosystems, little is known about their basic biology. Hovsgol grayling (Thymallus nigrescens) is endemic to Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia and listed as endangered on the Mongolian Red List. Baikal grayling (T. baicalensis) and lenok (Brachymystax lenok) are found in lakes and rivers throughout the Selenge drainage. A detailed study of the age and growth of these three salmonids was conducted based on 1,682 samples collected from July 2006 to July 2013 in Lake Hovsgol, its outlet the Eg River, and one of the Eg's largest tributaries, the Uur River. Our results suggest that Hovsgol grayling in particular can reach a much older maximum age (17 years in our samples) than previously believed based on aging from scales. Female Hovsgol grayling were heavier at a given length than their male counterparts. Lenok had a greater average length-at-age in Lake Hovsgol compared to the rivers and greater weight-at-length in the warmer Uur River than in the Eg; female lenok from the rivers had a greater average length-at-age than their male counterparts. This study provides critical new information for the management and conservation of these threatened salmonid species in Mongolia.

  9. The dating of the ornithological section of Middendorff's Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, with comments on the nomenclature of Pallas's Bunting Emberiza pallasi Cabanis (Aves: Emberizidae).

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2014-05-14

    Middendorff's work on the Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien, published as part 2 of volume 2 of his Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, was variably dated from 1851, 1852 or 1853. I document that the work was published shortly before 15 December 1852 and I recommend using this date for the purposes of zoological nomenclature.Due to this, Emberiza polaris Middendorff, 1852 has precedence over Cynchramus pallasi Cabanis, 1853. This bunting species thus should be called Emberiza polaris and its four subspecies should be called Emberiza polaris polaris Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris minor Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris pallasi (Cabanis, 1853) and E. polaris lydiae Portenko, 1929. 

  10. Use of ITS rDNA for discriminating of larval stages of two microphallid (Digenea) species using Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant, 1777) and Corophium volutator (Pallas, 1766) as intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Hust, J; Frydenberg, J; Sauriau, P-G; Le Gall, P; Mouritsen, K N; Jensen, K Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Digenean trematodes encompass several species with little morphological differentiation in the larval stages and, as a result, uncertainty prevails regarding species identification. The microphallid trematode Maritrema subdolum occurs widespread geographically in mud snail and crustacean hosts in European marine shallow-water ecosystems. Larval stages of this and other congeneric species are, however, difficult to separate morphologically. To verify the species status and to secure identification of two co-occurring microphallids, M. subdolum and microphallid sp. no. 15 (Deblock, 1980), we examined the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, ITS2). From fragments consisting of both ITS regions and the 5.8S gene (nearly 1,200 bp), a sequence divergence of 2.9% between the two types was recorded. In accordance with the morphological traits of the cercariae (stylet shape, length), the results support the view that the two types actually represent different species. Species-specific primers were prepared for each species. They proved to be efficient diagnostic tools for identifying single larval-stage individuals. Using these primers, infections in host organisms were also verified without performing a dissection of the host individuals.

  11. Histopathological study of gill, kidney and liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897) and Stellate (Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1811) exposed to sublethal concentration of un-ionised ammonia UAN.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Elham Sadat; Khara, Hossein; Pajand, Zabiyollah; Rahnandeh, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the histopathological changes of gill, kidney and liver of Persian Sturgeon and Stellate in response to various sublethal concentration of ammonia. The sublethal doses were determined after a lethal pre-test and then the experiment was done in six treatments with three replicates for both species. In Persian sturgeon, the treatments were including 5, 7, 9.7, 13.2, 18 and 25 mg/l ammonia. In stellate, the concentrations of 5, 6.23, 7.76, 9.66, 12.04 and 15 mg/l ammonia were considered as treatments. Also, one group without ammonia was considered as control for each experiment. The histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our observations, a range of histopathological alternations were found in gill, liver and kidney of both examined fish. The alternations of gill tissue were lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, swelling of gill lamellae. Severity of these alternations was dose-dependent and was significantly higher in Persian sturgeon than in stellate. The degree of histopathological alternations of liver did not show a regular pattern between treatments in both species. These alternations were hyperemia, bile record, cell necrosis, cell atrophy, fatty degeneration and cloudy swelling. The signs of kidney alternations intensified with increasing of ammonia concentration in both species. The signs such as hyperemia, vision tissue degeneration, cell necrosis, dilatation of Bowman's space. In conclusion, our results showed that ammonia in concentration of more than 5 mg/l have more adverse impacts on gill, liver and kidney tissues.

  12. Origin of the near-Earth asteroid Phaethon and the Geminids meteor shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León, J.; Campins, H.; Tsiganis, K.; Morbidelli, A.; Licandro, J.

    2010-04-01

    Aims: In this paper we establish a compositional and dynamical connection between two B-type objects: main belt asteroid (2) Pallas and near-Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon. The final purpose is to help understand the origin of this very interesting object. Methods: We first compare visible and near-infrared spectra of asteroids Phaethon and Pallas. We then compare the reflectance spectra of Phaethon with all the available visible spectra of B-type asteroids belonging to the Pallas family. One last spectral comparison is then performed to search for any correspondence between Phaethon and any B-type asteroid in the main belt. Numerical simulations are also carried out to explore the dynamical connection between the orbital neighborhoods of Pallas and Phaethon. Results: Main differences between Phaethon and Pallas lie in the visible wavelength part of their reflectance spectra. We have also found that the nine asteroids belonging to the Pallas family have visible spectra that are different from that of Pallas and strikingly similar to that of Phaethon. Spectral comparison excludes any other B-type asteroid in the main belt as a possible parent body of Phaethon. Numerical simulations establish a dynamical pathway that connects Phaethon with Pallas and its family members. Conclusions: The spectral similarities between Phaethon and Pallas family members, together with their established dynamical connection, supports Pallas as the most likely parent body of Phaethon and therefore, the associated Geminids meteor stream. We suggest that differences in asteroid sizes are the most likely explanation for the differences in the visible reflectance spectra between Phaethon and Pallas.

  13. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-01-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents. PMID:25649502

  14. Different Resistance to UV-B Radiation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances of Two Cyanobacteria from Contrasting Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) of aquatic Synechocystis sp. and desert Chroococcus minutus and effects on composition and fluorescence property of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from Synechocystis sp. and C. minutus were comparatively investigated. The desert cyanobacterium species C. minutus showed higher tolerance of PSII activity (Fv/Fm) to UVBR than the aquatic Synechocystis sp., and the inhibited PSII activity of C. minutus could be fully recovered while that of Synechocystis sp. could be partly recovered. UVBR had significant effect on the yield and biochemical composition of EPS of both species. Protein-like and humic acid-like substances were detected in EPS from Synechocystis sp., and protein-like and phenol-like fluorescent compounds were detected in EPS from C. minutus. Proteins in EPS of desert and aquatic species were significantly decomposed under UVBR, and the latter was more easily decomposed. The polysaccharides were much more resistant to UVBR than the proteins for both species. Polysaccharides of Synechocystis sp. was degraded slightly but those of C. minutus was little decomposed. The higher tolerance to UVBR of the desert cyanobacterium can be attributed to the higher resistance of its EPS to photodegradation induced by UVBR in comparison with the aquatic species. PMID:27597841

  15. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-05-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents.

  16. Different Resistance to UV-B Radiation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances of Two Cyanobacteria from Contrasting Habitats.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) of aquatic Synechocystis sp. and desert Chroococcus minutus and effects on composition and fluorescence property of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from Synechocystis sp. and C. minutus were comparatively investigated. The desert cyanobacterium species C. minutus showed higher tolerance of PSII activity (Fv/Fm) to UVBR than the aquatic Synechocystis sp., and the inhibited PSII activity of C. minutus could be fully recovered while that of Synechocystis sp. could be partly recovered. UVBR had significant effect on the yield and biochemical composition of EPS of both species. Protein-like and humic acid-like substances were detected in EPS from Synechocystis sp., and protein-like and phenol-like fluorescent compounds were detected in EPS from C. minutus. Proteins in EPS of desert and aquatic species were significantly decomposed under UVBR, and the latter was more easily decomposed. The polysaccharides were much more resistant to UVBR than the proteins for both species. Polysaccharides of Synechocystis sp. was degraded slightly but those of C. minutus was little decomposed. The higher tolerance to UVBR of the desert cyanobacterium can be attributed to the higher resistance of its EPS to photodegradation induced by UVBR in comparison with the aquatic species.

  17. The Use of "Ability" Measures as Controls for Concurrent or Subsequent Achievement (Comment on Alexander et al., ASR, October 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1982-01-01

    Comments upon a 1981 article by Alexander, Pallas, and Cook. Discusses whether particular standardized tests measure achievement or ability and the implications of this issue for school effects research. (GC)

  18. Is the Prevalence and Intensity of the Ectooparasitic Fungus Hesperomyces virescens Related to the Abundance of Entomophagous Coccinellids?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter is a laboulbenialean fungus that parasitizes certain entomophagous coccinellids in several countries. It transmits horizontally between coccinellid adults via social contact. Only recently has the exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) served as host to this p...

  19. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  20. Harmonia Axyridis Adults Avoid Catnip and Grapefruit-derived Terpenoids in Laboratory Bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We observed the avoidance behavior of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), when adults were exposed to volatiles derived from catnip oil and grapefruit seed. In replicated laboratory bioassays, beetles avoided contact with volatiles emanating f...

  1. Minerva/Athene.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Minerva was the goddess of wisdom and war, the Roman equivalent of the Greek Pallas Athene. Like all mythical figures, she was repeatedly reinterpreted to carry different rhetorical messages. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Comparative morpho-functional characteristics of the organs of the reproductive system of small mammals under conditions of anthropogenic transformation of Southern Ural steppe ecosystems].

    PubMed

    Shevliuk, N N; Blinova, E V; Bokov, D A; Demina, L L; Elina, E E; Meshkova, O A; Ryskulov, M F

    2013-01-01

    The morpho-functional characteristics of reproductive organs of small mammals--striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771), house mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758), wood mouse (Sylvaemus uralensis Pallas, 1811), common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1778), bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780), steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus Pallas, 1773), little suslik (Spermophilus pygmaeus Pallas, 1778), and red-heeked suslik (Spermophilus major Pallas, 1779)--belonging to the populations inhabiting anthropogenically modified steppe landscapes (zones influenced by the ferrous metallurgy plants and gas processing plant, as well as the territory of the large city) were studied using histological, electron microscopic, immunocytochemical and morphometric methods. In animals studied, inhabiting technologically modified ecosystems, in contrast to those from ecologically safe regions, the testis demonstrated the increased destruction of spermatogenic epithelium. In the ovaries, the accelerated exhaustion of follicular reserve was detected. The increased embryonic death rate was also observed. The portion of the animals participating in reproduction was enlarged, the female fecundity was increased, while the age at puberty was decreased. Among the animal species studied, the variable degree of stability against the effect of the negative factors was demonstrated.

  3. Studies on West Indian Scolytidae (Coleoptera) 4: A review of the Scolytidae of Puerto Rico, U.S.A with descriptions of one new genus, fourteen new species and notes on new synonymy (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    D.E. Bright; J.A. Torres

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive biodiversity study of the Scolytidae (Coleoptera) of Puerto Rico, USA has been underway for several years. Seventy-one species are now recorded from the island. One new genus, Allothenemus, is described with Allothenemus minutus new species, as the type species. An additional 13 new species are described: Chramesus atlanticus, Scolytodes puertoricensis...

  4. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda ( Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala ( Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

  5. Removal and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol by Four Freshwater Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    He, Ning; Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Sun, Kaifeng; Liu, Weijie; Duan, Shunshan

    2016-01-01

    The removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by four freshwater microalgae, including three green algae (Scendesmus quadriauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ankistrodesmus acicularis) and one cyanobacterium (Chroococcus minutus) were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to different concentrations of NP for 5 days. All four algal species showed a rapid and high ability to remove NP (including bioaccumulation and biodegradation). Among these species, A. acicularis (Ankistrodesmus acicularis) had the highest NP removal rate (83.77%) at 120 h when exposed to different NP treatments (0.5–2.5 mg·L−1), followed by C. vulgaris (Chlorella vulgaris) (80.80%), S. quadriauda (Scendesmus quadriauda) (70.96%) and C. minutus (Chroococcus minutus) (64.26%). C. vulgaris had the highest NP biodegradation percentage (68.80%) at 120 h, followed by A. acicularis (65.63%), S. quadriauda (63.10%); and C. minutus (34.91%). The extracellular NP contents were lower than the intracellular NP contents in all tested algae. The ratio of the extracellular NP content and the intracellular NP content ranged from 0.04 to 0.85. Therefore, the removal of NP from the medium was mainly due to the algal degradation. These results indicate that A. acicularis and C. vulgaris are more tolerant to NP and could be used for treatment of NP contaminated aqueous systems effectively by bioremoval and biodegradation. PMID:27983663

  6. Taxonomic review of the genus Trisopterus(Teleostei: Gadidae) with recognition of the capelan Trisopterus capelanus as a valid species.

    PubMed

    Delling, B; Noren, M; Kullander, S O; González, J A

    2011-11-01

    Trisopterus is demonstrated to be monophyletic, including four distinct species: T. capelanus, T. esmarkii, T. luscus and T. minutus. The capelan T. capelanus is resurrected from the synonymy of poor cod T. minutus, and is shown to be morphologically more similar to T. luscus, to which species it is also more closely related, indicated by a phylogenetic analysis presented here. A lectotype is designated for T. luscus. Trisopterus fasciatus, the type species of Trisopterus, is a junior synonym of T. luscus, and the lectotype of T. luscus is designated as the neotype of T. fasciatus. The lectotype of T. luscus is also designated as the neotype of Gadus barbatus. Gadus barbatus has priority over T. luscus but the name is suppressed by prevailing usage of T. luscus. A neotype is designated also for T. minutus. A phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome b, and a fragment of the nuclear rhodopsin gene, shows that T. capelanus and T. luscus are sister species, and in turn sister to a clade formed by T. minutus and T. esmarkii.

  7. Removal and Biodegradation of Nonylphenol by Four Freshwater Microalgae.

    PubMed

    He, Ning; Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Sun, Kaifeng; Liu, Weijie; Duan, Shunshan

    2016-12-14

    The removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) by four freshwater microalgae, including three green algae (Scendesmus quadriauda, Chlorella vulgaris, and Ankistrodesmus acicularis) and one cyanobacterium (Chroococcus minutus) were studied in bacteria-free cultures exposed to different concentrations of NP for 5 days. All four algal species showed a rapid and high ability to remove NP (including bioaccumulation and biodegradation). Among these species, A. acicularis (Ankistrodesmus acicularis) had the highest NP removal rate (83.77%) at 120 h when exposed to different NP treatments (0.5-2.5 mg·L(-1)), followed by C. vulgaris (Chlorella vulgaris) (80.80%), S. quadriauda (Scendesmus quadriauda) (70.96%) and C. minutus (Chroococcus minutus) (64.26%). C. vulgaris had the highest NP biodegradation percentage (68.80%) at 120 h, followed by A. acicularis (65.63%), S. quadriauda (63.10%); and C. minutus (34.91%). The extracellular NP contents were lower than the intracellular NP contents in all tested algae. The ratio of the extracellular NP content and the intracellular NP content ranged from 0.04 to 0.85. Therefore, the removal of NP from the medium was mainly due to the algal degradation. These results indicate that A. acicularis and C. vulgaris are more tolerant to NP and could be used for treatment of NP contaminated aqueous systems effectively by bioremoval and biodegradation.

  8. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod.

    PubMed

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda (Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala (Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

  9. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  10. Role of small-sized copepods in the lipid-driven Arctic marine food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daase, M.; Boissonnot, L.; Graeve, M.; Søreide, J.; Niehoff, B.

    2016-02-01

    Despite of the low individual biomass of small-sized copepods such as the calanoid Pseudocalanus minutus and the cyclopoid Oithona similis, they are extremely numerous which make them an important trophic component in Arctic marine ecosystems. Due to the strong seasonality in light and thus primary production and food availability, the accumulation of lipid reserves is a key feature in Arctic marine ecosystems. However, very few studies exist on the lipid biochemistry of small copepods such as P. minutus and O. similis. In order to investigate the importance of these species in terms of transfer of lipids from primary production to higher trophic levels, feeding experiments were conducted, based on animals from Billefjorden, a high-Arctic fjord in Svalbard, Norway. A mixture of 13C labeled flagellates and diatoms was fed to the animals and the transfer and assimilation of lipid carbon, fatty acids and fatty alcohols was analyzed with gas chromatography-IRMS technique (CSIA). The results revealed that both species were incorporating dietary lipids in high quantities. The highest accumulation occurred in P. minutus in which 54.4% of the lipids were exchanged after 21 days, whereas 9.4% were assimilated in O. similis. Hence, at least this amount of carbon was used for metabolism and replaced by feeding. The lipid composition of the copepods did not reflect exactly the algal lipids, and differed between P. minutus and O. similis. Our results suggested intrinsic preferences in the accumulation of particular fatty acids, probably related to species-specific body requirements. This emphasizes the importance of also food quality in Arctic marine systems. Due to the relatively high lipid turnover rates in particularly in P. minutus, also small copepods are important drivers of the lipid-driven Arctic marine food web.

  11. Invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) invasion in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Allan D; Montgomery, W Ian; Tosh, David G; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A; McDevitt, C Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B; Yearsley, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008-2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012-2013 showing rates of 2.4-14.1 km/yr, 0.5-7.1 km/yr and 0-5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island.

  12. Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: Did it change over time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bănaru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to improve knowledge in feeding behaviour of the round goby ( Apollonia melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)), the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927), the whiting ( Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the sole ( Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)), the turbot ( Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814)) and the starry sturgeon ( Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771) from the north-western Black Sea. Gut content coupled with stable isotope analysis allowed describing food web variations according to species, in two seasons and at two areas located seawards the Danube River. Present results showed that most fishes have likely changed their feeding behaviour compared to past studies from the same area. Trophic niches were reduced and dietary overlap was common, as different fish species consumed the same dominant prey types. Fishes probably adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low biodiversity of the Black Sea communities.

  13. Adaptive reversals in acid tolerance in copepods from lakes recovering from historical stress.

    PubMed

    Derry, Alison M; Arnott, Shelley E

    2007-06-01

    Anthropogenic habitat disturbance can often lead to rapid evolution of environmental tolerances in taxa that are able to withstand the stressor. What we do not understand, however, is how species respond when the stressor no longer exists, especially across landscapes and over a considerable length of time. Once anthropogenic disturbance is removed and if there is an ecological trade-off associated with local adaptation to such an historical stressor, then evolutionary theory would predict evolutionary reversals. On the Boreal Shield, tens of thousands of lakes acidified as a result of SO2 emissions, but many of these lakes are undergoing chemical recovery as a consequence of reduced emissions. We investigated the adaptive consequences of disturbance and recovery to zooplankton living in these lakes by asking (1) if contemporary evolution of acid tolerance had arisen among Leptodiaptomus minutus copepod populations in multiple circum-neutral lakes with and without historical acidification, (2) if L. minutus populations were adaptively responding to reversals in selection in historically acidified lakes that had recovered to pH 6.0 for at least 6-8 years, and (3) if there was a fitness trade-off for L. minutus individuals with high acid tolerance at circum-neutral pH. L. minutus populations had higher acid tolerances in circum-neutral lakes with a history of acidification than in local and distant lakes that were never acidified. However, copepods in circum-neutral acid-recovering lakes were less acid-tolerant than were copepods in lakes with longer recovery time. This adaptive reversal in acid tolerance of L. minutus populations following lake recovery was supported by the results of a laboratory experiment that indicated a fitness trade-off in copepods with high acid tolerances at circum-neutral pH. These responses appear to have a genetic basis and suggest that L. minutus is highly adaptive to changes in environmental conditions. Therefore, restoration managers

  14. Parasites of the recently established round goby (Negobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) (Gobiidae) from the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronin, Nikolai M.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Baldanova, Darima R.; Pronina, Svetlana V.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of the recently established European round goby (Negobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas, 1811) were collected from different locations in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, USA and were examined for parasites. Parasites were observed in 76% of the round gobies and 35% of the tubenose gobies. Four species of parasites in the gobies occur in the Black Sea watershed. Two of them have been reported in North America for the first time: Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova, 1970 and Ichthyocotylurus pileatus (Rudolphi, 1802). Three parasite species found in the gobies are endemic to North America and were most likely obtained locally.

  15. Two new species of Hymenolepis (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) from Spalacidae and Muridae (Rodentia) from eastern Palearctic.

    PubMed

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-03-01

    Previously unrecognized species of the genus Hymenolepis are described based on specimens from spalacid and murid (Murinae) rodents. Hymenolepis rymzhanovi sp. nov. from the Siberian zokor, Myospalax myospalax (Laxmann), from East Kazakhstan, and H. apodemi sp. nov. from Eurasian field mice, Apodemus peninsulae (Thomas), A. uralensis (Pallas) and A. agrarius (Pallas), from the south of Russian Far East, western Siberia and south-eastern Kazakhstan are characterized. The new species differ from other species of the genus by the morphology of the scolex, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the relative position and arrangement of the testes. Differential criteria of species of Hymenolepis (sensu stricto) are also discussed.

  16. A hybrid zone of the genus Ctenomys: A case study in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Camila S.; Gava, Adriana; de Freitas, Thales R.O.

    2012-01-01

    We describe variation at microsatellite loci and the chromosomal polymorphisms of a hybrid population, and hybridizing populations of Ctenomys minutus (the minor tuco-tuco) from the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Cytogenetic analysis and a survey of six microsatellite loci included 101 specimens of C. minutus from the parental populations (2n/AN = 42/74 and 48a/76) and their contact zone. Cytogenetic analysis recorded 26 different karyotypes exhibited by 50 individuals from the hybrid population. Of the 26 karyotypes, only 14% presented a parental-like configuration, and none had the combinations of 2n and AN expected for an F1 hybrid. The remaining karyotypes were alternative hybrid forms, with 2n varying from 42 to 46 and AN from 68 to 80. These results suggest chromosomal rearrangements are only of minor significance in the establishment of reproductive barriers for this species. PMID:23412911

  17. Life histories and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1975-01-01

    In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean zooplankton discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.

  18. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  19. The translocated Liza haematocheila (Teleostei: Mugilidae) as a new host of four species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) within its invasive range in the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Pankov, Plamen; Gibson, David I; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents the first documented record of four species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 in Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) in its invasive Pontic range. S. papernai Overstreet, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006, S. minutus Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006 and Saturnius sp. are described and compared with existing data by means of multivariate morphometric analysis. The morphological and morphometric similarities between the specimens of Saturnius sp. from L. haematocheila and a small form of S. papernai from L. aurata indicate the possible existence of another, cryptic species. Although having acquired at least three species of Saturnius since its establishment in the Black Sea region, there is no evidence that a Pacific congener has been introduced with this fish. This is the first report of S. minutus from the Black Sea.

  20. Three new species of Bolbochromus Boucomont (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae, Bolboceratinae) from Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Lin; Yang, Ping-Shih; Krikken, Jan; Wang, Chuan-Chan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the Oriental bolboceratine genus Bolbochromus Boucomont 1909, Bolbochromus minutus Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Thailand), Bolbochromus nomurai Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Vietnam), and Bolbochromus malayensis Li and Krikken, sp. n. (Malaysia), are described from continental Southeast Asia with diagnoses, distributions, remarks and illustrations. The genus is discussed with emphasis on continental Southeast Asia. A key to species known from Indochina and Malay Penisula is presented. An annotated checklist of Bolbochromus species is presented. PMID:23794858

  1. Systematics and biogeography of Hemidactylus homoeolepis Blanford, 1881 (Squamata: Gekkonidae), with the description of a new species from Arabia.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Raquel; Carranza, Salvador

    2014-07-14

    A new species of gecko of the genus Hemidactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) is described from Oman and extreme eastern Yemen. Hemidactylus minutus sp. nov. is characterized morphologically by its very small size, being the smallest Hemidactylus in mainland Arabia, absence of enlarged tubercles anywhere on the body, expanded subcaudal scales beginning some way from tail base, number of preanal pores, number of lamellae under the first and fourth toes, and weakly contrasted black and white banded pattern on the ventral part of tail. It is also genetically distinct from H. homoeolepis to which it has previously been referred, and from all other closely related Hemidactylus from the arid clade in DNA sequence data for mitochondrial (12S, cyt b, ND4) and three nuclear (RAG1, MC1R, c‑mos) markers. An adult female from southern Yemen and a badly preserved juvenile from southwestern Saudi Arabia previously assigned to H. homoeolepis are morphologically differentiated from this species and from H. minutus sp. nov. and temporarily referred to as Hemidactylus sp. 12 and Hemidactylus sp. 13, respectively until more specimens are collected and analyzed.        Up to now, H. homoeolepis was the only non-endemic native species of the Socotra Archipelago. With the description of H. minutus sp. nov., all native reptile species of Socotra are now endemic, such that this archipelago has one with the highest number of endemic reptiles in relation to its small size. In addition, as a result of our taxonomic change, the area of occupancy and extent of occurrence of H. homoeolepis have changed dramatically and thus its conservation status should be updated. Although H. minutus sp. nov. seems widely distributed and relatively abundant, its conservation status should also be re-evaluated. 

  2. A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Khaustov, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

  3. Genetic Pool Information Reflects Highly Suitable Areas: The Case of Two Parapatric Endangered Species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae)

    PubMed Central

    Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions. PMID:24819251

  4. Sharing the Space: Distribution, Habitat Segregation and Delimitation of a New Sympatric Area of Subterranean Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Bruno Busnello; Galiano, Daniel; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

    2015-01-01

    Subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys usually present an allopatric or parapatric distribution. Currently, two cases of sympatry have been recognized for the genus in the coastal dunes of southern Argentina and southern Brazil. In this context, they are ideal models to test hypotheses about the factors that delimit the patterns of space use and to understand interspecific interactions in small mammals. We investigated the vegetation structure, plant biomass and soil hardness selected by two species of subterranean rodents (Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus) when distributed in sympatry and allopatry from nine different areas along the line of coastal dunes in southern Brazil. In addition, our work presents a new record of a third area of sympatry for the genus Ctenomys. Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus show habitat segregation in the area where they occur in sympatry. These species show segregation in their selection of microhabitats, differing in relation to soil hardness, plant biomass, and plant cover. Ctenomys flamarioni showed a distinction in habitat selection when occurring in allopatry and sympatry, whereas C. minutus selected the same habitat characteristics under both conditions. A possible explanation to the observed pattern is that these species have acquired different adaptations over time which allows them the ability to exploit different resources and thus avoid competitive interactions all together. PMID:25856399

  5. Review of continental North and Central American Paracloeodes Day 1955 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), including description of a new species from Minnesota, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Paulo Vilela; Usher, Andrew K; Jacobus, Luke M

    2017-05-09

    Paracloeodes Day is a western hemisphere genus with 20 species, but only three of these valid species are known from continental North and Central America. Based on available literature comparisons, species-level identifications of these three species can be difficult. Considering the apparent similarity between them, the main objective of this study was to examine type and other material housed in the Purdue Entomological Research Collection and the University of Minnesota in order to evaluate species status and to elucidate additional diagnostic characters. The evaluation resulted in validation of P. fleeki McCafferty & Lenat, P. lugoi Randolph & McCafferty and P. minutus (Daggy) and the confirmation of P. abditus Day as a junior synonym of P. minutus. Furthermore, we discovered a new species from the type locality of P. minutus. Paracloedes lotor n. sp. is described based on the nymph stage and a putative male imago from the Mississippi River in Minnesota. Paracloeodes lotor n. sp. differs from the other continental North and Central American species of the genus by the apical half of the paraglossa having an abrupt decrease in width (the "subtriangular" condition) in nymphs, and by having the posterior margin of the styliger plate with a small and pointed spine in the male imago. We provide a new identification key for nymphs of the four continental North and Central American species.

  6. Effect of Acanthocephala infection on the reproductive potential of crustacean intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Lui, A; Giovinazzo, G; Giari, L

    2008-05-01

    The effect of a naturally acquired infection by three acanthocephalan parasites Dentitruncus truttae, Echinorhynchus truttae, and Polymorphus minutus on the reproductive potential of their intermediate host, Echinogammarus tibaldii (Amphipoda) from Lake Piediluco (Centre of Italy) was assessed. During May 2007, 1135 amphipods were collected from two different samplings and examined for larval helminths. Forty-five amphipods were infected and of those, 16 were infected with D. truttae (intensity=1-3 larvae), 15 with E. truttae (intensity=1-2 larvae), and 14 with P. minutus (intensity=1 larva). The sex ratio was nearly 1:1 in all examined amphipods. One female infected with D. truttae contained six eggs in the brood pouch and another female infected with E. truttae contained five eggs. However, none of the eight female amphipods harbouring P. minutus larva contained eggs in their brood pouch. Uninfected females of the same size and body length as that of the infected females contained between 20 and 32 eggs. No acanthocephalan species were found to co-occur.

  7. Genetic pool information reflects highly suitable areas: the case of two parapatric endangered species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae).

    PubMed

    Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; Freitas, Thales R O de

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions.

  8. Spotlight on the positive effects of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis on agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the midst of considerable negativity surrounding the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), this paper sheds some light on the positive effects that this predator has had on agriculture. Using resources available at the USDA, National Agricultural Library (DigiTop literature database, Navigator pla...

  9. Determination of positions of solar system bodies at Repsold meridian circle from 1992 till 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maigurova, N. V.; Pogoniy, A. D.; Pyshnenko, V. N.; Sibilev, V. P.

    2002-04-01

    Position of the Solar system bodies: Uran, Neptune, Galilean satellites of Jupiter, satellite of Saturn Titan, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Hebe, Iris, and Melpomene were obtained from observations at Repsold Meridian Circle of Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory made in 1992-1999.

  10. Variation in wing pattern and palatability in a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C; Hahn, Thomas P; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Checkerspot butterflies in the genera Euphydryas and Chlosyne exhibit phenotypic polymorphisms along a well-defined latitudinal and elevational gradient in California. The patterns of phenotypic variation in Euphydryas chalcedona, Chlosyne palla, and Chlosyne hoffmanni suggest a mimetic relationship; in addition, the specific patterns of variation in C. palla suggest a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system (FPM). However, the existence of polymorphic models runs counter to predictions of mimicry theory. Palatability trials were undertaken to assess whether or not the different color morphs of each species were distasteful or toxic to a generalized avian predator, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Results indicate that the black morph of E. chalcedona is distasteful, but not toxic, to predators, while the red morph is palatable. C . hoffmanni and both color morphs of C. palla are palatable to predators. Predators that learn to reject black E. chalcedona also reject black C. palla, suggesting that the latter is a FPM of the former. C. hoffmanni does not appear to be involved in this mimetic relationship. PMID:25512850

  11. Larval life history responses to food deprivation in three species of predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied life history responses of larvae of three coccinellid species, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), when deprived of food for different periods of time during the fourth stadium. The coccinellid species did not differ in ...

  12. Reduction of Skin Impedance by the Improvement of the Blood Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to the positive output of a constant voltage power supply via an analog switch, which could be switched in 10-6 sec , and the other box was...Ch5, 1998 [4] J. Rosell, J. Colominas, P. Riu , R. Pallas-Areny, and J. G. Webster, “Skin impedance from 1Hz to 1MHz”, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 1988

  13. Spread of Cuban Club-rush [Oxycaryum cubense]in the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Palla, Cuban club-rush, is an invasive aquatic weed that is spreading northward in the southeastern United States. It is reported for the first time from Mississippi and from significantly farther northward in Alabama than previously known. Oxycaryum cubense dis...

  14. A marine bioassay test set to assess marine water and sediment quality-its need, the approach and first results.

    PubMed

    Peters, C; Becker, S; Noack, U; Pfitzner, S; Bülow, W; Barz, K; Ahlf, W; Berghahn, R

    2002-10-01

    There is a need for establishing a marine bioassay test set to assess marine water and sediment samples in Germany. The selected marine bioassay test set, two tests for the water phase (with the luminescence bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin) and a whole sediment test with the marine amphipod Corophium volutator (Pallas) is described and first results are shown.

  15. Variation in wing pattern and palatability in a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth C; Hahn, Thomas P; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2014-12-01

    Checkerspot butterflies in the genera Euphydryas and Chlosyne exhibit phenotypic polymorphisms along a well-defined latitudinal and elevational gradient in California. The patterns of phenotypic variation in Euphydryas chalcedona, Chlosyne palla, and Chlosyne hoffmanni suggest a mimetic relationship; in addition, the specific patterns of variation in C. palla suggest a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system (FPM). However, the existence of polymorphic models runs counter to predictions of mimicry theory. Palatability trials were undertaken to assess whether or not the different color morphs of each species were distasteful or toxic to a generalized avian predator, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Results indicate that the black morph of E. chalcedona is distasteful, but not toxic, to predators, while the red morph is palatable. C . hoffmanni and both color morphs of C. palla are palatable to predators. Predators that learn to reject black E. chalcedona also reject black C. palla, suggesting that the latter is a FPM of the former. C. hoffmanni does not appear to be involved in this mimetic relationship.

  16. Overcoming Risk: An Annotated Bibliography of Publications Developed by ERIC Clearinghouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy, Ed.; Howley, Craig, Ed.

    This publication contains two essays and an annotated bibliography of publications about risk. The entries in the bibliography were produced by the various clearinghouses in the ERIC system. The first essay, "Who Is at Risk? Definitions, Demographics, and Decisions," by Aaron M. Pallas, categorizes personal, family, and environmental factors that…

  17. Ichthyoplankton dynamics in the Guadiana estuary and adjacent coastal area, South-East Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Ana; Morais, Pedro; Chícharo, M. Alexandra

    2006-10-01

    The species composition, abundance and distribution of the ichthyoplankton of the Guadiana estuary and adjacent coastal area were studied in relation to several environmental parameters. Sampling occurred during new moon Spring tides, at the ebb and flood, at nine stations, from March 2002 to February 2003. Temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic macronutrients, seston and organic matter and chlorophyll a were determined at each station. A total of 22 and 34 fish eggs and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. The highest abundances were registered in the lower and middle part of the estuary, probably due to the presence of species that use the estuary as a preferential spawning ground, mainly Pomatoschistus spp. and Engraulis encrasicolus sensu lato. Temporal patterns of occurrence of ichthyoplankton allowed each species' spawning season to be determined. Two taxa dominated the ichthyoplanktonic community during spring and summer ( Pomatoschistus spp. and E. encrasicolus), whereas Sardina pilchardus was particularly abundant during autumn and winter. The forcing variables responsible for community structure were chlorophyll a and seston for eggs, while temperature, salinity and nitrite explained the larval component. Comparisons of the results with previous ichthyoplankton studies of the Guadiana estuary conducted before the Alqueva dam was built also indicate that river flow has an important impact on the distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton in the estuary.

  18. THE Ch-CLASS ASTEROIDS: CONNECTING A VISIBLE TAXONOMIC CLASS TO A 3 μm BAND SHAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2015-12-15

    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3 μm region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H{sub 2}O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3 μm band shapes in the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the “Pallas-type” spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2 to 4 μm spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3 μm band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch class is defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, this demonstrates that the 0.7 μm band serves not only as a proxy for the presence of a band in the 3 μm region, but specifically for the presence of Pallas-type bands. There is some evidence for a correlation between band depth at 2.95 μm and absolute magnitude and/or albedo. However, we find only weak correlations between 2.95 μm band depth and semimajor axis. The connection between band depths in the 0.7 and 3 μm regions is complex and in need of further investigation.

  19. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    The dual polarization CW radar system which permits simultaneous reception in the same rotational sense of circular polarization as transmitted (i.e., the "SC" sense) and in the opposite ("OC") sense, was used to observe five previously unobserved asteroids: 2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, and 471 Papagena. Echoes from Pallas and Flora were easily detected in the OC sense on each of several nights. Weighted mean echo power spectra also show marginally significant responses in the SC sense. An approximately 4.5 standard deviation signal was obtained for Aethra. The Doppler shift of the peak is about 10 Hz higher than that predicted from the a priori trial ephemeris. Calculations are performed to determine whether this frequency offset can be reconciled dynamically with optical positions reported for Aethra.

  20. Influence of barley varieties on wort quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Signe; Damgaard, Jacob; Petersen, Mikael A; Jespersen, Birthe M; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N

    2013-02-27

    Wort from the barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) Pallas, Fero, and Archer grown on the same location were investigated for their influence on oxidative stability and volatile profile during wort processing. Barley varieties had a small influence on radical formation, thiol-removing capacity, and volatile profile. Wort boiling with and without hops had a large influence on these same parameters. Potentially antioxidative thiols were oxidized in sweet wort, but reduction of thiols using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride revealed that Archer wort had a significantly larger content of total thiols than Pallas and Fero. Oxidized thiols resulted in gel proteins and longer filtration time for Archer wort. Our study shows that wort processing to a large extent will eliminate variations in volatile profile and thiol levels in wort which otherwise might arise from different barley varieties.

  1. Identification of three morphologically indistinguishable Epicauta species (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Epicautini) through DNA barcodes and morphological comparisons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Pan; Pan, Zhao; Ren, Guo-Dong

    2016-04-14

    Three species that belong to the genus Epicauta (Coleopera: Meloidae), E. chinensis, E. dubia, and E. sibirica, appear morphologically indistinguishable. The present study aims to resolve the taxonomic status and the relationships among these three species. Identifying adult morphological characters among the three species were compared and illustrated and partial fragments of the mitochondrial gene (COI) for 77 samples, representing seven meloid species, were obtained and analyzed. Analyses of nucleotide composition, genetic distances and phylogenetics were performed. The results of the morphological studies and molecular analyses showed concordance, indicating that the three species are closely related and indistinguishable from one another. Consequently, two new synonyms are proposed: E. chinensis (Laporte, 1840) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773) and E. dubia (Fabricius, 1781) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773).

  2. An acoustic study on non-local anticipatory effects of Italian length contrast.

    PubMed

    Turco, Giuseppina; Braun, Bettina

    2016-10-01

    The present study investigates non-local temporal adjustments before an upcoming length contrast in Italian minimal pairs that differ only in the length of the medial consonant (e.g., geminate word palla "ball" vs singleton word pala "shovel"). This contrast is reportedly signaled by the duration of the singleton/geminate consonant and of the preceding vowel. Here, it is shown that the duration adjustment extends further to the word-initial consonant, e.g., the [p] in palla is significantly longer than that in pala (experiment 1). In experiment 2, an effect of syllable structure is ruled out, an unavoidable confound when comparing singleton and geminate words. The comparison of geminate words with cluster words (e.g., as palco "stage"), both of which have a closed first syllable, shows a similar lengthening. Implications for models of speech production are discussed.

  3. 211-YEAR-OLD MYSTERY SOLVED: CREATOR OF THE WORD “ASTEROID” REVEALED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2013-10-01

    In 1802, William Herschel famously declared that the newly discovered celestial objects Ceres and Pallas were asteroids, not planets. The term asteroid was rejected by nearly every astronomer in the early nineteenth century, but is now the most widely-used word to describe the small planetary bodies of the solar system. Even so, its origin has remained a mystery. By default, its creation has always been attributed to Herschel himself, but he lacked the knowledge of Greek and Latin to coin a new word to describe Ceres and Pallas. Herschel instead turned to a network of colleagues for advice. A study of contemporary manuscript evidence has now identified the name of the scholar who created the word asteroid.

  4. Masses and densities of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubart, J.; Matson, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta allow a determination of mass from gravitational effects in the motion of another asteroid. An extended and partly corrected set of observations of 197 Arete leads to an increase of 15% in the resulting mass of Vesta that was first determined by Hertz. Other possibilities of mass determination and estimates of the total mass of asteroids are mentioned. The available diameter determinations and adopt preferred values are reviewed. The densities for Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta are respectively 2.3 plus or minus 1.1 g/cu cm, 2.6 plus or minus 0.9 g/cu cm and 3.3 plus or minus 1.5 g/cu cm.

  5. Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 - a new fish parasite in Austria?

    PubMed

    Michael Mühlegger, J; Jirsa, Franz; Konecny, Robert; Sattmann, Helmut; Frank, Christa

    2009-10-01

    During parasitological studies of the invasive round goby fish species Apollonia melanostoma (Pallas, 1814) from the Danube River in 2007 the digenean Bucephalus polymorphus Baer, 1827 was detected for the first time in Austria. Encysted metacercariae of the parasite were found on the fins, skin and gills of the fish. The occurrence of the parasite is strictly dependant on the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), which acts as the obligatory first intermediate host in its life cycle. The mussel has also invaded Austrian waters, but has appeared in 1870 already. It will not be possible to establish whether the parasite was introduced to Austria with the gobies, or has arrived earlier, but it should be the subject of future investigations to ascertain whether the parasite will be able to establish a firm population in Austria, and whether this introduction puts additional pressure on the native fish populations.

  6. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  7. Carotenoid-based colour of acanthocephalan cystacanths plays no role in host manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Kaldonski, Nicolas; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Dodet, Raphaël; Martinaud, Guillaume; Cézilly, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation by parasites is a catchy concept that has been applied to a large range of phenotypic alterations brought about by parasites in their hosts. It has, for instance, been suggested that the carotenoid-based colour of acanthocephalan cystacanths is adaptive through increasing the conspicuousness of infected intermediate hosts and, hence, their vulnerability to appropriate final hosts such as fish predators. We revisited the evidence in favour of adaptive coloration of acanthocephalan parasites in relation to increased trophic transmission using the crustacean amphipod Gammarus pulex and two species of acanthocephalans, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Polymorphus minutus. Both species show carotenoid-based colorations, but rely, respectively, on freshwater fish and aquatic bird species as final hosts. In addition, the two parasites differ in the type of behavioural alteration brought to their common intermediate host. Pomphorhynchus laevis reverses negative phototaxis in G. pulex, whereas P. minutus reverses positive geotaxis. In aquaria, trout showed selective predation for P. laevis-infected gammarids, whereas P. minutus-infected ones did not differ from uninfected controls in their vulnerability to predation. We tested for an effect of parasite coloration on increased trophic transmission by painting a yellow–orange spot on the cuticle of uninfected gammarids and by masking the yellow–orange spot of infected individuals with inconspicuous brown paint. To enhance realism, match of colour between painted mimics and true parasite was carefully checked using a spectrometer. We found no evidence for a role of parasite coloration in the increased vulnerability of gammarids to predation by trout. Painted mimics did not differ from control uninfected gammarids in their vulnerability to predation by trout. In addition, covering the place through which the parasite was visible did not reduce the vulnerability of infected gammarids to predation by trout. We discuss

  8. A new species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Mediterranean mullet (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Marzoug, Douniazed; Rima, Mohamed; Boutiba, Zitouni; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana

    2014-02-01

    A new hemiurid digenean, Saturnius gibsoni n. sp., is described from the stomach lining of Mugil cephalus L. off Oran, Mediterranean coast of Algeria. Characteristic morphological features of the new species include small size of the body which is comprised of six pseudosegments, small ventral sucker, weakly developed mound-shaped flange at the level of the ventral sucker, and eggs being large in relation to the size of the body. Saturnius gibsoni n. sp. resembles S. minutus Blasco-Costa, Pankov, Gibson, Balbuena, Raga, Sarabeev & Kostadinova, 2006 and two unidentified Saturnius spp. in the small size of the body and most metrical features. However, in spite of the presence of five transverse septa resulting in six pseudosegments and the range overlap of some metrical features, the ventral sucker in S. minutus is much larger, the ventral sucker muscular flange is more prominent, the last pseudosegment is narrower in relation to body width and more rounded, and the eggs are smaller (mean 21 × 10 vs 25 × 12 μm). Furthermore, the partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene region (domains D1-D3; 1,195 nt) obtained from two isolates of S. gibsoni n. sp. differed by 11 nt (0.9%) from that of S. minutus. Both unidentified forms of Saturnius are clearly distinguishable from S. gibsoni n. sp. by the presence of six stout, transverse muscular septa, forming seven pseudosegments (vs five septa forming six pseudosegments). Bayesian inference analysis of partial 28S rDNA sequences based on a total of 15 species from the families Hemiuridae and Lecithasteridae depicted the Bunocotylinae Dollfus, 1950 as a strongly supported basal clade, with Bunocotyle progenetica (Markowski, 1936) as the closest sister taxon to Saturnius spp.

  9. Late cenozoic history of the genus Micromys (mammalia, rodentia) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Horáček, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4-4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6-0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European-C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus.

  10. A revision of the species of Saturnius Manter, 1969 (Digenea: Hemiuridae), parasites of mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    PubMed

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Montero, Francisco E; Gibson, David I; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Raga, Juan Antonio; Shvetsova, Ludmila S; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-09-01

    The genus Saturnius Manter, 1969 is defined, its species re-examined and a key to the species presented. S. overstreeti n. sp. is described from Mugil soiuy Basilewsky and M. cephalus L. from the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan and distinguished from the morphologically related S. papernai Overstreet, 1977 and S. maurepasi Overstreet, 1977. S. segmentatus Manter, 1969 is redescribed on the basis of the type- and newly collected material from M. cephalus on the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan. The morphometric variation of S. papernai is studied based on newly collected material from Liza aurata (Risso) in the Ebro Delta and off Santa Pola, Spain. The comparisons reveal lower ranges of most metrical features than previously known. A principal component analysis, carried out after adding the new data to those of Blasco-Costa et al. (2006), confirms the species identification. Other valid species recognised are S. mugilis (Yamaguti, 1970), S. maurepasi, S. belizensis Fischthal, 1977, S. dimitrovi Blasco-Costa et al., 2006 and S. minutus Blasco-Costa et al., 2006. Forms considered species inquirendae are S. valamugilis Rekharani & Madhavi, 1984, Bunocotyle constrictus Domnich & Sarabeev, 1999 [=S. papernai of Domnich & Sarabeev (2000a, b, c, d)], B. mugilis Yamaguti, 1970 of Solonchenko (1976) and S. mugilis of Dmitrieva & Gaevskaya (2001). Host and locality information is given in detail for all species. Lisa ramado (Risso) and Chelon labrosus (Cuvier) are new host records for S. papernai (sensu stricto) and S. dimitrovi. L. aurata is a new host record for S. dimitrovi and S. minutus, and L. saliens (Risso) is a new host record for S. minutus.

  11. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1297, Current Political Issues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of Aleksandr Matrosov and Agadil Sukhambayev, Nikolay Gastello and Nurken Abdirov, Ivan Pavlov and Tulegen Tokhtarov, Ivan Kozhedub and Sergey...historic necessity of this union dates back to the remote antiquity, to the times of Kievan Russia, Dmitriy Donskoy, Ivan the Terrible, and Peter the First...major expeditions headed by Petr Pallas, Ivan Lepekhin, and Samuel Gmelin. Schools, high schools, and teachers’ seminars began to be opened in

  12. Origin Of The Near-earth Asteroid Phaethon And The Geminids Meteor Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Julia; Campins, H.; Tsiganis, K.; Morbidelli, A.; Licandro, J.

    2010-10-01

    Asteroid (3200) Phaethon is a remarkable Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It was the first asteroid associated with a meteor shower, namely the Geminid stream1. Phaethon's unusual orbit has a high inclination and a very low perihelion distance (0.14 AU). Its reflectance spectrum suggests a connection with primitive meteorites, best fitting with CI/CM carbonaceous chondrites2, aqueously altered and rich in hydrated silicates. However, its origin is not well determined. Recent studies suggest a connection with the population of main-belt comets3, classifying Phaethon as an activated asteroid. Here we show that the most likely source of Phaethon and the Geminids is the asteroid (2) Pallas, one of the largest asteroids in the main belt, which is surrounded by a collisional family, containing several Phaethon-sized objects. Pallas’ highly inclined orbit and surface composition, also primitive and with evidence of hydration4, support this connection. Our analysis reveals a striking similarity between Phaethon's visual spectrum and those of Pallas family members. Moreover, our numerical simulations show the existence of a robust dynamical pathway, connecting the orbital neighborhood of Pallas with that of Phaethon. In this respect, the Pallas family may constitute a source of primitive NEAs. (The author gratefully acknowledges support from the Spanish "Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación" projects AYA2005-07808-C03-02 and AYA2008-06202-C03-02.) References 1. Whipple, F. L. 1983, IAU Circular, 3881 2. Licandro, J., Campins, H., Mothe-Diniz, T., Pinilla-Alonso, N. & de Leon, J. 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 461, 751-757 3. Hsieh, H. H., & Jewitt, D. 2006, Science, 312, 561-563 4. Rivkin, A. S., Howell, E. S., Vilas, F. & Lebofsky, L. A. in Asteroids III (eds Bottke, W. F., Cellino, A., Paolicchi, P. & Binzel, R. P.) 235-253 (Univ. Arizona Press, 2002).

  13. US Naval Observatory Ephemerides of the Largest Asteroids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Ceres, 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, and 4 Vesta since its edition for 1953. Historically, these four asteroids have been observed more than any of the others...communication) include pertur- bations from 300 asteroids. Thus, it was decided to include more than the traditional four asteroids in the production of new...there are two preliminary masses using Ceres and 197 Arete as the perturbed asteroid. The four masses on the left-hand side of the Ðgure were determined

  14. Thermal Cracking of the asteroid (3200) Phaethon and the Origin of the Geminid Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbo, M.; Wilkerson, J.; Libourel, G.; Ali-Lagoa, V.; Hanus numeration="5">Hanus, J.; Michel, P.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the importance of thermal cracking of the near-Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon for the origin of the Geminid meteors. This is the densest annual meteoroid stream and potential meteorite dropper. Geminds are associated with Phaethon. The latter is likely a chip of the large main-belt asteroid (2) Pallas. Different models have been investigated for the origin of the Geminids, but none of these resulted completely satisfactory to explain the formation of this massive meteor stream.

  15. Geochemistry and solute fluxes from volcano-hydrothermal system of Ketoy, Kuril Island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalacheva, Elena; Taran, Yuri; Voloshina, Ekaterina; Tarasov, Kirill; Kotenko, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    Ketoy is a volcanic island in the middle of the Kuril Island arc. With an area of ˜70 km2 it consists of two volcanic structures of different ages. The younger Pallas cone (960 m asl) is characterized by a strong fumarolic activity with maximum temperature of 720˚ C (August 2016) and hosts a cold acid crater lake in the summit crater. The older Ketoy cone (1172 m) at the NE of the island is cut by the erosion crater that open to the east and known as a canyon of Gorchichny Stream. There is a strong hydrothermal activity within the canyon with boiling springs and steam vents. We present our data obtained during the fieldwork in August 2016 on the chemical (major and trace elements including REE) and isotopic (H, O, C, S) composition of thermal fluids from both Gorchichny canyon and thermal fields on the slopes of the Pallas cone. Thermal field of the Gorchichny Stream discharges acid Ca-SO4 and near neutral unusual, Cl-poor, Na-Ca-SO4 hot-to-boiling waters with TDS 2-3 g/L. Thermal field of the summit plateau at the base of the Pallas cone discharges acid Ca-SO4 warm water that can be the seepage from the crater lake. Isotopic compositions of thermal waters are close to the meteoric water line but with a clear positive shift in both δ18O and δD with a trend directed to the isotopic composition of condensates of fumarolic gases of the Pallas cone. For the first time the outflow rates of the draining streams have been measured and hydrothermal solute fluxes from the volcano-hydrothermal system have been estimated. The total hydrothermal flux of chloride and sulfate from Ketoy Island is estimated as 8.5 t/d of Cl and 30 t/d of SO4. This work was supported by the RSF grant #15-17-20011.

  16. It’s Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-Energize a Key Acquisition Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Pallas & Novak, 2000) (Figure 6). Taken together, these tools can give PMs the power to overcome many of the looming programmatic hurdles that continue...to surface as often as the weather changes. Many other helpful decision aids are available and designed specifically to combat the challenges PMs...per flight hour—currently at $11,000—are expected to more than double the target estimate (Clark, 2009)? If so many variable costs can fluctuate, can

  17. It’s Time to Take the Chill Out of Cost Containment and Re-energize Key Acquisition Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    The authors also thank the many current and former PMs who took the time to respond to the opinion survey—a vital source of information upon which...Pallas & Novak, 2000). Taken together, these tools can give PMs the power to overcome many of the looming programmatic hurdles that continue to...surface as often as the weather changes. Many other helpful decision aids are available and designed specifically to combat the challenges PMs face

  18. Revision of the genus Angaracris Bey-Bienko, 1930 (Orthoptera: Acrididae, Oedipodinae) with notes on the tribe Bryodemini.

    PubMed

    Storozhenko, Sergey Yu; Benediktov, Alexander A; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-03-20

    Anagaracris is considered as a monotypic genus in the tribe Bryodemini (Acrididae: Oedipodinae). New synonymy is proposed: Angaracris barabensis (Pallas, 1773) = Angaracris morulimarginis Huang, 1981, syn. nov.; = Angaracris ulashanicus Li, 1981, syn. nov.; Angaracris acrohylina Bi, 1986, syn. nov.; = Angaracris nigrimarginis Zheng et Ren, 1993, syn. nov.; = Angaracris morulipennis Zheng et Ren, 1994, syn. nov.; = Angaracris neimongolensis Zeng et Han, 1998, syn. nov. The diagnosis of the tribe Bryodemini is clarified and a key to the genera and subgenera is provided.

  19. Survey on wild rodents for endoparasites in Iwate Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Megumi; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2003-10-01

    Wild rodents (58 Apodemus speciosus, 29 A. argenteus and 7 Microtus montebelli) were surveyed for endoparasites in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, from October to December 1995 and from April to October 1996. Two trematodes (Echinostoma macrorchis, Plagiorchis muris), 4 or more cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Raillietina coreensis, Cladothyridium spp., Cysticercus fasciolaris), 12 nematodes (Carolinensis minutus, Eucoleus sp., Heligmosomoides kurilensis, H. protobullosus, H. speciosus, Heterakis spumosa, Rhabditis (Pelodera) orbitalis, Rictularia cristata, Syphacia emileromani, S. frederici, S. montana, Trichuris sp.) and 3 protozoans (Giardia sp., Trichomonas sp., Trypanosoma sp.) were identified. The two species of Apodemus were similar to each other, but they were extremely different from M. montebelli in parasite fauna.

  20. A revision of the Lutrochidae (Coleoptera) of Venezuela, with description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Maier, Crystal A; Short, Andrew E Z

    2013-01-01

    The species of Lutrochidae occurring in Venezuela are revised. The only previously recorded species, Lutrochus acuminatus Grouvelle, is redescribed and a lectotype is designated. Lutrochus vestitus Sharp, is recorded from Venezuela and French Guiana for the first time. Six new species Lutrochus gustafsoni n. sp., L. cauraensis n. sp., L. maldonadoi n. sp., L. meridaensis n. sp., L. minutus n. sp., and L. violaceus n. sp. are described. Notes on habitat and habits for most species are provided, as well as a key to the eight species of Lutrochidae occurring in Venezuela. The family is reported from hygropetric habitats for the first time.

  1. Palynology, petrography and geochemistry of the Sewickley coal bed (Monongahela Group, Late Pennsylvanian), Northern Appalachian Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eble, C.F.; Pierce, B.S.; Grady, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two bench samples of the Sewickley coal bed were collected from seven localities in the northern Appalachian Basin and analyzed palynologically, petrographically, and geochemically. The Sewickley coal bed occurs in the middle of the Pittsburgh Formation (Monongahela Group) and is of Late Pennsylvanian age. Palynologically, it is dominated by spores of tree ferns. Tree fern spore taxa in the Sewickley include Punctatisporites minutus, Punctatosporites minutus, Laevigatosporites minimus, Spinosporites exiguus, Apiculatasporites saetiger, and Thymospora spp. In fact, Punctatisporites minutus was so abundant that it had to be removed from the standard counts and recorded separately (average 73.2%). Even when Punctatisporites minutus is removed from the counts, tree fern spores still dominate a majority of the assemblages, averaging 64.4%. Among the tree fern spores identified in the Sewickley coal, Thymospora exhibits temporal and spatial abundance variation. Thymospora usually increases in abundance from the base to the top of the bed. Thymospora is also more abundant in columns that are thick (>100 cm) and low in ash yield (< 12.0%, dry basis). Calamite spores (e.g. Calamospora spp., Laevigatosporites minor, and L. vulgaris) are the next most abundant plant group represented in the Sewickley coal, averaging 20%. Contributions from all other plant groups are minor in comparison. Petrographically, the Sewickley coal contains high percentages of vitrinite (average 82.3%, mineral matter-free (mmf)), with structured forms being more common than unstructured forms. In contrast, liptinite and inertinite macerals both occur in low percentages (average 7.7% and 10.0%, respectively). Geochemically, the Sewickley coal has a moderate ash yield (average 12.4%) and high total sulfur content (average 3.4%). Four localities contained a high ash or carbonaceous shale bench. These benches, which may be coeval, are strongly dominated by tree fern spores. Unlike the lower ash

  2. [The systematic position of mites of the genus Larinyssus Strandtmann (Gamasoidea, Rhinonyssidae), parasitizing gulls].

    PubMed

    Butenko, O M

    1975-01-01

    A study was carried out of the variability of mited colledted from 6 species of birds as follows: Larus argentatus Pontopp., L. minutus Pall., Gelochelidon nilotica Gm., Chlidonias leucoptera (Temm.), Ch. nigra (L.) and Sterna hirundo L. Structural peculiarities characteristic of the parasites of the above species have been revealed. The mites from St. hirundo were isolated into a distinct species, Larinyssus substerna sp. n., which is most close to L. sterna Fain, 1972. The new species differs from L. sterna in a smaller size of gnathosoma and chelicerae, lesser number of hypostomal setae and the presence of pigidial shields.

  3. Synonymy of Plotococcus Miller & Denno with Leptococcus Reyne, and description of a new species from Colombia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takumasa; Gullan, Penny J

    2008-01-01

    Plotococcus Miller & Denno is synonymized with Leptococcus Reyne (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). The genus is redescribed and the adult female of the type species, L. metroxyli Reyne, is redescribed and illustrated. All species hitherto included in Plotococcus are transferred to Leptococcus as L. capixaba (Kondo) comb. nov., L. eugeniae (Miller & Denno) comb. nov., L. hambletoni (Kondo) comb. nov., L. minutus (Hempel) comb. nov., and L. neotropicus (Williams & Granara de Willink) comb. nov. A new species of Leptococcus, L. rodmani Kondo sp. n., from leaves of Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae) from Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. A revised key to adult females of all species in the genus is provided.

  4. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  5. Electromagnetic heating of minor planets in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes occurring in the primordial solar system are likely to have significantly affected planetary evolution. In particular, electrical coupling of the kinetic energy of a dense T-Tauri-like solar wind into the interior of the smaller planets could have been a major driver of thermal metamorphism. Accordingly a grid of asteroid models of various sizes and solar distances was constructed using dc transverse magnetic induction theory. Plausible parameterizations with no requirement for a high environmental temperature led to complete melting for Vesta with no melting for Pallas and Ceres. High temperatures were reached in the Pallas model, perhaps implying nonmelting thermal metamorphosis as a cause of its anomalous spectrum. A reversal of this temperature sequence seems implausible, suggesting that the Ceres-Pallas-Vesta dichotomy is a natural outcome of the induction mechanism. Highly localized heating is expected to arise due to an instability in the temperature-controlled current distribution. Localized metamorphosis resulting from this effect may be relevant to the production and evolution of pallasites, the large presumed metal component of S object spectra, and the formation of the lunar magma ocean.

  6. Electromagnetic heating of minor planets in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes occurring in the primordial solar system are likely to have significantly affected planetary evolution. In particular, electrical coupling of the kinetic energy of a dense T-Tauri-like solar wind into the interior of the smaller planets could have been a major driver of thermal metamorphism. Accordingly a grid of asteroid models of various sizes and solar distances was constructed using dc transverse magnetic induction theory. Plausible parameterizations with no requirement for a high environmental temperature led to complete melting for Vesta with no melting for Pallas and Ceres. High temperatures were reached in the Pallas model, perhaps implying nonmelting thermal metamorphosis as a cause of its anomalous spectrum. A reversal of this temperature sequence seems implausible, suggesting that the Ceres-Pallas-Vesta dichotomy is a natural outcome of the induction mechanism. Highly localized heating is expected to arise due to an instability in the temperature-controlled current distribution. Localized metamorphosis resulting from this effect may be relevant to the production and evolution of pallasites, the large presumed metal component of S object spectra, and the formation of the lunar magma ocean.

  7. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  8. Parasites of free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) from Belize and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vitazkova, Sylvia K; Wade, Susan E

    2006-11-01

    Parasites are important members of the ecological web within which an animal lives, and can be used as indicators of ecosystem health. However, few baseline parasitological data are available for free-ranging animals, particularly for the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra). In this study a total of 283 fecal samples were collected from 50 individually identified A. pigra during 2003 and 2004 and examined for parasites. The samples were processed using standard quantitative centrifugation concentration techniques, with sugar and zinc sulfate used as flotation media. The slides were examined using bright-field and phase microscopy. Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect protozoa. Four parasites were detected: 1) Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae), 2) Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae), 3) Giardia sp. (Hexamitidae), and 4) Entamoeba sp. (Endamoebidae). Controrchis biliophilus was detected in 80% (wet season) and 81% (dry season) of the A. pigra samples; Trypanoxyuris minutus was detected in 8% (wet season) and 27% (dry season) of samples; and Giardia sp. was detected in 40% (wet season) and 27% (dry season) of samples. For the first time, DNA from Giardia sp.-positive fecal samples was extracted from A. pigra. Alouatta pigra individuals that lived near human settlements in Belize were infected with Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis) Assemblages A and B. These results suggest that G. duodenalis is transmitted from people and/or domestic animals to A. pigra.

  9. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  10. Can texture analysis of tooth microwear detect within guild niche partitioning in extinct species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnell, Mark; Nedza, Christopher; Rychlik, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    Recent work shows that tooth microwear analysis can be applied further back in time and deeper into the phylogenetic history of vertebrate clades than previously thought (e.g. niche partitioning in early Jurassic insectivorous mammals; Gill et al., 2014, Nature). Furthermore, quantitative approaches to analysis based on parameterization of surface roughness are increasing the robustness and repeatability of this widely used dietary proxy. Discriminating between taxa within dietary guilds has the potential to significantly increase our ability to determine resource use and partitioning in fossil vertebrates, but how sensitive is the technique? To address this question we analysed tooth microwear texture in sympatric populations of shrew species (Neomys fodiens, Neomys anomalus, Sorex araneus, Sorex minutus) from BiaŁ owieza Forest, Poland. These populations are known to exhibit varying degrees of niche partitioning (Churchfield & Rychlik, 2006, J. Zool.) with greatest overlap between the Neomys species. Sorex araneus also exhibits some niche overlap with N. anomalus, while S. minutus is the most specialised. Multivariate analysis based only on tooth microwear textures recovers the same pattern of niche partitioning. Our results also suggest that tooth textures track seasonal differences in diet. Projecting data from fossils into the multivariate dietary space defined using microwear from extant taxa demonstrates that the technique is capable of subtle dietary discrimination in extinct insectivores.

  11. Conflict between parasites with different transmission strategies infecting an amphipod host

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R; Boucansaud, Karelle; Rigaud, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Competition between parasites within a host can influence the evolution of parasite virulence and host resistance, but few studies examine the effects of unrelated parasites with conflicting transmission strategies infecting the same host. Vertically transmitted (VT) parasites, transmitted from mother to offspring, are in conflict with virulent, horizontally transmitted (HT) parasites, because healthy hosts are necessary to maximize VT parasite fitness. Resolution of the conflict between these parasites should lead to the evolution of one of two strategies: avoidance, or sabotage of HT parasite virulence by the VT parasite. We investigated two co-infecting parasites in the amphipod host, Gammarus roeseli: VT microsporidia have little effect on host fitness, but acanthocephala modify host behaviour, increasing the probability that the amphipod is predated by the acanthocephalan's definitive host. We found evidence for sabotage: the behavioural manipulation induced by the Acanthocephala Polymorphus minutus was weaker in hosts also infected by the microsporidia Dictyocoela sp. (roeselum) compared to hosts infected by P. minutus alone. Such conflicts may explain a significant portion of the variation generally observed in behavioural measures, and since VT parasites are ubiquitous in invertebrates, often passing undetected, conflict via transmission may be of great importance in the study of host–parasite relationships. PMID:16271976

  12. Paratylenchus shenzhenensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from the rhizosphere soil of Anthurium andraeanum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Li, Yu; Xu, Chun-Ling; Yu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Wei

    2013-12-18

    Paratylenchus shenzhenensis n. sp. was collected from the rhizosphere soil of Anthurium andraeanum in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The new species is characterized by having a female with a small body (249-302 μm), well developed stylet (17-21 μm), rounded head with four submedian lobes and lip-region with a slight depression at the oral area, small post-vulval uterine sac with a few vestigial cells; male with body dorsally curved behind the cloacal opening, stylet absent, pharynx degenerate, prominent penial sheath; and juveniles with a stylet. It is morphologically similar to P. minutus. The internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA) of the new species only have 72-73% identity with P. minutus, confirming its status as a separate species. The D2/D3 region of 28S ribosomal DNA (28S rDNA) and 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) from P. shenzhenensis n. sp. were also amplified and sequenced in this study. 

  13. Relationships of palynology, petrography, and coal quality in some Upper Kanawha Formation coalbeds of West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, W.C.; Eble, C.F.; Gillespie, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    29 samples of the Upper Kanawha Formation Stockton-Lewiston, Coalburg, and Winifrede coalbeds may be categorized into two groups, based upon their petrographic and palynologic characteristics. The first group contained 11 samples with moderate vitrinite abundances (V=61.6 volume %), moderate exinite (E=7.4%), moderate inertinite (I=13.1%), and high ash (average ash-17.5%). The second group of 18 samples contained moderate vitrinite (V=57.4%), high exinite (E=9.2%), high inertinite (I=22.6%), and moderate ash (8.7%). The first group of samples contained high percentages of spores (average =61.8%) assignable to arborescent lycopods (Lycospora spp.). The second group contained high percentages (average =56.2%) of marrattiaceous tree fern spores (Laevigatosporites globosus, Punctatosporites minutus, and Punctatisporites minutus). These results appear to suggest that the tree ferns occupied raised, well-drained portions of the swamps in areas of high peat oxidation, minor detrital mineral influx, and minor early syngenetic mineral formation. The arborescent lycopods appear to have been the dominant vegetation in areas of more-or-less standing water, which were less susceptible to peat oxidation and more susceptible to detrital mineral influx and early syngenetic mineral formation. These petrographic and palynologic differences were observed between full-thickness channel samples (18 included in this study) and within a single coalbed sampled in ten 6-inch increments.

  14. Diversity and Karyotypic Evolution in the Genus Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Willam O; Pieczarka, Julio C; Rossi, Rogério V; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Miranda, Cleuton L; da Silva, Cláudia R; Cardoso, Elizandra M; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2015-01-01

    Neacomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises 8 species mainly found in the Amazonian region. We describe 5 new karyotypes from Brazilian Amazonia: 2 cytotypes for N. paracou (2n = 56/FNa = 62-66), 1 for N. dubosti (2n = 64/FNa = 68), and 2 for Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FNa = 64-70), with differences in the 18S rDNA. Telomeric probes did not show ITS. We provide a phylogeny using Cytb, and the analysis suggests that 2n = 56 with a high FNa is ancestral for the genus, as found in N. paracou, being retained by the ancestral forms of the other species, with an increase in 2n occurring independently in N. spinosus and N. dubosti. Alternatively, an increase in 2n may have occurred in the ancestral taxon of the other species, followed by independent 2n-reduction events in Neacomys sp. and in the ancestral species of N. tenuipes, N. guianae, N. musseri, and N. minutus. Finally, a drastic reduction event in the diploid number occurred in the ancestral species of N. musseri and N. minutus which exhibit the lowest 2n of the genus. The karyotypic variations found in both intra- and interspecific samples, associated with the molecular phylogeny, suggest a chromosomal evolution with amplification/deletion of constitutive heterochromatin and rearrangements including fusions, fissions, and pericentric inversions.

  15. Composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with central European herons (Ardeidae).

    PubMed

    Sitko, Jiljí; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Helminths parasitizing the ardeid birds are poorly understood, and the majority of studies are limited to checklists and records of novel host-parasite interactions. Here we analyzed the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with an extensive cohort of the five most common Czech herons (Ardea cinerea, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris and Ixobrychus minutus) collected in the years 1962-2013. Comparison with Ukrainian datasets supports the existence of local helminth component communities, subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the component communities ranged between 37.3±9.6 (A. cinerea) and 2.5±1.1 (I. minutus) species. Similarly, the frequency of particular helminths differed by over one order of magnitude, whereas the helminth load differed by over two orders of magnitude. Typically, the dominant species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Uroproctepisthmium bursicola, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Desmidocercella numidica and Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus) were considered local, with intermediate host species available onsite, as represented by freshwater mollusks. Of the digeneans, 52% of the species likely infected their definitive hosts outside the study area, frequently utilizing invertebrates of salt or brackish waters. For A. cinerea, the largest number of species was in adult males; however the helminth load of the adults was lower than in their juvenile counterparts. This study provides the first systematically collected evidence for the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in herons.

  16. Detection of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex in wild mammals from Colombian coffee plantations by PCR and DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B; Lozano, C; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Adler, G H

    1998-03-01

    The small mammal fauna of coffee plantations in SW Colombia was surveyed to determine which of the species present were infected with parasites of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis complex and might therefore act as reservoirs of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Fifty animals of seven different species were captured. Tissue samples were taken from the ears of specimens from each of the seven species. Thirty three samples were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using oligonucleotide primers directed against conserved regions of L. (V) braziliensis complex kinetoplast DNA. Three of the samples (two from mouse opossums Micoureus demerarae, and one from a pygmy rice at Microryzomys minutus) gave positive results based on PCR analysis. When the samples were subjected to DNA hybridization (dot blot) analysis using the B18 (L. (V.) braziliensis complex-specific) probe, a total of ten specimens belonging to six species (the opossums M. demerarae and Didelphis marsupilalis, the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, Mi. minutus and Rattus rattus, and a rabbit Sylvilagus brasiliensis) gave positive results, indicating that all these animals had flies of species occurring in the same habitat by allowing them to feed on infected animals.

  17. Reconciling contradictory findings of herbivore impacts on spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Knochel, David G; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2010-10-01

    Substantial controversy surrounds the efficacy of biological control insects to reduce densities of Centaurea stoebe, a widespread, aggressive invasive plant in North America. We developed a graphical model to conceptualize the conditions required to explain the current contradictory findings, and then employed a series of manipulations to evaluate C. stoebe responses to herbivores. We manipulated soil nitrogen and competition in a field population and measured attack rates of a foliage and seed feeder (Larinus minutus), two gall flies (Urophora spp.), and a root feeder (Cyphocleonus achates), as well as their effects on the growth and reproduction of C. stoebe. Nitrogen limitation and competing vegetation greatly reduced C. stoebe growth. L. minutus most intensively reduced seed production in low-nitrogen soils, and removal of neighboring vegetation increased Larinus numbers per flower head and the percentage of flowers attacked by 15% and 11%, respectively. Cyphocleonus reduced flower production and aboveground biomass over two years, regardless of resources or competition. Our results, in conjunction with other published studies, demonstrate that positive, neutral, and negative plant growth responses to herbivory can be generated. However, under realistic field conditions and in the presence of multiple herbivores, our work repudiates earlier studies that indicate insect herbivores increase C. stoebe dominance.

  18. Parasite-induced changes in the diet of a freshwater amphipod: field and laboratory evidence.

    PubMed

    Médoc, V; Piscart, C; Maazouzi, C; Simon, L; Beisel, J-N

    2011-04-01

    Trophically transmitted parasites are likely to strongly influence food web-structure. The extent to which they change the trophic ecology of their host remains nevertheless poorly investigated and field evidence is lacking. This is particularly true for acanthocephalan parasites whose invertebrate hosts can prey on other invertebrates and contribute to leaf-litter breakdown. We used a multiple approach combining feeding experiments, neutral lipids and stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli parasitized by the bird acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected compared to uninfected amphipods consumed as many dead isopods, but fewer live isopods and less leaf material. Infection had no influence on the total concentration of neutral lipids. Contrary to what we expected based on laboratory findings, the nitrogen isotope signature, which allows for the estimation of consumer's trophic position, was not influenced by infection status. Conversely, the carbon isotope signature, which is used to identify food sources, changed with infection and suggested that the diet of infected G. roeseli includes less perilithon (i.e. fixed algae on rocks, stones) but more terrestrial inputs (e.g. leaf material) than that of uninfected conspecifics. This study shows evidence of changes in the trophic ecology of P. minutus-infected G. roeseli and we stress the need to complement feeding experiments with field data when investigating top-down effects of infection in an opportunistic feeder which adapts its diet to the available food sources.

  19. Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Carolina; Rico-Hernández, Guillermo; Mandujano, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.

  20. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  1. Sperm cryopreservation in endangered felids: developing linkage of in situ-ex situ populations.

    PubMed

    Swanson, W F; Magarey, G M; Herrick, J R

    2007-01-01

    Many of the world's cat species face growing threats to their continued survival in nature. For some species, managed captive populations may provide a reservoir for future reintroduction or genetic augmentation. Because most zoo populations are derived from small founder sizes and are subject to loss of genetic variation over time, periodic infusion of founder alleles is necessary to avoid the dire consequences of inbreeding. Collection and freezing of semen from free-living nondomestic felids offers a viable option for introducing founder genes into captive populations without removal of animals from the wild. The effective application of this strategy requires established protocols for safely capturing and anaesthetising wild cats coupled with suitable methods of semen recovery, processing and cryopreservation under field conditions. In small-sized non-domestic felids, the general feasibility of this approach is being explored in two studies of black-footed cats and Pallas' cats. Two factors - relatively low sperm numbers per ejaculate and compromised status of frozen-thawed cat spermatozoa - suggest that in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and embryo transfer present the most efficient use of this limiting resource in small-sized cats. Our studies with captive felids have explored alternative methods of sperm cryopreservation that are adaptable to field situations and shown that frozen-thawed spermatozoa from Pallas' cats, ocelots, and fishing cats exhibit adequate function to fertilise heterologous and/or homologous oocytes in vitro. Most recently, we investigated the fertilising capacity of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from wild Pallas' cats in Mongolia. Combined with improved methods for embryo culture and transfer in small cat species, sperm banking in situ will facilitate introduction of new founders into captive populations without causing further depletion of their wild counterparts. As one component of holistic conservation programs, including ongoing

  2. Effects of herbal medicine on human uterine tumor-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohh, Mi Hyang; Kim, Seong Jin; Han, Jong Kwon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-mahn

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms associated with significant morbidity. Herbal formulas capable of restoring yin-yang balance by dispersing blood stasis may be useful for managing fibroid symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, the antitumor properties of three herbs viz., Trogopterus xanthipes Milen-Edwards, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, and Ulmus davidiana Planch were evaluated in nude mice injected intravenously with human malignant myomas. Tumor fragments were xenografted subcutaneously through a flank incision in female mice. The mice entered the study for 8 weeks when their tumors reached the threshold volume (260 mm3). The mice were randomly allocated to receive subcutaneous injections of normal saline (Group 1; negative control), P. lactiflora Pallas (Group 2), U. davidiana Planch (Group 3), T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards (Group 4), and intravenous injections of paclitaxel (Group 5; positive control). The weight and tumor volume were measured, followed by histopathology. Results: A few cases of abdominal distention and death were observed in the negative control group. Furthermore, a considerable enlargement of the liver and spleen was observed in the negative control group at autopsy with a gradual increase in body weight during the experiment. The mean tumor volume which increased in negative control mice reduced in mice treated with herbal remedies or paclitaxel from day 14 onwards (P < 0.05). The degree of necrosis and apoptosis induction from herbal treatments was similar to that of paclitaxel. Conclusion: Collectively, three herbs viz., T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards, P. lactiflora Pallas, and U. davidiana Planch were able to induce necrosis and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells, proving antitumor properties against uterine fibroids. PMID:27757274

  3. Notes on mites of the family Myobiidae (Acari: Prostigmata) parasitising rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, A; Arbobi, M; Malikov, V

    2000-01-01

    Six mite species of the family Myobiidae, Radfordia (Austromyobia)persica sp. n., Radfordia (Austromyobia) merioni Bochkov, Dubinina et Chirov, 1990, Radfordia (Radfordia) acomys Fain et Lukoschus, 1977, Radfordia (Radfordia) affinis (Poppe, 1896), Radfordia (Graphiurobia) dyromys Fain et Lukoschus, 1973, and Myobia (Myobia) murismusculi (Schrank, 1781) were found in Iran on the rodents Gerbillus cheesmani Thomas, Meriones libycus Lichtenstein, Acomys cahirinus (Desmarest), Alus musculus L., Dryomys nitedula (Pallas), and Mus muscullus, respectively. R. (A.) persica is described as a new species from the female, male and tritonymph. The other five myobiid species are new to Iran.

  4. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  5. Astronomy and astrophysics in Kosice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galis, R.; Kanuk, P.

    2005-11-01

    Astronomical education of young people has very long history in the Department of planetarium and observatory of the Free-time Centre in Kosice. The Club of young astronomers "Pallas" has already brought up three generation of young people. Activities of this club gained new dimension through collaboration with Faculty of Sciences, P. J. Safarik University in Kosice mainly with Department of theoretic physics and astrophysics. Many attractive and interesting events like observations of Solar and Lunar eclipses, Venus transit, Virtual university, Hubble 15th Anniversary, With telescope on the road invited hundreds and hundreds young people to astronomy, science and wish to learn about world surrounding us.

  6. An Analysis of Data on the Nutrition of American Officer Prisoners of War at the Zentsuji Prisoner of War Camp at Shikoku, Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-05-01

    sympt"czIndic~ated classic beriberi, palla~ras scurvy or aprus. There w.-a littlo taincaitiori of deficoloncy of’ Vitaminas~*~~ or k: of asseitial...34,. Follagra bema,* .- rked totvard tVis ond of _ýcnt,*Lber IA𔃼 (Tablo ý3), al- tcoia. fsz; oasus wero roivrtoc: befuo V~en. Scurvy , uitil _.-ctw.Aor 1...same -..rloC. A c;reator n)ercontago of patients vtith pellanm sacý a lower percentage of "utients withi scurvy were rcportoa in Camp Ill than In

  7. Meteor Beliefs Project: The Palladium in ancient and early Medieval sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A. Alistair; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2004-08-01

    An examination of the, apparently meteoritic, object, anciently called the Palladium after the Greek goddess Pallas Athene, is presented, as discussed in various ancient and early medieval sources. Although made of wood, the Palladium was believed to have fallen from the sky. In myths, it was a powerful totemic object, first at the legendary city of Troy, then later at Rome, and had magically protective properties associated with it. Despite its implausibly meteoritic nature, the Palladium can be suggested as supporting the case for ancient meteorite worship.

  8. A new species group and species of the genus Pavania (Acari: Dolichocybidae), phoretic on Onthophagus vitulus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Loghmani, Amir; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Talebi, Ali Asghar

    2013-01-01

    Pavania setiformis Loghmani & Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Dolichocybidae) associated with Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vitulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is described from northeastern Iran. This remarkable new species represents a new setiformis species group characterized by seta-like sc(1), instead of capitate trichobothria. The genus Pavania is thus divided into three species groups: the fusiformis group (15 species), the gymnopleuri group (3 species) and the setiformis group (1 species). We also found P. sabzevarensis Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 and P. onthophagi Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 phoretic on Gymnopleurus mopsus (Pallas) and Onthophagus (Euonthophagus) amyntas alces (Fabricius), respectively.

  9. Seasonal and spatial variation of Yamuna River water quality in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Papiya; Upadhyay, Rahul; Hasan, Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Yamuna river pollution has been extensively studied with regard to some selected parameters in five locations at Palla, Nizamuddin Midstream, Nizamuddin Quarter Stream, Agra Canal Midstream, and Agra Canal Quarter Stream in Delhi, India. Seasonal and location-wise variation of pollutants namely dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia (AMM), total coliform and fecal coliform were studied for 6 years during the period of 2000-2005. The study results revealed the lowest level of pollution during monsoon. The statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between DO, BOD, COD, TKN, and AMM.

  10. Accumulation of cadmium associated with sewage sludge by a marine amphipod crustacean.

    PubMed

    Caparis, M E; Rainbow, P S

    1994-12-01

    Cadmium bound to sewage sludge (5% mixture with littoral mud) is available to the deposit-feeding marine amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator (Pallas). The amphipod accumulates labelled cadmium from sludge in proportion to both duration of exposure and cadmium concentration of the sludge. Newly accumulated cadmium is added onto the existing cadmium body load without significant excretion. Thus, cadmium in association with sewage sludge dumped at sea may be absorbed and accumulated by deposit-feeding invertebrates, with the potential of being transferred along marine food chains.

  11. The first record of Gyrodactylus corleonis Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria & Shinn, 2010 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from the wild.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Gerasev, Pavel I; Garippa, Giovanni; Piras, M Cristina; Merella, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Specimens of Gyrodactylus corleonis Paladini, Cable, Fioravanti, Faria & Shinn, 2010 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) were collected from the body and fins of Gobius cobitis Pallas in the western Mediterranean Sea off northwestern Sardinia. This is the first finding of this species in the wild and also represents a new host record. A morphological comparison of the new material with the type description of G. corleonis is presented. Since G. corleonis was found in the wild on representatives of the Gobiidae, a comparison with species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 parasitising gobies is included. The occurrence of G. corleonis on different host species and its phylogenetic relationships with gyrodactylids from sand gobies are discussed.

  12. The identification of culicine mosquitoes in the Shadegan wetland in southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Navidpour, S; Vazirianzadeh, B; Harbach, R; Jahanifard, E; Moravvej, S A

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the culicine mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae: Culicinae) of the Shadegan wetland in southern Khouzestan Province of Iran, sampling was carried out using hand catch, total catch, and New Jersy light traps, from October 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2664 culicine mosquitoes were captured. Three genera and five species were identified, including Culex pipiens L., Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Cx. sinaiticus Kirkpatrik, Cx. modestus Ficalbi, Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas and a Culiseta species. All of these species, reported for the first time, were from the Shadegan wetland and Khouzestan Province, and some are medically important.

  13. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, M; Bajay, M M; Schwarcz, K; Bajay, S K; Telles, M P C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B

    2014-11-14

    Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) is the main vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever. This disease is the most lethal human spotted fever rickettsiosis in the world. Microsatellite loci were isolated from a dinucleotide-enriched library produced from A. aureolatum sampled in Southeastern Brazil. Eight polymorphic microsatellites were further characterized among 38 individuals sampled from São Paulo metropolitan region. The number of observed alleles ranged from 2 to 9, observed heterozygosity was 0.184-0.647, and expected heterozygosity was 0.251-0.747. Cross-species amplifications suggested that these loci will be useful for other Amblyomma species.

  14. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy. PMID:22287891

  15. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of four species of Dendropsophus (Hylinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Igor Soares; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Oliveira, Adriele Karlokoski Cunha De; Toled, Luís Felipe; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study of four hyline frog species (Dendropsophus elegans, D. microps, D. minutus and D. werneri) from southern Brazil. All species had 2n = 30 chromosomes, with interspecific and intraspecific variation in the numbers of metacentric, submetacentric, subtelocentric and telocentric chromosomes. C-banding and fluorochrome staining revealed conservative GC-rich heterochromatin localized in the pericentromeric regions of all species. The location of the nucleolus organizer regions, as confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, differed between species. Telomeric probes detected sites that were restricted to the terminal regions of all chromosomes and no interstitial or centromeric signals were observed. Our study corroborates the generic synapomorphy of 2n = 30 chromosomes for Dendropsophus and adds data that may become useful for future taxonomic revisions and a broader understanding of chromosomal evolution among hylids.

  16. Fossil birds from the Late Cretaceous Los Alamitos Formation, Río Negro Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnolin, Federico L.; Martinelli, Agustín G.

    2009-02-01

    In this note we report new avian remains from the Late Cretaceous Los Alamitos Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian) at the Los Alamitos locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Isolated remains referable to indeterminate Aves, ?Patagopterygiformes, indeterminate Ornithurae, cf. Hesperornithes and cf. Neornithes are described and discussed. The new genus and species Alamitornis minutus is erected to include a minute-sized and gracile bird, probably related to the non-volant ratite-like bird Patagopteryx. If correctly identified, the record of Hesperornithes may be the first for this group in the Southern Hemisphere. The Los Alamitos paleoavifauna represents one of the most diverse fossil bird assemblage from the Mesozoic of Gondwana known to date.

  17. A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records

    PubMed Central

    Skvarla, Michael J.; Fisher, J. Ray; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cunaxidae are predaceous mites found in a variety of habitats. This work provides comprehensive keys to world subfamilies, genera, and species. Diagnoses and historical reviews are provided for subfamilies and genera. Cunaxa boneti, C. denmarki, C. exoterica, C. floridanus, C. lehmanae, C. lukoschusi, C. metzi, C. myabunderensis, C newyorkensis, C. rackae, C. reevesi, and C. reticulatus are moved to Rubroscirus and C. otiosus, C. valentis, and C. rasile are returned to Rubroscirus. Cunaxoides neopectinatus is moved to Pulaeus. Neocunaxoides pradhani and N. gilbertoi are transferred to Scutopalus. Pulaeus minutus and P. subterraneus are moved to Lupaeus. Pseudobonzia bakari, P. malookensis, and P. shamshadi are transferred to Neobonzia. Dactyloscirus bifidus is transferred to Armascirus. Scirula papillata is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time. Armascirus ozarkensis, A. primigenius, and Dactyloscirus dolichosetosus are reported from new localities. PMID:25061358

  18. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  19. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae.

    PubMed

    Webster, Reginald P; Sweeney, Jon D; Demerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species.

  20. Identification of thiabendazole-resistant cyathostome species in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M R; Klei, T R; French, D D

    1991-08-01

    A critical trial was performed with five ponies 6-9 months of age and raised on a horse farm with demonstrated benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomes. Eleven species of cyathostomes were recovered, seven of which had resistance to thiabendazole. Degrees of resistance varied among ponies and from species to species. Resistant species were Cyathostomum coronatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicostephanus minutus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus goldi and Cylicocylus nassatus. This is the first study identifying resistant cyathostome species in the Gulf Coast region of the USA and, although no new resistant species were found, results differed somewhat from those of other authors in that none of the cyathostome populations that have been studied contain the same complement of resistant species.

  1. A new genus and two new species of Peltogastridae (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitizing hermit crabs from Okinawa Island (Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan), and their DNA-barcodes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryuta; Osawa, Masayuki; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi

    2011-11-01

    A new genus and two new species of Peltogastridae, Peltogaster postica sp. nov. and Ommatogaster nana gen. et sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. The two new rhizocephalans were found to be parasitic on the estuarine hermit crabs, Pagurus minutus Hess, 1865 and Diogenes leptocerus Forest, 1956, respectively. Peltogaster postica sp. nov. is allied to P. curvata Kossmann, 1874, P. paguri Rathke, 1842 , and P. reticulata Shiino, 1943 , but is distinguished by its relative length and internal and external structures of the mature externa. Ommatogaster gen. nov. is established for the present new species O. nana based on the morphologies of the visceral mass of the externa and the presence of a nauplius eye in the larvae. Partial COI sequences were obtained from the two new species and one known species, Dipterosaccus indicus Van Kampen and Boschma, 1925, to test the possible usefulness of the sequences as tags for species identification.

  2. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M; Matsumura-Tundisi, T

    2005-08-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

  3. Hypogean pseudoscorpions (Arachnida) from Jaén province (Andalusia, Spain), with descriptions of four new species and a new synonymy.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Juan A; Pérez, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Four new hypogean species are described from the Jaén province (southern Spain): Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) espa- nyoli sp. nov., C. (E.) giennensis sp. nov., C. (E.) villacarrillo sp. nov. and Neobisium (Ommatoblothrus) perezruizi sp. nov. New records are given for the species Chthonius (E.) cazorlensis, C. (E.) perezi, C. (E.) tetrachelatus, Neobisium (O.) perezi, Microcreagrella caeca caeca and Allochernes masi. Chthonius (E.) verai and C. (E.) minutus are removed from the list of the Andalusian fauna. A new synonymy is proposed: Neobisium (O.) gev Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011, is a junior subjective synonym of N. (O.) perezi Carabajal Márquez, García Carrillo & Rodríguez Fernández, 2011.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Eustigmatophyceae (Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) is a small algal group with species of the genus Nannochloropsis being its best studied representatives. Nuclear and organellar genomes have been recently sequenced for several Nannochloropsis spp., but phylogenetically wider genomic studies are missing for eustigmatophytes. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species representing most major eustigmatophyte lineages, Monodopsis sp. MarTras21, Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202 and Trachydiscus minutus, and carried out their comparative analysis in the context of available data from Nannochloropsis and other stramenopiles, revealing a number of noticeable findings. First, mitogenomes of most eustigmatophytes are highly collinear and similar in the gene content, but extensive rearrangements and loss of three otherwise ubiquitous genes happened in the Vischeria lineage; this correlates with an accelerated evolution of mitochondrial gene sequences in this lineage. Second, eustigmatophytes appear to be the only ochrophyte group with the Atp1 protein encoded by the mitogenome. Third, eustigmatophyte mitogenomes uniquely share a truncated nad11 gene encoding only the C-terminal part of the Nad11 protein, while the N-terminal part is encoded by a separate gene in the nuclear genome. Fourth, UGA as a termination codon and the cognate release factor mRF2 were lost from mitochondria independently by the Nannochloropsis and T. minutus lineages. Finally, the rps3 gene in the mitogenome of Vischeria sp. is interrupted by the UAG codon, but the genome includes a gene for an unusual tRNA with an extended anticodon loop that we speculate may serve as a suppressor tRNA to properly decode the rps3 gene. PMID:26872774

  5. Serosurveillance of scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and analysis of the relative abundance of chiggers from mammals examined.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Chul; Lee, In Yong; Chong, Sung Tae; Richards, Allen L; Gu, Se Hun; Song, Jin-Won; Lee, John S; Klein, Terry A

    2010-09-01

    Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites located near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), ROK was conducted to determine the potential rodent-borne and associated ectoparasite disease risks to military personnel. A total of 1,196 rodents and insectivores representing 8 species, Apodemus agrarius (87.3%, n = 1,044), Mus musculus (5.4%, n = 65), Crocidura lasiura (3.3%, n = 40), Microtus fortis (2.6%, n = 31), Micromys minutus (0.3%, n = 4), Tscherskia triton (0.3%, n = 4), Rattus norvegicus (0.3%, n = 4), and Myodes regulus (0.3%, n = 4) were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi. O. tsutsugamushi antibodies were detected in 6 of 8 species and seroprevalence determined; A. agrarius (45.6%), M. musculus (23.1%), M. fortis (48.4%), M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (50.0%), and R. norvegicus (25.0%). A total of 31,184 chigger mites collected from 508 rodents and insectivores were slide-mounted and 10 species belonging to 4 genera were identified. Leptotrombidium pallidum (53.4%) was the most frequently collected, followed by L. palpale (15.7%), Neotrombicula tamiyai (14.3%), L. orientale (10.7%), L. zetum (3.1%), Walchia fragilis (2.1%), and L. gemiticulum (0.8%), while the remaining 3 species, L. subintermedium, N. gardellai, and Euschoengastia koreaensis were rarely observed (prevalence < 10%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4), L. orientale (45.0), and L. palpale (21.4), were observed during the spring season.

  6. Systematic revision of the family Hoplitomerycidae Leinders, 1984 (Artiodactyla: Cervoidea), with the description of a new genus and four new species.

    PubMed

    Van der Geer, Alexandra A E

    2014-08-06

    Six species of the cervoid genus Hoplitomeryx are currently recognized from the Late Miocene sites of Gargano and Scontrone, in Italy: H. matthei Leinders, 1984, H. apruthiensis Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, H. apulicus Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, H. falcidens Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, H. magnus Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, and H. minutus Mazza & Rustioni, 2011. These species are interpreted as members of an anagenetic series in these two localities, which are considered as part of the same bioprovince but with different geological ages. Comparative analysis of postcranial, dental, and cranial material from Hoplitomerycidae resulted in the reinterpretation of this current taxonomic arrangement. Two distinct genera can be distinguished. The new genus Scontromeryx is restricted to Scontrone (Early Tortonian) and is characterised by the presence of second upper and lower premolars and the absence of a nasal (median) horn. Hoplitomeryx is restricted to Gargano (Middle and/or Late Tortonian), and is characterized by the loss of the second premolar and presence of a nasal horn. Both genera are characterized by orbital appendages in some species, but the morphology of these appendages differs between the genera. Six species can be recognized for Scontromeryx gen. n.: S. minutus (type species), S. falcidens, S. apulicus, S. apruthiensis, S. magnus (new combinations) and the newly described S. mazzai sp. n.. Hoplitomeryx is represented by the H. matthei (type species) and 3 newly described species H. devosi sp. n., H. macpheei sp. n. and H. kriegsmani sp. n.. These two multispecies assemblages are best explained as independent adaptive radiations with the two genera as sister taxa. There is no evidence that the two localities were connected during the Late Miocene.

  7. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioprospecting of microalgae: Proper extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric fingerprinting as key tools for successful metabolom characterization.

    PubMed

    Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Kastanek, Petr; Dzuman, Zbynek; Rubert, Josep; Godula, Michal; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-03-15

    Currently, the interest in microalgae as a source of biologically active components exploitable as supplementary ingredients to food/feed or in cosmetics continues to increase. Existing research mainly aims to focus on revealing and recovering the rare, cost competitive components of the algae metabolom. Because these components could be of very different physicochemical character, a universal approach for their isolation and characterization should be developed. This study demonstrates the systematic development of the extraction strategy that represents one of the key challenges in effective algae bioprospecting, which predefines their further industrial application. By using of Trachydiscus minutus as a model microalgae biomass, following procedures were tested and critically evaluated in order to develop the generic procedure for microalgae bioprospecting: (i) various ways of mechanical disintegration of algae cells enabling maximum extraction efficiency, (ii) the use of a wide range of extraction solvents/solvent mixtures suitable for optimal extraction yields of polar, medium-polar, and non-polar compounds, (iii) the use of consecutive extractions as a fractionation approach. Within the study, targeted screening of selected compounds representing broad range of polarities was realized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), to assess the effectiveness of undertaken isolation steps. As a result, simple and high-throughput extraction-fractionation strategy based on consecutive extraction with water-aqueous methanol-hexane/isopropanol was developed. Moreover, to demonstrate the potential of the UHPLC-HRMS/MS for the retrospective non-target screening and compounds identification, the collected mass spectra have been evaluated to characterize the pattern of extracted metabolites. Attention was focused on medium-/non-polar extracts and characterization of lipid species

  9. Multiple colonizations lead to cryptic biodiversity in an island ecosystem: comparative phylogeography of anchialine shrimp species in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Weese, David A; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Santos, Scott R

    2013-09-01

    Archipelagos of the Indo-West Pacific are considered to be among the richest in the world in biodiversity, and phylogeographic studies generally support either the center of origin or the center of accumulation hypothesis to explain this pattern. To differentiate between these competing hypotheses for organisms from the Indo-West Pacific anchialine ecosystem, defined as coastal bodies of mixohaline water fluctuating with the tides but having no direct oceanic connections, we investigated the genetic variation, population structure, and evolutionary history of three caridean shrimp species (Antecaridina lauensis, Halocaridinides trigonophthalma, and Metabetaeus minutus) in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. We used two mitochondrial genes--cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and large ribosomal subunit (16S-rDNA)--complemented with genetic examination of available specimens from the same or closely related species from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In the Ryukyus, each species encompassed 2-3 divergent (9.52%-19.2% COI p-distance) lineages, each having significant population structure and varying geographic distributions. Phylogenetically, the A. lauensis and M. minutus lineages in the Ryukyus were more closely related to ones from outside the archipelago than to one another. These results, when interpreted in the context of Pacific oceanographic currents and geologic history of the Ryukyus, imply multiple colonizations of the archipelago by the three species, consistent with the center of accumulation hypothesis. While this study contributes toward understanding the biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of organisms in the Ryukyus and the Indo-West Pacific, it also has potential utility in establishing conservation strategies for anchialine fauna of the Pacific Basin in general.

  10. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  11. Biting activity of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Turkey-Armenia border area, Ararat Valley, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aldemir, Adnan; Bedir, Hilal; Demirci, Berna; Alten, Bulent

    2010-01-01

    During nine consecutive nights in July 2007 (from 18:15-05:45 h), mosquitoes landing-biting on humans were collected outdoors and indoors at the Turkey-Armenia border. A total of 1005 females were collected consisting of nine species. The dominant species was Aedes dorsalis (Meigen) (47.5% of total catch), followed by Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas) (22.9%), Culex theileri (Theobald) (9.3%),Ae. vexans (Meigen) (6.6%), Ae. caspius (Pallas) (4.9%),Anopheles maculipennis s.l. (Meigen) (3.1%), Culex territans (Walker) (2.8%), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi) (1.6%), and Cx. pipiens L. (1.5%). The biting rate outdoors (15.1 mosquitoes/human/h) was greater than indoors (3.4 mosquitoes/human/h). The landing-biting of Ae. dorsalis peaked at dusk (19:15-19:45 h) and dawn (04:15-04:45 h). Ae. vexans activity increased soon after dark (20:15-20:45 h) and reached a peak at dawn (04:15-04:45 h). Maximum biting activity of An. hyrcanus and Cx. theileri occurred during the first sampling interval after dusk (20:15-20:45 h). A large number of An. maculipennis s.l. adults were collected during the second half of the night. We believe that these findings will contribute to decisions on the timing of mosquito control in Ararat Valley.

  12. The thermodynamic dissociation constants of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by the least-squares nonlinear regression of multiwavelength spectrophotometric pH-titration data.

    PubMed

    Meloun, Milan; Bordovská, Sylva; Galla, Lubomír

    2007-11-30

    The mixed dissociation constants of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen, diclofenac sodium, flurbiprofen and ketoprofen at various ionic strengths I of range 0.003-0.155, and at temperatures of 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C, were determined with the use of two different multiwavelength and multivariate treatments of spectral data, SPECFIT/32 and SQUAD(84) nonlinear regression analyses and INDICES factor analysis. The factor analysis in the INDICES program predicts the correct number of components, and even the presence of minor ones, when the data quality is high and the instrumental error is known. The thermodynamic dissociation constant pK(a)(T) was estimated by nonlinear regression of (pK(a), I) data at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Goodness-of-fit tests for various regression diagnostics enabled the reliability of the parameter estimates found to be proven. PALLAS, MARVIN, SPARC, ACD/pK(a) and Pharma Algorithms predict pK(a) being based on the structural formulae of drug compounds in agreement with the experimental value. The best agreement seems to be between the ACD/pK(a) program and experimentally found values and with SPARC. PALLAS and MARVIN predicted pK(a,pred) values with larger bias errors in comparison with the experimental value for all four drugs.

  13. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.1 The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).2 However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.3 The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF. PMID:26779514

  14. Myocoptid mites (Acariformes: Myocoptidae) of the fauna of the former USSR.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V

    2016-11-17

    Mites of the family Myocoptidae (Acariformes: Sarcoptoidea) of the former USSR are revised based on the collection of the Zoological Institute RAS (St. Petersburg, Russia). Seventeen described species are recorded. Four species are described as new for science: Trichoecius dubininae sp. nov. from Lasiopodomys gregalis (Pallas) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Russia (Chelyabinsk Prov., type locality), Kazakhstan and Kirghizia, T. lemmus sp. nov. from Lemmus sibiricus (Kerr) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from Russia (Taymyr peninsula), T. meriones sp. nov. from Meriones meridianus (Pallas) (Rodentia: Muridae) from Turkmenia, and Myocoptes meriones sp. nov. from Meriones tamariscinus (type host) from Kirghizia (type locality) and Meriones libycus (Lichtenstein) from Tajikistan. In addition, the presence of 7 more species in the fauna of the former USSR is considered highly probable. Myocoptids of the former USSR represent all 6 genera currently recognized in the family. Keys to species, their hosts and localities are provided and all data are summarized in tabular format. A new name Apocalyptoides nom. nov. is proposed for the preoccupied generic name Apocalypsis Bochkov, 2010 not Butler (1876).

  15. Super-cooled liquid water topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation - investigation based on combination of ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsikko, Anne; Brus, David; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Filioglou, Maria; Komppula, Mika; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2017-04-01

    In the high and mid latitudes super-cooled liquid water layers are frequently observed on top of clouds. These layers are difficult to forecast with numerical weather prediction models, even though, they have strong influence on atmospheric radiative properties, cloud microphysical properties, and subsequently, precipitation. This work investigates properties of super-cooled liquid water layer topped sub-arctic clouds and precipitation observed with ground-based in-situ (cloud probes) and remote-sensing (a cloud radar, Doppler and multi-wavelength lidars) instrumentation during two-month long Pallas Cloud Experiment (PaCE 2015) in autumn 2015. Analysis is based on standard Cloudnet scheme supplemented with new retrieval products of the specific clouds and their properties. Combination of two scales of observation provides new information on properties of clouds and precipitation in the sub-arctic Pallas region. Current status of results will be presented during the conference. The authors acknowledge financial support by the Academy of Finland (Centre of Excellence Programme, grant no 272041; and ICINA project, grant no 285068), the ACTRIS2 - European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654109, the KONE foundation, and the EU FP7 project BACCHUS (grant no 603445).

  16. Horse-, bird-, and human-seeking behavior and seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in a West Nile virus focus of southern France.

    PubMed

    Balenghien, T; Fouque, F; Sabatier, P; Bicout, D J

    2006-09-01

    After 35 yr of disease absence, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) circulation has been regularly detected in the Camargue region (southern France) since 2000. WNV was isolated from Culex modestus Ficalbi, which was considered the main vector in southern France after horse outbreaks in the 1960s. Recent WNV transmissions outside of the Cx. modestus distribution suggested the existence of other vectors. To study potential WNV vectors, horse- and bird-baited traps and human landing collections of mosquitoes were carried out weekly from May to October 2004 at two Camargue sites: one site in a wet area and the other site in a dry area, both chosen for their past history of WNV transmission. At the wet site, the most abundant species in bird-baited traps were Culex pipiens L. and Cx. modestus; both species also were found in lower proportions on horses and humans. The most abundant species in horse-baited traps and human landing collections were Aedes caspius (Pallas), Aedes vexans (Meigen), and Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas) sensu lato; some of these species were occasionally collected with avian blood at the end of the summer. Anopheles maculipennis Meigen sensu lato was an abundant horse feeder, but it was rarely collected landing on human bait and never contained avian blood. At the dry site, Cx. pipiens was the most abundant species in bird- and horse-baited traps. The seasonal and circadian dynamics of these species are analyzed, and their potential in WNV transmission in Camargue discussed.

  17. Population dynamics of pest mosquitoes and potential malaria and West Nile virus vectors in relation to climatic factors and human activities in the Camargue, France.

    PubMed

    Ponçon, N; Toty, C; L'ambert, G; le Goff, G; Brengues, C; Schaffner, F; Fontenille, D

    2007-12-01

    The Camargue is an extensive wetland in the southeast of France, which is highly influenced by human activities. Large ponds, marshes and irrigated fields provide abundant potential breeding sites for mosquitoes. mosquitoes, which are important in terms of the nuisance they cause to people and animals, the limitations they impose on tourism and their potential threat to human health. Several of the mosquito species present are potential vectors of malaria and West Nile virus. Therefore, the population dynamics of these species were monitored over an entire breeding season during March-October 2005. Mosquito populations were sampled in two study areas once every 2 weeks, using CDC light traps baited with CO(2). Sixteen species were collected. The majority (98.7%) of the catch were Aedes caspius (Pallas) (Diptera: Culicidae), Culex modestus (Ficalbi), Culex pipiens L. and Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas). The population dynamics of these species varied considerably in relation to the species' biology, climatic conditions (rainfall, temperature and season), water management, implementation of mosquito control campaigns and landscape use.

  18. Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national capital territory, India (2000-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun

    2011-12-01

    River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), commonly called Delhi (India), has been subjected to immense degradation and pollution due to the huge amount of domestic wastewater entering the river. Despite the persistent efforts in the form of the Yamuna Action Plan phase I and II (YAP) (since 1993 to date), the river quality in NCT has not improved. The restoration of river water quality has been a major challenge to the environmental managers. In the present paper, water quality index (WQI) was estimated for the River Yamuna within the NCT to study the aftereffects of the projects implemented during YAP I and II. The study was directed toward the use of WQI to describe the level of pollution in the river for a period of 10 years (2000-2009). The study also identifies the critical pollutants affecting the river water quality during its course through the city. The indices have been computed for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season at four locations, namely Palla, ODRB, Nizamuddin and Okhla in the river. It was found that the water quality ranged from good to marginal category at Palla and fell under poor category at all other locations. BOD, DO, total and fecal coliforms and free ammonia were found to be critical parameters for the stretch.

  19. Seroprevalence and Genomic Divergence of Circulating Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae Species†

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today. PMID:15956574

  20. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  1. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.(1) The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).(2) However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.(3) The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF.

  2. On the infant weight loss of low- to intermediate-mass star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2007-04-01

    Star clusters are born in a highly compact configuration, typically with radii of less than about 1 pc roughly independently of mass. Since the star formation efficiency is less than 50 per cent by observation and because the residual gas is removed from the embedded cluster, the cluster must expand. In the process of doing so it only retains a fraction fst of its stars. To date there are no observational constraints for fst, although N-body calculations by Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley suggest it to be about 20-30 per cent for Orion-type clusters. Here we use the data compiled by Testi et al., Testi, Palla & Natta and Testi, Palla & Natta for clusters around young Ae/Be stars and by de Wit et al. and de Wit et al. around young O stars and the study of de Zeeuw et al. of OB associations and combine these measurements with the expected number of stars in clusters with primary Ae/Be and O stars, respectively, using the empirical correlation between maximal stellar mass and star cluster mass of Weidner & Kroupa. We find that fst < 50 per cent with a decrease to higher cluster masses/more massive primaries. The interpretation would be that cluster formation is very disruptive. It appears that clusters with a birth stellar mass in the range 10-103Msolar keep at most 50 per cent of their stars.

  3. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  4. [Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera: Streblidae) of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil: infestation rates and the host-parasite association].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ciro L C; Dias, Paulo A; Rodrigues, Fernanda S; Lobato, Keliane S; Rosa, Luciana C; Oliveira, Tadeu G; Rebêlo, José M M

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the first records of the parasitism rates of the association among ectoparasitic flies of the family Streblidae found in phyllostomid bats in the state of Maranhão. Specimens were collected in patches of secondary forest and borders of mangrove in the village of Quebra Pote, located in the south portion of the island of São Luís. A total of 201 flies of 15 species and eight genera [Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, A. phyllostomatis (Perty), Mastoptera minuta Costa Lima, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Séguy), Speiseria ambigua Kessel, Stizostrebla longirotris Jobling, Strebla guajiro (García & Casal), S. hertigi Wenzel, Trichobioides perspicillatus (Pessôa & Galvão), Trichobius costalimai Guimarães, T. dugesii Townsend, T. dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, T. joblingi Wenzel and T. longipes (Rudow)] were collected from 50 individuals of nine species of phyllostomid bats [Artibeus lituratus (Olfers), A. obscurus Schinz, Carollia perspicillata L., Glossophaga soricina Pallas, Lophostoma carrikeri J A Allen, Micronycteris minuta Gervais, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, P.hastatus Pallas and Sturnira lilium E Geoffroy)]. Mastoptera minuta, T. costalimai, T. longipes, A. falcata and S. longirostris, were the most frequently found ectoparasites, present in at least 50% of the infected bats. Two species of bats, C. perspicillata e P. discolor, showed the highest richness of ectoparasites, with four species of flies each, and an infection rate of 46% and 100%, respectively.

  5. You eat what you are: personality-dependent filial cannibalism in a fish with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Martin; Grom, Christina; Kalb, Nadine; Sprenger, Dennis; Anthes, Nils; Lindström, Kai; Heubel, Katja U

    2016-03-01

    Many animal parents invest heavily to ensure offspring survival, yet some eventually consume some or all of their very own young. This so-called filial cannibalism is known from a wide range of taxa, but its adaptive benefit remains largely unclear. The extent to which parents cannibalize their broods varies substantially not only between species, but also between individuals, indicating that intrinsic behavioral differences, or animal personalities, might constitute a relevant proximate trigger for filial cannibalism. Using a marine fish with extensive paternal care, the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), we investigated the influence of animal personality on filial cannibalism by assessing (1) behavioral consistency across a breeding and a nonbreeding context; (2) correlations between different breeding (egg fanning; filial cannibalism) and nonbreeding (activity) behaviors, and, in a separate experiment; (3) whether previously established personality scores affect filial cannibalism levels. We found consistent individual differences in activity across contexts. Partial filial cannibalism was independent of egg fanning but correlated strongly with activity, where active males cannibalized more eggs than less active males. This pattern was strong initially but vanished as the breeding season progressed. The incidence of whole clutch filial cannibalism increased with activity and clutch size. Our findings indicate that filial cannibalism cannot generally be adjusted independently of male personality and is thus phenotypically less plastic than typically assumed. The present work stresses the multidimensional interaction between animal personality, individual plasticity and the environment in shaping filial cannibalism.

  6. Isotopes reveal fluctuation in trophic levels of estuarine organisms, in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Salgado, J. P.; Mendonça, V.; Cabral, H.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The estimation of the trophic level (TL) occupied by organisms in estuarine food webs, based on isotopic analysis, is generally done only for one season or averaged among seasons and sites. This does not allow the observation of possible alterations of TL in time and space. As estuaries are highly dynamic environments, it is plausible that the TLs of many of its organisms are not static, like usually portrayed in food web diagrams, but fluctuate in space and time. The TLs of marine juvenile fish, resident fish, shrimp, polychaetes, bivalves and amphipods were determined isotopically, in the Tagus estuary. Sampling was carried out in two nursery areas at each season. Significant changes in TL were observed, in space and time, for the vast majority of the organisms. A drop in TL in summer was observed for various species. The high availability of microalgae and macroalgae in summer may be the cause for this drop, which mainly affects low TL omnivores. These omnivores may opportunistically increase the proportion of primary producers in their diet, thus lowering their mean TL. Such an effect seems to cascade to secondary consumers, like Solea senegalensis and Pomatoschistus microps, which also presented a drop in TL in summer. This study also revealed that organisms that have been considered to be mainly primary consumers, like Liza ramada, and Scrobicularia plana, can actually assume considerably higher TLs seasonally, placing them as secondary consumers.

  7. Seasonal changes in community composition and trophic structure of fish populations of five salt marshes along the Essex coastline, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Benjamin C.; Smith, David J.; Earley, Sarah E.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Underwood, Graham J. C.

    2009-11-01

    European intertidal salt marshes are important nursery sites for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Due to the increasing threat of habitat loss, the seasonal changes of salt marsh fish communities need to be understood in order to appreciate the ecological and economic importance of the saltmarsh habitat. This study was the first in Great Britain to investigate the seasonal changes of salt marsh fish communities and the variation in community structure between closely located marsh habitats. Between February 2007 and March 2008, five marshes on three estuaries of the Essex coastline were sampled using flume nets to block off intertidal creeks at high tide. Fourteen fish species were caught. The community overall was dominated by three species that made up 91.6% of the total catch: the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (46.2% of the total catch), juvenile herring Clupea harengus (24.3%), and juvenile and larval sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (21.2%). Cluster analysis demonstrated clear seasonal patterns, with some community structures unique to specific marshes or estuaries. The marsh fish community shifts from a highly diverse community during spring, to a community dominated by D. labrax and P. microps in autumn, and low diversity during winter months. Gravimetric stomach content analysis of fish community identified three main trophic guilds; macroinvertivores, planktivores and omnivores. The macroinvertivore feeding guild contained D. labrax and P. microps, the two most frequently occurring species. This investigation demonstrates the importance of British salt marshes as nursery habitats for commercial fish species.

  8. Nursery function of an estuarine tidal marsh for the brown shrimp Crangon crangon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattrijsse, André; Dankwa, Hederick R.; Mees, Jan

    1997-12-01

    The brown shrimp Crangon crangon migrates into the brackish part of the Westerschelde estuary (southwest Netherlands) shortly after metamorphosis and uses the tidal marsh habitat as a nursery until reaching a total length of about 15 mm. The importance of the marsh as a nursery was evaluated by estimating foraging activity, predation mortality and residence time. In early postlarval stages, C. crangon utilised the intertidal creeks of an estuarine tidal marsh from early spring (March-April) until late autumn (October-November). Postlarval shrimp leaving the marsh with the ebb tide always had significantly more food in their stomachs than shrimp entering the marsh with the incoming flood water. Predation upon the shrimp population was relatively low during most months, but in increased between August and October when common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, were present in high densities. There was also predation by the small seabass Dicentrarchus labrax. The marsh creeks function both as foraging areas and as predation refuge. Depending on temperature, postlarval shrimp stayed in the marsh for a period of two to three weeks. Quantitatively, the value of the marsh as a nursery area had changed drastically during a second year of sampling, illustrating high natural year-to-year variability. However, the seasonal pattern remained. Recruitment to the subtidal adult population represents an export of animals from the marsh to the estuary. This export is negligible in terms of biomass (as compared to the total biomass of the estuarine population) but it may be important in terms of numbers of individuals.

  9. Changes in benthic fish assemblages as a consequence of coastal works in a coastal lagoon: The Mar Menor (Spain, Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruzafa, A; García-Charton, J A; Barcala, E; Marcos, C

    2006-01-01

    The benthic fish assemblage of the Mar Menor consisted of 37 species. Dominant species are: Gobius cobitis, Lipophrys pavo and Tripterygion tripteronotus on infralittoral rocks; Pomatoschistus marmoratus, Callionymus pussillus, Callionymus risso and Solea vulgaris on sandy bottoms and Gobius niger, Syngnathus abaster, Hippocampus ramulosus and Symphodus cinereus on Cymodocea nodosa-Caulerpa prolifera mixed beds. From 1985 to 1989 tourist development has led to the creation of new beaches and the installation of artificial rocky structures for retaining sediments. Dredging for the extraction of sand and subsequent pumping altered sediment characteristics causing a real stress leading to the substitution of typical sandy bottoms communities with Cymodocea nodosa by Caulerpa prolifera communities on mud. Soft bottom fish assemblages responded to changes in vegetation cover and substratum characteristics mainly changing the species composition, while artificial hard substrata contain a similar fish community than natural ones, harbouring even richer and more diverse assemblages. This positive effect of breakwaters should not obscure their likely negative effects on hydrodynamics and the subsequent changes of sediment quality and vegetation cover on the breakwaters' area of influence.

  10. Painted Goby Larvae under High-CO2 Fail to Recognize Reef Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Joana M.; Amorim, M. Clara P.; Oliveira, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Emanuel J.; Munday, Philip L.; Simpson, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 levels have been increasing at an unprecedented rate due to anthropogenic activity. Consequently, ocean pCO2 is increasing and pH decreasing, affecting marine life, including fish. For many coastal marine fishes, selection of the adult habitat occurs at the end of the pelagic larval phase. Fish larvae use a range of sensory cues, including sound, for locating settlement habitat. This study tested the effect of elevated CO2 on the ability of settlement-stage temperate fish to use auditory cues from adult coastal reef habitats. Wild late larval stages of painted goby (Pomatoschistus pictus) were exposed to control pCO2 (532 μatm, pH 8.06) and high pCO2 (1503 μatm, pH 7.66) conditions, likely to occur in nearshore regions subjected to upwelling events by the end of the century, and tested in an auditory choice chamber for their preference or avoidance to nighttime reef recordings. Fish reared in control pCO2 conditions discriminated reef soundscapes and were attracted by reef recordings. This behaviour changed in fish reared in the high CO2 conditions, with settlement-stage larvae strongly avoiding reef recordings. This study provides evidence that ocean acidification might affect the auditory responses of larval stages of temperate reef fish species, with potentially significant impacts on their survival. PMID:28125690

  11. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Broälven estuary on the Swedish west coast (58°22'N, 11°29'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  12. Dual impact of temperature on growth and mortality of marine fish larvae in a shallow estuarine habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arula, Timo; Laur, Kerli; Simm, Mart; Ojaveer, Henn

    2015-12-01

    High individual growth and mortality rates of herring Clupea harengus membras and goby Pomatoschistus spp. larvae were observed in the estuarine habitat of the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea. Both instantaneous mortality (0.76-1.05) as well as growth rate (0.41-0.82 mm day-1) of larval herring were amongst highest observed elsewhere previously. Mortality rates of goby larvae were also high (0.57-1.05), while first ever data on growth rates were provided in this study (0.23-0.35 mm day-1). Our study also evidenced that higher growth rate of marine fish larvae did not result in lower mortalities. We suggest that high growth and mortality rates primarily resulted from a rapidly increasing and high (>18 °C) water temperature that masked potential food-web effects. The explanation for observed patterns lies in the interactive manner temperature contributed: i) facilitating prey production, which supported high growth rate and decreased mortalities; ii) exceeding physiological thermal optimum of larvae, which resulted in decreased growth rate and generally high mortalities. Our investigation suggests that the projected climate warming may have significant effect on early life history stages of the dominating marine fish species inhabiting shallow estuaries.

  13. Use of different intertidal habitats by faunal communities in a temperate coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Cheila; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Marco; Bentes, Luís; Monteiro, Pedro; Ribeiro, Joaquim; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2008-11-01

    The faunal communities of four intertidal habitats namely sand, mud, seagrass ( Zostera noltii) and seagrass patches (mixSM) of a temperate coastal lagoon, Ria Formosa (southern Portugal), were sampled. A total of 47 species were taken in 428 bottomless drop sampler samples, with the highest number of species and the more commonly occurring species belonging to the Mollusca phylum. The dominance of these gastropod species underlines the importance of the grazing food chain in these habitats. Bittium reticulatum was the most abundant species, being especially abundant in the seagrass habitat. The most frequent and highest biomass species in the community was Carcinus maenas, a predator that makes use of the available resources and that is adapted to the highly variable intertidal environment. Pomatoschistus microps was the most abundant fish species, with highest densities in the mud habitat, which demonstrates an ability to occupy a low depth area. The seagrass habitat had the highest diversity, abundance and biomass, followed by the mixSM habitat and was different from all the others. Assemblages were highly influenced by the presence of vegetation, providing forage and refuge from predation. A well defined summer group was identified in all habitats. These results highlight the importance of seagrass beds and the idea that their decrease implies the decrease of lagoon production through the impoverishment of the trophic structure of the lagoon.

  14. Painted Goby Larvae under High-CO2 Fail to Recognize Reef Sounds.

    PubMed

    Castro, Joana M; Amorim, M Clara P; Oliveira, Ana P; Gonçalves, Emanuel J; Munday, Philip L; Simpson, Stephen D; Faria, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 levels have been increasing at an unprecedented rate due to anthropogenic activity. Consequently, ocean pCO2 is increasing and pH decreasing, affecting marine life, including fish. For many coastal marine fishes, selection of the adult habitat occurs at the end of the pelagic larval phase. Fish larvae use a range of sensory cues, including sound, for locating settlement habitat. This study tested the effect of elevated CO2 on the ability of settlement-stage temperate fish to use auditory cues from adult coastal reef habitats. Wild late larval stages of painted goby (Pomatoschistus pictus) were exposed to control pCO2 (532 μatm, pH 8.06) and high pCO2 (1503 μatm, pH 7.66) conditions, likely to occur in nearshore regions subjected to upwelling events by the end of the century, and tested in an auditory choice chamber for their preference or avoidance to nighttime reef recordings. Fish reared in control pCO2 conditions discriminated reef soundscapes and were attracted by reef recordings. This behaviour changed in fish reared in the high CO2 conditions, with settlement-stage larvae strongly avoiding reef recordings. This study provides evidence that ocean acidification might affect the auditory responses of larval stages of temperate reef fish species, with potentially significant impacts on their survival.

  15. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  16. Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Peter

    1998-06-01

    The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

  17. Hormonal regulation of colour change in eyes of a cryptic fish.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Yngsell, Daniel; Mubashishir, Muhmd; Wallin, Margareta

    2015-01-16

    Colour change of the skin in lower vertebrates such as fish has been a subject of great scientific and public interest. However, colour change also takes place in eyes of fish and while an increasing amount of data indicates its importance in behaviour, very little is known about its regulation. Here, we report that both eye and skin coloration change in response to white to black background adaptation in live sand goby Pomatoschistus minutes, a bentic marine fish. Through in vitro experiments, we show that noradrenaline and melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCH) treatments cause aggregation of pigment organelles in the eye chromatophores. Daylight had no aggregating effect. Combining forskolin to elevate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with MCH resulted in complete pigment dispersal and darkening of the eyes, whereas combining prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) with MCH resulted in more yellow and red eyes. ACTH and MSH also induced dispersal in the melanophores, resulting in overall darker eyes. By comparing analysis of eyes, skin and peritoneum, we conclude that the regulation pattern is similar between these different tissues in this species which is relevant for the cryptic life strategy of this species. With the exception of ACTH which resulted in most prominent melanophore pigment dispersal in the eyes, all other treatments provided similar results between tissue types. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has directly analysed hormonal regulation of physiological colour change in eyes of fish.

  18. Impact of climate variability on ichthyoplankton communities: An example of a small temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo, Ana Lígia; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Marques, Sónia Cotrim; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2011-03-01

    Recent variations in the precipitation regime across southern Europe have led to changes in river fluxes and salinity gradients affecting biological communities in most rivers and estuaries. A sampling programme was developed in the Mondego estuary, Portugal, from January 2003 to December 2008 at five distinct sampling stations to evaluate spatial, seasonal and inter-annual distributions of fish larvae. Gobiidae was the most abundant family representing 80% of total catch and Pomatoschistus spp. was the most important taxon. The fish larval community presented a clear seasonality with higher abundances and diversities during spring and summer seasons. Multivariate analysis reinforced differences among seasons but not between years or sampling stations. The taxa Atherina presbyter, Solea solea, Syngnathus abaster, Crystallogobius linearis and Platichthys flesus were more abundant during spring/summer period while Ammodytes tobianus, Callionymus sp., Echiichthys vipera and Liza ramada were more abundant in autumn/winter. Temperature, chlorophyll a and river flow were the main variation drivers observed although extreme drought events (year 2005) seemed not to affect ichthyoplankton community structure. Main changes were related to a spatial displacement of salinity gradient along the estuarine system which produced changes in marine species distribution.

  19. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  20. Epibenthic colonization of concrete and steel pilings in a cold-temperate embayment: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mathias H.; Berggren, Matz; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Öhman, Marcus C.

    2009-09-01

    With large-scale development of offshore wind farms, vertical structures are becoming more common in open water areas. To examine how vertical structures of different materials may be colonized by epibenthic organisms, an experiment was carried out using steel and concrete pilings constructed to resemble those commonly used in wind farm constructions as well as in bridges, jetties and oil platforms. The early recruitment and succession of the epibenthic communities were sampled once a month for the first 5 months and then again after 1 year. Further, the fish assemblages associated with the pillars were sampled and compared to natural areas. The main epibenthic species groups, in terms of coverage, differed between the two materials at five out of six sampling occasions. Dominant organisms on steel pillars were the barnacle Balanus improvisus, the calcareous tubeworm Pomatoceros triqueter and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. On the concrete pillars, the hydroid Laomedea sp. and the tunicates Corella parallelogramma and Ascidiella spp. dominated. However, there was no different in coverage at different heights on the pillars or in biomass and species abundance at different directions (north-east or south-west) 5 months after submergence. Fish showed overall higher abundances and species numbers on the pillars (but no difference between steel and concrete) compared to the surrounding soft bottom habitats but not compared to natural vertical rock walls. Two species were attracted to the pillars, indicating a reef effect; Gobiusculus flavescens and Ctenolabrus rupestris. The bottom-dwelling gobies, Pomatoschistus spp., did not show such preferences.

  1. Tidal, diel and semi-lunar changes in the faunal assemblage of an intertidal salt marsh creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Henrietta; Cattrijsse, Andre; Vincx, Magda

    2003-03-01

    The utilisation of a brackish estuarine marsh by nekton was investigated over a semi-lunar cycle in August 1994. Nekton migrating in and out of the intertidal creeks of the marsh 'Het Verdronken Land van Saeftinghe' in the Westerschelde estuary, SW Netherlands, was sampled passively during seven complete tidal cycles. Sampling one tidal cycle yielded three consecutive flood samples and four consecutive ebb samples. Sampling occurred every 2-3 days, covering diel, tidal and semi-lunar situations, thus allowing comparison of tidal, diel and semi-lunar influences on the composition of the intertidal fauna. Two different tidal-migration modes were observed. The mysid shrimp, Mesopodopsis slabberi, showed maximum abundance around high tide. For the remaining common species, the mysid ( Neomysis integer), the shrimp ( Palaemonetes varians), the crab ( Carcinus maenas) and the goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) and the amphipod ( Corophium volutator), highest densities were recorded during lower water heights. The faunal assemblage shifts between the different tidal stages. On two occasions, consecutive day and night samples were taken. Total densities were higher during the night samples. During spring tide, difference in community composition was noticed between the night and the day samples. During neap tide, day-night differences were less clear. Recorded total densities were highest during spring tide and lowest during neap tide. At maximum water levels, a drop in total density was observed. A shift in community composition occurred between spring and neap tides.

  2. Fish mortality by impingement on the cooling-water intake screens of Britain's largest direct-cooled power station.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M F D

    2008-04-01

    An estimated 5.66 x 10(7) fish (summed quarterly 95% confidence intervals: 3.01 x 10(7)-1.07 x 10(8)) weighing 258.4 t (143.2-467.9 t) were killed on the cooling-water intake screens of the 2400 MW Longannet Power Station (Forth estuary) in January 1999--December 2000. Abundance and number of species (40) collected were close to predictions for a power station of this size and latitude. Potential losses of equivalent adult whiting (Merlangius merlangus), cod (Gadus morhua), and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) through deaths of juveniles were estimated at 353.1 t (208.0-603.2 t) worth approximately euro 429,266 (euro 246,592-752,765) in 1999--2000. Fish catch-per-trawl in the estuary was generally not noticeably greater during a year of low water withdrawal (coal miners' strike of 1984--1985) when compared to other years from 1982 to 2001, except for gobies (Pomatoschistus spp.). A fish-return system is being tested at Longannet to reduce mortality.

  3. Modeling fish biological responses to contaminants and natural variability in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, V F; Vasconcelos, R P; França, S; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Company, R; Bebianno, M J; Costa, M J; Cabral, H N

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence biological responses to contaminants has long been a major goal in marine environmental research. Seven estuarine sites along the Portuguese coast were sampled over a year, and different biological responses of Pomatoschistus microps and Atherina presbyter were determined: superoxide dismutase, catalase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation, RNA:DNA ratio and condition factor K. Generalized linear models (GLM) were developed for each biological variable per species in relation to sediment chemical characterization (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration) and environmental conditions (month, site, water temperature, salinity, depth and mud percentage in the sediment). GLM varied in explanatory power and in the set of predictor variables included in the models. Environmental factors were frequently selected as predictor variables. Individual metals concentration and sediment quality guidelines (integrating all metals) were the major contaminants explaining biological variability. Accordingly, models for metallothioneins and lipid peroxidation had highest explanatory power. Species-specific responses and dataset size were the basis of observed differences between GLM for the two species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild.

    PubMed

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; McCracken, Carrie L; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue; Roelke, Melody; Sondgeroth, Kerry; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-02-05

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp) from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp) isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to the advancement of comparative

  5. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Pecon-Slattery, Jill; McCracken, Carrie L; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue; Roelke, Melody; Sondgeroth, Kerry; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp) from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp) isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to

  6. Differential Sensitivity of a Coccal Green Algal and a Cyanobacterial Species to Dissolved Natural Organic Matter (NOM) (8 pp).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Almut

    2007-01-01

    and Aim. In non-eutrophicated freshwaters, humic substances (HS) pose chemical stresses on aquatic organisms and, hence, separating sensitive from less sensitive or even tolerant species. One of the stresses, identified so far, is the reduction of photosynthetic oxygen production and reduction in growth in freshwater macrophytes and algae. In a previous paper, it has been shown that even closely related coccal green algae responded differently upon identical stress by HS, which is consistent with the hypothesis above. Due to their much simpler cellular ultrastructure, cyanobacteria are supposed to be more sensitive to HS exposure than eukaryote should be. One coccal green algal species (Desmodesmus communis) and one cyanobacterium (Chroococcus minutus) were exposed to four natural organic matter (NOM) isolates. One NOM has been isolated from a brown water lake (Schwarzer See) in Brandenburg State; three were obtained from a comprehensive Scandinavian NOM research project and originated from Norway (Birkenes), Finland (Hietajärvi), and Sweden (Svartberget). Cultures of D. communis and C. minutus were obtained from the Culture Collection of Algae, Göttingen, and maintained in a common medium. The cultures were non-axenic. The algae and cyanobacteria were exposed under identical conditions to environmentally realistic NOM concentrations. Cell numbers were counted microscopically in Neugebauer cuvettes in triplicates. To avoid limitation by nutrient depletion, the experiments were terminated after 14 to 15 days. Until culture day 12, no growth limitation has been observed in the controls. All NOM isolates modulated the growth of the algae and cyanobacteria. During the early culture days, there was a slight growth promotion with the coccal green alga and to a much lesser degree with the cyanobacterium. Yet, the major effect were significant reductions in cell yield in both primary producer cultures. C. minutus was much more affected than D. communis. This applies

  7. Isolation of Tahyna Virus (California Encephalitis Group) From Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae), a Mosquito Species New to, and Expanding in, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hubalek, Z; Sebesta, O; Pesko, J; Betasova, L; Blazejova, H; Venclikova, K; Rudolf, I

    2014-11-01

    Two strains of Tahyna virus (TAHV; Orthobunyavirus, Bunyaviridae) were isolated from 4,568 (92 pools) female Anopheles hyrcanus Pallas (Diptera, Culicidae) mosquitoes collected on the fishponds in South Moravia (Czechland, central Europe) during July-August 2013. This is the first isolation of TAHV from An. hyrcanus in Europe. An. hyrcanus is a species new to Czechland since 2007; its population density was very high in the year 2013 at these ponds. The virus isolation procedure was based on intracerebral inoculation of newborn mice; moreover, the positive pools were also tested by polymerase chain reaction and found to contain TAHV RNA. An. hyrcanus, feeding preferentially on mammals including humans, may be a new potential vector for TAHV in Europe. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. [MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE LIVER IN COMMON VOLES INHABITING THE TERRITORY OF BORODINO COAL DEPOSITS AND RECULTIVATION AREAS].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, Ye A; Savchenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphological changes of liver in common voles (Microtus arvalis Pallas) inhabiting the territories of brown coal deposition in Borodino coal opencast (Krasnoyarsk region) and on reclaimed dumps 10 and 20 years after its production. Trapping of the voles (10 animals in each group) living under natural conditions on each territory, was conducted for 30 days. Histological examination of the liver in all animals demonstrated degenerative changes and necrosis of hepatocytes, expressed to a various degree. Morphometric study has shown that the greatest changes in the structure of hepatic stroma and parenchyma took place in voles that lived in the dumps of coal, reclaimed 10 years before. It was found that in the animals of this group, the thickness of hepatocyte plates was increased 1.3 times, while the specific volume of necrotic hepatocytes was twice as much as this parameter in the animals that lived on intact territory.

  9. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-07-01

    Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  10. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  11. The composition of Phobos - Evidence for carbonaceous chondrite surface from spectral analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, K. D.; Pollack, J. B.; Veverka, J.; Lane, A. L.; Ajello, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with a need for more definitive information concerning the composition of Phobos in a study of its origin, an ultraviolet-visible-infrared reflectance spectrum of the Martian satellite was compiled from the Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer, Viking lander imaging, and ground-based photometric data. The probable surface composition of Phobos was deduced by comparing the obtained spectrum with the spectra of asteroids of known composition. The considered data show that the reflectivity of Phobos is flat from 1100 to 400 nm but decreases sharply in the ultraviolet to about 1 percent at 212 nm. The reflectance spectrum is similar to the spectra of asteroids Ceres and Pallas which were found to have surface compositions similar to that of carbonaceous chondrites. It is concluded that the surface composition of Phobos is also similar to that of carbonaceous chondrites. The results of the investigation point to different modes of origin for Mars and Phobos.

  12. The pseudometeorite Angara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Holger

    2013-06-01

    Several pallasites are known to have formed strewn fields with multiple fragments. Therefore, it seems possible that the famous Krasnojarsk pallasite—the Pallas Iron of 687 kg—could have been accompanied by one or more additional fragments that had not been recovered due to incomplete observations from the overgrown and remote place of fall. During a survey for literature accounts of distant fragments in such a hypothetical strewn field, a report of native iron was found, dating to 1847. The fragments of nickel-free iron—amounting to at least a few kg—had been recovered 1836-1843 during placer gold mining north of the Angara River. The position of these finds is coincident with Burovaya, Murozhna, and Uderei, the three known fragments of the pseudometeorite Angara, all collected in 1885.

  13. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Radar investigations were conducted of selected minor planets, including: (1) observations during 1981-82 of 10 potential targets (2 Pallas, 8 Flora, 12 Victoria, 15 Eunomia, 19 Fortuna, 22 Kalliope, 132 Aethra, 219 Thusnelda, 433 Eros, and 2100 Ra-Shalom); and (2) continued analyses of observational data obtained during 1980-81 for 10 other asteroids (4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 75 Eurydike, 97 Klotho, 216 Kleopatra, 1685 Toro, 1862 Apollo, 1865 Cerberus, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl). Scientific objectives include estimation of echo strength, polarization, spectral shape, spectral bandwidth, and Doppler shift. These measurements: (1) yield estimates of target size, shape, and spin vector; (2) place constraints on topography, morphology, and composition of the planetary surface; (3) yield refined estimates of target orbital parameters; (4) reveal the presence of asteroidal satellites.

  14. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  15. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  16. New record of Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) collected from Siberian roe deer on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Lee, Sang; Moon, Kyoung-Ha; Kang, Chang-Wan; Yun, Young-Min

    2013-09-01

    Lipoptena deer keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals, and only one species, Lipoptena cervi (L.), has previously been reported from the Republic of Korea. A study of Siberian roe deer Capreolus pygargus Pallas on Jeju Island, south of the Korean mainland, led to the discovery of a second species of deer ked, Lipoptena fortisetosa Maa, for Korea. In total, 518 deer keds were collected from 19 adult and juvenile deer examined from May to October 2012. The infestation of all of the deer examined and the occurrence on newly born deer suggest a high prevalence and abundance of L. fortisetosa parasitizing Siberian roe deer throughout Jeju Island. This deer represents a new host species for L. fortisetosa.

  17. Culiseta subochrea as a bioindicator of metal contamination in Shadegan International Wetland, Iran (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nasirian, Hassan; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Taghi Sadeghi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2014-01-01

    The quantity of some trace metals of mosquito larvae in Shadegan International Wetland from Iran was evaluated. Water, waterbed sediment, and mosquito larvae samplings were carried out from an urban site in the east of the wetland, using standard methods in December 2011. The identified Culiseta subochrea (Edwards) and Aedes caspius s.l. (Pallas) larvae, water, and waterbed sediment samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Zn trace metals using standard preparation and isolation procedure. Result showed that the waterbed sediment and Cu. subochrea larvae are polluted with all trace metals investigated except As and Hg. The trace metals bioaccumulated in the Cu. subochrea larvae range from 31.78 at the lowest level for Cr to 3822.7 at the highest level for Cd. In a conclusion, this is the first report confirmed that Cu. subochrea likely used as a bioindicator to trace metal pollution in marine ecosystems in the world, especially wetlands.

  18. Ecological analyses of the intestinal helminth communities of the wolf, Canis lupus, in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Juan-Matías; Guerrero, Ricardo; Torres, Jordi; Miquel, Jordi; Feliu, Carlos

    2003-09-01

    This work describes the ecological characteristics of the intestinal helminth communities of 50 wolves (Canis lupus L.) from Spain. The species found were classified into three groups according to prevalence, intensity and intestinal distribution. Taenia hydatigena Pallas, 1766 and Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884) are the core species of the community. Taenia multiceps (Leske, 1780) is a secondary species. The rest of the species, Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782), Taenia serialis (Gervais, 1847). Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780), Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758), Mesocestoides sp. aff. litteratus, Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902), Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859) and Trichuris vulpis (Froelich, 1789), behave as satellite species. The linear intestinal distribution of all helminth species was analysed. The location of most species can be considered predictable, especially for core and secondary species. The analysis of interspecific relationships between infracommunities shows that negative associations are more numerous than positive associations. The role of A. caninum in the community is compared with that of U. stenocephala.

  19. Genetic relationships among some hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) species and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kadir Ugurtan; Yanar, Makbule; Ercisli, Sezai; Sahiner, Hatice; Taskin, Tuncer; Zengin, Yasar

    2010-10-01

    The genus Crataegus is well distributed in Turkey as a wild plant, with numerous, inherently variable species and genotypes. RAPD markers were used to study 17 hawthorn genotypes belonging to Crataegus monogyna ssp. monogyna Jacq (2 genotypes), C. monogyna ssp. azarella Jacq (1), Crataegus pontica K.Koch (3), Crataegus orientalis var. orientalis Pallas Ex Bieb (3), Crataegus pseudoheterophylla Pojark (1), Crataegus aronia var. dentata Browicz (1), C. aronia var. aronia Browicz (4), and Crateagus x bornmuelleri Zabel (2). The 10 RAPD primers produced 72 polymorphic bands (88% polymorphism). A dendrogram based on Jaccard's index included four major groups and one outgroup according to taxa. The lowest genetic variability was observed within C. aronia var. aronia genotypes. The study demonstrated that RAPD analysis is efficient for genotyping wild-grown hawthorns.

  20. Use of hydra for chronic toxicity assessment of waters intended for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Arkhipchuk, Victor V; Blaise, Christian; Malinovskaya, Maria V

    2006-07-01

    Methods developed with the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata (Pallas), have proven effective for screening acute toxicity in aqueous samples, whereas their use in revealing (sub)chronic toxic effects have had mitigated success. We therefore sought to explore manifestations of hydra mortality and abnormal morphological changes, as well as the reproductive capacity of hydras to further enhance the bioassay sensitivity and to assess (sub)chronic toxicity. These parameters were recorded following the onset of experiments after 8, 12 and 19-21 days of hydra exposure. Results obtained with potable waters (30 brands of bottled waters and artesian waters from 9 wells) showed chronic sublethal and lethal effects or reproduction rate inhibition for most samples. The effectiveness of the hydra toxicity test was demonstrated in comparison with other widely used bioassays. Our previous and present investigations suggest that hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic water toxicity.

  1. Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Tamura, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-04-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2-26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) with paeoniflorin-type skeleton and quercetin (16) showed potent inhibitory activity against a degranulation marker, β-hexosaminidase release with IC50 values of 40.34 and 25.05 μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship of these components was discussed.

  2. Monoterpene derivatives with anti-allergic activity from red peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; He, Yu-Min; Kazuma, Kohei; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from red peony root, the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas showed potent antiallergic effects, as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 16 monoterpene derivatives, including 3 new compounds, paeoniflorol (1), 4'-hydroxypaeoniflorigenone (2) and 4-epi-albiflorin (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated monoterpene derivatives, nine compounds showed potent anti-allergic effects and compound 1 was the most effective. A primary structure-activity relationship of monoterpene derivatives was discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Paeonol suppresses chondrosarcoma metastasis through up-regulation of miR-141 by modulating PKCδ and c-Src signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Yang, Wei-Hung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-07-02

    Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has potential for local invasion and distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it show poor prognosis. Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the main active compound of traditional Chinese remedy Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether paeonol regulates metastatic chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we find paeonol do not increase apoptosis. By contrast, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, paeonol suppresses migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells. We also demonstrate paeonol enhancing miR-141 expression and miR-141 inhibitor reversing paeonol-inhibited cell motility; paeonol also reduces protein kinase C (PKC)d and c-Src kinase activity. Since paeonol inhibits migration and invasion of human chondrosarcoma via up-regulation of miR-141 via PKCd and c-Src pathways, it thus might be a novel anti-metastasis agent for treatment of metastatic chondrosarcoma.

  4. [Metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Durusu (Terkos)].

    PubMed

    Karatoy, Emine; Soylu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Durusu (Terkos) were investigated between June 2002 and May 2003. During this study, a total of 67 bream were examined for the presence of metazoan parasites. Ten species of parasites were found on 64 of the 67 fish examined. These parasites are: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878) and D. distinguendus (Nybelin, 1936) Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) Cestoidea, Tetracotyle sp, Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832) metacercaria Trematoda, Eustrongylides excisus (Jagerskiöld, 1909) Nematoda, Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus, 1758) Hirudinea, glochidia of mollusk, Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) Crustacea. Diplostomum sp., Dactylogyrus sphyrna and D. distinguendus were found to be the dominant parasites of A. brama. Both the prevalence and intensity of other parasites were not found to be high. All identified parasites are a new finding for A. brama in the Lake Durusu. This is the first time that D. distinguendus has been identified in Turkey.

  5. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations. PMID:27966602

  6. Novel gene conversion between X-Y homologues located in the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome in Felidae (Mammalia)

    PubMed Central

    Pecon Slattery, Jill; Sanner-Wachter, Leslie; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Genes located on the mammalian Y chromosome outside of the pseudoautosomal region do not recombine with those on the X and are predicted to either undergo selection for male function or gradually degenerate because of an accumulation of deleterious mutations. Here, phylogenetic analyses of X-Y homologues, Zfx and Zfy, among 26 felid species indicate two ancestral episodes of directed genetic exchange (ectopic gene conversion) from X to Y: once during the evolution of pallas cat and once in a common predecessor of ocelot lineage species. Replacement of the more rapidly evolving Y homologue with the evolutionarily constrained X copy may represent a mechanism for adaptive editing of functional genes on the nonrecombining region of the mammalian Y chromosome. PMID:10805789

  7. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  8. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

    PubMed Central

    Koch, R L

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator. PMID:15841248

  9. Copulation of Acanthocephalus anguillae (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; De Biaggi, S

    2000-06-01

    A total of 114 specimens of brown trout, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, was sampled by electrofishing between October 1998 and July 1999 from the Ceresone stream (North of Padua, Italy). Over 63% of fish were infected with three species of helminth: a tapeworm, Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781), and two acanthocephalan species, Echinorhynchus truttae (Schrank, 1788) and Acanthocephalus anguillae (Muller 1780). On three occasions, in the fore-gut of three brown trout, three pairs of A. anguillae were found in copula. In all three cases, the male's bursa was fully extruded and firmly attached to the posterior region of the female. Cement was found inside the bursa suggesting that insemination had probably occurred. Eight female A. anguillae recovered in five other infected trout had attached copulatory caps.

  10. First report of an intraerythrocytic small piroplasm in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    PubMed

    Luaces, Inés; Aguirre, Enara; García-Montijano, Marino; Velarde, Jorge; Tesouro, Miguel A; Sánchez, Celia; Galka, Margarita; Fernández, Pilar; Sainz, Angel

    2005-10-01

    A wild injured Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) was taken from the Sierra Morena population. During the health check small intraerythrocytic piroplasms, morphologically indistinguishable from other feline piroplasms, were observed in Wright-Giemsa-stained blood films. Amplification by polymerase chain reaction of a portion of the 18S nuclear small subunit (NSS) rRNA gene and sequencing revealed similarity of the unknown organism with sequences obtained from Pallas's cat from Mongolia and from a domestic cat in Spain. In a retrospective (1993-2003) study of 50 Iberian lynx tissue samples, no amplifications of the 18S NSS rRNA gene of the organism were obtained. This is the first report of a naturally occurring erythroparasitemia in the Iberian lynx and the first documented case of naturally occurring piroplasm infection in a free-ranging felid from Europe.

  11. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  12. Biology and fertility life table of Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zazycki, L C F; Semedo, R E S; Silva, A; Bisognin, A Z; Bernardi, O; Garcia, M S; Nava, D E

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThe coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300cm3). For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrumwas the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance.

  13. Thermal requirements and effect of temperature and prey on the development of the predator Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Stathas, George J; Kontodimas, Dimitrios C; Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kampouris, Stavros

    2011-12-01

    Thermal requirements (lower temperature threshold and thermal constant) for the development of each developmental stage of the predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were studied on Aphis fabae Scopoli and Dysaphis crataegi (Kaltenbach) under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C) and prey species was examined on pre-imaginal developmental duration and life cycle (pre-oviposition period included) of the predator. Our results suggest comparable thermal requirements for the development of H. axyridis on the particular prey and when compared with other aphid species. The total preimaginal development of H. axyridis, at 15, 20, and 30°C, and its life cycle, at 15 and 30°C, are shorter on D. crataegi than on A. fabae.

  14. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: a review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts.

    PubMed

    Koch, R L

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator.

  15. Biology and fertility life table of Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zazycki, L C F; Semedo, R E S; Silva, A; Bisognin, A Z; Bernardi, O; Garcia, M S; Nava, D E

    2015-11-01

    The coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300 cm3). For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrum was the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance.

  16. Parasites of black bears of the Lake Superior region.

    PubMed

    Rogers, L L

    1975-04-01

    Parasites collected from free-ranging black bears, Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780, from northeastern Minnesota or northern Michigan include the dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821), the winter tick, D. ALBIPICTUS (Packard, 1869), a louse, Trichodectes pinguis euarctidoes Hopkins, 1954, an ascarid worm, Baylisascaris transfuga (rudolphi, 1819), a filarial worm, Dirofilaria ursi Yamaguti, 1941, taeniid tapeworms, and unidentified fleas. The broad fish tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum (linnaeus, 1785), was reported to be common in man and black bears in northeastern Minnesota earlier in this century, but now it apparently is uncommon in black bears in norther Wisconsin. Cannibalism of carcasses is common in the black bear and may play a major role in the transmission of Trichinella.

  17. Observations of Hydrated Minerals on Asteroids: Pushing Back the Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The three accomplishments during this grant include: 1) Travel to 2004 Division of Planetary Science (of American Astronomical Society) Conference in Louisville, KY and presentation of Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of Vesta in the 1-4 micron region, abstract 28.07. 2) Remote observations using the IRTF on 20-21 June 2004 and 28-3 1 August 2004, and reduction of data as described in the grant proposal and descoping document. These observations confirm the presence of two different band shapes among C-class asteroid spectra in the 3-micron region. This allowed a revision of the known distribution of Ceres- and Pallas-type objects. 3) Remote observations using the IRTF on 7-10 August 2004. These observations of Vesta were presented, and the manuscript will be submitted to Icarus in June.

  18. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  19. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, Mrk 231, NGC 4565, and Arp 220 (this last source being our primary calibrator). The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. BLAST was particularly useful for constraining the slope of the submillimeter continuum.

  20. Effect of buprofezin on survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis, Stethorus punctum picipes (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Orius tristicolor (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), and Geocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Geocoridae).

    PubMed

    James, David G

    2004-06-01

    The effect of buprofezin, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on development and survival of immature stages of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Stethortus punctum picipes Casey, Orius tristicolor (White), Geocoris pallens Stål, and Geocoris punctipes (Say), was examined in a series of laboratory bioassays. Very few H. axyridis larvae (3.1%) treated with buprofezin reached adulthood, although 65% of treated pupae emerged successfully. Buprofezin caused no mortality to eggs of S. punctum picipes but 71.1% of treated early instar larvae failed to complete development. Eighty percent of treated late instars and 92.3% of pupae produced viable adults. Early instar nymphs of O. tristicolor were unaffected by buprofezin, whereas 47.7 and 85% of G. punctipes and G. pallens nymphs, respectively, failed to complete development. Treated eggs of G. pallens hatched successfully. The use of buprofezin in integrated pest management in Washington state wine grapes is discussed.

  1. [The isolation of Dhori viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) from the hare (Lepus europaeus) and its ticks Hyalomma marginatum in the middle zone of the Volga delta, Astrakhan region, 2001].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D N; Dzharkenov, A F; Aristova, V A; Kovtunov, A I; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Vyshemirskiĭ, O I; Galkina, I V; Larichev, V F; Butenko, A M; L'vov, D K

    2002-01-01

    In August, 2001, in the middle zone of the delta of the Volga River, the Astrakhan region, during investigation of the natural foci of West Nile fever and Crimean--Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), the material from the hare (Lepus europaeus, Pallas, 1778 (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) and collected from it the ticks Hyalomna marginatum Koch 1844, was obtained. 4 strains of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) and 2 strains of CCHF virus (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus) were isolated. This is the first isolation of Thogotovirus genus virus from the wild vertebrates. Considering the overlap of the Dhori virus and CCHF virus areas, similar ecology and the isolation both viruses from the same pool of the ticks, the necessity for the use of the test-system for indication of the viruses, differential diagnosis and accumulation of the data concerning the role of Dhori virus in the human and farm animals pathology is discussed.

  2. Characterization of Genetic Variability and Population Structure of the Tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Schwarcz, Kaiser; Bajay, Miklos M; Bajay, Stephanie K; Pinheiro, José B; Zucchi, Maria I; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-07-01

    The hard tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) is a vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in parts of Brazil. Despite its wide distribution in southeastern South America and its public health importance, there is no information about genetic variation of this species that might help to understand the epidemiology of BSF. Using data from eight microsatellite markers and ticks from six localities, we used a population genetics approach to test the hypothesis that tick populations from areas with the presence of R. rickettsii are genetically different from ticks from areas without R. rickettsii Contrary to expectations, we found low genetic structure between studied regions. Thus, the presence of R. rickettsii in the specific area is more likely correlated with ecological and the environmental conditions or due to unknown gene coding regions of A. aureolatum genome that would be related to R. rickettsii infection resistance.

  3. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River.

    PubMed

    Groocock, G H; Getchell, R G; Wooster, G A; Britt, K L; Batts, W N; Winton, J R; Casey, R N; Casey, J W; Bowser, P R

    2007-07-16

    In May 2006 a large mortality of several thousand round gobies Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) occurred in New York waters of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Necropsies of sampled fish from these areas showed pallor of the liver and gills, and hemorrhagic areas in many organs. Histopathologic examination of affected tissues revealed areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Inoculations of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820) cell cultures with dilutions of tissue samples from the necropsied gobies produced a cytopathic effect within 5 d post-inoculation. Samples of cell culture supernatant were tested using RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Sequence analysis of the VHSV isolate resulted in its assignment to the type-IVb subgroup. The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations.

  4. An Analysis of the Accessibility of Earth-Approaching Asteroids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    ephemerides for asteroids 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 3 Juno and 4 Vesta. The input menu for this procedure suggests using one of the standard files for...2002 7.1 300 190 490 2 Dec 2002 6.0 320 80 100I31 Jan 2003 7.0 20 160 310 26 Nov 2007 7.1 310 180 480 *4 Feb 2008 7.0 20 160 300 23 Nov 2017 7.1 310 190...Arrival of-Flight Date (km/s) (deg) (deg) (days) 17 May 1996 16.5 120 280 430 17 May 1998 15.7 120 260 420 26 Nov 2005 16.8 310 70 200 27 Apr 2017 16.9 100

  5. Breaking the hierarchy - a new cluster selection mechanism for hierarchical clustering methods

    PubMed Central

    Zahoránszky, László A; Katona, Gyula Y; Hári, Péter; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Zweig, Katharina A; Zahoránszky-Köhalmi, Gergely

    2009-01-01

    Background Hierarchical clustering methods like Ward's method have been used since decades to understand biological and chemical data sets. In order to get a partition of the data set, it is necessary to choose an optimal level of the hierarchy by a so-called level selection algorithm. In 2005, a new kind of hierarchical clustering method was introduced by Palla et al. that differs in two ways from Ward's method: it can be used on data on which no full similarity matrix is defined and it can produce overlapping clusters, i.e., allow for multiple membership of items in clusters. These features are optimal for biological and chemical data sets but until now no level selection algorithm has been published for this method. Results In this article we provide a general selection scheme, the level independent clustering selection method, called LInCS. With it, clusters can be selected from any level in quadratic time with respect to the number of clusters. Since hierarchically clustered data is not necessarily associated with a similarity measure, the selection is based on a graph theoretic notion of cohesive clusters. We present results of our method on two data sets, a set of drug like molecules and set of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. In both cases the method provides a clustering with very good sensitivity and specificity values according to a given reference clustering. Moreover, we can show for the PPI data set that our graph theoretic cohesiveness measure indeed chooses biologically homogeneous clusters and disregards inhomogeneous ones in most cases. We finally discuss how the method can be generalized to other hierarchical clustering methods to allow for a level independent cluster selection. Conclusion Using our new cluster selection method together with the method by Palla et al. provides a new interesting clustering mechanism that allows to compute overlapping clusters, which is especially valuable for biological and chemical data sets. PMID:19840391

  6. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Homology and Evolution of the Chaetae in Echiura (Annelida)

    PubMed Central

    Tilic, Ekin; Lehrke, Janina; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Echiura is traditionally regarded as a small phylum of unsegmented spiralian worms. Molecular analyses, however, provide unquestionable evidence that Echiura are derived annelids that lost segmentation. Like annelids, echiurans possess chaetae, a single ventral pair in all species and one or two additional caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in two subgroups, but their evolutionary origin and affiliation to annelid chaetae are unresolved. Since annelids possess segmental pairs of dorsal (notopodial) and ventral (neuropodial) chaetae that are arranged in a row, the ventral chaetae in Echiura either represent a single or a paired neuropodial group of chaetae, while the caudal circle may represent fused rows of chaetae. In annelids, chaetogenesis is generally restricted to the ventral part of the notopodial chaetal sac and to the dorsal part of the neuropodial chaetal sac. We used the exact position of the chaetal formation site in the echiuran species, Thalassema thalassemum (Pallas, 1766) and Echiurus echiurus (Pallas, 1767), to test different hypotheses of the evolution of echiurid chaetae. As in annelids, a single chaetoblast is responsible for chaetogenesis in both species. Each chaeta of the ventral pair arises from its own chaetal sac and possesses a lateral formation site, evidencing that the pair of ventral chaetae in Echiura is homologous to a pair of neuropodia that fused on the ventral side, while the notopodia were reduced. Both caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in Echiurus echiurus are composed of several individual chaetal sacs, each with its own formative site. This finding argues against a homology of these hemi-circles of chaetae and annelids’ rows of chaetae and leads to the hypothesis that the caudal chaetal rings evolved once within the Echiura by multiplication of ventral chaetae. PMID:25734664

  8. Crystal structure and activating effect on RyRs of AhV_TL-I, a glycosylated thrombin-like enzyme from Agkistrodon halys snake venom.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Shen, Bing; Zhu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Ping; Ji, Yonghua; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-03-01

    A snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom was isolated by means of a two-step chromatographic procedure. The purified enzyme, named AhV_TL-I, showed fibrinogenolytic activity against both the Aα and Bβ chains of bovine fibrinogen. Unlike the other SVTLEs, AhV_TL-I has poor esterolytic activity upon BAEE substrate. The N-terminal sequence of AhV_TL-I was determined to be IIGGDEXNINEHRFLVALYT, and the molecular mass was confirmed to 29389.533 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence were obtained by RT-PCR. The crystal structure of AhV_TL-I was determined at a resolution of 1.75 Å. A disaccharide was clearly mapped in the structure, which involved in regulating the esterolytic activity of AhV_TL-I. The presence of the N-glycan deformed the 99-loop, and the resulting steric hindrances hindered the substrates to access the active site. Furthermore, with the carbohydrate moiety, AhV_TL-I could induce mouse thoracic aortic ring contraction with the EC(50) of 147 nmol/L. Besides, the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were also independent of the enzymatic activity. The results of [Ca(2+)](i) measurement showed that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were attributed to Ca(2+) releasing from Ca(2+) store. Further studies showed that it was related to the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These offer new insights into the snake SVTLEs functions and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom.

  9. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  10. [PATTERNS IN CIRCULATION AND TRANSMISSION OF MARINE BIRD PARASITES IN HIGH ARCTIC: A CASE OF ACANTHOCEPHALAN POLYMORPHUS PHIPPSI (PALAEACANTHOCEPHALA, POLYMORPHIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K V; Atrashkevich, G I

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on the materials on parasitic infection of marine birds and invertebrates in Frantz Josef Land (FJL) collected in 1991-1993, focussed on the acanthocephalan Polymorphus phippsi. We identified this parasite, confirmed its species status and analysed its circulation and transmission patterns in high Arctic. The causes of its erroneous identification as P. minutus in several studies were also examined. In contrast to P. minutus, the transmission of P. phippsi is realized in marine coastal ecosystems. Its' main intermediate host in the Arctic is the amphipod Gammarus (Lagunogammarus) setosus, commonin coastal. areas of the shelf zone throughout the Arctic basin. P. phippsi population in FJL and the entire European Arctic is on the whole maintained by a single obligate final host, the common eider Somateria mollissima. Prevalence (P) of P. phippsi in this bird reached 100 %, with the maximal infection intensity (IImax) of 1188 and the mean abundance (MA) of 492.1. Other species of birds found to be infected with P. phippsi (Arctic turn, black guillemot, purple sandpiper and several gulls) are facultative and/or eliminative hosts. The most heavily infected birds were Arctic terns (P = 72.7%, IImax = 227, MA = = 47.1), which contained single mature acanthocephalans. For one of the FJL regions, infections flows of P. phippsi through various host categories were calculated. Involvement of birds unrelated to the common eider into the circulation of P. phippsi is facilitated by their feeding character in the Arctic. While coastal crustaceans are abundant, fish food is relatively scarce (polar cod, snailfishes), and so amphipods make up a considerable part of the diet of marine birds in FJL, if not most of it, as for instance in case of Arctic tern. This promotes an easy entry of the larvae of crustaceans-parasitizing helminthes (cestodes and acanthocephalans, including cystacanths P. phippsi) into non-specific hosts and opens broad colonization possibilities

  11. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  12. Toward a taxonomy of asteroid spectra in the 3-μm region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, A.; Howell, E. S.; Emery, J. P.; Volquardsen, E. L.; DeMeo, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction and observations: The 3-μm spectral region is critical for measuring the presence and distribution of volatiles. On asteroids, absorptions due to OH in minerals and H2O as ice have been reported in this spectral range by several worker since the 1970s (for instance, [1-5]) With the installation of the SpeX instrument at the NASA IRTF [6], observations of asteroids in the 2-4 μm region ("LXD mode") are now commonplace. As a result of the ease of observations, a de facto SpeX LXD-mode asteroid survey has been ongoing for the past decade. At this writing, 97 low-albedo asteroids (C complex, D and T asteroids, and low-albedo members of the X complex), which are the focus of this work, have been observed 142 times. Band shapes and classes: A range of 3-μm band shapes is seen in the asteroid population. Several "Type examples" of the 3-μm classes have been identified: "Pallas types", with roughly linear band shapes and band minima in the 2.5-2.85 μm region (where atmospheric water vapor precludes ground-based observations), "Ceres types" with a narrow band centered near 3.05 μm, and "Themis types" with a broader, rounded absorption near 3.1 μm. Both Ceres and Themis have had compositional fits made to their spectra [4,12], but while we expect objects with similar spectra to share similar compositions, formal fits to other Ceres- and Themis-type objects remain future work. Takir and Emery find similar band shapes in their sample, though they use different names for their groupings [5]. We are moving toward developing more quantifiable criteria for classifications. One possible approach involves the band depths at 3.2 and 2.9 μm. When these are plotted against each other, an array of points with similar band shapes but differing band depths is found in both the asteroid data and mineralogical and meteoritical spectra [13,14], all appearing as Pallas types by inspection. In addition to that array, a second cluster of points is found where the 3.2

  13. Piscivorous birds on the saline lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands: Abundance, prey selection and annual food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.

    Since 1971, when the Grevelingen estuary was turned into a 108 km 2 saline lake, the number of foraging piscivorous birds has increased significantly. Up to 7000 to 10 000 Great Crested Grebes may be present on the lake, representing about half of the northwestern European breeding population. In the winter 1000 to 3000 Red-breasted Mergansers also forage here, while in summer and early autumn 500 to 800 Cormorants can be found on the lake. From December 1981 through March 1982 the food habits of the grebes and mergansers were studied by means of stomach analyses. Total annual consumption of the two fish-eating birds was estimated at 46.6 and 39.2 tons fresh weight, respectively. Gobiidae proved to be the main food source, accounting for 60% of the total intake (by weight). In addition, the grebes consumed 9.9 tons of Clupea harengus and the mergansers 11.0 tons of brown shrimps Crangon crangon. The birds tended to select the larger specimens of Gobiidae and C. crangon. The estimated amount of food consumed by these two bird species represents about 28 to 36% of the standing stocks of Gobiidae, C. harengus and Sprattus sprattus present at the arrival of the birds in September/October. Total annual consumption by all major piscivorous birds, including the populations of Cormorant and Grey Heron, was estimated at 115 tons (1.1 g FW·m -2·a -1). Over the last 10-year period the number of wintering grebes showed a positive correlation ( p < 0.01) with the density of Pomatoschistus microps during the preceding (summer) season ( i.e. the most abundant gobiid species in the lake).

  14. Influence of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) on estuarine epibenthic assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilarri, M. I.; Souza, A. T.; Antunes, C.; Guilhermino, L.; Sousa, R.

    2014-04-01

    One of the most widespread invasive alien species (IAS) in aquatic ecosystems is the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. Several studies have shown that C. fluminea can cause large-scale changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages; however, very few attempted to investigate the effects of this IAS on mobile epibenthic species, such as fishes and crustaceans. In this context, the influence of C. fluminea on epibenthic species was investigated during one year by comparing the associated epibenthic fauna in three nearby sites of the Minho estuary (NW of the Iberian Peninsula), wherein the abiotic conditions are similar but the density of the Asian clam is highly different. From a total of 13 species, six were significantly influenced by C. fluminea; five responded positively, namely the brown shrimp Crangon crangon, the European eel Anguilla anguilla, the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, the brown trout Salmo trutta fario and the great pipefish Syngnathus acus, whereas the shore crab Carcinus maenas was negatively influenced. However, stomach contents analysis revealed that fish and crustacean species do not feed on C. fluminea, suggesting that this IAS is still not a large component of the diet of higher trophic levels in this estuarine ecosystem. Our results suggest that the structure provided by C. fluminea shells is likely to be one of the main factors responsible for the differences observed. C. fluminea physical structure seems to influence the epibenthic associated fauna, when found in densities higher than 1000 ind./m2, with sedentary small-bodied crustaceans and fishes being mainly attracted by the increasing in habitat complexity and consequent enhancement of heterogeneity and shelter availability.

  15. Long-term changes in species composition of demersal fish and epibenthic species in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/Southern North Sea) since 1972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Julia; Kröncke, Ingrid; Bartholomä, Alexander; Dippner, Joachim W.; Schückel, Ulrike

    2016-11-01

    Within this long-term study, the short- and long-term variability of demersal fish and epibenthic species in relation to temperature and climate-driven environmental changes in the inshore tidal bay system of the Jade area was investigated. Semiquantitative sampling took place once per spring and summer period from 1972 to 2014 by using a 2 m beam trawl at one station in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/southern North Sea). Min/max autocorrelation analysis (MAFA) and Mann-Kendall analysis revealed significant increasing trends in total abundance and species number. Homogeneity analysis revealed shifts for abundance in spring and summer in the late 1980s and for species number in the late 1980s in spring and early 2000s in summer. Abundances of the estuarine crustacean species Carcinus maenas and Liocarcinus holsatus and of the estuarine fish species Pomatoschistus spp. showed significant increasing abundances since the late 1980s. The marine juvenile species Pleuronectes platessa and Limanda limanda showed significant decreasing abundances, while abundances of Solea solea showed significant increasing abundances since the early 2000s. Abundances of L.holsatus and C. maenas showed mass occurrences since the early 2000s. Spearman correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of temperature and abundance data of some characteristic species. Statistical downscaling analysis revealed significant correlations between observations and climate indicators such as the North Sea Environmental (NSE) Index for spring. Thus, it appears that climate effects influenced the long-term variability of species number and abundance of epibenthic and demersal fish species in the Jade area, resulting in community shifts in the late 1980s and early 2000s.

  16. Redescription and phylogenetic position of Myxobolus aeglefini and Myxobolus platessae n. Comb. (Myxosporea), parasites in the cartilage of some North Atlantic marine fishes, with notes on the phylogeny and classification of the Platysporina.

    PubMed

    Karlsbakk, Egil; Kristmundsson, Árni; Albano, Marco; Brown, Paul; Freeman, Mark A

    2016-10-20

    Myxobolus aeglefini Auerbach, 1906 was originally described from cranial cartilage of North sea haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), but has subsequently been recorded from cartilaginous tissues of a range of other gadoid hosts, from pleuronectids and from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) in the North Atlantic and from a zoarcid fish in the Japan Sea (Pacific). We obtained partial small-subunit rDNA sequences of Myxobolus 'aeglefini' from gadoids and pleuronectids from Norway and Iceland. The sequences from gadoids and pleuronectids represented two different genotypes, showing 98.2% identity. Morphometric studies on the spores from selected gadids and pleuronectids revealed slight but statistically significant differences in spore dimensions associated with the genotypes, the spores from pleuronectids were thicker and with larger polar capsules. We identify the morpho- and genotype from gadoids with Myxobolus aeglefini sensu Auerbach, and the one from pleuronectids with Sphaerospora platessae Woodcock, 1904 as Myxobolus platessae n. comb. The latter species was originally described from Irish Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Myxobolus albi Picon et al., 2009 described from the common goby Pomatoschistus microps in Scotland is a synonym of M. aeglefini. The Pacific Myxobolus 'aeglefini' represents a separate species, showing only 97.4-97.6% identity to the Atlantic species. In phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequences, these and some related marine chondrotropic Myxobolus spp. form a distinct well supported group. This clusters with freshwater and marine myxobolids and Triangula and Cardimyxobolus species, in a basal clade in the phylogeny of the Platysporina. Members of family Myxobilatidae, Ortholinea spp. (currently Ortholineidae) and sequences of some other urinary system infecting myxosporeans form a well supported clade among members of the suborder Platysporina. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we propose the following changes to the classification of

  17. Redescription and phylogenetic position of Myxobolus aeglefini and Myxobolus platessae n. comb. (Myxosporea), parasites in the cartilage of some North Atlantic marine fishes, with notes on the phylogeny and classification of the Platysporina.

    PubMed

    Karlsbakk, Egil; Kristmundsson, Árni; Albano, Marco; Brown, Paul; Freeman, Mark A

    2017-02-01

    Myxobolus 'aeglefini' Auerbach, 1906 was originally described from cranial cartilage of North sea haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), but has subsequently been recorded from cartilaginous tissues of a range of other gadoid hosts, from pleuronectids and from lumpsucker (Cyclopterus lumpus) in the North Atlantic and from a zoarcid fish in the Japan Sea (Pacific). We obtained partial small-subunit rDNA sequences of Myxobolus 'aeglefini' from gadoids and pleuronectids from Norway and Iceland. The sequences from gadoids and pleuronectids represented two different genotypes, showing 98.2% identity. Morphometric studies on the spores from selected gadids and pleuronectids revealed slight but statistically significant differences in spore dimensions associated with the genotypes, the spores from pleuronectids were thicker and with larger polar capsules. We identify the morpho- and genotype from gadoids with Myxobolus 'aeglefini' sensu Auerbach, and the one from pleuronectids with Sphaerospora platessae Woodcock, 1904 as Myxobolus platessae n. comb. The latter species was originally described from Irish Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Myxobolus albi Picon et al., 2009 described from the common goby Pomatoschistus microps in Scotland is a synonym of M. 'aeglefini'. The Pacific Myxobolus 'aeglefini' represents a separate species, showing only 97.4-97.6% identity to the Atlantic species. In phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rDNA sequences, these and some related marine chondrotropic Myxobolus spp. form a distinct well supported group. This clusters with freshwater and marine myxobolids and Triangula and Cardimyxobolus species, in a basal clade in the phylogeny of the Platysporina. Members of family Myxobilatidae, Ortholinea spp. (currently Ortholineidae) and sequences of some other urinary system infecting myxosporeans form a well supported clade among members of the suborder Platysporina. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we propose the following changes to the

  18. Temporal, spatial and tidal influences on benthic and demersal fish abundance in the Forth estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, M. F. D.; Hill, A. S.

    2003-10-01

    The 10 most common demersal and benthic fish species collected during a 1982-2001 Agassiz trawling programme in the mid/lower Forth estuary, east Scotland, were assessed for possible influences of trawl site, month of sampling and tide height on abundance. All species were seasonal in their occurrence in the study area, with trends generally similar to those shown in other temperate European estuaries. Six species (whiting ( Merlangius merlangus), dab ( Limanda limanda), pogge ( Agonus cataphractus), fatherlasher ( Myoxocephalus scorpius), 'gobies' ( Pomatoschistus spp.) and sea snail ( Liparis liparis)) exhibited high winter and low summer abundance while plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa), flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and eelpout ( Zoarces viviparous) were least numerous in winter and mostly present in summer. Cod ( Gadus morhua) were low in abundance in late spring, but did not show pronounced peaks of abundance. Trawl station significantly influenced fish abundance in all but one case ('gobies'). There was relatively low abundance of most species at the middle trawl location, Tancred; only plaice, dab and whiting were numerous at this site. The majority of species were abundant at Port Edgar, adjacent to the estuary mouth, which may have reflected the relatively stable salinity conditions at this station. Flounder was most abundant at the mid-estuarine site of Longannet, and this was likely to have been in order to feed on the large mudflats nearby. Dispersal of fish onto inundated intertidal areas is suggested as a possible mechanism explaining the significant decrease in abundance of several species (flounder, pogge, eelpout and 'gobies') at high water (HW). The significant increase in abundance of whiting in the study area at HW may have been attributable to immigration of individuals from inshore regions of the Firth of Forth by the action of the flood tide. Interactions of location, month and tide height significantly influenced abundance of most species

  19. High site fidelity and low site connectivity in temperate salt marsh fish populations: a stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Green, Benjamin C; Smith, David J; Grey, Jonathan; Underwood, Graham J C

    2012-01-01

    Adult and juvenile fish utilise salt marshes for food and shelter at high tide, moving into adjacent sublittoral regions during low tide. Understanding whether there are high levels of site fidelity for different species of coastal fish has important implications for habitat conservation and the design of marine protected areas. We hypothesised that common salt marsh fish species would demonstrate a high site fidelity, resulting in minimal inter-marsh connectivity. Carbon ((13)C) and nitrogen ((15)N) stable isotope ratios of larvae and juveniles of five common salt marsh fish (Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Clupea harengus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Pomatoschistus microps), seven types of primary producer and seven secondary consumer food sources were sampled in five salt marshes within two estuary complexes along the coast of south-east England. Significant differences in (13)C and (15)N signatures between salt marshes indicated distinct sub-populations utilising the area of estuary around each salt marsh, and limited connectivity, even within the same estuary complex. (15)N ratios were responsible for the majority of inter-marsh differences for each species and showed similar site-specific patterns in ratios in primary producers, secondary consumers and fish. Fish diets (derived from isotope mixing models) varied between species but were mostly consistent between marsh sites, indicating that dietary shifts were not the source of variability of the inter-marsh isotopic signatures within species. These results demonstrate that for some common coastal fish species, high levels of site fidelity result in individual salt marshes operating as discrete habitats for fish assemblages.

  20. First report of Gyrodactylus spp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) in the western Mediterranean Sea: molecular and morphological descriptions.

    PubMed

    Huyse, T; Pampoulie, C; Audenaert, V; Volckaert, F A M

    2006-08-01

    The Gyrodactylus spp. fauna on species of gobies, Pomatoschistus, Gobiusculus, and Knipowitschia (Gobiidae: Teleostei), from the western Mediterranean and Adriatic seas is strikingly similar to that found in the Baltic Sea and eastern Atlantic Ocean, both in morphology and in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA. The fauna consisted of Gyrodactylus branchialis, G. ostendicus, G. gondae, G. rugiensis, G. rugiensoides, and G. arcuatus. No new species have been found. A morphometric comparison between G. branchialis from the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas and its type locality in Ostend (Belgium) showed significant differences in ventral bar and marginal hook features. The morphometric variation was lower in G. rugiensis, whereas no significant differences were found in G. ostendicus. Gyrodactylus branchialis and G. ostendicus collected on P. microps were slightly different in the ITS rDNA (-0.6%) compared with specimens on the closely related P. marmoratus, probably reflecting ongoing speciation. A hybrid zone was identified in the Vaccarès lagoon complex (France) where both host species are sympatric. There was no clear geographic or host-related pattern in the variation found in the ITS2 rDNA in G. arcuatus sampled from P. microps, G. flavescens, Pungitius pungitius, K. panizzae, and its original host Gasterosteus aculeatus (2 polymorphic sites). Of all studied species, only G. arcuatus, G. rugiensis, and G. rugiensoides showed minor intraspecific variation in the ITS rDNA. Hence, the physical separation by a shoreline of more than 10,000 km is hardly reflected in the parasite ITS rDNA.

  1. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  2. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations.

  3. [High prevalence and diversity of blood parasites of passerine birds in Southern Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Val'kiunas, G; Ezhova, T A; Mironov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Thirty nine specimens of passerine birds belonging to 19 species and eight families were investigated by blood smear technique in four localities of Southern Turkmenistan in 3-18 August 1991. The overall prevalence of infection was 59%. Protists from the orders Haemosporida (genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon), Kinetoplastida (Trypanosoma), and Adeleida (Hepatozoon), as well as Microfilaria were found. Haemoproteids (the prevalence of infection is 44%), leucocytozoids (23%), malarial parasites (13%) and trypanosomes (13%) were most frequently recorded. Only low chronic infections (< 1% of infected cells for the great majority of intracellular parasites, and a few trypanosomes and Microfilaria in each blood smear) were seen. Haemoproteus belopolskyi, H. balmorali, H. dolniki, H. magnus, H. minutus, H. fringillae, H. majoris, Leucocytozoon dubreuili, and Trypanosoma avium were recorded for the first time in Turkmenistan. The former five above-mentioned species of haemoproteids are new records for the fauna of Middle Asia. Gametocytes of leucocytozoids in fusiform host cells were found for the first time in passerine birds in the Holarctic. The host is Parus bokharensis. Due to the wide distribution and the opportunity to collect a large parasitological material using harmless for hosts methods, bird haemosporidian parasites can be used as convenient models for ecological and evolutionary biology studies in South Turkmenistan. The heavily infected Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis is an especially convenient host for such purposes.

  4. Anthropoid versus strepsirhine status of the African Eocene primates Algeripithecus and Azibius: craniodental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent; Lebrun, Renaud; Adaci, Mohammed; Bensalah, Mustapha; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Fara, Emmanuel; Gomes Rodrigues, Helder; Hautier, Lionel; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Lazzari, Vincent; Mebrouk, Fateh; Peigné, Stéphane; Sudre, Jean; Tafforeau, Paul; Valentin, Xavier; Mahboubi, Mahammed

    2009-01-01

    Recent fossil discoveries have demonstrated that Africa and Asia were epicentres for the origin and/or early diversification of the major living primate lineages, including both anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans) and crown strepsirhine primates (lemurs, lorises and galagos). Competing hypotheses favouring either an African or Asian origin for anthropoids rank among the most hotly contested issues in paleoprimatology. The Afrocentric model for anthropoid origins rests heavily on the >45 Myr old fossil Algeripithecus minutus from Algeria, which is widely acknowledged to be one of the oldest known anthropoids. However, the phylogenetic position of Algeripithecus with respect to other primates has been tenuous because of the highly fragmentary fossils that have documented this primate until now. Recently recovered and more nearly complete fossils of Algeripithecus and contemporaneous relatives reveal that they are not anthropoids. New data support the idea that Algeripithecus and its sister genus Azibius are the earliest offshoots of an Afro–Arabian strepsirhine clade that embraces extant toothcombed primates and their fossil relatives. Azibius exhibits anatomical evidence for nocturnality. Algeripithecus has a long, thin and forwardly inclined lower canine alveolus, a feature that is entirely compatible with the long and procumbent lower canine included in the toothcomb of crown strepsirhines. These results strengthen an ancient African origin for crown strepsirhines and, in turn, strongly challenge the role of Africa as the ancestral homeland for anthropoids. PMID:19740889

  5. Hantaviruses in Finnish soricomorphs: evidence for two distinct hantaviruses carried by Sorex araneus suggesting ancient host-switch.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiaxin; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Hepojoki, Satu; Niemimaa, Jukka; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-10-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses carried by rodents, soricomorphs (shrews and moles) and bats. In Finland, Puumala virus (PUUV) was for years the only hantavirus detected. In 2009, however, Seewis virus (SWSV) was reported from archival common shrew (Sorex araneus) samples collected in 1982 in Finland. To elucidate the diversity of hantaviruses in soricomorphs in Finland, 180 individuals were screened, representing seven species captured from 2001 to 2012: hantavirus RNA was screened using RT-PCR, and hantaviral antigen using immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against truncated SWSV nucleocapsid protein. The overall hantavirus RNA prevalence was 14% (26/180), antigen could be demonstrated in 9 of 20 SWSV RT-PCR positive common shrews. Genetic analyses revealed that four soricomorph-borne hantaviruses circulate in Finland, including Boginia virus (BOGV) in water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and Asikkala virus (ASIV) in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus). Interestingly, on two study sites, common shrews harbored strains of two different hantaviruses: Seewis virus and a new distinct, genetically distant (identity 57% at amino acid level) virus (Altai-like virus) which clusters together with viruses in the basal phylogroup I of hantaviruses with 62-67% identity at amino acid level. This is the first evidence of coexistence of two clearly distinct hantavirus species circulating simultaneously in one host species population. The findings suggest an ancient host-switching event from a yet unknown host to S. araneus. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of partial S and M segment sequences showed that SWSV in Finland represents a unique genotype in Europe.

  6. The Celtic fringe of Britain: insights from small mammal phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Kotlík, Petr; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Marková, Silvia; Herman, Jeremy S; McDevitt, Allan D

    2009-12-22

    Recent genetic studies have challenged the traditional view that the ancestors of British Celtic people spread from central Europe during the Iron Age and have suggested a much earlier origin for them as part of the human recolonization of Britain at the end of the last glaciation. Here we propose that small mammals provide an analogue to help resolve this controversy. Previous studies have shown that common shrews (Sorex araneus) with particular chromosomal characteristics and water voles (Arvicola terrestris) of a specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA lineage have peripheral western/northern distributions with striking similarities to that of Celtic people. We show that mtDNA lineages of three other small mammal species (bank vole Myodes glareolus, field vole Microtus agrestis and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus) also form a 'Celtic fringe'. We argue that these small mammals most reasonably colonized Britain in a two-phase process following the last glacial maximum (LGM), with climatically driven partial replacement of the first colonists by the second colonists, leaving a peripheral geographical distribution for the first colonists. We suggest that these natural Celtic fringes provide insight into the same phenomenon in humans and support its origin in processes following the end of the LGM.

  7. Prevalence, abundance and site distribution of equine small strongyles in Normandy, France.

    PubMed

    Collobert-Laugier, C; Hoste, H; Sevin, C; Dorchies, P

    2002-12-11

    Forty-two horses from Normandy (France) were examined post-mortem for small strongyle infections from October to March. In the positive horses, total worm numbers ranged from 234 to 90,247 (mean 11,297). Encysted larvae represented the major part of the total cyathostome burdens with a high percentage (83%) being early third stage larvae. They were mostly recovered from the caecum (48%) and ventral colon (40%) and were less present in the dorsal colon (12%). Adult cyathostomes were mainly located in the ventral colon (64%) and less frequently in the dorsal colon (27%) and caecum (9%). Twenty species of Cyathostominae were identified. The 10 most prevalent species (in sequence of prevalence) were Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cyathostomum labiatum, Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus, Cylicostephanus calicatus and Cylicostephanus minutus which comprised 84% of the total adult population. Twelve species showed a site preference in the ventral colon, five in the dorsal colon and only one in the caecum while two species were collected in nearly equal numbers from the ventral and dorsal colon. The number of species per horse ranged from 1 to 12 with a median of 5. Infections with singletons occurred in 12.5% of the positive horses while multiple infections were encountered in 87.5%. A positive correlation was found between the intensity of cyathostome infection and its diversity, measured either by the number of occurring species or Shanon indexes. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-10

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira.

  9. Sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs via refuge size

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity for resource monopolization by individuals often dictates the size and composition of animal groups, and ultimately, the adoption of mating strategies. For refuge-dwelling animals, the ability (or inability) of individuals to monopolize refuges should depend on the relative size of the refuge. In theory, groups should be larger and more inclusive when refuges are large, and smaller and more exclusive when refuges are small, regardless of refuge type. We test this prediction by comparing the size and composition of groups of oceanic crabs (Planes minutus) living on plastic flotsam and loggerhead sea turtles. We found that (i) surface area of refuges (barnacle colonies on flotsam and supracaudal space on turtles) is a better predictor of crab number than total surface area and (ii) flotsam and turtles with similar refuge surface area host a similar number (1–2) and composition (adult male–female pairs) of crabs. These results indicate that group size and composition of refuge-dwelling animals are modulated by refuge size and the capacity for refuge monopolization. Moreover, these results suggest that sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs, providing insights into how symbiosis can promote specific mating strategies. PMID:27651538

  10. Do distantly related parasites rely on the same proximate factors to alter the behaviour of their hosts?

    PubMed Central

    Ponton, F; Lefevre, T; Lebarbenchon, C; Thomas, F; Loxdale, H.D; Marché, L; Renault, L; Perrot-Minnot, M.J; Biron, D.G

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetically unrelated parasites often increase the chances of their transmission by inducing similar phenotypic changes in their hosts. However, it is not known whether these convergent strategies rely on the same biochemical precursors. In this paper, we explored such aspects by studying two gammarid species (Gammarus insensibilis and Gammarus pulex; Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridae) serving as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of two distantly related parasites: the trematode, Microphallus papillorobustus and the acanthocephalan, Polymorphus minutus. Both these parasite species are known to manipulate the behaviour of their amphipod hosts, bringing them towards the water surface, where they are preferentially eaten by aquatic birds (definitive hosts). By studying and comparing the brains of infected G. insensibilis and G. pulex with proteomics tools, we have elucidated some of the proximate causes involved in the parasite-induced alterations of host behaviour for each system. Protein identifications suggest that altered physiological compartments in hosts can be similar (e.g. immunoneural connexions) or different (e.g. vision process), and hence specific to the host–parasite association considered. Moreover, proteins required to alter the same physiological compartment can be specific or conversely common in both systems, illustrating in the latter case a molecular convergence in the proximate mechanisms of manipulation. PMID:17015311

  11. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  12. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  13. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jerinić-Prodanović, Dušanka; Protić, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  14. Blood parasites in noddies and boobies from Brazilian offshore islands - differences between species and influence of nesting habitat.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Martínez, Javier; Bugoni, Leandro; Mancini, Patrícia L; Merino, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    Seabirds are often free from blood parasites, and a recent review suggested that phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters can determine the prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds. However, there is a lack of data available from many seabird groups, and a larger database is needed to understand prevalence patterns of blood parasites. We used a molecular screening approach to detect parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Babesia in five species of two genera of seabirds that breed on Atlantic Ocean islands off Brazil. The observed patterns differed between the two bird genera. Like other Laridae, brown noddy, Anous stolidus adults were infected with Haemoproteus with low prevalence. Masked boobies, Sula dactylatra and brown boobies, Sula leucogaster were infected with Babesia. Of the latter, mainly juveniles were infected. In all species, intensity of infection (i.e. number of infected erythrocytes) was so low that parasites remained undetected in blood smears. This may explain the absence of major effects on the body condition of birds, although infected juvenile masked boobies were lighter than juveniles that were not infected with Babesia. Two tree-nesting species; black noddy, Anous minutus and red-footed booby, Sula sula did not have blood parasites, suggesting that tree-nesting may reduce the exposure to arthropod vectors compared with ground nesting in these species.

  15. A seasonal comparison of zooplankton communities in the Kara Sea - With special emphasis on overwintering traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosobokova, Ksenia Nikolaevna; Hirche, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    Siberian marginal seas cover large parts of the marine Arctic and host unique zooplankton communities. Detailed knowledge of their community structure and life history traits is a prerequisite to predict their response to ongoing and future climate and anthropogenic changes although winter data is extremely rare. Here data are presented from winter samples (February and April) in four biogeographic regions of the Kara Sea. Comparison of community composition and zooplankton abundance/biomass with data collected during summer showed lower diversity in winter, mainly due to the absence of freshwater species. In contrast to many other northern regions, seasonal biomass differences were relatively small. Year-round high biomass is maintained through a large share of small copepod species and constantly high share of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans. An advanced state of gonad maturation and reproduction was observed in winter in herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous species, e.g. the copepods Calanus glacialis, Drepanopus bungei, Limnocalanus macrurus, Oithona similis, Pseudocalanus major, Pseudocalanus minutus/acuspes, Paraeuchaeta glacialis, Microcalanus pygmaeus, and euphausiids, hydromedusae, and pteropods. Meroplanktonic larvae of nudibranchia, polychaeta and bivalvia were also registered. Close to the Yenisei mouth, abundance of eggs and larvae of various taxa exceeded older stages. Our data show that the brackish-water zone of the Kara Sea hosts specific communities with omnivorous species efficiently exploiting local resources during the winter and utilizing them for winter reproduction.

  16. The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 adopts a novel tetrameric architecture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changkeun; Guo, Jiangtao; Zeng, Weizhong; Kim, Sunghoon; She, Ji; Cang, Chunlei; Ren, Dejian; Jiang, Youxing

    2017-07-27

    TMEM175 is a lysosomal K(+) channel that is important for maintaining the membrane potential and pH stability in lysosomes. It contains two homologous copies of a six-transmembrane-helix (6-TM) domain, which has no sequence homology to the canonical tetrameric K(+) channels and lacks the TVGYG selectivity filter motif found in these channels. The prokaryotic TMEM175 channel, which is present in a subset of bacteria and archaea, contains only a single 6-TM domain and functions as a tetramer. Here, we present the crystal structure of a prokaryotic TMEM175 channel from Chamaesiphon minutus, CmTMEM175, the architecture of which represents a completely different fold from that of canonical K(+) channels. All six transmembrane helices of CmTMEM175 are tightly packed within each subunit without undergoing domain swapping. The highly conserved TM1 helix acts as the pore-lining inner helix, creating an hourglass-shaped ion permeation pathway in the channel tetramer. Three layers of hydrophobic residues on the carboxy-terminal half of the TM1 helices form a bottleneck along the ion conduction pathway and serve as the selectivity filter of the channel. Mutagenesis analysis suggests that the first layer of the highly conserved isoleucine residues in the filter is primarily responsible for channel selectivity. Thus, the structure of CmTMEM175 represents a novel architecture of a tetrameric cation channel whose ion selectivity mechanism appears to be distinct from that of the classical K(+) channel family.

  17. Re-evaluation of ivermectin efficacy against equine gastrointestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P

    2001-07-27

    Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P<0.05) fewer (>99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, P<0.05-0.01) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Habronema spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites.

  18. Revision of the genus Campylaimus (Diplopeltidae, Nematoda) with description of four new species from the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2016-05-02

    Four new Campylaimus species are described from the deep-sea sediments of the Sea of Japan at depths of about 500‒3400 m. Campylaimus orientalis sp. nov. is characterized by having a body of moderate length, clearly annulated cuticle, a small rhomboid mouth opening which is displaced on the dorsal side of body, a gap between the unequal limbs of the amphid, prominent narrow longitudinal alae and cephalated spicules. Campylaimus minutus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body, very weak annulations, amphids with a short dorsal limb (25-44% of pharynx length) and a ventral limb completely fused with lateral alae of equal width; and lateral alae extending from the base of the amphid to the tail tip. Campylaimus amphidialis sp. nov. is characterized by having the combination of a very long amphidial fovea occupying nearly the entire length of the pharynx; and a well defined boundary between the ventral amphid limb and lateral alae. The distinctive feature of Campylaimus pulcher sp. nov. is the elongated loop-shaped amphid with nearly equal parallel limbs and prominent narrow longitudinal alae; and cephalated spicules without a gubernaculum. The diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus is emended and an identification key to species, based mainly on form and length of amphidial fovea, width of lateral alae, and copulatory apparatus is given. The genus Campylaimus now includes nineteen valid species. Two species are considered as species inquirendae, mainly because of incomplete descriptions.

  19. Repeatability and consistency of individual behaviour in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Andrea C.; Carl, Teresa; Foerster, Katharina

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge on animal personality has provided new insights into evolutionary biology and animal ecology, as behavioural types have been shown to affect fitness. Animal personality is characterized by repeatable and consistent between-individual behavioural differences throughout time and across different situations. Behavioural repeatability within life history stages and consistency between life history stages should be checked for the independence of sex and age, as recent data have shown that males and females in some species may differ in the repeatability of behavioural traits, as well as in their consistency. We measured the repeatability and consistency of three behavioural and one cognitive traits in juvenile and adult Eurasian harvest mice ( Micromys minutus). We found that exploration, activity and boldness were repeatable in juveniles and adults. Spatial recognition measured in a Y Maze was only repeatable in adult mice. Exploration, activity and boldness were consistent before and after maturation, as well as before and after first sexual contact. Data on spatial recognition provided little evidence for consistency. Further, we found some evidence for a litter effect on behaviours by comparing different linear mixed models. We concluded that harvest mice express animal personality traits as behaviours were repeatable across sexes and consistent across life history stages. The tested cognitive trait showed low repeatability and was less consistent across life history stages. Given the rising interest in individual variation in cognitive performance, and in its relationship to animal personality, we suggest that it is important to gather more data on the repeatability and consistency of cognitive traits.

  20. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes).

    PubMed

    Odeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per

    2010-06-23

    Diurnal birds belong to one of two classes of colour vision. These are distinguished by the maximum absorbance wavelengths of the SWS1 visual pigment sensitive to violet (VS) and ultraviolet (UVS). Shifts between the classes have been rare events during avian evolution. Gulls (Laridae) are the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) previously reported to have the UVS type of opsin, but too few species have been sampled to infer that gulls are unique among shorebirds or that Laridae is monomorphic for this trait. We have sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene in a broader sample of species. We confirm that cysteine in the key amino acid position 90, characteristic of the UVS class, has been conserved throughout gull evolution but also that the terns Anous minutus, A. tenuirostris and Gygis alba, and the skimmer Rynchops niger carry this trait. Terns, excluding Anous and Gygis, share the VS conferring serine in position 90 with other shorebirds but it is translated from a codon more similar to that found in UVS shorebirds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings, based on a molecular gene tree, is a single VS to UVS shift and a subsequent reversal in one lineage.

  1. Updating algal evolutionary relationships through plastid genome sequencing: did alveolate plastids emerge through endosymbiosis of an ochrophyte?

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Sudek, Sebastian; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Algae with secondary plastids of a red algal origin, such as ochrophytes (photosynthetic stramenopiles), are diverse and ecologically important, yet their evolutionary history remains controversial. We sequenced plastid genomes of two ochrophytes, Ochromonas sp. CCMP1393 (Chrysophyceae) and Trachydiscus minutus (Eustigmatophyceae). A shared split of the clpC gene as well as phylogenomic analyses of concatenated protein sequences demonstrated that chrysophytes and eustigmatophytes form a clade, the Limnista, exhibiting an unexpectedly elevated rate of plastid gene evolution. Our analyses also indicate that the root of the ochrophyte phylogeny falls between the recently redefined Khakista and Phaeista assemblages. Taking advantage of the expanded sampling of plastid genome sequences, we revisited the phylogenetic position of the plastid of Vitrella brassicaformis, a member of Alveolata with the least derived plastid genome known for the whole group. The results varied depending on the dataset and phylogenetic method employed, but suggested that the Vitrella plastids emerged from a deep ochrophyte lineage rather than being derived vertically from a hypothetical plastid-bearing common ancestor of alveolates and stramenopiles. Thus, we hypothesize that the plastid in Vitrella, and potentially in other alveolates, may have been acquired by an endosymbiosis of an early ochrophyte. PMID:26017773

  2. Review of Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) in Borneo, with descriptions of three new genera and the first case of (ovo)viviparity in the long-horned beetles.

    PubMed

    Gabriš, Radim; Kundrata, Robin; Trnka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the species of genus Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae: Morimopsini) from Borneo, which included the redescriptions of two species - Dolichostyrax moultoni Aurivillius, 1911 and Dolichostyrax longipes Aurivillius, 1913, with the first female description for the latter. After the examination of the additional material previously identified as Dolichostyrax, we described three new genera - Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n., and Eurystyrax gen. n. Borneostyrax cristatus sp. n. was described based on the male and female specimens, whilst Microdolichostyrax hefferni sp. n., Microdolichostyrax minutus sp. n. and Eurystyrax nemethi sp. n. are known only from females. All studied species are distributed in the mountain regions of Sabah, with the exception of Dolichostyrax moultoni from Sarawak. An identification key to the genera of Bornean Morimopsini and species of Dolichostyrax, Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n. and Eurystyrax gen. n. is provided and their distributions and intraspecific morphological variability are discussed. The short and wide ovipositor, loss of spermatheca, and presence of large larvae without apparent eggbursters inside the female abdomens indicate the presence of (ovo)viviparity in Borneostyrax gen. n. This is the first case of this rare phenomenon within Cerambycidae.

  3. Hantaan virus surveillance in small mammals at firing points 10 and 60, Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Sames, William J; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Moon, Sungsil; Lee, Sook-Young; Chun, YuJin; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-08-01

    We used epidemiological data and indirect fluorescent antibody tests to determine the Hantaan virus (HTNV) antibody-positive (Ab+) prevalence in small mammals captured at firing point 10 (FP-10) and firing point 60 (FP-60), Gyeonggi Province, near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea (ROK), from 2001 to 2005. We used these data, combined with the partial M segment amplified from HTNV recovered from lung tissues of Apodemus agrarius, to clarify the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among HTNV strains in the ROK. Of the eight species of rodents and one insectivore species captured, A. agrarius accounted for 93.4% and 88.5% at FP-10 and FP-60, respectively. Only two species of rodents, A. agrarius and Micromys minutus, were HTNV Ab+. The overall HTNV Ab+ prevalence for A. agrarius captured at FP-10 and FP-60 was 23.3% (121/520) and 14.5% (94/647), respectively. The hantaviral reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive rate of Ab+ A. agrarius was 74.2% (167/215), and the phylogenetic trees, based on the 269-nucleotide G2-encoding M segment, demonstrated that HTNV strains from FP-10 and FP-60 were distantly segregated from HTNV of other geographic regions in Korea and China. These data are useful in the development of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of hantavirus infections among military personnel, especially during training or the event of hostilities, and civilian populations.

  4. The application of micro-FTIR spectroscopy to analyze nutrient stress-related changes in biomass composition of phytoplankton algae.

    PubMed

    Stehfest, Katja; Toepel, Jörg; Wilhelm, Christian

    2005-07-01

    Micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study changes in spectral features of three species of Cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa, Croococcus minutus, and Nostoc sp.) and two Bacillariophyceae (Cyclotella meneghiniana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) in response to nutrient stress. The change of physiological state of the cells was followed during a 4-week starvation period on the basis of physiological key parameters and by means of FTIR spectroscopy. Changes in the integrated FTIR bands of cell spectra assigned to proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and silicate were used to calculate relative biomass composition. The results show that short-term acclimatization become visible at first in pigmentation and photosynthetic efficiency, whereas changes in biomass composition reflect long term modulation in the metabolism. Simultaneous monitoring of short term and long term stress acclimatization showed evidence that the metabolic strategies to cope with increasing nutrient limitation are highly species-specific. This species-specificity can only be resolved in natural phytoplankton samples by single cell techniques. The results show that the FTIR technique has the potential to become applicable for the determination of single cell biomass composition from natural phytoplankton communities.

  5. Updating algal evolutionary relationships through plastid genome sequencing: did alveolate plastids emerge through endosymbiosis of an ochrophyte?

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Sudek, Sebastian; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B Franz; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, Alexandra Z; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-05-28

    Algae with secondary plastids of a red algal origin, such as ochrophytes (photosynthetic stramenopiles), are diverse and ecologically important, yet their evolutionary history remains controversial. We sequenced plastid genomes of two ochrophytes, Ochromonas sp. CCMP1393 (Chrysophyceae) and Trachydiscus minutus (Eustigmatophyceae). A shared split of the clpC gene as well as phylogenomic analyses of concatenated protein sequences demonstrated that chrysophytes and eustigmatophytes form a clade, the Limnista, exhibiting an unexpectedly elevated rate of plastid gene evolution. Our analyses also indicate that the root of the ochrophyte phylogeny falls between the recently redefined Khakista and Phaeista assemblages. Taking advantage of the expanded sampling of plastid genome sequences, we revisited the phylogenetic position of the plastid of Vitrella brassicaformis, a member of Alveolata with the least derived plastid genome known for the whole group. The results varied depending on the dataset and phylogenetic method employed, but suggested that the Vitrella plastids emerged from a deep ochrophyte lineage rather than being derived vertically from a hypothetical plastid-bearing common ancestor of alveolates and stramenopiles. Thus, we hypothesize that the plastid in Vitrella, and potentially in other alveolates, may have been acquired by an endosymbiosis of an early ochrophyte.

  6. Under-ice availability of phytoplankton lipids is key to freshwater zooplankton winter survival.

    PubMed

    Grosbois, Guillaume; Mariash, Heather; Schneider, Tobias; Rautio, Milla

    2017-09-14

    Shortening winter ice-cover duration in lakes highlights an urgent need for research focused on under-ice ecosystem dynamics and their contributions to whole-ecosystem processes. Low temperature, reduced light and consequent changes in autotrophic and heterotrophic resources alter the diet for long-lived consumers, with consequences on their metabolism in winter. We show in a survival experiment that the copepod Leptodiaptomus minutus in a boreal lake does not survive five months under the ice without food. We then report seasonal changes in phytoplankton, terrestrial and bacterial fatty acid (FA) biomarkers in seston and in four zooplankton species for an entire year. Phytoplankton FA were highly available in seston (2.6 µg L(-1)) throughout the first month under the ice. Copepods accumulated them in high quantities (44.8 µg mg dry weight(-1)), building lipid reserves that comprised up to 76% of body mass. Terrestrial and bacterial FA were accumulated only in low quantities (<2.5 µg mg dry weight(-1)). The results highlight the importance of algal FA reserve accumulation for winter survival as a key ecological process in the annual life cycle of the freshwater plankton community with likely consequences to the overall annual production of aquatic FA for higher trophic levels and ultimately for human consumption.

  7. A chromosomal analysis of eleven species of Gyrinidae (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347

  8. Relation of the insular claustrum to the neocortex in Insectivora.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz, O; Mamos, L

    1990-01-01

    The claustra of 9 species of Insectivora (Sorex araneus, Sorex minutus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Solenodon paradoxus, Neomys fodiens, Erinaceus europaeus, Talpa europaea, Desmana moschata, Potamogale velox) were investigated. In all examined animals we found two parts of the insular claustrum: the main part called by us the pars principalis and more medially situated lamina profunda claustri. In the "basal" Insectivora the main part is in close contact with the layer VIa of the neocortex. In some more developed "basal" and in all "progressive" Insectivora the area capsularis appears. Dorsolaterally it separates the main part of the insular claustrum from the neocortex and possesses, besides neurons, also numerous fibers of the extreme capsule. The above data strongly suggest that in the phylogenesis the insular claustrum originates from the cortex from which it gets separated by the extreme capsule. Lamina profunda claustri is rather a narrow band of neurons situated on the medial side of the pars principalis and mostly separated from it by a thin lamina of white substance. Lamina profunda is continuous with the layer VIb of the neocortex.

  9. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  10. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus) was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400–550 nm) and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm) where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird pred