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Sample records for pomatoschistus minutus pallas

  1. Effects of sewage effluent and ethynyl oestradiol upon molecular markers of oestrogenic exposure, maturation and reproductive success in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Craig D; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian M; Moffat, Colin F; Pirie, David; Robertson, Fiona; Stagg, Ronald M; Struthers, Susan

    2003-01-24

    Male fish in several UK estuaries are known to be exposed to oestrogenic contamination, and whilst a limited number of studies have shown that exposure to oestrogens can reduce the reproductive success of fish, the impact of environmentally relevant exposures is less clear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects of exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of a sewage effluent and the synthetic oestrogen 17alpha-ethynyl oestradiol (EE(2)) upon the reproductive success of a marine fish. Sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were exposed for 7 months to EE(2) or a sewage effluent containing known xeno-oestrogens (alkylphenol polyethoxylates) and bred using within treatment crosses. Nominal exposure concentrations were 6 ng l(-1) EE(2), 0.3 or 0.03% v/v sewage effluent. At the end of the breeding trials, expression of hepatic zona radiata protein (Zrp) and vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA were determined using two recently developed cDNA probes. Exposure to 6 ng l(-1) EE(2) induced Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression in male and female sand goby, impaired male maturation and reproductive behaviour, reduced female fecundity and reduced egg fertility. As a consequence, fertile egg production of the EE(2)-exposed population was reduced by 90%. Exposure to sewage effluent (0.3% v/v) increased adult mortality and female Zrp and Vtg mRNA expression, but did not induce male vitellogenesis. Exposure to EE(2) and 0.3% v/v sewage effluent impaired development of the male urogenital papilla. Fish exposed to 0.03% v/v sewage effluent produced more fertile eggs than those exposed to 0.3% effluent, or those receiving no effluent. It is concluded that male vitellogenesis in an oestrogenically exposed population may be accompanied by reduced reproductive success, but that it may not be indicative of altered reproductive output in a population exposed to an industrial sewage effluent. PMID:12505380

  2. Courtship sounds advertise species identity and male quality in sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. gobies.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Silvia S; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, Maria Clara P

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  3. Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, Silvia S.; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  4. Seasonal testicular changes in Dendropsophus minutus Peters, 1872 (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adelina; Mehanna, Mahmoud

    2012-08-01

    The reproductive cycle in anurans may be either continuous or discontinuous. These differences may be connected to seasonal climate changes and/or to anthropic activity. Forty adult male individuals of the Dendropsophus minutus species were collected during one year, in the municipality of Chapada dos Guimarães (Mato Grosso, Brazil). The testicles were studied under light and transmission electron microscopy. No variations were observed when the diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the thickness of the interstitial tissue were studied. However, changes in spermatogenesis were conspicuous and indicated that the reproductive cycle of D. minutus in Chapada dos Guimarães is discontinuous and seems related to variations in air temperature and rainfall. PMID:23185780

  5. Unexpected female preference for smaller males in the marbled goby Pomatoschistus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Santon, M; Sparaciari, S; Rasotto, M B

    2016-09-01

    The study tested the role of body size and of nest size in female mate choice in the marbled goby, Pomatoschistus marmoratus. The results show a female preference for smaller males, supporting the idea that smaller males may be preferred to larger ones in the absence of male-male competition. No effect of nest size was detected, suggesting that other nest characteristics, beyond nest size, may be implicated. PMID:27292828

  6. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus. PMID:27184908

  7. New records of Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983 (Hymenoptera: Orussidae) represent a significant western range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Tripodi, Amber; Szalanski, Allen; Dowling, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Orussus minutus is an uncommonly collected parasitoid sawfly known from the eastern United States. New information We report specimens Orussus minutus Middlekauff, 1983, from Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, and Manitoba, which represent new state and province records and significantly expand the known range of the species west from previous records; provide collection information for unpublished specimens housed in the United States National Museum collection, which includes new state records for West Virginia and Michigan; and report two specimens housed in the Biological Museum at Lund University that represent new state records for Connecticut. PMID:26379466

  8. Cantharimide dimers from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takafumi; Jinpo, Katsuaki; Noda, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Five cantharidin-related compounds were isolated from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS (Meloidae). Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Three of them were identified as cantharimide dimers, which consist of two units of cantharimide combined with a tri-, tetra-, or penta-methylene group.

  9. Cantharimide dimers from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Takafumi; Jinpo, Katsuaki; Noda, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Five cantharidin-related compounds were isolated from the Chinese blister beetle, Mylabris phalerate PALLAS (Meloidae). Their structures were determined based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Three of them were identified as cantharimide dimers, which consist of two units of cantharimide combined with a tri-, tetra-, or penta-methylene group. PMID:17202708

  10. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus.

    PubMed

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J; Orrico, Victor G D; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J R; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F B; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. PMID:25208078

  11. High levels of diversity uncovered in a widespread nominal taxon: continental phylogeography of the neotropical tree frog Dendropsophus minutus.

    PubMed

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J; Orrico, Victor G D; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J R; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J M; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F B; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered.

  12. High Levels of Diversity Uncovered in a Widespread Nominal Taxon: Continental Phylogeography of the Neotropical Tree Frog Dendropsophus minutus

    PubMed Central

    Gehara, Marcelo; Crawford, Andrew J.; Orrico, Victor G. D.; Rodríguez, Ariel; Lötters, Stefan; Fouquet, Antoine; Barrientos, Lucas S.; Brusquetti, Francisco; De la Riva, Ignacio; Ernst, Raffael; Urrutia, Giuseppe Gagliardi; Glaw, Frank; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Hölting, Monique; Jansen, Martin; Kok, Philippe J. R.; Kwet, Axel; Lingnau, Rodrigo; Lyra, Mariana; Moravec, Jiří; Pombal, José P.; Rojas-Runjaic, Fernando J. M.; Schulze, Arne; Señaris, J. Celsa; Solé, Mirco; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Twomey, Evan; Haddad, Celio F. B.; Vences, Miguel; Köhler, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. PMID:25208078

  13. Size, Shape and Surface of Pallas from Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Britney; Thomas, Peter C.; Bauer, James; Li, Jian-Yang; McFadden, Lucy A.; Mutchler, Max; Parker, Joel Wm.; Rivkin, Andrew; Russell, Christopher; Stern, S. Alan

    Pallas is the least explored of the three major asteroids. Since a 1983 Pallas occultation, the asteroid's size and shape have been debated. Thus, the asteroid's density, an important indicator of its internal structure, is also unconstrained. Historical size estimates of semi-axes have varied, from 287 x 262 x 250.5 ±10 km [4] to 275±3 x 252.5±2 x 234±9 km [3]. The densities that derive from these estimates span 2954-3444 kg/m3 , using a mass estimate of 1.17±0.3x10-10 Msun [5]. In addition, Pallas' pole position and sense of rotation has not been accurately constrained. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images, these physical characteristics have been determined for both Ceres and Vesta. In September of 2007 we observed Pallas at opposition with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera (WFPC2) camera on HST. During this epoch, Pallas was 0.326" wide at a phase of ˜4.3° . Images were taken in five broad filters at 336nm (UV), 435nm (B), 555nm (V), 675nm (R), and 815nm (I). WFPC2 has an angular pixel scale of 0.045" resulting in ˜70 km/pixel in the final images. Surface variation. We produced light curves of Pallas' brightness as a function of rotation. The shape of the light curves in the B, V, R and I filters is similar, but the UV light curve departs from this trend, with potential albedo features near 285 degrees and near 75 degrees W longitude. With a light curve amplitude of ˜0.1 and an a/b axes ratio of 1.04, only 0.04 magnitude amplitude can be derived from shape alone. The amplitude due to albedo variation is therefore expected to be ˜0.06 magnitudes. Shape and pole position. The pole position and shape were obtained primarily from limb coordinates as Pallas rotated and some stereo control of faint surface markings. Similar techniques are reported in [9]. The resulting size and pole position are semiaxes of 291 x 278 x 250±9 km and RA= 34, Dec =-11, ±10o for the positive pole. The pole solution is in good agreement with the two most

  14. Detecting genomic damages in the frog Dendropsophus minutus: preserved versus perturbed areas.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M W; Vieira, T B; Maciel, N M; Carvalho, W F; Lima, L S F; Gambale, P G; da Cruz, A D; Nomura, F; Bastos, R P; Silva, D M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to use the comet assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) and micronucleus test to assess the extent of genomic damage in the whole blood of Dendropsophus minutus from agroecosystems with great use of agrochemicals and to compare the results to those obtained from animals living in unpolluted areas. Our results indicated that specimens of D. minutus collected in perturbed areas exhibited higher amounts of DNA damage in blood cells in comparison to animals from areas free of agricultural activities. The average and standard deviation of all comet assay parameters (tail length, percentage of DNA in the tail, and olive tail moment) and micronuclei frequency were significantly higher in specimens collected in perturbed areas than in the animals from preserved areas. Our study showed that animals from perturbed areas, such as agroecosystems, tend to have higher amounts of DNA damage than animals from reference areas. Moreover, we can conclude that D. minutus tadpoles could be included as a model organism in biomonitoring studies. PMID:25300186

  15. Intrapopulational distribution of Meiogymnophallus minutus (Digenea, Gymnophallidae) infections in its first and second intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Fermer, Jan; Culloty, Sarah C; Kelly, Thomas C; O'Riordan, Ruth M

    2009-10-01

    Host size and age are generally assumed to play a pivotal role in digenean trematode infection patterns, accounting for much of the variation found within intermediate host populations. However, knowledge is based on a limited number of studied host-parasite systems. We investigated the shell length class distribution of Meiogymnophallus minutus infections within populations of the first intermediate host Scrobicularia plana and second intermediate host Cerastoderma edule. Infections occurred very early in the life of the two intermediate hosts. Both prevalence and intensity of infections increased with host shell length and displayed extremely high values amongst large individuals. Whilst metacercarial infection patterns in juvenile C. edule could be best explained by differences in host shell length, in adult cockles, the effect of host age on infection levels prevailed. The microsporidian hyperparasite Unikaryon legeri, occurring in the metacercarial stage of M. minutus, was particularly abundant in aged cockles, strongly influencing infection patterns of the gymnophallid. Our results are consistent with the intrapopulational distribution reported from other digenean trematode parasites. The relative influence of both host size and age and the underlying mechanisms as well as the impact of hyperparasitism on M. minutus infection patterns are discussed. PMID:19575218

  16. Temporal variation of Meiogymnophallus minutus infections in the first and second intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Fermer, J; Culloty, S C; Kelly, T C; O'Riordan, R M

    2010-12-01

    In order to study seasonal patterns of Meiogymnophallus minutus infections in its intermediate hosts, bivalve samples were collected monthly between April 2008 and March 2009 from a high intertidal flat at Courtmacsherry Bay, Ireland. Infection rates in the first intermediate host Scrobicularia plana did not fluctuate significantly with season. Completely developed M. minutus cercariae appeared in daughter sporocysts from June and prevailed from July to October, indicating that transmission of M. minutus from its first to its second intermediate host is confined to this period of the year. All analysed individuals of the second intermediate host Cerastoderma edule were found to be infected with metacercariae. Infection levels significantly increased in September, suggesting recent cercarial invasions. Throughout the year, the majority of metacercariae were hyperinfected by the pathogenic microsporidian Unikaryon legeri. Spreading of hyperinfections was confined to spring and summer. Newly settled metacercariae were not affected by hyperparasitism and presumably retained their infectivity for half a year. Our findings suggest that the spreading of hyperinfections is correlated with higher water temperatures and that the entire metacercarial population has to rebuild every year as a consequence of hyperparasite-induced mortality. PMID:20113534

  17. Intrapopulational distribution of Meiogymnophallus minutus (Digenea, Gymnophallidae) infections in its first and second intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Fermer, Jan; Culloty, Sarah C; Kelly, Thomas C; O'Riordan, Ruth M

    2009-10-01

    Host size and age are generally assumed to play a pivotal role in digenean trematode infection patterns, accounting for much of the variation found within intermediate host populations. However, knowledge is based on a limited number of studied host-parasite systems. We investigated the shell length class distribution of Meiogymnophallus minutus infections within populations of the first intermediate host Scrobicularia plana and second intermediate host Cerastoderma edule. Infections occurred very early in the life of the two intermediate hosts. Both prevalence and intensity of infections increased with host shell length and displayed extremely high values amongst large individuals. Whilst metacercarial infection patterns in juvenile C. edule could be best explained by differences in host shell length, in adult cockles, the effect of host age on infection levels prevailed. The microsporidian hyperparasite Unikaryon legeri, occurring in the metacercarial stage of M. minutus, was particularly abundant in aged cockles, strongly influencing infection patterns of the gymnophallid. Our results are consistent with the intrapopulational distribution reported from other digenean trematode parasites. The relative influence of both host size and age and the underlying mechanisms as well as the impact of hyperparasitism on M. minutus infection patterns are discussed.

  18. Biomarkers of endocrine disruption in juveniles and females of the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps.

    PubMed

    Dias, Lídia C A; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Ferreira, Abel L G; Santos, Cátia S; Monteiro, Marta S

    2014-07-15

    The presence of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic compartments, including estuaries, has been object of major concern. However, the effects of EDCs on autochthonous estuarine fish species are far less known than in freshwater fish. Therefore, the response of biomarkers in the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps was evaluated after 21-days of exposure to different EDCs: 17β-estradiol (E2); PCB-77 and p,p'DDE. In juveniles, Vtg (vitellogenin)-like proteins were significantly induced by E2. PCB-77 led to a decrease of Vtg-like proteins in juveniles, while in female liver they increased at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting a mode of action of PCB-77 that depends on the fish life stage. p,p'-DDE did not induce significant changes in Vtg-like proteins. Overall, P. microps juveniles seemed to respond to environmental relevant concentrations of EDCs. Thus, the evaluation of Vtg-like proteins in this life stage seems to be a promising tool to track EDC contamination in biomonitoring studies.

  19. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A

    2009-10-01

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration.

  20. The shape and surface variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B E; Thomas, P C; Bauer, J M; Li, J-Y; McFadden, L A; Mutchler, M J; Radcliffe, S C; Rivkin, A S; Russell, C T; Parker, J Wm; Stern, S A

    2009-10-01

    We obtained Hubble Space Telescope images of 2 Pallas in September 2007 that reveal distinct color and albedo variations across the surface of this large asteroid. Pallas's shape is an ellipsoid with radii of 291 (+/-9), 278 (+/-9), and 250 (+/-9) kilometers, implying a density of 2400 (+/-250) kilograms per cubic meter-a value consistent with a body that formed from water-rich material. Our observations are consistent with the presence of an impact feature, 240 (+/-25) kilometers in diameter, within Pallas's ultraviolet-dark terrain. Our observations imply that Pallas is an intact protoplanet that has undergone impact excavation and probable internal alteration. PMID:19815773

  1. Dronedarone-digoxin interaction in PALLAS: A foxglove connection?

    PubMed Central

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Farouk, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    In the Permanent Atrial Fibrillation Outcome Study Using Dronedarone on Top of Standard Therapy (PALLAS) study, dronedarone use was associated with an excess risk of stroke, cardiovascular death and hospitalizations. However, an increased level in the serum digoxin level was observed in the dronedarone arm, as it is a potent inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein transport system. The PALLAS subanalysis suggests that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These data are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. One must consider other safer alternatives before prescribing digoxin in atrial fibrillation patients. PMID:25830148

  2. Environmental variables, habitat discontinuity and life history shaping the genetic structure of Pomatoschistus marmoratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Vergara-Chen, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Coastal lagoons are semi-isolated ecosystems exposed to wide fluctuations of environmental conditions and showing habitat fragmentation. These features may play an important role in separating species into different populations, even at small spatial scales. In this study, we evaluate the concordance between mitochondrial (previous published data) and nuclear data analyzing the genetic variability of Pomatoschistus marmoratus in five localities, inside and outside the Mar Menor coastal lagoon (SE Spain) using eight microsatellites. High genetic diversity and similar levels of allele richness were observed across all loci and localities, although significant genic and genotypic differentiation was found between populations inside and outside the lagoon. In contrast to the F ST values obtained from previous mitochondrial DNA analyses (control region), the microsatellite data exhibited significant differentiation among samples inside the Mar Menor and between lagoonal and marine samples. This pattern was corroborated using Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances. The habitat fragmentation inside the coastal lagoon and among lagoon and marine localities could be acting as a barrier to gene flow and contributing to the observed genetic structure. Our results from generalized additive models point a significant link between extreme lagoonal environmental conditions (mainly maximum salinity) and P. marmoratus genetic composition. Thereby, these environmental features could be also acting on genetic structure of coastal lagoon populations of P. marmoratus favoring their genetic divergence. The mating strategy of P. marmoratus could be also influencing our results obtained from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Therefore, a special consideration must be done in the selection of the DNA markers depending on the reproductive strategy of the species.

  3. Dr. Nicholas Ionescu-Pallas at His 70-th Anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Valentin I.

    The article is devoted to 70-th Anniversary of Dr. Nicholas Ionescu-Pallas (borne on July 30, 1932 in Pallas village close to the town of Constanţa, Romania as the son of Ion Ionescu and Maria Dincă), an outstanding Romanian physicist with contributuions in a large area of theoretical and experimental physics, from Theoretical Classical and Quantum Mechanics to General Relativity and Gravitation. He was graduated from the University of Bucharest (1955), a disciple of Professor Ion Agârbiceanu, Doctor of Physics in 1971. He is the author of more than 300 scientific papers and 3 fundamental monographs in these areas, unique in Romania, and of great international circulation. He was one of the creators of the First Romanian Laser. He was elected the Honorary President of the Romanian Society on Genereal Relativity and Gravitation. A great erudition by Ionescu-Pallas allowed him to make also contributions in History of Sciencs. He has been a member of the Academic Commitee for the Philosophy and history of science, of the European Physical Society (1971), of the European Group for Atomic spectroscopy (1970), of the Institute for Scientific Culture E. Majorana (1976), of the International Society of Gravitation and General Relativity (1978) and of the Astronomical Society of India (1982). He was a representative of the intellectuals in the Scientific Council of the Institute for Atomic Physics, 1970-1975; a member of the National Commitee for physics in 1970, and a member of the Coordinating Commitee for the Romanian Enclclopaedia of Physics in 1983. His biographical data are available in Men of Achievement, Who's Who in the World, and Short History of the Romanian Scientific and Technical Creativeness.

  4. Pallas From The NUV To IR: A 4-Telescope Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Britney E.; Thomas, P. C.; Bauer, J. M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Li, J. Y.; McFadden, L. A.; Mutchler, M. J.; Parker, J. W.; Stern, S. A.; Hicks, M. D.

    2008-09-01

    In July through September of 2007, we observed the third largest asteroid 2 Pallas from NUV-IR with Hubble Space Telescope, Palomar Observatory's 200-inch Hale Telescope, IRTF and Table Mountain Observatory. Using WFPC2/PC on HST, we determined Pallas’ size, shape and rotation pole: 291 x 278 x 250 km(±9), RA= 42o, Dec=-12o, (±10o). Employing the mass estimate of 1.17x10-10 +/- 0.03 Msun [1], Pallas’ density then becomes 2747 +/- 290 kg/m3, intermediate between basaltic Vesta and icy Ceres. This size is larger than most previous measurements that range from 287 x 262 x 250.5 km, ±10; km [2] to 275±3; x 252.5±2; x 234±9; km [3], with densities from 2.95-3.44 g/cm3. We explore the implications of Pallas' size and density. Pallas’ surface from the UV to the IR was characterized using HST, TMO, IRTF and Palomar. We observed Pallas with WFPC2 in 5 filters from 336 to 814nm in September 2007, and include the 2001 WFPC2 data of Storrs from 439-1042nm. We combined these with observations from TMO and will present Pallas’ colors, reflectance and phase curve. We observe surface variation of 6% in the NUV-visible light curve amplitudes, greater than previous limits from ground based AO. We will also present photometry and a phase curve from Palomar in the near-IR. Pallas’ spectrum has long been known to contain hydrated minerals[4], and we obtained new spectra from IRTF in the 3-micron region centered at different sub-Earth latitudes and longitudes. The spectra are consistent with one another within uncertainties, suggesting similar amounts of hydrated minerals across Pallas' surface on regional and hemispheric scales. [1] Goffin, B. (2001) Astronomy & Astrophysics 365, 627-630. [2] Dunham et al. (1990) Astronomical Journal 99, 1636-1652. [3] Drummond, J. D., personal communication. [4] Larson, H.P., et al. (1979) Icarus 39, 257-271.

  5. Toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) raised in captivity.

    PubMed

    Basso, W; Edelhofer, R; Zenker, W; Möstl, K; Kübber-Heiss, A; Prosl, H

    2005-03-01

    Manuls or Pallas' cats (Felis manul, syn. Otocolobus manul) are endangered wild cats from Central Asia kept and bred in many zoos. Despite good breeding success young cats frequently die from acute toxoplasmosis. From 1998 to 2002, a breeding pair in the Schönbrunn Zoo in Vienna, Austria, gave birth to 24 kittens; 58 % of kittens died between the 2nd and the 14th week of life, mostly due to acute toxoplasmosis. The epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Pallas' cats was examined and a control strategy to protect the kittens from fatal toxoplasmosis was developed. One 12-week-old kitten from a litter of 6 born in 2001 died of generalized toxoplasmosis. This kitten had shed T. gondii oocysts that were bioassayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated in tissue culture inoculated with tissues of these mice. The surviving animals were immediately treated with clindamycin for 16 weeks; they acquired a natural infection and seroconverted by the end of this time without clinical signs.

  6. Histological aspects and structural characteristics of the testes of Dendropsophus minutus (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    de Souza Santos, Lia Raquel; de Oliveira, Classius

    2008-12-01

    The present study describes morphological aspects of testes and presents a general characterization of the seminiferous elements of Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872). Twenty samples of the species were used; after macroscopic descriptions the testes were submitted to histological routine for microscopic analysis. Anatomically, the testes measured 1.90+/-0.13 mm, and were oval and milky-white. In relation to microscopic aspects, it was observed in D. minutus, as well as in anuran amphibians, that spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubule where elements of the germ epithelium are organized in spermatogenetic cysts. Each cyst contains cells in the same stage of differentiation. Characterization of each cellular type enables the identification and differentiation of germ lineage cells. Spermatogonia I, found at the epithelial base, are the largest of the lineage cells and are usually present in association with Sertoli cells present next to the basal membrane. During the mitotic proliferation phase, cysts containing variable numbers of spermatocytes II are originated; these spermatocytes are smaller and similar inside the cyst. Spermatocytes I are developed after some morphological changes; these spermatocytes are large cells with a spherical nucleus and different degrees of nuclear compaction. Spermatocytes II, highly numerous cells resultant from the first meiotic division, are much smaller than their antecedents. A second meiotic division produces haploid cell formation, specifically spermatids I, which through cellular differentiation form spermatids II. Spermatids II are elongated and organized in bundles supported by Sertoli cells. Spermatozoids appear during the spermiogenesis process and in their most advanced stage they lose their fascicular organization and are released in the tubular lumen, where they follow a pathway through the duct system. PMID:18462944

  7. The size and shape of (2) Pallas from the 1983 occultation of 1 Vulpeculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J. B.; Binzel, R. P.; Evans, D. S.; Freuh, M.; Henry, G. W.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Schnurr, R. G.; Betts, R.; Haynes, H.; Orcutt, R.; Bowell, E.; Wasserman, L. H.; Nye, R. A.; Giclas, H. L.; Chapman, C. R.; Dietz, R. D.; Moncivais, C.; Douglass, W. T.; Parker, D. C.; Beish, J. D.; Martin, J. O.; Monger, D. R.; Hubbard, W. B.; Reitsema, H. J.; Klemola, A. R.; Lee, P. D.; McNamara, B. R.; Maley, P. D.; Manly, P.; Markworth, N. L.; Nolthenius, R.; Swalt, T. D.; Smith, J. A.; Strother, E. F.; Povenmire, H. R.; Purrington, R. D.; Trenary, C.; Schneider, G. H.; Schuster, W. J.; Moreno, M. A.; Guichard, J.; Sanchez, G. R.; Taylor, G. E.; Upgren, A. R.; van Flandern, T. C.

    1990-05-01

    The analysis and results of an occultation of the spectroscopic binary star 1 Vulpeculae by the asteroid (2) Pallas, observed from 130 locations, are presented. Combination of solutions from this and previous occultations shows the triaxial shape of Pallas to be elongated, but not severely, with the ratio of the largest to the smallest axes being less than 1.15. The data provide a separation and a position angle of the secondary component of 1 Vulpeculae and indicate that the star's actual parallax is probably near 0.008 arcsec, half of the published value. The analysis gives a calibration of the accuracy and the reaction time corrections for visual observations of asteroidal occultations. The absence of any confirmed secondary extinctions shows that any satellites of Pallas must be rare or small. The photometric observations seem to rule out a substantial cloud of dust surrounding Pallas postulated previously.

  8. Exploring the ecologic basis for extreme susceptibility of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) to fatal toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith; Lappin, Michael R; Brown, Janine L; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Swanson, William F

    2005-10-01

    Recent efforts by North American zoos to establish a genetically viable captive population of Pallas' cats (Otocolobus manul) have been compromised by high newborn mortality (approximately 60%), primarily because of toxoplasmosis. The basis for this extreme susceptibility to toxoplasmosis is unknown. In the present study, the general health status of wild Pallas' cats in Mongolia was evaluated, including assessment of basal hematologic parameters and fecal corticoid metabolite concentrations. The prevalence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Mongolian Pallas' cats, local domestic cats, and prey species also was determined based on serology and/or polymerase chain reaction analysis. Biologic samples (blood, feces, and/or brain tissue) were obtained from 15 wild Pallas' cats, 15 domestic cats, and 45 prey animals (rodents and pikas) captured in Mongolia during the summers of 2000 and 2001. Comparative data were obtained from nine captive Pallas' cats maintained in North American zoos. Based on physical examinations, complete blood counts, and blood chemistry analyses, only minor differences were observed in the general health status of wild and captive Pallas' cats. Fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between populations, indicating that Pallas' cats in captivity and in the wild have similar basal adrenocortical activity. A pronounced difference (P < 0.01) in seroprevalence to T. gondii was observed between populations. Whereas all captive Pallas' cats exhibited elevated immunoglobulin titers (IgG > 2,048) to T. gondii, only two of 15 (13%) wild Pallas' cats were seropositive, with both cats having lower IgG titers (< 1,024). Furthermore, no evidence of exposure to this parasite was found in any of the Mongolian domestic cats or prey species. These findings suggest that wild Pallas' cats have minimal opportunity for exposure to T. gondii in their natural habitat and, typically, do not become infected with this parasite until being

  9. Macroparasites of Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) introduced into Europe.

    PubMed

    Dozières, A; Pisanu, B; Gerriet, O; Lapeyre, C; Stuyck, J; Chapuis, J-L

    2010-08-27

    Introduced pets released in natura can lead to sanitary risks for native fauna and humans. We analysed the macroparasite fauna of a total of 49 Pallas's squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus, from two populations introduced into urbanised areas in Europe (n=16 female symbol and 13 male symbol from Antibes, France, 43 degrees 33'N-7 degrees 7'E; n=11 female symbol and 9 male symbol in from Dadizele, Belgium, 50 degrees 52'N-3 degrees 5'E). Of the 185 identified ectoparasites from Antibes, 183 were sucking lice Enderleinellus kumadai, with male squirrels 10 times more intensely infested than females. The flea Nosopsyllus fasciatus was found on two hosts. No hard ticks were recovered. Of the 131 arthropods specimens from Dadizele, 45 belonged to E. kumadai, with male squirrels three times more intensely infested than females. Eighty-six arthropods belonged to another sucking louse, Hoplopleura erismata, with males infested twice as intensely as females. No fleas or hard ticks were found. We only found 12 immature Hymenolepis sp. cestodes in the small intestine of three squirrels from Antibes and two immature Mastophorus sp. female nematodes in the stomach of a squirrel from Dadizele. We found no other helminths in the body cavity, heart, lung, liver, kidney or bladder. The macroparasite fauna of these two squirrel populations is consistent with what is expected from an introduced host, i.e., a few species dominated by specialist taxa imported with founders. The scarcity of other rodent species in the urbanized areas where Pallas's squirrels were sampled may explain the low variety of newly acquired macroparasites. The discrepancy in sucking lice infestations between males and females could be due to differences in either behaviour or physiology in this non-sexually dimorphic host. Based on the macroparasites found in this study, we expect minimal sanitary risks for both native fauna and humans in urbanized habitats such as those in our study.

  10. Uroptychus minutus Benedict, 1902 and a closely related new species (Crustacea: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Baba, Keiji; Wicksten, Mary

    2015-01-01

    A new squat lobster, Uroptychus marissae, is described based upon two specimens taken associated with the antipatharian Tanacetipathes sp. from the northern Gulf of Mexico, at a depth of about 90 m. It closely resembles U. minutus Benedict, 1902, known only from the type material from off Trinidad. The original description is so brief that an opportunity is taken here to redescribe it to help discriminate between the two species. PMID:26249067

  11. [Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811). The structure of the organic world and the notion of species. On the bicentenary of the death of P. S. Pallas].

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    An attempt has been made in the current paper to dispel two myths concerning Peter Simon Pallas, myths which have led historians of biology to distort the picture of some of the general biological ideas developed by that eminent naturalist of the Age of Enlightenment. The first point dealt with in the paper involves the myth that Pallas had allegedly drafted a 'tree of life' diagram, one of the many graphic representations of this kind to appear in later times, illustrating the structure of the organic world. The tree, of which Pallas merely left a short description (but not a depiction), took--in the articles of authors who wrote about it--a variety of graphic forms (largely dependent on the authors' pictorial inventiveness), with all the authors assuring the readers that they illustrated their reasoning with the help of Pallas's tree of life, but never mentioning that it was they themseIves who had drawn it. The current paper presents a juxtaposition of a number of such diagrams, drawn by different authors: the great diversity of the diagrams is sufficient proof that the existence of one, original 'Pallas tree' is just a myth. Another aspect of the myth has to do with the view that the tree supposedly illustrated phylogenetic dependencies - in fact, Pallas described affinity relationships between groups in the animal world. The present paper investigates how the 'tree of life' myth has developed, and reveals the mechanism that has most likely led to the myth being perpetuated in writings on the history of biology. The second issue discussed in the current paper relates to the myth of how Pallas's general views on biology allegedly evolved. The naturalist was supposed to have moved from transformism (characteristic of early stages of his work) to the idea of the immutability of species, formed in the period of his full scientific maturity. The current paper proves, inter alia on the basis of little known and not easily accessible writings by the scholar, that

  12. Germ cell dynamics during the annual reproductive cycle of Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, Lia Raquel de Souza; Franco-Belussi, Lilian; de Oliveira, Classius

    2011-11-01

    Thirty male specimens of Dendropsophus minutus Peters, 1972, were collected from April 2004 to March 2005 in the region de Sao José do Rio Preto/SP, to conduct a histological study during the seasonal and annual cycles. Testicular activity was inferred based on the volume occupied by each type of cellular cyst present in the seminiferous tubules, as well as the quantity of germ cells in the final development stage, the spermatozoids. All data analyzed were correlated with climatic variables (temperature, rainfall and photoperiod) registered in the region where specimens were collected. A significant variation was verified in the quantity of spermatozoids as well as in the volume occupied by spermatids and spermatozoids throughout the year and between the cold/dry and hot/ humid seasons. It has also been reported that environmental conditions are important factors closely related to species reproduction and that production of germ cells and volume occupied by germ cysts is independent of anatomical aspect of the gonads. Thus, it was possible to verify that although the species reproduces throughout the year, individuals exhibit a preferential reproduction season, resulting in a reproductive (October to the end of February) and a post-reproductive period. PMID:22035307

  13. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  14. The presence of morphologically intermediate papilla syndrome in United Kingdom populations of sand goby (Pomatoschistus spp): endocrine disruption?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Mark F; Bignell, John; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian; Dyer, Robert A; Feist, Steven W; Jones, Gary; Matthiessen, Peter; Megginson, Colin; Robertson, Fiona E; Robinson, Craig

    2003-02-01

    The sand goby (Pomatoschistus spp.) is a small estuarine fish. Its abundance, life history, and sedentary nature lead to its adoption as a key species in the U.K. Endocrine Disruption in the Marine Environment (EDMAR) Program. This study investigated the presence of classic markers of estrogenic exposure by determining vitellogenin (VTG) and zona radiata protein (ZRP) mRNA levels and ovotestis in estuarine-caught male gobies and investigated morphological changes in the urogenital papilla (UGP). Laboratory exposures to estrogens were also conducted to ascertain the responses of these markers. Wild-caught male fish showed no evidence of ovotestis, VTG, or ZRP mRNA induction. Laboratory exposures suggested that sensitivity of the goby to VTG/ ZRP mRNA induction was similar to flounder. The UGP inspection of wild-caught specimens revealed evidence of feminization of male papillae, a condition denoted as morphologically intermediate papilla syndrome (MIPS). Morphologically intermediate papilla syndrome was more prevalent at estrogenically contaminated sites. Juvenile goby experimentally exposed to 17beta-estradiol for 11 to 32 weeks exhibited signs of the MIPS condition, showing that it was inducible by estrogenic exposure and could therefore be a form of estrogenic endocrine disruption. The estuaries where the MIPS condition was most prevalent (>50% at certain sites) were the Tees, Mersey, and Clyde. The potential of the MIPS condition to significantly interfere with reproductive performance is discussed as well as its use as a monitoring tool for endocrine disruption in the estuarine environment.

  15. Overlapping patterns of morphometric and genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean goby Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 (Perciformes, Gobiidae) in Tunisian lagoons.

    PubMed

    Mejri, Randa; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hassine, Nesrine; Arculeo, Marco; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and morphological variations of Pomatoschistus tortonesei Miller, 1968 were studied in samples collected from three Tunisian lagoons. The morphological analysis included 18 morphometric measurements and was based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), whereas the genetic analysis was based on the 16S-rRNA and COI mitochondrial genes. Both analyses differentiated the populations and demonstrated consistently a well-supported differentiation between the western Mediterranean samples (Bizerta and Tunis South lagoons) and the eastern Mediterranean sample (El Bibane lagoon). The observed differentiation could be explained in terms of the geographic isolation of the various populations and the influence of environmental factors, which differ greatly between the different sites. The molecular results revealed that the populations are characterised by unique haplotypes which are well defined in relation to limited gene flow and restricted dispersal abilities. Additionally, it seems that local selective pressures have modelled biometrical variation. Morphological results can reflect a differential habitat use revealed in the cephalic features and a different response to hydrodynamic constraints developed in dissimilar dorsal and pelvic fin lengths.

  16. Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P. minutus parasite enhances their predation by definitive bird hosts.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  17. Non-Specific Manipulation of Gammarid Behaviour by P. minutus Parasite Enhances Their Predation by Definitive Bird Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin, Lisa; Mori, Quentin; Pause, Mickaël; Steffen, Mélanie; Medoc, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a “collateral damage”, manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies. Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk. We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. minutus-infected gammarids was specific to the type of predator (i.e. mallard as definitive host and fish as non-host), and mesocosm experiments to test whether trophic transmission to bird hosts was influenced by non-host predation risk. Based on the behaviours we investigated (predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction), we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator (mallard or fish). During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator. Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds (the definitive hosts of P. minutus), such a manipulation

  18. Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemoproteidae): complete sporogony in the biting midge Culicoides impunctatus (Ceratopogonidae), with implications on epidemiology of haemoproteosis.

    PubMed

    Ziegytė, Rita; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Bernotienė, Rasa; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2014-10-01

    Species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteidae) are cosmopolitan haemosporidian parasites, some of which cause severe diseases in birds. Numerous recent studies address molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of haemoproteids. However, the information about their vectors is scarce. We investigated sporogonic development of two widespread species of Haemoproteus (Haemoproteus minutus and Haemoproteus belopolskyi) in the experimentally infected biting midge Culicoides impunctatus. Wild-caught flies were allowed to take blood meals on naturally infected common blackbirds Turdus merula and icterine warblers Hippolais icterina harboring mature gametocytes of H. minutus (lineage hTURDUS2) and H. belopolskyi (hHIICT1), respectively. The engorged flies were collected, transported to the laboratory, held at 15-18°C, and dissected daily in order to obtain ookinetes, oocysts and sporozoites. Mature ookinetes of H. minutus developed blisteringly rapidly; they were numerous in the midgut content between 1 and 4 h post exposure. Ookinetes of H. belopolskyi developed slower and were reported 1 day post exposure (dpe). Oocysts of both parasites were seen in the midgut wall 3-4 dpe. Sporozoites of H. minutus and H. belopolskyi were first observed in the salivary glands preparations 7 dpe. The percentage of experimentally infected flies with sporozoites of H. minutus was 82.1% and 91.7% with H. belopolskyi. In accordance with microscopy data, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed presence of the corresponding parasite lineages in experimentally infected biting midges. Sporogonic stages of these parasites were described and illustrated. This study indicates that C. impunctatus is involved in the transmission of deadly H. minutus, which kills captive parrots in Europe. This biting midge is an important vector of avian haemoproteids and worth more attention in epidemiology research of avian haemoproteosis. PMID:25102434

  19. Penial morphology in three species of Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus, C. minutus, and C. flamarioni (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae).

    PubMed

    Rocha-Barbosa, O; Bernardo, J S L; Loguercio, M F C; Freitas, T R O; Santos-Mallet, J R; Bidau, C J

    2013-02-01

    The present study analyses the glans penis and baculum morphology of three Brazilian tuco-tucos, Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830, Ctenomys minutus Nehring, 1887 and Ctenomys flamarioni Travi, 1981, in order to identify possible variations and understand some more about this taxonomically complex group. We used fixed penis from 15 previously listed adult specimens. For a more detailed baculum analysis, the penis underwent dissection and diaphanisation, whereas to analyse the glans penis surface we used Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results showed striking differences in baculum morphology among the three species. While C. minutus have a particular V-shaped proximal baculum tip, C. flamarioni baculum is thin throughout the shaft with rounded proximal and distal tips. Ctenomys torquatus have a shorter and larger baculum, similar to what has previously been described for the species. Glans penis surface microstructure analyses also revealed inter-specific differences, with penial spines varying in shape, size and, especially density. Although C. torquatus has a relatively small penis, it has the largest penial spine density, which suggests a more complex penial ornamentation in this species.

  20. [Mycobacteria in the digestive tract of pink Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas)].

    PubMed

    Rollin, P E; Rollin, D; Baylet, R; Johnson, A R

    1981-01-01

    Cloacal swabs were taken from 37 young wild Greater Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus, Pallas) in Camargue (South of France). Neither pathogenic strain, nor environmental one were found. The absence of the latter could be attributed to the high NaCl levels of the ecosystems.

  1. Effects of multi-stressors on juveniles of the marine fish Pomatoschistus microps: Gold nanoparticles, microplastics and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Carvalho, Felix; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on multi-stressors effects required for environmental and human risk assessments is still limited. This study investigated the combined effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), microplastics (MP) and temperature increase on Pomatoschistus microps, an important prey for several higher level predators, including some species edible to humans. Four null hypotheses were tested: H01: P. microps juveniles do not take up Au-NP through the water; H02: Au-NP (ppb range) are not toxic to juveniles; H03: the presence of MP do not influence the effects of Au-NP on juveniles; H04: temperature increase (20-25°C) does not change the effects of the tested chemicals on juveniles. Wild juveniles were acclimated to laboratory conditions. Then, they were exposed to Au-NP (≈5nm diameter) and MP (polyethylene spheres, 1-5μm diameter), alone and in mixture, at 20°C and 25°C, in semi-static conditions. After 96h of exposure to Au-NP, fish had gold in their body (0.129-0.546μg/g w.w.) leading to H01 refusal. Exposure to Au-NP alone caused a predatory performance decrease (≈-39%, p<0.05) leading to H02 refusal. MP did not change the Au-NP toxicity leading to H03 acceptance. Temperature rise significantly increased the concentration of gold in fish exposed to Au-NP (≈2.3 fold), and interacted with chemical effects (e.g. glutathione S-transferases activity) leading to H04 refusal. Thus, the results of this study highlight the importance of further investigating the effects of multi-stressors on marine fish, particularly the effects of temperature on the uptake, biotransformation, elimination and effects of nanoparticles and microplastics, either alone or in mixture. This knowledge is most important to improve the basis for environmental and human risk assessments of these environmental contaminants of high concern. PMID:26642093

  2. Effects of multi-stressors on juveniles of the marine fish Pomatoschistus microps: Gold nanoparticles, microplastics and temperature.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Soares, M Elisa; Carvalho, Felix; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on multi-stressors effects required for environmental and human risk assessments is still limited. This study investigated the combined effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NP), microplastics (MP) and temperature increase on Pomatoschistus microps, an important prey for several higher level predators, including some species edible to humans. Four null hypotheses were tested: H01: P. microps juveniles do not take up Au-NP through the water; H02: Au-NP (ppb range) are not toxic to juveniles; H03: the presence of MP do not influence the effects of Au-NP on juveniles; H04: temperature increase (20-25°C) does not change the effects of the tested chemicals on juveniles. Wild juveniles were acclimated to laboratory conditions. Then, they were exposed to Au-NP (≈5nm diameter) and MP (polyethylene spheres, 1-5μm diameter), alone and in mixture, at 20°C and 25°C, in semi-static conditions. After 96h of exposure to Au-NP, fish had gold in their body (0.129-0.546μg/g w.w.) leading to H01 refusal. Exposure to Au-NP alone caused a predatory performance decrease (≈-39%, p<0.05) leading to H02 refusal. MP did not change the Au-NP toxicity leading to H03 acceptance. Temperature rise significantly increased the concentration of gold in fish exposed to Au-NP (≈2.3 fold), and interacted with chemical effects (e.g. glutathione S-transferases activity) leading to H04 refusal. Thus, the results of this study highlight the importance of further investigating the effects of multi-stressors on marine fish, particularly the effects of temperature on the uptake, biotransformation, elimination and effects of nanoparticles and microplastics, either alone or in mixture. This knowledge is most important to improve the basis for environmental and human risk assessments of these environmental contaminants of high concern.

  3. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness. PMID:25463733

  4. Effects of microplastics on juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps): confusion with prey, reduction of the predatory performance and efficiency, and possible influence of developmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Carlos de Sá, Luís; Luís, Luís G; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics (MP) are ubiquitous contaminants able to cause adverse effects on organisms. Three hypotheses were tested here: early Pomatoschistus microps juveniles can ingest MP; the presence of MP may reduce fish predatory performance and efficiency; developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. Predatory bioassays were carried out with juveniles from two estuaries with differences in environmental conditions: Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian coast). Polyethylene MP spheres (3 types) alone and in combination with Artemia nauplii were offered as prey.All the MP types were ingested, suggesting confusion with food. Under simultaneous exposure to MP and Artemia, L-est fish showed a significant reduction of the predatory performance (65%) and efficiency (upto 50%), while M-est fish did not, suggesting that developmental conditions may influence the preyselection capability of fish. The MP-induced reduction of food intake may decrease individual and population fitness.

  5. Parocooperia devossin. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) from the bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Boomker, J; Kingsley, S A

    1984-03-01

    A new species of Paracooperia Travassos, 1935 was found in the small intestines of 4 bushbuck, Tragelaphus scriptus (Pallas, 1766), and 3 greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766), all culled in the Kruger National Park. The nematodes appear to be widespread in the Park, since the bushbuck originated from Skukuza in the central part of the Park, 2 of the 3 kudu from near Malelane in the south and the remaining kudu from Pafuri in the extreme north. The worms are named Paracooperia devossi after Dr V. de Vos of the Kruger National Park and can be differentiated from the closely related Paracooperia tragelaphi Gibbons & Khalil, 1980 by the single indistinct ridge on 1 of the branches of the spicules. Furthermore, the spicules end as fairly large ovoid knobs, and vulvar flaps are present in the females.

  6. New light on the evolutionary history of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps) with an emphasis on colonization processes in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Tougard, Christelle; Folly, Joy; Berrebi, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Through the study of the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps, the influence of Quaternary climatic changes on the evolutionary history of coastal and marine fishes is investigated. Because of its sedentary life cycle in Mediterranean lagoons, it is also a good model to study more specifically if the formation of lagoons during the Holocene had an impact on population structure and demography. Mitochondrial sequences of Northeastern Atlantic and Western Mediterranean specimens were used for phylogenetic reconstructions as well as divergence time estimates, demographic history and population structure analyses. Pomatoschistus microps was a highly supported monophyletic clade including four lineages. It may have appeared 77,000 yr ago, and the divergence of its lineages likely occured shortly thereafter (between 61,000 and 54,000 yr). Most lineages had polytomic topologies, low nucleotide diversity and demographic analyses providing evidence of population expansion. Each lineage was characterized by a large number of private haplotypes. Most haplotypes found in Mediterranean localities were endemic, and one was dominant. Complex reticulated relationships connecting North European, Atlantic and Mediterranean haplotypes were observed. Moderate to high population structure was underlined. Contrary to previous published studies, no significant differentiation was observed between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations, indicating that the Gibraltar Strait is not a phylogeographic break for P. microps. Indeed, molecular dating combined with the tree topologies, phylogeographic and demographic analyses as well as high haplotype diversity underline a recent and rapid population divergence during the last glacial. However, population structure indicates that differentiation is an ongoing process. From an ancestral population trapped in the Atlantic, this goby colonized first northern Europe and later the Mediterranean

  7. New Light on the Evolutionary History of the Common Goby (Pomatoschistus microps) with an Emphasis on Colonization Processes in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Tougard, Christelle; Folly, Joy; Berrebi, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Through the study of the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps, the influence of Quaternary climatic changes on the evolutionary history of coastal and marine fishes is investigated. Because of its sedentary life cycle in Mediterranean lagoons, it is also a good model to study more specifically if the formation of lagoons during the Holocene had an impact on population structure and demography. Mitochondrial sequences of Northeastern Atlantic and Western Mediterranean specimens were used for phylogenetic reconstructions as well as divergence time estimates, demographic history and population structure analyses. Pomatoschistus microps was a highly supported monophyletic clade including four lineages. It may have appeared 77,000 yr ago, and the divergence of its lineages likely occured shortly thereafter (between 61,000 and 54,000 yr). Most lineages had polytomic topologies, low nucleotide diversity and demographic analyses providing evidence of population expansion. Each lineage was characterized by a large number of private haplotypes. Most haplotypes found in Mediterranean localities were endemic, and one was dominant. Complex reticulated relationships connecting North European, Atlantic and Mediterranean haplotypes were observed. Moderate to high population structure was underlined. Contrary to previous published studies, no significant differentiation was observed between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations, indicating that the Gibraltar Strait is not a phylogeographic break for P. microps. Indeed, molecular dating combined with the tree topologies, phylogeographic and demographic analyses as well as high haplotype diversity underline a recent and rapid population divergence during the last glacial. However, population structure indicates that differentiation is an ongoing process. From an ancestral population trapped in the Atlantic, this goby colonized first northern Europe and later the Mediterranean

  8. Fluctuating asymmetry in grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pallas, 1811 inhabiting polluted and unpolluted area in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, Lotfi; Guarred, Taher; Hamza, Asma; Messaoudi, Imed; Hellal, Ahmed Noureddine

    2014-08-15

    Fluctuating asymmetry, a random deviation of bilateral traits, is assessed on grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pallas, 1811 living in one disturbed site and in one unpolluted site Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia). Statistical analysis showed that assessed asymmetries are fluctuating. FA of orbital diameter, sub-orbital distance, pectoral fin and post-orbital length are higher in polluted site compared to control. Chemical pollution seems to be responsible for this high FA.

  9. The late Neopleistocene dhole (Carnivora, Canidae, Cuon alpinus Pallas, 1811) from the Urals.

    PubMed

    Gimranov, D O; Kosintsev, P A; Smirnov, N G

    2015-01-01

    Morphotypic and morphometric analyses of the M2 tooth found in the Late Pleistocene deposits of the Ignatievskaya Cave (southern Urals) demonstrate that this tooth belongs to the dhole (Cuon alpinus Pallas, 1811). This is the first reliable evidence for the presence of the dhole in the Urals. Radiocarbon dating and associated theriofauna allow the tooth to be dated to the first half of the late Neopleistocene or, more precisely, to marine isotope stages (MISs) 3 and 4.

  10. 2 Pallas - 1982 and 1983 lightcurves and a new pole solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, R. P.

    1984-09-01

    Photoelectric lightcurves of the asteroid 2 Pallas obtained in March 1982 and May 1983 display amplitudes of 0.04 and 0.10 mag respectively. The latter lightcurve shows that Pallas was at V(1.0) mag of 4.51 + or -0.02 when it occulted 1 Vulpeculae on May 29, 1983. A least-squares best fit to an amplitude-aspect relation for all available lightcurve observations of Pallas between 1951 and 1983 yields two solutions for its pole position: lambda = 200, beta = 40 and lambda = 220, beta = 15, where the uncertainty regions correspond to an overall error estimate of + or -10 deg. Use of phase angle bisector coordinates give lower residuals than geocentric coordinates. The (220, 15) pole position is favored since it is in very good agreement with an independent pole solution obtained by photometric astrometry. This pole position implies that the latitude of the sub-earth point at the time of occultation was 22 deg.

  11. Purification and characterization of a novel antinociceptive peptide from venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Li, Mingyang; Chen, Xuelan

    2013-04-01

    Venom of Agkistrodon halys Pallas can control severe pain such as cancer pain and neuropathic pain, but it is made up of complicated components. Aim of this study is to separate major analgesic fraction from venom of A. halys Pallas, and to reveal its biochemical and pharmacological properties. Three steps with ion exchange column first and molecular sieve columns next were used to separate and purify the fractions of venom. Analgesic effects were evaluated by hot plate tests and writhing tests in mice. The molecular weight (MW), isoelectric point, amino acid sequence, purity were respectively determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, Edman degradation and HPLC. The dependence and tolerance were observed by withdrawal test in rats, and analgesic effects were observed in mice during 7 days administration. Fourteen fractions were obtained by separation; the best analgesic fraction named Pallanalgesin was selected by ED50 and LD50. It had single band in electrophoresis, relative purity 92.16 %, MW 16.6 kDa, isoelectric point 8.8, and former sequence of ten amino acids H-L-L-Q-F-R-K-M-I-K. It showed significant analgesic effect without tolerance and dependence. As a novel analgesic, Pallanalgesin has been found to explain the function of venom of A. halys Pallas on severe pain control in traditional uses. PMID:23435917

  12. [New parasite identified in Blennius sanguinolentus Pallas, 1811: Schikhobalotrema longivesiculatum sp. n (Haplosplanchnidae Poche, 1925)].

    PubMed

    Orecchia, P; Paggi, L

    1975-01-01

    Schikhobalotrema longivesiculatum sp.n from Blennius sanguinolentus Pallas, 1811 at Gulf of Gaeta (Italy) is described, figured and compared with other species of the genus Schikhobalotrema Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955. Schikhobalotrema longivesiculatum differs from Schikhobalotrema obtusa (Linton, 1916) Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955, especially for sucker ratio, lobed ovary, seminal vesicle coiled and in larger size of eggs; from Schikhobalotrema pomacentri (Manter, 1937) Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955 for lobed ovary, elongated seminal receptacle, smaller vitelline follicles and coiled seminal vesicle; from Schikhobalotrema sparisomae (Manter, 1937) Skrjabin et Guschanskaja, 1955 for elongated seminal receptacle, coiled seminal vesicle and extent of escretory vesicle.

  13. [Research progress on biology and ecology of Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Zhang, Run-Zhi; Zhang, Fan

    2007-09-01

    Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with its native in Asia is one of the most important predatory ladybird beetles, and used worldwide as a biological control agent. This paper summarized the recent decades research progress at home and abroad on its life history, reproductive strategies, and predatory and cannibalism behaviors, and analysed the prospects of its utilization. Based on the review of its artificial reproduction, insecticide interaction, and impact as an invasive species, some useful measures were suggested to prevent the beetle from its potential risk to ecological banlance. PMID:18062323

  14. Spherical growth in the Caribbean coral Siderastrea radians (Pallas) and its survival in disturbed habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, John B.

    1989-01-01

    Siderastrea radians (Pallas) is a common West Indian reef coral that displays wide morphological variation. The hypothesis that a spherical form of free living colonies of S. radians has advantages for survival was examined in Barbados. Colonies were sampled from tide pools and from random quadrats at four reef flat sites subjected to strong wave action. Survival was found to be a positive function of colony size measured as living surface area and was correlated with stage of development toward a spherical shape. The combination of spherical shape and larger size confer a selective advantage on free living colonies in disturbed habitats.

  15. The role of chromosomal rearrangements and geographical barriers in the divergence of lineages in a South American subterranean rodent (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys minutus).

    PubMed

    Lopes, C M; Ximenes, S S F; Gava, A; de Freitas, T R O

    2013-10-01

    Identifying factors and the extent of their roles in the differentiation of populations is of great importance for understanding the evolutionary process in which a species is involved. Ctenomys minutus is a highly karyotype-polymorphic subterranean rodent, with diploid numbers ranging from 42 to 50 and autosomal arm numbers (ANs) ranging from 68 to 80, comprising a total of 45 karyotypes described so far. This species inhabits the southern Brazilian coastal plain, which has a complex geological history, with several potential geographical barriers acting on different time scales. We assessed the geographical genetic structure of C. minutus, examining 340 individuals over the entire distributional range and using information from chromosomal rearrangements, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 14 microsatellite loci. The mtDNA results revealed seven main haplogroups, with the most recent common ancestors dating from the Pleistocene, whereas clustering methods defined 12 populations. Some boundaries of mtDNA haplogroups and population clusters can be associated with potential geographical barriers to gene flow. The isolation-by-distance pattern also has an important role in fine-scale genetic differentiation, which is strengthened by the narrowness of the coastal plain and by common features of subterranean rodents (that is, small fragmented populations and low dispersal rates), which limit gene flow among populations. A step-by-step mechanism of chromosomal evolution can be suggested for this species, mainly associated with the metapopulation structure, genetic drift and the geographical features of the southern Brazilian coastal plain. However, chromosomal variations have no or very little role in the diversification of C. minutus populations.

  16. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors. PMID:24702818

  17. Nucleolar cycle and chromatoid body formation: is there a relationship between these two processes during spermatogenesis of Dendropsophus minutus (Amphibia, Anura)?

    PubMed

    Peruquetti, Rita Luiza; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Santos, Lia Raquel de Souza; Oliveira, Classius de; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela de

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to monitor the nucleolar material distribution during Dendropsophus minutus spermatogenesis using cytological and cytochemical techniques and ultrastructural analysis, as well as to compare the nucleolar material distribution to the formation of the chromatoid body (CB) in the germ epithelium of this amphibian species. Nucleolar fragmentation occurred during the pachytene of prophase I and nucleolus reorganization occurred in the early spermatid nucleus. The area of the spermatogonia nucleolus was significantly larger than that of the earlier spermatid nucleolus. Ultrastructural analysis showed an accumulation of nuages in the spermatogonia cytoplasm, which form the CB before nucleolar fragmentation. The CB was observed in association with mitochondrial clusters in the cytoplasm of primary spermatocytes, as well as in those of earlier spermatids. In conclusion, the nucleolus seems to be related to CB formation during spermatogenesis of D. minutus, because, at the moment of nucleolus fragmentation in the primary spermatocytes, the CB area reaches a considerable size and is able to execute its important functions during spermatogenesis. The reorganized nucleolus of the earlier spermatids has a smaller area due to several factors, among them the probable migration of nucleolar fragments from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and plays a part in the CB chemical composition. PMID:20829051

  18. Molecular Phylogeny and Ultrastructure of Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. (Apicomplexa) from a Pacific Glossobalanus minutus (Hemichordata) Confounds the Relationships Between Marine and Terrestrial Gregarines.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kevin C; Reimer, James D; Jenke-Kodama, Holger; Leander, Brian S

    2014-01-01

    Gregarines are a diverse group of apicomplexan parasites with a conspicuous extracellular feeding stage, called a "trophozoite", that infects the intestines and other body cavities of invertebrate hosts. Although the morphology of trophozoites is very diverse in gregarines as a whole, high degrees of intraspecific variation combined with relatively low degrees of interspecific variation make the delimitation of different species based on trophozoite morphology observed with light microscopy difficult. The coupling of molecular phylogenetic data with comparative morphology has shed considerable light onto the boundaries and interrelationships of different gregarine species. In this study, we isolated a novel marine gregarine from the hepatic region of a Pacific representative of the hemichordate Glossobalanus minutus, and report the first ultrastructural and molecular data from any gregarine infecting this distinctive group of hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of an SSU rDNA sequence derived from two single-cell isolates of this marine gregarine demonstrated a strong and unexpected affiliation with a clade of terrestrial gregarines (e.g. Gregarina). This molecular phylogenetic data combined with a comparison of the morphological features in previous reports of gregarines collected from Atlantic representatives of G. minutus justified the establishment of a new binomial for the new isolate, namely Caliculium glossobalani n. gen. et sp. The molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a clade of terrestrial gregarines associated with a sequence acquired from a marine species, which suggest that different groups of terrestrial/freshwater gregarines evolved independently from marine ancestors.

  19. An abundant small sized fish as keystone species? The effect of Pomatoschistus microps on food webs and its trophic role in two intertidal benthic communities: A modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockberger, Moritz; Kellnreitner, Florian; Ahnelt, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild; Asmus, Harald

    2014-02-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) was used to study the effects of Pomatoschistus microps on energy transport through the food web, its impact on other compartments and its possible role as a keystone species in the trophic webs of an Arenicola tidal flat ecosystem and a sparse Zostera noltii bed ecosystem. Three ENA models were constructed: (a) model 1 contains data of the original food web from prior research in the investigated area by Baird et al. (2007), (b) an updated model 2 which included biomass and diet data of P. microps from recent sampling, and (c) model 3 simulating a food web without P. microps. A comparison of energy transport between the different models revealed that more energy is transported from lower trophic levels up the food chain, in the presence of P. microps (models 1 and 2) than in its absence (model 3). Calculations of the keystone index (KSi) revealed the high overall impact (measured as εi) of this fish species on food webs. In model 1, P. microps was assigned a low KSi in the Arenicola flat and in the sparse Z. noltii bed. Calculations in model 2 ranked P. microps first for keystoneness and εi in both communities, the Arenicola flat and the sparse Z. noltii bed. Taken together, our results give insight into the role of P. microps when considering a whole food web and reveal direct and indirect trophic interactions of this small-sized fish species. These results might illustrate the impact and importance of abundant, widespread species in food webs and facilitate further investigations.

  20. Impact of chemical exposure on the fish Pomatoschistus microps Krøyer (1838) in estuaries of the Portuguese Northwest coast.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M; Quintaneiro, C; Nogueira, A J A; Morgado, F; Soares, A M V M; Guilhermino, L

    2007-01-01

    Juveniles of the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps were collected from autumn 2001 to summer 2002 in five stations along the Portuguese Northwest coast with different types and/or levels of environmental contamination: two reference sites with low levels of contamination (R1 and R2) and three differently impacted areas with higher levels of contamination. UI is located in an estuary under the influence of urban and industrial effluents, AA in a channel that receives intensive agriculture run-off and IE in a highly impacted industrial area. The activity of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) were used as environmental biomarkers on P. microps. A significant seasonality effect on all the enzymatic activities was found, lower levels being registered in winter and spring on AChE, in autumn on LDH, and in winter on GST and EROD. The battery of biomarkers used was capable of discriminating sites with different types and/or levels of contamination, R1 and UI being the highest discriminated (91.7% and 66.7%, respectively). At R1 significantly lower levels of AChE and LDH were found, and EROD was significantly inducted at UI. Furthermore, IE presented higher levels of GST, and R2 and AA an inhibition of AChE in winter and spring. The results indicated that the battery of biomarkers used in this study seems to be a useful tool to distinguish between different types of environmental contamination in estuarine systems, and that P. microps is a suitable species to be used as bioindicator.

  1. [Offspring Sex Ratio in the Captive Population of Siberian Crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas)].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Postelnykh, K A; Nosachenko, G V; Politov, D V

    2015-12-01

    The sex ratio of Siberian crane chicks (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) from the captive population ofthe Oka Crane Breeding Center was analyzed with the use of molecular sex marker EE0.6 in 2009-2014. We determined the sex of 84 birds bred from 12 dams by means of artificial insemination and natural breeding. The total primary sex ratio was 40:44, and the secondary sex ratio was 36:39 with a minor predominance of females. The mortality rate of embryos was the same for both sexes. The primary and secondary sex ratio among the first eggs in clutches showed the same trends as those observed in general analysis. The relatedness of parents by microsatellite DNA has no effect on offspring sex in both natural breeding and artificial insemination. PMID:27055304

  2. [Genetic passportization and identification of Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the founders of an artificial population of the Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas (rare species of cranes) was characterized using 10 microsatellite loci. It was established that the allelic diversity (on average, 5.9 alleles per locus) and genic (H(o) = 0.739) diversity of the Siberian crane is rather high and comparable with the estimations for natural populations of different crane species. Genetic passportization of the birds (119 individuals) from the register of the Siberian crane International Studbook was carried out at the initial stage. The efficiency of genetic passportization for individual identification, identification of the origin, paternity analysis, and exclusion of inbreeding was demonstrated in Siberian cranes under natural mating and artificial insemination. Cases of natural reproduction in pairs of Siberian cranes imprinted to the human and continuous storage of spermatozoa in the female reproductive ducts were registered. PMID:25731031

  3. Does Manila clam cultivation affect habitats of the engineer species Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?

    PubMed

    Toupoint, Nicolas; Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Retière, Christian; Olivier, Frédéric

    2008-08-01

    The major French site of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeves, 1850) cultivation is located in the Chausey Archipelago where the associated practices are highly mechanized: every steps of production are made with tractor-driven machinery. The Manila clam concessions are concentrated on Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) bioherms, which are known to increase alpha-diversity and to locally modify sediment dynamics. This study focus on the impacts of Manila clam cultivation on (i) the natural populations of L. conchilega and on (ii) the structure of the associated benthic assemblages during the different steps of the farming production cycle. We found that the L. conchilega populations are significantly affected within the concessions where their total abundances drastically decrease, their spatial patterns are modified and the associated benthic assemblages are significantly altered. Our results are discussed in a context of a sustainable management of the Manila clam cultivation in coastal areas. PMID:18561956

  4. [Genetic passportization and identification of Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of the founders of an artificial population of the Siberian crane Grus leucogeranus Pallas (rare species of cranes) was characterized using 10 microsatellite loci. It was established that the allelic diversity (on average, 5.9 alleles per locus) and genic (H(o) = 0.739) diversity of the Siberian crane is rather high and comparable with the estimations for natural populations of different crane species. Genetic passportization of the birds (119 individuals) from the register of the Siberian crane International Studbook was carried out at the initial stage. The efficiency of genetic passportization for individual identification, identification of the origin, paternity analysis, and exclusion of inbreeding was demonstrated in Siberian cranes under natural mating and artificial insemination. Cases of natural reproduction in pairs of Siberian cranes imprinted to the human and continuous storage of spermatozoa in the female reproductive ducts were registered.

  5. The valid generic name for red-backed voles (Muroidea: Cricetidae: Arvicolinae): restatement of the case for Myodes Pallas, 1811

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Michael D.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Pavlinov, Igor Ya.; Musser, Guy G.

    2014-01-01

    In view of contradictions in the recent literature, the valid genus-group name to be applied to northern red-backed voles—Myodes Pallas, 1811, or Clethrionomys Tilesius, 1850—is reviewed. To develop the thesis that Myodes (type species, Mus rutilus Pallas, 1779) is the correct name, our discussion explores the 19th-century taxonomic works that bear on the relevant taxa, the transition in zoological codes apropos the identification of type species, and past nomenclatural habits in cases where no type species was originally indicated. We conclude that Myodes is the senior name to use for the genus-group taxon that includes the Holarctic species rutilus and frame this conclusion within a synonymy of the genus.

  6. Mito-nuclear discordance in the degree of population differentiation in a marine goby.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, M H D; Raeymaekers, J A M; Hellemans, B; Van Houdt, J K J; Volckaert, F A M

    2010-12-01

    An increasing number of phylogeographic studies on marine species shows discordant patterns in the degree of population differentiation between nuclear and mitochondrial markers. To understand better which factors have the potential to cause these patterns of discordance in marine organisms, a population genetic study was realized on the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas 1770; Gobiidae, Teleostei). Sand gobies from eight European locations were genotyped at eight microsatellite markers. Microsatellites confirmed the global phylogeographical pattern of P. minutus observed with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and nuclear allozyme markers. Three groups consistent with the mitochondrial lineages were defined (the Mediterranean, Iberian and North Atlantic groups) and indications of a recent founder event in the northern Baltic Sea were found. Nevertheless, differences in the degree of population differentiation between the nuclear and mitochondrial markers were large (global F(ST)-values for microsatellites=0.0121; for allozymes=0.00831; for mtDNA=0.4293). Selection, sex-biased dispersal, homoplasy and a high effective population size are generally accepted as explanations for this mitonuclear discrepancy in the degree of population differentiation. In this study, selection on mtDNA and microsatellites, male-biased dispersal and homoplasy on microsatellite markers are unlikely to be a main cause for this discrepancy. The most likely reason for the discordant pattern is a recent demographical expansion of the sand goby, resulting in high effective population sizes slowing down the differentiation of nuclear DNA.

  7. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Yu; Grabner, Daniel S; Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  8. Effects of the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus and the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum on energy reserves and stress response of cadmium exposed Gammarus fossarum

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Milen; Shih, Hsiu-Hui; Sures, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Amphipods are commonly parasitized by acanthocephalans and microsporidians and co-infections are found frequently. Both groups of parasites are known to have severe effects on their host. For example, microsporidians can modify host sex ratio and acanthocephalans can manipulate the behavior of the amphipod to promote transmission to the final host. These effects influence host metabolism in general and will also affect the ability of amphipods to cope with additional stressors such as environmental pollution, e.g., by toxic metals. Here we tested the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of cadmium on glycogen and lipid levels, as well as on the 70kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) response of field collected Gammarus fossarum, which were naturally infected with microsporidians and the acanthocephalan Polymorphus minutus. Infected and uninfected G. fossarum were exposed to a nominal Cd concentration of 4 µg/L, which resembled measured aqueous Cd concentration of 2.9 µg/L in reconstituted water for 7 d at 15 °C in parallel to an unexposed control. After exposure gammarids were snap frozen, weighed, sexed and tested for microsporidian infection by PCR. Only individuals containing the microsporidian Dictyocoela duebenum were used for the further biochemical and metal analyses. P. minutus infected amphipods were significantly smaller than their uninfected conspecifics. Mortality was insignificantly increased due to cadmium exposure, but not due to parasite infection. Microsporidian infection in combination with cadmium exposure led to increased glycogen levels in female gammarids. An increase of glycogen was also found due to interaction of acanthocephalan and microsporidian infection. Elevated lipid levels were observed in all groups infected with microsporidians, while acanthocephalans had the opposite effect. A positive correlation of lipid and glycogen levels was observed. The general stress response measured in form of hsp70 was significantly increased in

  9. Ultrastructure of the oocyst wall formation in Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917, a coccidian parasite of Glossobalanus minutus (Kow.) (Enteropneusta, Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, I; Benito, J; Pardos, F

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the developing oocyst of Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917 was studied from the ventral digestive epithelium of the hepatic region of Glossobalanus minutus (Enteropneusta). A possible building mechanism of the oocyst wall is deduced and discussed from the present data and the available literature. During oocyst wall formation a total of 5 membranes were observed at or near the surface of the parasite among which some wall-forming materials will be stored. The origin and fate of such wall-forming materials are discussed and compared with data from other coccidians. The apparently full-formed wall is made up of an outer, dense layer, a median layer showing a labyrinthic-tubular lattice substructure, and an inner, homogeneous and osmiophilic layer. A micropyle measuring 0.35 micron in diameter is also described. PMID:3059952

  10. Ultrastructure of the oocyst wall formation in Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917, a coccidian parasite of Glossobalanus minutus (Kow.) (Enteropneusta, Hemichordata).

    PubMed

    Fernandez, I; Benito, J; Pardos, F

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the developing oocyst of Eimeria? beauchampi Leger and Duboscq, 1917 was studied from the ventral digestive epithelium of the hepatic region of Glossobalanus minutus (Enteropneusta). A possible building mechanism of the oocyst wall is deduced and discussed from the present data and the available literature. During oocyst wall formation a total of 5 membranes were observed at or near the surface of the parasite among which some wall-forming materials will be stored. The origin and fate of such wall-forming materials are discussed and compared with data from other coccidians. The apparently full-formed wall is made up of an outer, dense layer, a median layer showing a labyrinthic-tubular lattice substructure, and an inner, homogeneous and osmiophilic layer. A micropyle measuring 0.35 micron in diameter is also described.

  11. 10 years of cloud droplet activation data from Pallas, Northern Finland - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivekäs, Niku; Asmi, Eija; Brus, David; Komppula, Mika; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Activation of atmospheric aerosol particles into cloud droplets has been studied in situ at Pallas measurement station in Finnish Lapland from year 2005 to present day. The site is located on a hill top, about 300 m above the surrounding lowlands, and it is inside a cloud for 15 % of time. Here in-cloud periods are defined as periods when visibility was below 1000 m. There are two parallel Differential Mobility Particle Sizers (DMPS) at the site, measuring the number concentration and dry size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. One DMPS is connected to a PM2.5 inlet, the other to a total air inlet with no cut-off diameter. After each inlet the particles are dried to evaporate any water in them. This way it is possible to measure simultaneously the dry number-size-distribution of all particles, and that of particles with wet diameter smaller than 2.5 m. As the latter does not include cloud droplets, the difference between the two measurements represents the number concentration and size distribution of those particles that have activated into cloud droplets. The number concentration of particles at Pallas has a clear seasonal cycle, being highest during summer and lowest during winter. The monthly mean number concentration of particles with diameter larger than 100 nm varied from 38 cm-3 in November to 270 cm-3 in July. During in-cloud periods the monthly mean number concentration of activated particles of this same size class showed a similar pattern, varying from 23 cm-3 (November) to 110 cm-3 in April. The monthly mean D50 activation diameter (diameter at which 50 % of particles activate) varied from 85 nm (February) to 189 nm (July), showing an average 0.1 nm increase for each added particle with diameter > 100 nm. The activated fraction of particles in all sizes decreased sharply when visibility exceeded 1000 m. The highest activated fractions of particles were not observed during the periods of the thickest clouds, but during clouds with in

  12. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  13. Detection of Plasmodium sp.-infested Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Austria, 2012.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz

    2013-03-01

    On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely.

  14. Seasonal movements and migration of Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus from Qinghai Lake, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Douglas, D.C.; Yan, B.; Xing, Z.; Hou, Y.; Palm, E.C.; Newman, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the seasonal movements and migration often Pallas's Gulls Larus ichthyaetus trom Qinghai Lake to assess migratory routes and stopover areas. Each individual was captured and equipped with an 18 g solar-powered Platform Transmitter Terminal (PIT) to track its movements from September 2007 to May 2008. Six individuals remained near Qinghai Lake until the PTTs stopped transmitting. Three individuals flew 50-330 km from Qinghai Lake to nearby salt lakes. One individual departed on 8 December and flew over 1,700 km south-west to arrive at coastal Bangladesh on 9 January 2008. Two individuals flew in October to the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India, remaining in the area for at least one month until one stopped transmitting. The second individual travelled southwest to coastal Bangladesh. Of the two individuals overwintering in Bangladesh, one remained for 67 days before migrating north. The second bird departed after 96 days, and it returned to Qinghai on 10 May 2008 after 48 days in migration. Both individuals that overwintered in coastal Bangladesh arrived much later than the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HP AI H5N I) in poultry in 2007. This disparity in timing would tentatively suggest that this species was not involved in long-distance movements of the virus. Instead, the converse may be true: previous work demonstrates the potential for virus spill-over trom poultry into gulls and other wild bird species upon arrival into locations with widespread HPAI H5NI outbreaks and environmental contamination.

  15. Larval morphology of the antlion Myrmecaelurus trigrammus (Pallas, 1771) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), with notes on larval biology.

    PubMed

    Devetak, Dušan; Klokočovnik, Vesna; Lipovšek, Saška; Bock, Elisabeth; Leitinger, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Morphology and behaviour of third instar larvae of the Holomediterranean antlion species Myrmecaelurus trigranunus (Pallas) are described. Larvae are facultative pit-builders, they either ambush their prey at the surface, or dig pitfall traps that prey fall in to. Dark brown spots on dorsal and ventral sides of the head and on dorsal side of the thorax are characteristic of the larvae. Eye tubercles are not prominent. Jaws are equipped with long bristles, campaniform sensilla, sensilla coeloconica, and digitiform sensilla. A unique feature is the shape of the tips of all three teeth that is screw-like with a polyhedral surface. The body surface is covered with longitudinally grooved bristles and plumose hairs. On the tip of the antennae and on terminal and subterminal parts of labial palps sensilla basiconica occur. On the 9th abdominal segment there are two bulges, each of them bearing four digging bristles. Non-prominent eye tubercles and numerous mandibular bristles are morphological traits of pit-builders. Most of the behavioural traits are related to pit builders, whereas forward movement, waiting for prey without a pit and frequent changing of ambush location are traits of non-pit builders.

  16. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771), in North America: impact on raw water users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Kovalak, William P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1989-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is a small mollusc native to the Black, Caspian, and Azov Seas that was discovered in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America in 1988. Its presence there raises immediate concerns for users of raw water because it can become abundant enough to obstruct the flow of water through pipes, hoses, screens, and condensers. Biofouling attributed to this mussel was observed at several power plants, water treatment plants, and food processing and industrial facilities along Lake Erie in 1989. Estimated densities at one power plant intake canal were as high as 700,000 per m2. In addition, large numbers were found in main steam condensors and in the service water system, threatening the water supply for cooling, fire protection, and dust suppression systems. Municipal water intakes along the Canadian and United States shorelines have also been impaired. In one southeast Michigan city, drinking water withdrawal from Lake Erie was reduced 45% by the mussel. Routine checks of raw water supplies for free-floating zebra mussel veligers are reommended to determine if reproducing adult populations are present in local water bodies. After an early alert, raw water intakes could be protected to alleviate damage from the biofouling zebra mussel.

  17. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity. PMID:26013743

  18. Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 represents a species complex based on ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Dana M; Curran, Stephen S; Pulis, Eric E; Provaznik, Jennifer M; Franks, James S

    2013-10-01

    Digeneans in the genus Hirudinella de Blainville, 1828 (Hirudinellidae) from three species of pelagic fishes, Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier), Makaira nigricans Lacépède and Thunnus albacares (Bonnaterre), and one benthic fish, Mulloidichthys martinicus (Cuvier), from the Gulf of Mexico are investigated using comparison of ribosomal DNA. Four species are identified based on molecular differences: Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) Baird, 1853 from A. solandri, Hirudinella ahi Yamaguti, 1970 from T. albacares, and two unidentified but distinct species of Hirudinella, herein referred to as Hirudinella sp. A (from both M. nigricans and M. martinicus) and Hirudinella sp. B from M. nigricans. Additionally, H. ahi, based tentatively on morphological identification, is reported from Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). This represents the first record of a hirudinellid from M. martinicus and the first record of H. ahi from T. thynnus. A phylogeny of some Hemiurata Skrjabin & Guschanskaja, 1954 using partial fragments of the 28S rDNA sequences is consistent with earlier phylogenies and the position of the Hirudinellidae Dollfus, 1932 is well-supported as a derived group most closely related to the Syncoeliidae Looss, 1899. PMID:24048751

  19. [Genetic diversity and relatedness in different generations of the Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas) captive population].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Postel'nykh, K A; Nosachenko, G V; Politov, D V

    2014-11-01

    Eight variable microsatellite loci were analyzed in terms of studying the genetic structure of different generations of a captive population of a rare endemic Russian species, the Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus Pallas). It was shown that the founding population of natural origin (15 birds) is characterized by high genetic diversity (N(A) = 6.625, H(O) = 0.767, H(E) = 0.731) and a lack of relatedness (R = -0.079). In the total sample of descendents of the founders (122 individuals from generations F1, F1/F2, F,/F3, F2, F2/F3), this characteristic level of genetic variation was retained; however, we observed a decrease in allelic richness in some generations (F1/F2, F1/F3, F2). We found a low level of relatedness inthe sample of descendents of the founders (F1, F1/F2, F1/F3), while the relatedness was maximal (R = 0.302) in the first-generation descendents of the breeders. A small sample of breeders related to each other of generations F1 and F2 (eight birds) does not represent the entire gene pool of the founders of the Siberian Crane captive population. In view of this, we discuss the need to form a new genetically heterogeneous generation of breeders that would also include Siberian Cranes from the virtually extinct Western Siberian population. PMID:25739288

  20. Phytoremediation of cadmium by the facultative halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla, at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Santos, Márcia S S; Pedro, Carmen A; Gonçalves, Sílvia C; Ferreira, Susana M F

    2015-10-01

    The cadmium phytoremediation capacity of the halophyte plant Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla and the influence of water salinity were assessed in a greenhouse experiment, in order to better understand the bioremediation capacity of this plant. Three concentrations of cadmium (0, 50 and 100 μg l(-1)) and four salinity conditions (0, 5, 10 and 20) were chosen to evaluate the cadmium accumulation, in order to test these plants as a potential phytoremediation tool in brackish environments. The cadmium content in water and plants (underground organs, stems and leaves) was analysed with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. All the plants submitted to salinity 20 and in the three cadmium treatments died. The plants' survival was highest in the lowest salinities, where highest growth and biomasses were also obtained. The plants presented more cadmium content in the rhizomes, followed by stems and even less in leaves. The salt stress of the plants interfered with their cadmium accumulation capacity. The highest cadmium accumulation in the rhizomes occurred at salinity 0, while the salinities 0 and 5 were the most adequate for stems and leaves. The experiment pointed out that B. maritimus represents a good possible intervenient for cadmium bioremediation in freshwater and low salinity brackish water environments, but its use is limited in the habitats of higher salinity.

  1. A Pharmacological Review of Bioactive Constituents of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shefton; May, Brian; Zhang, Claire; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2016-09-01

    The roots of two peony species, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch are routinely referred to as either chishao () or baishao (). This paper reviews the botanical origins and traditional medicinal usage of each species, as well as pharmacological like activity of their constituents. A search of herbal pharmacological encyclopaedia, PubChem and PubMed databases identified their known constituents. The biological data for these constituents were evaluated and classified according to pharmacological-like activity, with emphasis on compounds of greatest concentration and bioavailability. It was found that P. lactiflora and P. veitchii have some common compounds; however, their phytochemical bioavailability varies. Furthermore, a larger number of compounds have been identified in P. lactiflora. These have greater potential for antiinflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial and antioxidant therapeutic activity compared with P. veitchii. However, evidence indicates both species are similarly indicated for antiviral and glycaemic activity. Major compounds of each are classified as flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins (polyphenols) and monoterpene glycosides. The evidence suggests both species, when administered in entire botanical form, have an excellent safety profile; however, constituent toxicity risk evidence is limited, requiring further investigation. Although experiments show many compounds have biological activity, further investigation of their therapeutic potential is needed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27279421

  2. Expression and antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme in taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Li, Shaowu; Wang, Di; Liu, Hongbai; Yin, Jiasheng; Lu, Tongyan

    2016-10-01

    Lysozymes are important defense proteins of the innate immune system and possess high antibacterial activities. In the present study, a full-length c-type lysozyme cDNA (HtLysC) was cloned and characterized from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas). The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 432 bp encoding 143 amino acid (aa), with 97% identity to LysC of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The amino acid sequence possessed a LYZ1 domain (16-140 aa) which contained two conserved residues (Glu 50 and Asp 67), eight conserved cysteine residues and a calcium binding site. RT-PCR analysis showed that HtLysC transcripts were most abundant in liver and less in muscle. The expression of HtLysC was up-regulated in the liver when challenged with Yersinia ruckeri. The recombinant HtLysC (rHtLysC) had lytic activities against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Aeromonas salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Enzyme assay showed that the optimal temperature and pH of rHtLysC were 55 °C and 6.0, respectively. Taken together, these results indicated that HtLysC might play an important role in innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens as a functional lysozyme. PMID:27267655

  3. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas

    PubMed Central

    Aygun, Ahmet; Dumanoglu, Hatice

    2015-01-01

    Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (>80%) of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 μM BA and 0.5 μM indole-3-acetic acid. In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 μM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1 ± 2.4 to 96.4 ± 2.0% in the second subculture and from 76.7 ± 7.8 to 89.4 ± 3.3% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 μM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6 ± 1.6). For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2 ± 10.4%), root length (10.5 ± 2.4 mm), and root number (2.5 ± 0.6) were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55 ± 9.6% and root number was 1.8 ± 0.3 at this concentration. PMID:25873926

  4. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    PubMed

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  5. Stress responses of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus (Pallas) following water temperature rise.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung Hwa; Park, Mi Seon; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2015-09-01

    Stress responses of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus (Pallas) following water temperature rise were investigated to establish the influence of ambient temperature on this species. The physiological indicators of stress were plasma cortisol, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sodium, chloride, osmolality and triiodothyronine (T3). No significant difference in plasma parameters were observed among the experimental groups of 15 degrees C, 18 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Level of plasma cortisol (49.0-95.0 ng ml(-1)) and glucose (56.1-58.1 mg dl(-1)) of starry flounders kept at 24 degrees C-27 degrees C were significantly higher than those (cortisol: 20.4-23.6 ng ml(-1), glucose: 40.6-47.1 mg dl(-1)) observed in the 15 degrees C-21 degrees C groups. Changes in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase following water temperature rise showed a similar pattern to plasma cortisol and glucose. Starry flounders exposed to 27 degrees C exhibited higher plasma sodium (164.7 mmol l(-1)), chloride (147.6 mmol l(-1)), and osmolality (450.7 mOsm kg(-1)) than those (sodium: 154.0-158.7 mmol l(-1), chloride: 139.1-140.4 mmol l(-1), osmolality: 375.1-383.8 mOsm kg(-1)) fish exposed to 15-21 degrees C. Though plasma T3 (29.4 ng ml(-1)) of starry flounder increased at 24 degrees C, this hormone was significantly lower (19.3 ng ml(-1)) in fish kept at 27 degrees C than those (24.6 ng ml(-1)) the fish at 15 degrees C. This phenomenon seems to be directly associated with long-term fasting. Accordingly, the results suggested that starry flounders got stressed with osmoregulatory disturbances above 24 degrees C. PMID:26521544

  6. Thermal Emission Spectra of Phobos, Vesta, Ceres, and Pallas: A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet, visual, and near-infrared spectra of Phobos, obtained by Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiters, were interpreted to suggest a compositional similarity with carbonaceous chrondrites. Such a composition would be inconsistent with the moon's origin in the proto-Mars region, as Mars is composed chiefly of differentiated silicates. This interpretation was used to suggest that the moons originated in the main-asteroid belt, with subsequent capture and orbital evolution into their current locations. Interpretations of more recent visual and near-infrared spectra, obtained by Phobos-2 and Mars Pathfinder, have demonstrated that the Phobos spectrum is more similar to spectra of other classes of asteroids and lunar soils. If lunar mare soil is the correct analogy, then such a composition suggests a formation of Phobos from materials similar to that on Mars, i.e. basalts, and would not require a dynamically difficult capture and orbital evolution. During the science phasing orbits of the Mars Global Surveyor mission Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations of Phobos were acquired at each of four encounters. The spectral variability observed for localized surface regions on Phobos has been previously reported and is greatest near the northern wall of Stickney crater. Interpretation of the thermal infrared spectra of airless bodies, based upon most existing laboratory measurements, is complicated by the absence of interstitial gases on the celestial objects that would act to minimize potential thermal gradients in the upper layers of the surface. As an aid to interpretation of the TES Phobos spectra are compared to telescopic and airborne thermal infrared spectra of asteroids from several classes, including Ceres (G), Pallas (B), and Vesta (V). The asteroid spectra provide a direct analogy to the physical situation encountered at the surface of Phobos, albeit different thermal gradients may exist for each surface. This work is supported by NASA RTOP's 344

  7. Effects of irradiation and pH on fluorescence properties and flocculation of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Chroococcus minutus.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam

    2015-04-01

    Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) may flocculate or be decomposed when environmental factors change, which significantly influences nutrient cycling and transport of heavy metals. However, little information is available on the stability of EPS in natural environments. Fluorescence and flocculation properties of EPS from Chroococcus minutus under different irradiation and pH conditions were studied. Two aromatic protein-like fluorescence peaks and one tyrosine protein-like peak were identified from the excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of EPS. UVB (ultraviolet B) and solar irradiation increased the fluorescence intensity of all the three peaks while UVC (ultraviolet C) irradiation had little effect. EPS formed unstable flocs after exposure to UV (ultraviolet) irradiation and formed stable flocs under solar irradiation. EPS were prone to flocculation under highly acidic conditions and minimal fluorescence of peaks was observed. The fluorophores in EPS were relatively stable under neutral and alkaline conditions. These findings are helpful for understanding the behavior of EPS in aquatic environments and their role in biogeochemical cycles of the elements. PMID:25731101

  8. Effects of irradiation and pH on fluorescence properties and flocculation of extracellular polymeric substances from the cyanobacterium Chroococcus minutus.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Daoyong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam

    2015-04-01

    Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) may flocculate or be decomposed when environmental factors change, which significantly influences nutrient cycling and transport of heavy metals. However, little information is available on the stability of EPS in natural environments. Fluorescence and flocculation properties of EPS from Chroococcus minutus under different irradiation and pH conditions were studied. Two aromatic protein-like fluorescence peaks and one tyrosine protein-like peak were identified from the excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of EPS. UVB (ultraviolet B) and solar irradiation increased the fluorescence intensity of all the three peaks while UVC (ultraviolet C) irradiation had little effect. EPS formed unstable flocs after exposure to UV (ultraviolet) irradiation and formed stable flocs under solar irradiation. EPS were prone to flocculation under highly acidic conditions and minimal fluorescence of peaks was observed. The fluorophores in EPS were relatively stable under neutral and alkaline conditions. These findings are helpful for understanding the behavior of EPS in aquatic environments and their role in biogeochemical cycles of the elements.

  9. Genomic organization, expression and antimicrobial activity of a hepcidin from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas).

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Shaowu; Zhao, Jingzhuang; Liu, Hongbai; Lu, Tongyan; Yin, Jiasheng

    2016-09-01

    Hepcidin, an antimicrobial peptide, plays a crucial role in innate immune system of teleost fish. As a cysteine-rich peptide, hepcidin possesses a dual function including iron regulation and innate immunity. In the present study, a full-length hepcidin cDNA (HtHep) was cloned and characterized by RT-PCR and RACE techniques from taimen (Hucho taimen, Pallas), which is a type of rare, precious and cold-water fish species in China. The cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 267 bp encoding 88 amino acid (aa), with 170 bp located in the 5(') untranslated region (UTR) and 151 bp in the 3' UTR. The genomic sequences analysis showed that the HtHep gene consisted of three exons and two introns (with the length 94 and 251 bp, respectively). With a predicted molecular mass of 2881.4 Da and a theoretical pI of 8.53, the deduced amino acid encodes a signal peptide of 24 aa, prodomain of 39 aa and mature peptide of 25 aa. The signal peptidase (SA-VP) and the motif RX (K/R)R of propeptide convertase suggested the cleavage site of signal and mature peptide. Eight conserved cysteine residues were also identified and formed four disulfide bonds. Pair-wise alignments showed that HtHep clustered together with two fish species of Salmonidae family (Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss) in HAMP1 branch. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of HtHep were detected in a wide range of tissues and the highest level was detected in the liver. Its expression was also detected early during embryonic stage and could be up-regulated in the liver when challenged with pathogenic bacteria (Yersinia ruckeri). The recombinant HtHep (rHtHep) had antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive (Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). Our results suggested that HtHep might be involved in the innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens in taimen. PMID:27452973

  10. Self-grooming induced by sexual chemical signals in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas).

    PubMed

    Yu, Honghao; Yue, Pengpeng; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Xinquan

    2010-03-01

    Sniffing is one-way animals collect chemical signals, and many males self-groom when they encounter the odor of opposite-sex conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). Specifically, we investigated the sniffing pattern of male root voles in response to odors from the head, trunk, and tail areas of lactating and non-lactating females. The self-grooming behavior of males in response to female individual odorant stimuli was documented, and the relationship between self-grooming and sniffing of odors from the head, trunk, and tails areas were analyzed. Sniffing pattern results showed that males are most interested in odors from the head area, and more interested in odors from the tail as compared to the trunk area. Males displayed different sniffing and self-grooming behaviors when they were exposed to odors from lactating females as compared to non-lactating females. Males also spent more time sniffing and engaged in more sniffing behaviors in response to odors from the lactating females' tail area as compared to the same odors from non-lactating females. Similarly, males spent more time self-grooming and engaged in more self-grooming behaviors in the presence of individual odors from lactating females as compared to individual odors from non-lactating females. Partial correlation analyses revealed that the frequency of self-grooming was significantly correlated with the frequency of tail area sniffs. Results from this experiment suggest that sexual attractiveness of lactating females is stronger than that of non-lactating females. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis demonstrated that self-grooming in males is induced by odors from the tail area of females. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that sexual chemical signals from females can induce self-grooming behavior in male root voles. Self-grooming may also reflect the

  11. High efficiency protocol of DNA extraction from Micromys minutus mandibles from owl pellets: a tool for molecular research of cryptic mammal species.

    PubMed

    Buś, Magdalena M; Zmihorski, Michał; Romanowski, Jerzy; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Cichocki, Jan; Balčiauskas, Linas

    2014-01-01

    Owl pellets have high potential as a source of DNA. However, this noninvasive method of collecting DNA is rarely used, and its methodological aspects are poorly understood. We investigated the methodology for DNA extraction and amplification from owl pellets containing the smallest European rodent-the Harvest mouse Micromys minutus-as an example. We used mandibles identified in owl pellets for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA amplification. For DNA extraction, we tested two commercial protocols and utilized a protocol being a combination of two commercial kits which ensured high efficiency of DNA extraction. Additionally, we recorded that the amount of DNA was five times higher in extracts from teeth as compared to DNA extracts from jawbones derived from the same mandible. The quantity of DNA was significantly positively correlated with biological sample weight; however, the age of the pellet remains had an impact on the level of inhibition. We recorded inhibition in 40 % of mtDNA extracts derived from pellets older than 150 months, whereas in DNA extracts from pellets younger than 80 months, we did not observe a negative impact of inhibition on PCR efficiency. The amplification success rate was 89.9 % for the mitochondrial fragment and 39.4 % in the case of the nuclear fragment. We observed partial degradation of DNA evidenced by the fact that the longest fragments that we were able to amplify in the case of mtDNA were 450 and 200 bp for nuDNA. The study shows that pellets can be considered as a source of DNA and have high potential for molecular research in the case of threatened species and species that are difficult to study using standard field techniques.

  12. Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej

    2009-03-01

    Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

  13. Accumulated Metals and Metallothionein Expression in Organs of Hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) Within Natural Gas Fields of Podravina, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Špirić, Zdravko; Srebočan, Emil; Milin, Čedomila

    2015-01-01

    Environmental impact of natural gas facility near Molve (Podravina, Croatia) was assessed using hares (Lepus europaeus Pallas) as biomonitors. Elevated levels of heavy metals in the environment lead to their accumulation in different tissues of hares. The authors have tested accumulation and distribution of several metals in hare liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. The accumulation of copper in hare liver and kidneys with concomitant decrease of zinc was observed in animals from Podravina region as opposed to the control group of animals (Island Krk, Croatia). Secondly, the expression of metallothioneins was assessed because of their crucial role in metal homeostasis. Observed elevation of metallothionein expression in tested organs emphasizes the possible prolonged negative effects of heavy metals in the surroundings as well as a state of oxidative stress in animals. Further monitoring of the area is necessary for better control of hydrocarbon processing to diminish the possible negative environmental effects.

  14. [APPLICATION OF FLOW CYTOMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CIRCULATING HEMOCYTE POPULATIONS IN THE ASCIDIAN HALOCYNTHIA AURANTIUM (PALLAS, 1787)].

    PubMed

    Sukhachev, A N; Dyachkov, I S; Kudryavtsev, I V; Kumeiko, V V; Tsybulskiy, A V; Polevshchikov, A V

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the potentialities of flow cytometry in analyzing the composition of circulating hemocyte populations in the ascidian Halocynthia aurantium (Pallas, 1787) both using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against some human leukocyte conservative adhesion molecules and without mAbs. Flow cytometry, based on the assessment of forward and side scattering revealed five hemocyte populations. From the wide panel of antibodies against human leukocyte adhesion molecules (CD15, CD29, CD34, CD54, CD62L, CD62P, CD90, CD94, CD117, CD 166), only two mAbs (against CD54, CD90) displayed cross-reactivity with the H. aurantium hemocyte surface antigens. Distribution patterns of these antigens across the hemocyte populations have been analyzed. PMID:26281224

  15. Consumption of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) by the isopod idotea chelipes (pallas) in lake Grevelingen, after the growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenendijk, A. M.

    Autumn and winter consumption of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.) by the isopod Idotea chelipes (Pallas) was calculated by means of estimating biomass of both Idotea and eelgrass in the field, and consumption experiments in the laboratory. During the research period, September 1978 to March 1979, Idotea was found to be most abundant (in terms of biomass) invertebrate species in the eelgrass beds of Lake Grevelingen. Calculations show that Idotea can only play a minor role in the breakdown of eelgrass after the growing season: only between 2.9 and 5.8% (maximally) of the standing crop of eelgrass at the 3 permanent plots was consumed by this invertebrate. The fast decline of the standing eelgrass crop after the growing season in mainly due to transport of large leaf fragments (>10 cm) from the eelgrass beds by wind and wave action.

  16. Physical factors affecting the abundance and species richness of fishes in the shallow waters of the southern Bothnian Sea (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1986-03-01

    The relationship between the composition of the fish assemblages and the abiotic environment in seven shallow areas within the same geographical range in the southern Bothnian Sea were studied in May, July, September and November 1982. Eighteen species were found in the areas and the major species were Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The main purpose of the study was to examine the possible effects of exposure, organic contents in sediments and habitat heterogeneity on species richness and abundance of the assemblages. There was a negative correlation between the organic contents of the sediment and exposure. There were no significant correlations between exposure, organic contents, size of the areas and species numbers but habitat heterogeneity was positively correlated with species number. There were no correlations between fish abundance and heterogeneity of the areas. Negative correlations occurred between the exposure of the areas and fish abundance. The amounts of the pooled benthic fauna were negatively correlated to the exposure. The species/area hypothesis finds no support in the results, because there was no correlation between habitat heterogeneity of an area and its size. The effective fetch combined with the heterogeneity measurement of the areas seemed to be useful indicators of the species composition and fish abundance. Habitat heterogeneity and exposure were the most important structuring factors of these shallow water fish assemblages during the ice-free period and within the local geographical range. The assemblages consist of a mixture of species with marine or limnic origin and they have probably not evolved in the Bothnian Sea or together. They are most likely regulated by their physiological plasticity and not by interactions with other species.

  17. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae).

    PubMed

    Rosser, Thomas G; Griffin, Matt J; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Alberson, Neely R; Woodyard, Ethan T; Mischke, Charles C; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J; Pote, Linda M

    2016-07-01

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in some host records. In the summer of 2013, thirteen adult smallmouth buffalo were seined from a 0.1-acre (0.04-hectare) experimental research pond at the Thad Cochran National Warmwater Aquaculture Center in Stoneville, Mississippi, USA, and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Two previously unknown species of Myxobolus were observed parasitising the gills. Plasmodia of the two species differed from each other in both size and shape. Morphologically the two species were distinct from one another and from other Myxobolus spp. previously reported from buffalo fish. Myxospores of Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. were spherical and measured 12.7-14.5 (13.9 ± 0.4) µm in length and 10.7-13.6 (12.5 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 10.3-14.8 (12.6 ± 2.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 5.6-7.4 (6.6 ± 0.4) µm in length and 3.7-4.9 (4.5 ± 0.8) µm in width and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Myxospores of Myxobolus minutus n. sp. were circular in shape and measured 7.4-9.6 (8.6 ± 0.7) µm in length and 7.5-9.9 (8.8 ± 0.7) µm in width with a thickness of 6.5-7.3 (6.7 ± 0.3) µm. Polar capsules measured 3.6-4.9 (4.3 ± 0.3) µm in length and 2.8-3.8 (3.3 ± 0.3) µm and each contained a coiled polar filament with 5-6 turns. Supplemental 18S rRNA gene sequencing identified unique sequences for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences demonstrated a strong clustering of both isolates with other species of Myxobolus from cypriniform fish. PMID:27307169

  18. Observations of atmospheric methane concentrations and sources at two supersites Tiksi, northern Siberia and Pallas-Sodankylä, northern Finland (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, T. J.; Aurela, M.; Hatakka, J.; Aalto, T.; Lohila, A.; Asmi, E.; Kondratyev, V.; Ivakhov, V.; Reshetnikov, A.; Makshtas, A. P.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Uttal, T.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic and Boreal regions are important in the global methane budget mainly because emissions are large from the extensive wetlands. Recently the potential for increased emissions from methane hydrates under sediments at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean has been recognized. Resource exploitation in the Arctic is expanding and includes gas and oil drilling. Together with climate warming, we may expect changes in methane emissions from high northern latitudes. The main tools to probe the effect of this development on atmospheric methane are atmospheric methane observations and local emission measurements by micrometeorological and chamber methods. To better understand emissions at small and large scales, so called supersites have been introduced. At these sites, both atmospheric concentrations and emissions from representative ecosystems, together with suite of other environmental information, are measured continuously. We are running two of these supersites: Pallas-Sodankylä in northern Finland and Tiksi in Siberia on the coast of the Laptev Sea. In spite of the fact that both sites are north of the Arctic Circle, environmental conditions differ very much. In northern Scandinavia, climate is relatively marine, and wetland methane emissions are active throughout the year. In continental Tiksi the active layer is 30-80 cm and methane emissions cease during the coldest months when soil temperature is close to -20°C. Air mass advection is either from continental Siberia or from the Siberian seas. Forest and tundra fires are relatively common. At Pallas, advection is from the forested boreal and industrialized areas of Europe or the Norwegian or Barents Sea. In this presentation, we show seasonal variations of atmospheric methane concentrations at World Meteorological Organization - Global Atmosphere Watch sites: Pallas-Sodankylä and Tiksi. Source areas have been analyzed by trajectories. The main sources of methane in Tiksi were wetlands and the Laptev Sea, which is

  19. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis.

  20. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  1. Effects of some drugs on hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarischii Pallas, 1811).

    PubMed

    Ciftci, Mehmet; Turkoglu, Vedat; Coban, T Abdulkadir

    2007-05-01

    Inhibitory effects of some drugs on hepatic glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Lake Van fish (chalcalburnus tarischii pallas, 1811) were investigated. For this purpose, initially liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was purified 899-fold in a yield of 46.24% by using 2',5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel. In order to control the purification of enzyme was done SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band for enzyme. A constant temperature (+4 degrees C) was maintained during the purification process. Enzyme activity was determined with the Beutler method by using a spectrophotometer at 340 nm. Vankomycine, sulfanylamide, sulfanylacetamide, nidazole, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and KMnO(4) were used as drugs. These drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on the enzyme. IC(50) values of vankomycine, sulfanylamide, sulfanylacetamide, nidazole, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin and KMnO(4) were 1.88, 0.037, 0.032, 1.178, 2.26, 643.5 and 0.0002 mM, and the K(i) constants 1.18+/-0.148, 0.119+/-0.021, 0.075+/-0.015, 1.15+/-0.21, 7.69+/-0.67, 1007+/-69, and 0.001+/-0.00022 mM, respectively. While vankomycine and nidazole showed competitive inhibition, others displayed noncompetitive inhibition. K(i) constants and IC(50) values for drugs were determined by Lineweaver-Burk graphs and plotting activity percentage versus [I], respectively.

  2. Purification and characterization of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii pallas, 1811) liver.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, V; Altun, M; Ciftçi, M

    2006-09-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-glucose 6-phosphate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.49; G6PD) was purified from Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii pallas, 1811) liver, using a simple and rapid method, and some characteristics of the enzyme were investigated. The purification procedure was composed of two steps: homogenate preparation and 2', 5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity gel chromatography, which took 7-8 hours. Thanks to the two consecutive procedures, the enzyme, having specific activity of 38 EU/mg protein, was purified with a yield of 44.39% and 1310 fold. In order to control the enzyme purification SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was done. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band for enzyme. Optimal pH, stable pH, optimal temperature, Km and, Vmax values for NADP+ and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) were also determined for the enzyme. In addition, molecular weight and subunit molecular weights were found by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration chromatography respectively.

  3. Repellent activities of some Labiatae plant essential oils against the saltmarsh mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin

    2012-06-01

    The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively. PMID:22179264

  4. The role of dronedarone in the treatment of atrial fibrillation/flutter in the aftermath of PALLAS.

    PubMed

    Naccarelli, Gerald V; Kowey, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    Dronedarone is an amiodarone analog that differs structurally from amiodarone in that the iodine moiety was removed and a methane-sulfonyl group was added. These modifications reduce thyroid and other end-organ adverse effects and makes dronedarone less lipophilic, with a shorter half-life. Dronedarone has been shown to prevent atrial fibrillation/ flutter (AF/AFl) recurrences in several multi-center trials. In addition to its rhythm control properties, dronedarone has rate control properties. In patients with decompensated heart failure, dronedarone treatment increased mortality and cardiovascular hospitalizations. When dronedarone was used in elderly high risk AF/AFl patients, excluding those with advanced heart failure, cardiovascular hospitalizations were significantly reduced. The results of the PALLAS trial suggest that dronedarone should not be used in the long-term treatment of patients with permanent AF. Post-marketing data have demonstrated rare hepatic toxicity to be associated with dronedarone use. Updated practice and regulatory guidelines have positioned dronedarone as a front-line antiarrhythmic in many patients with AF/Fl. However, the drug should not be used in patients with advanced heart failure and in patients who develop permanent AF. PMID:24821656

  5. Learning where to feed: the use of social information in flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Rose, Andreas; Kolar, Miriam; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-03-01

    Social learning is a widespread phenomenon among vertebrates that influences various patterns of behaviour and is often reported with respect to foraging behaviour. The use of social information by foraging bats was documented in insectivorous, carnivorous and frugivorous species, but there are little data whether flower-visiting nectarivorous bats (Phyllostomidae: Glossophaginae) can acquire information about food from other individuals. In this study, we conducted an experiment with a demonstrator-observer paradigm to investigate whether flower-visiting Pallas' long-tongued bats (Glossophaga soricina) are able to socially learn novel flower positions via observation of, or interaction with, knowledgeable conspecifics. The results demonstrate that flower-visiting G. soricina are able to use social information for the location of novel flower positions and can thereby reduce energy-costly search efforts. This social transmission is explainable as a result of local enhancement; learning bats might rely on both visual and echo-acoustical perception and are likely to eavesdrop on auditory cues that are emitted by feeding conspecifics. We additionally tested the spatial memory capacity of former demonstrator bats when retrieving a learned flower position, and the results indicate that flower-visiting bats remember a learned flower position after several weeks. PMID:26497984

  6. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:26191223

  7. Environmental factors influencing the biodeposition of the suspension feeding bivalve Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas): Comparison of brackish and freshwater populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauringson, Velda; Mälton, Evely; Kotta, Jonne; Kangur, Külli; Orav-Kotta, Helen; Kotta, Ilmar

    2007-12-01

    Invasive suspension feeders have been particularly successful in shallow eutrophic estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. The impact of an invasive species is strong under favourable conditions. However, suboptimal feeding conditions may significantly reduce the impact to ambient environment. The invasive bivalve Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) is able to colonize both fresh and brackish waterbodies. In an in situ experiment the seasonal variability in the biodeposition of D. polymorpha from fresh and brackish water populations was quantified at different temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a (Chl a) regimes. Salinity fluctuations in brackish water areas, temperature and water Chl a content were all important factors in the model of mussels' feeding. The results indicated that D. polymorpha fed significantly more in fresh than in brackish water. Mussels acclimated more easily to acute transfer from brackish to freshwater than vice versa. The biodeposition of zebra mussels increased with temperature and water Chl a content but these effects were less straightforward than that of salinity. The results suggest that the impact of D. polymorpha on recipient ecosystem is more pronounced in fresh than in brackish water environments.

  8. Inhibitory effect of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) on poly (I:C)-induced immune response of epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lim, Seul Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Lee, Young Ho; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes provide protective role against external stimuli by barrier formation. In addition, kertinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. Disturbance of keratinocyte functions is related with skin disorders. Psoriasis is a common skin disease related with inflammatory reaction in epidermal cells. We attempted to find therapeutics for psoriasis, and found that Paeonia lactiflora Pallas extract (PE) has an inhibitory potential on poly (I:C)-induced inflammation of keratinocytes. PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced expression of crucial psoriatic cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, CCL20 and TNF-α, via down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway in human keratinocytes. In addition, PE significantly inhibited poly (I:C)-induced inflammasome activation, in terms of IL-1β and caspase-1 secretion. Finally, PE markedly inhibited poly (I:C)-increased NLRP3, an important component of inflammasome. These results indicate that PE has an inhibitory effect on poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes, suggesting that PE can be developed for the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:26191223

  9. Population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) during the initial invasion of the Upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Hightower, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document and model the population dynamics of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), USA, for five consecutive years (1992-1996) following their initial discovery in September 1991. Artificial substrates (concrete blocks, 0.49 m2 surface area) were deployed on or around the first of May at two sites within each of two habitat types (main channel border and contiguous backwater). Blocks were removed monthly (30 ?? 10 d) from the end of May to the end of October to obtain density and growth information. Some blocks deployed in May 1995 were retrieved in April 1996 to obtain information about overwinter growth and survival. The annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the UMR increased from 3.5/m2 in 1992 to 14,956/m 2 in 1996. The average May-October growth rate of newly recruited individuals, based on a von Bertalanffy growth model fitted to monthly shell-length composition data, was 0.11 mm/d. Model estimates of the average survival rate varied from 21 to 100% per month. Estimated recruitment varied substantially among months, with highest levels occurring in September-October of 1994 and 1996, and in July of 1995. Recruitment and density in both habitat types increased by two orders of magnitude in 1996. Follow-up studies will be necessary to assess the long-term stability of zebra mussel populations in the UMR; this study provides the critical baseline information needed for those future comparisons. ?? Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Malacological Society of London 2006.

  10. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    PubMed

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    Toxicological interactions between microplastics (MP) and other environmental contaminants are of grave concern. Here, the potential influence of MP in the short-term toxicity of chromium to early juveniles of Pomatoschistus microps was investigated. Three null hypotheses were tested: (1) exposure to Cr(VI) concentrations in the low ppm range does not induce toxic effects on juveniles; (2) the presence of microplastics in the water does not influence the acute toxicity of Cr(VI) to juveniles; (3) the environmental conditions of the natural habitat where fish developed do not influence their sensitivity to Cr(VI)-induced acute stress. Fish were collected in the estuaries of Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian Peninsula) that have several abiotic differences, including in the water and sediment concentrations of various environmental contaminants. After acclimatization to laboratory conditions, two 96h acute bioassays were carried out with juveniles from both estuaries to: (i) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) alone; (ii) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) in the presence of MP (polyethylene spheres 1-5μm ∅). Cr(VI) alone induced mortality (96h-LC50s: 14.4-30.5mg/l) and significantly decreased fish predatory performance (≤74%). Thus, in the range of concentrations tested (5.6-28.4mg/l) Cr(VI) was found to be toxic to P. microps early juveniles, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 1. Under simultaneous exposure to Cr(VI) and MP, a significant decrease of the predatory performance (≤67%) and a significant inhibition of AChE activity (≤31%) were found. AChE inhibition was not observed in the test with Cr(VI) alone and MP alone caused an AChE inhibition ≤21%. Mixture treatments containing Cr(VI) concentration ≥3.9mg/l significantly increased LPO levels in L-est fish, an effect that was not observed under Cr(VI) or MP single exposures. Thus, toxicological interactions between Cr(VI) and MP occurred, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 2. In the

  11. Does the presence of microplastics influence the acute toxicity of chromium(VI) to early juveniles of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps)? A study with juveniles from two wild estuarine populations.

    PubMed

    Luís, Luís G; Ferreira, Pedro; Fonte, Elsa; Oliveira, Miguel; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2015-07-01

    Toxicological interactions between microplastics (MP) and other environmental contaminants are of grave concern. Here, the potential influence of MP in the short-term toxicity of chromium to early juveniles of Pomatoschistus microps was investigated. Three null hypotheses were tested: (1) exposure to Cr(VI) concentrations in the low ppm range does not induce toxic effects on juveniles; (2) the presence of microplastics in the water does not influence the acute toxicity of Cr(VI) to juveniles; (3) the environmental conditions of the natural habitat where fish developed do not influence their sensitivity to Cr(VI)-induced acute stress. Fish were collected in the estuaries of Minho (M-est) and Lima (L-est) Rivers (NW Iberian Peninsula) that have several abiotic differences, including in the water and sediment concentrations of various environmental contaminants. After acclimatization to laboratory conditions, two 96h acute bioassays were carried out with juveniles from both estuaries to: (i) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) alone; (ii) investigate the effects of Cr(VI) in the presence of MP (polyethylene spheres 1-5μm ∅). Cr(VI) alone induced mortality (96h-LC50s: 14.4-30.5mg/l) and significantly decreased fish predatory performance (≤74%). Thus, in the range of concentrations tested (5.6-28.4mg/l) Cr(VI) was found to be toxic to P. microps early juveniles, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 1. Under simultaneous exposure to Cr(VI) and MP, a significant decrease of the predatory performance (≤67%) and a significant inhibition of AChE activity (≤31%) were found. AChE inhibition was not observed in the test with Cr(VI) alone and MP alone caused an AChE inhibition ≤21%. Mixture treatments containing Cr(VI) concentration ≥3.9mg/l significantly increased LPO levels in L-est fish, an effect that was not observed under Cr(VI) or MP single exposures. Thus, toxicological interactions between Cr(VI) and MP occurred, therefore, we rejected hypothesis 2. In the

  12. A synopsis of records of myxozoan parasites (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) from shrews, with additional data on Soricimyxum fegati from common shrew Sorex araneus in Hungary and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Csaba; Atkinson, Stephen D; Molnar, Kalman; Egyed, Laszlo; Gubanyi, Andras; Cech, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Myxozoans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are almost exclusively endoparasites of aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, with the notable exception being two species of Soricimyxum Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 described from terrestrial shrews (Soricidae) in central Europe. Myxospores of the two parasites are morphologically indistinguishable, but have SSU rDNA sequences that differ by about 4%. Herein, we report additional molecular and histology data from Soricimyxum fegati Prunescu, Prunescu, Pucek et Lom, 2007 from common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus) from Hungary, and add a new geographic record for S. fegati in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus Linnaeus) from Slovakia. A limited survey of shrews from the northern United States, Blarina brevicauda Say and Sorex sp. from New York, and Sorex spp. from Oregon, did not discover any infections, which is in stark contrast to the relatively high infection rates (up to 66%) in European shrew populations. We also provide a summary and discussion of literature records of species of Soricimyxum and a host survey. Given the lack of distinguishing morphological or morphometric characters between Soricimyxum spp., and the overlap in vertebrate hosts and geographic ranges, unambiguous identification of these closely related shrew parasites can presently only be achieved through sequence comparison of one or more variable SSU rDNA regions. PMID:27312127

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) (Diptera: Hypodermatinae) from wild plateau pikas(Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong; Li, Wei; Duo, Hong; Guo, Zhihong; Dang, Zhisheng; Shen, Xiuying; Peng, Mao; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the morphological and molecular characterization of Oestromyia leporina (Pallas, 1778) from wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) in Qinghai province, China. The third-stage larvae of O. leporina were examined by scanning electron microscopy revealing morphology characteristics of the spines on the cephalic, the thoracic segments, the abdominal segments and the spiracular plates. The coding regions of 25 cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of O. leporina were investigated. Eighty-one variable sites and 21 haplotypes were identified and the nucleotide and haplotype diversities were 0.04456 and 0.9767, respectively, indicating a rich genetic diversity in O. leporina. Phylogenetic analysis utilizing sequences of COI revealed two distinct lineages. These findings revealed ultrastructure and molecular characterization among the O. leporina from plateau pikas in Qinghai province, China and had implications for studying morphological identification, molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. leporina. PMID:26708934

  14. Parasites of South African wildlife. V. A. description of the males of Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 from warthogs, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766).

    PubMed

    Boomker, J

    1990-09-01

    Oesophagostomum mocambiquei Ortlepp, 1964 was described from 9 females recovered from a warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas, 1766), from northern Mozambique. Large numbers of O. mocambiquei were recovered during subsequent surveys of the parasites of warthogs from the Kruger National Park and the Hoedspruit Nature Reserve. The males, which have not yet been described, resemble those of Oesophagostomum santosdiasi Ortlepp, 1964 in the principal measurements. They can, however, be differentiated by the shape of the mouth capsule, which is round in O. mocambiquei and oval in O. santosdiasi. A simplified key for the identification of the Oesophagostomum species that occur in warthogs in South Africa and Namibia is provided and the differences between them tabulated. The names Oesophagostomum moçambiquei and Oesophagostomum santos-diasi are corrected to O. mocambiquei and O. santosdiasi respectively, since diacritic marks are not allowed under the Code of International Zoological Nomenclature. PMID:2234863

  15. In vitro determination of 6PGD enzyme activity purified from Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas, 1811) liver exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Guler, Muhammet; Kivanc, M Riza; Turkoglu, Vedat; Basi, Zehra; Kivrak, Hilal

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of methidathion, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin pesticides on Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas, 1811) liver 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was investigated due to the fact that these pesticides are extensively used to improve agricultural productivity in the Van region. 2',5'-ADP Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography was used to purify 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase enzyme from fish liver and SDS-PAGE technique was used to control the purity of this enzyme. The in vitro effect of methidathion, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin pesticides on the enzyme activity was investigated. The enzyme was purified 1,050-fold with specific activity of 27.04 EU/mg protein. Moreover, Ki constants of methidathion, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin were to be 3.294 ± 0.215, 0.718 ± 0.095, and 0.084 ± 0.009 mM respectively. The IC50 value were estimated as 9.95 × 10(-5) ± 0.1844 × 10(-5) mM for methidathion, 1.01 × 10(-4) ± 0.01413 × 10(-4) mM for cypermethrin, and 4.43 × 10(-6) ± 0.05653 × 10(-6) mM for deltamethrin. In conclusion, deltamethrin inhibits the enzyme activity more than methidathion and cypermethrin.

  16. The impact of nature-based tourism on bird communities: a case study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park.

    PubMed

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  17. The Impact of Nature-Based Tourism on Bird Communities: A Case Study in Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhta, Esa; Sulkava, Pekka

    2014-05-01

    Nature-based tourism and recreation within and close to protected areas may have negative environmental impacts on biodiversity due to urban development, landscape fragmentation, and increased disturbance. We conducted a 3-year study of disturbances of birds induced by nature-based tourism over a recreational gradient in the Pallas-Yllästunturi National Park and its surroundings in northern Finland. Bird assemblages were studied in highly disturbed areas close to the park (a ski resort, villages, and accommodation areas) and in campfire sites, along hiking routes (recreational areas) and in a forest (control area) within the park. Compared with the forest, the disturbed urbanized areas had higher abundances of human-associated species, corvid species, cavity and building nesters, and edge species. The abundances of managed forest species were higher in campfire sites than in the forest. Hiking trails and campfire sites did not have a negative impact on open-nesting bird species. The most likely reason for this outcome is that most campfire sites were situated at forest edges; this species group prefers managed forests and forest edge as a breeding habitat. The abundances of virgin forest species did not differ among the areas studied. The results of the study suggest that the current recreation pressure has not caused substantial changes in the forest bird communities within the National Park. We suggest that the abundances of urban exploiter species could be used as indicators to monitor the level and changes of urbanization and recreational pressure at tourist destinations.

  18. Black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) feeding damage across timber harvest edges in northern California coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens[D. Don] Endl.) forests, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; Carnell, K.; McBride, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding damage to trees by black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) was recorded in proximity to timber harvest edges in harvested and old-growth stands of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) in northern California, USA. Bears exhibited distinct preference in their feeding patterns related to stand structure and composition and to distance from the timber-harvest edge. Most damage was recorded within regenerating stands. Regression analysis indicated that density of damaged trees was negatively correlated with distance from timber harvest edges within old-growth stands. A significant negative correlation was also found between the density of trees damaged by bears and habitat diversity (H') as measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition, bears exhibited preference for pole-size trees (dbh = 10-50 cm) over all other size classes, and coast redwood over other species. In general, damage by bears appeared to act as a natural thinning agent in even-aged stands. No damage was recorded in old-growth stands except in close proximity to the timber-harvest edge where subcanopy recruitment was high.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of an acidic phospholipase A2 with vasoconstrictor activity from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhisong; Zeng, Fuxing; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Liwen; Teng, Maikun; Li, Xu

    2012-11-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are the major component of snake venoms and exert a variety of relevant toxic actions such as neurotoxicity and myotoxicity, amongst others. An acidic PLA2, here named AhV_aPA, was purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom by means of a three-step chromatographic procedure. AhV_aPA migrated as a single band on SDS-PAGE gels, with a molecular weight of about 14 kDa. Like other acidic aPLA2s, AhV_aPA has high enzymatic activity. Tension measurements of mouse thoracic aortic rings remarkably indicated that AhV_aPA could induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K+-induced contraction, with an EC50 of 369 nmol l(-1). Rod-shaped crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to a resolution limit of 2.30 Å. The crystals belonged to space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a=44.27, b=68.39, c=81.54 Å. PMID:23143242

  20. The occurrence of the common European fish cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) in the River Irtysh, China: a morphological characterization and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bing Wen; Barčák, Daniel; Oros, Mikuláš; Chen, Kai; Xie, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The cestode Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) is a highly polymorphic species with several morphotypes, and belongs to the most widespread species of monozoic tapeworm (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) found in the Palaearctic zoogeographic region with a wide range of cyprinid fish hosts. This paper provides the first reliable evidence about the occurrence of C. laticeps in northern China that is based on detailed morphological characteristics and mitochondrial cox1 sequences. C. laticeps was found in freshwater bream Abramis brama (L.), in the River Irtysh, with the prevalence of 40% and mean intensity of infection 8. The tapeworms were rather similar in their morphological characters to the morphotype 1 of C. laticeps which is typified by the possession of a slender body with a flabellate wide scolex, narrow neck, robust, long and clearly visible vas deferens, large, and almost spherical cirrus-sac containing well-developed internal seminal vesicle and the first vitelline follicles and first testes beginning far from anterior margin of the body. Subsequent molecular analysis confirmed the morphological identification of the species. Our results show that the studied specimens were firmly clustered into the C. laticeps clade and formed a monophyletic group with C. laticeps morphotype 1 and 2 from Europe and Russia. In China, C. laticeps is a non-indigenous fish parasite, which has the most probably been introduced into the Irtysh River basin with its typical host inhabiting Russia. PMID:27447211

  1. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia. PMID:26057015

  2. The mitochondrial genome of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and a phylogenetic analysis of the Polyphaga (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Niu, Fang-Fang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Su; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the multicolored Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (GenBank accession No. KR108208). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Harmonia. The current length with partitial A + T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 16,387 bp. All the typical genes were sequenced except the trnI and trnQ. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Coleoptera, there is no re-arrangement in the sequenced region compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons. Five, five and three protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, TA and T, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the protein-coding genes supported that the Scirtidae is a basal lineage of Polyphaga. The Harmonia and the Coccinella form a sister lineage. The monophyly of Staphyliniformia, Scarabaeiformia and Cucujiformia was supported. The Buprestidae was found to be a sister group to the Bostrichiformia.

  3. First stage zoeal morphology of four ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Chen; Liu, Hong-Chang; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-03

    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the first zoeal stage of four ghost crabs, Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897. Finding diagnostic characters to distinguish between the four species proved difficult because their setal appendage patterns were identical. However the rectangular and pockmarked patterns on the ventral carapace are rather pronounced in O. ceratophthalmus and O. stimpsoni but weak in O. cordimanus and O. sinensis. The spinulation on the furca of the telson is less in O. cordimanus than in the other three species.

  4. Artificial insemination of captive European brown hares (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778) with fresh and cryopreserved semen derived from free-ranging males.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Roellig, K; Goeritz, F; Fassbender, M; Krieg, R; Blottner, S; Behr, B; Hermes, R

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to establish artificial insemination (AI) protocols to predictably initiate pregnancy during the breeding season in the European brown hare (EBH) (Lepus europaeus PALLAS, 1778). Semen was collected from seven captive and eight free-ranging males by means of electroejaculation. Semen from the free-ranging males was cryopreserved using directional freezing. Total motility/integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed semen was 91.6%/87.7% and 46.9%/53.8%, respectively. Ovulation was induced in ultrasonographically preselected females using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue. Each female was inseminated with 1 mL fresh (Group A, n=16) or frozen-thawed semen (Group B, n=9) at a concentration of 100x10(6) spermatozoa/mL. The use of ultrasonography (10 to 22 MHz) confirmed the intracervical semen deposit, the success of artificial ovulation induction (formation of postovulatory corpus luteum), and permitted the monitoring of individual pregnancies. Although sperm motility/integrity was significantly different between groups, no significant difference was detected in conception rates (A, 87.50%; B, 77.78%). Because of embryonic resorption, there was a slight difference in fertility rate between groups (A, 62.5%; B, 77.78%). Overall, AI in captive EBH using fresh and frozen-thawed semen achieved successful fertility rates. Long-term cryopreserved semen was used to bring new genetic material from the wild into a genetically limited captive population without extensive animal transport. Therefore, AI has the potential to enhance breeding programs for EBH especially when cryopreserved semen from wild donors is used. PMID:19740536

  5. Ephemeral bio-engineers or reef-building polychaetes: how stable are aggregations of the tube worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766)?

    PubMed

    Callaway, Ruth; Desroy, Nicolas; Dubois, Stanislas F; Fournier, Jérôme; Frost, Matthew; Godet, Laurent; Hendrick, Vicki J; Rabaut, Marijn

    2010-08-01

    Dense aggregations of tube-worms can stabilize sediments and generate oases for benthic communities that are different and often more diverse and abundant than those of the surroundings. If these features are to qualify as biogenic reefs under nature-conservation legislation such as the EC Habitats Directive, a level of stability and longevity is desirable aside from physical and biological attributes. Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) is widely distributed around the European coast and aggregations of this tube-dwelling polychaete are known to have a positive effect on the biodiversity of associated species in inter- and sub-tidal areas. This increases the value of L. conchilega-rich habitats for higher trophic levels such as birds and fish. However, L. conchilega is currently not recognized as a reef builder primarily due to uncertainty about the stability of their aggregations. We carried out three studies on different spatial and temporal scales to explore a number of properties relating to stability: (1) Individual aggregations of L. conchilega of ∼1 m(2) were monitored for up to 1 year, (2) records of L. conchilega from a 258-ha area over a 35-year period were analyzed, (3) the recovery of a population of L. conchilega subjected to disturbances by cultivation of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) was followed over 3 years. The studies provided evidence about the longevity of L. conchilega aggregations, their resistance to disturbance, their resilience in recovering from negative impact and their large-scale persistence. The results showed that populations of L. conchilega were prone to considerable fluctuation and the stability of aggregations depended on environmental factors and on recruitment. The tube-worms proved to be susceptible to disturbance by cultivation of Manila clams but demonstrated the potential to recover from that impact. The long-term monitoring of a large L. conchilega population in the Bay of Mont Saint Michel (France) indicated that

  6. Active osmoregulatory ion uptake across the pleopods of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas): electrophysiological measurements on isolated split endo- and exopodites mounted in a micro-ussing chamber.

    PubMed

    Postel, U; Becker, W; Brandt, A; Luck-Kopp, S; Riestenpatt, S; Weihrauch, D; Siebers, D

    2000-04-01

    The mechanism of active, osmoregulatory ion uptake was investigated in the pleopods of the marine isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas). Using isolated split half-podites of isopods acclimated to brackish water (20 salinity) mounted in a micro-Ussing chamber and symmetrically superfused with identical haemolymph-like salines, a mean short-circuit current I(sc) of -445 microA cm(-)(2) was measured in endopodites 3-5, corresponding to an inwardly directed transcellular movement of negative charge. Application of ouabain (5 mmol l(-)(1)) to the basolateral superfusate resulted in the almost total abolition of the I(sc) (reduced from -531 to -47 microA cm(-)(2)), suggesting that the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is the driving force for active, electrogenic uptake of NaCl. In contrast, mean I(sc) values close to zero were found in preparations of all exopodites and in endopodites 1 and 2. The specific activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase corresponded with these results. Specific activities were highest in posterior endopodites 3-5 and depended on ambient salinity. In all other rami, the activities were much lower and independent of ambient salinity. Activities in posterior endopodites 3-5 were lowest in isopods acclimated to 30 salinity (2-4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)), increased in individuals kept in 20 salinity (8.4 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)) and were highest in isopods acclimated to 15 salinity (18.2 micromol P(i )mg(-)(1 )protein h(-)(1)). When specimens were transferred from 30 to 40 salinity, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in the posterior endopodites. The electrophysiological and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity measurements show that active electrogenic ion transport in this species occurs almost exclusively in posterior endopodites 3-5. The endopodite of the fifth pleopod of I. baltica exhibited a microscopic structure remarkably similar to that described for the lamellae of the phyllobranchiae of brachyurans. It is composed of two opposed epithelial

  7. Purification and characterization of AHPM, a novel non-hemorrhagic P-IIIc metalloproteinase with α-fibrinogenolytic and platelet aggregation-inhibition activities, from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiajia; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Mingchun; Yan, Xincheng; Wang, Shasha; Gao, Shang

    2013-04-01

    A novel non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinase, AHPM, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas by a combination of ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. AHPM is a dimeric glycoprotein with multiple pIs around pH 7.9 and has a molecular mass of 110 kDa with two blocked N-terminuses. Partial sequence of AHPM obtained by LC-MS/MS analysis together with its dimeric nature reveals that it is a P-IIIc snake venom metalloproteinase composed of metalloproteinase, disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains. AHPM has a conserved DECD sequence in the disintegrin-like domain. AHPM hydrolyzes casein and fibrinogen and also dissolves fibrin clots and the proteolytic activity is abolished by EDTA, but not by PMSF, suggesting that it is a metalloproteinase. The protease hydrolyzes rapidly the Aα-chain of fibrinogen followed by the Bβ-chain and does not cleave the γ-chain. AHPM contains endogenous Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions at a molar ratio of 1:1.9 and 1:4.2, respectively, and Zn(2+) ions are essential for its proteolytic activity. AHPM inhibits collagen-and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 200 ± 8 nM and 280 ± 10 nM, respectively. EDTA markedly attenuates the inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by AHPM, indicating that the fibrinogenolytic activity of AHPM is involved in its inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. AHPM is devoid of hemorrhagic activity when injected (up to 30 μg) subcutaneously into mice. AHPM is so far identified as first non-hemorrhagic P-IIIc SVMP which has both fibrinolytic and platelet aggregation-inhibition activities. The bifunctional enzyme may have a potential clinical application as a thrombolytic agent. PMID:23104267

  8. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. from the horned puffin, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas), and Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) in the North Pacific basin.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P

    1984-01-01

    Three Cestodes representing two species of the genus Alcataenia Spasskaia, 1971 and a subspecies of Alcataenia larina (Krabbe, 1869) are described. Alcataenia fraterculae sp. n. (Cestoda: Dilepididae) was found in horned puffins, Fratercula corniculata (Naumann), and other species of seabirds from localities in the western Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, and Chukchi Sea. Alcataenia cerorhincae sp. n. is described from the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas) in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and western Aleutian Islands. Alcataenia larina pacifica ssp. n. is recognized from species of Laridae and other seabirds in the North Pacific Ocean, Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea and the region of the Arctic Ocean near Bering Strait. It is distinguished from A. larina larina (Krabbe, 1869) by a greater number of testes, a longer cirrus sac, and variation in the position of the genital ducts which may be either dorsal to or between the osmoregulatory canals. A fraterculae and A. cerorhincae are most similar to A. larina and particularly to the North Pacific form A. l. pacifica. Generally specimens of A. fraterculae can be distinguished from the other taxa by larger rostellar hooks, a longer cirrus sac, and a combination of other characters. A. fraterculae, A. cerorhincae, and A. l. pacifica however represent a complex of cryptic species in which there is extensive overlap in some morphological characters. Results of a discriminant analysis among these nominal taxa were significant and, in combination with data about other morphological characters and host and geographic distribution, clearly indicated that these represent three species in the North Pacific basin. PMID:6486621

  9. Trophic niche partitioning of littoral fish species from the rocky intertidal of Helgoland, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hielscher, N. N.; Malzahn, A. M.; Diekmann, R.; Aberle, N.

    2015-12-01

    During a 3-year field study, interspecific and interannual differences in the trophic ecology of littoral fish species were investigated in the rocky intertidal of Helgoland island (North Sea). We investigated trophic niche partitioning of common coexisting littoral fish species based on a multi-tracer approach using stable isotope and fatty acids in order to show differences and similarities in resource use and feeding modes. The results of the dual-tracer approach showed clear trophic niche partitioning of the five target fish species, the goldsinny wrasse Ctenolabrus rupestris, the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus, the short-spined sea scorpion Myoxocephalus scorpius and the long-spined sea scorpion Taurulus bubalis. Both stable isotopes and fatty acids showed distinct differences in the trophic ecology of the studied fish species. However, the combined use of the two techniques added an additional resolution on the interannual scale. The sand goby P. minutus showed the largest trophic plasticity with a pronounced variability between years. The present data analysis provides valuable information on trophic niche partitioning of fish species in the littoral zones of Helgoland and on complex benthic food webs in general.

  10. Odour cues from suitors' nests determine mating success in a fish.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-05-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be 'intrinsic' excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that 'extrinsic' chemical cues in the males' nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females' initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection.

  11. Body size mediates social and environmental effects on nest building behaviour in a fish with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Lindström, Kai; Wong, Bob B M

    2015-07-01

    Body size, social setting, and the physical environment can all influence reproductive behaviours, but their interactions are not well understood. Here, we investigated how male body size, male-male competition, and water turbidity influence nest-building behaviour in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a marine fish with exclusive paternal care. We found that environmental and social factors affected the nest characteristics of small and large males differently. In particular, association between male size and the level of nest elaboration (i.e. the amount of sand piled on top of the nest) was positive only under clear water conditions. Similarly, male size and nest entrance size were positively associated only in the absence of competition. Such interactions may, in turn, help to explain the persistence of variation in reproductive behaviours, which-due to their importance in offspring survival-are otherwise expected to be under strong balancing selection.

  12. [Genetic diversity of Mongolian gazelle Procapra guttorosa Pallas, 1777].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, P A; Kiriliuk, V E; Lushchekina, A A; Kholodova, M V

    2005-10-01

    The mitochondrial DNA D-loop hypervariable fragment sequence polymorphism was examined in 27 Mongolian gazelles from Mongolia, Russia, and China. Intraspecific polymorphism of the D-loop fragment examined was demonstrated. All haplotypes described were unique. The average nucleotide diversity (pi) for the mtDNA fragment investigated constituted 5.85 +/- 2.92%. A relatively high number of insertions and deletions was observed. In particular, a haplotype with the 77-bp insertion was described. The data obtained point to high genetic diversity of Mongolian populations. There was no correlation between the distribution of haplotypes examined and geographical location of the animal tissue sampling sites. PMID:16316006

  13. Bacterial diversity in the breadcrumb sponge Halichondria panicea (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Wichels, Antje; Würtz, Sven; Döpke, Hilke; Schütt, Christian; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and variability of bacterial communities associated with the marine sponge Halichondria panicea with respect to tissue compartmentalization as well as seasonal and small-scale geographic variation. Diversity of microorganisms in sponges was investigated recently, but work on the variability and succession of associated bacterial communities is rare. Despite some information on Pacific and Mediterranean sponges, it is still uncertain whether bacteria and sponges are specifically associated. In this study, H. panicea specimens were sampled throughout the year at different stations around the island of Helgoland (North Sea) and investigated using molecular tools. The bacterial community associated with H. panicea was diverse, consisting of one denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band occurring in most 'tissue' samples and additional variable bands. Variability was observed between different sponge fractions (i.e. the aquiferous system and the 'tissue'), sampling locations, and sampling dates. A PCR-DGGE specific for the Roseobacter group of marine Alphaproteobacteria displayed low diversity and a marked similarity between all samples. Phylogenetic analysis also pointed to specific Alphaproteobacteria of the Roseobacter group, which was predominant in most sponge 'tissue' samples. We conclude that H. panicea harbour a specific Roseobacter population with varying bacterial co-populations occurring seasonally or on a small-scale geographically, sometimes even dominating the bacterial community.

  14. Pseudodiarrhoea in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) exposed to microcystins.

    PubMed

    Juhel, Guillaume; Davenport, John; O'Halloran, John; Culloty, Sarah; Ramsay, Ruth; James, Kevin; Furey, Ambrose; Allis, Orla

    2006-03-01

    Microcystins are produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria and pose significant health and ecological problems. In this study we show that zebra mussels respond differently to different strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, and that a highly toxic strain causes zebra mussels to produce large quantities of mucous pseudofaeces, 'pseudodiarrhoea', that are periodically expelled hydraulically through the pedal gape by shell valve adductions rather than by the normal ciliary tracts. Analysis of the pseudofaecal ejecta showed that the proportion of Microcystis aeruginosa relative to Asterionella formosa was high in the pseudofaeces and even higher in the 'pseudodiarrhoea' when a mixed diet was given to the mussels. This confirms that very toxic Microcystis aeruginosa were preferentially being rejected by comparison with the non-toxic diatom in the pseudofaeces and even more so in the 'pseudodiarrhoea'. Such selective rejection was not observed with low or non-toxic strains and would therefore tend to enhance the presence of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in mixed Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterial blooms, as well as transferring toxins from the water column to the benthos. The observed acute irritant response to the toxin represents the first demonstration of an adverse sublethal effect of microcystins on invertebrate ecophysiology. Our results also suggest that it could be a specific response to microcystin-LF, a little studied toxin variant.

  15. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  16. Possible causes for growth variability and summer growth reduction in juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veer, Henk W.; Jung, Alexa Sarina; Freitas, Vânia; Philippart, Catharina J. M.; Witte, Johannes IJ.

    2016-05-01

    Growth variability within individuals and among groups and locations and the phenomenon of summer growth reduction has been described for juvenile flatfish in a variety of European coastal areas whereby the underlying causes still remain elusive. Potential mechanisms were tested for juvenile plaice Pleuronectes platessa L. in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, by analysing published and unpublished information from long-term investigations (1986-present). Growth variability did occur and could be explained by differences induced by environmental variability (water temperature), and by non-genetic irreversible adaptation and sex. Dynamic Energy Budget analysis indicated that especially sexually-dimorphic growth in combination with variability in sex ratio could explain most of the variability in growth and the increase in the range of the size of individuals within the population over time. Summer growth reduction was not only observed among 0-group plaice in the intertidal, but also in the subtidal and tidal gullies as well as among I- and II-group plaice. Intraspecific competition for food was not detected but some support for interspecific competition with other predators was found. Also resource competition (due to crowding) with the other abundant epibenthic species (0-, I- and II-group flounder Platichthys flesus; the brown shrimp Crangon crangon; the shore crab Carcinus maenas; the goby species Pomatoschistus minutus and Pomatoschistus microps) could not explain the summer growth reduction. The observed growth reduction coincided with a decrease in stomach content, especially of regenerating body parts of benthic prey items. It is hypothesised that macrozoobenthos becomes less active after the spring phytoplankton bloom, reducing prey availability for juvenile plaice in summer, causing a reduction in food intake and hence in growth.

  17. Larinus minutus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Urophora quadrifasciata (Diptera: Tephritidae), evidence for interaction and impact on spotted knapweed in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition between seed-feeding insects is well noted in the literature, with many of these interactions being asymmetrical and causing a disadvantage for one of the species involved. While often effective, the use of the “cumulative stress” approach to biological control (where multiple natural e...

  18. Mate sampling and choosiness in the sand goby.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Kai; Lehtonen, Topi K

    2013-08-22

    To date, mate choice studies have mostly focused on establishing which mates are chosen or how the choices are performed. Here, we combined these two approaches by empirically testing how latency to mate is affected by various search costs, variation in mate quality and female quality in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus). Our results show that females adjust their mating behaviour according to the costs and benefits of the choice situation. Specifically, they mated sooner when access to males was delayed and when the presence of other females presented a mate sampling cost. We also found a positive link between size variation among potential mating partners and spawning delay in some (but not all) experimental conditions. By contrast, we did not find the number of available males or the females' own body size ('quality') to affect mating latency. Finally, female mating behaviour varied significantly between years. These findings are notable for demonstrating that (i) mate sampling time is particularly sensitive to costs and, to a lesser degree, to variation among mate candidates, (ii) females' mating behaviour is sensitive to qualitative rather than to quantitative variation in their environment, and (iii) a snapshot view may describe mate sampling behaviour unreliably.

  19. The population dynamics of Lernaeocera lusci and L. branchialis on intermediate hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Damme, P. A.; Ollevier, F.

    1996-06-01

    The metapopulation dynamics of Lernaeocera lusci and L. branchialis on sole Solea solea and flounder Pleuronects flesus were studied in the Dutch coastal area. Both fish species harboured large numbers of parasites when they arrived in the coastal area in the spring. Between April and June all parasites detached from the intermediate hosts and infected the definitive hosts (0+ whiting Merlangius merlangus for L. branchialis, and possibly sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus for L. lusci). Thereafter, flounder remained almost parasite-free until autumn. This suggests that L. branchialis has only 1 generation per year. However, soles were infested again with L. lusci (in June and July), which detached to infest 0+bib Trisopterus luscus, the typical definitive host for this parasite species. Thus, it appears that L. lusci has 2 generations per year. The flounder length and the infection intensity of L. branchialis were not correlated throughout the study period. Significant positive correlations were found between the sole length and infection intensity of L. lusci in late spring, but not in the summer or autumn. Throughout the year, both L. lusci and L. branchialis were aggregated within their intermediate host populations (variance ≫ ≫ abundance).

  20. Parasite transfer from crustacean to fish hosts in the Lübeck Bight, SW Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Groenewold, S.; Strohbach, U.

    1994-03-01

    Four helminth parasites out of 19 species found in the Lübeck Bight, Baltic Sea, were chosen for investigations on the transfer from invertebrate to small-sized fish hosts: larvae of the tapeworms Schistocephalus sp. and Bothriocephalus sp. (Cestoda) living in planktonic copepods as primary hosts; Podocotyle atomon (Digenea) and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda) were found in benthic crustaceans, especially Gammarus spp. These hosts were the prey of 3 gobiid fishes, Gobiusculus flavescens (feeding mainly on plankton), Pomatoschistus minutus (preferring benthos), and P. pictus (feeding more on plankton than benthos). Because the fishes selected smaller sizes of crustaceans, they ingested all stages of the copepods but only the smaller-sized groups of gammarids which were often less infested by parasites. In order to evaluate the probability for a fish to be parasitized by a helminth, an infestation potential index (IP) was calculated. Podocotyle atomon and Hysterothylacium sp. revealed an IP which was far lower in gobies than expected when the prevalences of the previous hosts were taken into consideration. The IP of tapeworm larvae was mainly influenced by the feeding pressure of the gobiid predators, which might change with developmental stage and season. It is concluded that parasite transfer to the next host decreases when sizes of prey and predator differ only moderately. This mechanism can reduce the numbers of parasites transferred to less suitable or wrong hosts.

  1. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  2. Odour cues from suitors' nests determine mating success in a fish.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-05-01

    Animals use a range of sensory cues for finding food, avoiding predators and choosing mates. In this regard, the aquatic environment is particularly suitable for the use of olfactory and other chemical cues. Nevertheless, mate choice research, even on aquatic organisms, has focused on visual signals, while chemical cues relevant in sexual selection have been assumed to be 'intrinsic' excretions of mate candidates. Here, using the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small fish with paternal egg care, we investigated the possibility that 'extrinsic' chemical cues in the males' nests could also have a significant contribution to mating success. We found that females strongly avoided laying eggs into nests subject to the odour of Saprolegnia water moulds (an egg infection) and that this effect was independent of the females' initial, visually based preference for males. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that chemical cues related to parental failure can play a large role in sexual selection. PMID:25948566

  3. Parasite communities of four fish species in the Wadden Sea and the role of fish discarded by the shrimp fisheries in parasite transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, S.; Berghahn, R.; Zander, C.-D.

    1996-03-01

    Parasites were observed in medium- and small-sized fish taken from the discards of a commercial shrimper during seven different cruises in the tidal channels of the North Frisian Wadden Sea (Süderaue, North Sea) from April to September 1991. In total, 442 fish comprising four species ( Sprattus sprattus, Hyperoplus lanceolatus, Ammodytes tobianus, Pomatoschistus minutus) were investigated. The parasite fauna consisted of 22 species. The parasite community structure of the 4 hosts was compared. The diet of the hosts seemed to be the main factor determining the structure of the parasite community. Other factors could not be assessed. Eight species of parasites occurred as larval stages. This indicated that fish were intermediate or paratenic hosts in their life cycle. The nematode Hysterothylacium sp. (Anisakidae) and the digenean Cryptocotyle lingua (Heterophyidea) were the dominant parasites, reaching their highest prevalence and density in sprat and sand eel. Sprat and sand eel play a very important role in parasite transmission to predacious fish and seabirds.

  4. Colony size, sex ratio and cohabitation in roosts of Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae).

    PubMed

    Costa, L M; Lourenço, E C; Esbérard, C E L; Silva, R M

    2010-11-01

    Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area), type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof), sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.

  5. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771).

    PubMed

    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A

    2012-04-01

    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis. PMID:22216754

  6. Endoparasites of hares (Lepus timidus L. and L. europaeus Pallas) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Soveri, T; Valtonen, M

    1983-10-01

    Intestinal and lung parasites of 85 mountain hares (Lepus timidus) and 24 European hares (L. europaeus) were examined. The species of parasites found in both hare species were Trichostrongylus retortaeformis Zeder, 1800; Mosgovoyia pectinata Goeze, 1782 and Protostrongylus pulmonalis Froelich, 1802. Eimeria semisculpta Madsen, 1938 and E. townsendi Carvalho, 1943 were found only in the European hares and Eimeria leporis Nieschulz, 1923 and Dicrocoelium dendriticum Rudolphi, 1819 only in the mountain hares. Ninety-five percent of the mountain hares and 88% of the European hares were infected with parasites. Mountain hares were more commonly infected with P. pulmonalis and D. dendriticum while European hares were more commonly infected with Eimeria spp. and T. retortaeformis. Young mountain hares were more often infected with M. pectinata and adult mountain hares with P. pulmonalis. The management technique of winter-feeding did not increase significantly the percentage of infected animals. Dicrocoelium dendriticum was found only in hares from islands where sheep had grazed during the summers. The absence of cysticerci of Taenia pisiformis Bloch, 1780 in this survey may be a reflection of improved hygiene practices instituted by hunters.

  7. [Factors responsible for spatial population genetic Structure in white-spotted char Salvelinus leucomaensis (Pallas)].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A; Omelchenko, V T

    2014-12-01

    Using personal data obtained earlier on the spatial population genetic structure of white-spotted char at ten microsatellite loci, an analysis of factors shaping the interpopulation divergence was performed. The primary role of genetic drift in population differentiation over the distribution range was demonstrated, compared to the practically absent role of stepwise mutation process. This result points to the common origin and relative connections between southern and northern population groups. In the majority of populations, no bottleneck effect was detected. Exclusion of the genetically peculiar Primorye population from the analysis resulted in the identification of the isolation by distance signatures among the examined populations. Such an association can be determined by the migratory exchange between the populations, or it could have formed during the historical post-Pleistocene colonization of the range.

  8. Ten years of invasion: Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E; Brown, Peter M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Harmonia axyridis was first recorded in Britain in 2004. Two subsequent earlier records were received from 2003. 2. The UK Ladybird Survey, a citizen science initiative involving online recording, was launched in 2005 to encourage people across Britain to track the spread of H. axyridis. Tens of thousands of people have provided records of H. axyridis and other species of ladybirds, creating an invaluable dataset for large-scale and long-term research. Declines in the distribution of seven (of eight assessed) native species of ladybird have been demonstrated, and correlated with the arrival of H. axyridis, using the records collated through the UK Ladybird Survey. 3. Experimental research and field surveys have also contributed to our understanding of the ecology of H. axyridis and particularly the process of invasion. Harmonia axyridis arrived in Britain through dispersal and introduction events from regions in which it was deliberately released as a biological control agent. The rapid spread of this species has been attributed to its high natural dispersal capability by means of both flight and anthropogenic transport. A number of factors have contributed to the successful establishment and indeed dominance of this polymorphic species within aphidophagous guilds, including high reproductive capacity, intra-guild predation, eurytopic nature, high resistance to natural enemies within the invaded range, and potentially phenotypic plasticity. 4. The global invasion by H. axyridis and subsequent research on this species has contributed to the general understanding of biological invasions. PMID:26435571

  9. Distribution and ecology of Dreissena polymorpha (pallas) and Dreissena bugensis (andrusov) in the upper Volga basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shcherbina, G. Kh; Buckler, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents data on contemporary distribution patterns of two species of Dreissenidae, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the Quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), and their role in ecosystem processes in the Ivan'kovo, Uglich, Rybinsk, and Gorky Reservoirs of the Upper Volga River basin. The role of zebra mussel was also studied in experimental mesocosms of 15 m3. Maximum abundance and species diversity of macroinvertebrates, especially of leeches, polychaetes, crustaceans, and heterotopic insects, were attained in the portions of reservoirs where Dreissenidae were present and in experimental mesocosms where zebra mussel biomass was the highest. In the mesocosm studies, the presence of zebra mussel druses (colonies) provided shelter for macroinvertebrates, reducing their vulnerability to predation by perch (Perca fluviatills) larvae and yearlings, thereby increasing macroinvertebrate species diversity. It was shown that in addition to its role in aquatic biocenosis (ecological community) formation and water purification, Dreissenidae are important food objects for benthophagous fishes, especially roach (Rutilus rutilus). Examination of intestines of benthophagous fishes showed that the length of Dreissenidae ranged from 5 to 20 mm in roach; from 4 to 14 mm in silver bream (Blicca bjoerkna), and from 2 to 10 mm in bream (Abramis brama). The largest mussels consumed were Quagga mussels up to 30 mm, noted in the predatory cyprinid, ide (Leuciscus idus). Copyright ?? 2006 by ASTM International.

  10. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Jabłoński, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare.

  11. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus. PMID:24072656

  12. Genetic variability between complete mitochondrion genomes of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Galván-Tirado, Carolina; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Angel; Delgado-Vega, Rigoberto; García-De León, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (Genbank accession KP777542) is 16,507 bp in size and contains the typical 37 genes (13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA) found in teleosts mitogenomes. The genome varies in 118 positions with respect to another mitogenome sablefish specimen.

  13. Purification and characterization of acetylcholinesterase from the Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii Pallas, 1811).

    PubMed

    Aliriz, Serpil; Turkoglu, Vedat

    2003-05-01

    In this study, acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) was purified from plasma and erythrocytes in the Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichii P.1811) by affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was spectrophotometrically measured according to Ellman's method, at 412 nm. Then, the optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme was determined. According to the results, the optimal pH and the optimum temperature were 8.0 and 25 degrees C, respectively. In order to control the purification of the enzyme, sodium dodecyl-sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was done. SDS-PAGE showed a single band for enzyme. The purification rates for plasma AChE and erythrocyte AChE are 3251.6 and 8500, respectively.

  14. Vitellogenin in the male Lake Van fish (Chalcalburnus tarichi Pallas, 1811).

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R; Kaptaner, Burak; Unal, Guler

    2015-02-01

    Chalcalburnus tarichi is an endemic cyprinid species living in Lake Van, Turkey. In the present study, we investigated vitellogenin (Vtg) in the plasma of adult male C. tarichi, sampled monthly from Edremit, Campus and Çarpanak sites of Van Edremit Gulf (VEG) of lake, between October 2004 and May 2005. The fish living around VEG winters in deep water around Edremit site. University and Çarpanak sites are also on fish migration way from VEG to fresh water (Karasu River). The levels of measured plasma Vtg changed from trace levels to 26.35 µg/mL. The highest level of plasma Vtg was detected in April, with a concentration of 21.60 ± 1.29 µg/mL. We also performed immunohistochemical Vtg staining in the liver sections of male fish and determined Vtg positive hepatocytes in the liver of 1/10 sampled fish. Our results indicated that C. tarichi living in Lake Van might be exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

  15. Environmental regulation of mitochondria-rich cells in Chalcalburnus tarichi (Pallas, 1811) during reproductive migration.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Ahmet R

    2013-03-01

    Chalcalburnus tarichi is an anadromous cyprinid fish that has adapted to extreme conditions (salinity 22 ‰, pH 9.8 and alkalinity 153 mEq × l⁻¹) in Lake Van in eastern Turkey. Changes in immunoreactivity of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in gill tissue and osmolarity and ion levels in plasma were investigated in C. tarichi during reproductive migration. Physicochemical characteristics and ion levels in Lake Van were high compared freshwater. Plasma osmolality and plasma ion concentrations ([Na⁺], [K⁺] and [Cl⁻]) increased after transfer from freshwater to Lake Van. The mitochondria-rich (MR) cells of the gill were stained in both filament and lamellar epithelia of C. tarichi by immunocytochemistry with a specific antiserum for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase in river fish samples. Density and area of MR cells were decreased in lake-adapted fishes. These results indicated that freshwater acclimation capacity is correlated with the size and distribution of MR cells in C. tarichi, in contrast to many teleost fishes.

  16. The distribution, abundance and ecology of the blue coral Heliopora coerulea (Pallas) in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zann, Leon P.; Bolton, Lesley

    1985-09-01

    Heliopora coerulea (Alcyonaria, Coenothecalia), widespread since the Cretaceous, is today found in the Indo-Western Pacific between 25° N and 25° S but is uncommon throughout most of its range. Studies around its reported southern and eastern limits of distribution (Great Barrier Reef, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, Tuvalu, Gilbert Group) suggest that ocean temperature (a lower marginal isotherm of 22°C), duration of larval life-span, prevailing currents, and the geological and climatic history of isolated archipelagoes determine distribution. Heliopora was found to be far more abundant in the equatorial Central Pacific sites (Tuvalu and Gilbert growps) than in the Western Pacific (Great Barrier Reef, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Ponape, Palau). Heliopora comprised up to 16% of beach sediments in Tuvalu atolls, and was the dominant coral (averaging 40% of substrate between 6 m and 10 m on reef slopes) in coral assemblages on Tarawa Atoll. From ecological studies in Tarawa it is suggested that competition from the more specialized and “aggressive” Scleractinia (particularly Acroporidae and Faviidae) is the major factor limiting abundance in the equatorial Western Pacific.

  17. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to guppy (Poecilia reticulata, Pallas, 1859).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Gül, Ali; Erbaşli, Kazim

    2004-07-01

    Alpha-cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial and agricultural situations. Adult male guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata standard test species) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were performed in four series and the 96-h LC50 value was determined for guppies. The acute toxicity experiments were carried out by static method and behavioral changes in guppies were determined for each alpha-cypermethrin (98% technical grade) concentration. Data obtained from the alpha-cypermethrin investigation were evaluated by the use of probit analysis statistical method and the 96-h LC50 value for guppy was estimated as 9.43 microg/l.

  18. The complete mitogenome of the ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs.

  19. Bioconcentration and localization of lead in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1677 (Rotifera: Monogononta).

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Silva-Briano, Marcelo; Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro

    2012-03-01

    We studied how lead is bioconcentrated and distributed in the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus using metal histochemistry to locate lead granules, Leadmium Green® analysis to establish the route of uptake, atomic absorption to determined the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and detected the presence of microelements in the cuticle by X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. Our results indicate: (a) the digestive system is the main route of lead uptake in the rotifer B. calyciflorus, (b) after 24-h lead is deposited in granules in the mastax and vitellarium, (c) our energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicates decalcification taking place in the cuticle of the rotifer after a 24-h lead exposure, and (d) we determined a BCF = 115 for lead after a 24 h exposure. However, the route of mobilization and storage of intracellular lead are still not fully understood in B. calyciflorus.

  20. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771).

    PubMed

    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A

    2012-04-01

    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis.

  1. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

    2015-03-01

    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 μm and 135.9 μm, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1.

  2. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus.

  3. Molecular and morphological characterization of the tapeworm Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766) in sheep from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, S; Salavati, R; Beech, R N; Babaei, Z; Sharbatkhori, M; Baneshi, M R; Hajialilo, E; Shad, H; Harandi, M F

    2015-03-01

    Although Taenia hydatigena is one of the most prevalent taeniid species of livestock, very little molecular genetic information exists for this parasite. Up to 100 sheep isolates of T. hydatigena were collected from 19 abattoirs located in the provinces of Tehran, Alborz and Kerman. A calibrated microscope was used to measure the larval rostellar hook lengths. Following DNA extraction, fragments of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) and 12S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing. The mean total length of large and small hooks was 203.4 μm and 135.9 μm, respectively. Forty CO1 and 39 12S rRNA sequence haplotypes were obtained in the study. The levels of pairwise nucleotide variation between individual haplotypes of CO1 and 12S rRNA genes were determined to be between 0.3-3.4% and 0.2-2.1%, respectively. The overall nucleotide variation among all the CO1 haplotypes was 9.7%, and for all the 12S rRNA haplotypes it was 10.1%. A significant difference was observed between rostellar hook morphometry and both CO1 and 12S rRNA sequence variability. A significantly high level of genetic variation was observed in the present study. The results showed that the 12S rRNA gene is more variable than CO1. PMID:24103709

  4. Pathological process induced by Demodex sp. (Acari: Demodicidae) in the skin of eland, Taurotragus oryx (Pallas).

    PubMed

    Bukva, V; Vítovec, J; Moucha, P; Váhala, J

    1988-01-01

    Taxonomic characters of Demodex sp. (near to D. kutzeri Bukva, 1987) are described and discussed. Pronounced, disperse, chronic, multinodular folliculitis induced by this hair follicle inhabitant in the skin of eland, Taurotragus oryx, is described at the histological level.

  5. Myxobolus ictiobus n. sp. and Myxobolus minutus n. sp. (Cnidaria: Myxobolidae) from the gills of the smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Cypriniformes: Castostomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The smallmouth buffalo Ictiobus bubalus Rafinesque (Catostomidae) is native to North American waterways and occasionally grown in pond aquaculture. Species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 have been reported from the gills, integument, and intestinal tract of buffalo fish, although there is ambiguity in ...

  6. Loricophrya bosporica n. sp. (Ciliophora, Suctorea) epibiont of Desmoscolex minutus (Nematoda, Desmoscolecida) from oxic/anoxic boundary of the Black Sea Istanbul Strait's outlet area.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Nelli; Dovgal, Igor

    2016-01-01

    A suctorian ciliate Loricophrya bosporica sp. nov. is described from the body surface of nematodes of genus Desmoscolex collected in oxic/anoxic boundary of the Bosporus outlet area of the Black Sea. The new species differs from relative species L. sivertseni by development of its body, which takes no more than half, or a third of the lorica length, absence of crown-like projections at the lorica edge as for adhesive disk. From L. tuba new species differs by considerably shorter stylotheca and prevalence to nematode host instead of echinoderms. PMID:27395522

  7. Identification of Hepatozoon erhardovae Krampitz, 1964 from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and fleas in Southern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Rigó, Krisztina; Majoros, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; Molnár, Imola; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence and life cycle of apicomplexan parasites, small mammals were live-trapped with modified Sherman traps in Southern Hungary between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 528 rodents (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771, Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780, Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761, Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 and Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771) were collected and four shrews (Sorex spp.) were by-catched. Captured animals belonging to non-protected species were euthanized, and spleen samples were preserved for histological and molecular analyses. During the examination of spleen smears, Hepatozoon parasites were observed in eight out of 48 bank voles (M. glareolus). DNA was isolated from altogether 221 spleen samples, and 18S rDNA was amplified using two different PCR protocols. The eight bank vole samples were positive with PCR, but none of the other M. glareolus spleen samples or any of the tissue samples from other species were found to be infected. Sequenced amplicons were very similar to Hepatozoon spp. detected in M. glareolus in Spain and Poland. Ectoparasites were collected from the small mammal carcasses and from the vegetation. Hepatozoon DNA was not found in the 181 ticks removed from the small mammals or in the 162 ticks collected with flagging, but was detected in all three flea species (4/43 Megabothris turbidus Rothschild, 1909, 3/10 Ctenophthalmus assimilis Taschenberg, 1880 and 7/78 Ctenophthalmus agyrtes Heller, 1896). Based on gamont morphology, vertebrate and arthropod host species and DNA sequences, the parasites in our study can be identified as Hepatozoon erhardovae.

  8. Identification of Hepatozoon erhardovae Krampitz, 1964 from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and fleas in Southern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Rigó, Krisztina; Majoros, Gábor; Szekeres, Sándor; Molnár, Imola; Jablonszky, Mónika; Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Földvári, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence and life cycle of apicomplexan parasites, small mammals were live-trapped with modified Sherman traps in Southern Hungary between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 528 rodents (Apodemus flavicollis Melchior, 1834, Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771, Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780, Microtus agrestis Linnaeus, 1761, Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 and Micromys minutus Pallas, 1771) were collected and four shrews (Sorex spp.) were by-catched. Captured animals belonging to non-protected species were euthanized, and spleen samples were preserved for histological and molecular analyses. During the examination of spleen smears, Hepatozoon parasites were observed in eight out of 48 bank voles (M. glareolus). DNA was isolated from altogether 221 spleen samples, and 18S rDNA was amplified using two different PCR protocols. The eight bank vole samples were positive with PCR, but none of the other M. glareolus spleen samples or any of the tissue samples from other species were found to be infected. Sequenced amplicons were very similar to Hepatozoon spp. detected in M. glareolus in Spain and Poland. Ectoparasites were collected from the small mammal carcasses and from the vegetation. Hepatozoon DNA was not found in the 181 ticks removed from the small mammals or in the 162 ticks collected with flagging, but was detected in all three flea species (4/43 Megabothris turbidus Rothschild, 1909, 3/10 Ctenophthalmus assimilis Taschenberg, 1880 and 7/78 Ctenophthalmus agyrtes Heller, 1896). Based on gamont morphology, vertebrate and arthropod host species and DNA sequences, the parasites in our study can be identified as Hepatozoon erhardovae. PMID:27003406

  9. Visual pigments of Baltic Sea fishes of marine and limnic origin.

    PubMed

    Jokela-Määttä, Mirka; Smura, Teemu; Aaltonen, Anna; Ala-Laurila, Petri; Donner, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Absorbance spectra of rods and some cones were measured by microspectrophotometry in 22 fish species from the brackish-water of the Baltic Sea, and when applicable, in the same species from the Atlantic Ocean (3 spp.), the Mediterranean Sea (1 sp.), or Finnish fresh-water lakes (9 spp.). The main purpose was to study whether there were differences suggesting spectral adaptation of rod vision to different photic environments during the short history (<10(4) years) of postglacial isolation of the Baltic Sea and the Finnish lakes. Rod absorbance spectra of the Baltic subspecies/populations of herring (Clupea harengus membras), flounder (Platichthys flesus), and sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) were all long-wavelength-shifted (9.8, 1.9, and 5.3 nm, respectively, at the wavelength of maximum absorbance, lambda(max)) compared with their truly marine counterparts, consistent with adaptation for improved quantum catch, and improved signal-to-noise ratio of vision in the Baltic light environment. Judged by the shape of the spectra, the chromophore was pure A1 in all these cases; hence the differences indicate evolutionary tuning of the opsin. In no species of fresh-water origin did we find significant opsin-based spectral shifts specific to the Baltic populations, only spectral differences due to varying A1/A2 chromophore ratio in some. For most species, rod lambda(max) fell within a wavelength range consistent with high signal-to-noise ratio of vision in the spectral conditions prevailing at depths where light becomes scarce in the respective waters. Exceptions were sandeels in the Baltic Sea, which are active only in bright light, and all species in a "brown" lake, where rod lambda(max) lay far below the theoretically optimal range. PMID:17822578

  10. Composition of Fish Communities in a European Macrotidal Salt Marsh (the Mont Saint-Michel Bay, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaille, P.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2000-10-01

    At least 100 fish species are known to be present in the intertidal areas (estuaries, mudflats and salt marshes) of Mont Saint-Michel Bay. These and other comparable shallow marine coastal waters, such as estuaries and lagoons, play a nursery role for many fish species. However, in Europe little attention has been paid to the value of tidal salt marshes for fishes. Between March 1996 and April 1999, 120 tides were sampled in a tidal creek. A total of 31 species were caught. This community was largely dominated by mullets ( Liza ramada represent 87% of the total biomass) and sand gobies ( Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi represent 82% of the total numbers). These species and also Gasterosteus aculeatus , Syngnathus rostellatus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Mugil spp., Liza aurata and Sprattus sprattus were the most frequent species (>50% of monthly frequency of occurrence). In Europe, salt marshes and their creeks are flooded only during high spring tides. So, fishes only invade this environment during short immersion periods, and no species can be considered as marsh resident. But, the salt marsh was colonized by fish every time the tide reached the creek, and during the short time of flood, dominant fishes fed actively and exploited the high productivity. Nevertheless, this study shows that there is little interannual variation in the fish community and there are three ' seasons ' in the fish fauna of the marsh. Marine straggler and marine estuarine dependent species colonize marshes between spring (recruitment period in the bay) and autumn before returning into deeper adjacent waters. Estuarine fishes are present all year round with maximum abundances in the end of summer. The presence of fishes confirms that this kind of wetland plays an important trophic and nursery role for these species. Differences in densities and stages distribution of these species into Mont Saint-Michel systems (tidal mudflats, estuaries and tidal salt marshes) can reduce the trophic

  11. [Genetic Diversity of the Cytochrome b Gene Fragment Haplotypes in Red-Backed Vole Myodes (Clethrionomys) rutilus Pallas, 1779].

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, V V; Primak, A A

    2016-02-01

    For the first time, genetic analysis of the cytochrome b gene fragment haplotypes encoding the identical and the most common cytochrome b polypeptide (F1) in M. rutilus from Eastern and Beringian mateml lineages was carried out. The F1 frequencies for the vole populations from Northern Priokhotye and the Kolyma basin were calculated. Considerable polymorphism of the cytochrome b F1 haplotypes within two major phylo- groups of red-backed vole was supported by high molecular diversity indices for these clades. The proportion of genetic variation between the maternal lineages of F1 red-backed vole individuals (60.71%) was considerably higher than inter-(24.44%) and intrapopulation (14.85%) components. The data obtained make it possible to advance a hypothesis on the convergence of the cytochrome b polypeptide structure upon sequence divergence of the corresponding gene.

  12. Total sialic acid profile in regressing and remodelling organs during the metamorphosis of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Bas, Serap Sancar; Inceli, Meliha Sengezer

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional relationship of sialic acid in regressing and remodelling organs such as the tail, small intestine and liver during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus. For this purpose, four groups were composed according to developmental periods by considering Gosner's criteria (1964). Our findings showed that the sialic acid content of the larval tail has an opposite profile to cell death process. Although the sialic acid content of the small intestine and liver did not change evidently during metamorphosis, it increased after the completion of metamorphosis. Frog tail extensively exhibited cell death process and decreased proliferative activity and underwent complete degeneration during metamorphic climax. In spite of increased apoptotic index, a decreased sialic acid level in the tail tissues during climax can be the indication of a death cell removal process. However, the intestine and the liver included both cell death and proliferative process and remodelling in their adult forms. Thus, their sialic acid profiles during metamorphosis were different from the tail's profile. These data show that sialic acid may be an indicator of the presence of some cellular events during metamorphosis and that it can have different roles in the developmental process depending on the organ's fate throughout metamorphosis.

  13. EXPLORATORY PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY REFERENCE INTERVALS FOR URAL OWLS (STRIX URALENSIS, PALLAS 1771) FROM THE AUSTRIAN REINTRODUCTION PROJECT.

    PubMed

    Scope, Alexandra; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanclova, Gabriela; Vobornik, Angela; Zink, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The Ural owl (Strix uralensis) is the biggest forest-living owl in Austria; however, it became extinct in Austria through poaching and habitat loss more than half a century ago. The birds examined in the present study were breeding pairs from the reintroduction project with the aim of determining exploratory plasma biochemistry reference intervals in Ural owls and evaluating the amount of biological variation between seasons, sexes, and ages. A total of 45 birds were sampled, including 13 adult males, 14 adult females, and 18 juvenile birds. Remarkably, almost all of the analytes showed significant differences between the subgroups, primarily between seasons, followed by age and sex. Only creatinkinase, glucose, lactatdehydrogenase, and triglycerides did not show any significant variations. Despite partitioning of reference values into subgroups according to biological variation diminishing the number of reference individuals in the respective groups, the resulting smaller reference intervals will improve medical assessment. The results of the present study once again demonstrate that significant seasonal fluctuations must be expected and considered in the interpretation. It can be assumed that these differences are probably even greater in free-range birds with considerable changes in food quantity and quality during and between years. PMID:27468020

  14. [Comparative sequence analysis of the LEA gene fragment in Pinus sibirica du tour and Pinus pumila (Pallas) regel].

    PubMed

    Mglinets, A V; Sokolov, V A; Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N

    2014-02-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like gene) intron fragment was performed in Pinus sibirica and P. pumila differing in geographic origin. It was demonstrated that in P. sibirica this fragment was represented by two types of PCR products, 224 and 202 bp in size. Similarly, in accessions of P. pumila, two PCR products of 224 and 159 bp in size were identified. Comparison of 224 bp fragments in P. sibirica and P. pumila showed that they differed in single nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the intron fragment in a plant, which was characterized as an interspecific hybrid based on morphological characters, showed that it had fragments of 224 and 159 bp in size. The sequence of 224 bp fragment was similar to that of the corresponding fragment in P. sibirica. The structure of the short fragment was the same as the structure of the corresponding fragment in P. pumila. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the use of the sequences examined for species taxonomic classification and of an analysis of species hybridization. PMID:25711024

  15. Lectin binding properties of liver, small intestine and tail of metamorphosing marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Sengezer Inceli, Meliha; Sancar Bas, Serap

    2013-07-01

    In this present study, localization and variations of specific sugar moieties in the terminal carbohydrate chains of glycoconjugates in the small intestine, liver and tail have been investigated during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus larvae. For this purpose, four lectins were used: wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA-I), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA), in different larval stages of the frog. Some cells stained specifically in the intestinal mucosa and in tail epidermal cells with the lectins and their affinity changed during metamorphic transformation. For the most part, they decreased in the climax and postmetamorphic periods. It was also found that WGA, DBA and UEA-I lectins exhibited strong affinity to white blood cells in the liver and their binding affinities were the highest in prometamorphosis and they gradually decreased until the end of metamorphosis. These results suggest that the changes of lectin binding in metamorphosis may be an indication of some cellular events occurring in larval metamorphosis such as cell differentiation and damage of cell adhesion between death and differentiating cells. They also can be useful markers for detection of white blood cells in amphibian hematopoietic organs.

  16. Kinematics of flight and the relationship to the vortex wake of a Pallas' long tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina).

    PubMed

    Wolf, Marta; Johansson, L Christoffer; von Busse, Rhea; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2010-06-15

    To obtain a full understanding of the aerodynamics of animal flight, the movement of the wings, the kinematics, needs to be connected to the wake left behind the animal. Here the detailed 3D wingbeat kinematics of bats, Glossophaga soricina, flying in a wind tunnel over a range of flight speeds (1-7 m s(-1)) was determined from high-speed video. The results were compared with the wake geometry and quantitative wake measurements obtained simultaneously to the kinematics. The wingbeat kinematics varied gradually with flight speed and reflected the changes observed in the wake of the bats. In particular, several of the kinematic parameters reflected the differences in the function of the upstroke at low and high flight speeds. At lower flight speeds the bats use a pitch-up rotation to produce a backward flick which creates thrust and some weight support. At higher speeds this mechanism disappears and the upstroke generates weight support but no thrust. This is reflected by the changes in e.g. angle of attack, span ratio, camber and downstroke ratio. We also determined how different parameters vary throughout a wingbeat over the flight speeds studied. Both the camber and the angle of attack varied over the wingbeat differently at different speeds, suggesting active control of these parameters to adjust to the changing aerodynamic conditions. This study of the kinematics strongly indicates that the flight of bats is governed by an unsteady high-lift mechanism at low flight speeds and points to differences between birds and bats.

  17. Morphological alterations in the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1766 (Rotifera: Monogononta) caused by vinclozolin chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Flores, Jesús; Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Adabache-Ortíz, Araceli; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2015-05-01

    Vinclozolin (VZ) is a dicarboximide fungicide widely used on fruits, vegetables and wines, effective against fungi plagues. In this study we characterized the effects of VZ using a 4-day reproductive chronic assay with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus. The assay included observations of several features of asexual and sexual reproduction. Our results indicate that VZ: (a) increased asexual and sexual reproduction, (b) caused severe abnormality in females and (c) these abnormalities were inherited by sexual and asexual reproduction. At 1.2 mg/L three abnormal females were found out of 457 total females (0.66 %). This low percentage is consistent and reproducible according to further analysis, where we increased the number of replicates and total females exposed to 1.2 mg/L of VZ, and found 18 abnormal females out of 2868 total females (0.63 % abnormality). Interestingly, abnormal females found at 5.6 mg/L VZ exposure, were able to show mating behavior. Our results suggest that VZ behaves as a strong endocrine disruptor whose effects show the characteristic inverted-U-shape exposure concentration response curve regarding the intrinsic population increase and the percentage of abnormalities as endpoints.

  18. Physiological plasticity is key to the presence of the isopod Idotea baltica (Pallas) in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Hannah L.; Nylund, Göran; Eriksson, Susanne P.

    2014-01-01

    The low salinity of the Baltic Sea presents a physiological challenge to marine species. The marine isopod Idotea baltica is notably dominant among the shallow sublittoral of the Baltic Sea in association with Fucus vesiculosus, with permanent populations documented in salinities as low as 3 psu. To investigate the role of physiological plasticity in the successful colonisation of the Baltic by I. baltica three populations from the Swedish coast were here studied, one from the Kattegat (Malmö) and two from the Baltic Sea (Kalmar and Öregrund). These three sites cover the geographic range of this species within the Baltic Sea on the Swedish coast, and also the salinity range of this species within the Baltic Sea (10-5 psu). Individuals from these populations were exposed in the laboratory to a fully crossed experiment with the factors salinity and food source, to test for differences in the physiology of these populations under different conditions that may indicate local adaptation, or no differences that indicate physiological plasticity to differing salinity and food source. Metabolic rate, growth and thermal tolerance responses did not differ between the three populations across salinity treatments after a 12 week exposure. The results of this study indicate that the physiology of adult I. baltica is highly plastic with regard to salinity; this plasticity is likely to have facilitated their colonisation of the Baltic Sea.

  19. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 microg g(-1) dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10(8) nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 microg g(-1) dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 microg g(-1) dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10(8) nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor PAH-exposure and evaluate genotoxicity in fresh water ecosystems.

  20. Heterozygosity and fitness: No strong association in Great Lakes populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena Polymorpha (Pallas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, K.M.; Feder, J.L.; Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A number of studies have found positive associations between allozyme heterozygosity and fitness surrogates (e.g., body size and growth rate) for marine molluscs. We investigated whether similar relationships exist for freshwater populations of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Only one significant correlation between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length was observed for a total of 22 D. polymorpha populations surveyed from midwestern U.S.A. lakes and streams, and the result was not significant on a table-wide basis. Meta-analysis revealed a significant common correlation coefficient (effect magnitude) between multi-locus heterozygosity and shell length across all 22 sites (rc = 0.052, P = 0.019, 1557 df). However, the variance in shell length explained by multi-locus heterozygosity was small (rc2 = 0.0027), implying a weak causal relationship if any. Also, we saw no relationship between heterozygosity and growth rate in a one-year field enclosure experiment. A significant heterozygosity-shell length correlation previously reported for a zebra mussel population at Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, Ohio, may have been the product of unique population dynamics, rather than natural selection. Similar demographic considerations may contribute to inconsistencies in heterozygosity-fitness correlations seen for other molluscs.

  1. [Genetic Diversity of the Cytochrome b Gene Fragment Haplotypes in Red-Backed Vole Myodes (Clethrionomys) rutilus Pallas, 1779].

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, V V; Primak, A A

    2016-02-01

    For the first time, genetic analysis of the cytochrome b gene fragment haplotypes encoding the identical and the most common cytochrome b polypeptide (F1) in M. rutilus from Eastern and Beringian mateml lineages was carried out. The F1 frequencies for the vole populations from Northern Priokhotye and the Kolyma basin were calculated. Considerable polymorphism of the cytochrome b F1 haplotypes within two major phylo- groups of red-backed vole was supported by high molecular diversity indices for these clades. The proportion of genetic variation between the maternal lineages of F1 red-backed vole individuals (60.71%) was considerably higher than inter-(24.44%) and intrapopulation (14.85%) components. The data obtained make it possible to advance a hypothesis on the convergence of the cytochrome b polypeptide structure upon sequence divergence of the corresponding gene. PMID:27215033

  2. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. 7. 5-14 microns Spectroscopy of the Asteroids Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Witteborn, Fred C.; Roush, Ted; Bregman, Jesse; Wooden, Diane

    1996-01-01

    We describe our efforts to seek "closure" in our infrared absolute calibration scheme by comparing spectra of asteroids, absolutely calibrated through reference stars, with "Standard Thermal Models" and "Thermophysical Models" for these bodies. Our use of continuous 5-14 microns airborne spectra provides complete sampling of the rise to, and peak, of the infrared spectral energy distribution and constrains these models. Such models currently support the absolute calibration of ISO-PHOT at far-infrared wave- lengths (as far as 300 microns), and contribute to that of the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer on the "Infrared Telescope in Space" in the 6-12 microns region. The best match to our observed spectra of Ceres and Vesta is a, standard thermal model using a beaming factor of unity. We also report the presence of three emissivity features in Ceres which may complicate the traditional model extrapolation to the far-infrared from contemporaneous ground-based N-band photometry that is used to support calibration of, for example, ISO-PHOT. While identification of specific materials that cause these features is not made, we discuss families of minerals that may be responsible.

  3. The behavioural ecology of two sympatric talitrid species, Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas) on a Tyrrhenian sandy beach dune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, Isabella; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Rossano, Claudia; Scapini, Felicita; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The behavioural ecology of a sub-population of Talitrus saltator living on the sandy shore of the Maremma Regional Park (Italy) was compared with that of Orchestia gammarellus inhabiting the retrodunal dune slack area. Monthly monitoring over a year determined the mean distribution patterns, their changes and whether these overlapped. Standard pitfall traps were placed along transects across the beach-dune-dune slack area. Experiments analysed the diel activity rhythms during spring and the activity patterns of the different age classes and the two sexes were compared within and between species. Local environmental conditions were registered with a microclimatic station. During May and September, plant hummocks were monitored to see whether surface movements of O. gammarellus could be restricted to certain periods of the year and to estimate densities within the vegetation. The plant biomass and moisture conditions within the hummocks were also recorded and substratum samples were collected at the base of the shrubs for laboratory analysis. To test for visual cues, orientation experiments with and without landscape view were carried out on the beach during morning and afternoon hours and contemporaneously for each species. Experiments to test the diel variation of scototaxis to a black shape were also performed over a 24 h period of time under controlled conditions. There was a spatial partitioning of the two species, with T. saltator moving along a sea-land axis according to diel and seasonal changes and with some individuals reaching the back of the dune in particular environmental conditions. No spatial overlap with the zonation patterns of O. gammarellus was observed, which was restricted to the dune slack area. Nocturnal surface activity was observed for both species with juveniles peaking at dawn and with O. gammarellus being strictly more nocturnal than T. saltator. Orientation experiments showed a higher ability of T. saltator to orient towards the shoreline using solar and local cues, whereas O. gammarellus seemed to have a stronger scototaxis. Differences in the behavioural responses are discussed in terms of the species ecological adaptations to their particular habitats.

  4. Pleistocene glaciations and contemporary genetic diversity in a Beringian fish, the broad whitefish, Coregonus nasus (Pallas): inferences from microsatellite DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Harris, L N; Taylor, E B

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary distribution of genetic variation within and among high latitude populations cannot be fully understood without taking into consideration how species responded to the impacts of Pleistocene glaciations. Broad whitefish, Coregonus nasus, a species endemic to northwest North America and the Arctic coast of Russia, was undoubtedly impacted by such events because its geographic distribution suggests that it survived solely within the Beringian refuge from where it dispersed post-glacially to achieve its current range. We used microsatellite DNA to investigate the role of glaciations in promoting intraspecific genetic variation in broad whitefish (N = 14 localities, 664 fish) throughout their North American range and in one Russian sample. Broad whitefish exhibited relatively high intrapopulation variation (average of 11.7 alleles per locus, average H(E) = 0.61) and moderate levels of interpopulation divergence (overall F(ST) = 0.10). The main regions assayed in our study (Russia, Alaska, Mackenzie River and Travaillant Lake systems) were genetically differentiated from each other and there were declines in genetic diversity with distance from putative refugia. Additionally, Mackenzie River system populations showed less developed and more variable patterns of isolation-by-distance than populations occupying former Alaskan portions of Beringia. Finally, our data suggest that broad whitefish dispersed from Beringia using coastal environments and opportunistically via headwater stream connections that once existed between Yukon and Mackenzie River drainages. Our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g. glaciation) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping the current genetic population structure of Arctic faunas.

  5. The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM. PMID:18254941

  6. Expression of carbonic anhydrase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase in the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774).

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mandrioli, Mauro; Mola, Lucrezia

    2014-04-01

    Sequencing of the amphioxus genome revealed that it contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling. Despite the availability of genomic data, up till now no studies have been addressed on the comprehension of the amphioxus osmoregulation. Using primers designed on Branchiostoma floridae carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase, a 100bp long region, containing the protein region recognized by the respective antibodies, has been amplified and sequenced in B. lanceolatum indicating the presence of hortologous V-ATPase, CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II genes in Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Immunohistochemical results showed that all three transporting proteins are expressed in almost 90% of epithelial cells of the skin in B. lanceolatum adults with a different degree of positivity in different regions of body wall and with a different localization in the cells. The comparison of results between young and adult lancelets showed that the distribution of these transporters is quite different. Indeed, in the young specimens the expression pattern of all tested molecules appears concentrated at the gut level, whereas in adult the gut loses its key role that is mostly supported by skin.

  7. Association of spinal deformities with heavy metal bioaccumulation in natural populations of grass goby, Zosterisessor ophiocephalus Pallas, 1811 from the Gulf of Gabès (Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Imed; Deli, Tmim; Kessabi, Kaouthar; Barhoumi, Sana; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid; Saïd, Khaled

    2009-09-01

    The present study illustrates an analysis of spinal deformities associated with metal accumulation in natural populations of Zosterisessor ophiocephalus derived from polluted (S1) and unpolluted (S2) areas in the Gulf of Gabès in Tunisia. Three basic types of spinal deformities were detected: kyphosis, scoliosis and lordosis. These basic deformities frequently co-occur. Spinal deformities were observed in 10.72% of the total examined fish (n = 494). Deformed fish were 3.85 times more frequent in S1 than in S2. In both sexes, the highest occurrence of deformities was observed in the 111-120 mm class decreasing thereafter with fish length. Hepatic concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were significantly higher in Z. ophiocephalus from S1 than those from S2. Comparisons between fish in each site showed that liver concentrations of Cd and Zn were significantly higher in deformed fish than in normal fish. The relationship between metals accumulation and observed spinal deformities as well as the suitability of this kind of studies for environmental monitoring are discussed.

  8. Phylogeographic analysis of complete mtDNA genomes from Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1811) shows an ancient origin of genetic biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Steven M; Marshall, H Dawn

    2008-12-01

    Ursvik et al. compared the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequences of Walleye Pollock (Gadus ( = Theragra) chalcogrammus) from the Pacific Ocean with a pair of fish from an isolated population of Norwegian pollock in the Barents Sea. They concluded that the Norwegian population was recently introduced from the Pacific. We test this hypothesis within a temporal framework provided by a phylogeographic analysis of complete genomes from the pollocks' sister species, Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua), and their divergence 3.5 mya. Pollock have a coalescent ancestor 189 +/- 25 kya. The two Norwegian fish have a common ancestor 87 +/- 7 kya, which suggests an ancient origin rather than a recent human-mediated introduction. Mitochondrial genomic biodiversity in pollock antedates the most recent glacial cycle. The clade structure of the whole-genome tree indicates that previously described single-locus mtDNA haplotypes and haplogroups are typically paraphyletic.

  9. Expression of carbonic anhydrase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase in the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum (Pallas, 1774).

    PubMed

    Pederzoli, Aurora; Mandrioli, Mauro; Mola, Lucrezia

    2014-04-01

    Sequencing of the amphioxus genome revealed that it contains a basic set of chordate genes involved in development and cell signaling. Despite the availability of genomic data, up till now no studies have been addressed on the comprehension of the amphioxus osmoregulation. Using primers designed on Branchiostoma floridae carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and V-H(+)-ATPase, a 100bp long region, containing the protein region recognized by the respective antibodies, has been amplified and sequenced in B. lanceolatum indicating the presence of hortologous V-ATPase, CFTR and carbonic anhydrase II genes in Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Immunohistochemical results showed that all three transporting proteins are expressed in almost 90% of epithelial cells of the skin in B. lanceolatum adults with a different degree of positivity in different regions of body wall and with a different localization in the cells. The comparison of results between young and adult lancelets showed that the distribution of these transporters is quite different. Indeed, in the young specimens the expression pattern of all tested molecules appears concentrated at the gut level, whereas in adult the gut loses its key role that is mostly supported by skin. PMID:24220283

  10. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Paramphistomoidea, Diplodiscidae), an intestinal fluke of the pool frog Rana lessonae (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, A J S; Torres, J; Shimalov, V V; Bâ, C T; Miquel, J

    2011-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in Diplodiscus subclavatus begins with the formation of the zone of differentiation presenting two centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. The latter presents seven electron-dense layers with a fine central plate and three plates on both sides. The external pair of these electron-dense layers is formed by a granular row. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum, both of them growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. After the flagellar rotation and before the proximodistal fusion of both flagella with the median cytoplasmic process four attachment zones were already observed in several cross-sections indicating the area of fusion. Spinelike bodies are also observed in the differentiation zone before the fusion of flagella. Finally, the constriction of the ring of arched membranes gives rise to the young spermatozoon that detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of D. subclavatus shows all the classical characters observed in Digenea spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different length of the 9+"1" trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as a well-developed lateral expansion associated with external ornamentation of the plasma membrane and spinelike bodies combined with their area of appearance distinguish the ultrastructural organization of the sperm cells of D. subclavatus from those of other digeneans.

  11. Assessing the effects of application time and temperature on the efficacy of hot-water sprays to mitigate fouling by Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels Pallas).

    PubMed

    Morse, John T

    2009-10-01

    Dreissenid mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) expansion into the Western US has renewed interest in hot-water spray mitigation of mussel fouling on boat hulls, trailers, and other equipment. However, the efficacy of hot-water sprays to mitigate dreissenid fouling has not been experimentally assessed. Emersed, adult D. polymorpha were exposed to low-pressure, hot-water sprays at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 degrees C for 1, 5, or 10 s. Sprays at > or = 60 degrees C for 10 s or 80 degrees C at > or = 5 s were 100% lethal. In contrast, 1-10 s exposures did not induce 100% mortality at < or = 50 degrees C. The results indicate that mitigation of D. polymorpha fouling, especially in areas protected from the hydraulic impacts of high-pressure sprays requires spray temperatures of > 80 degrees C applied for > 5 s or no less than 60 degrees C applied for > 10 s. Thus, presently recommended spray temperatures of > or = 60 degrees C may not be 100% effective unless applied for >10 s.

  12. Dynamics of cell and tissue genesis in the male reproductive system of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Amblyomma cajennense [corrected] (Fabricius, 1787) and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772): a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2014-04-01

    Ticks are classified into three families: Argasidae, Ixodidae, and Nutalliellidae. The taxonomy and phylogeny within Ixodidae are still discussed by the specialists, thus requiring further studies. Amblyomma cajennese and Amblyomma aureolatum (Brazil) belong to two species complexes known as "cajennese" and "ovale", respectively, and are directly related to the transmission of the Brazilian spotted fever. This confirms the medical and veterinary significance of these species, as well as the need for further morphological studies that will bring a better understanding of their taxonomy, phylogeny, and control. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize the morphology of the male reproductive system of A. cajennese and A. aureolatum when unfed and after 4 days of feeding, thereby seeking to: (a) distinguish the two species or "complexes", and (b) study an internal system which has the potential to be targeted by acaricides. Therefore, males from both species (unfed and after 4 days of feeding) were cold-anesthetized, dissected, and had their reproductive systems removed for histological analysis. The results showed that the morphology of the male reproductive system is generally similar between both species, like in other Ixodidae ticks, exhibiting a multilobed accessory gland complex related to seminal fluid secretion, a pair of vasa deferentia and a pair of testes housing germ cells (spermatocytes) in different stages. The main differences were found in the development of the accessory gland complex cells and germ cells, showing that the maturation of the male reproductive system starts later in A. aureolatum, when compared to A. cajennese. However, during the blood meal, A. aureolatum development is increased, thus making germ cell maturation and gland complex activity higher than in A. cajennese. This study shows the differences in the development of the male reproductive systems of both species, while providing information that can assist in the establishment of new control methods.

  13. The dating of the ornithological section of Middendorff's Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, with comments on the nomenclature of Pallas's Bunting Emberiza pallasi Cabanis (Aves: Emberizidae).

    PubMed

    Mlíkovský, Jiří

    2014-05-14

    Middendorff's work on the Säugethiere, Vögel und Amphibien, published as part 2 of volume 2 of his Reise in den äussersten Norden und Osten Sibiriens, was variably dated from 1851, 1852 or 1853. I document that the work was published shortly before 15 December 1852 and I recommend using this date for the purposes of zoological nomenclature.Due to this, Emberiza polaris Middendorff, 1852 has precedence over Cynchramus pallasi Cabanis, 1853. This bunting species thus should be called Emberiza polaris and its four subspecies should be called Emberiza polaris polaris Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris minor Middendorff, 1852, E. polaris pallasi (Cabanis, 1853) and E. polaris lydiae Portenko, 1929. 

  14. Ontogenetic variations in the diet of two invasive gobies, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) and Ponticola kessleri (Günther, 1861), from the middle Danube (Slovakia) with notice on their potential impact on benthic invertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Števove, Barbora; Kováč, Vladimír

    2016-07-01

    In this study, ontogenetic variations in diet of invasive bighead goby Ponticola kessleri and round goby Neogobius melanostomus from the middle Danube were analysed. Index of stomach fullness, Fulton's condition factor, index of food importance, frequency of occurrence, biomass, electivity, and proportions of invasive organisms in their diet were examined. Changes in the diet during ontogeny of both species emphasise the differences in their trophic niches. Our results combined with literary data suggest that bighead goby may threaten small native benthic fish species as a predator (especially in the invasion front), whereas round goby can potentially impact native fish species of all ontogenetic phases by competing for food. Round goby appear to have strong impact on bivalves, especially in the invasion front. High consumption of invasive organisms by bighead goby may help the native macroinvertebrate community. Thus, in contrast to round goby, bighead goby does not seem to be a hot candidate for being a nuisance invader.

  15. Different Resistance to UV-B Radiation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances of Two Cyanobacteria from Contrasting Habitats.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) of aquatic Synechocystis sp. and desert Chroococcus minutus and effects on composition and fluorescence property of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from Synechocystis sp. and C. minutus were comparatively investigated. The desert cyanobacterium species C. minutus showed higher tolerance of PSII activity (Fv/Fm) to UVBR than the aquatic Synechocystis sp., and the inhibited PSII activity of C. minutus could be fully recovered while that of Synechocystis sp. could be partly recovered. UVBR had significant effect on the yield and biochemical composition of EPS of both species. Protein-like and humic acid-like substances were detected in EPS from Synechocystis sp., and protein-like and phenol-like fluorescent compounds were detected in EPS from C. minutus. Proteins in EPS of desert and aquatic species were significantly decomposed under UVBR, and the latter was more easily decomposed. The polysaccharides were much more resistant to UVBR than the proteins for both species. Polysaccharides of Synechocystis sp. was degraded slightly but those of C. minutus was little decomposed. The higher tolerance to UVBR of the desert cyanobacterium can be attributed to the higher resistance of its EPS to photodegradation induced by UVBR in comparison with the aquatic species. PMID:27597841

  16. Different Resistance to UV-B Radiation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances of Two Cyanobacteria from Contrasting Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) of aquatic Synechocystis sp. and desert Chroococcus minutus and effects on composition and fluorescence property of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from Synechocystis sp. and C. minutus were comparatively investigated. The desert cyanobacterium species C. minutus showed higher tolerance of PSII activity (Fv/Fm) to UVBR than the aquatic Synechocystis sp., and the inhibited PSII activity of C. minutus could be fully recovered while that of Synechocystis sp. could be partly recovered. UVBR had significant effect on the yield and biochemical composition of EPS of both species. Protein-like and humic acid-like substances were detected in EPS from Synechocystis sp., and protein-like and phenol-like fluorescent compounds were detected in EPS from C. minutus. Proteins in EPS of desert and aquatic species were significantly decomposed under UVBR, and the latter was more easily decomposed. The polysaccharides were much more resistant to UVBR than the proteins for both species. Polysaccharides of Synechocystis sp. was degraded slightly but those of C. minutus was little decomposed. The higher tolerance to UVBR of the desert cyanobacterium can be attributed to the higher resistance of its EPS to photodegradation induced by UVBR in comparison with the aquatic species.

  17. Different Resistance to UV-B Radiation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances of Two Cyanobacteria from Contrasting Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Zhang, Daoyong; Mu, Shuyong; Pan, Xiangliang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of UV-B radiation (UVBR) on photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm) of aquatic Synechocystis sp. and desert Chroococcus minutus and effects on composition and fluorescence property of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) from Synechocystis sp. and C. minutus were comparatively investigated. The desert cyanobacterium species C. minutus showed higher tolerance of PSII activity (Fv/Fm) to UVBR than the aquatic Synechocystis sp., and the inhibited PSII activity of C. minutus could be fully recovered while that of Synechocystis sp. could be partly recovered. UVBR had significant effect on the yield and biochemical composition of EPS of both species. Protein-like and humic acid-like substances were detected in EPS from Synechocystis sp., and protein-like and phenol-like fluorescent compounds were detected in EPS from C. minutus. Proteins in EPS of desert and aquatic species were significantly decomposed under UVBR, and the latter was more easily decomposed. The polysaccharides were much more resistant to UVBR than the proteins for both species. Polysaccharides of Synechocystis sp. was degraded slightly but those of C. minutus was little decomposed. The higher tolerance to UVBR of the desert cyanobacterium can be attributed to the higher resistance of its EPS to photodegradation induced by UVBR in comparison with the aquatic species. PMID:27597841

  18. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-05-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents.

  19. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-01-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents. PMID:25649502

  20. Is the Prevalence and Intensity of the Ectooparasitic Fungus Hesperomyces virescens Related to the Abundance of Entomophagous Coccinellids?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter is a laboulbenialean fungus that parasitizes certain entomophagous coccinellids in several countries. It transmits horizontally between coccinellid adults via social contact. Only recently has the exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) served as host to this p...

  1. Harmonia Axyridis Adults Avoid Catnip and Grapefruit-derived Terpenoids in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We observed the avoidance behavior of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), when adults were exposed to volatiles derived from catnip oil and grapefruit seed. In replicated laboratory bioassays, beetles avoided contact with volatiles emanating f...

  2. Limited transmission of the ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens between lady beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic fungus Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Ascomycota: Laboulbeniales) commonly infects the invasive lady beetle Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and several other aphidophagous lady beetles in North America and Europe. We tested the hypothesis that bodily contact between adults of differen...

  3. Minerva/Athene.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    Minerva was the goddess of wisdom and war, the Roman equivalent of the Greek Pallas Athene. Like all mythical figures, she was repeatedly reinterpreted to carry different rhetorical messages. PMID:20096932

  4. [Comparative morpho-functional characteristics of the organs of the reproductive system of small mammals under conditions of anthropogenic transformation of Southern Ural steppe ecosystems].

    PubMed

    Shevliuk, N N; Blinova, E V; Bokov, D A; Demina, L L; Elina, E E; Meshkova, O A; Ryskulov, M F

    2013-01-01

    The morpho-functional characteristics of reproductive organs of small mammals--striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius Pallas, 1771), house mouse (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758), wood mouse (Sylvaemus uralensis Pallas, 1811), common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas, 1778), bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780), steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus Pallas, 1773), little suslik (Spermophilus pygmaeus Pallas, 1778), and red-heeked suslik (Spermophilus major Pallas, 1779)--belonging to the populations inhabiting anthropogenically modified steppe landscapes (zones influenced by the ferrous metallurgy plants and gas processing plant, as well as the territory of the large city) were studied using histological, electron microscopic, immunocytochemical and morphometric methods. In animals studied, inhabiting technologically modified ecosystems, in contrast to those from ecologically safe regions, the testis demonstrated the increased destruction of spermatogenic epithelium. In the ovaries, the accelerated exhaustion of follicular reserve was detected. The increased embryonic death rate was also observed. The portion of the animals participating in reproduction was enlarged, the female fecundity was increased, while the age at puberty was decreased. Among the animal species studied, the variable degree of stability against the effect of the negative factors was demonstrated.

  5. A coprological survey of parasites of wild mantled howling monkeys, Alouatta palliata palliata.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M D; Greenspan, L L; Glander, K E; Clarke, M R

    1990-10-01

    Fecal samples from 155 mantled howling monkeys (Alouatta palliata palliata) examined at Centro Ecologico La Pacifica, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica, revealed 75 (48%) had parasitic infections. A sampling of nine howling monkeys from Santa Rosa National Park. Costa Rica indicated only one infected animal (11%). Only three of 19 (16%) spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) also from Santa Rosa were infected. Controrchis biliophilus, Trypanoxyuris minutus, unidentified strongylid eggs and Isospora sp. oocysts were found. Three monkeys from La Pacifica died and were examined for adult helminths. They were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, C. biliophilus and T. minutus.

  6. Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut)(Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America, a Correction of the Past

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collection records for the Palearctic flower bug Orius (Heterorius) minutus (Linnaeus) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) in western North America date back to 1930. This species can be very similar in appearance to another Palearctic species, Orius (Heterorius) vicinus (Ribaut), and mistakes in identifica...

  7. Further report of the occurrence of tetrodotoxin in Atelopus species (family: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Mebs, D; Yotsu-Yamashita, M; Yasumoto, T; Lötters, S; Schlüter, A

    1995-02-01

    In alcoholic extracts from museum samples of the toads Atelopus subornatus and A. peruensis tetrodotoxin and its analogues, 4-epitetrodotoxin and 4,9-anhydrotetrodotoxin were detected by fluorometric HPLC analysis, extending the list of amphibians containing this toxin. However, the toxin was not detected in samples of Melanophryniscus stelzneri, Dendrophryniscus minutus and Oreophrynella sp. PMID:7597728

  8. Field evidence for non-host predator avoidance in a manipulated amphipod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Médoc, Vincent; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-04-01

    Manipulative parasites are known to alter the spatial distribution of their intermediate hosts in a way that enables trophic transmission to definitive hosts. However, field data on the ecological implications of such changes are lacking. In particular, little is known about the spatial coexistence between infected prey and dead-end predators after a parasite-induced habitat shift. Here, we used an Amphipoda ( Gammarus roeseli)-Acanthocephala ( Polymorphus minutus) association to investigate how infection with a manipulative parasite affects the predation risk by non-hosts within the invertebrate community. First, we collected invertebrates by sampling various natural habitats and calculated the distribution amplitude of amphipods according to their infection status. Infection with P. minutus significantly reduced the habitat breadth in G. roeseli, parasitised individuals being mainly found in floating materials whereas uninfected ones were widespread throughout the sampled habitats. Second, to test if these changes also affect the risk for P. minutus to be ingested by non-hosts, we estimated the predation risk experienced by G. roeseli within the macro-invertebrate community. The habitat overlap between potential invertebrate predators and G. roeseli showed that the spatial probability of encounter was lower for P. minutus-infected amphipods than for uninfected conspecifics. For the first time, to our knowledge, a study used ecological tools to bring field evidence for the spatial avoidance of dead-end predators in a manipulated amphipod.

  9. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  10. [Morpho-functional characteristics of reproductive organs of rodents from the area affected by a plant, processing gas with the increased content of sulfur compounds].

    PubMed

    Shevliuk, N N; Blinova, E V; Bokov, D A; Demina, L L

    2008-01-01

    The biology of reproduction of 5 rodent species--small gopher (Spermophilus pygmaeus Pallas, 1778), reddish gopher (Spermophilus major Pallas, 1779), sasin lemmer (Lagurus lagurus Pallas,1773), forest mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus Linnaeus) and bank vole(Clethrionomys glareolus Schreber, 1780)--inhabiting the sanitary protective zone of the gas processing plant, was investigated with the use of histological, electron microscopical, immunocytochemical and morphometric methods. Intensification of the reproduction (growth of female fecundity, reduction of the puberty age) in some species (forest mouse) compensated for the negative changes in the reproduction, which resulted from the influence of the industrial factors (premature loss of ovarian follicular reserve, accelerated embryonic death rate, increased destructive changes in the gonads) and provided for the preservation of the population sizes. The intense functioning of reproductive organs in the other species (small and reddish gophers) was insufficient to compensate for the damage inflicted by the man-caused actions.

  11. Feeding behaviour of Black Sea bottom fishes: Did it change over time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bănaru, Daniela; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to improve knowledge in feeding behaviour of the round goby ( Apollonia melanostomus (Pallas, 1814)), the red mullet ( Mullus barbatus ponticus Essipov, 1927), the whiting ( Merlangius merlangus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)), the sole ( Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758)), the turbot ( Psetta maeotica (Pallas, 1814)) and the starry sturgeon ( Acipenser stellatus Pallas, 1771) from the north-western Black Sea. Gut content coupled with stable isotope analysis allowed describing food web variations according to species, in two seasons and at two areas located seawards the Danube River. Present results showed that most fishes have likely changed their feeding behaviour compared to past studies from the same area. Trophic niches were reduced and dietary overlap was common, as different fish species consumed the same dominant prey types. Fishes probably adapted their feeding behaviour to the increasingly low biodiversity of the Black Sea communities.

  12. Parasites of the recently established round goby (Negobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) (Gobiidae) from the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronin, Nikolai M.; Fleischer, Guy W.; Baldanova, Darima R.; Pronina, Svetlana V.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of the recently established European round goby (Negobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas, 1811) were collected from different locations in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, USA and were examined for parasites. Parasites were observed in 76% of the round gobies and 35% of the tubenose gobies. Four species of parasites in the gobies occur in the Black Sea watershed. Two of them have been reported in North America for the first time: Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova, 1970 and Ichthyocotylurus pileatus (Rudolphi, 1802). Three parasite species found in the gobies are endemic to North America and were most likely obtained locally.

  13. Parasites of the recently established round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus) (Cottidae) from the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronin, N.M.; Fleischer, G.W.; Baldanova, D.R.; Pronina, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of the recently established European round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811) and tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus Pallas, 1811) were collected from different locations in the St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, USA and were examined for parasites. Parasites were observed in 76% of the round gobies and 35% of the tubenose gobies. Four species of parasites in the gobies occur in the Black Sea watershed. Two of them have been reported in North America for the first time: Sphaeromyxa sevastopoli Naidenova, 1970 and Ichthyocotylurus pileatus (Rudolphi, 1802). Three parasite species found in the gobies are endemic to North America and were most likely obtained locally.

  14. [Sex determination in ten crane species by DNA marker EE0.6].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Kashentseva, T A; Gamburg, E A; Politov, D V

    2013-12-01

    Using a unique DNA sequence of W-chromosome EE0.6, we carried out molecular sex determination in 383 individuals often species of cranes (Grusgrus L., G. leucogeranus Pallas, G. japonensis Muller, G. vipio Pallas, G. Canadensis L., G. antigone L., G. monacha Temminck, Anthropoides virgo L., Balearica regulorum Bennett, and B. pavonia L.) kept in zoos and other centers of captive propagation. In 211 birds, sex was determined or verified for the first time. The efficiency of using the sex marker EE0.6 for chicks and immature and adult cranes of different species, as well as for interspecific hybrids was shown. PMID:25438606

  15. [Sex determination in ten crane species by DNA marker EE0.6].

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Using a unique DNA sequence of W-chromosome EE0.6, we carried out molecular sex determination in 383 individuals often species of cranes (Grusgrus L., G. leucogeranus Pallas, G. japonensis Muller, G. vipio Pallas, G. Canadensis L., G. antigone L., G. monacha Temminck, Anthropoides virgo L., Balearica regulorum Bennett, and B. pavonia L.) kept in zoos and other centers of captive propagation. In 211 birds, sex was determined or verified for the first time. The efficiency of using the sex marker EE0.6 for chicks and immature and adult cranes of different species, as well as for interspecific hybrids was shown. PMID:25508137

  16. The autecology of small rodents and insectivores of the Tribec mountain range.

    PubMed

    Grulich, I; Nosek, J; Szabó, L

    1967-01-01

    Small rodents and insectivores have become the main reservoirs of tick-borne encephalitis virus. In order, therefore, to demonstrate the dynamic and structural changes occurring in a natural focus of tick-borne encephalitis, information has been collected on the distribution, habitat, life-cycle, population density and extent of tick infestation of the rodents and insectivores that inhabit the Tribec region and adjacent parts of the Hronský Inovec Mountains. The following mammals are discussed: Sciurus vulgaris, Citellus citellus, Glis glis, Muscardinus avellanarius, Mus musculus, Micromys minutus, Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, Microtus arvalis, Pitymys subterraneus, Clethrionomys glareolus, Arvicola terrestris, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Neomys fodiens, N. anomalus, Crocidura suaveolens, C. leucodon, Erinaceus roumanicus and Talpa europaea. Many of these are important reservoirs of virus.

  17. Life histories and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1975-01-01

    In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean zooplankton discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.

  18. Multigroup Time-Independent Neutron Transport Code System for Plane or Spherical Geometry.

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 PALLAS-PL/SP solves multigroup time-independent one-dimensional neutron transport problems in plane or spherical geometry. The problems solved are subject to a variety of boundary conditions or a distributed source. General anisotropic scattering problems are treated for solving deep-penetration problems in which angle-dependent neutron spectra are calculated in detail.

  19. School Resources and the Academic Achievement of Canadian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2011-01-01

    This study estimates the impact of schools' physical resources and teachers' academic press on students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading when a number of important student variables are controlled. Academic press is defined as teachers' emphasis on academic excellence and upholding academic standards (McDill, Natriello, & Pallas,…

  20. Astrometric observations of outer planets and minor planets 1982-1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemola, A. R.; Harlan, E. A.

    1984-06-01

    The 0.51-m Carnegie double astrograph has been used to obtain direct photographs on which the equatorial coordinates for Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Fortuna, Nemausa, and other minor planets can be measured. These measurements are intended for the refinement of predictions of possible stellar occultations by these objects.

  1. Spotlight on the positive effects of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis on agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the midst of considerable negativity surrounding the ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), this paper sheds some light on the positive effects that this predator has had on agriculture. Using resources available at the USDA, National Agricultural Library (DigiTop literature database, Navigator pla...

  2. Larval life history responses to food deprivation in three species of predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied life history responses of larvae of three coccinellid species, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), when deprived of food for different periods of time during the fourth stadium. The coccinellid species did not differ in ...

  3. Variation in wing pattern and palatability in a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C; Hahn, Thomas P; Shapiro, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Checkerspot butterflies in the genera Euphydryas and Chlosyne exhibit phenotypic polymorphisms along a well-defined latitudinal and elevational gradient in California. The patterns of phenotypic variation in Euphydryas chalcedona, Chlosyne palla, and Chlosyne hoffmanni suggest a mimetic relationship; in addition, the specific patterns of variation in C. palla suggest a female-limited polymorphic mimicry system (FPM). However, the existence of polymorphic models runs counter to predictions of mimicry theory. Palatability trials were undertaken to assess whether or not the different color morphs of each species were distasteful or toxic to a generalized avian predator, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Results indicate that the black morph of E. chalcedona is distasteful, but not toxic, to predators, while the red morph is palatable. C . hoffmanni and both color morphs of C. palla are palatable to predators. Predators that learn to reject black E. chalcedona also reject black C. palla, suggesting that the latter is a FPM of the former. C. hoffmanni does not appear to be involved in this mimetic relationship. PMID:25512850

  4. Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization. Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallas, Aaron M., Ed.

    This volume is a mixture of research reviews, theoretical syntheses, and empirical analyses addressing issues in the sociology of education. Following an introduction by Aaron M. Pallas, the book is divided into eight chapters: (1) "The Sociology of Education: Its Development in the United States" (Robert Dreeben); (2) "In Comparative Isolation:…

  5. Overcoming Risk: An Annotated Bibliography of Publications Developed by ERIC Clearinghouses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy, Ed.; Howley, Craig, Ed.

    This publication contains two essays and an annotated bibliography of publications about risk. The entries in the bibliography were produced by the various clearinghouses in the ERIC system. The first essay, "Who Is at Risk? Definitions, Demographics, and Decisions," by Aaron M. Pallas, categorizes personal, family, and environmental factors that…

  6. Textile dye decolorization using cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Amit; Madamwar, Datta

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial cultures isolated from sites polluted by industrial textile effluents were screened for their ability to decolorize cyclic azo dyes. Gloeocapsa pleurocapsoides and Phormidium ceylanicum decolorized Acid Red 97 and FF Sky Blue dyes by more than 80% after 26 days. Chroococcus minutus was the only culture which decolorized Amido Black 10B (55%). Chlorophyll a synthesis in all cultures was strongly inhibited by the dyes. Visible spectroscopy and TLC confirmed that color removal was due to degradation of the dyes.

  7. A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Khaustov, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

  8. Genetic Pool Information Reflects Highly Suitable Areas: The Case of Two Parapatric Endangered Species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae)

    PubMed Central

    Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions. PMID:24819251

  9. Expression of acid phosphatase in the seminiferous epithelium of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Peruquetti, R L; Taboga, S R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2010-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (AcPs) are known to provide phosphate to tissues that have high energy requirements, especially during development, growth and maturation. During spermatogenesis AcP activity is manifested in heterophagous lysosomes of Sertoli cells. This phagocytic function appears to be hormone-independent. We examined the expression pattern of AcP during the reproductive period of four species belonging to different vertebrate groups: Tilapia rendalli (Teleostei, Cichlidae), Dendropsophus minutus (Amphibia, Anura), Meriones unguiculatus (Mammalia, Rodentia), and Oryctolagus cuniculus (Mammalia, Lagomorpha). To demonstrate AcP activity, cryosections were processed for enzyme histochemistry by a modification of the method of Gömöri. AcP activity was similar in the testes of these four species. Testes of T. rendalli, D. minutus and M. unguiculatus showed an intense reaction in the Sertoli cell region. AcP activity was detected in the testes of D. minutus and O. cuniculus in seminiferous epithelium regions, where cells are found in more advanced stages of development. The seminiferous epithelium of all four species exhibited AcP activity, mainly in the cytoplasm of either Sertoli cells or germ cells. These findings reinforce the importance of AcP activity during the spermatogenesis process in vertebrates. PMID:20391346

  10. Sharing the space: distribution, habitat segregation and delimitation of a new sympatric area of subterranean rodents.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Bruno Busnello; Galiano, Daniel; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

    2015-01-01

    Subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys usually present an allopatric or parapatric distribution. Currently, two cases of sympatry have been recognized for the genus in the coastal dunes of southern Argentina and southern Brazil. In this context, they are ideal models to test hypotheses about the factors that delimit the patterns of space use and to understand interspecific interactions in small mammals. We investigated the vegetation structure, plant biomass and soil hardness selected by two species of subterranean rodents (Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus) when distributed in sympatry and allopatry from nine different areas along the line of coastal dunes in southern Brazil. In addition, our work presents a new record of a third area of sympatry for the genus Ctenomys. Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus show habitat segregation in the area where they occur in sympatry. These species show segregation in their selection of microhabitats, differing in relation to soil hardness, plant biomass, and plant cover. Ctenomys flamarioni showed a distinction in habitat selection when occurring in allopatry and sympatry, whereas C. minutus selected the same habitat characteristics under both conditions. A possible explanation to the observed pattern is that these species have acquired different adaptations over time which allows them the ability to exploit different resources and thus avoid competitive interactions all together.

  11. Genetic pool information reflects highly suitable areas: the case of two parapatric endangered species of Tuco-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomiydae).

    PubMed

    Galiano, Daniel; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge; Freitas, Thales R O de

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of small mammals requires knowledge of the genetically and ecologically meaningful spatial scales at which species respond to habitat modifications. Conservation strategies can be improved through the use of ecological niche models and genetic data to classify areas of high environmental suitability. In this study, we applied a Maxent model integrated with genetic information (nucleotide diversity, haplotype diversity and Fu's Fs neutrality tests) to evaluate potential genetic pool populations with highly suitable areas for two parapatric endangered species of tuco-tucos (Ctenomys minutus and C. lami). Our results demonstrated that both species were largely influenced by vegetation and soil variables at a landscape scale and inhabit a highly specific niche. Ctenomys minutus was also influenced by the variable altitude; the species was associated with low altitudes (sea level). Our model of genetic data associated with environmental suitability indicate that the genetic pool data were associated with highly suitable areas for C. minutus. This pattern was not evident for C. lami, but this outcome could be a consequence of the restricted range of the species. The preservation of species requires not only detailed knowledge of their natural history and genetic structure but also information on the availability of suitable areas where species can survive, and such knowledge can aid significantly in conservation planning. This finding reinforces the use of these two techniques for planning conservation actions.

  12. Sharing the Space: Distribution, Habitat Segregation and Delimitation of a New Sympatric Area of Subterranean Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Bruno Busnello; Galiano, Daniel; de Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena

    2015-01-01

    Subterranean rodents of the genus Ctenomys usually present an allopatric or parapatric distribution. Currently, two cases of sympatry have been recognized for the genus in the coastal dunes of southern Argentina and southern Brazil. In this context, they are ideal models to test hypotheses about the factors that delimit the patterns of space use and to understand interspecific interactions in small mammals. We investigated the vegetation structure, plant biomass and soil hardness selected by two species of subterranean rodents (Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus) when distributed in sympatry and allopatry from nine different areas along the line of coastal dunes in southern Brazil. In addition, our work presents a new record of a third area of sympatry for the genus Ctenomys. Ctenomys flamarioni and C. minutus show habitat segregation in the area where they occur in sympatry. These species show segregation in their selection of microhabitats, differing in relation to soil hardness, plant biomass, and plant cover. Ctenomys flamarioni showed a distinction in habitat selection when occurring in allopatry and sympatry, whereas C. minutus selected the same habitat characteristics under both conditions. A possible explanation to the observed pattern is that these species have acquired different adaptations over time which allows them the ability to exploit different resources and thus avoid competitive interactions all together. PMID:25856399

  13. Effect of Acanthocephala infection on the reproductive potential of crustacean intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Lui, A; Giovinazzo, G; Giari, L

    2008-05-01

    The effect of a naturally acquired infection by three acanthocephalan parasites Dentitruncus truttae, Echinorhynchus truttae, and Polymorphus minutus on the reproductive potential of their intermediate host, Echinogammarus tibaldii (Amphipoda) from Lake Piediluco (Centre of Italy) was assessed. During May 2007, 1135 amphipods were collected from two different samplings and examined for larval helminths. Forty-five amphipods were infected and of those, 16 were infected with D. truttae (intensity=1-3 larvae), 15 with E. truttae (intensity=1-2 larvae), and 14 with P. minutus (intensity=1 larva). The sex ratio was nearly 1:1 in all examined amphipods. One female infected with D. truttae contained six eggs in the brood pouch and another female infected with E. truttae contained five eggs. However, none of the eight female amphipods harbouring P. minutus larva contained eggs in their brood pouch. Uninfected females of the same size and body length as that of the infected females contained between 20 and 32 eggs. No acanthocephalan species were found to co-occur.

  14. THE Ch-CLASS ASTEROIDS: CONNECTING A VISIBLE TAXONOMIC CLASS TO A 3 μm BAND SHAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2015-12-15

    Asteroids belonging to the Ch spectral taxonomic class are defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, which is interpreted as due to Fe-bearing phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates also cause strong absorptions in the 3 μm region, as do other hydrated and hydroxylated minerals and H{sub 2}O ice. Over the past decade, spectral observations have revealed different 3 μm band shapes in the asteroid population. Although a formal taxonomy is yet to be fully established, the “Pallas-type” spectral group is most consistent with the presence of phyllosilicates. If Ch class and Pallas type are both indicative of phyllosilicates, then all Ch-class asteroids should also be Pallas-type. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained 42 observations of 36 Ch-class asteroids in the 2 to 4 μm spectral region. We found that 88% of the spectra have 3 μm band shapes most consistent with the Pallas-type group. This is the first asteroid class for which such a strong correlation has been found. Because the Ch class is defined by the presence of an absorption near 0.7 μm, this demonstrates that the 0.7 μm band serves not only as a proxy for the presence of a band in the 3 μm region, but specifically for the presence of Pallas-type bands. There is some evidence for a correlation between band depth at 2.95 μm and absolute magnitude and/or albedo. However, we find only weak correlations between 2.95 μm band depth and semimajor axis. The connection between band depths in the 0.7 and 3 μm regions is complex and in need of further investigation.

  15. Identification of three morphologically indistinguishable Epicauta species (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Epicautini) through DNA barcodes and morphological comparisons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Pan; Pan, Zhao; Ren, Guo-Dong

    2016-04-14

    Three species that belong to the genus Epicauta (Coleopera: Meloidae), E. chinensis, E. dubia, and E. sibirica, appear morphologically indistinguishable. The present study aims to resolve the taxonomic status and the relationships among these three species. Identifying adult morphological characters among the three species were compared and illustrated and partial fragments of the mitochondrial gene (COI) for 77 samples, representing seven meloid species, were obtained and analyzed. Analyses of nucleotide composition, genetic distances and phylogenetics were performed. The results of the morphological studies and molecular analyses showed concordance, indicating that the three species are closely related and indistinguishable from one another. Consequently, two new synonyms are proposed: E. chinensis (Laporte, 1840) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773) and E. dubia (Fabricius, 1781) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773).

  16. 211-YEAR-OLD MYSTERY SOLVED: CREATOR OF THE WORD “ASTEROID” REVEALED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2013-10-01

    In 1802, William Herschel famously declared that the newly discovered celestial objects Ceres and Pallas were asteroids, not planets. The term asteroid was rejected by nearly every astronomer in the early nineteenth century, but is now the most widely-used word to describe the small planetary bodies of the solar system. Even so, its origin has remained a mystery. By default, its creation has always been attributed to Herschel himself, but he lacked the knowledge of Greek and Latin to coin a new word to describe Ceres and Pallas. Herschel instead turned to a network of colleagues for advice. A study of contemporary manuscript evidence has now identified the name of the scholar who created the word asteroid.

  17. Identification of three morphologically indistinguishable Epicauta species (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Epicautini) through DNA barcodes and morphological comparisons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Pan; Pan, Zhao; Ren, Guo-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Three species that belong to the genus Epicauta (Coleopera: Meloidae), E. chinensis, E. dubia, and E. sibirica, appear morphologically indistinguishable. The present study aims to resolve the taxonomic status and the relationships among these three species. Identifying adult morphological characters among the three species were compared and illustrated and partial fragments of the mitochondrial gene (COI) for 77 samples, representing seven meloid species, were obtained and analyzed. Analyses of nucleotide composition, genetic distances and phylogenetics were performed. The results of the morphological studies and molecular analyses showed concordance, indicating that the three species are closely related and indistinguishable from one another. Consequently, two new synonyms are proposed: E. chinensis (Laporte, 1840) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773) and E. dubia (Fabricius, 1781) syn. n. = E. sibirica (Pallas, 1773). PMID:27394741

  18. Females increase current reproductive effort when future access to males is uncertain.

    PubMed

    Heubel, Katja U; Lindström, Kai; Kokko, Hanna

    2008-04-23

    Trade-offs between current and future reproduction shape life histories of organisms, e.g. increased mortality selects for earlier reproductive effort, and mate limitation has been shown to shape male life histories. Here, we show that female life histories respond adaptively to mate limitation. Female common gobies (Pomatoschistus microps) respond to a female-biased operational sex ratio by strongly increasing the size of their first clutch. The plastic response is predicted by a model that assumes that females use the current competitive situation to predict future difficulties of securing a mating. Because female clutch size decisions are much more closely linked to population dynamics than male life-history traits, plastic responses to mate-finding limitations may be an underappreciated force in population dynamics.

  19. Multigroup Neutron/Gamma-Ray Direct Integration Transport Code System for Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Geometry.

    1980-10-15

    Version 00 PALLAS-2DCY-FX is a code for direct integration of the transport equation in two-dimensional (r,z) geometry. It solves the energy and angular-dependent Boltzmann transport equation with general anisotropic scattering in cylindrical geometry. Its principal applications are to neutron or gamma-ray transport problems in the forward mode. The code is particularly designed for and suited to the solution of deep penetration radiation transport problems with an external (fixed) source.

  20. Serotonin transporter activity of imidazolidine-2,4-dione and imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione derivatives in aspect of their acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Zagórska, Agnieszka; Czopek, Anna; Pawłowski, Maciej; Dybała, Małgorzata; Siwek, Agata; Nowak, Gabriel

    2012-11-01

    Affinities of arylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of imidazo[2,1-f]purine-2,4-dione and imidazolidine-2,4-dione for serotonin transporter and their acid-base properties were evaluated. The dissociation constant (pK(a)) of compounds 1-22 were determinated by potentiometric titration and calculated using pKalc 3.1 module of the Pallas system. The data from experimental methods and computational calculations were compared and suitable conclusions were reached.

  1. Origin Of The Near-earth Asteroid Phaethon And The Geminids Meteor Shower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Julia; Campins, H.; Tsiganis, K.; Morbidelli, A.; Licandro, J.

    2010-10-01

    Asteroid (3200) Phaethon is a remarkable Near Earth Asteroid (NEA). It was the first asteroid associated with a meteor shower, namely the Geminid stream1. Phaethon's unusual orbit has a high inclination and a very low perihelion distance (0.14 AU). Its reflectance spectrum suggests a connection with primitive meteorites, best fitting with CI/CM carbonaceous chondrites2, aqueously altered and rich in hydrated silicates. However, its origin is not well determined. Recent studies suggest a connection with the population of main-belt comets3, classifying Phaethon as an activated asteroid. Here we show that the most likely source of Phaethon and the Geminids is the asteroid (2) Pallas, one of the largest asteroids in the main belt, which is surrounded by a collisional family, containing several Phaethon-sized objects. Pallas’ highly inclined orbit and surface composition, also primitive and with evidence of hydration4, support this connection. Our analysis reveals a striking similarity between Phaethon's visual spectrum and those of Pallas family members. Moreover, our numerical simulations show the existence of a robust dynamical pathway, connecting the orbital neighborhood of Pallas with that of Phaethon. In this respect, the Pallas family may constitute a source of primitive NEAs. (The author gratefully acknowledges support from the Spanish "Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación" projects AYA2005-07808-C03-02 and AYA2008-06202-C03-02.) References 1. Whipple, F. L. 1983, IAU Circular, 3881 2. Licandro, J., Campins, H., Mothe-Diniz, T., Pinilla-Alonso, N. & de Leon, J. 2007, Astron. Astrophys. 461, 751-757 3. Hsieh, H. H., & Jewitt, D. 2006, Science, 312, 561-563 4. Rivkin, A. S., Howell, E. S., Vilas, F. & Lebofsky, L. A. in Asteroids III (eds Bottke, W. F., Cellino, A., Paolicchi, P. & Binzel, R. P.) 235-253 (Univ. Arizona Press, 2002).

  2. Electromagnetic heating of minor planets in the early solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, F.; Sonett, C. P.

    1979-01-01

    Electromagnetic processes occurring in the primordial solar system are likely to have significantly affected planetary evolution. In particular, electrical coupling of the kinetic energy of a dense T-Tauri-like solar wind into the interior of the smaller planets could have been a major driver of thermal metamorphism. Accordingly a grid of asteroid models of various sizes and solar distances was constructed using dc transverse magnetic induction theory. Plausible parameterizations with no requirement for a high environmental temperature led to complete melting for Vesta with no melting for Pallas and Ceres. High temperatures were reached in the Pallas model, perhaps implying nonmelting thermal metamorphosis as a cause of its anomalous spectrum. A reversal of this temperature sequence seems implausible, suggesting that the Ceres-Pallas-Vesta dichotomy is a natural outcome of the induction mechanism. Highly localized heating is expected to arise due to an instability in the temperature-controlled current distribution. Localized metamorphosis resulting from this effect may be relevant to the production and evolution of pallasites, the large presumed metal component of S object spectra, and the formation of the lunar magma ocean.

  3. Spectroscopy of B-Type Asteroids: Subgroups and Meteorite Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Beth Ellen; Ziffer, J.; Nesvorny, D.; Campins, H.; Rivkin, A.; Hiroi, T.; Barucci, M. A.; Binzel, R.; Fornasier, S.; DeMeo, F.; Ockert-Bell, M.

    2009-09-01

    B-type asteroids have a negative slope from 0.5 to 1.1 microns and beyond. What causes this? Visible to near-infrared reflectance spectra (0.4 to 2.5 microns) are assembled for 22 B-type asteroids. The spectra fall naturally into three groups: 1) those with negative (blue) spectral shapes like 2 Pallas; 2) those with concave curve shapes like 24 Themis; and 3) everything else. The asteroid spectra are compared with mineral and meteorite spectra from the RELAB library of 15,000 samples, in a least-squares search for particulate analogs, constrained by spectral brightness. The Pallas group meteorite matches show a trend of "dry” analogs, such as CV, CO, and CK-meteorites. The Themis group meteorite matches show a trend of "wet” or "previously wet” analogs, such as CI, CM, CR, and CI- or CM-Unusual meteorites. Allowing for reasonable uncertainties in the spectral matches, we find no need to invoke mineralogies that do not exist in the meteorite collection to explain B-type spectra. Our Themis group results are as expected, and are consistent with previous work, but our Pallas group results are new, surprising, problematic, and in conflict with previous work.

  4. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  5. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  6. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  7. Late cenozoic history of the genus Micromys (mammalia, rodentia) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Horáček, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4-4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6-0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European-C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus.

  8. Carotenoid-based colour of acanthocephalan cystacanths plays no role in host manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Kaldonski, Nicolas; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Dodet, Raphaël; Martinaud, Guillaume; Cézilly, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Manipulation by parasites is a catchy concept that has been applied to a large range of phenotypic alterations brought about by parasites in their hosts. It has, for instance, been suggested that the carotenoid-based colour of acanthocephalan cystacanths is adaptive through increasing the conspicuousness of infected intermediate hosts and, hence, their vulnerability to appropriate final hosts such as fish predators. We revisited the evidence in favour of adaptive coloration of acanthocephalan parasites in relation to increased trophic transmission using the crustacean amphipod Gammarus pulex and two species of acanthocephalans, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Polymorphus minutus. Both species show carotenoid-based colorations, but rely, respectively, on freshwater fish and aquatic bird species as final hosts. In addition, the two parasites differ in the type of behavioural alteration brought to their common intermediate host. Pomphorhynchus laevis reverses negative phototaxis in G. pulex, whereas P. minutus reverses positive geotaxis. In aquaria, trout showed selective predation for P. laevis-infected gammarids, whereas P. minutus-infected ones did not differ from uninfected controls in their vulnerability to predation. We tested for an effect of parasite coloration on increased trophic transmission by painting a yellow–orange spot on the cuticle of uninfected gammarids and by masking the yellow–orange spot of infected individuals with inconspicuous brown paint. To enhance realism, match of colour between painted mimics and true parasite was carefully checked using a spectrometer. We found no evidence for a role of parasite coloration in the increased vulnerability of gammarids to predation by trout. Painted mimics did not differ from control uninfected gammarids in their vulnerability to predation by trout. In addition, covering the place through which the parasite was visible did not reduce the vulnerability of infected gammarids to predation by trout. We discuss

  9. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Horáček, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4–4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6–0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European – C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus. PMID:23671605

  10. Developmental endpoints of chronic exposure to suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals on benthic and hyporheic freshwater copepods.

    PubMed

    Di Marzio, W D; Castaldo, D; Di Lorenzo, T; Di Cioccio, A; Sáenz, M E; Galassi, D M P

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to assess if carbamate pesticides and ammonium, widely detected in European freshwater bodies, can be considered ecologically relevant endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) for benthic and interstitial freshwater copepods; and (ii) to evaluate the potential of copepods as sentinels for monitoring ecosystem health. In order to achieve these objectives, four species belonging to the harpacticoid copepod genus Bryocamptus, namely B. (E.) echinatus, B. (R.) zschokkei, B. (R.) pygmaeus and B. (B.) minutus, were subjected to chronic exposures to Aldicarb and ammonium. A significant deviation from the developmental time of unexposed control cultures was observed for all the species in test cultures. Aldicarb caused an increase in generation time over 80% in both B. minutus and B. zschokkei, but less than 35% in B. pygmaeus and B. echinatus. Ammonium increased generation time over 33% in B. minutus, and 14, 12 and 3.5% for B. pygmaeus, B. zschokkei and B. echinatus, respectively. On the basis of these results it can be concluded that chronic exposure to carbamate pesticides and ammonium alters the post-naupliar development of the test-species and propose their potential role as EDCs, leaving open the basis to search what are the mechanism underlying. A prolonged developmental time would probably produce a detrimental effect on population attributes, such as age structure and population size. These deviations from a pristine population condition may be considered suitable biological indicators of ecosystem stress, particularly useful to compare polluted to unpolluted reference sites. Due to their dominance in both benthic and interstitial habitats, and their sensitivity as test organisms, freshwater benthic and hyporheic copepods can fully be used as sentinel species for assessing health condition of aquatic ecosystems as required by world-wide water legislation. PMID:23890366

  11. Palynology, petrography and geochemistry of the Sewickley coal bed (Monongahela Group, Late Pennsylvanian), Northern Appalachian Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eble, C.F.; Pierce, B.S.; Grady, W.C.

    2003-01-01

    Forty-two bench samples of the Sewickley coal bed were collected from seven localities in the northern Appalachian Basin and analyzed palynologically, petrographically, and geochemically. The Sewickley coal bed occurs in the middle of the Pittsburgh Formation (Monongahela Group) and is of Late Pennsylvanian age. Palynologically, it is dominated by spores of tree ferns. Tree fern spore taxa in the Sewickley include Punctatisporites minutus, Punctatosporites minutus, Laevigatosporites minimus, Spinosporites exiguus, Apiculatasporites saetiger, and Thymospora spp. In fact, Punctatisporites minutus was so abundant that it had to be removed from the standard counts and recorded separately (average 73.2%). Even when Punctatisporites minutus is removed from the counts, tree fern spores still dominate a majority of the assemblages, averaging 64.4%. Among the tree fern spores identified in the Sewickley coal, Thymospora exhibits temporal and spatial abundance variation. Thymospora usually increases in abundance from the base to the top of the bed. Thymospora is also more abundant in columns that are thick (>100 cm) and low in ash yield (< 12.0%, dry basis). Calamite spores (e.g. Calamospora spp., Laevigatosporites minor, and L. vulgaris) are the next most abundant plant group represented in the Sewickley coal, averaging 20%. Contributions from all other plant groups are minor in comparison. Petrographically, the Sewickley coal contains high percentages of vitrinite (average 82.3%, mineral matter-free (mmf)), with structured forms being more common than unstructured forms. In contrast, liptinite and inertinite macerals both occur in low percentages (average 7.7% and 10.0%, respectively). Geochemically, the Sewickley coal has a moderate ash yield (average 12.4%) and high total sulfur content (average 3.4%). Four localities contained a high ash or carbonaceous shale bench. These benches, which may be coeval, are strongly dominated by tree fern spores. Unlike the lower ash

  12. Synonymy of Plotococcus Miller & Denno with Leptococcus Reyne, and description of a new species from Colombia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takumasa; Gullan, Penny J

    2008-01-01

    Plotococcus Miller & Denno is synonymized with Leptococcus Reyne (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). The genus is redescribed and the adult female of the type species, L. metroxyli Reyne, is redescribed and illustrated. All species hitherto included in Plotococcus are transferred to Leptococcus as L. capixaba (Kondo) comb. nov., L. eugeniae (Miller & Denno) comb. nov., L. hambletoni (Kondo) comb. nov., L. minutus (Hempel) comb. nov., and L. neotropicus (Williams & Granara de Willink) comb. nov. A new species of Leptococcus, L. rodmani Kondo sp. n., from leaves of Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae) from Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. A revised key to adult females of all species in the genus is provided.

  13. The Ch asteroids: Connecting a Visible Taxonomic Class to a 3-µm spectral shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Howell, E. S.; Emery, J. P.; Volquardsen, E. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Ch-class asteroids in the Bus and Bus-DeMeo classifications are characterized by an absorption near 0.7-µm, first described in a series of papers by Vilas and her co-workers, and associated with phyllosilicates. We have known for some time that the presence of this band is correlated with the presence of the 3-µm absorption band diagnostic for OH/H2O in asteroids and meteorites (Howell, Vilas et al.). In the meteorite collection, the 0.7-µm band seems to be limited to a particular subset of carbonaceous chondrites, the CM group (Cloutis et al.). The difference in 3-µm band shape between Ceres and Pallas has been recognized since the 1980s from work by Lebofsky, Feierberg et al.. Several surveys in this spectral region have established that on the order of 3-4 different spectral shapes exist in the asteroid population (Takir et al., Rivkin et al.). One group, the largest member of which is Pallas, has spectral shapes similar to what is seen in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. At this writing, the L-band Mainbelt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP) has obtained spectra for 25 asteroids classified as Ch by the SMASS surveys. Of the 20 objects that can be unambiguously assigned a 3-µm spectral type, all 20 have a Pallas-type spectral shape. An additional 6 objects in the LMNOP without SMASS classifications are classified as Ch by the S3OS2 survey. Only one of these 6 objects is not obviously Pallas-like, 791 Ani, and inspection of the S3OS2 spectrum leads to doubt that it is actually a Ch-class object. The assignment of at least 80% and perhaps 100% of Ch-class asteroids to the Pallas 3-µm type (depending on how ambiguous objects are treated) serves as evidence for a specific tie between the visible-region and infrared spectral regions, and that the 0.7-µm band can be used not only as a proxy for the presence of a 3-µm band but for a specific band shape and mineralogy. We will present our spectral results and analysis.

  14. Is there an association of Pneumocystis infection with the presence of arena-, hanta-, and poxvirus antibodies in wild mice and shrews in Finland?

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Kallio, E R; Kallio-Kokko, H; Vapalahti, O; Vaheri, A; Henttonen, H

    2006-04-01

    As part of studies on the nature of the endemic virus infections in natural rodent hosts, the possible association of cyst forms of Pneumocystis spp. with the presence of hanta-, cowpox-, and arenavirus antibodies in wild mice (Apodemus flavicollis, N=105; Apodemus agrarius, N=63; Micromys minutus, N=50) and the common shrew (Sorex araneus, N=101) was studied in south-central Finland. One hantavirus (Saaremaa virus, SAAV) seropositive A. agrarius, and 2 cowpoxvirus (CPXV) seropositive S. araneus were detected, and antibodies against an arenavirus (Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, LCMV) were found in all 3 mouse species but not in shrews. Cyst forms of Pneumocystis spp. were detected in all species except A. agrarius. There was no significant association between virus antibodies (LCMV in mice, and CPXV in shrews) and cyst forms of Pneumocystis in any of the species. Concurrent presence of virus antibodies (LCMV) and cyst forms of Pneumocystis were detected only in 1 M. minutus. In conclusion, we found no evidence of any association between Pneumocystis and antibodies to any of the viruses tested.

  15. Diversity and Karyotypic Evolution in the Genus Neacomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Willam O; Pieczarka, Julio C; Rossi, Rogério V; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Miranda, Cleuton L; da Silva, Cláudia R; Cardoso, Elizandra M; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2015-01-01

    Neacomys (Sigmodontinae) comprises 8 species mainly found in the Amazonian region. We describe 5 new karyotypes from Brazilian Amazonia: 2 cytotypes for N. paracou (2n = 56/FNa = 62-66), 1 for N. dubosti (2n = 64/FNa = 68), and 2 for Neacomys sp. (2n = 58/FNa = 64-70), with differences in the 18S rDNA. Telomeric probes did not show ITS. We provide a phylogeny using Cytb, and the analysis suggests that 2n = 56 with a high FNa is ancestral for the genus, as found in N. paracou, being retained by the ancestral forms of the other species, with an increase in 2n occurring independently in N. spinosus and N. dubosti. Alternatively, an increase in 2n may have occurred in the ancestral taxon of the other species, followed by independent 2n-reduction events in Neacomys sp. and in the ancestral species of N. tenuipes, N. guianae, N. musseri, and N. minutus. Finally, a drastic reduction event in the diploid number occurred in the ancestral species of N. musseri and N. minutus which exhibit the lowest 2n of the genus. The karyotypic variations found in both intra- and interspecific samples, associated with the molecular phylogeny, suggest a chromosomal evolution with amplification/deletion of constitutive heterochromatin and rearrangements including fusions, fissions, and pericentric inversions.

  16. Conflict between parasites with different transmission strategies infecting an amphipod host.

    PubMed

    Haine, Eleanor R; Boucansaud, Karelle; Rigaud, Thierry

    2005-12-01

    Competition between parasites within a host can influence the evolution of parasite virulence and host resistance, but few studies examine the effects of unrelated parasites with conflicting transmission strategies infecting the same host. Vertically transmitted (VT) parasites, transmitted from mother to offspring, are in conflict with virulent, horizontally transmitted (HT) parasites, because healthy hosts are necessary to maximize VT parasite fitness. Resolution of the conflict between these parasites should lead to the evolution of one of two strategies: avoidance, or sabotage of HT parasite virulence by the VT parasite. We investigated two co-infecting parasites in the amphipod host, Gammarus roeseli: VT microsporidia have little effect on host fitness, but acanthocephala modify host behaviour, increasing the probability that the amphipod is predated by the acanthocephalan's definitive host. We found evidence for sabotage: the behavioural manipulation induced by the Acanthocephala Polymorphus minutus was weaker in hosts also infected by the microsporidia Dictyocoela sp. (roeselum) compared to hosts infected by P. minutus alone. Such conflicts may explain a significant portion of the variation generally observed in behavioural measures, and since VT parasites are ubiquitous in invertebrates, often passing undetected, conflict via transmission may be of great importance in the study of host-parasite relationships.

  17. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus.

  18. Composition, structure and pattern of helminth assemblages associated with central European herons (Ardeidae).

    PubMed

    Sitko, Jiljí; Heneberg, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Helminths parasitizing the ardeid birds are poorly understood, and the majority of studies are limited to checklists and records of novel host-parasite interactions. Here we analyzed the prevalence, intensity and diversity of the helminth component communities associated with an extensive cohort of the five most common Czech herons (Ardea cinerea, Ardea alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris and Ixobrychus minutus) collected in the years 1962-2013. Comparison with Ukrainian datasets supports the existence of local helminth component communities, subject to strong geographic variation. The diversity of the component communities ranged between 37.3±9.6 (A. cinerea) and 2.5±1.1 (I. minutus) species. Similarly, the frequency of particular helminths differed by over one order of magnitude, whereas the helminth load differed by over two orders of magnitude. Typically, the dominant species (Echinochasmus beleocephalus, Uroproctepisthmium bursicola, Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Apharyngostrigea cornu, Desmidocercella numidica and Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus) were considered local, with intermediate host species available onsite, as represented by freshwater mollusks. Of the digeneans, 52% of the species likely infected their definitive hosts outside the study area, frequently utilizing invertebrates of salt or brackish waters. For A. cinerea, the largest number of species was in adult males; however the helminth load of the adults was lower than in their juvenile counterparts. This study provides the first systematically collected evidence for the intra-annual changes of the helminth assemblages in herons.

  19. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown.

  20. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  1. Length-weight relationships and biomass of the main microcrustacean species of two large tropical reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, S L; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Pinto-Coelho, R M

    2013-08-01

    Length-weight equations were determined for the main microcrustacean species of Três Marias and Furnas reservoirs (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), and evaluated the fluctuations of their biomass. We examined the following species: Thermocyclops minutus, Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina hagmanni, Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and Moina minuta (Três Marias Reservoir), and Notodiaptomus henseni, Daphnia ambigua, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii, Diaphanosoma spinulosum, D. fluviatile, and Bosmina freyi (Furnas Reservoir). Dry weight was obtained in a microbalance for each size class (Cladocera) or developmental stage (Copepoda). Microcrustacean mean biomass varied from 5.76 mg DW.m(-3) and 20.36 mg DW.m(-3) (Furnas Reservoir) and from 3.75 mg DW.m(-3) and 18.14 mg DW.m(-3) (Três Marias Reservoir). Significant differences (p < 0.000) between seasons were registered with higher biomass during the rainy seasons. Thermocyclops minutus was the most important species in Três Marias, whereas in Furnas, N. henseni contributed in equal proportion. In Furnas, the higher cladoceran biomass was explained by the contribution of larger-sized species, such as D. ambigua, C. silvestrii, D. spinulosum, and D. fluviatile. Even though both reservoirs are considered oligotrophic, there were significant differences in the estimated microcrustacean biomass, which reinforces the importance of this parameter for the description of the real contribution of each species in the community. PMID:24212700

  2. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus. PMID:25963263

  3. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

    PubMed

    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range. PMID:25283663

  4. Altered host behaviour and brain serotonergic activity caused by acanthocephalans: evidence for specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tain, Luke; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Cézilly, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. However, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. Here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered phototactism, but not geotactism, in G. pulex, whereas the reverse was true for Polymorphus minutus. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injected to uninfected G. pulex mimicked the altered phototactism, but had no effect on geotactism. Photophilic G. pulex infected with P. laevis or P. tereticollis showed a 40% increase in brain 5-HT immunoreactivity compared to photophobic, uninfected individuals. In contrast, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity did not differ between P. minutus-infected and uninfected G. pulex. Finally, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity differed significantly among P. tereticollis-infected individuals in accordance with their degree of manipulation. Our results demonstrate that altered 5-HT activity is not the mere consequence of infection by acanthocephalans but is specifically linked to the disruption of host photophobic behaviour, whereas the alteration of other behaviours such as geotactism may rely on distinct physiological routes. PMID:17015346

  5. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at Twin Bridges Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae-Ji; Shim, So-Hee; Ha, Si-Jung; Chong, Sung-Tae; Lee, In-Yong; Richards, Allen L; Yi, Suk-Hee; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conduct armistice military operations at Twin Bridges Training Area (TBTA) located near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) and are exposed to zoonotic disease pathogens that small mammals and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites transmit. TBTA is a 36 km2 rural training site with small villages and various forms of agriculture along its boundary. At TBTA, rodents, insectivores, and their ectoparasites are commonly found in association with unmanaged habitats of various densities of tall grasses, herbaceous plants, shrubs, briars, and crawling vegetation. Rodents and insectivores were collected during the winter (November-December 2005 and December 2006) and early spring (March 2007), and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the six species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (96.1%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (2.5%), Micromys minutus (0.5%), Myodes regulus (0.5%), Mus musculus (0.3%), and Rattus rattus (0.1%). A. agrarius (56.1%), M. musculus (66.7%), M. minutus (25%), and R. rattus (100%) were positive for scrub typhus antibodies. Only A. agrarius (14.7%) and C. lasiura (4.5%) were positive for murine typhus antibodies, whereas only A. agrarius (1.5%) was seropositive for leptospirosis. Seroprevalence rates of scrub typhus and murine typhus based on weight and sex of A. agrarius are presented. PMID:20108842

  6. Paratylenchus shenzhenensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Paratylenchinae) from the rhizosphere soil of Anthurium andraeanum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Li, Yu; Xu, Chun-Ling; Yu, Lu; Wang, Dong-Wei

    2013-12-18

    Paratylenchus shenzhenensis n. sp. was collected from the rhizosphere soil of Anthurium andraeanum in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. The new species is characterized by having a female with a small body (249-302 μm), well developed stylet (17-21 μm), rounded head with four submedian lobes and lip-region with a slight depression at the oral area, small post-vulval uterine sac with a few vestigial cells; male with body dorsally curved behind the cloacal opening, stylet absent, pharynx degenerate, prominent penial sheath; and juveniles with a stylet. It is morphologically similar to P. minutus. The internal transcribed spacer sequences of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA) of the new species only have 72-73% identity with P. minutus, confirming its status as a separate species. The D2/D3 region of 28S ribosomal DNA (28S rDNA) and 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) from P. shenzhenensis n. sp. were also amplified and sequenced in this study. 

  7. Parasites of free-ranging black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) from Belize and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vitazkova, Sylvia K; Wade, Susan E

    2006-11-01

    Parasites are important members of the ecological web within which an animal lives, and can be used as indicators of ecosystem health. However, few baseline parasitological data are available for free-ranging animals, particularly for the black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra). In this study a total of 283 fecal samples were collected from 50 individually identified A. pigra during 2003 and 2004 and examined for parasites. The samples were processed using standard quantitative centrifugation concentration techniques, with sugar and zinc sulfate used as flotation media. The slides were examined using bright-field and phase microscopy. Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to detect protozoa. Four parasites were detected: 1) Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae), 2) Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae), 3) Giardia sp. (Hexamitidae), and 4) Entamoeba sp. (Endamoebidae). Controrchis biliophilus was detected in 80% (wet season) and 81% (dry season) of the A. pigra samples; Trypanoxyuris minutus was detected in 8% (wet season) and 27% (dry season) of samples; and Giardia sp. was detected in 40% (wet season) and 27% (dry season) of samples. For the first time, DNA from Giardia sp.-positive fecal samples was extracted from A. pigra. Alouatta pigra individuals that lived near human settlements in Belize were infected with Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. lamblia, G. intestinalis) Assemblages A and B. These results suggest that G. duodenalis is transmitted from people and/or domestic animals to A. pigra.

  8. Changes in the egg production rate of two copepod species of the genus Pseudocalanus in relation to temperature in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershova, E. A.; Kosobokova, K. N.; Vorobieva, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines changes in egg production rates of two co-occurring Pseudocalanus species, P. acuspes and P. minutus, in response to changing temperatures (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12°C) in the White Sea. The boreal P. acuspes (sample size >650 individuals) increased its reproductive rate gradually across the entire range of temperatures from 0 to 12°C. Significant differences in egg production rates and reaction to temperature were also observed between P. acuspes females incubated during the early vs. the mid-summer season. The sample size of the Arctic P. minutus was significantly smaller due to the low numbers at which this species occurred. However, the results suggest that this species increases its egg production rates from 0 to 3°C from 3.3 to 8.5% dry weight female-1 day-1, but at 9° its reproductive rate drops significantly and the animals demonstrate markedly reduced fitness. Our results indicate that closely related co-occurring species, and even different generations within one species, can demonstrate significantly different responses to changes in the physical environment.

  9. An acanthocephalan parasite increases the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea: Gammaridae).

    PubMed

    Piscart, Christophe; Webb, Dennis; Beisel, Jean Nicolas

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the influence of parasites on host fitness generally conclude that parasites have a strong negative effect on their hosts. In this study, we have investigated experimentally the role of Polymorphus minutus, an acanthocephalan parasite, on the salinity tolerance of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli, one of its intermediate hosts. Unexpectedly, P. minutus-infected gammarids were more tolerant to salinity stress than uninfected ones. The mean lethal salt concentrations for 50% mortality of hosts tested were 17.3 (infected) and 9.7 g/L (uninfected). The parasitic load (one or two parasites per host) did not affect the result. The size of hosts had no significant influence on the salinity tolerance of either infected or uninfected gammarids. The mobility of all types of gammarid decreased when the salinity exceeded 9.0 g/L, but there was no significant difference between infected and uninfected gammarids. We discuss the higher salinity tolerance of infected amphipods in relation to O(2) consumption and osmoregulation. Finally, we demonstrate that the salinity tolerance is enhanced in the parasitized amphipod but without a significant change in behavior or an osmoregulatory adjustment. PMID:17487466

  10. A new monorchiid cercaria (Digenea) parasitising the purple clam Amiantis purpurata (Bivalvia: Veneridae) in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, with notes on its gonadal effect.

    PubMed

    Cremont, F; Kroeck, M A; Martorelli, S R

    2001-01-01

    An unnamed microcercous cercaria (Digenea: Monorchiidae), a parasite of Amiantis purpurata (Lamarck, 1818) (Bivalvia: Veneridae) and its corresponding metacercaria from the province of Buenos Aires and the Patagonian coast of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, are described. The cercaria described in this paper differs from the three other monorchiid microcercous cercariae, i.e., Lasiotocus minutus (Manter, 1931), Lasiotocus elongatus (Manter, 1931), and Cercaria caribbea XXXVI Cable, 1956, mainly because of the extension of the excretory vesicle and the location of the ventral sucker. Cercariae artificially extracted from sporocysts encyst in a dish and form metacercariae enveloped by a gelatinous sac with two prolongations, which are used to adhere to the substratum. The monorchiid described in this paper has a life cycle similar to those of L. minutus and L. elongatus, although the adult stage of the present species is still unknown. Their larvae are similar in morphology and have venerid clams as their first hosts. The presence of a monorchiid larva is reported for the first time in the Southern Hemisphere. Its monthly prevalence rates, ranging from 0 to 25% (mean: 8.3%), are given from the Patagonian coast. The infection seems to cause castration as it was observed that during March through to May, when most gametes were produced in uninfected individuals, 81% of the infected individuals did not produce gametes. PMID:11699657

  11. Late Pleistocene voles (Arvicolinae, Rodentia) from the Baranica Cave (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogićević, Katarina; Nenadić, Draženko; Mihailović, Dušan

    2012-02-01

    Baranica is a cave system situated in the south-eastern part of Serbia, four kilometers south to Knjaževac, on the right bank of the Trgovi\\vski Timok. The investigations in Baranica were conducted from 1994 to 1997 by the Faculty of Philosophy from Belgrade and the National Museum of Knjaževac. Four geological layers of Quaternary age were recovered. The abundance of remains of both large and small mammals was noticed in the early phase of the research. In this paper, the remains of eight vole species are described: Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Chionomys nivalis (Martins, 1842), Microtus (Microtus) arvalis (Pallas, 1778) and Microtus (Microtus) agrestis (Linnaeus, 1761), Microtus (Stenocranius) gregalis (Pallas, 1779), Microtus (Terricola) subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps, 1836), Clethrionomys glareolus (Schreber, 1780) and Lagurus lagurus (Pallas, 1773). Among them, steppe and open area inhabitants prevail. Based on the evolutionary level and dimensions of the Arvicola terrestris molars, as well as the overall characteristics of the fauna, it was concluded that the deposits were formed in the last glacial period of the Late Pleistocene. These conclusions are rather consistent with the absolute dating of large mammal bones (23.520 ± 110 B.P. for Layer 2 and 35.780 ± 320 B.P. for Layer 4).

  12. Effects of herbal medicine on human uterine tumor-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohh, Mi Hyang; Kim, Seong Jin; Han, Jong Kwon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-mahn

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms associated with significant morbidity. Herbal formulas capable of restoring yin-yang balance by dispersing blood stasis may be useful for managing fibroid symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, the antitumor properties of three herbs viz., Trogopterus xanthipes Milen-Edwards, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, and Ulmus davidiana Planch were evaluated in nude mice injected intravenously with human malignant myomas. Tumor fragments were xenografted subcutaneously through a flank incision in female mice. The mice entered the study for 8 weeks when their tumors reached the threshold volume (260 mm3). The mice were randomly allocated to receive subcutaneous injections of normal saline (Group 1; negative control), P. lactiflora Pallas (Group 2), U. davidiana Planch (Group 3), T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards (Group 4), and intravenous injections of paclitaxel (Group 5; positive control). The weight and tumor volume were measured, followed by histopathology. Results: A few cases of abdominal distention and death were observed in the negative control group. Furthermore, a considerable enlargement of the liver and spleen was observed in the negative control group at autopsy with a gradual increase in body weight during the experiment. The mean tumor volume which increased in negative control mice reduced in mice treated with herbal remedies or paclitaxel from day 14 onwards (P < 0.05). The degree of necrosis and apoptosis induction from herbal treatments was similar to that of paclitaxel. Conclusion: Collectively, three herbs viz., T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards, P. lactiflora Pallas, and U. davidiana Planch were able to induce necrosis and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells, proving antitumor properties against uterine fibroids. PMID:27757274

  13. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  14. Meteor Beliefs Project: The Palladium in ancient and early Medieval sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, A. Alistair; Gheorghe, A. D.

    2004-08-01

    An examination of the, apparently meteoritic, object, anciently called the Palladium after the Greek goddess Pallas Athene, is presented, as discussed in various ancient and early medieval sources. Although made of wood, the Palladium was believed to have fallen from the sky. In myths, it was a powerful totemic object, first at the legendary city of Troy, then later at Rome, and had magically protective properties associated with it. Despite its implausibly meteoritic nature, the Palladium can be suggested as supporting the case for ancient meteorite worship.

  15. Application of ALOGPS 2.1 to predict log D distribution coefficient for Pfizer proprietary compounds.

    PubMed

    Tetko, Igor V; Poda, Gennadiy I

    2004-11-01

    Evaluation of the ALOGPS, ACD Labs LogD, and PALLAS PrologD suites to calculate the log D distribution coefficient resulted in high root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 1.0-1.5 log for two in-house Pfizer's log D data sets of 17,861 and 640 compounds. Inaccuracy in log P prediction was the limiting factor for the overall log D estimation by these algorithms. The self-learning feature of the ALOGPS (LIBRARY mode) remarkably improved the accuracy in log D prediction, and an rmse of 0.64-0.65 was calculated for both data sets.

  16. Seasonal and spatial variation of Yamuna River water quality in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Papiya; Upadhyay, Rahul; Hasan, Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Yamuna river pollution has been extensively studied with regard to some selected parameters in five locations at Palla, Nizamuddin Midstream, Nizamuddin Quarter Stream, Agra Canal Midstream, and Agra Canal Quarter Stream in Delhi, India. Seasonal and location-wise variation of pollutants namely dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia (AMM), total coliform and fecal coliform were studied for 6 years during the period of 2000-2005. The study results revealed the lowest level of pollution during monsoon. The statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between DO, BOD, COD, TKN, and AMM. PMID:20039203

  17. Trichostrongylus auriculatus n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) from the steenbok, Raphicerus campestris (Thunberg, 1811).

    PubMed

    Boomker, J

    1986-12-01

    During a pilot survey of the parasites of some artiodactylids in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park a new species of Trichostrongylus Looss, 1905 was recovered from the small intestine of a steenbok, Raphicerus campestris (Thunberg, 1811), a gemsbok, Oryx gazella (Linnaeus, 1758), and a red hartebeest, Alcelaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766). The male spicules were 0,120-0,148 mm long and an ear-shaped protuberance was present on the shaft of the left spicule. The presence of only a single protuberance is characteristic of the species.

  18. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city.

  19. Seasonal and spatial variation of Yamuna River water quality in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Papiya; Upadhyay, Rahul; Hasan, Aziz

    2010-11-01

    Yamuna river pollution has been extensively studied with regard to some selected parameters in five locations at Palla, Nizamuddin Midstream, Nizamuddin Quarter Stream, Agra Canal Midstream, and Agra Canal Quarter Stream in Delhi, India. Seasonal and location-wise variation of pollutants namely dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia (AMM), total coliform and fecal coliform were studied for 6 years during the period of 2000-2005. The study results revealed the lowest level of pollution during monsoon. The statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between DO, BOD, COD, TKN, and AMM.

  20. Parasite populations and communities from the shallow littoral of the Orther Bight (Fehmarn, SW Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Zander, C Dieter; Koçoglu, Ozen; Skroblies, Markus; Strohbach, Uwe

    2002-08-01

    Parasites of host guilds, such as mud snails (five species), benthic crustaceans (six species) and small-sized fishes ( Pomatoschistus microps, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Pungitius pungitius, young Pleuronectes flesus), were investigated in the Other Bight off West Fehmarn (Kiel Bight, German Baltic Sea). The hosts, especially the herbivorous Hydrobia spp, Gammarus spp and Idothea chelipes, attained extremely high densities in three habitats ( Enteromorpha belt, Fucus belt, sandy bottom), which may be a consequence of high eutrophication. Fish as carnivores and several helminths as parasites can profit from these massive appearances - more than 5,000 Hydrobia mud snails/m(2) or 282 I. chelipes/m(2). Prevalences of mud snails peaked in summer, by up to 30% extra, whereas species of benthic crustaceans attained increases of 47-100%, fish 57-100%. The most abundant helminths were the digeneans Maritrema subdolum, Microphallus claviformis and Asymphylodora demeli in Hydrobia spp, Maritrema subdolum, Microphallus papillorobustum, Levinseniella brachysoma and Podocotyle atomon in benthic crustaceans and Cryptocotyle concavum, Podocotyle atomon and Brachyphallus crenatus in fish. The copepod Thersitina gasterostei was also abundant in sticklebacks. The density of parasites (number/m(2)) peaked in summer, with more than 10,000 Maritrema subdolum metacercariae in I. chelipes from the Fucus belt and more than 1,000 in I. chelipes from the Enteromorpha belt or the sandy bottom. There was a clear seasonality in the appearance of digeneans in G. locusta, G. salinus and I. chelipes infected by M. subdolum and Gammarus spp infected by L. brachysoma and P. atomon. Therefore, the Orther Bight may be a epizootiotope for M. subdolum and C. concavum, i.e. a habitat with an extreme infection rate which can endanger the population of the host. Idothea chelipes also has a high infection potential to the final hosts of M. subdolum, crustacean-feeding birds. Similar relationships were found

  1. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  2. A review of Cunaxidae (Acariformes, Trombidiformes): Histories and diagnoses of subfamilies and genera, keys to world species, and some new locality records

    PubMed Central

    Skvarla, Michael J.; Fisher, J. Ray; Dowling, Ashley P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cunaxidae are predaceous mites found in a variety of habitats. This work provides comprehensive keys to world subfamilies, genera, and species. Diagnoses and historical reviews are provided for subfamilies and genera. Cunaxa boneti, C. denmarki, C. exoterica, C. floridanus, C. lehmanae, C. lukoschusi, C. metzi, C. myabunderensis, C newyorkensis, C. rackae, C. reevesi, and C. reticulatus are moved to Rubroscirus and C. otiosus, C. valentis, and C. rasile are returned to Rubroscirus. Cunaxoides neopectinatus is moved to Pulaeus. Neocunaxoides pradhani and N. gilbertoi are transferred to Scutopalus. Pulaeus minutus and P. subterraneus are moved to Lupaeus. Pseudobonzia bakari, P. malookensis, and P. shamshadi are transferred to Neobonzia. Dactyloscirus bifidus is transferred to Armascirus. Scirula papillata is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time. Armascirus ozarkensis, A. primigenius, and Dactyloscirus dolichosetosus are reported from new localities. PMID:25061358

  3. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of four species of Dendropsophus (Hylinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Igor Soares; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Oliveira, Adriele Karlokoski Cunha De; Toled, Luís Felipe; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study of four hyline frog species (Dendropsophus elegans, D. microps, D. minutus and D. werneri) from southern Brazil. All species had 2n = 30 chromosomes, with interspecific and intraspecific variation in the numbers of metacentric, submetacentric, subtelocentric and telocentric chromosomes. C-banding and fluorochrome staining revealed conservative GC-rich heterochromatin localized in the pericentromeric regions of all species. The location of the nucleolus organizer regions, as confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, differed between species. Telomeric probes detected sites that were restricted to the terminal regions of all chromosomes and no interstitial or centromeric signals were observed. Our study corroborates the generic synapomorphy of 2n = 30 chromosomes for Dendropsophus and adds data that may become useful for future taxonomic revisions and a broader understanding of chromosomal evolution among hylids. PMID:27350679

  4. Revision of the termite family Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) in New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Thomas; Roisin, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recently, we completed a revision of the Termitidae from New Guinea and neighboring islands, recording a total of 45 species. Here, we revise a second family, the Rhinotermitidae, to progress towards a full picture of the termite diversity in New Guinea. Altogether, 6 genera and 15 species are recorded, among which two species, Coptotermes gambrinus and Parrhinotermes barbatus, are new to science. The genus Heterotermes is reported from New Guinea for the first time, with two species restricted to the southern part of the island. We also provide the first New Guinea records for six species of the genera Coptotermes and Schedorhinotermes. We briefly describe soldiers and imagoes of each species and provide a key based on soldier characters. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic and biogeographical implication of our results. A replacement name, Schedolimulus minutides Bourguignon, is proposed for the termitophilous staphylinid Schedolimulus minutus Bourguignon, to solve a question of secondary homonymy. PMID:22287891

  5. New or little-known species of the genus Amphimenes Bates, 1873 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiinae) from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Fedorenko, Dmitry N.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Twelve new species of the genus Amphimenes Bates, 1873 are described from Vietnam: Amphimenes maculatus sp. n., Amphimenes bidoupensis sp. n., Amphimenes gracilis sp. n., Amphimenes montanus sp. n., Amphimenes giganteus sp. n., Amphimenes medius sp. n., Amphimenes minutus sp. n., Amphimenes rufipes sp. n., Amphimenes reflexicollis sp. n., Amphimenes planicollis sp. n., Amphimenes nitidus sp. n., and Amphimenes kabakovi sp. n.. Amphimenes rugulipennis Bates, 1892, comb. n., is transferred from the genus Brachichila Chaudoir, 1869 and is redescribed from fresh material. A key to all congeners is provided, these being arranged into five new species-groups. Adults of the rugulipennis- and piceolus-groups show subcortical habits, while those of the medius-, rufipes- and planicollis- groupsare herpetobiotic, resulting in such morphological adaptations as partly reduced eyes, missing wings and adnate elytra. PMID:21594026

  6. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of four species of Dendropsophus (Hylinae) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Igor Soares; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Oliveira, Adriele Karlokoski Cunha De; Toled, Luís Felipe; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a cytogenetic study of four hyline frog species (Dendropsophus elegans, D. microps, D. minutus and D. werneri) from southern Brazil. All species had 2n = 30 chromosomes, with interspecific and intraspecific variation in the numbers of metacentric, submetacentric, subtelocentric and telocentric chromosomes. C-banding and fluorochrome staining revealed conservative GC-rich heterochromatin localized in the pericentromeric regions of all species. The location of the nucleolus organizer regions, as confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, differed between species. Telomeric probes detected sites that were restricted to the terminal regions of all chromosomes and no interstitial or centromeric signals were observed. Our study corroborates the generic synapomorphy of 2n = 30 chromosomes for Dendropsophus and adds data that may become useful for future taxonomic revisions and a broader understanding of chromosomal evolution among hylids.

  7. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M; Matsumura-Tundisi, T

    2005-08-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

  8. The tadpole of Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 (Anura, Bufonidae) from the type locality and adjacent regions at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menin, Marcelo; Pegorini, Reysi Jhayne; De Carvalho, Vinicius Tadeu; Rojas, Rommel Roberto; Gordo, Marcelo

    2014-06-30

    The genus Amazophrynella, as currently recognized (Fouquet et al. 2012a, b), is represented by four nominal species (Frost 2014; Rojas et al. 2014) but the tadpoles of only one species, Amazophrynella minuta (Melin) from Ecuador, have been described (Duellman & Lynch 1969; Duellman 1978). Amazophrynella manaos Rojas, Carvalho, Gordo, Ávila, Farias and Hrbek, 2014 occurs in the leaf litter of terra firme forest in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Guiana region (Rojas et al. 2014). The tadpole of this species was briefly described in diagrammatic drawings by Hero (1990) as Dendrophryniscus minutus. Herein, we provide a detailed description of this tadpole based on individuals at 12 stages of development collected in five different sites, including the type locality, at Central Amazonia, Brazil.

  9. Trypanoxyuris atelis and T. atelophora (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) in tropical rain forest in Mexico: Morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Solórzano-García, Brenda; Nadler, Steven A; de León, Gerardo Pérez Ponce

    2015-10-01

    Two species of pinworms, Trypanoxyuris atelis and Trypanoxyuris atelophora were collected from the black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) in several localities across southeastern Mexico, representing the first record for both species in Mexican primates. Identification of pinworm species was based on morphological and molecular data. These pinworms are distinguished from other congeners, and from each other, by the buccal structure, the lateral alae, and the morphology of the oesophagus. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene placed T. atelis as the sister species of Trypanoxyuris minutus, a parasite of the howler monkey Alouatta palliata, and T. atelophora as the sister species of T. microon, a parasite of the night monkey, Aotus azarae. These relationships were supported with high posterior probability values by Bayesian inference. Comparisons of additional pinworm taxa from Neotropical primates are needed to assess oxyurid diversity, and to better understand the evolutionary relationships among these nematodes and their primate hosts.

  10. Fossil birds from the Late Cretaceous Los Alamitos Formation, Río Negro Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnolin, Federico L.; Martinelli, Agustín G.

    2009-02-01

    In this note we report new avian remains from the Late Cretaceous Los Alamitos Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian) at the Los Alamitos locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Isolated remains referable to indeterminate Aves, ?Patagopterygiformes, indeterminate Ornithurae, cf. Hesperornithes and cf. Neornithes are described and discussed. The new genus and species Alamitornis minutus is erected to include a minute-sized and gracile bird, probably related to the non-volant ratite-like bird Patagopteryx. If correctly identified, the record of Hesperornithes may be the first for this group in the Southern Hemisphere. The Los Alamitos paleoavifauna represents one of the most diverse fossil bird assemblage from the Mesozoic of Gondwana known to date.

  11. [Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera: Streblidae) of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil: infestation rates and the host-parasite association].

    PubMed

    Santos, Ciro L C; Dias, Paulo A; Rodrigues, Fernanda S; Lobato, Keliane S; Rosa, Luciana C; Oliveira, Tadeu G; Rebêlo, José M M

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the first records of the parasitism rates of the association among ectoparasitic flies of the family Streblidae found in phyllostomid bats in the state of Maranhão. Specimens were collected in patches of secondary forest and borders of mangrove in the village of Quebra Pote, located in the south portion of the island of São Luís. A total of 201 flies of 15 species and eight genera [Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, A. phyllostomatis (Perty), Mastoptera minuta Costa Lima, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Séguy), Speiseria ambigua Kessel, Stizostrebla longirotris Jobling, Strebla guajiro (García & Casal), S. hertigi Wenzel, Trichobioides perspicillatus (Pessôa & Galvão), Trichobius costalimai Guimarães, T. dugesii Townsend, T. dugesioides phyllostomus Guerrero, T. joblingi Wenzel and T. longipes (Rudow)] were collected from 50 individuals of nine species of phyllostomid bats [Artibeus lituratus (Olfers), A. obscurus Schinz, Carollia perspicillata L., Glossophaga soricina Pallas, Lophostoma carrikeri J A Allen, Micronycteris minuta Gervais, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, P.hastatus Pallas and Sturnira lilium E Geoffroy)]. Mastoptera minuta, T. costalimai, T. longipes, A. falcata and S. longirostris, were the most frequently found ectoparasites, present in at least 50% of the infected bats. Two species of bats, C. perspicillata e P. discolor, showed the highest richness of ectoparasites, with four species of flies each, and an infection rate of 46% and 100%, respectively.

  12. On the infant weight loss of low- to intermediate-mass star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2007-04-01

    Star clusters are born in a highly compact configuration, typically with radii of less than about 1 pc roughly independently of mass. Since the star formation efficiency is less than 50 per cent by observation and because the residual gas is removed from the embedded cluster, the cluster must expand. In the process of doing so it only retains a fraction fst of its stars. To date there are no observational constraints for fst, although N-body calculations by Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley suggest it to be about 20-30 per cent for Orion-type clusters. Here we use the data compiled by Testi et al., Testi, Palla & Natta and Testi, Palla & Natta for clusters around young Ae/Be stars and by de Wit et al. and de Wit et al. around young O stars and the study of de Zeeuw et al. of OB associations and combine these measurements with the expected number of stars in clusters with primary Ae/Be and O stars, respectively, using the empirical correlation between maximal stellar mass and star cluster mass of Weidner & Kroupa. We find that fst < 50 per cent with a decrease to higher cluster masses/more massive primaries. The interpretation would be that cluster formation is very disruptive. It appears that clusters with a birth stellar mass in the range 10-103Msolar keep at most 50 per cent of their stars.

  13. ROCKET AF adds more concerns about Digoxin safety in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    ElMaghawry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in the Journal, we have reviewed the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with digoxin use in the PALLAS study.(1) The PALLAS study was designed to determine if dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF).(2) However the study was stopped early because of safety reasons, as a significant number of patients on the dronedarone arm reached the co-primary end point composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or cardiovascular death. Data sub-analyses suggested that digoxin-dronedarone interaction was responsible for the higher arrhythmic death rate observed in the trial. These observations are consistent with several other studies that demonstrate the potential hazard of the use of digoxin in heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation. A more recent article published in the Lancet studied the use and outcomes of digoxin in the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial.(3) The investigators concluded that digoxin treatment was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality, vascular death, and sudden death in patients with AF.

  14. Seroprevalence and genomic divergence of circulating strains of feline immunodeficiency virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae species.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2005-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today.

  15. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom.

  16. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species.

  17. Cloning of cDNAs and molecular characterisation of C-type lectin-like proteins from snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian; Chen, Tianbao; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2012-12-15

    C-type lectin-like proteins (CTLPs) isolated from snake venoms are the largest and most complex non-mammalian vertebrate C-type lectin-like domain family. In the present study, we simultaneously amplified four cDNAs encoding different types of CTLP subunits from the venoms of two different species of snakes by RT-PCR with a single sense primer and a nested universal primer - two CTLP subunit-encoding cDNAs were cloned from Deinagkistrodon acutus venom and two from Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom. All four cloned CTLP subunits exhibited typical motifs in their corresponding domain regions but with relatively-low sequence similarities to each other. Compared with previously-published CTLPs, the four cloned CTLPs subunits showed slight variations in the calcium-binding sites and the disulphide bonding patterns. To our knowledge, these data constitute the first example of co-expression of CTLP platelet glycoprotein Ib-binding subunits and coagulation factors in Agkistrodon halys Pallas venom. PMID:23010162

  18. Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin d metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos.

    PubMed

    Crissey, Susan D; Ange, Kimberly D; Jacobsen, Krista L; Slifka, Kerri A; Bowen, Phyllis E; Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, Maria; Langman, Craig B; Sadler, William; Kahn, Stephen; Ward, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Serum concentrations of several nutrients were measured in 12 captive wild felid species including caracal (Felis caracal), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), cougar (Felis concolor), fishing cat (Felis viverrinus), leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo), ocelot (Felis pardalis), pallas cat (Felis manul), sand cat (Felis margarita), serval (Felis serval), snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and tiger (Panthera tigris). Diet information was collected for these animals from each participating zoo (Brookfield Zoo, Fort Worth Zoo, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens and North Carolina Zoological Park). The nutritional composition of the diets at each institution met the probable dietary requirements for each species except for the pallas cat. Blood samples were collected from each animal (n = 69) and analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol), vitamin D metabolites [25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)(2)D)], vitamin A (retinol, retinyl stearate and retinyl palmitate), vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and selected carotenoids. Species differences were found for all except triacylglycerides and 1,25(OH)(2)D. Genus differences were found for retinol, retinyl palmitate, retinyl stearate, gamma-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Circulating nutrient concentrations for many of the species in this study have not been reported previously and most have not been compared with the animals' dietary intakes. The large number of animals analyzed provides a substantial base for comparing the serum nutrient concentrations of healthy animals, for both wild and captive exotic species. PMID:12514284

  19. Seroprevalence and Genomic Divergence of Circulating Strains of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus among Felidae and Hyaenidae Species†

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Jennifer L.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; Johnson, Warren; VandeWoude, Sue; Vazquez-Salat, Nuria; Brown, Meredith; Frank, Laurence; Woodroffe, Rosie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Bush, Mitch; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Revilla, Eloy; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects numerous wild and domestic feline species and is closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Species-specific strains of FIV have been described for domestic cat (Felis catus), puma (Puma concolor), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus), and Pallas' cat (Otocolobus manul). Here, we employ a three-antigen Western blot screening (domestic cat, puma, and lion FIV antigens) and PCR analysis to survey worldwide prevalence, distribution, and genomic differentiation of FIV based on 3,055 specimens from 35 Felidae and 3 Hyaenidae species. Although FIV infects a wide variety of host species, it is confirmed to be endemic in free-ranging populations of nine Felidae and one Hyaenidae species. These include the large African carnivores (lion, leopard, cheetah, and spotted hyena), where FIV is widely distributed in multiple populations; most of the South American felids (puma, jaguar, ocelot, margay, Geoffroy's cat, and tigrina), which maintain a lower FIV-positive level throughout their range; and two Asian species, the Pallas' cat, which has a species-specific strain of FIV, and the leopard cat, which has a domestic cat FIV strain in one population. Phylogenetic analysis of FIV proviral sequence demonstrates that most species for which FIV is endemic harbor monophyletic, genetically distinct species-specific FIV strains, suggesting that FIV transfer between cat species has occurred in the past but is quite infrequent today. PMID:15956574

  20. Water quality analysis of River Yamuna using water quality index in the national capital territory, India (2000-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepshikha; Kansal, Arun

    2011-12-01

    River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), commonly called Delhi (India), has been subjected to immense degradation and pollution due to the huge amount of domestic wastewater entering the river. Despite the persistent efforts in the form of the Yamuna Action Plan phase I and II (YAP) (since 1993 to date), the river quality in NCT has not improved. The restoration of river water quality has been a major challenge to the environmental managers. In the present paper, water quality index (WQI) was estimated for the River Yamuna within the NCT to study the aftereffects of the projects implemented during YAP I and II. The study was directed toward the use of WQI to describe the level of pollution in the river for a period of 10 years (2000-2009). The study also identifies the critical pollutants affecting the river water quality during its course through the city. The indices have been computed for pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon season at four locations, namely Palla, ODRB, Nizamuddin and Okhla in the river. It was found that the water quality ranged from good to marginal category at Palla and fell under poor category at all other locations. BOD, DO, total and fecal coliforms and free ammonia were found to be critical parameters for the stretch.

  1. Intestinal Nematodes from Small Mammals Captured near the Demilitarized Zone, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deok-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Lip; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Lim, Hyemi; Lee, Mi Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK. PMID:25748722

  2. Systematic revision of the family Hoplitomerycidae Leinders, 1984 (Artiodactyla: Cervoidea), with the description of a new genus and four new species.

    PubMed

    Van der Geer, Alexandra A E

    2014-08-06

    Six species of the cervoid genus Hoplitomeryx are currently recognized from the Late Miocene sites of Gargano and Scontrone, in Italy: H. matthei Leinders, 1984, H. apruthiensis Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, H. apulicus Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, H. falcidens Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, H. magnus Mazza & Rustioni, 2011, and H. minutus Mazza & Rustioni, 2011. These species are interpreted as members of an anagenetic series in these two localities, which are considered as part of the same bioprovince but with different geological ages. Comparative analysis of postcranial, dental, and cranial material from Hoplitomerycidae resulted in the reinterpretation of this current taxonomic arrangement. Two distinct genera can be distinguished. The new genus Scontromeryx is restricted to Scontrone (Early Tortonian) and is characterised by the presence of second upper and lower premolars and the absence of a nasal (median) horn. Hoplitomeryx is restricted to Gargano (Middle and/or Late Tortonian), and is characterized by the loss of the second premolar and presence of a nasal horn. Both genera are characterized by orbital appendages in some species, but the morphology of these appendages differs between the genera. Six species can be recognized for Scontromeryx gen. n.: S. minutus (type species), S. falcidens, S. apulicus, S. apruthiensis, S. magnus (new combinations) and the newly described S. mazzai sp. n.. Hoplitomeryx is represented by the H. matthei (type species) and 3 newly described species H. devosi sp. n., H. macpheei sp. n. and H. kriegsmani sp. n.. These two multispecies assemblages are best explained as independent adaptive radiations with the two genera as sister taxa. There is no evidence that the two localities were connected during the Late Miocene.

  3. Bioprospecting of microalgae: Proper extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric fingerprinting as key tools for successful metabolom characterization.

    PubMed

    Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Kastanek, Petr; Dzuman, Zbynek; Rubert, Josep; Godula, Michal; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-03-15

    Currently, the interest in microalgae as a source of biologically active components exploitable as supplementary ingredients to food/feed or in cosmetics continues to increase. Existing research mainly aims to focus on revealing and recovering the rare, cost competitive components of the algae metabolom. Because these components could be of very different physicochemical character, a universal approach for their isolation and characterization should be developed. This study demonstrates the systematic development of the extraction strategy that represents one of the key challenges in effective algae bioprospecting, which predefines their further industrial application. By using of Trachydiscus minutus as a model microalgae biomass, following procedures were tested and critically evaluated in order to develop the generic procedure for microalgae bioprospecting: (i) various ways of mechanical disintegration of algae cells enabling maximum extraction efficiency, (ii) the use of a wide range of extraction solvents/solvent mixtures suitable for optimal extraction yields of polar, medium-polar, and non-polar compounds, (iii) the use of consecutive extractions as a fractionation approach. Within the study, targeted screening of selected compounds representing broad range of polarities was realized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), to assess the effectiveness of undertaken isolation steps. As a result, simple and high-throughput extraction-fractionation strategy based on consecutive extraction with water-aqueous methanol-hexane/isopropanol was developed. Moreover, to demonstrate the potential of the UHPLC-HRMS/MS for the retrospective non-target screening and compounds identification, the collected mass spectra have been evaluated to characterize the pattern of extracted metabolites. Attention was focused on medium-/non-polar extracts and characterization of lipid species

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Eustigmatophyceae (Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) is a small algal group with species of the genus Nannochloropsis being its best studied representatives. Nuclear and organellar genomes have been recently sequenced for several Nannochloropsis spp., but phylogenetically wider genomic studies are missing for eustigmatophytes. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species representing most major eustigmatophyte lineages, Monodopsis sp. MarTras21, Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202 and Trachydiscus minutus, and carried out their comparative analysis in the context of available data from Nannochloropsis and other stramenopiles, revealing a number of noticeable findings. First, mitogenomes of most eustigmatophytes are highly collinear and similar in the gene content, but extensive rearrangements and loss of three otherwise ubiquitous genes happened in the Vischeria lineage; this correlates with an accelerated evolution of mitochondrial gene sequences in this lineage. Second, eustigmatophytes appear to be the only ochrophyte group with the Atp1 protein encoded by the mitogenome. Third, eustigmatophyte mitogenomes uniquely share a truncated nad11 gene encoding only the C-terminal part of the Nad11 protein, while the N-terminal part is encoded by a separate gene in the nuclear genome. Fourth, UGA as a termination codon and the cognate release factor mRF2 were lost from mitochondria independently by the Nannochloropsis and T. minutus lineages. Finally, the rps3 gene in the mitogenome of Vischeria sp. is interrupted by the UAG codon, but the genome includes a gene for an unusual tRNA with an extended anticodon loop that we speculate may serve as a suppressor tRNA to properly decode the rps3 gene. PMID:26872774

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Eustigmatophyte Algae.

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Strnad, Hynek; Hroudová, Miluše; Vlček, Čestmír; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-03-01

    Eustigmatophyceae (Ochrophyta, Stramenopiles) is a small algal group with species of the genus Nannochloropsis being its best studied representatives. Nuclear and organellar genomes have been recently sequenced for several Nannochloropsis spp., but phylogenetically wider genomic studies are missing for eustigmatophytes. We sequenced mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species representing most major eustigmatophyte lineages, Monodopsis sp. MarTras21, Vischeria sp. CAUP Q 202 and Trachydiscus minutus, and carried out their comparative analysis in the context of available data from Nannochloropsis and other stramenopiles, revealing a number of noticeable findings. First, mitogenomes of most eustigmatophytes are highly collinear and similar in the gene content, but extensive rearrangements and loss of three otherwise ubiquitous genes happened in the Vischeria lineage; this correlates with an accelerated evolution of mitochondrial gene sequences in this lineage. Second, eustigmatophytes appear to be the only ochrophyte group with the Atp1 protein encoded by the mitogenome. Third, eustigmatophyte mitogenomes uniquely share a truncated nad11 gene encoding only the C-terminal part of the Nad11 protein, while the N-terminal part is encoded by a separate gene in the nuclear genome. Fourth, UGA as a termination codon and the cognate release factor mRF2 were lost from mitochondria independently by the Nannochloropsis and T. minutus lineages. Finally, the rps3 gene in the mitogenome of Vischeria sp. is interrupted by the UAG codon, but the genome includes a gene for an unusual tRNA with an extended anticodon loop that we speculate may serve as a suppressor tRNA to properly decode the rps3 gene. PMID:26872774

  6. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  7. Multiple colonizations lead to cryptic biodiversity in an island ecosystem: comparative phylogeography of anchialine shrimp species in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Weese, David A; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Santos, Scott R

    2013-09-01

    Archipelagos of the Indo-West Pacific are considered to be among the richest in the world in biodiversity, and phylogeographic studies generally support either the center of origin or the center of accumulation hypothesis to explain this pattern. To differentiate between these competing hypotheses for organisms from the Indo-West Pacific anchialine ecosystem, defined as coastal bodies of mixohaline water fluctuating with the tides but having no direct oceanic connections, we investigated the genetic variation, population structure, and evolutionary history of three caridean shrimp species (Antecaridina lauensis, Halocaridinides trigonophthalma, and Metabetaeus minutus) in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. We used two mitochondrial genes--cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and large ribosomal subunit (16S-rDNA)--complemented with genetic examination of available specimens from the same or closely related species from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In the Ryukyus, each species encompassed 2-3 divergent (9.52%-19.2% COI p-distance) lineages, each having significant population structure and varying geographic distributions. Phylogenetically, the A. lauensis and M. minutus lineages in the Ryukyus were more closely related to ones from outside the archipelago than to one another. These results, when interpreted in the context of Pacific oceanographic currents and geologic history of the Ryukyus, imply multiple colonizations of the archipelago by the three species, consistent with the center of accumulation hypothesis. While this study contributes toward understanding the biodiversity, ecology, and evolution of organisms in the Ryukyus and the Indo-West Pacific, it also has potential utility in establishing conservation strategies for anchialine fauna of the Pacific Basin in general. PMID:24088794

  8. Serosurveillance of Scrub Typhus in Small Mammals Collected from Military Training Sites near the DMZ, Northern Gyeonggi-do, Korea, and Analysis of the Relative Abundance of Chiggers from Mammals Examined

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heung Chul; Chong, Sung Tae; Richards, Allen L.; Gu, Se Hun; Song, Jin-Won; Lee, John S.; Klein, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive quarterly serosurveillance on scrub typhus in small mammals collected from military training sites located near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), northern Gyeonggi-do (Province), ROK was conducted to determine the potential rodent-borne and associated ectoparasite disease risks to military personnel. A total of 1,196 rodents and insectivores representing 8 species, Apodemus agrarius (87.3%, n = 1,044), Mus musculus (5.4%, n = 65), Crocidura lasiura (3.3%, n = 40), Microtus fortis (2.6%, n = 31), Micromys minutus (0.3%, n = 4), Tscherskia triton (0.3%, n = 4), Rattus norvegicus (0.3%, n = 4), and Myodes regulus (0.3%, n = 4) were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi. O. tsutsugamushi antibodies were detected in 6 of 8 species and seroprevalence determined; A. agrarius (45.6%), M. musculus (23.1%), M. fortis (48.4%), M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (50.0%), and R. norvegicus (25.0%). A total of 31,184 chigger mites collected from 508 rodents and insectivores were slide-mounted and 10 species belonging to 4 genera were identified. Leptotrombidium pallidum (53.4%) was the most frequently collected, followed by L. palpale (15.7%), Neotrombicula tamiyai (14.3%), L. orientale (10.7%), L. zetum (3.1%), Walchia fragilis (2.1%), and L. gemiticulum (0.8%), while the remaining 3 species, L. subintermedium, N. gardellai, and Euschoengastia koreaensis were rarely observed (prevalence < 10%). In contrast to previous surveys, higher chigger indices of the primary scrub typhus vectors, L. pallidum (165.4), L. orientale (45.0), and L. palpale (21.4), were observed during the spring season. PMID:20877503

  9. Intestinal nematodes from small mammals captured near the demilitarized zone, Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Gyu; Park, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Lip; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Jeon, Sarah Jiyoun; Lim, Hyemi; Lee, Mi Youn; Shin, Eun-Hee; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Song, Jin-Won; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2015-02-01

    A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.

  10. Bioprospecting of microalgae: Proper extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric fingerprinting as key tools for successful metabolom characterization.

    PubMed

    Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Kastanek, Petr; Dzuman, Zbynek; Rubert, Josep; Godula, Michal; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-03-15

    Currently, the interest in microalgae as a source of biologically active components exploitable as supplementary ingredients to food/feed or in cosmetics continues to increase. Existing research mainly aims to focus on revealing and recovering the rare, cost competitive components of the algae metabolom. Because these components could be of very different physicochemical character, a universal approach for their isolation and characterization should be developed. This study demonstrates the systematic development of the extraction strategy that represents one of the key challenges in effective algae bioprospecting, which predefines their further industrial application. By using of Trachydiscus minutus as a model microalgae biomass, following procedures were tested and critically evaluated in order to develop the generic procedure for microalgae bioprospecting: (i) various ways of mechanical disintegration of algae cells enabling maximum extraction efficiency, (ii) the use of a wide range of extraction solvents/solvent mixtures suitable for optimal extraction yields of polar, medium-polar, and non-polar compounds, (iii) the use of consecutive extractions as a fractionation approach. Within the study, targeted screening of selected compounds representing broad range of polarities was realized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), to assess the effectiveness of undertaken isolation steps. As a result, simple and high-throughput extraction-fractionation strategy based on consecutive extraction with water-aqueous methanol-hexane/isopropanol was developed. Moreover, to demonstrate the potential of the UHPLC-HRMS/MS for the retrospective non-target screening and compounds identification, the collected mass spectra have been evaluated to characterize the pattern of extracted metabolites. Attention was focused on medium-/non-polar extracts and characterization of lipid species

  11. Helminth communities of herons (Aves: Ardeidae) in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Di Prisco, Francesca; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Galiero, Giorgio; Cerrone, Anna; Barca, Lorella; Kinsella, John M; Aznar, Francisco J

    2016-08-01

    The helminth communities of nine species of herons from southern Italy were studied and compared. Of 24 taxa found including seven digeneans, seven nematodes, six cestodes and four acanthocephalans, only five taxa were found in more than one heron species, and five of the 21 taxa that could be identified to species level were classified as 'heron specialists'. The total number of helminth species per heron species ranged from 1 in Botaurus stellaris to 9 in Ixobrychus minutus with infection levels generally low. A statistical comparison was carried out for herons with a sample size >5. At the infracommunity level, only I. minutus clearly differed from other heron species. Diversity parameters of heminth infracommunities did not significantly differ among heron species. Species richness ranged from just 0.3 to 2.3 helminth taxa per individual host, and the Brillouin index, from 0 to 0.3. Total helminth abundance did not exceed 40 worms per host except in a single case of Ardeola ralloides. Infracommunities clearly were dominated by single helminth species. The present study confirms a depauperate helminth community in herons from southern Italy. Comparison with data from Spain and the Czech Republic showed strong quantitative similarities with values obtained in the present study. Results also suggest that the composition of local helminth communities are strongly variable depending on geographical location as is demonstrated by comparison with data from other European areas. However, whether herons in Europe naturally host depauperate helminth communities or these communities are depauperate because of other factors is unknown. PMID:27091547

  12. You eat what you are: personality-dependent filial cannibalism in a fish with paternal care.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Martin; Grom, Christina; Kalb, Nadine; Sprenger, Dennis; Anthes, Nils; Lindström, Kai; Heubel, Katja U

    2016-03-01

    Many animal parents invest heavily to ensure offspring survival, yet some eventually consume some or all of their very own young. This so-called filial cannibalism is known from a wide range of taxa, but its adaptive benefit remains largely unclear. The extent to which parents cannibalize their broods varies substantially not only between species, but also between individuals, indicating that intrinsic behavioral differences, or animal personalities, might constitute a relevant proximate trigger for filial cannibalism. Using a marine fish with extensive paternal care, the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), we investigated the influence of animal personality on filial cannibalism by assessing (1) behavioral consistency across a breeding and a nonbreeding context; (2) correlations between different breeding (egg fanning; filial cannibalism) and nonbreeding (activity) behaviors, and, in a separate experiment; (3) whether previously established personality scores affect filial cannibalism levels. We found consistent individual differences in activity across contexts. Partial filial cannibalism was independent of egg fanning but correlated strongly with activity, where active males cannibalized more eggs than less active males. This pattern was strong initially but vanished as the breeding season progressed. The incidence of whole clutch filial cannibalism increased with activity and clutch size. Our findings indicate that filial cannibalism cannot generally be adjusted independently of male personality and is thus phenotypically less plastic than typically assumed. The present work stresses the multidimensional interaction between animal personality, individual plasticity and the environment in shaping filial cannibalism. PMID:27087921

  13. Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Peter

    1998-06-01

    The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

  14. Effects of current exposure on habitat preference of mobile 0-group epibenthos for intertidal seagrass beds ( Zostera noltii) in the northern Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polte, Patrick; Schanz, Anja; Asmus, Harald

    2005-03-01

    In the northern Wadden Sea, the extent of intertidal seagrass beds, their plant biomass and shoot density highly depends on local current regimes. This study deals with the role of intertidal Zostera noltii beds as nursery for mobile epibenthic macrofauna and the impact of seagrass bed characteristics on their abundance and distribution patterns. According to their exposure to the main tidal gullies, sampling sites were separated into exposed, semi-exposed and sheltered. Dominant species of crustaceans and demersal fish were studied in respect of their abundances within seagrass beds and adjacent unvegetated areas. Quantitative sampling was performed at day and night high tide using a portable drop trap. In general, species composition varied little between seagrass beds and bare sand. However, the presence of vegetation had a quantitative effect increasing individual numbers of common epifaunal species. Abundances of 0-group shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas), common gobies ( Pomatoschistus microps) and brown shrimps ( Crangon crangon) were highest within sheltered seagrass beds. With decreasing plant density habitat preference of epibenthos changed on species level. By regulating the habitat complexity the currents regime is profoundly influencing the nursery function of intertidal seagrass beds in the Wadden Sea.

  15. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  16. Tidal, diel and semi-lunar changes in the faunal assemblage of an intertidal salt marsh creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Henrietta; Cattrijsse, Andre; Vincx, Magda

    2003-03-01

    The utilisation of a brackish estuarine marsh by nekton was investigated over a semi-lunar cycle in August 1994. Nekton migrating in and out of the intertidal creeks of the marsh 'Het Verdronken Land van Saeftinghe' in the Westerschelde estuary, SW Netherlands, was sampled passively during seven complete tidal cycles. Sampling one tidal cycle yielded three consecutive flood samples and four consecutive ebb samples. Sampling occurred every 2-3 days, covering diel, tidal and semi-lunar situations, thus allowing comparison of tidal, diel and semi-lunar influences on the composition of the intertidal fauna. Two different tidal-migration modes were observed. The mysid shrimp, Mesopodopsis slabberi, showed maximum abundance around high tide. For the remaining common species, the mysid ( Neomysis integer), the shrimp ( Palaemonetes varians), the crab ( Carcinus maenas) and the goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) and the amphipod ( Corophium volutator), highest densities were recorded during lower water heights. The faunal assemblage shifts between the different tidal stages. On two occasions, consecutive day and night samples were taken. Total densities were higher during the night samples. During spring tide, difference in community composition was noticed between the night and the day samples. During neap tide, day-night differences were less clear. Recorded total densities were highest during spring tide and lowest during neap tide. At maximum water levels, a drop in total density was observed. A shift in community composition occurred between spring and neap tides.

  17. Fish community structure and distribution in a macro-tidal inshore habitat in the Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Boris; Longmore, Craig; O'Leary, Áine; Mariani, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    Estuaries, lagoons and mudflat habitats represent a crucial biodiversity component in coastal waters and may act as vital nurseries and shelters for the juvenile stages of many commercial fish species. A study of the spatial distribution of inshore fish fauna around the shallow coastal habitats of North Bull Island (Dublin Bay, Ireland) was carried out during summer and autumn of 2005, in order to characterise the fish community present therein. Four stations were examined, situated along a putative environmental gradient, between the mudflat and the open sea shore. Stations were surveyed at both high and low tide and sampling was repeated weekly for eight weeks, spanning over four spring and four neap tidal events. A total of 17 fish species were caught, belonging to 13 families. The community was largely dominated by the lesser sandeel ( Ammodytes tobianus) and the common goby ( Pomatoschistus microps). Ordination techniques were used to generate hypotheses as to the general patterns in the fish community; Shannon-Wiener index was employed to estimate spatial, temporal and tidal trends in diversity; and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to test for the influence of time of the year, habitat, tidal phase and tidal state on the spatial distribution of fishes. Results reveal that time of the year and habitat variation across the environmental gradient are the major factors in determining fish community structure. The influence of tidal dynamics seem to have a lesser impact on the overall community, but can significantly and variably affect the distribution of individual species.

  18. Epibenthic colonization of concrete and steel pilings in a cold-temperate embayment: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Mathias H.; Berggren, Matz; Wilhelmsson, Dan; Öhman, Marcus C.

    2009-09-01

    With large-scale development of offshore wind farms, vertical structures are becoming more common in open water areas. To examine how vertical structures of different materials may be colonized by epibenthic organisms, an experiment was carried out using steel and concrete pilings constructed to resemble those commonly used in wind farm constructions as well as in bridges, jetties and oil platforms. The early recruitment and succession of the epibenthic communities were sampled once a month for the first 5 months and then again after 1 year. Further, the fish assemblages associated with the pillars were sampled and compared to natural areas. The main epibenthic species groups, in terms of coverage, differed between the two materials at five out of six sampling occasions. Dominant organisms on steel pillars were the barnacle Balanus improvisus, the calcareous tubeworm Pomatoceros triqueter and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. On the concrete pillars, the hydroid Laomedea sp. and the tunicates Corella parallelogramma and Ascidiella spp. dominated. However, there was no different in coverage at different heights on the pillars or in biomass and species abundance at different directions (north-east or south-west) 5 months after submergence. Fish showed overall higher abundances and species numbers on the pillars (but no difference between steel and concrete) compared to the surrounding soft bottom habitats but not compared to natural vertical rock walls. Two species were attracted to the pillars, indicating a reef effect; Gobiusculus flavescens and Ctenolabrus rupestris. The bottom-dwelling gobies, Pomatoschistus spp., did not show such preferences.

  19. Isotopes reveal fluctuation in trophic levels of estuarine organisms, in space and time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinagre, C.; Salgado, J. P.; Mendonça, V.; Cabral, H.; Costa, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The estimation of the trophic level (TL) occupied by organisms in estuarine food webs, based on isotopic analysis, is generally done only for one season or averaged among seasons and sites. This does not allow the observation of possible alterations of TL in time and space. As estuaries are highly dynamic environments, it is plausible that the TLs of many of its organisms are not static, like usually portrayed in food web diagrams, but fluctuate in space and time. The TLs of marine juvenile fish, resident fish, shrimp, polychaetes, bivalves and amphipods were determined isotopically, in the Tagus estuary. Sampling was carried out in two nursery areas at each season. Significant changes in TL were observed, in space and time, for the vast majority of the organisms. A drop in TL in summer was observed for various species. The high availability of microalgae and macroalgae in summer may be the cause for this drop, which mainly affects low TL omnivores. These omnivores may opportunistically increase the proportion of primary producers in their diet, thus lowering their mean TL. Such an effect seems to cascade to secondary consumers, like Solea senegalensis and Pomatoschistus microps, which also presented a drop in TL in summer. This study also revealed that organisms that have been considered to be mainly primary consumers, like Liza ramada, and Scrobicularia plana, can actually assume considerably higher TLs seasonally, placing them as secondary consumers.

  20. Seasonal changes in community composition and trophic structure of fish populations of five salt marshes along the Essex coastline, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Benjamin C.; Smith, David J.; Earley, Sarah E.; Hepburn, Leanne J.; Underwood, Graham J. C.

    2009-11-01

    European intertidal salt marshes are important nursery sites for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Due to the increasing threat of habitat loss, the seasonal changes of salt marsh fish communities need to be understood in order to appreciate the ecological and economic importance of the saltmarsh habitat. This study was the first in Great Britain to investigate the seasonal changes of salt marsh fish communities and the variation in community structure between closely located marsh habitats. Between February 2007 and March 2008, five marshes on three estuaries of the Essex coastline were sampled using flume nets to block off intertidal creeks at high tide. Fourteen fish species were caught. The community overall was dominated by three species that made up 91.6% of the total catch: the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (46.2% of the total catch), juvenile herring Clupea harengus (24.3%), and juvenile and larval sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (21.2%). Cluster analysis demonstrated clear seasonal patterns, with some community structures unique to specific marshes or estuaries. The marsh fish community shifts from a highly diverse community during spring, to a community dominated by D. labrax and P. microps in autumn, and low diversity during winter months. Gravimetric stomach content analysis of fish community identified three main trophic guilds; macroinvertivores, planktivores and omnivores. The macroinvertivore feeding guild contained D. labrax and P. microps, the two most frequently occurring species. This investigation demonstrates the importance of British salt marshes as nursery habitats for commercial fish species.

  1. Dual impact of temperature on growth and mortality of marine fish larvae in a shallow estuarine habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arula, Timo; Laur, Kerli; Simm, Mart; Ojaveer, Henn

    2015-12-01

    High individual growth and mortality rates of herring Clupea harengus membras and goby Pomatoschistus spp. larvae were observed in the estuarine habitat of the Gulf of Riga, Baltic Sea. Both instantaneous mortality (0.76-1.05) as well as growth rate (0.41-0.82 mm day-1) of larval herring were amongst highest observed elsewhere previously. Mortality rates of goby larvae were also high (0.57-1.05), while first ever data on growth rates were provided in this study (0.23-0.35 mm day-1). Our study also evidenced that higher growth rate of marine fish larvae did not result in lower mortalities. We suggest that high growth and mortality rates primarily resulted from a rapidly increasing and high (>18 °C) water temperature that masked potential food-web effects. The explanation for observed patterns lies in the interactive manner temperature contributed: i) facilitating prey production, which supported high growth rate and decreased mortalities; ii) exceeding physiological thermal optimum of larvae, which resulted in decreased growth rate and generally high mortalities. Our investigation suggests that the projected climate warming may have significant effect on early life history stages of the dominating marine fish species inhabiting shallow estuaries.

  2. Modeling fish biological responses to contaminants and natural variability in estuaries.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, V F; Vasconcelos, R P; França, S; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Company, R; Bebianno, M J; Costa, M J; Cabral, H N

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that influence biological responses to contaminants has long been a major goal in marine environmental research. Seven estuarine sites along the Portuguese coast were sampled over a year, and different biological responses of Pomatoschistus microps and Atherina presbyter were determined: superoxide dismutase, catalase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, metallothioneins, lipid peroxidation, RNA:DNA ratio and condition factor K. Generalized linear models (GLM) were developed for each biological variable per species in relation to sediment chemical characterization (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentration) and environmental conditions (month, site, water temperature, salinity, depth and mud percentage in the sediment). GLM varied in explanatory power and in the set of predictor variables included in the models. Environmental factors were frequently selected as predictor variables. Individual metals concentration and sediment quality guidelines (integrating all metals) were the major contaminants explaining biological variability. Accordingly, models for metallothioneins and lipid peroxidation had highest explanatory power. Species-specific responses and dataset size were the basis of observed differences between GLM for the two species.

  3. Toxic effects of decomposing red algae on littoral organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, Britta; Svensson, Andreas P.; Jonsson, Conny; Malm, Torleif

    2005-03-01

    Large masses of filamentous red algae of the genera Polysiphonia, Rhodomela, and Ceramium are regularly washed up on beaches of the central Baltic Sea. As the algal masses start to decay, red coloured effluents leak into the water, and this tinge may be traced several hundred meters off shore. In this study, possible toxic effects of these effluents were tested on littoral organisms from different trophic levels. Effects on fertilisation, germination and juvenile survival of the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus were investigated, and mortality tests were performed on the crustaceans Artemia salina and Idotea baltica, as well as on larvae and adults of the fish Pomatoschistus microps. Fucus vesiculosus was the most sensitive species of the tested organisms to the red algal extract. The survival of F. vesiculosus recruits was reduced with 50% (LC50) when exposed to a concentration corresponding to 1.7 g l -1 dw red algae. The lethal concentration for I. baltica, A. salina and P. microps were approximately ten times higher. The toxicity to A. salina was reduced if the algal extract was left to decompose during two weeks but the decline in toxicity was not affected by different light or temperature conditions. This study indicates that the filamentous red algae in the central Baltic Sea may produce and release compounds with negative effects on the littoral ecosystem. The effects may be particularly serious for the key species F. vesiculosus, which reproduce in autumn when filamentous red algal blooms are most severe.

  4. Use of different intertidal habitats by faunal communities in a temperate coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Cheila; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Marco; Bentes, Luís; Monteiro, Pedro; Ribeiro, Joaquim; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2008-11-01

    The faunal communities of four intertidal habitats namely sand, mud, seagrass ( Zostera noltii) and seagrass patches (mixSM) of a temperate coastal lagoon, Ria Formosa (southern Portugal), were sampled. A total of 47 species were taken in 428 bottomless drop sampler samples, with the highest number of species and the more commonly occurring species belonging to the Mollusca phylum. The dominance of these gastropod species underlines the importance of the grazing food chain in these habitats. Bittium reticulatum was the most abundant species, being especially abundant in the seagrass habitat. The most frequent and highest biomass species in the community was Carcinus maenas, a predator that makes use of the available resources and that is adapted to the highly variable intertidal environment. Pomatoschistus microps was the most abundant fish species, with highest densities in the mud habitat, which demonstrates an ability to occupy a low depth area. The seagrass habitat had the highest diversity, abundance and biomass, followed by the mixSM habitat and was different from all the others. Assemblages were highly influenced by the presence of vegetation, providing forage and refuge from predation. A well defined summer group was identified in all habitats. These results highlight the importance of seagrass beds and the idea that their decrease implies the decrease of lagoon production through the impoverishment of the trophic structure of the lagoon.

  5. Changes in benthic fish assemblages as a consequence of coastal works in a coastal lagoon: The Mar Menor (Spain, Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ruzafa, A; García-Charton, J A; Barcala, E; Marcos, C

    2006-01-01

    The benthic fish assemblage of the Mar Menor consisted of 37 species. Dominant species are: Gobius cobitis, Lipophrys pavo and Tripterygion tripteronotus on infralittoral rocks; Pomatoschistus marmoratus, Callionymus pussillus, Callionymus risso and Solea vulgaris on sandy bottoms and Gobius niger, Syngnathus abaster, Hippocampus ramulosus and Symphodus cinereus on Cymodocea nodosa-Caulerpa prolifera mixed beds. From 1985 to 1989 tourist development has led to the creation of new beaches and the installation of artificial rocky structures for retaining sediments. Dredging for the extraction of sand and subsequent pumping altered sediment characteristics causing a real stress leading to the substitution of typical sandy bottoms communities with Cymodocea nodosa by Caulerpa prolifera communities on mud. Soft bottom fish assemblages responded to changes in vegetation cover and substratum characteristics mainly changing the species composition, while artificial hard substrata contain a similar fish community than natural ones, harbouring even richer and more diverse assemblages. This positive effect of breakwaters should not obscure their likely negative effects on hydrodynamics and the subsequent changes of sediment quality and vegetation cover on the breakwaters' area of influence.

  6. Hormonal regulation of colour change in eyes of a cryptic fish.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Yngsell, Daniel; Mubashishir, Muhmd; Wallin, Margareta

    2015-01-16

    Colour change of the skin in lower vertebrates such as fish has been a subject of great scientific and public interest. However, colour change also takes place in eyes of fish and while an increasing amount of data indicates its importance in behaviour, very little is known about its regulation. Here, we report that both eye and skin coloration change in response to white to black background adaptation in live sand goby Pomatoschistus minutes, a bentic marine fish. Through in vitro experiments, we show that noradrenaline and melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCH) treatments cause aggregation of pigment organelles in the eye chromatophores. Daylight had no aggregating effect. Combining forskolin to elevate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) with MCH resulted in complete pigment dispersal and darkening of the eyes, whereas combining prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) with MCH resulted in more yellow and red eyes. ACTH and MSH also induced dispersal in the melanophores, resulting in overall darker eyes. By comparing analysis of eyes, skin and peritoneum, we conclude that the regulation pattern is similar between these different tissues in this species which is relevant for the cryptic life strategy of this species. With the exception of ACTH which resulted in most prominent melanophore pigment dispersal in the eyes, all other treatments provided similar results between tissue types. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has directly analysed hormonal regulation of physiological colour change in eyes of fish.

  7. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  8. [MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE LIVER IN COMMON VOLES INHABITING THE TERRITORY OF BORODINO COAL DEPOSITS AND RECULTIVATION AREAS].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, Ye A; Savchenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphological changes of liver in common voles (Microtus arvalis Pallas) inhabiting the territories of brown coal deposition in Borodino coal opencast (Krasnoyarsk region) and on reclaimed dumps 10 and 20 years after its production. Trapping of the voles (10 animals in each group) living under natural conditions on each territory, was conducted for 30 days. Histological examination of the liver in all animals demonstrated degenerative changes and necrosis of hepatocytes, expressed to a various degree. Morphometric study has shown that the greatest changes in the structure of hepatic stroma and parenchyma took place in voles that lived in the dumps of coal, reclaimed 10 years before. It was found that in the animals of this group, the thickness of hepatocyte plates was increased 1.3 times, while the specific volume of necrotic hepatocytes was twice as much as this parameter in the animals that lived on intact territory.

  9. The application of computer image analysis in life sciences and environmental engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, R.; Lewicki, A.; Przybył, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.; Raba, B.

    2014-04-01

    The main aim of the article was to present research on the application of computer image analysis in Life Science and Environmental Engineering. The authors used different methods of computer image analysis in developing of an innovative biotest in modern biomonitoring of water quality. Created tools were based on live organisms such as bioindicators Lemna minor L. and Hydra vulgaris Pallas as well as computer image analysis method in the assessment of negatives reactions during the exposition of the organisms to selected water toxicants. All of these methods belong to acute toxicity tests and are particularly essential in ecotoxicological assessment of water pollutants. Developed bioassays can be used not only in scientific research but are also applicable in environmental engineering and agriculture in the study of adverse effects on water quality of various compounds used in agriculture and industry.

  10. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  11. Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Tamura, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-04-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2-26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) with paeoniflorin-type skeleton and quercetin (16) showed potent inhibitory activity against a degranulation marker, β-hexosaminidase release with IC50 values of 40.34 and 25.05 μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship of these components was discussed.

  12. Monoterpene derivatives with anti-allergic activity from red peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; He, Yu-Min; Kazuma, Kohei; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from red peony root, the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas showed potent antiallergic effects, as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 16 monoterpene derivatives, including 3 new compounds, paeoniflorol (1), 4'-hydroxypaeoniflorigenone (2) and 4-epi-albiflorin (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated monoterpene derivatives, nine compounds showed potent anti-allergic effects and compound 1 was the most effective. A primary structure-activity relationship of monoterpene derivatives was discussed.

  13. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai. PMID:27029141

  14. [Study on preferred food of adult Mylabris phalerata in different geographical populations].

    PubMed

    Mo, Rang-yu; Sun, Nian-xi; Peng, Rui

    2014-11-01

    With the deterioration of environment, and the excessive collection of wild resources, the wild populations of Myla- bris phalerata Pallas are less and less, almost extincted in many traditional distribution areas. It is necessary to breed M. phalerata artificially for sustainable utilization. Food preference of adult M. phalerata is the key to its provenance screening and domestication in the artificial breeding. In this paper, the food preference of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata was studied. The results showed that the food preferences of adult M. phalerata in different geographical populations were different. The adult M. phalerata in Wuming preferred cucumber flowers, gourd flowers and melon flowers. The adult M. phalerata in Tianlin preferred cowpea flowers. And the adult M. phalerata in Guangzhou preferred cowpea flowers and gourd flowers. Gourd flowers were the most attractive food for the adult M. phalerata of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata. PMID:25850255

  15. From the History of telecommunications in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perciun, Nicolae

    1999-06-01

    The book concerns first telegraphic lines in Transilvania (Ardeal) , Tara Romaneasca (Muntenia) and Moldova till the unification of last 2. The telegraph during the years of reign of Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Cezar Librecht. The telegraph line of the first railway Bucuresti-Giurgiu. The introduction of Telephon. The Multiple Telephony by an important contribution by Professor Augustin Maior, later a rector of the Cluj-Napoca University. Carol Ioan Vidic and the first International Congress of Telegraphy and Telephony. The Telegraphs and Post Pallas. The first Multiple Telephone. The Museum of Post, Telegraphy and Telephony. Dimitrie Bratescu. The book is illustrated. Bibliography at the finish of every article. The article concerning the contribution to multiple telephony by Augustin Maior include also the publications by A. Maior. A number of publication by Maior in the area of Gravity is included also.

  16. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  17. Effects of biorational pesticides on four coccinellid species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) having potential as biological control agents in interiorscapes.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Krischik, V A

    2000-06-01

    The direct toxicity of insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, Azatin, an extract from the Neem tree containing azadiractin, and BotainiGard, a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, was assessed on adults of four species of coccinellids--Hippodamia convergens (Guérin-Ménéville), Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant. All biorationals caused less mortality than a conventional pesticide, carbaryl (Sevin). Horticultural oil (Sunspray ultrafine oil) consistently had no effect on beetle survivorship. Insecticidal soap (M-Pede) significantly reduced survival in all replicates for C. maculata and in at least one of the three replicates for the other three coccinellid species. Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard) significantly reduced survival of C. montrouzieri at 72 h after spray in all three replicates. Azatin reduced survivorship in only one species, C. maculata, in only one of the three replicates. PMID:10902323

  18. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  19. [The functioning of a drained natural focus of leptospirosis in a nonchernozem area].

    PubMed

    Chekhovich, A V; Chernukha, Iu G; Evdokimova, O A; Reĭchuk, E A; Anan'ina, Iu V

    1988-09-01

    The drainage of a natural focus of leptospirosis of the flood plain-swamp type, carried out over the period of 15 years, has led to changes in the species structure of small mammals and to an increase in the number of Leptospira-carrying species. Nevertheless, like before drainage, the prevalent species and the main carrier of leptospires is still the root vole (Microtus oeconomus Pallas). The intensity of the epizootic process among small mammals at the final stage of drainage has proved to be similar to that at the initial stage. At the same time the cultivated fields created on the drained territory of the natural focus abound, by the time of harvesting, with small mammals among whom the intensive epizootic process takes place.

  20. Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda: Spathebothridea) in its intermediate host Echinogammarus stammeri (Amphipoda) from the River Brenta, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dezfuli, B S; Scholz, T

    1995-04-01

    A study was carried out on the occurrence of the tapeworm Cyathocephalus truncatus (Pallas, 1781) (Cestoda: Spathebothridea) in its intermediate host, the amphipod Echinogammarus stammeri, in the River Brenta. A total of 18,860 E. stammeri was examined from July 1990 to June 1994; only 25 of them (prevalence 0.13%) were infected with tapeworm larvae (intensity of infection 1 larva/host). Co-occurrence of C. truncatus larvae with the larva of the acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis (Müller, 1776) was recorded in 15 amphipods. Tapeworms were localized in the anterior portion of each amphipod's hemocoel, in intimate contact with E. stammeri internal organs such as the alimentary canal, and frequently induced its displacement. No differences in integumental pigmentation were noticed between infected and non-infected amphipods, and some infected E. stammeri females were ovigerous.

  1. [Reduction of plant fibers in the digestive tract of two pika species (Ochotona pallasi and O. dauurica, Lagomorpha, Ochotonidae)].

    PubMed

    Naumova, E I; Zharova, G K; Chistova, T Yu; Varshavskii, A A; Formozov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of fibers of different sizes in the gastrointestinal tract in two species of pikas--Pallas' pika Ochotonapallasi and daurian pika O. dauurica--was studied. It was established that fibers of small-sized fractions dominated in all organs of the digestive tract of both pika species, the proportion of which in the stomach proved to be even higher than in fine-grinding voles. No distinct changes in the composition of the size fractions of fibers from organ to organ were observed in the studied individuals of both species, which may be due to frequent consumption of finely dispersed cecotrophs by pikas, which enrich the primary chewed food with small fibers. PMID:26021158

  2. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  3. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, Matthew; BLAST Collaboration

    2007-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100-hour flight from northern Sweden in June 2005 (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W 75N, Mrk 231, NGC 4565, and Arp 220 (this last source being our primary calibrator). The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. BLAST was particularly useful for constraining the slope of the submillimeter continuum.

  4. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    PubMed

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  5. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

    PubMed Central

    Koch, R L

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator. PMID:15841248

  6. Use of hydra for chronic toxicity assessment of waters intended for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Arkhipchuk, Victor V; Blaise, Christian; Malinovskaya, Maria V

    2006-07-01

    Methods developed with the cnidarian, Hydra attenuata (Pallas), have proven effective for screening acute toxicity in aqueous samples, whereas their use in revealing (sub)chronic toxic effects have had mitigated success. We therefore sought to explore manifestations of hydra mortality and abnormal morphological changes, as well as the reproductive capacity of hydras to further enhance the bioassay sensitivity and to assess (sub)chronic toxicity. These parameters were recorded following the onset of experiments after 8, 12 and 19-21 days of hydra exposure. Results obtained with potable waters (30 brands of bottled waters and artesian waters from 9 wells) showed chronic sublethal and lethal effects or reproduction rate inhibition for most samples. The effectiveness of the hydra toxicity test was demonstrated in comparison with other widely used bioassays. Our previous and present investigations suggest that hydra is a reliable and relevant test organism for the assessment of acute and chronic water toxicity.

  7. [Early history of helminthology in the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    PubMed

    Galkin, A K; Pugachev, O N

    2001-01-01

    Zoological Institute RAS (up to 1930--Zoological Museum) dates back to 1728, when the first Russian museum, Kunstkammer, was opened under the authority of the newly organized Russian Academy of Sciences. Zoological collections of Kunstkammer were greatly enriched by a number of naturalists who worked in Russia since the middle of the 18-th century, P. S. Pallas (1741-1811) and I. T. Koelreuther (1733-1806) were among them. Both had made an essential progress into helminthology. In 1895, Zoological Museum legislatively acquired a statute of the central institution in Russia for zoological research. Investigations of parasitic worms here become permanent. First parasitologists in its staff, A. K. Mordvilko (1867-1938) and N. P. Annenkova-Khlopina (1887-1950), should be mentioned.

  8. [Seasonal changes in tumor necrosis factor production in hibernating animals in normal conditions and under the effects of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Ogaĭ, V B; Novoselova, E G; Makar, V R; Kolaeva, S G

    2002-01-01

    Production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been investigated in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T cells of Arctic Yakutian ground squirrel (Citellus Undulatus Pallas) upon in vitro action of electromagnetic and ionizing radiation during annual cycle. The significant activation of TNF production in the cells of awaken ground squirrels in winter and increasing level of the lymphokine production at spring-summer period has been indicated. The level of TNF production in splenic T cells was not changed during whole year. The electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of low intensity (8.15-18 GHz, 1 microW/cm2) induced an augmentation of both secretory and proliferative activity in TNF-producing cells. Ionizing radiation suppressed T cell proliferation, but the doses 2 and 5 Gy resulted in a significant stimulation of TNF production in T cells and macrophages.

  9. Culiseta subochrea as a bioindicator of metal contamination in Shadegan International Wetland, Iran (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nasirian, Hassan; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Taghi Sadeghi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2014-01-01

    The quantity of some trace metals of mosquito larvae in Shadegan International Wetland from Iran was evaluated. Water, waterbed sediment, and mosquito larvae samplings were carried out from an urban site in the east of the wetland, using standard methods in December 2011. The identified Culiseta subochrea (Edwards) and Aedes caspius s.l. (Pallas) larvae, water, and waterbed sediment samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, and Zn trace metals using standard preparation and isolation procedure. Result showed that the waterbed sediment and Cu. subochrea larvae are polluted with all trace metals investigated except As and Hg. The trace metals bioaccumulated in the Cu. subochrea larvae range from 31.78 at the lowest level for Cr to 3822.7 at the highest level for Cd. In a conclusion, this is the first report confirmed that Cu. subochrea likely used as a bioindicator to trace metal pollution in marine ecosystems in the world, especially wetlands.

  10. Observations of Hydrated Minerals on Asteroids: Pushing Back the Frontiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The three accomplishments during this grant include: 1) Travel to 2004 Division of Planetary Science (of American Astronomical Society) Conference in Louisville, KY and presentation of Rotationally resolved spectroscopy of Vesta in the 1-4 micron region, abstract 28.07. 2) Remote observations using the IRTF on 20-21 June 2004 and 28-3 1 August 2004, and reduction of data as described in the grant proposal and descoping document. These observations confirm the presence of two different band shapes among C-class asteroid spectra in the 3-micron region. This allowed a revision of the known distribution of Ceres- and Pallas-type objects. 3) Remote observations using the IRTF on 7-10 August 2004. These observations of Vesta were presented, and the manuscript will be submitted to Icarus in June.

  11. An acidic polysaccharide with immunological activities from the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, M; Matsumoto, K; Shimizu, N; Gonda, R; Ohara, N; Hirabayashi, K

    1994-09-01

    An acidic polysaccharide, called peonan PA, was isolated from the root of Paeonia lactiflora PALLAS. It was homogeneous on electrophoresis and gel chromatography, and its molecular mass was estimated to be 6.0 x 10(4). Peonan PA is composed of L-arabinose: D-galactose: D-galacturonic acid in the molar ratio of 2:1:10, in addition to small amounts of O-acetyl groups and peptide moieties. About forty percent of the hexuronic acid residues in peonan PA exist as methyl esters. Reduction of carboxyl groups, methylation analysis, lithium degradation and nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that its main structural features involve both alpha-1,5-linked L-arabino-beta-3,6-branched D-galactan type and alpha-1,4-linked D-galacturonan type structural units. The polysaccharide exhibited remarkable reticuloendothelial system-potentiating activity in a carbon clearance test and considerable anti-complementary activity. PMID:7841934

  12. [Metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in Lake Durusu (Terkos)].

    PubMed

    Karatoy, Emine; Soylu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, metazoan parasites of bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Durusu (Terkos) were investigated between June 2002 and May 2003. During this study, a total of 67 bream were examined for the presence of metazoan parasites. Ten species of parasites were found on 64 of the 67 fish examined. These parasites are: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878) and D. distinguendus (Nybelin, 1936) Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) Cestoidea, Tetracotyle sp, Diplostomum sp. and Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832) metacercaria Trematoda, Eustrongylides excisus (Jagerskiöld, 1909) Nematoda, Piscicola geometra (Linnaeus, 1758) Hirudinea, glochidia of mollusk, Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (L., 1758) Crustacea. Diplostomum sp., Dactylogyrus sphyrna and D. distinguendus were found to be the dominant parasites of A. brama. Both the prevalence and intensity of other parasites were not found to be high. All identified parasites are a new finding for A. brama in the Lake Durusu. This is the first time that D. distinguendus has been identified in Turkey.

  13. [MORPHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE LIVER IN COMMON VOLES INHABITING THE TERRITORY OF BORODINO COAL DEPOSITS AND RECULTIVATION AREAS].

    PubMed

    Shinkarenko, Ye A; Savchenko, A A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the morphological changes of liver in common voles (Microtus arvalis Pallas) inhabiting the territories of brown coal deposition in Borodino coal opencast (Krasnoyarsk region) and on reclaimed dumps 10 and 20 years after its production. Trapping of the voles (10 animals in each group) living under natural conditions on each territory, was conducted for 30 days. Histological examination of the liver in all animals demonstrated degenerative changes and necrosis of hepatocytes, expressed to a various degree. Morphometric study has shown that the greatest changes in the structure of hepatic stroma and parenchyma took place in voles that lived in the dumps of coal, reclaimed 10 years before. It was found that in the animals of this group, the thickness of hepatocyte plates was increased 1.3 times, while the specific volume of necrotic hepatocytes was twice as much as this parameter in the animals that lived on intact territory. PMID:26601468

  14. Monoterpene derivatives with anti-allergic activity from red peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; He, Yu-Min; Kazuma, Kohei; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from red peony root, the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas showed potent antiallergic effects, as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 16 monoterpene derivatives, including 3 new compounds, paeoniflorol (1), 4'-hydroxypaeoniflorigenone (2) and 4-epi-albiflorin (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated monoterpene derivatives, nine compounds showed potent anti-allergic effects and compound 1 was the most effective. A primary structure-activity relationship of monoterpene derivatives was discussed. PMID:26598138

  15. Paeonol suppresses chondrosarcoma metastasis through up-regulation of miR-141 by modulating PKCδ and c-Src signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Tan, Tzu-Wei; Yang, Wei-Hung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma, a primary malignant bone cancer, has potential for local invasion and distant metastasis, especially to the lungs. Patients diagnosed with it show poor prognosis. Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone), the main active compound of traditional Chinese remedy Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity; whether paeonol regulates metastatic chondrosarcoma is largely unknown. Here, we find paeonol do not increase apoptosis. By contrast, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, paeonol suppresses migration and invasion of chondrosarcoma cells. We also demonstrate paeonol enhancing miR-141 expression and miR-141 inhibitor reversing paeonol-inhibited cell motility; paeonol also reduces protein kinase C (PKC)d and c-Src kinase activity. Since paeonol inhibits migration and invasion of human chondrosarcoma via up-regulation of miR-141 via PKCd and c-Src pathways, it thus might be a novel anti-metastasis agent for treatment of metastatic chondrosarcoma. PMID:24992595

  16. Chemical constituents with anti-allergic activity from the root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Tamura, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Makoto; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-04-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from the dried root of Edulis Superba, a horticultural cultivar of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, showed potent anti-allergic effect as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 26 compounds, including a new norneolignan glycoside, paeonibenzofuran (1), together with 25 known ones (2-26). The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated compounds, mudanpioside E (5) with paeoniflorin-type skeleton and quercetin (16) showed potent inhibitory activity against a degranulation marker, β-hexosaminidase release with IC50 values of 40.34 and 25.05 μM, respectively. A primary structure-activity relationship of these components was discussed. PMID:26833191

  17. Orbital maneuver optimization using time-explicit power series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, James D.

    2011-05-01

    Orbital maneuver transfer time optimization is traditionally accomplished using direct numerical sampling to find the mission design with the lowest delta-v requirements. The availability of explicit time series solutions to the Lambert orbit determination problem allows for the total delta-v of a series of orbital maneuvers to be expressed as an algebraic function of only the individual transfer times. The delta-v function is then minimized for a series of maneuvers by finding the optimal transfer times for each orbital arc. Results are shown for the classical example of the Hohmann transfer, a noncoplanar transfer as well as an interplanetary fly-by mission to the asteroids Pallas and Juno.

  18. Biology and fertility life table of Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zazycki, L C F; Semedo, R E S; Silva, A; Bisognin, A Z; Bernardi, O; Garcia, M S; Nava, D E

    2015-11-01

    The coccinellids Eriopis connexa (Germar), Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) are important natural biological control agents. The purpose of this paper was to study the biology and create a fertility life table of these three coccinellid species. For the biology study, 50 insects/species were used and kept in groups of 10 in glass vials (2300 cm3). For the three species studied, the viability of the total cycle varied from 45 to 50%. O. v-nigrum was the species which presented the longest oviposition period. However, H. axiridis demonstrated the best reproductive performance and ability of population growth in each generation. In conclusion, the use of commercially obtained pollen and A. kuenhiella eggs enables the development of coccinellids E. connexa, H. axyridis and O. v-nigrum under laboratory conditions, since the insects completed their biological cycle and originated adults with good reproductive performance. PMID:26675915

  19. Biology and morphology of immature stages of Adosomus roridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Lixinae).

    PubMed

    Trnka, Filip; Stejskal, Robert; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Mature larva and pupa of Adosomus (s. str.) roridus (Pallas, 1781) (Curculionidae: Lixinae: Cleonini) are described and compared with ten other taxa of Cleonini with known larvae. This weevil is an oligophagous species on the Asteraceae family. From our observations in Slovakia, we found active adults from April to September in dry sunny places within extensively used or fallow vineyards and in ruderal vegetation with host plants. The weevil is a root borer--larvae, pupae and fresh adults were collected from the root necks and roots of Common Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) and rarely from Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.). Each plant was usually occupied by one larva, or more rarely with two or three larvae. The new generation of adult individuals appeared from early summer to autumn. Both larvae and some of the adults overwinter, which is quite unique within Cleonini. PMID:26624140

  20. Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F

    2008-06-01

    Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but

  1. Homology and evolution of the chaetae in Echiura (Annelida).

    PubMed

    Tilic, Ekin; Lehrke, Janina; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Echiura is traditionally regarded as a small phylum of unsegmented spiralian worms. Molecular analyses, however, provide unquestionable evidence that Echiura are derived annelids that lost segmentation. Like annelids, echiurans possess chaetae, a single ventral pair in all species and one or two additional caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in two subgroups, but their evolutionary origin and affiliation to annelid chaetae are unresolved. Since annelids possess segmental pairs of dorsal (notopodial) and ventral (neuropodial) chaetae that are arranged in a row, the ventral chaetae in Echiura either represent a single or a paired neuropodial group of chaetae, while the caudal circle may represent fused rows of chaetae. In annelids, chaetogenesis is generally restricted to the ventral part of the notopodial chaetal sac and to the dorsal part of the neuropodial chaetal sac. We used the exact position of the chaetal formation site in the echiuran species, Thalassema thalassemum (Pallas, 1766) and Echiurus echiurus (Pallas, 1767), to test different hypotheses of the evolution of echiurid chaetae. As in annelids, a single chaetoblast is responsible for chaetogenesis in both species. Each chaeta of the ventral pair arises from its own chaetal sac and possesses a lateral formation site, evidencing that the pair of ventral chaetae in Echiura is homologous to a pair of neuropodia that fused on the ventral side, while the notopodia were reduced. Both caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in Echiurus echiurus are composed of several individual chaetal sacs, each with its own formative site. This finding argues against a homology of these hemi-circles of chaetae and annelids' rows of chaetae and leads to the hypothesis that the caudal chaetal rings evolved once within the Echiura by multiplication of ventral chaetae.

  2. Homology and Evolution of the Chaetae in Echiura (Annelida)

    PubMed Central

    Tilic, Ekin; Lehrke, Janina; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Echiura is traditionally regarded as a small phylum of unsegmented spiralian worms. Molecular analyses, however, provide unquestionable evidence that Echiura are derived annelids that lost segmentation. Like annelids, echiurans possess chaetae, a single ventral pair in all species and one or two additional caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in two subgroups, but their evolutionary origin and affiliation to annelid chaetae are unresolved. Since annelids possess segmental pairs of dorsal (notopodial) and ventral (neuropodial) chaetae that are arranged in a row, the ventral chaetae in Echiura either represent a single or a paired neuropodial group of chaetae, while the caudal circle may represent fused rows of chaetae. In annelids, chaetogenesis is generally restricted to the ventral part of the notopodial chaetal sac and to the dorsal part of the neuropodial chaetal sac. We used the exact position of the chaetal formation site in the echiuran species, Thalassema thalassemum (Pallas, 1766) and Echiurus echiurus (Pallas, 1767), to test different hypotheses of the evolution of echiurid chaetae. As in annelids, a single chaetoblast is responsible for chaetogenesis in both species. Each chaeta of the ventral pair arises from its own chaetal sac and possesses a lateral formation site, evidencing that the pair of ventral chaetae in Echiura is homologous to a pair of neuropodia that fused on the ventral side, while the notopodia were reduced. Both caudal hemi-circles of chaetae in Echiurus echiurus are composed of several individual chaetal sacs, each with its own formative site. This finding argues against a homology of these hemi-circles of chaetae and annelids’ rows of chaetae and leads to the hypothesis that the caudal chaetal rings evolved once within the Echiura by multiplication of ventral chaetae. PMID:25734664

  3. Crystal structure and activating effect on RyRs of AhV_TL-I, a glycosylated thrombin-like enzyme from Agkistrodon halys snake venom.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Shen, Bing; Zhu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Ping; Ji, Yonghua; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-03-01

    A snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom was isolated by means of a two-step chromatographic procedure. The purified enzyme, named AhV_TL-I, showed fibrinogenolytic activity against both the Aα and Bβ chains of bovine fibrinogen. Unlike the other SVTLEs, AhV_TL-I has poor esterolytic activity upon BAEE substrate. The N-terminal sequence of AhV_TL-I was determined to be IIGGDEXNINEHRFLVALYT, and the molecular mass was confirmed to 29389.533 Da by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Its complete cDNA and derived amino acid sequence were obtained by RT-PCR. The crystal structure of AhV_TL-I was determined at a resolution of 1.75 Å. A disaccharide was clearly mapped in the structure, which involved in regulating the esterolytic activity of AhV_TL-I. The presence of the N-glycan deformed the 99-loop, and the resulting steric hindrances hindered the substrates to access the active site. Furthermore, with the carbohydrate moiety, AhV_TL-I could induce mouse thoracic aortic ring contraction with the EC(50) of 147 nmol/L. Besides, the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were also independent of the enzymatic activity. The results of [Ca(2+)](i) measurement showed that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_TL-I were attributed to Ca(2+) releasing from Ca(2+) store. Further studies showed that it was related to the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs). These offer new insights into the snake SVTLEs functions and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. PMID:23052203

  4. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom. PMID:23648424

  5. Field experiments on the role of epibenthic predators in determining prey densities in an estuarine mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, J. M.; Warwick, R. M.; Davey, J. T.; George, C. L.

    1985-09-01

    A series of caging experiments was performed on an estuarine mudflat at three seasons of the year, in which Carcinus maenas L. and Pomatoschistus microps (Kroyer) were either excluded from, or allowed to prey upon, the benthos in order to determine to what extent infaunal abundance and mortality was a result of predation by epibenthic predators. The difficulties of conducting and interpreting the results of such experiments are recognized. The benthic macrofauna of this mudflat is dominated numerically by small annelids and there is evidence that adult C. maenas can cause significant increases in the oligochaete component of this assemblage, probably as a result of disturbance caused by its burrowing activity. Juvenile C. maenas on the other hand significantly reduced the abundance of small annelids, particularly the dominant polychaete Manayunkia aestuarina (Bourne) and could be responsible for year-to-year variations in abundance of this species. The role of fish predators (in this case P. microps) is more problematical but it is suggested that in the densities at which they occur naturally on the mudflat they have little direct effect on the abundance of prey species. There is no evidence that seasonal mortality of small annelids is reduced in the absence of predation and this is taken to indicate that not all mortality is due to epibenthic predation. Certain changes in relative abundance of the component species of the harpacticoid copepod community were discerned but it is suggested that the plasticity of their reproductive potential is such that the effect of predation on the group as a whole is usually masked.

  6. Influence of the invasive Asian clam Corbicula fluminea (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) on estuarine epibenthic assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilarri, M. I.; Souza, A. T.; Antunes, C.; Guilhermino, L.; Sousa, R.

    2014-04-01

    One of the most widespread invasive alien species (IAS) in aquatic ecosystems is the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea. Several studies have shown that C. fluminea can cause large-scale changes in macrozoobenthic assemblages; however, very few attempted to investigate the effects of this IAS on mobile epibenthic species, such as fishes and crustaceans. In this context, the influence of C. fluminea on epibenthic species was investigated during one year by comparing the associated epibenthic fauna in three nearby sites of the Minho estuary (NW of the Iberian Peninsula), wherein the abiotic conditions are similar but the density of the Asian clam is highly different. From a total of 13 species, six were significantly influenced by C. fluminea; five responded positively, namely the brown shrimp Crangon crangon, the European eel Anguilla anguilla, the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, the brown trout Salmo trutta fario and the great pipefish Syngnathus acus, whereas the shore crab Carcinus maenas was negatively influenced. However, stomach contents analysis revealed that fish and crustacean species do not feed on C. fluminea, suggesting that this IAS is still not a large component of the diet of higher trophic levels in this estuarine ecosystem. Our results suggest that the structure provided by C. fluminea shells is likely to be one of the main factors responsible for the differences observed. C. fluminea physical structure seems to influence the epibenthic associated fauna, when found in densities higher than 1000 ind./m2, with sedentary small-bodied crustaceans and fishes being mainly attracted by the increasing in habitat complexity and consequent enhancement of heterogeneity and shelter availability.

  7. Long-term changes in species composition of demersal fish and epibenthic species in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/Southern North Sea) since 1972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Julia; Kröncke, Ingrid; Bartholomä, Alexander; Dippner, Joachim W.; Schückel, Ulrike

    2016-11-01

    Within this long-term study, the short- and long-term variability of demersal fish and epibenthic species in relation to temperature and climate-driven environmental changes in the inshore tidal bay system of the Jade area was investigated. Semiquantitative sampling took place once per spring and summer period from 1972 to 2014 by using a 2 m beam trawl at one station in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/southern North Sea). Min/max autocorrelation analysis (MAFA) and Mann-Kendall analysis revealed significant increasing trends in total abundance and species number. Homogeneity analysis revealed shifts for abundance in spring and summer in the late 1980s and for species number in the late 1980s in spring and early 2000s in summer. Abundances of the estuarine crustacean species Carcinus maenas and Liocarcinus holsatus and of the estuarine fish species Pomatoschistus spp. showed significant increasing abundances since the late 1980s. The marine juvenile species Pleuronectes platessa and Limanda limanda showed significant decreasing abundances, while abundances of Solea solea showed significant increasing abundances since the early 2000s. Abundances of L.holsatus and C. maenas showed mass occurrences since the early 2000s. Spearman correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of temperature and abundance data of some characteristic species. Statistical downscaling analysis revealed significant correlations between observations and climate indicators such as the North Sea Environmental (NSE) Index for spring. Thus, it appears that climate effects influenced the long-term variability of species number and abundance of epibenthic and demersal fish species in the Jade area, resulting in community shifts in the late 1980s and early 2000s.

  8. Inter-season and interannual variations in fish and macrocrustacean community structure on a eastern English Channel sandy beach: Influence of environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Amara, Rachid

    2008-05-01

    The intertidal zone of an exposed sandy beach on the French coast of the English Channel was sampled with a 1.5 m beam-trawl over five years (2000 and 2003-2006) at weekly intervals. The fish and macrocrustacean catches were analysed to determine the inter-season and interannual variation in community structure and relate these variations to changes in the major environmental variables. Only six species (plaice Pleuronectes platessa, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, sprat Sprattus sprattus, sand eel Ammodytes tobianus, brown shrimp Crangon crangon and shore crab Carcinus maenas) from the 27 species captured can be considered as dominant species of the intertidal zone, and they accounted for >90% of total numbers. Most individuals caught were young-of-the-year or juvenile. Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) and similarities percentage (SIMPER) indicated that inter-season variability of community structure (mean average similarity = 47%) was more pronounced than interannual variability (mean average similarity = 65%). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that a substantial component (32.2%) of the measured inter-season variation in community structure can be explained by environmental factors (mainly water temperature). The main inter-season changes in the abundance and community structure were due to the variation of the six key species and reflect the different times of their recruitment. During the five years of the study, the structure of the fish and macrocrustacean spring community persisted from year to year, with the dominant species reappearing consistently even though their abundances fluctuated from year to year. This interannual variation probably reflects variable recruitment success influenced by physico-chemical conditions. In spite of the considerable interannual variation (40 times) in the spring bloom of the prymnesiophyte alga Phaeocystis globosa we found no effect of this bloom on either fish and macrocrustacean species densities or

  9. Auswirkungen einer Pipeline-Verlegung auf das marine Benthos im Tidebecken von Baltrum-Langeoog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bernem, K. H.

    1999-12-01

    In order to investigate possible effects on benthic communities resulting from the landfall of the “EU-ROPIPE” gas pipeline in areas of the Wadden Sea National Park of Lower Saxony the following seasonal surveys were carried out by the GKSS-Research-Centre during 1993 1997: a) Assessment of species number and abundance of subtidal and intertidal macrofauna, b) Intertidal documentation of demersal fish and decapod crab stocks, c) Intertidal assessment of species composition and abundance of microalgae. Sublittoral sampling was mainly carried out by bottom-grabs and box-dredges at about 120 locations recorded by GPS. Sediment cores of intertidal benthic communities at 6 locations were processed for macrofauna and microalgae. Species numbers and abundances of sublittoral benthic macrofauna decreased during 1994 as well in those areas directly affected as well as in areas 500 to 1000m removed from the construction activities. Most notably, the relatively high species richness of a hard-bottom community, rare in Wadden Sea areas, was strongly disturbed. During the same period the spatial distribution and abundance of intertidal filter feeders decreased as well as the abundance of vagile predating polychaetes and amphipods at locations situated near low tide level. A local stock of the low dispersive Goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) was nearly totally destroyed. Decreases in the abundances of juvenile Plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and decapod crabs ( Crangon crangon, Carcinus maenas) could only be shown during July/October 1994 in those areas of working activities which were directly connected to the tidal migration paths of these species. During 1994/95 numbers and abundances of diatom species prefering fine grained sediments with a high amount of organic material increased significantly. A recovery started immediately after conclusion of the refilling measures in 1995. A complete documentation of the community-resilience, however, was masked by fluctuations

  10. Temporal and spatial distributions of larval fish assemblages in the Lima estuary (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Sandra; Cowen, Robert K.; Ré, Pedro; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lima estuary (NW Portugal) is at the end of an international watershed, whose potential role as a spawning and nursery habitat for local fish populations has not been previously examined. To address this knowledge gap, fortnightly plankton surveys were conducted between April 2002 and April 2004. A total of 12,903 larvae, belonging to 20 families and 50 taxa were collected, with a mean abundance of 8 individuals per 100 m 3. Gobiidae was the most abundant family comprising 71% of the total catch, followed by Clupeidae with 12% of the total. The top six abundant taxa ( Pomatoschistus spp., Sardina pilchardus, Ammodytes tobianus, unidentified Clupeidae, Symphodus melops and Solea senegalensis) represented 91% of the total catch. Fish larvae showed a seasonal trend with abundances increasing during spring and summer. Diversity was generally low ( H' = 0.65) with high dominance of very few taxa. Near the ocean, the larval fish assemblage was more diverse due to the presence of marine species. In the lower estuary Channel zone, abundance was lower than in the two upstream salt marsh zones (North and South zones) and no statistical differences in abundance or diversity values were found within the latter zones. ANOSIM results demonstrated seasonal differences in the species composition, mainly during the second winter period which was typified by a pelagic species A. tobianus. The community in the Channel zone was more diverse in comparison with the other zones, which were highly dominated by the most abundant species. The spatial and temporal trends of the most abundant species were typical for Iberian estuaries, with the exception of the low abundance of anchovy larvae and the unusually high numbers and frequency of S. pilchardus, usually mentioned as accidental in estuarine systems. Overall results suggest that the Lima estuary larval fish assemblage has a strong seasonality and affinity to the salt marsh zones. It seems that spawning seasonality controlled the

  11. First report of Gyrodactylus spp. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) in the western Mediterranean Sea: molecular and morphological descriptions.

    PubMed

    Huyse, T; Pampoulie, C; Audenaert, V; Volckaert, F A M

    2006-08-01

    The Gyrodactylus spp. fauna on species of gobies, Pomatoschistus, Gobiusculus, and Knipowitschia (Gobiidae: Teleostei), from the western Mediterranean and Adriatic seas is strikingly similar to that found in the Baltic Sea and eastern Atlantic Ocean, both in morphology and in internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA. The fauna consisted of Gyrodactylus branchialis, G. ostendicus, G. gondae, G. rugiensis, G. rugiensoides, and G. arcuatus. No new species have been found. A morphometric comparison between G. branchialis from the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas and its type locality in Ostend (Belgium) showed significant differences in ventral bar and marginal hook features. The morphometric variation was lower in G. rugiensis, whereas no significant differences were found in G. ostendicus. Gyrodactylus branchialis and G. ostendicus collected on P. microps were slightly different in the ITS rDNA (-0.6%) compared with specimens on the closely related P. marmoratus, probably reflecting ongoing speciation. A hybrid zone was identified in the Vaccarès lagoon complex (France) where both host species are sympatric. There was no clear geographic or host-related pattern in the variation found in the ITS2 rDNA in G. arcuatus sampled from P. microps, G. flavescens, Pungitius pungitius, K. panizzae, and its original host Gasterosteus aculeatus (2 polymorphic sites). Of all studied species, only G. arcuatus, G. rugiensis, and G. rugiensoides showed minor intraspecific variation in the ITS rDNA. Hence, the physical separation by a shoreline of more than 10,000 km is hardly reflected in the parasite ITS rDNA.

  12. Piscivorous birds on the saline lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands: Abundance, prey selection and annual food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.

    Since 1971, when the Grevelingen estuary was turned into a 108 km 2 saline lake, the number of foraging piscivorous birds has increased significantly. Up to 7000 to 10 000 Great Crested Grebes may be present on the lake, representing about half of the northwestern European breeding population. In the winter 1000 to 3000 Red-breasted Mergansers also forage here, while in summer and early autumn 500 to 800 Cormorants can be found on the lake. From December 1981 through March 1982 the food habits of the grebes and mergansers were studied by means of stomach analyses. Total annual consumption of the two fish-eating birds was estimated at 46.6 and 39.2 tons fresh weight, respectively. Gobiidae proved to be the main food source, accounting for 60% of the total intake (by weight). In addition, the grebes consumed 9.9 tons of Clupea harengus and the mergansers 11.0 tons of brown shrimps Crangon crangon. The birds tended to select the larger specimens of Gobiidae and C. crangon. The estimated amount of food consumed by these two bird species represents about 28 to 36% of the standing stocks of Gobiidae, C. harengus and Sprattus sprattus present at the arrival of the birds in September/October. Total annual consumption by all major piscivorous birds, including the populations of Cormorant and Grey Heron, was estimated at 115 tons (1.1 g FW·m -2·a -1). Over the last 10-year period the number of wintering grebes showed a positive correlation ( p < 0.01) with the density of Pomatoschistus microps during the preceding (summer) season ( i.e. the most abundant gobiid species in the lake).

  13. Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at nightmare range, a high elevation military training area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People's Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises.

  14. [PATTERNS IN CIRCULATION AND TRANSMISSION OF MARINE BIRD PARASITES IN HIGH ARCTIC: A CASE OF ACANTHOCEPHALAN POLYMORPHUS PHIPPSI (PALAEACANTHOCEPHALA, POLYMORPHIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K V; Atrashkevich, G I

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on the materials on parasitic infection of marine birds and invertebrates in Frantz Josef Land (FJL) collected in 1991-1993, focussed on the acanthocephalan Polymorphus phippsi. We identified this parasite, confirmed its species status and analysed its circulation and transmission patterns in high Arctic. The causes of its erroneous identification as P. minutus in several studies were also examined. In contrast to P. minutus, the transmission of P. phippsi is realized in marine coastal ecosystems. Its' main intermediate host in the Arctic is the amphipod Gammarus (Lagunogammarus) setosus, commonin coastal. areas of the shelf zone throughout the Arctic basin. P. phippsi population in FJL and the entire European Arctic is on the whole maintained by a single obligate final host, the common eider Somateria mollissima. Prevalence (P) of P. phippsi in this bird reached 100 %, with the maximal infection intensity (IImax) of 1188 and the mean abundance (MA) of 492.1. Other species of birds found to be infected with P. phippsi (Arctic turn, black guillemot, purple sandpiper and several gulls) are facultative and/or eliminative hosts. The most heavily infected birds were Arctic terns (P = 72.7%, IImax = 227, MA = = 47.1), which contained single mature acanthocephalans. For one of the FJL regions, infections flows of P. phippsi through various host categories were calculated. Involvement of birds unrelated to the common eider into the circulation of P. phippsi is facilitated by their feeding character in the Arctic. While coastal crustaceans are abundant, fish food is relatively scarce (polar cod, snailfishes), and so amphipods make up a considerable part of the diet of marine birds in FJL, if not most of it, as for instance in case of Arctic tern. This promotes an easy entry of the larvae of crustaceans-parasitizing helminthes (cestodes and acanthocephalans, including cystacanths P. phippsi) into non-specific hosts and opens broad colonization possibilities

  15. Hantaan Virus Surveillance Targeting Small Mammals at Nightmare Range, a High Elevation Military Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Terry A.; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sook-Young; Kim, Won-Keun; Nunn, Peter V.; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-01-01

    Rodent-borne disease surveillance was conducted at Nightmare Range (NM-R), near the demilitarized zone in northeast Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, to identify hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) risks for a mountainous high-elevation (500 m) military training site. Monthly surveys were conducted from January 2008-December 2009. A total of 1,720 small mammals were captured belonging to the Orders Rodentia [Families, Sciuridae (1 species) and Muridae (7 species)] and Soricomorpha [Family, Soricidae (1species)]. Apodemus agrarius, the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus (HTNV), accounted for 89.9% (1,546) of all small mammals captured, followed by Myodes regulus (4.0%), Crocidura lasiura (3.9%), Micromys minutus (1.4%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Microtus fortis (0.2%), Apodemus peninsulae (0.2%), Tamias sibiricus (0.1%), and Rattus norvegicus (<0.1%). Three species were antibody-positive (Ab+) for hantaviruses: A. agrarius (8.2%), M. minutus (4.2%), and C. lasiura (1.5%). HTNV specific RNA was detected in 93/127 Ab+ A. agrarius, while Imjin virus specific RNA was detected in 1/1 Ab+ C. lasiura. Overall, hantavirus Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with weight (age) and were significantly higher among males (10.9%) than females (5.1%) (P<0.0001). High A. agrarius gravid rates during the fall (August-September) were associated with peak numbers of HFRS cases in Korea that followed high gravid rates. From 79 RT-PCR positive A. agrarius, 12 HTNV RNA samples were sequenced and compared phylogenetically based on a 320 nt sequence from the GC glycoprotein-encoding M segment. These results demonstrate that the HTNV isolates from NM-R are distinctly separated from HTNV isolated from the People’s Republic of China. These studies provide for improved disease risk assessments that identify military activities, rodent HTNV rates, and other factors associated with the transmission of hantaviruses during field training exercises. PMID:25874643

  16. [PATTERNS IN CIRCULATION AND TRANSMISSION OF MARINE BIRD PARASITES IN HIGH ARCTIC: A CASE OF ACANTHOCEPHALAN POLYMORPHUS PHIPPSI (PALAEACANTHOCEPHALA, POLYMORPHIDAE)].

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K V; Atrashkevich, G I

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on the materials on parasitic infection of marine birds and invertebrates in Frantz Josef Land (FJL) collected in 1991-1993, focussed on the acanthocephalan Polymorphus phippsi. We identified this parasite, confirmed its species status and analysed its circulation and transmission patterns in high Arctic. The causes of its erroneous identification as P. minutus in several studies were also examined. In contrast to P. minutus, the transmission of P. phippsi is realized in marine coastal ecosystems. Its' main intermediate host in the Arctic is the amphipod Gammarus (Lagunogammarus) setosus, commonin coastal. areas of the shelf zone throughout the Arctic basin. P. phippsi population in FJL and the entire European Arctic is on the whole maintained by a single obligate final host, the common eider Somateria mollissima. Prevalence (P) of P. phippsi in this bird reached 100 %, with the maximal infection intensity (IImax) of 1188 and the mean abundance (MA) of 492.1. Other species of birds found to be infected with P. phippsi (Arctic turn, black guillemot, purple sandpiper and several gulls) are facultative and/or eliminative hosts. The most heavily infected birds were Arctic terns (P = 72.7%, IImax = 227, MA = = 47.1), which contained single mature acanthocephalans. For one of the FJL regions, infections flows of P. phippsi through various host categories were calculated. Involvement of birds unrelated to the common eider into the circulation of P. phippsi is facilitated by their feeding character in the Arctic. While coastal crustaceans are abundant, fish food is relatively scarce (polar cod, snailfishes), and so amphipods make up a considerable part of the diet of marine birds in FJL, if not most of it, as for instance in case of Arctic tern. This promotes an easy entry of the larvae of crustaceans-parasitizing helminthes (cestodes and acanthocephalans, including cystacanths P. phippsi) into non-specific hosts and opens broad colonization possibilities

  17. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Firing Points 10 and 60, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Lee, John S; Kim, Heung-Chul; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; Turell, Michael J; Burkett, Douglas A; Schuster, Anthony; Lee, In-Yong; Yi, Suk-Hee; Sames, William J; Song, Ki-Joon; Song, Jin-Won

    2008-12-01

    Throughout Korea, small mammals are hosts to a number of disease-causing agents that pose a health threat to U.S. and Korean military forces while they conduct field-training exercises. A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at two firing points (FP), FP-10, and FP-60, and conducted over five years from 2001 through 2005 in response to hantavirus cases among U.S. soldiers. The ecology of these sites consisted primarily of tall grasses associated with semi-permanent and temporary water sources (drainage ditches and a small stream) and dry-land agriculture farming. Eight species of rodents and one species of insectivore were collected, including Apodemus agrarius, Micromys minutus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Tscherskia triton, Microtus fortis, Myodes regulus, and Crocidura lasiura. The striped field mouse, A. agrarius, (primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, the causative agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever), was the most frequently collected, representing 90.6% of the 1,288 small mammals captured at both sites. Reported herein are the ecological parameters, seasonal population densities, and seasonal population characteristics associated with small mammals collected at two military training sites in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19263858

  18. Relation of the insular claustrum to the neocortex in Insectivora.

    PubMed

    Narkiewicz, O; Mamos, L

    1990-01-01

    The claustra of 9 species of Insectivora (Sorex araneus, Sorex minutus, Tenrec ecaudatus, Solenodon paradoxus, Neomys fodiens, Erinaceus europaeus, Talpa europaea, Desmana moschata, Potamogale velox) were investigated. In all examined animals we found two parts of the insular claustrum: the main part called by us the pars principalis and more medially situated lamina profunda claustri. In the "basal" Insectivora the main part is in close contact with the layer VIa of the neocortex. In some more developed "basal" and in all "progressive" Insectivora the area capsularis appears. Dorsolaterally it separates the main part of the insular claustrum from the neocortex and possesses, besides neurons, also numerous fibers of the extreme capsule. The above data strongly suggest that in the phylogenesis the insular claustrum originates from the cortex from which it gets separated by the extreme capsule. Lamina profunda claustri is rather a narrow band of neurons situated on the medial side of the pars principalis and mostly separated from it by a thin lamina of white substance. Lamina profunda is continuous with the layer VIb of the neocortex.

  19. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations.

  20. Critical tests of thiabendazole, oxibendazole, and oxfendazole for drug resistance of population-B equine small strongyles (1989 and 1990).

    PubMed

    Tolliver, S C; Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Stamper, S; Granstrom, D E

    1993-06-01

    Critical tests were conducted in horses (n = 11) with naturally acquired infections of benzimidazole (BZ)-resistant population-B small strongyles in 1989 and 1990. Anthelmintics administered were thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight, n = 4), oxibendazole (10 mg/kg, n = 3), and oxfendazole (OFZ, 10 mg/kg; n = 4). All compounds were paste formulations administered orally except for 1 of the OFZ treatments, which was a suspension formulation given by stomach tube. Aggregate mean efficacy was calculated for all species of small strongyles, drug-resistant and non-resistant. The highest efficacy was for oxibendazole (98%) and OFZ (94%); efficacy for thiabendazole was 63%. Five genera and 16 species of small strongyles were recovered from the 11 horses, ranging from 7 to 13 species (mean, 11). Of these, 7 species were found to have resistance in variable degrees to most of the anthelmintics. These strongyles were Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, and Cylicostephanus minutus. The large strongyle, Strongylus vulgaris, was present in all 11 test horses, and efficacy was 100% for all drugs. Seven of the BZ-treated foals (at least 1 horse from each BZ-treatment group), were infected with S edentatus; removal was 100%.

  1. Blood parasites in noddies and boobies from Brazilian offshore islands - differences between species and influence of nesting habitat.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Martínez, Javier; Bugoni, Leandro; Mancini, Patrícia L; Merino, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    Seabirds are often free from blood parasites, and a recent review suggested that phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters can determine the prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds. However, there is a lack of data available from many seabird groups, and a larger database is needed to understand prevalence patterns of blood parasites. We used a molecular screening approach to detect parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Babesia in five species of two genera of seabirds that breed on Atlantic Ocean islands off Brazil. The observed patterns differed between the two bird genera. Like other Laridae, brown noddy, Anous stolidus adults were infected with Haemoproteus with low prevalence. Masked boobies, Sula dactylatra and brown boobies, Sula leucogaster were infected with Babesia. Of the latter, mainly juveniles were infected. In all species, intensity of infection (i.e. number of infected erythrocytes) was so low that parasites remained undetected in blood smears. This may explain the absence of major effects on the body condition of birds, although infected juvenile masked boobies were lighter than juveniles that were not infected with Babesia. Two tree-nesting species; black noddy, Anous minutus and red-footed booby, Sula sula did not have blood parasites, suggesting that tree-nesting may reduce the exposure to arthropod vectors compared with ground nesting in these species.

  2. [Helminths of birds and mammals from Israel. VI. The taxonomy and ecology of Trichostrongylid Nematodes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wertheim, G; Durette-Desset, M

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen species of trichostronglyloid nematodes have so far been recorded from wild birds and mammals in Israel and surrounding territories. Three species were found in birds: Amidostomum fulicae (Rudolphi, 1819) in Fulica atra L., 1758, A. acutum (Lundahl, 1848) in Anas crecca L., 1758 AND Amidostomum sp. in Ceryle rudis L., 1758. Ten species, 3 of which are new, were found in small mammals: Trichostrongylus colubriformis (Giles, 1892) in Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792; Tenorastrongylus josephi n. sp. in Mus musculus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Travassos, 1914) in Rattus norvegicus Berk, 1796 and Rattus rattus L., 1758; Nippostrongylus witenbergi Greenberg, 1972, in Nesokia indica Gray et Hardw., 1832; Heligmonina nevoi n. sp. in Spalax ehrenbergi, Nehring, 1898; Boreostrongylus seurati (Travassos et Darriba, 1929) in Gerbillus allenbyi Thomas, 1918, G. pyramidum Geoffrey, 1825, G. (Dipodillus) dasyurus, Meriones sacramenti Thomas, 1922 and M. tristrami Thomas, 1892; Boreostrongylus minutus (Dujardin, 1845) in Microtus guentheri Danford et Alsen, 1880; Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus (Dujardin, 1845) in Apodemus mystacinus Danf. et Alst., 1877 and A. sylvaticus L., 1758; Suncinema witenbergi n. sp. in Crocidura russula Herm., 1780. Ecologic and zoogeographic relationships are discussed.

  3. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira. PMID:26701473

  4. Phylogeny and biogeography of paradoxical frogs (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudae) inferred from 12S and 16S mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Garda, Adrian A; Cannatella, David C

    2007-07-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA sequences of 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the nine species of South American aquatic hylids known as paradoxical frogs. Pseudis minuta and P. cardosoi form the sister-group to a clade comprising Lysapsus and the remaining Pseudis. We suggest the resurrection of Podonectes, including P. minutus and P. cardosoi, to avoid the nonmonophyly of Pseudis. Some doubt is cast on the species status of P. cardosoi. Lysapsus limellum, P. bolbodactyla, and P. paradoxa each may comprise more than one species, but lack of comprehensive geographic and morphological appraisals precludes taxonomic changes. Biogeographic implications of the phylogeny are discussed. The correlation between hydrographic basins and Pseudis species is not fully supported, and a recent contact between Amazon populations in eastern Bolivia and western Brazil (Rondônia) and Paraná basin populations in the Pantanal is suggested. A dispersal-vicariance analysis showed that major diversification of Pseudis and Lysapsus species occurred in the Brazilian Shield, and that the presence of P. paradoxa and L. limellum in the Amazon and Paraná basins is due to recent dispersals. Evidence suggests a vicariant event, most likely caused by Miocene marine introgressions, as the cause for the restricted distribution of L. laevis in the Guiana Shield. PMID:17275349

  5. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M; Matsumura-Tundisi, T

    2005-08-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens. PMID:16341431

  6. Microhabitat selection in the simple oribatid community dwelling in epilithic moss cover (Acari: Oribatida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrž, Jaroslav

    2006-11-01

    The moss cover of a roof was studied as the model of a simple habitat divided into microhabitats by the members of a community of saprophagous mites. This community consisted of two species of oribatid mites: Scutovertex minutus and Trichoribates trimaculatus. They were extracted from moss onto moist paper, and subsequently, their mobility, responses to moisture fluctuation, and food selection were tested in laboratory experiments. For the nutritional biology, the microanatomy of their alimentary tract was examined according to the system of histological characteristics formulated in the laboratory of the author (type of food, digestive activity of gut walls, etc.). The paraplast sections of the mites were stained by Masson triple stain for these purposes. Moreover, the enzymological tests (chitinase and cellulase activities) were performed to detail the digestive processes. Such an approach was applied to field-sampled specimens as well as to those in the laboratory experiments. These above-mentioned data were discussed with respect to microhabitat selection, vertical and horizontal distribution, and dispersal ability of these two oribatid mites sharing this habitat. These two species differ in several characteristics from each other and these differences resulted in their different microhabitat choices and role in the habitat as a whole.

  7. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus) was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400–550 nm) and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm) where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface. PMID:26352667

  8. Description and phylogenetic affinities of two new species of Nomadolepis (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae) from Eastern Palearctic.

    PubMed

    Makarikov, Arseny A; Mel'nikova, Yulia A; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2015-10-01

    Two new species of hymenolepidid cestodes belonging to the genus Nomadolepis are described from small mammals in western Siberia and the Far East, Russian Federation. Nomadolepis fareasta n. sp. is described from the striped dwarf hamster Cricetulus barabensis in Amurskaya Oblast' and Nomadolepis shiloi n. sp. is described from the Eurasian harvest mouse Micromys minutus from Novosibirskaya Oblast' and Amurskaya Oblast'. Nomadolepis fareasta n. sp. differs from Nomadolepis merionis, Nomadolepis ellobii and N. shiloi n. sp. in having a substantially longer strobila, longer cirrus-sac and wider ovary. Furthermore, N. fareasta n. sp. can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the arrangement of the testes and the number and size of rostellar hooks. Nomadolepis shiloi n. sp. differs from N. merionis, N. ellobii and N. fareasta n. sp. by the number and length of the rostellar hooks, the presence of irregular transverse anastomoses as well as the length of the cirrus-sac and position of the cirrus-sac in relation to the poral ventral osmoregulatory canal. Morphological differentiation of the two new species from morphologically similar Palearctic species of the related genus Rodentolepis (sensu lato) from rodents is also provided. Phylogenetic affinities of Nomadolepis were studied for the first time using partial sequences of the nuclear ribosomal 28S DNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported the status of Nomadolepis as a separate genus closest to Pararodentolepis. PMID:26123997

  9. How did pygmy shrews colonize Ireland? Clues from a phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Mascheretti, Silvia; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Gündüz, Islam; Fredga, Karl; Searle, Jeremy B

    2003-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate as to how Ireland attained its present fauna; we help to inform this debate with a molecular study of one species. A 1110 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced in 74 specimens of the pygmy shrew, Sorex minutus, collected from throughout its western Palaearctic range. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences revealed several well-supported lineages. Most of the 65 haplotypes belonged to a northern lineage, which ranged from Britain in the west to Lake Baikal in the east. The other lineages were largely limited to Iberia, Italy and the Balkans. One exception, however, was a lineage found in both Ireland and Andorra. This affinity, and the large difference between the mitochondrial sequences of Irish and British individuals, suggest that pygmy shrews did not colonize Ireland via a land connection from Britain, as has been previously supposed, but instead were introduced by boat from southwest continental Europe. All the Irish pygmy shrews analysed were identical or very similar in cytochrome b sequence, suggesting an extreme founding event. PMID:12908980

  10. Distribution and coexistence of shrews in patchy landscapes: A field test of multiple hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortelliti, Alessio; Boitani, Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Despite the important role of shrews (Soricomorpha: Soricidae) in the functioning of ecosystems, as predators and prey, the effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on this guild of mammals are still unclear. We studied the distribution of 5 species (the greater white toothed shrew Crocidura leucodon; the lesser white toothed shrew Crocidura suaveolens; the pigmy shrew Sorex minutus; the Appennine shrew Sorex samniticus and the Etruscan shrew Suncus etruscus) in a fragmented landscape in central Italy. Shrews were trapped with pitfall traps made from plastic water bottles, the number of traps increased with patch size. A total of 170 individuals, of 5 species of shrews were captured. Shrews were widely distributed in our study area, however patch occupancy was determined mainly by vegetation and geometrical characteristics of the patches. Our data supports the hypotheses that patterns of habitat selection and the dynamics of seasonal abundance (habitat and temporal partitioning between similarly sized species) reduce competitive pressure, thus allowing coexistence of shrews in relatively species-rich assemblages, for such small amounts of habitat. The most important outcome of our results is the crucial role played by vegetation structure in determining distribution patterns. These results strongly suggest that measurements of the vegetation structure of habitat patches should always be included as explanatory variables when studying the distribution of shrews in fragmented landscapes.

  11. Sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs via refuge size.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Joseph B; Gil, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    The capacity for resource monopolization by individuals often dictates the size and composition of animal groups, and ultimately, the adoption of mating strategies. For refuge-dwelling animals, the ability (or inability) of individuals to monopolize refuges should depend on the relative size of the refuge. In theory, groups should be larger and more inclusive when refuges are large, and smaller and more exclusive when refuges are small, regardless of refuge type. We test this prediction by comparing the size and composition of groups of oceanic crabs (Planes minutus) living on plastic flotsam and loggerhead sea turtles. We found that (i) surface area of refuges (barnacle colonies on flotsam and supracaudal space on turtles) is a better predictor of crab number than total surface area and (ii) flotsam and turtles with similar refuge surface area host a similar number (1-2) and composition (adult male-female pairs) of crabs. These results indicate that group size and composition of refuge-dwelling animals are modulated by refuge size and the capacity for refuge monopolization. Moreover, these results suggest that sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs, providing insights into how symbiosis can promote specific mating strategies.

  12. Biodiversity of microalgae in Western and Eastern Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Suresh, A; Kumar, R Praveen; Dhanasekaran, D; Thajuddin, N

    2012-10-01

    The systematic study was conducted on the microalgal flora of Western Ghats and other parts of Eastern Ghats revealed a rich wetland algal resource for biotechnological exploration. The present study reveals with the diversity of microalgal flora in the region of Kodaikanal (10 degrees 14' N, 77 degrees 28' E), Gudalur (9 degrees 19'N 77 degrees 12'E), Agasthiyar falls (9 degrees 58'N, 78 degrees 10'E) and Kolli hills (10 degrees 12'N, 77 degrees 56'E) located in Western and Eastern Ghats of Tamilnadu, India collected in May 2011. In total, 97 species of micro algae belonging to three taxonomic groups were identified, of which 41 species belonging to Cyanophyceae, 38 species from Chlorophyceae and 18 species from Bacillariophyceae. The predominant species in Cyanophyceae were Aphanothece microscopica, Chroococcus minutus, Coelospharium dubium, Hydrococcus rivularism, Oscillatoria princeps, Nostoc muscorum, Nostoc puncteforme, Nostoc commune, Gleotricha gausii, Calothrix braunii, Rivellaria sp., Tolypothrix tenuis, Scytonema schmidtii, whereas in Chlorophyceae, Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Pediastrum duplex, Cosmarium consperum, Euastrum elagans, Micrasterias americana and in Bacillariophyceae, Navicula hallophyla, Rhophaldia gebrella, Fragellaria intermedia, Pinnularia virdis, Nitzchia palliate. Physicochemical nature of water samples were analyzed and correlated with the total microalgal diversity. Based on the correlation coefficient data, the micro algae showed positive relationship with dissolved oxygen, salinity, nutrients and negative relationship with temperature and turbidity. The species diversity index (H'), Species Richness (SR) and species evenness (J') were calculated and analyzed for microalgal population dynamic variation in the Western and Eastern Ghats.

  13. Physiological responses of Brazilian amphibians to an enzootic infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Rafael P; Andrade, Denis V; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; Haddad, Célio F B; Zamudio, Kelly R; Becker, C Guilherme

    2016-01-13

    Pathophysiological effects of clinical chytridiomycosis in amphibians include disorders of cutaneous osmoregulation and disruption of the ability to rehydrate, which can lead to decreased host fitness or mortality. Less attention has been given to physiological responses of hosts where enzootic infections of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) do not cause apparent population declines in the wild. Here, we experimentally tested whether an enzootic strain of Bd causes significant mortality and alters host water balance (evaporative water loss, EWL; skin resistance, R(s); and water uptake, WU) in individuals of 3 Brazilian amphibian species (Dendropsophus minutus, n = 19; Ischnocnema parva, n = 17; Brachycephalus pitanga, n = 15). Infections with enzootic Bd caused no significant mortality, but we found an increase in R(s) in 1 host species concomitant with a reduction in EWL. These results suggest that enzootic Bd infections can indeed cause sub-lethal effects that could lead to reduction of host fitness in Brazilian frogs and that these effects vary among species. Thus, our findings underscore the need for further assessment of physiological responses to Bd infections in different host species, even in cases of sub-clinical chytridiomycosis and long-term enzootic infections in natural populations. PMID:26758658

  14. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Denise D M; O'dwyer, Lucia H; Ribeiro, Vitor C; Silva, Reinaldo J; Ferreira, Vanda L; Rodrigues, Rozangela B

    2009-06-01

    Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads). The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%)were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common. PMID:19488624

  15. Updating algal evolutionary relationships through plastid genome sequencing: did alveolate plastids emerge through endosymbiosis of an ochrophyte?

    PubMed Central

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Sudek, Sebastian; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, Alexandra Z.; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Algae with secondary plastids of a red algal origin, such as ochrophytes (photosynthetic stramenopiles), are diverse and ecologically important, yet their evolutionary history remains controversial. We sequenced plastid genomes of two ochrophytes, Ochromonas sp. CCMP1393 (Chrysophyceae) and Trachydiscus minutus (Eustigmatophyceae). A shared split of the clpC gene as well as phylogenomic analyses of concatenated protein sequences demonstrated that chrysophytes and eustigmatophytes form a clade, the Limnista, exhibiting an unexpectedly elevated rate of plastid gene evolution. Our analyses also indicate that the root of the ochrophyte phylogeny falls between the recently redefined Khakista and Phaeista assemblages. Taking advantage of the expanded sampling of plastid genome sequences, we revisited the phylogenetic position of the plastid of Vitrella brassicaformis, a member of Alveolata with the least derived plastid genome known for the whole group. The results varied depending on the dataset and phylogenetic method employed, but suggested that the Vitrella plastids emerged from a deep ochrophyte lineage rather than being derived vertically from a hypothetical plastid-bearing common ancestor of alveolates and stramenopiles. Thus, we hypothesize that the plastid in Vitrella, and potentially in other alveolates, may have been acquired by an endosymbiosis of an early ochrophyte. PMID:26017773

  16. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-11-18

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus.

  17. Review of Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) in Borneo, with descriptions of three new genera and the first case of (ovo)viviparity in the long-horned beetles

    PubMed Central

    Gabriš, Radim; Kundrata, Robin; Trnka, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the species of genus Dolichostyrax Aurivillius (Cerambycidae: Morimopsini) from Borneo, which included the redescriptions of two species – Dolichostyrax moultoni Aurivillius, 1911 and Dolichostyrax longipes Aurivillius, 1913, with the first female description for the latter. After the examination of the additional material previously identified as Dolichostyrax, we described three new genera – Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n., and Eurystyrax gen. n. Borneostyrax cristatus sp. n. was described based on the male and female specimens, whilst Microdolichostyrax hefferni sp. n., Microdolichostyrax minutus sp. n. and Eurystyrax nemethi sp. n. are known only from females. All studied species are distributed in the mountain regions of Sabah, with the exception of Dolichostyrax moultoni from Sarawak. An identification key to the genera of Bornean Morimopsini and species of Dolichostyrax, Borneostyrax gen. n., Microdolichostyrax gen. n. and Eurystyrax gen. n. is provided and their distributions and intraspecific morphological variability are discussed. The short and wide ovipositor, loss of spermatheca, and presence of large larvae without apparent eggbursters inside the female abdomens indicate the presence of (ovo)viviparity in Borneostyrax gen. n. This is the first case of this rare phenomenon within Cerambycidae. PMID:27408527

  18. Three new genera of Neotropical Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae) with descriptions of three new species

    PubMed Central

    St. Laurent, Ryan A.; Mielke, Carlos G. C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new genera of Mimallonidae are described. The monotypic genus Tostallo gen. n. is erected to contain “Perophora” albescens Jones, 1912, which was previously placed in the preoccupied genus Perophora Harris, 1841 and was never formally moved to a valid genus. Perophora is a junior homonym of Cicinnus Blanchard, 1852, but the name albescens is not appropriately placed in Cicinnus due to external and genitalia characteristics entirely unique to the species albescens. The female of Tostallo albescens comb. n. is described and both sexes are figured for the first time. Auroriana gen. n. is erected to contain Auroriana florianensis (Herbin, 2012), comb. n. previously described as Cicinnus florianensis, and two new species: Auroriana colombiana sp. n. from Colombia and Auroriana gemma sp. n. from southeastern and southern Brazil. The female of Auroriana florianensis is described and figured for the first time. Finally, the monotypic genus Micrallo gen. n. is erected to include a new species, Micrallo minutus sp. n. described from northeastern Brazil. PMID:27047246

  19. Sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs via refuge size.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Joseph B; Gil, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    The capacity for resource monopolization by individuals often dictates the size and composition of animal groups, and ultimately, the adoption of mating strategies. For refuge-dwelling animals, the ability (or inability) of individuals to monopolize refuges should depend on the relative size of the refuge. In theory, groups should be larger and more inclusive when refuges are large, and smaller and more exclusive when refuges are small, regardless of refuge type. We test this prediction by comparing the size and composition of groups of oceanic crabs (Planes minutus) living on plastic flotsam and loggerhead sea turtles. We found that (i) surface area of refuges (barnacle colonies on flotsam and supracaudal space on turtles) is a better predictor of crab number than total surface area and (ii) flotsam and turtles with similar refuge surface area host a similar number (1-2) and composition (adult male-female pairs) of crabs. These results indicate that group size and composition of refuge-dwelling animals are modulated by refuge size and the capacity for refuge monopolization. Moreover, these results suggest that sea turtle symbiosis facilitates social monogamy in oceanic crabs, providing insights into how symbiosis can promote specific mating strategies. PMID:27651538

  20. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in shorebirds (Charadriiformes).

    PubMed

    Odeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per

    2010-06-23

    Diurnal birds belong to one of two classes of colour vision. These are distinguished by the maximum absorbance wavelengths of the SWS1 visual pigment sensitive to violet (VS) and ultraviolet (UVS). Shifts between the classes have been rare events during avian evolution. Gulls (Laridae) are the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) previously reported to have the UVS type of opsin, but too few species have been sampled to infer that gulls are unique among shorebirds or that Laridae is monomorphic for this trait. We have sequenced the SWS1 opsin gene in a broader sample of species. We confirm that cysteine in the key amino acid position 90, characteristic of the UVS class, has been conserved throughout gull evolution but also that the terns Anous minutus, A. tenuirostris and Gygis alba, and the skimmer Rynchops niger carry this trait. Terns, excluding Anous and Gygis, share the VS conferring serine in position 90 with other shorebirds but it is translated from a codon more similar to that found in UVS shorebirds. The most parsimonious interpretation of these findings, based on a molecular gene tree, is a single VS to UVS shift and a subsequent reversal in one lineage.

  1. Hantaviruses in Finnish soricomorphs: evidence for two distinct hantaviruses carried by Sorex araneus suggesting ancient host-switch.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiaxin; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Hepojoki, Satu; Niemimaa, Jukka; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-10-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses carried by rodents, soricomorphs (shrews and moles) and bats. In Finland, Puumala virus (PUUV) was for years the only hantavirus detected. In 2009, however, Seewis virus (SWSV) was reported from archival common shrew (Sorex araneus) samples collected in 1982 in Finland. To elucidate the diversity of hantaviruses in soricomorphs in Finland, 180 individuals were screened, representing seven species captured from 2001 to 2012: hantavirus RNA was screened using RT-PCR, and hantaviral antigen using immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against truncated SWSV nucleocapsid protein. The overall hantavirus RNA prevalence was 14% (26/180), antigen could be demonstrated in 9 of 20 SWSV RT-PCR positive common shrews. Genetic analyses revealed that four soricomorph-borne hantaviruses circulate in Finland, including Boginia virus (BOGV) in water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and Asikkala virus (ASIV) in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus). Interestingly, on two study sites, common shrews harbored strains of two different hantaviruses: Seewis virus and a new distinct, genetically distant (identity 57% at amino acid level) virus (Altai-like virus) which clusters together with viruses in the basal phylogroup I of hantaviruses with 62-67% identity at amino acid level. This is the first evidence of coexistence of two clearly distinct hantavirus species circulating simultaneously in one host species population. The findings suggest an ancient host-switching event from a yet unknown host to S. araneus. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of partial S and M segment sequences showed that SWSV in Finland represents a unique genotype in Europe.

  2. Eight new species, a new record, and redescription of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904: The first record of termitophilous rove beetles in Cambodia (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae).

    PubMed

    Kanao, Taisuke; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    As the first record of the Cambodian termitophilous rove beetles, eight new species of the genus Discoxenus Wasmann, 1904 (Aleocharini: Compactopediina) are described, along with a redescription of the genus. Discoxenus katayamai Kanao & Maruyama, 2010, which was originally known from Thailand, is newly recorded from Cambodia and redescribed. Discoxenus species are morphologically divided into two species groups, namely the latiabdominalis and the assmuthi. The latiabdominalis species group includes D. latiabdominalis n. sp. and D. cambodiensis n. sp., and both species are associated with Odontotermes maesodensis Ahmad, 1965. The assmuthi species group comprises 11 species: D. assmuthi Wasmann, 1904, D. lepisma Wasmann, 1904, D. indicus Kistner, 1982, D. malaysiensis Kistner, 1982, D. phourini n. sp., D. kohkongensis n. sp., D. hirsutus n. sp., D. minutus n. sp., D. lucidus n. sp., D. kakizoei n. sp., and D. katayamai. The members in the assmuthi species group are associated with Odontotermes or Hypotermes termites. One of the unique morphological features of the assmuthi species group is the strongly developed distal crest of the male aedeagal median lobe while that observed in the latiabdominalis species group is not produced, which is general character state in the tribe Aleocharini. The character state of distal crest and several other morphological features such as mouthparts are considered to support the monophyly of respective species groups in Discoxenus. PMID:26624709

  3. Revision of the genus Campylaimus (Diplopeltidae, Nematoda) with description of four new species from the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Four new Campylaimus species are described from the deep-sea sediments of the Sea of Japan at depths of about 500‒3400 m. Campylaimus orientalis sp. nov. is characterized by having a body of moderate length, clearly annulated cuticle, a small rhomboid mouth opening which is displaced on the dorsal side of body, a gap between the unequal limbs of the amphid, prominent narrow longitudinal alae and cephalated spicules. Campylaimus minutus sp. nov. is characterized by having a cylindrical body, very weak annulations, amphids with a short dorsal limb (25-44% of pharynx length) and a ventral limb completely fused with lateral alae of equal width; and lateral alae extending from the base of the amphid to the tail tip. Campylaimus amphidialis sp. nov. is characterized by having the combination of a very long amphidial fovea occupying nearly the entire length of the pharynx; and a well defined boundary between the ventral amphid limb and lateral alae. The distinctive feature of Campylaimus pulcher sp. nov. is the elongated loop-shaped amphid with nearly equal parallel limbs and prominent narrow longitudinal alae; and cephalated spicules without a gubernaculum. The diagnosis of the genus Campylaimus is emended and an identification key to species, based mainly on form and length of amphidial fovea, width of lateral alae, and copulatory apparatus is given. The genus Campylaimus now includes nineteen valid species. Two species are considered as species inquirendae, mainly because of incomplete descriptions. PMID:27394815

  4. Blood parasites in noddies and boobies from Brazilian offshore islands - differences between species and influence of nesting habitat.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, Petra; Martínez, Javier; Bugoni, Leandro; Mancini, Patrícia L; Merino, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    Seabirds are often free from blood parasites, and a recent review suggested that phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters can determine the prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds. However, there is a lack of data available from many seabird groups, and a larger database is needed to understand prevalence patterns of blood parasites. We used a molecular screening approach to detect parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon and Babesia in five species of two genera of seabirds that breed on Atlantic Ocean islands off Brazil. The observed patterns differed between the two bird genera. Like other Laridae, brown noddy, Anous stolidus adults were infected with Haemoproteus with low prevalence. Masked boobies, Sula dactylatra and brown boobies, Sula leucogaster were infected with Babesia. Of the latter, mainly juveniles were infected. In all species, intensity of infection (i.e. number of infected erythrocytes) was so low that parasites remained undetected in blood smears. This may explain the absence of major effects on the body condition of birds, although infected juvenile masked boobies were lighter than juveniles that were not infected with Babesia. Two tree-nesting species; black noddy, Anous minutus and red-footed booby, Sula sula did not have blood parasites, suggesting that tree-nesting may reduce the exposure to arthropod vectors compared with ground nesting in these species. PMID:24229724

  5. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-08-31

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems.

  6. The Celtic fringe of Britain: insights from small mammal phylogeography.

    PubMed

    Searle, Jeremy B; Kotlík, Petr; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Marková, Silvia; Herman, Jeremy S; McDevitt, Allan D

    2009-12-22

    Recent genetic studies have challenged the traditional view that the ancestors of British Celtic people spread from central Europe during the Iron Age and have suggested a much earlier origin for them as part of the human recolonization of Britain at the end of the last glaciation. Here we propose that small mammals provide an analogue to help resolve this controversy. Previous studies have shown that common shrews (Sorex araneus) with particular chromosomal characteristics and water voles (Arvicola terrestris) of a specific mitochondrial (mt) DNA lineage have peripheral western/northern distributions with striking similarities to that of Celtic people. We show that mtDNA lineages of three other small mammal species (bank vole Myodes glareolus, field vole Microtus agrestis and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus) also form a 'Celtic fringe'. We argue that these small mammals most reasonably colonized Britain in a two-phase process following the last glacial maximum (LGM), with climatically driven partial replacement of the first colonists by the second colonists, leaving a peripheral geographical distribution for the first colonists. We suggest that these natural Celtic fringes provide insight into the same phenomenon in humans and support its origin in processes following the end of the LGM.

  7. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    ScienceCinema

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  8. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-10

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira.

  9. A synopsis of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Beaver, R A; Sittichaya, W; Liu, L-Y

    2014-01-01

    The present state of knowledge of the scolytine ambrosia beetles of Thailand is summarised to provide a basis for future studies of the fauna and its economic importance in forestry, timber production and crop tree plantations. A checklist of the fauna is provided with information on local and world distribution, host trees, biology and taxonomy. Six faunal elements based on geographical distribution, and the host tree and altitudinal preferences of species are discussed. One hundred and sixty-one species are recorded from Thailand, 67 of them for the first time. The following new synonym is proposed: Euwallacea wallacei (Blandford) (= Xyleborus barbatomorphus Schedl n.syn.). The following new combinations are given: Ambrosiophilus cristatulus (Schedl), Ambrosiophilus latisulcatus (Eggers), Beaverium dihingensis (Eggers), Beaverium lantanae (Eggers) and Immanus desectus (Eggers) are transferred from their present position in Ambrosiodmus; Ancipitis depressus (Eggers) and Ancipitis punctatissimus (Eichhoff) are transferred from Leptoxyleborus; Cyclorhipidion armipenne (Schedl), Cyclorhipidion inarmatum (Eggers), Euwallacea semiermis (Schedl), Fortiborus macropterus (Schedl), Microperus nudibrevis (Schedl) and Wallacellus minutus (Blandford) are transferred from Xyleborus. PMID:25544343

  10. Updating algal evolutionary relationships through plastid genome sequencing: did alveolate plastids emerge through endosymbiosis of an ochrophyte?

    PubMed

    Ševčíková, Tereza; Horák, Aleš; Klimeš, Vladimír; Zbránková, Veronika; Demir-Hilton, Elif; Sudek, Sebastian; Jenkins, Jerry; Schmutz, Jeremy; Přibyl, Pavel; Fousek, Jan; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B Franz; Oborník, Miroslav; Worden, Alexandra Z; Eliáš, Marek

    2015-05-28

    Algae with secondary plastids of a red algal origin, such as ochrophytes (photosynthetic stramenopiles), are diverse and ecologically important, yet their evolutionary history remains controversial. We sequenced plastid genomes of two ochrophytes, Ochromonas sp. CCMP1393 (Chrysophyceae) and Trachydiscus minutus (Eustigmatophyceae). A shared split of the clpC gene as well as phylogenomic analyses of concatenated protein sequences demonstrated that chrysophytes and eustigmatophytes form a clade, the Limnista, exhibiting an unexpectedly elevated rate of plastid gene evolution. Our analyses also indicate that the root of the ochrophyte phylogeny falls between the recently redefined Khakista and Phaeista assemblages. Taking advantage of the expanded sampling of plastid genome sequences, we revisited the phylogenetic position of the plastid of Vitrella brassicaformis, a member of Alveolata with the least derived plastid genome known for the whole group. The results varied depending on the dataset and phylogenetic method employed, but suggested that the Vitrella plastids emerged from a deep ochrophyte lineage rather than being derived vertically from a hypothetical plastid-bearing common ancestor of alveolates and stramenopiles. Thus, we hypothesize that the plastid in Vitrella, and potentially in other alveolates, may have been acquired by an endosymbiosis of an early ochrophyte.

  11. A seasonal comparison of zooplankton communities in the Kara Sea - With special emphasis on overwintering traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosobokova, Ksenia Nikolaevna; Hirche, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    Siberian marginal seas cover large parts of the marine Arctic and host unique zooplankton communities. Detailed knowledge of their community structure and life history traits is a prerequisite to predict their response to ongoing and future climate and anthropogenic changes although winter data is extremely rare. Here data are presented from winter samples (February and April) in four biogeographic regions of the Kara Sea. Comparison of community composition and zooplankton abundance/biomass with data collected during summer showed lower diversity in winter, mainly due to the absence of freshwater species. In contrast to many other northern regions, seasonal biomass differences were relatively small. Year-round high biomass is maintained through a large share of small copepod species and constantly high share of the chaetognath Parasagitta elegans. An advanced state of gonad maturation and reproduction was observed in winter in herbivorous, omnivorous, and carnivorous species, e.g. the copepods Calanus glacialis, Drepanopus bungei, Limnocalanus macrurus, Oithona similis, Pseudocalanus major, Pseudocalanus minutus/acuspes, Paraeuchaeta glacialis, Microcalanus pygmaeus, and euphausiids, hydromedusae, and pteropods. Meroplanktonic larvae of nudibranchia, polychaeta and bivalvia were also registered. Close to the Yenisei mouth, abundance of eggs and larvae of various taxa exceeded older stages. Our data show that the brackish-water zone of the Kara Sea hosts specific communities with omnivorous species efficiently exploiting local resources during the winter and utilizing them for winter reproduction.

  12. Pinworm diversity in free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) in Mexico: Morphological and molecular evidence for two new Trypanoxyuris species (Nematoda: Oxyuridae).

    PubMed

    Solórzano-García, Brenda; Nadler, Steven A; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2016-10-01

    Two new species of Trypanoxyuris are described from the intestine of free-ranging howler monkeys in Mexico, Trypanoxyuris multilabiatus n. sp. from the mantled howler Alouatta palliata, and Trypanoxyuris pigrae n. sp. from the black howler Alouatta pigra. An integrative taxonomic approach is followed, where conspicuous morphological traits and phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences are used to test the validity of the two new species. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the nuclear ribosomal 18S and 28S rRNA genes were used for evolutionary analyses, with the concatenated dataset of all three genes used for maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. The two new species of pinworms from howler monkeys were morphologically distinct and formed reciprocally monophyletic lineages in molecular phylogenetic trees. The three species from howler monkeys, T. multilabiatus n. sp., T. pigrae n. sp., and Trypanoxyuris minutus, formed a monophyletic group with high bootstrap and posterior probability support values. Phylogenetic patterns inferred from sequence data support the hypothesis of a close evolutionary association between these primate hosts and their pinworm parasites. The results suggest that the diversity of pinworm parasites from Neotropical primates might be underestimated.

  13. Serological surveillance of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis in small mammals captured at firing points 10 and 60, Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Lee, John S; Richards, Allen L; Kim, Heung-Chul; Ha, Si Jung; Shim, So Hee; Baek, Luck Ju; Song, Ki-Joon; Chong, Sung-Tae; Turell, Michael J; Burkett, Douglas A; Schuster, Anthony; Lee, In-Yong; Yi, Suk-Hee; Sames, William J; Song, Jin-Won

    2010-03-01

    Soldiers from the Republic of Korea and the United States conducting peacetime military operations at various training sites and multiple range complexes located near the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea are exposed to rodents and their potentially disease-carrying ectoparasites. These diseases include scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis. Many of the training sites are rural or semi-rural, surrounded or co-located with various forms of agriculture, and are infested with rodents and insectivores (as well as their ectoparasites), which are commonly found in association with unmanaged tall grasses, scrub, and crawling vegetation habitats. For 5 years, rodents and insectivores were collected seasonally (spring, summer, fall, and winter) at firing points 10 and 60 near the demilitarized zone and serologically tested for the presence of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and leptospirosis antibodies. Of the nine species of small mammals collected, Apodemus agrarius, the common striped field mouse and known reservoir of scrub typhus, was the most frequently collected (90.6%). Only four of the nine species captured, A. agrarius (60.9%), Micromys minutus (100%), Mus musculus (55.6%), and Rattus norvegicus (46.7%), were positive for scrub typhus. Of all the small mammals captured, only A. agrarius was positive for murine typhus (0.3%) and leptospirosis (1.3%). Seasonal and annual prevalence rates based on weight and sex are presented.

  14. Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Firing Points 10 and 60, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Lee, John S; Kim, Heung-Chul; Baek, Luck-Ju; Chong, Sung-Tae; Turell, Michael J; Burkett, Douglas A; Schuster, Anthony; Lee, In-Yong; Yi, Suk-Hee; Sames, William J; Song, Ki-Joon; Song, Jin-Won

    2008-12-01

    Throughout Korea, small mammals are hosts to a number of disease-causing agents that pose a health threat to U.S. and Korean military forces while they conduct field-training exercises. A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at two firing points (FP), FP-10, and FP-60, and conducted over five years from 2001 through 2005 in response to hantavirus cases among U.S. soldiers. The ecology of these sites consisted primarily of tall grasses associated with semi-permanent and temporary water sources (drainage ditches and a small stream) and dry-land agriculture farming. Eight species of rodents and one species of insectivore were collected, including Apodemus agrarius, Micromys minutus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Tscherskia triton, Microtus fortis, Myodes regulus, and Crocidura lasiura. The striped field mouse, A. agrarius, (primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, the causative agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever), was the most frequently collected, representing 90.6% of the 1,288 small mammals captured at both sites. Reported herein are the ecological parameters, seasonal population densities, and seasonal population characteristics associated with small mammals collected at two military training sites in the Republic of Korea.

  15. Hantaan virus surveillance in small mammals at firing points 10 and 60, Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John S; Turell, Michael J; Sames, William J; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Moon, Sungsil; Lee, Sook-Young; Chun, YuJin; Song, Jin-Won

    2012-08-01

    We used epidemiological data and indirect fluorescent antibody tests to determine the Hantaan virus (HTNV) antibody-positive (Ab+) prevalence in small mammals captured at firing point 10 (FP-10) and firing point 60 (FP-60), Gyeonggi Province, near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea (ROK), from 2001 to 2005. We used these data, combined with the partial M segment amplified from HTNV recovered from lung tissues of Apodemus agrarius, to clarify the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among HTNV strains in the ROK. Of the eight species of rodents and one insectivore species captured, A. agrarius accounted for 93.4% and 88.5% at FP-10 and FP-60, respectively. Only two species of rodents, A. agrarius and Micromys minutus, were HTNV Ab+. The overall HTNV Ab+ prevalence for A. agrarius captured at FP-10 and FP-60 was 23.3% (121/520) and 14.5% (94/647), respectively. The hantaviral reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive rate of Ab+ A. agrarius was 74.2% (167/215), and the phylogenetic trees, based on the 269-nucleotide G2-encoding M segment, demonstrated that HTNV strains from FP-10 and FP-60 were distantly segregated from HTNV of other geographic regions in Korea and China. These data are useful in the development of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of hantavirus infections among military personnel, especially during training or the event of hostilities, and civilian populations.

  16. Parasites of commercially important fish from Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Otachi, Elick O; Magana, Adiel E M; Jirsa, Franz; Fellner-Frank, Christine

    2014-03-01

    In Lake Naivasha, the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. 1758 was accidentally introduced from fish farms adjacent to River Malewa in 1999 and now forms the bulk of the total fish caught. Since its introduction, no study has been made on its parasitic community nor are there any reports on ectoparasites from other fish species in this lake to the best of our knowledge. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the parasitic community of C. carpio and two other commercially important fish species: Oreochromis leucostictus and Tilapia zillii. Additionally, the abundant Barbus paludinosus was included in the study. A total of 286 fish (145C. carpio, 56 O. leucostictus, 18 T. zillii, and 67 B. paludinosus) were collected during the year 2011 and examined. Ten taxa of parasites were recovered from C. carpio dominated by the monogenean Dactylogyrus minutus, occurring with a prevalence (p) of 99.3%. Thirteen taxa of parasites were identified from O. leucostictus dominated by monogeneans Cichlidogyrus spp. (p = 91.1%). T. zillii harbored nine taxa of parasites with the digenean Tylodelphys sp. (p = 83.3%) being dominant and B. paludinosus harbored 11 taxa of parasites dominated by an unidentified monogenean of the genus Dactylogyrus (p = 83.6%). C. carpio had the lowest helminth species diversity and richness while monogenetic trematodes, which have never been reported from fish in Lake Naivasha, were the most prevalent parasites recovered. PMID:24407916

  17. Emmonsiosis of wild rodents and insectivores in Czechland.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z

    1999-04-01

    Adiaspores of the fungus Emmonsia crescens were detected microscopically in the lung tissue of 13% of 10.081 small mammals belonging to 24 species examined in 14 areas of the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1997; 441/1.934 (23%) Clethrionomys glareolus, 1/6 (17%) Arvicola terrestris, 357/2.172 (16%) Apodemus flavicollis, 220/1.981 (11%). A sylvaticus, 23/265 (9%) A. microps, 11/81 (14%) Microtus subterraneus, 93/1.275 (7%) M. arvalis, 98/1.439 (7%) M. agrestis, 1/3 (33%) Ondatra zibethicus, 1/1 Cricetus cricetus, 1/20 (5%) Crocidura suaveolens, 2/40 (5%) Neomys fodiens, and 13/529 (2%) Sorex araneus were infected. Emmonsiosis was not recorded among the species of rodents that do not build their nests in the soil (Muscardinus avellanarius, Micromys minutus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus). The overall prevalence of emmonsiosis was significantly higher in adult (19%) than in juvenile (7%) mammals, and in rodents (13%, and 20% in adults) than in insectivores (2%, and 4% in adults). The frequency of infected mammals also varied according to geographic area, altitude, habitat, and season.

  18. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs.

    PubMed

    Russell, Brandon J; Dierssen, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus) was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400-550 nm) and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm) where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface.

  19. [High prevalence and diversity of blood parasites of passerine birds in Southern Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Val'kiunas, G; Ezhova, T A; Mironov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Thirty nine specimens of passerine birds belonging to 19 species and eight families were investigated by blood smear technique in four localities of Southern Turkmenistan in 3-18 August 1991. The overall prevalence of infection was 59%. Protists from the orders Haemosporida (genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon), Kinetoplastida (Trypanosoma), and Adeleida (Hepatozoon), as well as Microfilaria were found. Haemoproteids (the prevalence of infection is 44%), leucocytozoids (23%), malarial parasites (13%) and trypanosomes (13%) were most frequently recorded. Only low chronic infections (< 1% of infected cells for the great majority of intracellular parasites, and a few trypanosomes and Microfilaria in each blood smear) were seen. Haemoproteus belopolskyi, H. balmorali, H. dolniki, H. magnus, H. minutus, H. fringillae, H. majoris, Leucocytozoon dubreuili, and Trypanosoma avium were recorded for the first time in Turkmenistan. The former five above-mentioned species of haemoproteids are new records for the fauna of Middle Asia. Gametocytes of leucocytozoids in fusiform host cells were found for the first time in passerine birds in the Holarctic. The host is Parus bokharensis. Due to the wide distribution and the opportunity to collect a large parasitological material using harmless for hosts methods, bird haemosporidian parasites can be used as convenient models for ecological and evolutionary biology studies in South Turkmenistan. The heavily infected Orphean Warbler Sylvia hortensis is an especially convenient host for such purposes.

  20. ATHENA, the Desktop Human "Body"

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Rashi; Harris, Jennifer

    2014-09-29

    Creating surrogate human organs, coupled with insights from highly sensitive mass spectrometry technologies, a new project is on the brink of revolutionizing the way we screen new drugs and toxic agents. ATHENA, the Advanced Tissue-engineered Human Ectypal Network Analyzer project team, is developing four human organ constructs - liver, heart, lung and kidney - that are based on a significantly miniaturized platform. Each organ component will be about the size of a smartphone screen, and the whole ATHENA "body" of interconnected organs would fit neatly on a desk. "By developing this 'homo minutus,' we are stepping beyond the need for animal or Petri dish testing: There are huge benefits in developing drug and toxicity analysis systems that can mimic the response of actual human organs," said Rashi Iyer, a senior scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the lead laboratory on the five-year, $19 million multi-institutional effort. The project is supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). Some 40 percent of pharmaceuticals fail their clinical trials, Iyer noted, and there are thousands of chemicals whose effects on humans are simply unknown. Providing a realistic, cost-effective and rapid screening system such as ATHENA with high-throughput capabilities could provide major benefits to the medical field, screening more accurately and offering a greater chance of clinical trial success.

  1. Efficacy of an in-feed formulation containing ivermectin for the control of intestinal strongyles in captive zebras (Equus burchelli (Gray, 1824)).

    PubMed

    Lia, Riccardo P; Traversa, Donato; Laricchiuta, Piero; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Paradies, Romina; Alvinerie, Michel; Krecek, Rosina C; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-19

    The efficacy of medicated food pellets (containing 10mg of ivermectin per kg, UNIFEED, Veronesi, Verona, Italy) was evaluated for the control of intestinal strongyles in a group of captive zebras (Equus burchelli) at the Safari Park, Fasano (Apulia region, Brindisi Province, southern Italy). The egg reappearance period and the faecal egg counts in terms of eggs per gram of faeces were investigated. From day 0 until day +9, 30 zebras were fed with medicated pellets and pooled faecal samples were collected from the floor of paddocks. The drug showed an efficacy of 100% for up to 78 days post-treatment, with one exception. Strongyle eggs collected prior to the treatment were used to perform coprocultures and larvae harvested were molecularly identified as Cylicostephanus minutus and Cylicocyclus leptostomum with a reverse line blot hybridization assay. The administration of ivermectin with medicated food pellets was effective in controlling intestinal strongylosis in captive zebras. The opportunity to treat captive ungulates with an in-feed anthelmintic is discussed in relation to the fractious nature of these animals, which often impairs helminth control programs in zoo-parks.

  2. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  3. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An empirical study of their effects on intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Matthias; Hußmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question of our study is to assess whether the use of living animals in the biology classroom supports intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition. In a pre-/post-test design, 185 fifth graders received two different treatments: the experimental group (N = 74) was taught with living harvest mice (Micromys minutus) and the control group (N = 111) received lessons with the same content which was presented in short film clips on laptop computers. Knowledge acquisition was assessed with open-ended and closed questions, while intrinsic motivation was tested with an adapted version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). There were no differences in knowledge acquisition between the treatments. However, the results of the IMI showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group in interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy. Thus, living animals exert a positive influence on motivation.

  4. Use of Hyperspectral Imagery to Assess Cryptic Color Matching in Sargassum Associated Crabs.

    PubMed

    Russell, Brandon J; Dierssen, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Mats of the pelagic macroalgae Sargassum represent a complex environment for the study of marine camouflage at the air-sea interface. Endemic organisms have convergently evolved similar colors and patterns, but quantitative assessments of camouflage strategies are lacking. Here, spectral camouflage of two crab species (Portunus sayi and Planes minutus) was assessed using hyperspectral imagery (HSI). Crabs matched Sargassum reflectance across blue and green wavelengths (400-550 nm) and diverged at longer wavelengths. Maximum discrepancy was observed in the far-red (i.e., 675 nm) where Chlorophyll a absorption occurred in Sargassum and not the crabs. In a quantum catch color model, both crabs showed effective color matching against blue/green sensitive dichromat fish, but were still discernible to tetrachromat bird predators that have visual sensitivity to far red wavelengths. The two species showed opposing trends in background matching with relation to body size. Variation in model parameters revealed that discrimination of crab and background was impacted by distance from the predator, and the ratio of cone cell types for bird predators. This is one of the first studies to detail background color matching in this unique, challenging ecosystem at the air-sea interface. PMID:26352667

  5. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jerinić-Prodanović, Dušanka; Protić, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  6. New Coleoptera records for New Brunswick, Canada: Kateretidae, Nitidulidae, Cerylonidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, and Latridiidae.

    PubMed

    Webster, Reginald P; Sweeney, Jon D; Demerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    We report 20 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna in New Brunswick, Canada, five of which are new records for the Maritime provinces, including one species that is new for Canada. One species of Kateretidae, Kateretes pusillus (Thunberg) is newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Stelidota octomaculata (Say), Phenolia grossa (Fabricius), andCryptarcha strigatula Parsons of the family Nitidulidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick; the latter species is new to the Maritime provinces. Two species of Cerylonidae, Philothermus glabriculus LeConte and Cerylon unicolor (Ziegler), are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Philothermus glabriculus is new for the Maritime provinces. Two species of Endomychidae, Hadromychus chandleri Bousquet and Leschen and Danae testacea (Ziegler) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Three species of Coccinelidae, Stethorus punctum punctum (LeConte), Naemia seriata seriata Melsheimer, and Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) are added to the provincial list. Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) is a species new to the Maritime provinces. Nine species of Latridiidae, Cartodere nodifer (Westwood), Dienerella ruficollis (Marsham), Enicmus aterrimus Motschulsky, Enicmus fictus Fall, Encimus histrio Jay and Tomlin, Lathridius minutus (Linnaeus), Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer, Corticaria elongata (Gyllenhal), and Corticarina longipennis (LeConte) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Stephostehus productus is newly recorded from Canada. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species.

  7. Neogene diatom and silicoflagellate biostratigraphy of Naples Beach, California

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrette, R.J.; Marolt, R.E.; Finger, K.L.

    1986-04-01

    Diatoms and silicoflagellates recovered from Monterey Formation outcrops along Naples Beach, California, provide detailed biostratigraphy in the middle Miocene to upper Pliocene strata. Thirty-eight diatom and six silicoflagellate index species are identified among the 178 selected taxa documented in this section. Seven diatom zones and subzones of J. Barron's northeastern Pacific diatom zonation are recognized in this section. These zones range from the Denticulopsis lauta subzone a (+15.0 m.y.) to the base of the Thalasiosira oestrupii zone (approx. 5.0 m.y.). In addition, several diatom occurrences provide direction correlation between the Naples Beach section and DSDP Sites 173 and 469 off the northern and southern California coasts, respectively. A new silicoflagellate zonation is proposed for the Naples Beach section of the Monterey Formation, which consists of two range zones, the Corbisema triacantha and the Distephanus speculum minutus, and four subzones. These four subzones are characterized by Distephanus crux parvus, Mesocena diodon, Distephanus pseudofibula, and Distephanus frugalis, respectively. This zonation provides greater precision than previous biostratigraphic divisions of the DSDP sites. A new silicoflagellate species of the genus Dictyocha Ehrenberg is also described.

  8. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Evenness and Copepod Abundance in Lake Nansihu, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wang; Zhang, Huayong; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Xiang; Huang, Hai

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a central issue in ecology. Previous studies have shown that producer diversity can impact the consumer community via predator-prey interactions. However, direct observations of this relationship remain rare, in particular for aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between phytoplankton diversity (species richness and evenness) and the abundance of copepods was analyzed in Lake Nansihu, a meso-eutrophic lake in China. The results showed that copepods abundance was significantly decreased with increasing phytoplankton evenness throughout the year. However, both species richness and phytoplankton biomass showed no significant relationship with the abundance of copepods. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phytoplankton evenness was negatively correlated with Thermocyclops kawamurai, Cyclops vicinus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Sinocalanus tenellus, Sinocalanus dorrii, Copepods nauplius, but positively correlated with many Cyanophyta species (Chroococcus minutus, Dactylococcopsis acicularis, Microcystis incerta, Merismopedia tenuissima, Merismopedia sinica and Lyngbya limnetica). Based on our results, phytoplankton evenness was a better predictor of copepods abundance in meso-eutrophic lakes. These results provide new insights into the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:27589782

  9. New distributional data on aquatic and semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha & Nepomorpha) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Isabelle R S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Water bugs in general play an important role in freshwater ecosystems, and knowledge about them is essential for the study of water biology and the proper management of aquatic habitats. The Neotropical fauna is relatively well known, but the existence of large under-collected areas makes taxonomic and faunistic studies concerning the aquatic and semiaquatic bugs from tropical America urgent. New information Distributional information is presented for thirty-eight species of Gerromorpha and five Nepomorpha, including first records from the Brazilian states of Bahia (Mesovelia amoena), Ceará (Limnogonus profugus and Rhagovelia whitei), Espírito Santo (R. lucida), Goiás (Halobatopsis platensis and R. zela), Mato Grosso (Rheumatobates bonariensis), Pará (Nerthra terrestris), Paraná (H. spiniventris, Hydrometra fruhstorferi and R. janeira), Piauí (Microvelia ayacuchana, M. pulchella, Neogerris lubricus and Platyvelia brachialis), Rio de Janeiro (Martarega bentoi) and São Paulo (Rheumatobates minutus flavidus); and the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios (Rhagovelia fontanalis). PMID:25892925

  10. Nutritional studies on East African herbivores. 2. Losses of nitrogen in the faeces.

    PubMed

    Arman, P; Hopcraft, D; McDonald, I

    1975-03-01

    1. A series of nitrogen-balance trials was done using groups of four animals of various species of wild and domesticated ruminants using pelleted diets (Arman & Hopcraft, 1975). 2. Various herbivores were given grass or grass hays, legumes, herbs and shrubs. Food and faecal samples were analysed for N. 3. With the pelleted diets, the N content of the faecal dry matter (DM) was low for eland (Taurotragus oryx Pallas), high for sheep and cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus) and intermediate for the three small antelope species (hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokei Günther), Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii Günther) and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia L.)). With the natural doffers, similar relationships were found, together with variations associated with the type of diet. 4. Three forms of equation were used to express the relationship between faecal N and food N. One of the forms, the linear regression of g faecal N/kg DM intake v. g food N/kg DM intake, fitted the results less well than did the other two and was not used to estimate metabolic faecal N(MFN) losses9 5. MFN was calculated by extrapolation of linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g N intake/kg faecal DM for the pelleted diets. The range of values was (g N/kg faecal DM): Friesians 7-6, eland 8-1, zebu cattle 11-0 and small antelope and sheep 11-5-12-69 There were significant differences (P smaller than 0-001) between species in slopes and intercepts. 6. MFN was calculated from linear regressions of g faecal N/kg faecal DM v. g food N/kg food DM for all diets. This method gave the best fit for the pelleted diets. Values for these diets were (g N/kg faecal DM): eland 8-3, cattle and sheep 9-3-11-0 and small antelope 11-6-12-3. Species differences were significant (P smaller than 0-001). With grasses, values ranged from 5-9 for non-ruminants (rabbit (domesticated), warthog (Phacohoerus aethiopicus Pallas) and hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius L.)) plus eland and wildebeest (Connochaetes

  11. Analysis of variability in atmospheric methane in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Rona; Stohl, Andreas; Lund-Myhre, Cathrine; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, Dave; Nisbet, Euan; Aalto, Tuula; Dlugokencky, Edward; Crotwell, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas and contributes 0.5 Wm-2 to radiative forcing. Globally, atmospheric CH4 concentrations have increased since direct measurements began in the early 1980s but then stabilized between 1999 and 2006. However, since 2007, the atmospheric CH4 growth rate has become positive again. This recent change has caused concerns that it may be the response to climate feedbacks in the Arctic, where there is a potential for a large release of CH4 to the atmosphere under warmer conditions. Such feedbacks include high latitude wetlands (and their expansion by melting permafrost) and methane hydrates. Conversely, recent studies, suggest that this change is the result of a rise in wetland emissions of CH4 in the tropics and subtropics, driven by climate variation such as ENSO, combined with a rise in fossil fuel emissions. We examined the in-situ records of CH4 mole fractions in the Arctic from Zeppelin in Svalbard, Pallas in Finland, and Barrow in Alaska, as well as discrete samples from Alert in Canada and Summit in Greenland. These sites were chosen as they all have measurements at least since the early 2000s. We found marked variability in the atmospheric growth rate of CH4 in the Arctic, in particular, at Zeppelin and Pallas, which was not explained by variability in the global growth rate. Causes of the Arctic variability were investigated using the Lagrangian transport model, FLEXPART, and ECMWF meteorological reanalysis data. We found that the observed variability could also not be explained by changes in atmospheric transport. Measurements of the methane isotope (δ13CH4) at Zeppelin, together with atmospheric transport analyses, point to an important influence of high latitude wetland emissions at this site, especially from Northern Eurasia. Variability in the CH4 growth rate at Zeppelin was found to be correlated with anomalies in soil temperature in Northern Eurasia, suggesting that climate driven changes in high latitude wetland

  12. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Farias, Solange Gomes; Rissino, Jorge Dores; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR) and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará). Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern). Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of Rhinophylla pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to Rhinophylla pumilio (pair 15). However, two chromosomes of Mimon crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other

  13. Design of a multiple flyby mission to Phaethon, 2005UD and 1999YC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarli, Bruno; Arai, Tomoko; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    3200 Phaethon is a B-type asteroid parent of the Geminid meteor shower and different from what is expected, Phaethon does not show any cometary features, unlike parent bodies (comets) for most of the meteor showers. The observed sodium depletion in the Geminid meteoroid suggests that Phaethon/Geminid can consist of primitive cometary materials and locally melted differentiated materials. The nature of Phaethon remains an open question and currently highly debated. Asteroids 2005UD and 1999YC are likely fragments originated from Phaethon due to their similar orbital properties, called PGC: Phaethon Geminid Complex. Also, a main-belt asteroid Pallas has been recently suggested to be genetically linked with Phaethon. Thus, making Phaethon a critical mission target to understand the chemical, physical and dynamic evolution of planetismals in the early solar system. A space mission to PGC can provide us with key information to understand the origins of Phaethon, PGC and possibly Pallas, and solve the fundamental issues in solar system sciences. Because of its scientific importance, Phaethon was a target candidate for NASA's Deep Impact mission and the OSIRIS-Rex mission. This study is developed assessing a multiple flyby mission for Phaethon, 2005UD and 1999YC. The objective is to design a simple multiple flyby mission based on ballistic transfers allied with gravity assisted maneuvers, identifying the global minimum energy trajectories taking into account the system design requirements, like an initial condition possible to be attained by the Epsilon rocket, Japan's latest launcher. Initial transfer results show periodical launch opportunities to all three asteroids with Phaethon been reached with less than 1 km/s. With a maximum of 3 km/s, several launch windows were obtained for Phaethon and 2005UD. However, 1999YC cannot be achieved with less than 4 km/s, unless a gravity assist maneuver is performed on Mars which allows an Earth-Mars-1999YC transfer with less than

  14. The solar system's invariable plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souami, D.; Souchay, J.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The dynamics of solar system objects, such as dwarf planets and asteroids, has become a well-established field of celestial mechanics in the past thirty years, owing to the improvements that have been made in observational techniques and numerical studies. In general, the ecliptic is taken as the reference plane in these studies, although there is no dynamical reason for doing so. In contrast, the invariable plane as originally defined by Laplace, seems to be a far more natural choice. In this context, the latest study of this plane dates back to Burkhardt. Aims: We define and determine the orientation of the invariable plane of the solar system with respect to both the ICRF and the equinox-ecliptic of J2000.0, and evaluate the accuracy of our determination. Methods: Using the long-term numerical ephemerides DE405, DE406, and INPOP10a over their entire available time span, we computed the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the individual contribution to it made by each of the planets, the dwarf planets Pluto and Ceres, and the two asteroids Pallas and Vesta. We then deduced the orientation of the invariable plane from these ephemerides. Results: We update the previous results on the determination of the orientation of the invariable plane with more accurate data, and a more complete analysis of the problem, taking into account the effect of the dwarf planet (1) Ceres as well as two of the biggest asteroids, (4) Vesta and (2) Pallas. We show that the inclusion of these last three bodies significantly improves the accuracy of determination of the invariable plane, whose orientation over a 100 y interval does not vary more than 0.1 mas in inclination, and 0.3 mas in longitude of the ascending node. Moreover, we determine the individual contributions of each body to the total angular momentum of the solar system, as well as the inclination and longitude of the node with respect to this latter plane. Conclusions: Owing to the high accuracy

  15. Mercury depletion events over Antarctic and Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerentorp Mastromonaco, M. G.; Gardfeldt, K.; Wangberg, I.; Jourdain, B.; Dommergue, A.; Kuronen, P.; Pirrone, N.; Jacobi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant and in its elemental form it is spread by air to remote areas far away from point sources. In Antarctic and Arctic regions the airborne mercury may be oxidized, followed by deposition of the metal on land and sea surfaces. It is previously known that during early spring in these regions, processes involving halogen radical photochemistry induce an oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in air. This phenomenon is known as an atmospheric mercury depletion event (AMDE) and is characterized by sudden and remarkable decreases in GEM that occurs within hours or days. All or most part of the GEM in air is transformed into gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and particulate mercury (HgP). Equivalent ozone depletion events (ODE) do also occur in Antarctic and Arctic regions and the halogen radical photolytic processes involved for AMDEs and ODEs are interrelated. During two oceanographic campaigns at the Weddell Sea onboard RV Polarstern, ANTXXIX/6 (130608-130812) and ANTXXIX/7 (130814-131016), continuous measurements of GEM, GOM and HgP in air were performed using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. This is the first time such long time series of GEM-, GOM- and HgP data has been achieved over water in the Antarctic during winter and spring. Several mercury depletion events were detected as early as in the middle of July and are correlated and verified with ozone measurements onboard the ship. The observed depletion events were characterised by sudden major decreases in both GEM and ozone concentrations and highly elevated values of HgP. A depletion event is a local phenomenon but evidences show that traces of such events can be detected far away from its origin. During a spring campaign at the Pallas-Matorova station in northern Finland (68o00'N, 24o14'E), GEM, GOM and HgP were measured during three weeks in April 2012 using the Tekran mercury speciation system 1130/35. Traces of remote AMDEs were observed by sudden decreases of GEM

  16. Rainfall influences on ungulate population abundance in the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Ogutu, J O; Piepho, H-P; Dublin, H T; Bhola, N; Reid, R S

    2008-07-01

    1. Rainfall is the prime climatic factor underpinning the dynamics of African savanna ungulates, but no study has analysed its influence on the abundance of these ungulates at monthly to multiannual time scales. 2. We report relationships between rainfall and changes in age- and sex-structured abundances of seven ungulate species monitored monthly for 15 years using vehicle ground counts in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya. 3. Abundance showed strong and curvilinear relationships with current and cumulative rainfall, with older topi, Damaliscus korrigum (Ogilby); warthog, Phacochoerus aethiopicus (Pallas); waterbuck, Kobus ellipsyprimnus (Ogilby); and impala, Aepyceros melampus (Lichtenstein) responding to longer lags than younger animals, portraying carryover effects of prior habitat conditions. 4. The abundances of newborn calves were best correlated with monthly rainfall averaged over the preceding 5-6 months for topi, waterbuck, warthog, and 2 months for the migratory zebra Equus burchelli (Gray), but with seasonal rainfall averaged over 2-5 years for giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.); impala; and kongoni, Alcelaphus busephalus (Pallas). The cumulative late wet-season rainfall was the best predictor of abundance for quarter- to full-grown animals for most species. Monthly rainfall exerted both negative and positive effects on the abundances of zebra, impala and waterbuck. Ignoring age, both sexes responded similarly to rainfall. 5. Births were strongly seasonal only for warthog and topi, but peaked between August and December for most species. Hence abundance was strongly seasonal for young topi and warthog and the migratory zebra. Pronounced seasonality in births for warthog and topi obliterated otherwise strong relationships between abundance and rainfall when both month and rainfall were included in the same model. Aggregated density produced relationships with rainfall similar to those for fully grown animals, emphasizing the necessity of

  17. Fish and macro-crustacean communities and their dynamics in the Severn Estuary.

    PubMed

    Henderson, P A; Bird, D J

    2010-01-01

    The species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the Severn Estuary are reviewed. The fish community is notably species rich and exceeds 100 species in total for the estuary. Standardised long-term sampling at Hinkley Point in Bridgwater Bay gives a total complement of 83 for a single locality and this number is increasing by about one new species every two years. Most of these new species are moving in from centres of population lying to the south of the estuary. Almost all species of fish and macro-crustacean living within the estuary undertake regular migrations so that they tend to move seasonally in waves up and down the estuary. For fish, both species richness and the total abundance reach a maximum in late summer and autumn. The timing of this peak varies between the upper and lower estuary. This seasonal maximum is primarily caused by the arrival of the new recruits which use the estuary as a nursery. In contrast, crustaceans tend to be at their most diverse and abundant in early to mid summer. Using a 30-year time series of fish and crustacean abundance collected at Hinkley Point it is shown that major changes in the structure of the community are now underway and there are considerable recent changes in the abundance. However, some abundant species, including sand goby, Pomatoschistus spp., whiting, Merlangius merlangus and sprat, Sprattus sprattus, the three most abundant species in the estuary, have shown no long-term trend. At present, approximately 20% of the fish and macro-crustaceans observed in Bridgwater Bay are undergoing rapid, typically exponential, change in abundance. For a numerically abundant, diverse, fauna composed of approximately 90 species such levels of change are unexpected and suggest that the system is presently far from equilibrium. In some cases, the observed changes can be related to recent warming and the North Atlantic Oscillation. The overall increase in fish abundance observed may reflect a general improvement in water

  18. Environmental factors structuring fish composition and assemblages in a small macrotidal estuary (eastern English Channel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleslagh, Jonathan; Amara, Rachid

    2008-09-01

    The fish assemblage structure was analyzed along an estuarine gradient of a small macrotidal estuary (the Canche, France). Fishes were collected every two months between May 2006 and July 2007 from 12 sampling stations using a 1.5-m beam trawl with a 5 mm mesh size in the cod end. To complement this information, sampling was also performed using 15-m fyke nets (8 mm mesh size in the cod end). For each sample, abiotic (temperature, salinity, pH, oxygen, turbidity, river flow, wind speed and depth) and biotic (macro crustacean species abundances) were recorded. Throughout the study, 28 fish species belonging to 20 families were collected. Fish catches were dominated by juveniles, especially Young-Of-the-Year (YOY) for the majority of the species. According to the Index of Relative Importance (IRI), common goby Pomatoschistus microps, flounder Platichtys flesus, sprat Sprattus sprattus, sea-bass Dicentrarchus labrax and plaice Pleuronectes platessa were the most abundant species, together accounting for 99.2% of the total IRI. Estuarine residents (ER = 66.2%) and marine juvenile migrants species (MJ = 31.4%) were the most important ecological guilds. The structure of the fish assemblage and its relationship to environmental variables was examined using multivariate techniques. Cluster and non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis defined six distinct groups in the Canche estuary, which are discriminated by specific species (SIMPER). Spatio-temporal variations in fish assemblage structure reflect the density peaks of the most abundant species. Spearman rank correlations and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that among the ten environmental variables examined, temperature, salinity and Crangon crangon (a potential predator for YOY fish or prey for older ones) are the three most important factors influencing fish species richness and abundances. Our observations reinforce the idea that certain fish species may have different life history styles in

  19. Observations on the palynology, petrography and geochemistry of the Western Kentucky number 4 coal bed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eble, C.F.; Greb, S.F.; Williams, D.A.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Eight bench-column samples of the Western Kentucky Number 4 coal bed, collected from an area along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field, were analyzed palynologically, petrographically, and geochemically to document both temporal and spatial variability among these parameters. The Western Kentucky Number 4 coal occurs near the top of the Tradewater Formation, is of Early Desmoinesian age, and is correlative with the lower part of the Allegheny Formation of the Appalachian Basin, and Late Bolsovian strata of western Europe. Palynologically, the coal is co-dominated by spores that were produced by lycopod trees (Lycospora and Granasporites medius) and tree ferns. Thin-walled tree fern spores (Punctatisporites minutus, P. minutus, P. rotundus) are more abundant than thick-walled forms (Laevigatosporites globosus, P. granifer). Calamitean spores (Calamospora and Laevigatosporites spp.) are locally abundant as is cordaitean pollen (Florinites). Small fern (Granulatisporites) and small lycopod spores (Densosporites, Cirratriradites, Endosporites and Anacanthotriletes spinosus) are present, but occur in minor amounts. Temporal changes in palynomorph composition occur, but are not uniform between columns. Spatial variability among columns is also evident. Petrographically, the coal is dominated by vitrinite macerals, with telinite and telocollinite generally occurring more commonly than desmocollinite and gelocollinite. Basal benches typically contain high percentages of vitrinite; middle benches usually contain higher percentages of liptinite and inertinite. In about half the studied columns, the terminal coal benches show a slight increase in vitrinite. In the study area, the petrography of the Western Kentucky Number 4 coal is more uniform than the palynology. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are temporally uniform in some columns, but variable in others. In the latter case, higher percentages of ash and sulfur occur at the base of the bed and

  20. Presence of Native Prey Does Not Divert Predation on Exotic Pests by Harmonia axyridis in Its Indigenous Range

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui Fen; Lövei, Gábor L; Wu, Xia; Wan, Fang Hao

    2016-01-01

    In China, two invasive pests, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 (Gennadius) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), often co-occur with the native pest, Aphis gossypii (Glover), on plants of Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae. All three are preyed on by the native ladybird, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas); however, the native predator might be expected to prefer native prey to the exotic ones due to a shared evolutionary past. In order to clarify whether the presence of native prey affected the consumption of these two invasive species by the native predator, field-cage experiments were conducted. A duplex qPCR was used to simultaneously detect both non-native pests within the gut of the predator. H. axyridis readily accepted both invasive prey species, but preferred B. tabaci. With all three prey species available, H. axyridis consumption of B. tabaci was 39.3±2.2% greater than consumption of F. occidentalis. The presence of A. gossypii reduced (by 59.9% on B. tabaci, and by 60.6% on F. occidentalis), but did not stop predation on the two exotic prey when all three were present. The consumption of B. tabaci was similar whether it was alone or together with A. gossypii. However, the presence of aphids reduced predation on the invasive thrips. Thus, some invasive prey may be incorporated into the prey range of a native generalist predator even in the presence of preferred native prey. PMID:27391468

  1. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management.

  2. A new rhabditoid nematode species in Asian sciurids, distinct from Strongyloides robustus in North American sciurids.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Torii, Harumi; Une, Yumi; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2007-12-01

    Strongyloides callosciureus n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditoidea), from Asian sciurids, is described based on morphology, morphometry, and the small and large subunit (SSU/LSU) ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. This new species was collected from Pallas's squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) in the central part of mainland Japan (Honshu), which were originally introduced from Taiwan some decades ago, and plantain squirrels (Callosciurus notatus) imported from Malaysia as personal pets. For comparison, Strongyloides robustus Chandler, 1942 was collected from American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) imported from the United States as personal pets. The parasitic females found in North American and Asian sciurids shared some key morphological features such as the ovary running spirally around the gut, and the shapes of the stoma in the apical view and the tail. However, morphometric features of parasitic females in North American and Asian sciurids differed significantly from each other; the former was larger than the latter, and the relative position of the vulva to the whole body length from the mouth was different. The SSU/LSU rDNA sequences supported the division of sciurid Strongyloides isolates by geographical distribution of the host and morphological features, leading us to propose the erection of new species. PMID:18314696

  3. The Star Formation History of TR 14 and TR 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degioia-Eastwood, K.; Throop, H.; Walker, G.; Cudworth, K.

    1997-05-01

    H-R diagrams are presented for the very young galactic clusters Trumpler 14 and Trumpler 16, which are the two most populous clusters in the region of vigorous star formation surrounding eta Carinae. Point-spread function photometry of UBV CCD images is presented to a limiting magnitude of V ~ 19 for over 560 stars in Tr 16 and 290 stars in Tr 14. We have also obtained similar data for local background fields. Existing proper motions (Cudworth et al. 1993) have allowed us to analyze the reddening of both cluster members and the local background stars, thus providing an excellent determination of the cluster membership far deeper than the original proper motions. This work has revealed a significant population of protostars in both clusters. The location of the protostars in the diagram indicates that the theoretical "stellar birthline" of Palla and Stahler (1993) is much closer to the observations than that of Beech and Mitalas (1986). We also use the protostars and most massive stars to put limits on the coevality of the cluster.

  4. The Star Formation History of Trumpler 14 and Trumpler 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGioia-Eastwood, K.; Throop, H.; Walker, G.; Cudworth, K. M.

    2001-03-01

    H-R diagrams are presented for the very young galactic clusters Trumpler 14 and Trumpler 16, which are the two most populous clusters in the region of vigorous star formation surrounding η Carinae. Point spread function photometry of UBV CCD images is presented down to V~19 for over 560 stars in Tr 16 and 290 stars in Tr 14. We have also obtained similar data for a local background field. After determining cluster membership through proper motions from a previous work, we find that the reddening of cluster members is significantly lower than that of the local background stars. Thus, we are able to use individual reddenings to identify likely members at far deeper levels than possible with proper motions. This work has revealed a significant population of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in both clusters. The location of the PMS stars in the H-R diagram indicates that the theoretical ``stellar birthline'' of Palla & Stahler follows the locus of stars far better than that of Beech & Mitalas. Comparison with both pre- and post-main-sequence isochrones also reveals that although intermediate-mass stars have been forming continuously over the last 10 Myr, the high-mass stars formed within the last 3 Myr. There is no evidence that the formation of the intermediate-mass stars was truncated by the formation of the high-mass stars.

  5. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  6. Preventing species invasion: A role for integrative taxonomy?

    PubMed

    Mazzamuto, Maria V; Galimberti, Andrea; Cremonesi, Giacomo; Pisanu, Benoît; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Stuyck, Jan; Amori, Giovanni; Su, Haijun; Aloise, Gaetano; Preatoni, Damiano G; Wauters, Lucas A; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Martinoli, Adriano

    2016-05-01

    Integrative taxonomy, a multi-disciplinary approach adding modern techniques to traditional morphology-based methods (e.g. molecular and morphological criteria), can play an important role in bioinvasion research to identify introduced taxa, discover pathways of introduction and inform authorities to control and prevent future introductions. The present study is the first on introduced populations of Callosciurus, Asiatic tree squirrels, known as potentially invasive species in Europe (Italy, Belgium and France). We combined molecular (mitochondrial DNA markers: CoxI, D-loop) and morphometric analysis on skulls, comparing them to the widest morphological and molecular datasets ever assembled for Callosciurus. Squirrels collected in Italy and Belgium share the same haplotypes and skull characteristics, but are conspicuously different from the French population in Antibes. Genetic data revealed close similarity between French squirrels and Pallas's squirrels, Callosciurus erythraeus, from Taiwan, China. Italian and Belgian squirrels formed an independent taxonomic lineage in genetic analyses, whose taxonomic rank needs further investigation. The morphological and morphometric characteristics of these 2 populations are, however, similar to known specimens assigned to Callosciurus erythraeus. These results may indicate a common origin for the populations found in Belgium and Italy. In contrast, French specimens suggest an independent introduction event of squirrels originating from Asia. PMID:26748591

  7. Identification of Magnetite in B-type Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Jewitt, David

    2010-09-01

    Spectrally blue (B-type) asteroids are rare, with the second discovered asteroid, Pallas, being the largest and most famous example. We conducted a focused, infrared spectroscopic survey of B-type asteroids to search for water-related features in these objects. Our results show that the negative optical spectral slope of some B-type asteroids is due to the presence of a broad absorption band centered near 1.0 μm. The 1 μm band can be matched in position and shape using magnetite (Fe3O4), which is an important indicator of past aqueous alteration in the parent body. Furthermore, our observations of B-type asteroid (335) Roberta in the 3 μm region reveal an absorption feature centered at 2.9 μm, which is consistent with the absorption due to phyllosilicates (another hydration product) observed in CI chondrites. The new observations suggest that at least some B-type asteroids are likely to have incorporated significant amounts of water ice and to have experienced intensive aqueous alteration.

  8. The secondary structure of the 5' end of the FIV genome reveals a long-range interaction between R/U5 and gag sequences, and a large, stable stem-loop.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Julia C; Ghazawi, Akela; Cheung, Winsome K S; Phillip, Pretty S; Rizvi, Tahir A; Lever, Andrew M L

    2008-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that infects cats and is related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although it is a common worldwide infection, and has potential uses as a human gene therapy vector and as a nonprimate model for HIV infection, little detail is known of the viral life cycle. Previous experiments have shown that its packaging signal includes two or more regions within the first 511 nucleotides of the genomic RNA. We have undertaken a secondary structural analysis of this RNA by minimal free-energy structural prediction, biochemical mapping, and phylogenetic analysis, and show that it contains five conserved stem-loops and a conserved long-range interaction between heptanucleotide sequences 5'-CCCUGUC-3' in R/U5 and 5'-GACAGGG-3' in gag. This long-range interaction is similar to that seen in primate lentiviruses where it is thought to be functionally important. Along with strains that infect domestic cats, this heptanucleotide interaction can also occur in species-specific FIV strains that infect pumas, lions, and Pallas' cats where the heptanucleotide sequences involved vary. We have analyzed spliced and genomic FIV RNAs and see little structural change or sequence conservation within single-stranded regions of the 5' UTR that are important for viral packaging, suggesting that FIV may employ a cotranslational packaging mechanism. PMID:18974279

  9. Environmental change and rates of evolution: the phylogeographic pattern within the hartebeest complex as related to climatic variation.

    PubMed

    Flagstad, O; Syvertsen, P O; Stenseth, N C; Jakobsen, K S

    2001-04-01

    Global climate fluctuated considerably throughout the Pliocene-Pleistocene period, influencing the evolutionary history of a wide array of species. Using the phylogeographic patterns within the hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus (Pallas, 1766)) complex, we evaluated the evolutionary consequences of such environmental change for a typical large mammal ranging on the African savannah. Our results, as generated from two mitochondrial DNA markers (the D-loop and cytochrome b), suggest an origin of the hartebeest in eastern Africa from where the species has colonized other parts of the continent. Phylogenetic analyses revealed an early diversification into southern and northern hartebeest lineages, an event that may be related to the formation of the Rift Valley lakes. The northern lineage has further diverged into eastern and western lineages, most probably as a result of the expanding central African rainforest belt and subsequent contraction of savannah habitats during a period of global warming. The diversification events appear to have coincided with major climatic changes and are highly correlated in time. These observations strongly suggest that large-scale climatic fluctuations have been a major determinant for the species' evolutionary history and that hartebeest evolution has mainly taken place in isolated yet environmentally favourable refugia during periods of global warming. Indications of sudden population expansion for two putative ancestral hartebeest populations provide further support for a refugia-based explanation of the diversification events. Reciprocal monophyly between southern and northern lineages may suggest that reproductive barriers exist and that the hartebeest complex comprises two different species.

  10. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p < 0.05 to p < 0.001 level. Alpha 2-macroglobulin and C-reactive-protein levels were increased in captive versus wild bears in both active and hibernating states at the p < 0.01 to p < 0.0001 level. During hibernation with mild hypothermia, black bears do not show immunosuppression, but show an increased APP response similar to that in patients with major depression. This APP response is explained as an adaptive response to the underlying metabolic depression in both conditions. Metabolic depression in hibernating bears is suggested as a natural model for research to explain the neurobiology of depression.

  11. Optical cloud detection from a disposable airborne sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoll, Keri; Harrison, R. Giles; Brus, David

    2016-04-01

    In-situ measurement of cloud droplet microphysical properties is most commonly made from manned aircraft platforms due to the size and weight of the instrumentation, which is both costly and typically limited to sampling only a few clouds. This work describes the development of a small, lightweight (<200g), disposable, optical cloud sensor which is designed for use on routine radiosonde balloon flights and also small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. The sensor employs the backscatter principle, using an ultra-bright LED as the illumination source, with a photodiode detector. Scattering of the LED light by cloud droplets generates a small optical signal which is separated from background light fluctuations using a lock-in technique. The signal to noise obtained permits cloud detection using the scattered LED light, even in daytime. During recent field tests in Pallas, Finland, the retrieved optical sensor signal has been compared with the DMT Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) which measures cloud droplets in the size range from 0.5 to 50 microns. Both sensors were installed at the hill top observatory of Sammaltunturi during a field campaign in October and November 2015, which experienced long periods of immersion inside cloud. Preliminary analysis shows very good agreement between the CAPS and the disposable cloud sensor for cloud droplets >5micron effective diameter. Such data and calibration of the sensor will be discussed here, as will simultaneous balloon launches of the optical cloud sensor through the same cloud layers.

  12. Monitoring planktivorous seabird populations: Validating surface counts of crevice-nesting auklets using mark-resight techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffield, L.M.; Gall, A.E.; Roby, D.D.; Irons, D.B.; Dugger, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla (Pallas, 1811)) are the most abundant species of seabird in the Bering Sea and offer a relatively efficient means of monitoring secondary productivity in the marine environment. Counting auklets on surface plots is the primary method used to track changes in numbers of these crevice-nesters, but counts can be highly variable and may not be representative of the number of nesting individuals. We compared average maximum counts of Least Auklets on surface plots with density estimates based on mark-resight data at a colony on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, during 2001-2004. Estimates of breeding auklet abundance from mark-resight averaged 8 times greater than those from maximum surface counts. Our results also indicate that average maximum surface counts are poor indicators of breeding auklet abundance and do not vary consistently with auklet nesting density across the breeding colony. Estimates of Least Auklet abundance from mark-resight were sufficiently precise to meet management goals for tracking changes in seabird populations. We recommend establishing multiple permanent banding plots for mark-resight studies on colonies selected for intensive long-term monitoring. Mark-resight is more likely to detect biologically significant changes in size of auklet breeding colonies than traditional surface count techniques. ?? 2006 NRC.

  13. Foods and nutritional components of diets of black bear in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    We used scat analysis to determine diets and relative nutritional values of diets for black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from 2003 to 2006, and compared foods consumed and nutritional components to identify important sources of fecal gross energy (GE), crude fat (CF), and fecal nitrogen (FN) in annual and seasonal diets. Patterns of use of food classes followed typical seasonal patterns for bears, although use of animal matter was among the highest reported (>49% annually). Use of animal matter increased after spring, although crude protein levels in bear diets were always >25%. GE was typically lowest for grasses and other herbaceous plants and highest for ants and ungulates; FN was strongly positively related to most animal sources, but negatively correlated with vegetative matter; and CF showed the strongest positive relationship with ungulates and berries, with the latter likely influenced by the presence of seeds. Compared with historic data (1984-1991), contemporary diets included substantially greater prevalence of anthropogenic foods, which likely contributed to increases in size, condition, and productivity of the contemporary bear population. Management strategies are needed to increase quantity and quality of natural foods while minimizing dependence on anthropogenic sources.

  14. Tropospheric methane in northern Finland: seasonal variations, transport patterns and correlations with other trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Tuula; Hatakka, Juha; Lallo, Marko

    2007-04-01

    Methane mixing ratios have been continuously observed at Pallas, Finland since winter 2004. The seasonal variation in monthly means was ca. 40 ppb, showing largest mixing ratios in winter and also high values during late summer. Examination of back-trajectories showed that the air masses with elevated methane mixing ratios arrived from continental Eastern and Central Europe while low methane mixing ratios were connected with Atlantic and Arctic air masses. During summer, air masses with highest mixing ratios arrived from Northwestern Russia indicating wetland sources, while the influence of southern emissions became more significant in winter. Methane was positively correlated with carbon dioxide and negatively correlated with ozone in winter. The average slope of the selected wintertime background hourly mean mixing ratios was 7.0 +/- 1.2 ppb(CH4)/ppm(CO2). Nocturnal summertime low-altitude measurements above a local wetland source indicated slopes of about 10 +/- 1 ppb(CH4)/ppm(CO2). The different slopes reflect the differences in emission parameters.

  15. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area.

  16. A New Name for the Hawaiian Antipatharian Coral Formerly Known as Antipathes dichotoma (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M

    2009-04-01

    A Hawaiian species of antipatharian coral previously identified as Antipathes dichotoma Pallas, 1766, is described as Antipathes griggi Opresko, n. sp. The species forms tall, bushy colonies with elongate, upright terminal branches, often arranged uniserially. Spines are conical, mostly 0.20 to 0.26 mm tall, apically bifurcated, multilobed to jagged in appearance, and covered over most of their surface with small roundish to elongate papillae. Minute secondary spines may occur on some of the thicker branches. Polyps are 1 to 1.6 mm in transverse diameter. The species resembles A. fruticosa Gray in branching pattern, size of spines, and presence of secondary spines but differs in morphology and density of the spines (thicker, more crowded primary spines and fewer secondary spines in A. griggi). Other related species differ from A. griggi in having more widely spreading and irregularly arranged branches, no secondary spines, and either smaller spines with fewer apical lobes (A. curvata van Pesch, A. arborea Dana, and A. galapagensis Deichmann) or larger spines with the apical lobes arranged in a somewhat coronate pattern [A. spinulosa (Schultze) and A. lentipinna Brook].

  17. Energy metabolism and fasting in male and female insectivorous bats Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    PubMed

    Freitas, M B; Goulart, L S; Barros, M S; Morais, D B; Amaral, T S; Matta, S L P

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766). For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.

  18. Using Massive Parallel Sequencing for the Development, Validation, and Application of Population Genetics Markers in the Invasive Bivalve Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) is one of the most invasive species of freshwater bivalves, due to a combination of biological and anthropogenic factors. Once this species has been introduced to a new area, individuals form dense aggregations that are very difficult to remove, leading to many adverse socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In this study, we identified, tested, and validated a new set of polymorphic microsatellite loci (also known as SSRs, Single Sequence Repeats) using a Massive Parallel Sequencing (MPS) platform. After several pruning steps, 93 SSRs could potentially be amplified. Out of these SSRs, 14 were polymorphic, producing a polymorphic yield of 15.05%. These 14 polymorphic microsatellites were fully validated in a first approximation of the genetic population structure of D. polymorpha in the Iberian Peninsula. Based on this polymorphic yield, we propose a criterion for establishing the number of SSRs that require validation in similar species, depending on the final use of the markers. These results could be used to optimize MPS approaches in the development of microsatellites as genetic markers, which would reduce the cost of this process. PMID:25780924

  19. Using Massive Parallel Sequencing for the development, validation, and application of population genetics markers in the invasive bivalve zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    PubMed

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas, 1771) is one of the most invasive species of freshwater bivalves, due to a combination of biological and anthropogenic factors. Once this species has been introduced to a new area, individuals form dense aggregations that are very difficult to remove, leading to many adverse socioeconomic and ecological consequences. In this study, we identified, tested, and validated a new set of polymorphic microsatellite loci (also known as SSRs, Single Sequence Repeats) using a Massive Parallel Sequencing (MPS) platform. After several pruning steps, 93 SSRs could potentially be amplified. Out of these SSRs, 14 were polymorphic, producing a polymorphic yield of 15.05%. These 14 polymorphic microsatellites were fully validated in a first approximation of the genetic population structure of D. polymorpha in the Iberian Peninsula. Based on this polymorphic yield, we propose a criterion for establishing the number of SSRs that require validation in similar species, depending on the final use of the markers. These results could be used to optimize MPS approaches in the development of microsatellites as genetic markers, which would reduce the cost of this process. PMID:25780924

  20. [Divergence of Chlorophyll Dynamics in the Naroch Lakes].

    PubMed

    Adamovich, B V; Kovalevskaya, R Z; Radchikova, N P; Zhukova, T V; Mikheyeva, T M; Medvinsky, A B; Nuriyeva, N I; Rusakov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of long-term chlorophyll a dynamics in the Naroch lakes. It has been shown that an increase in nutrient load in the 1970s resulted in progressive eutrophication of Naroch lakes. Then, starting in the mid-1980s, the increase in water transparency and decreases in concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen have been occurring due to the environmental improvement program. In the 1980s, the Naroch lakes experienced a strong factor as an invasion by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas). Our analysis shows that responses of all three lakes to the intensive nutrient load and further decrease in the nutrient concentration as a result of the environmental protection measures have been correlated. At the same time, different degrees of the influence of the zebra mussel invasion on the lakes are shown to lead to divergence in chlorophyll dynamics. This divergence was observed as a drastic decline in correlations between variations in chlorophyll concentrations in every Naroch lakes. PMID:26394477

  1. Determination of the dissociation constants of the cephalosporins cefepime and cefpirome using UV spectrometry and pH potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Evagelou, Vassilis; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Koupparis, Michael

    2003-04-10

    UV spectrometry and pH potentiometry were used for the determination and direct characterization of the dissociation constants of cefepime (Cef) and cefpirome. The absorbance/pH profiles at two analytical wavelengths and different conditions were assessed and found to conform to those of diprotic acids. The titration curves indicated a triprotic acid profile with two overlapping dissociation constants. The comparison of the results of both techniques permitted the direct attribution of the three dissociation constants to the carboxylic group at position 4 of the Delta-3 cephem nucleus, the aminothiazole group and the amide group at position 7 of the Delta-3 cephem nucleus. Stability studies of Cef in alkaline solutions were also performed in order to evaluate the accuracy of the measurements carried out for the determination of the third pK(a) value. The experimental pK(a) values were compared to the corresponding predicted values derived by PALLAS/PKALC and Advanced Chemical Development (ACD) software packages.

  2. Purification of Alaskan Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and New Zealand Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) Liver Oil Using Short Path Distillation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Alex C. M.; Miller, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3). Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814) and New Zealand’s hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871) are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values) products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) standard for edible fish oils. PMID:24858408

  3. How the first dwarf planet became the asteroid Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Marsden, Brian G.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2009-11-01

    The discovery on 1 January 1801 of an object between Mars and Jupiter was the most remarkable astronomical discovery since the planet Uranus had been found in 1781. Its discoverer, Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Observatory in Sicily, was quick to name it Ceres Ferdinandea. But the discovery was considered so important that it sparked national rivalries. In Germany, the much anticipated planet had been dubbed Hera sixteen years previously, and other Germans quickly gave it their own names. Some leading French astronomers soundly rejected Ceres Ferdinandea, preferring to call it Piazzi, while others in Paris accepted the name Ceres, while at the same time objecting to Ferdinandea. Once another ‘planet’ dubbed Pallas was discovered in 1802, William Herschel realised that astronomers were dealing with a new class of object. He was uncertain what name should be employed however, so he canvassed his friends and colleagues for suggestions. Not content with the often ludicrous ideas put forward, he coined the word asteroid. This paper reveals these dual nomenclature issues through previously unpublished private letters, an Italian journal, and the much more sedate language used in printed journals.

  4. Acoustic alarm signalling facilitates predator protection of treehoppers by mutualist ant bodyguards

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Manuel A; Barone, Jennifer L; Henry, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    Mutualism is a net positive interaction that includes varying degrees of both costs and benefits. Because tension between the costs and benefits of mutualism can lead to evolutionary instability, identifying mechanisms that regulate investment between partners is critical to understanding the evolution and maintenance of mutualism. Recently, studies have highlighted the importance of interspecific signalling as one mechanism for regulating investment between mutualist partners. Here, we provide evidence for interspecific alarm signalling in an insect protection mutualism and we demonstrate a functional link between this acoustic signalling and efficacy of protection. The treehopper Publilia concava Say (Hemiptera: Membracidae) is an insect that provides ants with a carbohydrate-rich excretion called honeydew in return for protection from predators. Adults of this species produce distinct vibrational signals in the context of predator encounters. In laboratory trials, putative alarm signal production significantly increased following initial contact with ladybeetle predators (primarily Harmonia axyridis Pallas, Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), but not following initial contact with ants. In field trials, playback of a recorded treehopper alarm signal resulted in a significant increase in both ant activity and the probability of ladybeetle discovery by ants relative to both silence and treehopper courtship signal controls. Our results show that P. concava treehoppers produce alarm signals in response to predator threat and that this signalling can increase effectiveness of predator protection by ants. PMID:18480015

  5. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groocock, G.H.; Getchell, R.G.; Wooster, G.A.; Britt, K.L.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.; Bowser, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2006 a large mortality of several thousand round gobies Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) occurred in New York waters of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Necropsies of sampled fish from these areas showed pallor of the liver and gills, and hemorrhagic areas in many organs. Histopathologic examination of affected tissues revealed areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Inoculations of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820) cell cultures with dilutions of tissue samples from the necropsied gobies produced a cytopathic effect within 5 d post-inoculation. Samples of cell culture supernatant were tested using RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Sequence analysis of the VHSV isolate resulted in its assignment to the type-IVb subgroup. The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  6. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (<300°C) thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  7. Effects of Mesh Size on Sieved Samples of Corophium volutator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crewe, Tara L.; Hamilton, Diana J.; Diamond, Antony W.

    2001-08-01

    Corophium volutator (Pallas), gammaridean amphipods found on intertidal mudflats, are frequently collected in mud samples sieved on mesh screens. However, mesh sizes used vary greatly among studies, raising the possibility that sampling methods bias results. The effect of using different mesh sizes on the resulting size-frequency distributions of Corophium was tested by collecting Corophium from mud samples with 0·5 and 0·25 mm sieves. More than 90% of Corophium less than 2 mm long passed through the larger sieve. A significantly smaller, but still substantial, proportion of 2-2·9 mm Corophium (30%) was also lost. Larger size classes were unaffected by mesh size. Mesh size significantly changed the observed size-frequency distribution of Corophium, and effects varied with sampling date. It is concluded that a 0·5 mm sieve is suitable for studies concentrating on adults, but to accurately estimate Corophium density and size-frequency distributions, a 0·25 mm sieve must be used.

  8. Stable foraging areas and variable chick diet in Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) off southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Carter, H.R.

    2004-01-01

    Planktivorous seabirds readily respond to changes in marine ecosystems and have the ability to integrate information regarding variability in abundance, availability, and community composition of key prey resources. We studied the foraging and breeding ecology of the Cassin's auklet, Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811), off southern California during three breeding seasons (1999-2001), when large intra- and inter-annual variability occurred in local oceanographic conditions during a prolonged La Nina event. Radio-marked parents used consistent core foraging areas within 30 km of their colony, aggregated in shelf waters (<200 m depth), and occasionally foraged in deeper waters. Parents delivered primarily euphausiids, pelagic larval-juvenile fishes, and minor amounts of cephalopods and other crustaceans. Whereas the euphausiid Thysanoessa spinifera Holmes, 1900 was most important during 1999 and 2001, Euphausia pacifica Hansen, 1911 replaced adult T. spinifera in 2000 after an anomalous eastward inflection of the California Current occurred near the auklets' foraging area. Differences in chick diets, however, did not significantly influence fledging success and growth among first chicks, but the proportion of pairs successfully fledging an alpha chick and initiating a second clutch was exceptional in 1999 (63%) and 2000 (75%), and less in 2001 (7%). We suggest that dietary composition was influenced by modified prey availability driven in part by fluctuations in regional upwelling and circulation. ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  9. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  10. Transpiration as landfill leachate phytotoxicity indicator.

    PubMed

    Białowiec, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    An important aspect of constructed wetlands design for landfill leachate treatment is the assessment of landfill leachate phytotoxicity. Intravital methods of plants response observation are required both for lab scale toxicity testing and field examination of plants state. The study examined the toxic influence of two types of landfill leachate from landfill in Zakurzewo (L1) and landfill in Wola Pawłowska (L2) on five plant species: reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud, manna grass Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb., bulrush Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla, sweet flag Acorus calamus L., and miscanthus Miscanthus floridulus (Labill) Warb. Transpiration measurement was used as indicator of plants response. The lowest effective concentration causing the toxic effect (LOEC) for each leachate type and plant species was estimated. Plants with the highest resistance to toxic factors found in landfill leachate were: sweet flag, bulrush, and reed. The LOEC values for these plants were, respectively, 17%, 16%, 9% in case of leachate L1 and 21%, 18%, 14% in case of L2. Leachate L1 was more toxic than L2 due to a higher pH value under similar ammonia nitrogen content, i.e. pH 8.74 vs. pH 8.00.

  11. Anti-tumor effect of Radix Paeoniae Rubra extract on mice bladder tumors using intravesical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Yi; Chiang, Su-Yin; Li, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Mei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR) is the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Paeonia veitchii Lynch, and is a herbal medicine that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of blood-heat and blood-stasis syndrome, similarly to Cortex Moutan. The present study identified the same three components in RPR and Cortex Moutan extracts. In addition, it has been reported that RPR has an anti-cancer effect. Bladder cancer is the seventh most common type of cancer worldwide. Due to the high recurrence rate, identifying novel drugs for bladder cancer therapy is essential. In the present study, RPR extract was evaluated as a bladder cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo. The present results revealed that RPR extract reduced the cell viability of bladder cancer cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1–3 mg/ml, and had an extremely low cytotoxic effect on normal urothelial cells. Additionally, RPR decreased certain cell cycle populations, predominantly cells in the G1 phase, and caused a clear sub-G increase. In a mouse orthotopic bladder tumor model, intravesical application of RPR extract decreased the bladder tumor size without altering the blood biochemical parameters of the mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate the anti-proliferative properties of RPR extract on bladder cancer cells, and its anti-bladder tumor effect in vivo. Compared to Cortex Moutan extract, RPR extract may provide a more effective alternative therapeutic strategy for the intravesical therapy of superficial bladder cancer. PMID:27446367

  12. Is it dangerous asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Vidmachenko, H. A.

    2007-01-01

    At 1 January 1801 director of the observatory in Palermo (Sicily Island) Giuseppe Piazzi discovered a previously unknown celestial object seventh magnitude. Later it turned out that it is a small planet. It revolves around the Sun in almost circular orbit, located between Mars and Jupiter. According to the tradition that existed then, a new celestial body was called by the names of mythological gods. G. Piatstsi planet called the Ceres, after the goddess - patroness of the island Sicily. German amateur astronomy G. Olbers from January 1802 began the systematic observation of this new object of Solar system. And on March 28 near the Ceres was opened another similar object approximately ninth magnitude. It was called Pallas. The orbit of the new object is also located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Furthermore, it was located very close to the orbit of Ceres. Based on these facts H. Olbers suggested that these planets are small fragments of the same planet that was once existed in the solar system. But for some reason it later collapsed into pieces. So Olbers began purposeful search of new celestial bodies that would have the same orbit. And in 1807 he discovered another planet - Vesta.

  13. Purification of Alaskan walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and New Zealand hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) liver oil using short path distillation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alex C M; Miller, Matthew R

    2014-05-22

    The beneficial health effects of a diet rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) have been extensively researched in recent years. Marine oils are an important dietary source of n-3 LC-PUFA, being especially rich in two of the most important fatty acids of this class, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid; 20:5n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid; 22:6n-3). Oils rich in n-3 LC-PUFA are prone to oxidation that leads to loss of product quality. Alaskan pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus Pallas, 1814) and New Zealand's hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae Hector, 1871) are the highest volume fisheries of their respective countries. Both produce large quantities of fishery byproducts, in particular crude or unrefined n-3 LC-PUFA containing oils. Presently these oils are used as ingredients for animal feed, and only limited quantities are used as human nutritional products. The aim of this research was to investigate the applicability of short path distillation for the purification of pollock and hoki oil to produce purified human-grade fish oil to meet quality specifications. Pollock and hoki oils were subjected to short path distillation and a significant decrease in free fatty acids and lipid oxidation (peroxide and para-anisidine values) products was observed. Purified oils met the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3 (GOED) standard for edible fish oils.

  14. Bt sweet corn and selective insecticides: impacts on pests and predators.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-02-01

    Sweet corn, Zea mays L., is attacked by a variety of insect pests that can cause severe losses to the producer. Current control practices are largely limited to the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that can have a substantial and deleterious impact on the natural enemy complex. Predators have been shown to provide partial control of sweet corn pests when not killed by broad-spectrum insecticides. New products that specifically target the pest species, while being relatively benign to other insects, could provide more integrated control. In field trials we found that transgenic Bt sweet corn, and the foliar insecticides indoxacarb and spinosad are all less toxic to the most abundant predators in sweet corn (Coleomegilla maculate [DeGeer], Harmonia axyridis [Pallas], and Orius insidiosus [Sav]) than the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin. Indoxacarb, however, was moderately toxic to coccinellids and spinosad and indoxacarb were somewhat toxic to O. insidiosus nymphs at field rates. Bt sweet corn and spinosad were able to provide control of the lepidopteran pests better than or equal to lambda cyhalothrin. The choice of insecticide material made a significant impact on survival of the pests and predators, while the frequency of application mainly affected the pests and the rate applied had little effect on either pests or predators. These results demonstrate that some of the new products available in sweet corn allow a truly integrated biological and chemical pest control program in sweet corn, making future advances in conservation, augmentation and classical biological control more feasible. PMID:12650347

  15. Survey of predators and sampling method comparison in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Nyrop, Jan P; Shelton, Anthony M

    2004-02-01

    Natural predation is an important component of integrated pest management that is often overlooked because it is difficult to quantify and perceived to be unreliable. To begin incorporating natural predation into sweet corn, Zea mays L., pest management, a predator survey was conducted and then three sampling methods were compared for their ability to accurately monitor the most abundant predators. A predator survey on sweet corn foliage in New York between 1999 and 2001 identified 13 species. Orius insidiosus (Say), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were the most numerous predators in all years. To determine the best method for sampling adult and immature stages of these predators, comparisons were made among nondestructive field counts, destructive counts, and yellow sticky cards. Field counts were correlated with destructive counts for all populations, but field counts of small insects were biased. Sticky cards underrepresented immature populations. Yellow sticky cards were more attractive to C. maculata adults than H. axyridis adults, especially before pollen shed, making coccinellid population estimates based on sticky cards unreliable. Field counts were the most precise method for monitoring adult and immature stages of the three major predators. Future research on predicting predation of pests in sweet corn should be based on field counts of predators because these counts are accurate, have no associated supply costs, and can be made quickly. PMID:14998137

  16. Toxicity of commonly used insecticides in sweet corn and soybean to multicolored Asian lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Galvan, T L; Koch, R L; Hutchison, W D

    2005-06-01

    Use of insecticides with low toxicity to natural enemies is an important component of conservation biological control. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of insecticides used in sweet corn, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., to the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), under laboratory and field conditions. Field experiments conducted in sweet corn in 2003 and 2004 and in soybean in 2003, showed that H. axyridis was the most abundant predator. In sweet corn, densities of H. axyridis larvae in plots treated with spinosad or indoxacarb were generally higher than in plots treated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, bifenthrin, and A-cyhalothrin. In soybean, densities of H. axyridis larvae in plots treated with chlorpyrifos were higher than in plots treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of insecticides to eggs, first and third instars, pupae, and adults. Spinosad, followed by indoxacarb, were the least toxic insecticides for all life stages of H. axyridis. Conventional insecticides showed high toxicity to H. axyridis when applied at field rates under laboratory conditions. Overall, first instars were most susceptible to the insecticides tested, followed by third instars and adults, eggs, and pupae. Our results suggest that spinosad, and to a lesser extent indoxacarb, offer reduced toxicity to H. axyridis and would be beneficial for conservation biological control in agricultural systems where H. axyridis is abundant. PMID:16022306

  17. Effect of Lures and Colors on Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Tedders Pyramidal Traps.

    PubMed

    Kemp, E A; Cottrell, T E

    2015-10-01

    Purposeful attraction and aggregation of adult Coccinellidae at target sites would be useful for sampling purposes and pest suppression. We field-tested 1) lures in yellow and black pyramidal traps and 2) pyramidal traps that had been painted one or two colors (without lures) to determine if lures or trap color affected capture of adult Coccinellidae. In only one experiment with lures did a single rate of limonene increase trap capture, whereas no other lure ever did. Yellow traps, regardless of using a lure, always captured significantly more lady beetles than black traps. When single-color red, orange, yellow, green, blue, purple, black, and white traps (without lures) were tested, yellow traps captured significantly more lady beetles. Of all species of Coccinellidae captured in these single-color traps, 95% were the exotic species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and Coccinella septempunctata L. H. axyridis alone dominated trap capture comprising 74.1% of all lady beetles. Two-color traps (yellow-green, yellow-orange, yellow-white, and yellow-black) never captured more than single-color yellow traps. These results demonstrate that yellow pyramidal traps can be used to purposefully attract, and when used without a collection device, possibly aggregate adult Coccinellidae at targeted field sites.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF MAGNETITE IN B-TYPE ASTEROIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Bin; Jewitt, David E-mail: jewitt@ucla.ed

    2010-09-15

    Spectrally blue (B-type) asteroids are rare, with the second discovered asteroid, Pallas, being the largest and most famous example. We conducted a focused, infrared spectroscopic survey of B-type asteroids to search for water-related features in these objects. Our results show that the negative optical spectral slope of some B-type asteroids is due to the presence of a broad absorption band centered near 1.0 {mu}m. The 1 {mu}m band can be matched in position and shape using magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), which is an important indicator of past aqueous alteration in the parent body. Furthermore, our observations of B-type asteroid (335) Roberta in the 3 {mu}m region reveal an absorption feature centered at 2.9 {mu}m, which is consistent with the absorption due to phyllosilicates (another hydration product) observed in CI chondrites. The new observations suggest that at least some B-type asteroids are likely to have incorporated significant amounts of water ice and to have experienced intensive aqueous alteration.

  19. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species. PMID:23724731

  20. Insect fauna associated with Anacardium occidentale (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Agboton, C; Onzo, A; Ouessou, F I; Goergen, G; Vidal, S; Tamò, M

    2014-01-01

    Cashew, Anacardium occidentale L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), is an important cash crop in Benin. However, its production is threatened by several biotic factors, especially insects. In Benin, very few studies have focused on insects and just listed species commonly found on cashew worldwide. The present investigation fills this gap by presenting an exhaustive inventory of insect species associated with this crop in the country. The survey was carried out from September 2009 to August 2010 in 22 cashew orchards (5 young and 17 mature) distributed over three major agroecological zones where cashew is most produced in the country. Insects were collected using chemical knock-down technique and visual observation followed by capture with sweep net. In addition, infested plant organs were sampled and incubated to collect emerging insects. In total, 262 insect species were recorded and identified. Among them, the wood borer Apate terebrans Pallas, the leafminer Eteoryctis gemoniella Stainton, and the mirid bugs Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter., and Helopeltis anacardii Miller., appeared as the most important insect species attacking cashew in Benin. Beneficial insects encountered included some predators, parasitoids, and pollinators. Few vertebrate predators were also recorded on the trees. Differences in agroecological conditions or in field cleanliness did not affect the number of insect species encountered in the cashew orchards. The results of this study represent an important baseline data for the design and implementation of strategies for cashew protection in Benin.

  1. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  2. On whose shoulders we stand – the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó *

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary’s natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time. Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877–88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects. Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects – in present-day terms diapause. It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. PMID:22303108

  3. Influence of stability and fragmentation of a worm-reef on benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Laurent; Fournier, Jérôme; Jaffré, Mikaël; Desroy, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    In coastal areas, reef-builder worms often are bio-engineers by structuring their physical and biological environment. Many studies showed that this engineering role is determined by the densities of the engineer species itself, the highest densities approximately corresponding to the most stable areas from a sedimentological point of view, and hosting the richest and the most diverse benthic fauna. Here, we tested the potential influence of the spatio-temporal dynamics and the spatial fragmentation of one of the largest European intertidal reefs generated by the marine worm Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on the associated benthic macrofauna. We demonstrated that the worm densities do have a significant positive role on the abundance, biomass, species richness and species diversity of the benthic macrofauna and that the reef stability also significantly influences the biomass and species diversity. Moreover, the reef fragmentation has significant negative effects on the abundance, biomass and species richness. In addition to L. conchilega densities, the stability and the spatial fragmentation of the reef also significantly structure the associated benthic assemblages. This study demonstrates the interest of "benthoscape ecology" in understanding the role played by marine engineer species from a spatial point of view.

  4. Assessment of Yamuna and associated drains used for irrigation in rural and peri-urban settings of Delhi NCR.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Arghya; Dey, Priyadarshini; Gola, Deepak; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Patel, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed the quality of Yamuna River and the Najafgarh drain water for irrigational purposes in the Delhi region in terms of spatial variations in the physicochemical characteristics as well as heavy metal concentrations. The monitoring was done for the period July 2012-August 2013 representing pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon sessions and considering six physicochemical parameters. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, and lead have been found in the river due to rampant discharge of industrial effluents into the river. The mean metal concentrations in the 15 sampling sites were in the range of (mg L(-1)) 0.02-0.64 (Cu), 0-0.42 (Cr), 0.13-2.22(Zn), 0.03-0.27 (Pb), 0-0.07 (Cd), and 0.01-0.13 (Ni). Multivariate statistics (PCA and HCA) were used to identify the possible sources of metal contamination and to examine the spatial changes in the Yamuna River as well as in the Najafgarh drain. This study reveals the occurrence of mean Cd concentration above the safe limit at Palla, Christian Ashram and Jagatpur of the Yamuna river while Punjabi Bagh of the Najafgarh drain necessitate treatment in terms of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn before it could be rendered useful for irrigation. PMID:25410949

  5. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) 2005: Calibration and Targeted Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truch, M. D. P.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bock, J. J.; Chapin, E. L.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S.; Griffin, M.; Gundersen, J. O.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P. C.; Hughes, D. H.; Klein, J.; Marsden, G.; Martin, P. G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Olmi, L.; Pascale, E.; Patanchon, G.; Rex, M.; Scott, D.; Semisch, C.; Tucker, C.; Tucker, G. S.; Viero, M. P.; Wiebe, D. V.

    2008-07-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) operated successfully during a 100 hr flight from northern Sweden in 2005 June (BLAST05). As part of the calibration and pointing procedures, several compact sources were mapped, including solar system, Galactic, and extragalactic targets, specifically Pallas, CRL 2688, LDN 1014, IRAS 20126+4104, IRAS 21078+5211, IRAS 21307+5049, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 23011+6126, K3-50, W75N, and Mrk 231. One additional source, Arp 220, was observed and used as our primary calibrator. Details of the overall BLAST05 calibration procedure are discussed here. The BLAST observations of each compact source are described, flux densities and spectral energy distributions are reported, and these are compared with previous measurements at other wavelengths. The 250, 350, and 500 μm BLAST data can provide useful constraints to the amplitude and slope of the submillimeter continuum, which in turn may be useful for the improved calibration of other submillimeter instruments.

  6. Rickettsial infections in ticks from wild birds in Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literak, Ivan; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-03-01

    Ticks were collected from wild birds at 3 locations in Paraguay during the South American winter in August and September 2012. In total, 480 birds belonging to 106 species were examined. Overall, 31 (6.5%) birds representing 21 species were found parasitized by ticks which were identified as Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann (2 larvae, 20 nymphs), Amblyomma longirostre (Koch) (17 larvae, 3 nymphs), Amblyomma parvum Aragão (7 nymphs), Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) (1 nymph), Amblyomma ovale Koch (1 nymph), Amblyomma tigrinum Koch (1 larva), and Amblyomma spp. (4 larvae). Ticks collected accidentally on humans at the study locations during field work included 1 nymph of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann and 54 nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius). Most ticks were individually tested for the presence of Rickettsia species by polymerase chain reaction targeting rickettsial genes gltA and ompA and by amplicon sequencing. Two (12%) out of 17 A. longirostre larvae were found infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 (33%) out of 6 A. parvum nymphs were infected with Candidatus 'Rickettsia andeanae'. This study provides the first report of rickettsial infections in Paraguayan ticks.

  7. An interactive survey panel regarding the effects of mice (Microtus spec.) on a young ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplata, Markus; Maurer, Thomas; Boldt-Burisch, Katja; Schaaf, Wolfgang; Hinz, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Apparent disturbance caused by soil megafauna took place for the very first time in 2014, after nine years of spontaneous vegetative succession of the constructed watershed Chicken Creek catchment (6 ha). This watershed was designed to investigate the initial phase of soil and ecosystem development under natural conditions including the detailed study of hydrologic processes and water-substrate-plant-atmosphere interactions. In autumn 2014, we recorded the primarily common vole (Microtus arvalis Pallas) activities (calamity), which altered the microtopography of the substrate surface: We counted mouse holes and diggings (for storage organs) at the same spatial units (permanent plots, >100 # of 5 m × 5 m) where we monitor the vegetation since the onset of the catchment. We are hence capable of analysing the effect of abundant vegetarian mice and biogenic macropores, e.g. on the occurrence and performance of the more than 150 vascular plant species present by comparing the respective coverage in 2013 (the pre-mice year) versus 2014, with or without accounting for the confounding effect of succession. Additionally elaborated insight on the 3-D architecture of the mice underground corridors and the nesting places (in situ) enables to extrapolate mass and volume of the moved substrate and the number of the nests of mice for the whole catchment. We report these results, anticipating a return service: Here, we ask for your expectation regarding the significance of the mice-made disturbance on the vegetation of the young ecosystem.

  8. Flight muscle enzymes and metabolic flux rates during hovering flight of the nectar bat, Glossophaga soricina: further evidence of convergence with hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Suarez, R K; Welch, K C; Hanna, S K; Herrera M, L G

    2009-06-01

    Given their high metabolic rates, nectarivorous diet, and ability to directly fuel their energetically-expensive flight using recently-ingested sugar, we tested the hypothesis that Pallas long tongued nectar bats (Glossophaga soricina) possess flight muscles similar to those of hummingbirds with respect to enzymatic flux capacities in bioenergetic pathways. In addition, we compared these biochemical capacities with flux rates achieved in vivo during hovering flight. Rates of oxygen consumption (V(O(2))) were measured during hover-feeding and used to estimate rates of ATP turnover, glucose and long-chain fatty acid oxidation per unit mass of flight muscle. Enzyme V(max) values at key steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation obtained in vitro from pectoralis muscle samples exceed those found in the locomotory muscles of other species of small mammals and resemble data obtained from hummingbird flight muscles. The ability of nectar bats and hummingbirds to hover in fed and fasted states, fueled almost exclusively by carbohydrate or fat, respectively, allowed the estimation of fractional velocities (v/V(max)) at both the hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 steps in glucose and fatty acid oxidation, respectively. The results further support the hypothesis of convergent evolution in biochemical and physiological traits in nectar bats and hummingbirds.

  9. Does status of attachment influence survival time of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, exposed to chlorination?

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Sanjeevi; Van Der Velde, Gerard; Jenner, Henk A

    2002-02-01

    Mussels colonize cooling water circuits of power stations by attaching themselves to the pipe or conduit walls using byssus threads. Once manually detached, they quickly try to reattach by producing new byssus threads. In many published reports on antifouling bioassays, the test specimens are exposed to the biocide in an unattached state. These mussels, while trying to reattach, are likely to expose themselves more frequently to the toxic compound when compared to firmly attached mussels. The results of the assay, therefore, could vary, depending on the status of the mussels used. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that the status of attachment could influence the toxicity response of mussels and show that byssally attached zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), is more resistant to chlorine than unattached ones. An average increase of 27% in the survival time was observed for attached mussels over unattached ones in the chlorine concentration range of 0.25 to 3 mg/L. It is conclusively shown that the increase in sensitivity of the unattached mussels was related to an increase in the byssal activity, quantified presently as the byssogenesis index. The results indicate that future laboratory toxicity experiments involving mussels should be carried out using byssally attached ones.

  10. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (<0.1%). The relative abundance of these species increased from May until the beginning of July and then decreased, disappearing at the beginning of October. The diel host-seeking patterns and oviposition site-seeking patterns were species specific and were differentially affected by the ecological variables recorded at the day and hour of mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens.

  11. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  12. On whose shoulders we stand - the pioneering entomological discoveries of Károly Sajó.

    PubMed

    Vig, Károly

    2011-01-01

    The excellence of Károly Sajó as a researcher into Hungary's natural history has been undeservedly neglected. Yet he did lasting work, especially in entomology, and a number of his discoveries and initiatives were before their time.Born in 1851 in Győr, he received his secondary education there and went to Pest University. He taught in a grammar school in 1877-88 before spending seven years as an entomologist at the National Phylloxera Experimental Station, later the Royal Hungarian State Entomological Station. Pensioned off at his own request in 1895, he moved to Őrszentmiklós, where he continued making entomological observations on his own farm and wrote the bulk of his published materials: almost 500 longer or shorter notes, articles and books, mainly on entomological subjects.Sajó was among the first in the world to publish in 1896 a study of how the weather affects living organisms, entitled Living Barometers. His Sleep in Insects, which appeared in the same year, described his discovery, from 1895 observations of the red turnip beetle, Entomoscelis adonidis (Pallas, 1771), of aestivation in insects - in present-day terms diapause.It was a great loss to universal entomology when Sajó ceased publishing about 25 years before his death. His unpublished notes, with his library and correspondence, were destroyed in the World War II. His surviving insect collection is now kept in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

  13. [Divergence of Chlorophyll Dynamics in the Naroch Lakes].

    PubMed

    Adamovich, B V; Kovalevskaya, R Z; Radchikova, N P; Zhukova, T V; Mikheyeva, T M; Medvinsky, A B; Nuriyeva, N I; Rusakov, A V

    2015-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of long-term chlorophyll a dynamics in the Naroch lakes. It has been shown that an increase in nutrient load in the 1970s resulted in progressive eutrophication of Naroch lakes. Then, starting in the mid-1980s, the increase in water transparency and decreases in concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen have been occurring due to the environmental improvement program. In the 1980s, the Naroch lakes experienced a strong factor as an invasion by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas). Our analysis shows that responses of all three lakes to the intensive nutrient load and further decrease in the nutrient concentration as a result of the environmental protection measures have been correlated. At the same time, different degrees of the influence of the zebra mussel invasion on the lakes are shown to lead to divergence in chlorophyll dynamics. This divergence was observed as a drastic decline in correlations between variations in chlorophyll concentrations in every Naroch lakes.

  14. Distribution and dispersal of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Leach, Joseph H.; Kovalak, William P.

    1991-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), a small mussel common throughout most of Europe, was discovered in June of 1988 in the southern part of Lake St. Clair. Length–frequency analyses of populations from the Great Lakes and review of historical benthic studies suggest that the mussel was introduced into Lake St. Clair in late 1986, probably as a result of the discharge of ballast water from an ocean-crossing vessel. Following the 1990 reproductive season, Dreissenapopulations ranged from the head of the St. Clair River, through Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, and the Niagara River to the western basin and southern shoreline of Lake Ontario. Isolated populations were found in the St. Lawrence River and in harbours in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior. The rapid dispersal of this organism has resulted from its high fecundity, pelagic larval stage, bysso-pelagic drifting ability of juveniles, and human activities associated with commercial shipping, fishing, and boating (research and pleasure). Virtually any waterbody that can be reached by boaters and fisherman within a few days travel of the lower Great Lakes, particularly Lake Erie, seems to be at risk of being invaded by this nuisance species.

  15. Conservation biological control of rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini), in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Brown, M W; Mathews, Clarissa R

    2007-10-01

    Because of the potentially serious damage rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) (Homoptera: Aphididae), can cause to apple fruit and branch development, prophylactic insecticides are often used for control. If biological control could be relied on, the amount of pesticide applied in orchards could be reduced. This study examined biological control of rosy apple aphid in eastern West Virginia and the potential for enhancement through conservation biological control, in particular, the effect of interplanting extrafloral nectar-bearing peach trees. By 20 d after first bloom, only 2% of fundatrices initially present survived to form colonies based on regression of data from 687 colonies. Exclusion studies showed that many of the early colonies were probably destroyed by predation; the major predator responsible seemed to be adult Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Mortality before apple bloom was most important in controlling rosy apple aphid population growth but by itself is not sufficiently reliable to prevent economic injury. Interplanting of extrafloral nectar-bearing trees did not increase biological control, and interplanting with 50% trees with extrafloral nectar glands reduced biological control. The number of leaf curl colonies in the 50% interplanted orchards was lower than in monoculture orchards, suggesting a preference of alate oviparae for more diverse habitats, supporting the resource concentration hypothesis but not at a level sufficient to prevent injury. Predation and parasitism after the formation of leaf curl colonies was not adequate to control rosy apple aphid populations.

  16. A new Heraclides swallowtail (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) from North America is recognized by the pattern on its neck

    PubMed Central

    Shiraiwa, Kojiro; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heraclides rumiko Shiraiwa & Grishin, sp. n. is described from southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central America (type locality: USA, Texas, Duval County). It is closely allied to Heraclides cresphontes (Cramer, 1777) and the two species are sympatric in central Texas. The new species is diagnosed by male genitalia and exhibits a nearly 3% difference from Heraclides cresphontes in the COI DNA barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. The two Heraclides species can usually be told apart by the shape and size of yellow spots on the neck, by the wing shape, and the details of wing patterns. “Western Giant Swallowtail” is proposed as the English name for Heraclides rumiko. To stabilize nomenclature, neotype for Papilio cresphontes Cramer, 1777, an eastern United States species, is designated from Brooklyn, New York, USA; and lectotype for Papilio thoas Linnaeus, 1771 is designated from Suriname. We sequenced DNA barcodes and ID tags of nearly 400 Papilionini specimens completing coverage of all Heraclides species. Comparative analyses of DNA barcodes, genitalia, and facies suggest that Heraclides oviedo (Gundlach, 1866), reinstated status, is a species-level taxon rather than a subspecies of Heraclides thoas (Linnaeus, 1771); and Heraclides pallas (G. Gray, [1853]), reinstated status, with its subspecies Heraclides Papilio bajaensis (J. Brown & Faulkner, 1992), comb. n., and Heraclides anchicayaensis Constantino, Le Crom & Salazar, 2002, stat. n., are not conspecific with Heraclides astyalus (Godart, 1819). PMID:25610342

  17. Description of a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the western Derby eland Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej

    2012-06-01

    Examination of faecal samples from semi-captive western Derby elands Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray, in the Bandia and Fathala Reserves of Senegal, revealed the presence of oöcysts of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 that we considered to represent a new species, Eimeria derbiani n. sp. The new species possesses nearly ellipsoidal oöcysts (length/width ratio 1.3) with a bi-layered wall and an average size of 27.6 × 21.5 μm. E. derbiani possesses a micropyle covered by a micropylar cap and ovoidal, single-layered sporocysts with an average size of 14.9 × 7.7 μm, each with a Stieda body. Sporozoites of E. derbiani possess a large refractile body and a nucleus. Sporulation lasted for 2 days at 23°C. The new species is differentiated from the two species parasitising Taurotragus oryx Pallas, E. canna Triffitt, 1924 and E. triffittae Yakimoff, 1934. PMID:22581248

  18. A pulsation search among young brown dwarfs and very-low-mass stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, Ann Marie; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2005, Palla and Baraffe proposed that brown dwarfs (BDs) and very-low-mass stars (VLMSs; < 0.1 solar masses) may be unstable to radial oscillations during the pre-main-sequence deuterium burning phase. With associated periods of one to four hours, this potentially new class of pulsation offers unprecedented opportunities to probe the interiors and evolution of low-mass objects in the 1-15 million year age range. Following up on reports of short-period variability in young clusters, we designed a high-cadence photometric monitoring campaign to search for deuterium-burning pulsation among a sample of 348 BDs and VLMSs in the four young clusters σ Orionis, Chamaeleon I, IC 348, and Upper Scorpius. In the resulting light curves we achieved sensitivity to periodic signals of amplitude several millimagnitudes, on timescales from 15 minutes to two weeks. Despite the exquisite data quality, we failed to detect any periodicities below seven hours. We conclude that D-burning pulsations are not able to grow to observable amplitudes in the early pre-main sequence. In spite of the nondetection, we did uncover a rich set of variability behavior—both periodic and aperiodic—on day to week timescales. We present new compilations of variable sources from our sample, as well as three new candidate cluster members in Chamaeleon I.

  19. Geochemical evolution of amino acids in dentine of Pleistocene bears.

    PubMed

    De Torres, T; Ortiz, J E; García, M J; Llamas, J F; Canoira, L; De La Morena, M A; Juliá, R

    2001-08-01

    A linear correlation was established between aspartic acid racemization ratio from cave bear dentine collagen and absolute dating. The high correlation coefficient obtained allowed age calculation through amino acid racemization. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid racemization kinetics have also been explored in dentine from a North American black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas). Three sample sets were prepared for kinetic heating experiments in nitrogen atmosphere: one water soaked, one with a water-saturated nitrogen atmosphere, and one without any moisture. It was possible to show that the presence of water is a factor controlling amino acid racemization rate. The aspartic acid in a heating experiment at 105 degrees C shows an "apparent kinetics reversal" which can be explained by a progressive hydrolysis of amino acid chains (proteins and polypeptides). Because of the low potential of collagen preservation over long periods of time, the apparent kinetics reversal phenomenon will not affect the dating of old material where no traces of collagen remain. An apparent kinetics reversal was not observed in glutamic acid, which racemizates more slowly. PMID:11466777

  20. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria ursi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Wisconsin black bears (Ursus americanus) and its Wolbachia endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Michelle L; Bain, Odile; Fischer, Kerstin; Fischer, Peter U; Kumar, Sanjay; Foster, Jeremy M

    2010-04-01

    Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode of American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) that is vectored by black flies (Simuliidae) in many parts of the United States. In northwestern Wisconsin, the prevalence of microfilaremic bears during the fall hunting season was 21% (n = 47). Unsheathed blood microfilariae from Wisconsin bears possess characters consistent with the original description of D. ursi, as do adult worms observed histologically and grossly. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the Wolbachia endosymbiont in the hypodermis and lateral cords of an adult female D. ursi. Amplification of wsp, gatB, coxA, fbpA, and ftsZ bacterial sequences from parasite DNA confirmed the presence of Wolbachia, and molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia ftsZ gene groups the endosymbiont with Wolbachia from D. immitis and D. repens. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ursi 5s rDNA sequence confirms the morphological observations grouping this parasite as a member of Dirofilaria, and within the Dirofilaria - Onchocerca clade of filarial nematodes. This is the first report of Wolbachia characterization and molecular phylogeny information for D. ursi. PMID:19916630