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Sample records for poor clinical outcomes

  1. Very poor outcome schizophrenia: Clinical and neuroimaging aspects

    PubMed Central

    Mitelman, Serge A.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of significant advances in treatment of patients with schizophrenia and continued efforts towards their deinstitutionalization, a considerable group of patients remain chronically hospitalized or otherwise dependent on others for basic necessities of life. It has been proposed that these patients belong to a distinct etiopathological subgroup, termed Kraepelinian, whose course of illness may be progressive and resistant to treatment. Indeed, longitudinal studies appear to show that elderly Kraepelinian patients follow a course of rapid cognitive and functional deterioration, commensurate with a dementing process, and that their poor functional status is closely correlated with the cognitive deterioration. Recent neuroimaging studies described a pattern of posteriorization of grey and white matter deficits with poor outcome in schizophrenia, and produced a constellation of findings implicating primary processing of visual and auditory information as central to the impaired functional status in this patient group. These studies are summarized in detail in this review and future directions for neuroimaging assessment of very poor outcome patients with schizophrenia are suggested. PMID:17671868

  2. EMT-induced metabolite signature identifies poor clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Putluri, Vasanta; Sphyris, Nathalie; Michailidis, George; Putluri, Nagireddy; Ambs, Stefan; Sreekumar, Arun; Mani, Sendurai A.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induces cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics and promotes tumor invasiveness; however relatively little is known about the metabolic reprogramming in EMT. Here we show that breast epithelial cells undergo metabolic reprogramming following EMT. Relative to control, cell lines expressing EMT transcription factors show ≥1.5-fold accumulation of glutamine, glutamate, beta-alanine and glycylleucine as well as ≥1.5-fold reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate, urate, and deoxycarnitine. Moreover, these metabolic alterations were found to be predictive of overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.31–4.2), logrank p-value = 0.03) and define breast cancer molecular subtypes. EMT-associated metabolites are primarily composed of anapleurotic precursors, suggesting that cells undergoing EMT have a shift in energy production. In summary, we describe a unique panel of metabolites associated with EMT and demonstrate that these metabolites have the potential for predicting clinical and biological characteristics associated with patient survival. PMID:26315396

  3. EMT-induced metabolite signature identifies poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda; Arnold, James Michael; Putluri, Vasanta; Sphyris, Nathalie; Michailidis, George; Putluri, Nagireddy; Ambs, Stefan; Sreekumar, Arun; Mani, Sendurai A

    2015-12-15

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induces cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics and promotes tumor invasiveness; however relatively little is known about the metabolic reprogramming in EMT. Here we show that breast epithelial cells undergo metabolic reprogramming following EMT. Relative to control, cell lines expressing EMT transcription factors show ≥1.5-fold accumulation of glutamine, glutamate, beta-alanine and glycylleucine as well as ≥1.5-fold reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate, urate, and deoxycarnitine. Moreover, these metabolic alterations were found to be predictive of overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.31-4.2), logrank p-value = 0.03) and define breast cancer molecular subtypes. EMT-associated metabolites are primarily composed of anapleurotic precursors, suggesting that cells undergoing EMT have a shift in energy production. In summary, we describe a unique panel of metabolites associated with EMT and demonstrate that these metabolites have the potential for predicting clinical and biological characteristics associated with patient survival.

  4. Aneurysm rebleeding after poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Predictors and impact on clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bing; Fan, Yilin; Xiong, Ye; Yin, Rong; Zheng, Kuang; Li, Zequn; Tan, Xianxi; Yang, Hua; Zhong, Ming

    2016-12-15

    Aneurysm rebleeding is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and more often occurs in patients with poor-grade aSAH. Limited data on predictors of rebleeding in these patients are available. To investigate predictors of aneurysm rebleeding after poor-grade aSAH and the association of rebleeding with clinical outcomes. A multicenter poor-grade aneurysm study was a prospective and observational registry of consecutive patients who presented with poor-grade aSAH defined as a World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade of IV or V. Rebleeding was defined as a new hemorrhage on computed tomography scan. Clinical outcomes were assessed with modified Rankin score. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine independent predictors of rebleeding and association between the rebleeding and clinical outcomes at 12months. Of the 297 patients included in this study, 30 (10.1%) patients experienced rebleeding. Most rebleeding occurred within 24h after ictus. 22 (73.3%) patients died at discharge. Aneurysm rebleeding was independently associated with poor outcome (odds ratio [OR] 36.37, p<0.001) and associated with mortality (OR 25.03, p<0.001) at 12months. The multivariate analysis showed that a lower Fisher grade (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.31-0.77; p=0.002), ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms (OR 4.26, 95% CI 1.07-16.90; p=0.039), external ventricular drainage (OR 4.62, 95% CI 1.46-14.59; p=0.009) were independently associated with aneurysm rebleeding. The outcome of aneurysm rebleeding remains very poor. A lower Fisher grade, ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms, external ventricular drainage were associated with increased risk of rebleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. RD3 loss dictates high-risk aggressive neuroblastoma and poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faizan H; Pandian, Vijayabaskar; Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Aravindan, Sheeja; Natarajan, Mohan; Azadi, Seifollah; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-11-03

    Clinical outcomes for high-risk neuroblastoma patients remains poor, with only 40-50% 5-Year overall survival (OS) and <10% long-term survival. The ongoing acquisition of genetic/molecular rearrangements in undifferentiated neural crest cells may endorse neuroblastoma progression. This study recognized the loss of Retinal Degeneration protein 3, RD3 in aggressive neuroblastoma, and identified its influence in better clinical outcomes and defined its novel metastasis suppressor function. The results showed ubiquitous expression of RD3 in healthy tissues, complete-loss and significant TNM-stage association of RD3 in clinical samples. RD3-loss was intrinsically associated with reduced OS, abridged relapse-free survival, aggressive stage etc., in neuroblastoma patient cohorts. RD3 was transcriptionally and translationally regulated in metastatic site-derived aggressive (MSDAC) cells (regardless of CSC status) ex vivo and in tumor manifolds from metastatic sites in reproducible aggressive disease models in vivo. Re-expressing RD3 in MSDACs reverted their metastatic potential both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely muting RD3 in neuroblastoma cells not only heightened invasion/migration but also dictated aggressive disease with metastasis. These results demonstrate the loss of RD3 in high-risk neuroblastoma, its novel, thus-far unrecognized metastasis suppressor function and further imply that RD3-loss may directly relate to tumor aggressiveness and poor clinical outcomes.

  6. Long telomere length predicts poor clinical outcome in esophageal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yanyan; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xinru; Ren, Xiaojuan; Wang, Meichen; Tian, Sijia; Hou, Peng; Shi, Bingyin; Yang, Qi

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal telomere length is widely reported in various human cancers, and it is considered to be an important hallmark of cancer. However, there is remarkably little consensus on the value of telomere length in the prognostic evaluation of esophageal cancers. Here, we attempted to determine the association of variable telomere length with clinical outcome of esophageal cancer patients. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we examined relative telomere lengths (RTL) in a cohort of esophageal cancer and normal esophageal tissues, and statistically investigated the association between RTL and clinical outcomes of esophageal cancer patients. The majority of esophageal cancers in this study had longer RTLs as compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues. Enhanced tumor RTL was associated with smoking habit, poor differentiation, advanced tumor stage, lymph node metastasis and cancer related death. In particular, a close relationship between longer RTL and poor survival was fully demonstrated by using cox regression and Kaplan-Maier survival curves. We found frequent telomere elongation in esophageal cancer tissues, and demonstrated longer RTL may be an independent poor prognostic factor for esophageal cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Loss of cell surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L.; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W.; Muschler, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECMs) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors where it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression. PMID:22589276

  8. Undernutrition as a predictor of poor clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong S; Kwon, Sun U; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Koh, Jae-Young; Kang, Dong-Wha

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether changes in nutritional status in the first week after acute ischemic stroke and undernutrition predicts poor clinical outcomes. Prospective observational study. Tertiary university hospital. We included 131 acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent nutritional assessments within 24 hours and at 1 week after symptom onset. Undernutrition was diagnosed when 1 or more of the following 5 parameters were present: (1) weight loss 10% or more during the past 3 months or 6% or more during the week after admission, (2) a weight index less than 80%, (3) a serum albumin level less than 3.0 g/dL, (4) a transferrin level less than 150 mg/dL, or (5) a prealbumin level less than 10 mg/dL. We assessed poststroke complications and 3-month outcome using modified Rankin Scale responder analysis. Of 131 patients included in this study, undernutrition was observed in 16 (12.2%) patients at admission and in 26 (19.8%) at 1 week. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that baseline undernutrition independently predicted 1-week undernutrition (odds ratio [OR], 14.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.52-62.76; P< .001) and poststroke complications (OR, 6.72; 95% CI, 1.09-41.56; P= .04), and that 1-week undernutrition (OR, 4.49; 95% CI, 1.07-18.94; P= .04) and 1-week National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.31-2.37; P< .001) independently predicted poor 3-month outcomes. These findings suggest that acute ischemic stroke patients with baseline undernutrition are being undernourished during hospitalization. Strategic nutritional support, particularly in patients with baseline undernutrition, may improve clinical outcomes.

  9. Association of tumor growth on nude mice and poor clinical outcome in soft tissue sarcoma patients.

    PubMed

    Budach, W; Budach, V

    2001-09-01

    Permanent growth in nude mice (PGNM) may be associated with poor clinical outcome. We tested this hypothesis in a group of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients. Small chunks from fresh tumor biopsies of 81 patients with STS were transplanted subcutaneously into NMRI-nu/nu nude mice. Tumor cell lines exhibiting growth in nude mice for more than three tumor passages were considered as permanently established. Clinical outcome of all patients was monitored with a median follow-up of 38 months. 39/81 (48%) STSs exhibited PGNM. High grade, high S-phase proportion, and aneuploidy were significant predictors of PGNM. Overall survival (OS) at 3 years was 21% (+7% standard error of median) for STS patients with PGNM and 53% (+/-8%) for patients without PGNM (P<0.01). Considering only patients without distant metastasis at the time of biopsy (n = 49), 3-year-OS was 25% (+/-10%) and 71% (+/-9%) for STS with PGNM and without PGNM, respectively (P<0.01). In the univariate analysis, PGNM, aneuploidy high S-phase proportion, tumor location at the trunk, high tumor grade, and non-liposarcoma histology were associated with reduced survival time. In the multivariate analysis, aneuploidy and tumor location at the trunk were the only independent predictors of overall survival. Permanent growth of STS on nude mice is associated with poor clinical outcome in the univariate analysis, but is not an independent predictor of survival in the multivariate analysis due to a strong co-correlation to other known adverse prognostic factors.

  10. Clinical Outcomes of Metastatic Poor Prognosis Germ Cell Tumors: Current Perspective From a Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Necchi, Andrea; Farè, Elena; Vullo, Salvatore Lo; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Raggi, Daniele; Nicolai, Nicola; Piva, Luigi; Biasoni, Davide; Catanzaro, Mario; Torelli, Tullio; Stagni, Silvia; Maffezzini, Massimo; Verzoni, Elena; Grassi, Paolo; Procopio, Giuseppe; Pizzocaro, Giorgio; Mariani, Luigi; Salvioni, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Survival estimates with first-line treatment for patients with metastatic poor prognosis germ cell tumors (GCT) are still suboptimal in the literature. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of patients referred to our tertiary cancer center. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who received at least first-line chemotherapy at our center. Distribution of clinical characteristics was evaluated in the periods < 1997, 1997 to 2001, 2001 to 2006, and 2007 to 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariable and multivariable Cox models with prespecified clinical variables were undertaken for PFS and OS. All tests and confidence intervals were 2-sided and set at a P = .05 level of significance. Between 1982 and 2013, 168 patients were identified. The median age was 27 years (interquartile range [IQR], 22-34). The presence of liver, bone, or brain metastases trended to greater incidence from 1997 onward (27.5% < 1997 to 55.6% in 2007-2013; χ(2)P = .054). Median follow-up was 102 (IQR, 63-166) months. Global 5-year PFS was 48.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.5-56.8) and OS was 63.2% (95% CI, 56.0-71.2). In multivariable analysis, treatment period was not significantly associated with either PFS (overall P = .229) or OS (overall P = .216). In this single-center series of consecutive poor prognosis GCT we could observe greater PFS and OS than the historical estimates. This observation was independent from the period of treatment. Based on the present results, studies focused on improving the outcome in the sole poor-risk cohort should be discouraged. Results were biased by their retrospective quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tuberculosis in ageing: high rates, complex diagnosis and poor clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; García-García, Lourdes; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Bobadilla-del-Valle, Miriam; Cano-Arellano, Bulmaro; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Téllez-Vázquez, Norma; Nava-Mercado, Ariadna; Juárez-Sandino, Luis; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Fuentes-Leyra, César Alejandro; Montero-Campos, Rogelio; Martínez-Gamboa, Rosa Areli; Small, Peter M.; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Background: worldwide, the frequency of tuberculosis among older people almost triples that observed among young adults. Objective: to describe clinical and epidemiological consequences of pulmonary tuberculosis among older people. Methods: we screened persons with a cough lasting more than 2 weeks in Southern Mexico from March 1995 to February 2007. We collected clinical and mycobacteriological information (isolation, identification, drug-susceptibility testing and IS6110-based genotyping and spoligotyping) from individuals with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients were treated in accordance with official norms and followed to ascertain treatment outcomes, retreatment, and vital status. Results: eight hundred ninety-three tuberculosis patients were older than 15 years of age; of these, 147 (16.5%) were 65 years of age or older. Individuals ≥65 years had significantly higher rates of recently transmitted and reactivated tuberculosis. Older age was associated with treatment failure (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 1.06–27.23; P = 0.042), and death due to tuberculosis (HR = 3.52; 95% CI: 1.78–6.96; P < 0.001) adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. Conclusions: community-dwelling older individuals participate in chains of transmission indicating that tuberculosis is not solely due to the reactivation of latent disease. Untimely and difficult diagnosis and a higher risk of poor outcomes even after treatment completion emphasise the need for specific strategies for this vulnerable group. PMID:22431155

  12. Dolichoectatic aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system: clinical and radiographic factors that predict poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, David S; Levitt, Michael R; Kalani, M Yashar S; Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Mulholland, Celene B; Abecassis, Isaac J; Morton, Ryan P; Nerva, John D; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Spetzler, Robert F; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2017-04-07

    OBJECTIVE Fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms are rare, challenging lesions. The natural history of these lesions and medium- and long-term patient outcomes are poorly understood. The authors sought to evaluate patient prognosis after diagnosis of fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms and to identify clinical and radiographic predictors of neurological deterioration. METHODS The authors reviewed multiple, prospectively maintained, single-provider databases at 3 large-volume cerebrovascular centers to obtain data on patients with unruptured, fusiform, basilar artery dolichoectatic aneurysms diagnosed between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2015. RESULTS A total of 50 patients (33 men, 17 women) were identified; mean clinical follow-up was 50.1 months and mean radiographic follow-up was 32.4 months. At last follow-up, 42% (n = 21) of aneurysms had progressed and 44% (n = 22) of patients had deterioration of their modified Rankin Scale scores. When patients were dichotomized into 2 groups- those who worsened and those who did not-univariate analysis showed 5 variables to be statistically significantly different: sex (p = 0.007), radiographic brainstem compression (p = 0.03), clinical posterior fossa compression (p < 0.001), aneurysmal growth on subsequent imaging (p = 0.001), and surgical therapy (p = 0.006). A binary logistic regression was then created to evaluate these variables. The only variable found to be a statistically significant predictor of clinical worsening was clinical symptoms of posterior fossa compression at presentation (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Fusiform dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar aneurysms carry a poor prognosis, with approximately one-half of the patients deteriorating or experiencing progression of their aneurysm within 5 years. Despite being high risk, intervention-when carefully timed (before neurological decline)-may be beneficial in select patients.

  13. Persistent systemic inflammation is associated with poor clinical outcomes in COPD: a novel phenotype.

    PubMed

    Agustí, Alvar; Edwards, Lisa D; Rennard, Stephen I; MacNee, William; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Miller, Bruce E; Vestbo, Jørgen; Lomas, David A; Calverley, Peter M A; Wouters, Emiel; Crim, Courtney; Yates, Julie C; Silverman, Edwin K; Coxson, Harvey O; Bakke, Per; Mayer, Ruth J; Celli, Bartolome

    2012-01-01

    Because chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous condition, the identification of specific clinical phenotypes is key to developing more effective therapies. To explore if the persistence of systemic inflammation is associated with poor clinical outcomes in COPD we assessed patients recruited to the well-characterized ECLIPSE cohort (NCT00292552). Six inflammatory biomarkers in peripheral blood (white blood cells (WBC) count and CRP, IL-6, IL-8, fibrinogen and TNF-α levels) were quantified in 1,755 COPD patients, 297 smokers with normal spirometry and 202 non-smoker controls that were followed-up for three years. We found that, at baseline, 30% of COPD patients did not show evidence of systemic inflammation whereas 16% had persistent systemic inflammation. Even though pulmonary abnormalities were similar in these two groups, persistently inflamed patients during follow-up had significantly increased all-cause mortality (13% vs. 2%, p<0.001) and exacerbation frequency (1.5 (1.5) vs. 0.9 (1.1) per year, p<0.001) compared to non-inflamed ones. As a descriptive study our results show associations but do not prove causality. Besides this, the inflammatory response is complex and we studied only a limited panel of biomarkers, albeit they are those investigated by the majority of previous studies and are often and easily measured in clinical practice. Overall, these results identify a novel systemic inflammatory COPD phenotype that may be the target of specific research and treatment.

  14. A Myc Activity Signature Predicts Poor Clinical Outcomes in Myc-Associated Cancers.

    PubMed

    Jung, MoonSun; Russell, Amanda J; Liu, Bing; George, Joshy; Liu, Pei Yan; Liu, Tao; DeFazio, Anna; Bowtell, David D L; Oberthuer, André; London, Wendy B; Fletcher, Jamie I; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Henderson, Michelle J

    2017-02-15

    Myc transcriptional activity is frequently deregulated in human cancers, but a Myc-driven gene signature with prognostic ability across multiple tumor types remains lacking. Here, we selected 18 Myc-regulated genes from published studies of Myc family targets in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and neuroblastoma. A Myc family activity score derived from the 18 genes was correlated to MYC/MYCN/MYCL1 expression in a panel of 35 cancer cell lines. The prognostic ability of this signature was evaluated in neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and EOC microarray gene expression datasets using Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox regression analyses and was further validated in 42 primary neuroblastomas using qPCR. Cell lines with high MYC, MYCN, and/or MYCL1 gene expression exhibited elevated expression of the signature genes. Survival analysis showed that the signature was associated with poor outcome independently of well-defined prognostic factors in neuroblastoma, breast cancer, DLBCL, and medulloblastoma. In EOC, the 18-gene Myc activity signature was capable of identifying a group of patients with poor prognosis in a "high-MYCN" molecular subtype but not in the overall cohort. The predictive ability of this signature was reproduced using qPCR analysis of an independent cohort of neuroblastomas, including a subset of tumors without MYCN amplification. These data reveal an 18-gene Myc activity signature that is highly predictive of poor prognosis in diverse Myc-associated malignancies and suggest its potential clinical application in the identification of Myc-driven tumors that might respond to Myc-targeted therapies. Cancer Res; 77(4); 971-81. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. AIB1 Genomic Amplification Predicts Poor Clinical Outcomes in Female Glioma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihong; Wang, Changwei; Zhang, Xinyuan; Gao, Ke; Liu, Rui; Shi, Bingyin; Hou, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) gene, a coactivator for steroid receptor, is frequently amplified in diverse cancers and is considered as an oncogene in tumorigenesis. However, the prognostic significance of AIB1 amplification in gliomas remains totally unclear. In this study, 115 gliomas and 16 benign meningiomas as control subjects were enrolled, and the copy number of AIB1 was analyzed in these samples. In addition, we explored potential correlation of AIB1 amplification with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of glioma patients. Our data showed that glioma samples exhibited a significantly higher AIB1 copy number than control subjects as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approach. Moreover, univariate analysis showed that AIB1 amplification (≥3.5 copies) was strongly correlated with cancer-related death (P =0.03). Interestingly, our data revealed a significant association of AIB1 amplification with WHO grade (P =0.03), tumor recurrence (P =0.03) and survival status (P =0.03) in female patients but not in male patients. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that AIB1 amplification was independent factor for cancer-related death in female patients. Importantly, AIB1 amplification was closely relevant to worse survival in female patients (P =0.001), but not in male patients (P =1.00). In addition, the patients with AIB1 amplification were resistant to radiotherapy. Altogether, our data demonstrate that AIB1 amplification is a common genetic event in glioma tumorigenesis, and suggest that AIB1 amplification is not only a prognostic factor for poor clinical outcomes in glioma patients, but also a predictor of radiotherapy resistance in gliomas. PMID:27877220

  16. Rate of perihaematomal oedema expansion is associated with poor clinical outcomes in intracerebral haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Santosh B; Urday, Sebastian; Beslow, Lauren A; Dawson, Jesse; Lees, Kennedy; Kimberly, W Taylor; Iadecola, Costantino; Kamel, Hooman; Hanley, Daniel F; Sheth, Kevin N; Ziai, Wendy C

    2016-11-01

    Perihaematomal edema (PHE) expansion rate may be a predictor of outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). We determined whether PHE expansion rate in the first 72 hours after ICH predicts outcome, and how it compares against other PHE measures. We included patients from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive. We calculated PHE expansion rate using the equation: (PHE at 72 hours PHE at baseline)/(time to 72-hour CT scan time to baseline CT scan). Outcomes of interest were mortality and poor 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of ≥3). Logistic regression was used to assess relationships with outcome. A total of 596 patients with ICH were included. At baseline, median haematoma volume was 15.0 mL (IQR 7.9-29.2) with median PHE volume of 8.7 mL (IQR 4.5-15.5). Median PHE expansion rate was 0.31 mL/hour (IQR 0.12-0.55). The odds of mortality were greater with increasing PHE expansion rate (OR 2.63, CI 1.10 to 6.25), while the odds of poor outcome also increased with greater PHE growth (OR 1.67, CI 1.28 to 2.39). Female sex had an inverse relationship with PHE growth, but baseline haematoma volume had a direct correlation. Among other PHE measures, only interval increase in PHE correlated with poor outcome. There was no significant difference between the 2 measures of PHE volume expansion. Rate of PHE growth over 72 hours was an independent predictor of mortality and poor functional outcomes following ICH. Baseline haematoma volume and gender appear to influence PHE growth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Desmoglein 2 promotes vasculogenic mimicry in melanoma and is associated with poor clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lih Yin; Mintoff, Chris; Johan, M. Zahied; Ebert, Brenton W.; Fedele, Clare; Zhang, You Fang; Szeto, Pacman; Sheppard, Karen E.; McArthur, Grant A.; Foster-Smith, Erwin; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; Brown, Michael P.; Bonder, Claudine S.; Shackleton, Mark; Ebert, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumors can develop a blood supply not only by promoting angiogenesis but also by forming vessel-like structures directly from tumor cells, known as vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Understanding mechanisms that regulate VM is important, as these might be exploitable to inhibit tumor progression. Here, we reveal the adhesion molecule desmoglein 2 (DSG2) as a novel mediator of VM in melanoma. Analysis of patient-derived melanoma cell lines and tumor tissues, and interrogation of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data, revealed that DSG2 is frequently overexpressed in primary and metastatic melanomas compared to normal melanocytes. Notably, this overexpression was associated with poor clinical outcome. DSG2+ melanoma cells self-organized into tube-like structures on Matrigel, indicative of VM activity, which was inhibited by DSG2 knockdown or treatment with a DSG2-blocking peptide. Mechanistic studies revealed that DSG2 regulates adhesion and cell-cell interactions during tube formation, but does not control melanoma cell viability, proliferation or motility. Finally, analysis of patient tumors revealed a correlation between DSG2 expression, VM network density and expression of VM-associated genes. These studies identify DSG2 as a key regulator of VM activity in human melanoma and suggest this molecule might be therapeutically targeted to reduce tumor blood supply and metastatic spread. PMID:27340778

  18. Low DICER1 expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Gabriela Resende Vieira; Ribeiro, Tamaya C; Faria, Andre M; Mariani, Beatriz M P; Lerario, Antonio M; Zerbini, Maria Claudia N; Soares, Iberê C; Wakamatsu, Alda; Alves, Venancio A F; Mendonca, Berenice B; Fragoso, Maria Candida B V; Latronico, Ana Claudia; Almeida, Madson Q

    2015-09-08

    Low DICER1 expression was associated with poor outcome in several cancers. Recently, hot-spot DICER1 mutations were found in ovarian tumors, and TARBP2 truncating mutations in tumor cell lines with microsatellite instability. In this study, we assessed DICER1 e TRBP protein expression in 154 adult adrenocortical tumors (75 adenomas and 79 carcinomas). Expression of DICER1 and TARBP2 gene was assessed in a subgroup of 61 tumors. Additionally, we investigated mutations in metal biding sites located at the RNase IIIb domain of DICER1 and in the exon 5 of TARBP2 in 61 tumors. A strong DICER1 expression was demonstrated in 32% of adenomas and in 51% of carcinomas (p = 0.028). Similarly, DICER1 gene overexpression was more frequent in carcinomas (60%) than in adenomas (23%, p = 0.006). But, among adrenocortical carcinomas, a weak DICER1 expression was significantly more frequent in metastatic than in non-metastatic adrenocortical carcinomas (66% vs. 31%; p = 0.002). Additionally, a weak DICER1 expression was significantly correlated with a reduced overall (p = 0.004) and disease-free (p = 0.005) survival. In the multivariate analysis, a weak DICER1 expression (p = 0.048) remained as independent predictor of recurrence. Regarding TARBP2 gene, its protein and gene expression did not correlate with histopathological and clinical parameters. No variant was identified in hot spot areas of DICER1 and TARBP2. In conclusion, a weak DICER1 protein expression was associated with reduced disease-free and overall survival and was a predictor of recurrence in adrenocortical carcinomas.

  19. Gasdermin B expression predicts poor clinical outcome in HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Sarrio, David; Molina-Crespo, Ángela; Vicario, Rocío; Bernadó-Morales, Cristina; Martínez, Lidia; Rojo-Sebastián, Alejandro; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mota, Alba; Martínez-Ramírez, Ángel; Castilla, Maria Ángeles; González-Martin, Antonio; Pernas, Sonia; Cano, Amparo; Cortes, Javier; Nuciforo, Paolo G.; Peg, Vicente; Palacios, José; Pujana, Miguel Ángel; Arribas, Joaquín; Moreno-Bueno, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Around, 30–40% of HER2-positive breast cancers do not show substantial clinical benefit from the targeted therapy and, thus, the mechanisms underlying resistance remain partially unknown. Interestingly, ERBB2 is frequently co-amplified and co-expressed with neighbour genes that may play a relevant role in this cancer subtype. Here, using an in silico analysis of data from 2,096 breast tumours, we reveal a significant correlation between Gasdermin B (GSDMB) gene (located 175 kilo bases distal from ERBB2) expression and the pathological and clinical parameters of poor prognosis in HER2-positive breast cancer. Next, the analysis of three independent cohorts (totalizing 286 tumours) showed that approximately 65% of the HER2-positive cases have GSDMB gene amplification and protein over-expression. Moreover, GSDMB expression was also linked to poor therapeutic responses in terms of lower relapse free survival and pathologic complete response as well as positive lymph node status and the development of distant metastasis under neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment settings, respectively. Importantly, GSDMB expression promotes survival to trastuzumab in different HER2-positive breast carcinoma cells, and is associated with trastuzumab resistance phenotype in vivo in Patient Derived Xenografts. In summary, our data identifies the ERBB2 co-amplified and co-expressed gene GSDMB as a critical determinant of poor prognosis and therapeutic response in HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:27462779

  20. Can routine clinical data identify older patients at risk of poor healthcare outcomes on admission to hospital?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Kinda; Owen, Charlotte; Patel, Harnish P; May, Carl; Baxter, Mark; Sayer, Avan A; Roberts, Helen C

    2017-08-10

    Older patients who are at risk of poor healthcare outcomes should be recognised early during hospital admission to allow appropriate interventions. It is unclear whether routinely collected data can identify high-risk patients. The aim of this study was to define current practice with regard to the identification of older patients at high risk of poor healthcare outcomes on admission to hospital. Interviews/focus groups were conducted to establish the views of 22 healthcare staff across five acute medicine for older people wards in one hospital including seven nurses, four dieticians, seven doctors, and four therapists. In addition, a random sample of 60 patients' clinical records were reviewed to characterise the older patients, identify risk assessments performed routinely on admission, and describe usual care. We found that staff relied on their clinical judgment to identify high risk patients which was influenced by a number of factors such as reasons for admission, staff familiarity with patients, patients' general condition, visible frailty, and patients' ability to manage at home. "Therapy assessment" and patients' engagement with therapy were also reported to be important in recognising high-risk patients. However, staff recognised that making clinical judgments was often difficult and that it might occur several days after admission potentially delaying specific interventions. Routine risk assessments carried out on admission to identify single healthcare needs included risk of malnutrition (completed for 85% patients), falls risk (95%), moving and handling assessments (85%), and pressure ulcer risk assessments (88%). These were not used collectively to highlight patients at risk of poor healthcare outcomes. Thus, patients at risk of poor healthcare outcomes were not explicitly identified on admission using routinely collected data. There is a need for an early identification of these patients using a valid measure alongside staff clinical judgment to

  1. Overexpression of Sirtuin-1 is associated with poor clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenyue; Yi, Jun; Jin, Li; Pan, Banzhou; Chen, Longbang; Song, Haizhu

    2016-06-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), one member of the mammalian sirtuin family, has been suggested to play an essential role in the development and progression of many tumors. However, the relationship between expression of SIRT1 and prognosis of esophageal cancer is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate SIRT1 expression and its possible prognostic value in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 86 patients with ESCC were enrolled in our study group. Clinical data and matched tissues were collected. Western blotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were carried out to explore the expression of SIRT1 in four human ESCC cell lines, one human normal epithelial cell line, and clinical ESCC tissues. Expression levels of SIRT1 protein in tissues of specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Survival analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation of SIRT1 expression with clinical features and prognosis of ESCC patients. Basal expression levels of SIRT1 protein in ESCC tumor tissues and cell lines were higher than those in the control groups. IHC analysis showed that expression levels of SIRT1 protein significantly correlated with TNM stage and lymph node status of ESCC patients. Moreover, upregulated SIRT1 expression was associated with poor clinical prognosis. High SIRT1 expression in ESCC could serve as an independent predictive biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in ESCC patients.

  2. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCCA) in the veteran population is associated with traditional carcinogen exposure and poor clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sandulache, Vlad C.; Hamblin, John; Lai, Syeling; Pezzi, Todd; Skinner, Heath D.; Khan, Numan A.; Dioun, Shayan M.; Hartman, Christine; Kramer, Jennifer; Chiao, Elizabeth; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zevallos, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant fraction of OPSCCA cases is associated with traditional carcinogens; in these patients treatment response and clinical outcomes remain poor. Methods We evaluated patient, tumor and treatment characteristics for 200 veterans with OPSCCA treated at the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center (MEDVAMC) between 2000 and 2012. Results Most patients (77%) were white and heavy smokers. Twenty seven patients required tracheostomy and 63 required gastrostomy placement during treatment. Overall survival at 5 years was 40%.. Survival was impacted by T stage, treatment intensity, completion of treatment and p16 tumor status. Almost 30% of patients were unable to complete a treatment regimen consistent with NCCN guidelines. Conclusions OPSCCA in veterans is associated with traditional carcinogens and poor clinical outcomes. Despite heavy smoking exposure, p16 tumor status significantly impacts survival. Careful consideration must be given to improving treatment paradigms for this cohort given their limited tolerance for treatment escalation. PMID:24801106

  3. Genomic profiling of atypical meningiomas associates gain of 1q with poor clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Gabeau-Lacet, Darlene; Engler, David; Gupta, Sumeet; Scangas, George A.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Barker, Fred G.; Loeffler, Jay S.; Louis, David N.; Mohapatra, Gayatry

    2010-01-01

    Atypical meningiomas exhibit heterogeneous clinical outcomes. It is unclear which atypical meningiomas require aggressive multimodality treatment with surgery and radiation therapy versus surgery alone to prevent recurrence. Detailed molecular-genetic characterization of these neoplasms is necessary to better understand their pathogenesis and to identify genetic markers. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify frequent genetic alterations in 47 primary atypical meningiomas resected at Massachusetts General Hospital between August 1987 and September 2006. Eighty five percent of samples exhibited loss of 22q, including the NF2 gene. The second most frequent regions of loss were confined to the short arm of chromosome 1, particularly 1p33-p36.2 (70%) and 1p13.2 (64%). Other frequent regions of loss, detected in more than 50% of samples, included 14q, 10q, 8q, 7p, 21q, 19, 9q34, and 4p16. Frequent regions of gain were detected along 1q (59%), 17q (44%), 9q34 (30%) and 7q36 (26%). Univariate marker-by-marker analysis of all frequently identified copy number alterations showed potential correlation between gain of 1q and shorter progression free survival. Given the heterogeneous treatment outcomes of atypical meningioma, investigation of large-scale and focal genomic alterations in multi-institutional efforts may help clarify molecular-genetic signatures of clinical utility. PMID:19918127

  4. The expression of moesin in astrocytoma: correlation with pathologic grade and poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Liu, Ding-Yang; Yuan, Xian-Rui; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Xin-Jun; Yuan, Dun; Huang, Jun; Li, Xue-Jun; Yang, Zhi-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Moesin, a member of the ERM family, acts as a linker between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane and plays a key role in the control of cell morphology, motility, adhesion and other processes of tumourigenesis. The expression pattern and clinical significance of moesin in astrocytoma remain unknown. In this study, we used RT-PCR to systematically investigate the expression of moesin in 49 astrocytomas of different pathological grade and 6 normal brain tissues. We found that the mRNA expression levels of moesin in astrocytomas were significantly higher in comparison with normal brain tissues. Furthermore, moesin up-regulation was correlated with pathological grade of astrocytomas. Subsequently, we tested 112 astrocytomas and 14 normal brain tissues by immunohistochemistry. Similar results were also confirmed. Univariate and multivariate survival analysis were used to determine the correlations of moesin expression with overall survival and progression-free survival. Our results showed the expression of moesin was strongly negatively correlated with the patient progression-free survival and overall survival. These results suggest moesin protein involved in the genesis and progression of astrocytomas and might be regarded as an independent predictor of poor prognosis.

  5. Characteristics of Blood Pressure Profiles After Endovascular Coiling as Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Poor-Grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kefu; Zhang, Yunfeng; Shen, Lihua; Ji, Qiuhong; Xu, Tian; Cao, Maohong

    2017-08-01

    Accurate identification of patients who will achieve a favorable outcome is almost impossible preoperatively or postoperatively in poor-grade (Hunt and Hess Grade IV and V) aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whether characteristics of blood pressure profiles during the first 24 hours after endovascular coiling could predict prognosis in poor grade patients was explored. Data were obtained retrospectively on all patients undergoing endovascular treatment with poor-grade SAH from November 2011 to June 2016. Blood pressure during the initial 24 hours was measured at 2-hour intervals after coil embolization. Studied features of mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) as well as demographics, medical history, clinical characteristics, and neurologic outcomes were documented. SBPV was determined as standard deviation and successive variation of systolic blood pressure. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of favorable outcome assessed on modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2. The patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome were comparable with respect to systolic blood pressure on admission and MSBP after coiling. However, MSBP between 120 and 140 mm Hg was one of independent predictors of good outcomes at discharge (odds ratio 7.1; P = 0.002). SBPV-successive variation after embolization was associated with functional recovery (odds ratio 0.87; P = 0.011) in multivariate logistic analysis and mortality by Cox proportional hazard regression (hazard ratio, 1.10; P = 0.001) at 6-month follow-up. Characteristics of blood pressure profiles after coiling appeared to be simple and convenient indexes for the prognosis of patients with poor-grade SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Eosinophilia predicts poor clinical outcomes in recent-onset arthritis: results from the ESPOIR cohort

    PubMed Central

    Guellec, Dewi; Milin, Morgane; Cornec, Divi; Tobon, Gabriel J; Marhadour, Thierry; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Chiocchia, Gilles; Vittecocq, Olivier; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Saraux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of eosinophilia in patients with recent-onset arthritis suggestive of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to describe their features and outcomes. Methods We performed an ancillary study of data from a French prospective multicentre cohort study monitoring clinical, laboratory and radiographic data in patients with inflammatory arthritis of 6 weeks to 6 months duration. We determined the proportion of patients with eosinophilia, defined as a count >500/mm3, at baseline and after 3 years. Features of patients with and without baseline eosinophilia were compared. Results Baseline eosinophilia was evidenced in 26 of 804 (3.2%) patients; their mean eosinophil count was 637.7±107/mm3. Baseline eosinophilia was ascribed to atopic syndrome in 6 of 26 (23.1%) patients. After 3 years, patients with eosinophilia had higher Health Assessment Questionnaire scores (0.9 vs 0.5, p=0.004), higher patient visual analogue scale activity score and morning stiffness intensity (p=0.05), and were more often taking disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (p=0.02). Baseline eosinophilia was not associated with presence of extra-articular manifestations. Conclusions Eosinophilia is rare in recent-onset arthritis suggestive of RA, and is usually directly related to the rheumatic disease. Our data suggest that patients with mild eosinophilia at diagnosis could respond worse to the treatment than those without. PMID:26509068

  7. A Low Baseline Glomerular Filtration Rate Predicts Poor Clinical Outcome at 3 Months after Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Jik; Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Oh, Mi Sun; Kim, Sung Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an established risk factor for numerous cardiovascular diseases including stroke. The relationship between the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical 3-month outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke were evaluated in this study. Methods This was a prospective cohort study involving a hospital-based stroke registry; 1373 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled. Patients were divided into the following four groups according their eGFR (calculated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration equations): ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. The primary endpoint of poor functional outcome was defined as 3-month death or dependency (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3); secondary endpoints were neurological deterioration (increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity score of ≥4 at discharge compared to baseline) during hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. Results The overall eGFR was 84.5±20.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 (mean±SD). The distribution of baseline renal impairment was as follows: 1,218, 82, 40, and 33 patients had eGFRs of ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. At 3 months after the stroke, 476 (34.7%) patients exhibited poor functional outcome. Furthermore, a poor functional outcome occurred more frequently with increasingly advanced stages of CKD (rates of 31.9%, 53.7%, 55.0%, and 63.6% for CKD stages 1/2, 3a, 3b, and 4/5, respectively; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73m2 increased the risk of a poor functional outcome by 2.37-fold (p=0.047). In addition, baseline renal dysfunction was closely associated with neurological deterioration during hospitalization and with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions A low baseline eGFR was strongly predictive of both poor functional outcome at 3 months after ischemic stroke and neurological deterioration/mortality during hospitalization. PMID

  8. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the veteran population: Association with traditional carcinogen exposure and poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sandulache, Vlad C; Hamblin, John; Lai, Syeling; Pezzi, Todd; Skinner, Heath D; Khan, Numan A; Dioun, Shayan M; Hartman, Christine; Kramer, Jennifer; Chiao, Elizabeth; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zevallos, Jose P

    2015-09-01

    A significant fraction of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases is associated with traditional carcinogens; in these patients, treatment response and clinical outcomes remain poor. We evaluated patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics for 200 veterans with oropharyngeal SCC treated at the Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center (MEDVAMC) between 2000 and 2012. Most patients (77%) were white and heavy smokers. Twenty-seven patients required tracheostomy and 63 required gastrostomy placement during treatment. Overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 40%. Survival was impacted by T classification, treatment intensity, completion of treatment, and p16 tumor status. Almost 30% of patients were unable to complete a treatment regimen consistent with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines. Oropharyngeal SCC in veterans is associated with traditional carcinogens and poor clinical outcomes. Despite heavy smoking exposure, p16 tumor status significantly impacts survival. Careful consideration must be given to improving treatment paradigms for this cohort given their limited tolerance for treatment escalation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Loss of cell-surface laminin anchoring promotes tumor growth and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Armin; Griffith, Obi L; Soroceanu, Liliana; Leonoudakis, Dmitri; Luciani-Torres, Maria Gloria; Daemen, Anneleen; Gray, Joe W; Muschler, John L

    2012-05-15

    Perturbations in the composition and assembly of extracellular matrices (ECM) contribute to progression of numerous diseases, including cancers. Anchoring of laminins at the cell surface enables assembly and signaling of many ECMs, but the possible contributions of altered laminin anchoring to cancer progression remain undetermined. In this study, we investigated the prominence and origins of defective laminin anchoring in cancer cells and its association with cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We found loss of laminin anchoring to be widespread in cancer cells. Perturbation of laminin anchoring originated from several distinct defects, which all led to dysfunctional glycosylation of the ECM receptor dystroglycan. In aggressive breast and brain cancers, defective laminin anchoring was often due to suppressed expression of the glycosyltransferase LARGE. Reduced expression of LARGE characterized a broad array of human tumors in which it was associated with aggressive cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcomes. Notably, this defect robustly predicted poor survival in patients with brain cancers. Restoring LARGE expression repaired anchoring of exogenous and endogenous laminin and modulated cell proliferation and tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that defects in laminin anchoring occur commonly in cancer cells, are characteristic of aggressive cancer subtypes, and are important drivers of disease progression. ©2012 AACR.

  10. Overexpression of Id-1 is associated with tumor angiogenesis and poor clinical outcome in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zuoqing; Liu, Shaohua; Zhou, Chengjun; Sumida, Tomoki; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Chen, Zhenggang; Liu, Pei; Wei, Fengcai

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed the expression of Id-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) immunohistochemically, and investigated the association of Id-1 expression with tumor angiogenesis and clinical prognosis. Overexpression of Id-1 protein was found in 83 out of 128 cases (64.8%). The expression of Id-1 was significantly associated with tumor size (p=0.013), lymph node metastasis (p=0.001), tumor stage (p=0.031) and tumor recurrence (p=0.003). Moreover, Id-1 expression was significantly correlated with intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) (r=0.223, p=0.011). The results suggest that overexpression of Id-1 was correlated with tumor angiogenesis and poor clinical outcome.

  11. Clinical profile & predictors of poor outcome of adult HIV-tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care centre in north India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Soneja, Manish; Prasad, K. T.; Ranjan, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: There is a paucity of data from India on response to treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-TB co-infection. This study was done to assess the frequency and pattern of TB, outcome of anti-tuberculosis treatment, and the factors related to poor outcome of TB treatment in adult patients with HIV infection. Methods: Retrospective review of case records of HIV-TB co-infected patients attending the antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in a tertiary care centre in north India was done. Results: Of the 1754 patients included in the study, 583 (33.2%) were diagnosed with active TB and 466 (79.9%) of them had CD4 count less than 200/μl at diagnosis. Extrapulmonary TB was diagnosed in 372 (63.8%) patients [76 (20.4%) had disseminated TB], and pulmonary TB in 211 (36.2%) patients. Favourable outcome (cure and completed treatment) was observed in 332 (77%) patients. Unfavourable outcome included default (8.1%), treatment failure (1.6%), and death (13.2%). At 1-year post-treatment follow up, 12 (3.6%) patients had disease relapse. CD4 count of less than 200/μl at diagnosis [OR-2.32, CI (1.06-5.09)], and retreatment cases [OR-2.91, CI (1.22-6.89)] were independent predictors of unfavourable outcome. Interpretation & conclusions: There is an urgent need to strengthen the information, education, communication activities and expand the ART services to meet the requirement of early testing and treatment initiation in patients co-infected with HIV-TB. The findings highlight the need for performing drug susceptibility testing (DST) for patients starting retreatment regimen to improve treatment outcome. PMID:24604050

  12. RETRACTED: Downregulation of miR-204 expression correlates with poor clinical outcome of glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Jing-Peng; Wu, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhuang, Zong; Chen, Qiang; Lu, Yue; Liu, Ce-Gang; Zhang, Zi-Huan; Zhang, Hua-Sheng; Hou, Wen-Zhong; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Glioma is the most common type of malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system, with high incidence and mortality rate. MicroRNAs, as a class of small noncoding RNAs, play an important role in carcinogenesis and correlate with glioma diagnosis and prognosis. In this study, we investigated the microRNA-204 (miR-204) concentration in glioma tissues and its relation to the expression of ezrin and bcl-2 mRNA, as well as its potential predictive and prognostic values in glioma. The concentrations of miR-204 were significantly lower in glioma tissues than in nontumor brain tissues and also were lower in high-grade than in low-grade gliomas (World Health Organization grades III and IV versus grades I and II). The miR-204 concentration was inversely correlated with the ezrin and bcl-2 concentrations. The miR-204 concentration was classified as high or low according to the median value, and low miR-204 correlated with higher World Health Organization grade, larger tumor, and worse Karnofsky performance score. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with low miR-204 expression had shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than patients with high miR-204 expression. In addition, univariate and multivariate analyses showed that miR-204 expression was an independent prognostic feature of overall survival and progression-free survival. In conclusion, our study indicates that miR-204 is downregulated in glioma and may be a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with this cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The expression of HSP27 is associated with poor clinical outcome in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Antonello A; Crafa, Pellegrino; Desenzani, Silvia; Graiani, Gallia; Lagrasta, Costanza; Sianesi, Mario; Soliani, Paolo; Borghetti, Angelo F

    2007-01-01

    Background The heat shock proteins (HSPs) 27-kDa (HSP27) and 72-kDa (HSP72), are ubiquitous chaperone molecules inducible in cells exposed to different stress conditions. Increased level of HSPs are reported in several human cancers, and found to be associated with the resistance to some anticancer treatments and poor prognosis. However, there is no study of the relationship between HSPs expression and patient's prognosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCCA). In this exploratory retrospective study, we investigated the expressions of HSP27 and HSP72 as potential prognostic factors in IHCCA. Methods Thirty-one paraffin-embedded samples were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods using HSP27 and HSP72 monoclonal antibodies. Proliferation rate was assessed in the same specimens by using monoclonal antibody against phosphorylated histone H3 (pHH3). Fisher's exact test was used to assess the hypothesis of independence between categorical variables in 2 × 2 tables. The ANOVA procedure was used to evaluate the association between ordinal and categorical variables. Estimates of the survival probability were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log rank test was employed to test the null hypothesis of equality in overall survival among groups. The hazard ratio associated with HSP27 and HSP72 expression was estimated by Cox hazard-proportional regression. Results The expression of HSP27 was related to mitotic index, tumor greatest dimension, capsular and vascular invasion while the expression of HSP72 was only related to the presence of necrosis and the lymphoid infiltration. Kaplan-Maier analysis suggested that the expression of HSP27 significantly worsened the patients' median overall survival (11 ± 3.18 vs 55 ± 4.1 months, P-value = 0.0003). Moreover HSP27-positive patients exhibited the worst mean survival (7.0 ± 3.2 months) in the absence of concomitant HSP72 expression. Conclusion The expression of HSP27, likely increasing cell proliferation

  14. Upregulation of the oncoprotein SET determines poor clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma and shows therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Hung, M-H; Chen, Y-L; Chu, P-Y; Shih, C-T; Yu, H-C; Tai, W-T; Shiau, C-W; Chen, K-F

    2016-09-15

    The SET protein is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Here, we report the oncogenic role of SET in hepatocarcinogenesis, clinical aggressiveness and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapeutics. By analyzing samples obtained from 147 HCC patients, we found that SET overexpression was detected specifically in 30.6% HCC tumor samples, and was significantly associated with worse clinical features and high p-Akt expression in HCC tumors. Co-expression of SET and Akt predicted shorter post-operative recurrence-free survival in this cohort (P=0.045). Furthermore, SET was significantly associated with cell growth and hepatosphere formation. To elucidate the anti-HCC potential of targeting SET, we generated a novel SET antagonist, EMQA (N(4)-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-N(2)-(4-phenoxyphenyl) quinazoline-2,4-diamine). EMQA enhanced PP2A activity via disrupting SET-PP2Ac (catalytic domain of PP2A) binding in HCC cells, which restored PP2A-mediated p-Akt downregulation and promoted HCC cell death. In HCC cells or recombinant proteins expressing the N- and C- truncated forms of SET, only the C-terminal SET was required for EMQA targeting. Furthermore, combining sorafenib and EMQA showed good synergism in inhibiting HCC survival. Our findings suggested the oncogenic role of SET and the adverse prognostic value of SET overexpression in HCC. This alteration defines a subgroup of HCC patients who could benefit from SET antagonists, such as EMQA.

  15. Downregulation of SERPINB13 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas associates with poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    de Koning, Pieter J A; Bovenschen, Niels; Leusink, Frank K J; Broekhuizen, Roel; Quadir, Razi; van Gemert, Jan T M; Hordijk, Gerrit J; Chang, Wun-Shaing W; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Tilanus, Marcel G J; Kummer, J Alain

    2009-10-01

    Tumorigenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is associated with various genetic changes such as loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on human chromosome 18q21. This chromosomal region maps a gene cluster coding for a family of intracellular serine protease inhibitors (serpins), including SERPINB13. As SERPINB13 expression in HNSCC has recently been shown to be downregulated both at the mRNA and protein levels, here we investigated if such a low SERPINB13 expression is associated with histopathological and clinical parameters of HNSCC tumors and patient survival. By generating specific antibodies followed by immunohistochemistry on a well-defined cohort of 99 HNSCC of the oral cavity and oropharynx, SERPINB13 expression was found to be partially or totally downregulated in 75% of the HNSCC as compared with endogenous expression in non-neoplastic epithelial cells. Downregulation of SERPINB13 protein expression in HNSCC was significantly associated with the presence of LOH at the SERPINB13 gene in the tumors (p = 0.006), a poor differentiation grade of the tumors (p = 0.001), the presence of a lymph node metastasis (p = 0.012), and a decreased disease-free (p = 0.033) as well as overall (p = 0.018) survival of the patients. This is the first report demonstrating that downregulation of SERPINB13 protein expression in HNSCC is positively associated with poor clinical outcome. Therefore, SERPINB13 seems to act as an important protease inhibitor involved in the progression of HNSCC.

  16. The influence of different growth hormone addition protocols to poor ovarian responders on clinical outcomes in controlled ovary stimulation cycles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Li; Wang, Li; Lv, Fang; Huang, Xia-Man; Wang, Li-Ping; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Growth hormone (GH) is used as an adjuvant therapy in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) for poor ovarian responders, but findings for its effects on outcomes of IVF have been conflicting. The aim of the study was to compare IVF-ET outcomes among women with poor ovarian responders, and find which subgroup can benefit from the GH addition. Methods: We searched the databases, using the terms “growth hormone,” “GH,” “IVF,” “in vitro fertilization.” Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included if they assessed pregnancy rate, live birth rate, collected oocytes, fertilization rate, and implantation rate. Extracted the data from the corresponding articles, Mantel–Haenszel random-effects model, or fixed-effects model was used. Eleven studies were included. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.23–2.22), live birth rate (RR1.73, 1.25–2.40), collected oocytes number (SMD 1.09, 95% CI 0.54–1.64), MII oocytes number (SMD 1.48, 0.84–2.13), and E2 on human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) day (SMD 1.03, 0.18–1.89) were significantly increased in the GH group. The cancelled cycles rate (RR 0.65, 0.45–0.94) and the dose of gonadotropin (Gn) (SMD –0.83, –1.47, –0.19) were significantly lower in patients who received GH. Subgroup analysis indicated that the GH addition with Gn significantly increased the clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.76, 1.25–2.48) and the live birth rate (RR 1.91, 1.29–2.83). Conclusion: The GH addition can significantly improve the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Furthermore, the GH addition time and collocation of medications may affect the pregnancy outcome. PMID:28328856

  17. Ketones and lactate increase cancer cell “stemness”, driving recurrence, metastasis and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Lin, Zhao; Pavlides, Stephanos; Wang, Chengwang; Flomenberg, Neal; Knudsen, Erik S; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we showed that high-energy metabolites (lactate and ketones) “fuel” tumor growth and experimental metastasis in an in vivo xenograft model, most likely by driving oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells. To mechanistically understand how these metabolites affect tumor cell behavior, here we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Human breast cancer cells (MCF7) were cultured with lactate or ketones, and then subjected to transcriptional analysis (exon-array). Interestingly, our results show that treatment with these high-energy metabolites increases the transcriptional expression of gene profiles normally associated with “stemness”, including genes upregulated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, we observe that lactate and ketones promote the growth of bonafide ES cells, providing functional validation. The lactate- and ketone-induced “gene signatures” were able to predict poor clinical outcome (including recurrence and metastasis) in human breast cancer patients. Taken together, our results are consistent with the idea that lactate and ketone utilization in cancer cells promotes the “cancer stem cell” phenotype, resulting in significant decreases in patient survival. One possible mechanism by which high-energy metabolites might induce stemness is by increasing the pool of Acetyl-CoA, leading to increased histone acetylation and elevated gene expression. Thus, our results mechanistically imply that clinical outcome in breast cancer could simply be determined by epigenetics and energy metabolism, rather than by the accumulation of specific “classical” gene mutations. We also suggest that high-risk cancer patients (identified by the lactate/ketone gene signatures) could be treated with new therapeutics that target oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, such as the anti-oxidant and “mitochondrial poison” metformin. Finally, we propose that this new approach to personalized cancer medicine be termed

  18. Mood instability is a common feature of mental health disorders and is associated with poor clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Theodore; Jackson, Richard; Ball, Michael; Shetty, Hitesh; Broadbent, Matthew; Geddes, John R; Stewart, Robert; McGuire, Philip; Taylor, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mood instability is a clinically important phenomenon but has received relatively little research attention. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of mood instability on clinical outcomes in a large sample of people receiving secondary mental healthcare. Design Observational study using an anonymised electronic health record case register. Setting South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM), a large provider of inpatient and community mental healthcare in the UK. Participants 27 704 adults presenting to SLaM between April 2006 and March 2013 with a psychotic, affective or personality disorder. Exposure The presence of mood instability within 1 month of presentation, identified using natural language processing (NLP). Main outcome measures The number of days spent in hospital, frequency of hospital admission, compulsory hospital admission and prescription of antipsychotics or non-antipsychotic mood stabilisers over a 5-year follow-up period. Results Mood instability was documented in 12.1% of people presenting to mental healthcare services. It was most frequently documented in people with bipolar disorder (22.6%), but was common in people with personality disorder (17.8%) and schizophrenia (15.5%). It was associated with a greater number of days spent in hospital (β coefficient 18.5, 95% CI 12.1 to 24.8), greater frequency of hospitalisation (incidence rate ratio 1.95, 1.75 to 2.17), greater likelihood of compulsory admission (OR 2.73, 2.34 to 3.19) and an increased likelihood of prescription of antipsychotics (2.03, 1.75 to 2.35) or non-antipsychotic mood stabilisers (2.07, 1.77 to 2.41). Conclusions Mood instability occurs in a wide range of mental disorders and is not limited to affective disorders. It is generally associated with relatively poor clinical outcomes. These findings suggest that clinicians should screen for mood instability across all common mental health disorders. The data also suggest that targeted interventions for

  19. Nuclear Y-Box-binding Protein-1 Expression Predicts Poor Clinical Outcome in Stage III Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shiraiwa, Sachiko; Kinugasa, Tetsushi; Kawahara, Akihiko; Mizobe, Tomoaki; Ohchi, Takafumi; Yuge, Kotaro; Fujino, Shinya; Katagiri, Mitsuhiro; Shimomura, Susumu; Tajiri, Kensuke; Sudo, Tomoya; Kage, Masayoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Akagi, Yoshito

    2016-07-01

    Y-Box-binding protein-1 (YB-1), a DNA/RNA-binding protein, is an important oncogenic transcription and translation factor. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between nuclear YB-1 expression, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status, and poor clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Nuclear YB-1 expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in CRC tissues obtained from 124 patients who underwent curative resection between 2005 and 2008. Correlations between nuclear YB-1 expression, various clinicopathological characteristics, EGFR status, and prognostic factors were evaluated. High-grade nuclear YB-1 expression was detected in 62.9% of cases and was found to be an independent predictor of poorer overall survival (p<0.001) and relapse-free survival (p<0.001). A trend was also observed towards a positive correlation between nuclear YB-1 expression and EGFR status (p=0.051). Nuclear YB-1 expression is a useful prognostic biomarker that correlates with EGFR status in patients with CRC. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Methionyl-tRNA synthetase overexpression is associated with poor clinical outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Arum; Kim, Kwangsoo; Chang, Yoon Soo

    2017-07-05

    Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MRS) plays a critical role in initiating translation by transferring Met to the initiator tRNA (tRNAi(Met)) and protection against ROS-mediated damage, suggesting that its overexpression is related to cancer growth and drug resistance. In this study, the clinical implication of MRS expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was evaluated. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses were performed using tissue lysates and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks from wild type C57BL/6, LSL-Kras G12D, and LSL-Kras G12D:p53(fl/fl) mice. For human studies, 12 paired adjacent normal appearing lung tissue lysates and cancer tissue lysates, in addition to 231 FFPE tissue samples, were used. MRS was weakly expressed in the spleen and intestinal epithelium and only marginally expressed in the kidney, liver, and lungs of wild type C57BL/6 mice. On the other hand, MRS was strongly expressed in the neoplastic region of lung tissue from LSL-Kras G12D and LSL-Kras G12D:p53(fl/fl) mice. Immunoblot analysis of the human normal appearing adjacent and lung cancer paired tissue lysates revealed cancer-specific MRS overexpression, which was related to mTORC1 activity. IHC analysis of the 231 FFPE lung cancer tissue samples showed that MRS expression was frequently detected in the cytoplasm of lung cancer cells (179 out of 231, 77.4%), with a small proportion (73 out of 231, 31.6%) also showing nuclear expression. The proportion of cases with positive MRS expression was higher in the advanced pStage subgroup (P = 0.018, χ(2)-test) and cases with MRS expression also had shorter DFS (161.6 vs 142.3, P = 0.014, log-rank test). Taken together, MRS is frequently overexpressed in NSCLC. Moreover, MRS is related to mTORC1 activity and its overexpression is associated with poor clinical outcomes, indicating that it has potential as a putative therapeutic target.

  1. Effect of a soy isoflavone supplement on lung function and clinical outcomes in patients with poorly controlled asthma: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lewis J; Kalhan, Ravi; Wise, Robert A; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Lima, John J; Irvin, Charles G; Dozor, Allen J; Holbrook, Janet T

    2015-05-26

    Soy isoflavone supplements are used to treat several chronic diseases, although the data supporting their use are limited. Some data suggest that supplementation with soy isoflavone may be an effective treatment for patients with poor asthma control. To determine whether a soy isoflavone supplement improves asthma control in adolescent and adult patients with poorly controlled disease. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between May 2010 and August 2012 at 19 adult and pediatric pulmonary and allergy centers in the American Lung Association Asthma Clinical Research Centers network. Three hundred eighty-six adults and children aged 12 years or older with symptomatic asthma while taking a controller medicine and low dietary soy intake were randomized, and 345 (89%) completed spirometry at week 24. Participants were randomly assigned to receive soy isoflavone supplement containing 100 mg of total isoflavones (n=193) or matching placebo (n=193) in 2 divided doses administered daily for 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) at 24 weeks. Secondary outcome measures were symptoms, episodes of poor asthma control, Asthma Control Test score (range, 5-25; higher scores indicate better control), and systemic and airway biomarkers of inflammation. Mean changes in prebronchodilator FEV1 over 24 weeks were 0.03 L (95% CI, -0.01 to 0.08 L) in the placebo group and 0.01 L (95% CI, -0.07 to 0.07 L) in the soy isoflavone group, which were not significantly different (P = .36). Mean changes in symptom scores on the Asthma Control Test (placebo, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.42-2.54] vs soy isoflavones, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.53-2.87]; positive values indicate a reduction in symptoms), number of episodes of poor asthma control (placebo, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.7-4.1] vs soy isoflavones, 3.0 [95% CI, 2.4-3.7]), and changes in exhaled nitric oxide (placebo, -3.48 ppb [95% CI, -5.99 to -0.97 ppb] vs soy

  2. Poor nutritional status of older subacute patients predicts clinical outcomes and mortality at 18 months of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K; Nichols, C; Bowden, S; Milosavljevic, M; Lambert, K; Barone, L; Mason, M; Batterham, M

    2012-11-01

    Older malnourished patients experience increased surgical complications and greater morbidity compared with their well-nourished counterparts. This study aimed to assess whether nutritional status at hospital admission predicted clinical outcomes at 18 months follow-up. A retrospective analysis of N=2076 patient admissions (65+ years) from two subacute hospitals, New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of outcomes at 18 months, according to nutritional status at index admission, was performed in a subsample of n = 476. Nutritional status was determined within 72 h of admission using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Outcomes, obtained from electronic patient records, included hospital readmission rate, total Length of Stay (LOS), change in level of care at discharge and mortality. Survival analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards model, included age, sex, Major Disease Classification, mobility and LOS at index admission as covariates. At baseline, 30% of patients were malnourished and 53% were at risk of malnutrition. LOS was higher in malnourished and at risk, compared with well-nourished patients (median (interquartile range): 34 (21, 58); 26 (15, 41); 20 (14, 26) days, respectively; P<0.001). Hazard rate for death in the malnourished group is 3.41 (95% confidence interval: 1.07-10.87; P = 0.038) times the well-nourished group. Discharge to a higher level of residential care was 33.1%, 16.9% and 4.9% for malnourished, at-risk and well-nourished patients, respectively; P ≤ 0.001). Malnutrition in elderly subacute patients predicts adverse clinical outcomes and identifies a need to target this population for nutritional intervention following hospital discharge.

  3. Clinical decision-making to address poor outcomes in persistent horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A case study.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian M

    2017-05-01

    Horizontal semicircular canal BPPV (HSC-BPPV) can occur in 10-30% of BPPV cases. Lower success rates are reported for HSC-BPPV. The apogeotropic form of HSC-BPPV is more difficult to treat, as 5-40% of cases are described to be refractory to repositioning maneuvers. To describe the assessment and treatment of a patient presenting with HSC-BPPV and to demonstrate the potential use of Forced-Prolonged Positioning (FPP) as a home exercise program (HEP) for persistent HSC-BPPV in an elderly patient. An 89-year-old female referred to physical therapy with a diagnosis of BPPV. She experienced dizziness with positional changes and was found to have apogeotropic form of HSC-BPPV. To supplement maneuvers performed in the clinic, the patient was provided instructions for the FPP as her HEP. With continued symptoms and positive positional tests by week four of treatment, the patient was instructed to switch the FPP with the opposing ear directed toward the floor. Following 2 weeks of performing FPP on the opposite side, the patient reported symptoms had resolved and positional testing confirmed resolution of HSC-BPPV. There is a potential benefit of using FPP as a HEP to supplement maneuvers used in the clinic to improve outcomes in patients with HSC-BPPV that are refractory to traditional repositioning maneuvers. Prescribing the FPP maneuver as a HEP is feasible, and clinicians should consider the FPP technique as a HEP to adjunct repositioning maneuvers performed in the clinic to address persistent HSC-BPPV.

  4. 3'UTR Polymorphism in ACSL1 Gene Correlates with Expression Levels and Poor Clinical Outcome in Colon Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Teodoro; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Herranz, Jesús; Cejas, Paloma; Molina, Susana; Mendiola, Marta; Burgos, Emilio; Custodio, Ana B; De Miguel, María; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Reglero, Guillermo; Feliu, Jaime; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that lipid metabolism (LM) has an essential role in tumor growth to support special energetic and structural requirements of tumor cells. Recently, overexpression of LM-related genes, apolipoproteins related to metabolic syndrome, and ACSL/SCD network involved in fatty acid activation have been proposed as prognostic markers of colon cancer (CC). Furthermore, activation of this latter lipid network has been recently demonstrated to confer invasive and stem cell properties to tumor cells promoting tumor aggressiveness and patient relapse. With the aim of elucidating whether any genetic variation within these genes could influence basal expression levels and consequent susceptibility to relapse, we genotype, in 284 CC patients, 57 polymorphisms located in the 7 genes of these lipid networks previously associated with worse clinical outcome of CC patients (ABCA1, ACSL1, AGPAT1, APOA2, APOC1, APOC2 and SCD), some of them related to CC aggressiveness. After adjusting with clinical confounding factors and multiple comparisons, an association between genotype and disease-free survival (DFS) was shown for rs8086 in 3'-UTR of ACSL1 gene (HR 3.08; 95% CI 1.69-5.63; adjusted p = 0.046). Furthermore, the risk T/T genotype had significantly higher ACSL1 gene expression levels than patients carrying C/T or C/C genotype (means = 5.34; 3.73; 2.37 respectively; p-value (ANOVA) = 0.019), suggesting a functional role of this variant. Thus, we have identified a "risk genotype" of ACSL1 gene that confers constitutive high levels of the enzyme, which is involved in the activation of fatty acids through conversion to acyl-CoA and has been recently related to increased invasiveness of tumor cells. These results suggest that rs8086 of ACSL1 could be a promising prognostic marker in CC patients, reinforcing the relevance of LM in the progression of CC.

  5. Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor with Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Om; Ayub, Adil; Naeem, Buria; Najam, Sehrish; Ahmed, Zubair; Jafri, Wasim; Hamid, Saeed

    2016-03-01

    Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor (PHCT) represents an extremely rare clinical entity with only a few cases reported to date. These tumors are rarely associated with metastasis and surgical resection is usually curative. Herein, we report two cases of PHCT associated with poor outcomes due to late diagnosis. Both cases presented late with non-specific symptoms. One patient presented after a 2-week history of symptoms and the second case had a longstanding two years symptomatic interval during which he remained undiagnosed and not properly worked up. Both these cases were diagnosed with hepatic carcinoid tumor, which originates from neuroendocrine cells. Case 1 opted for palliative care and expired in one month’s time. Surgical resection was advised to the second case, but he left against medical advice.

  6. Integrated genomic analyses identify KDM1A's role in cell proliferation via modulating E2F signaling activity and associate with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sathiya Pandi; Singh, Smriti; Gupta, Amit; Yadav, Sandhya; Singh, Shree Ram; Shukla, Sanjeev

    2015-10-28

    The histone demethylase KDM1A specifically demethylates lysine residues and its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, KDM1A's molecular role and its pathological consequences, and prognostic significance in oral cancer remain less understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of KDM1A and its downstream role in oral cancer pathogenesis. By comparing mRNA expression profiles, we identified an elevated KDM1A expression in oral tumors when compared to normal oral tissues. In silico pathway prediction identified the association between KDM1A and E2F1 signaling in oral cancer. Pathway scanning, functional annotation analysis and In vitro assays showed the KDM1A's involvement in oral cancer cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Moreover, real time PCR and luciferase assays confirmed KDM1A's role in regulation of E2F1 signaling activity in oral cancer. Elevated KDM1A expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer. Our data indicate that deregulated KDM1A expression is positively associated with proliferative phenotype of oral cancer and confers poor clinical outcome. These cumulative data suggest that KDM1A might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High stathmin expression is a marker for poor clinical outcome in endometrial cancer: An NRG oncology group/gynecologic oncology group study.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Henry D; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Devor, Eric J; Zhang, Yuping; Thiel, Kristina W; Samuelson, Megan I; McDonald, Megan; Stephan, Jean-Marie; Hanjani, Parviz; Guntupalli, Saketh; Tewari, Krishnansu S; Backes, Floor; Ramirez, Nilsa; Fleming, Gini F; Filiaci, Virginia; Birrer, Michael J; Leslie, Kimberly K

    2017-08-01

    Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 177 demonstrated that addition of paclitaxel to a backbone of adriamycin/cisplatin improves overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. Using patient specimens from GOG-177, our objective was to identify potential mechanisms underlying the improved clinical response to taxanes. Stathmin (STMN1) is a recognized poor prognostic marker in endometrial cancer that functions as a microtubule depolymerizing protein, allowing cells to transit rapidly through mitosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that one possible mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of paclitaxel could be to counter the impact of stathmin. We analyzed the expression of stathmin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 69 specimens from patients enrolled on GOG-177. We also determined the correlation between stathmin mRNA expression and clinical outcomes in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset for endometrial cancer. We first established that stathmin expression was significantly associated with shorter PFS and OS for all analyzed cases in both GOG-177 and TCGA. However, subgroup analysis from GOG-177 revealed that high stathmin correlated with poor PFS and OS particularly in patients who received adriamycin/cisplatin only. In contrast, there was no statistically significant association between stathmin expression and OS or PFS in patients treated with paclitaxel/adriamycin/cisplatin. Our findings demonstrate that high stathmin expression is a poor prognostic marker in endometrial cancer. Paclitaxel may help to negate the impact of stathmin overexpression when treating high risk endometrial cancer cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. β-Catenin Expression Negatively Correlates with WIF1 and Predicts Poor Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jinxiao; Zhou, Hui; Peng, Yongpai; Xie, Xiaofei; Li, Ruixin; Liu, Yunyun

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt pathway plays a significant role in cervical cancer (CC). However, limited data show the correlation between the cancer clinicopathological characteristics and the key molecules such as β-catenin and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1). In this study, β-catenin and WIF1 expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for 196 patients with CC, 39 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 41 with normal cervical epithelium (NCE). Significant overexpression of β-catenin was detected in CC (67.9%) when compared to CIN (43.6%) or NCE (34.1%), p < 0.01, while low WIF1 expression was detected in CC (24.0%) when compared to CIN (59.0%) or NCE (58.5%), p < 0.001. Negative correlation was shown between β-catenin and WIF1 expression (r = −0.637, p < 0.001). In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that both lymph node metastasis and β-catenin expression were the independent prognostic factors not only for disease-free survival (HR = 5.029, p < 0.001; HR = 2.588, p = 0.035, resp.), but also for overall survival (HR = 5.058, p < 0.001; HR = 2.873, p = 0.031, resp.). Our findings indicate that, besides lymph node metastasis, β-catenin expression may also be a poor prognostic factor for CC while WIF1 could be a potential drug target for treatment of advanced CC. PMID:27843945

  9. Global MicroRNA Expression Profiling Identifies MiR-210 Associated with Tumor Proliferation, Invasion and Poor Clinical Outcome in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rothé, Françoise; Ignatiadis, Michail; Chaboteaux, Carole; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Kheddoumi, Naïma; Majjaj, Samira; Badran, Bassam; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Desmedt, Christine; Harris, Adrian L.; Piccart, Martine; Sotiriou, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression is associated with cancer and has potential diagnostic and prognostic value in various malignancies. In this study, we investigated miRNA profiling as a complementary tool to improve our understanding of breast cancer (BC) biology and to assess whether miRNA expression could predict clinical outcome of BC patients. Experimental Design Global miRNA expression profiling using microarray technology was conducted in 56 systemically untreated BC patients who had corresponding mRNA expression profiles available. Results were further confirmed using qRT-PCR in an independent dataset of 89 ER-positive BC patients homogeneously treated with tamoxifen only. MiR-210 functional analyses were performed in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 BC cell lines using lentiviral transduction. Results Estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor grade and our previously developed gene expression grade index (GGI) were associated with distinct miRNA profiles. Several miRNAs were found to be clinically relevant, including miR-210, its expression being associated with tumor proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, miR-210 was associated with poor clinical outcome in ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated BC patients. Interestingly, the prognostic performance of miR-210 was similar to several reported multi-gene signatures, highlighting its important role in BC differentiation and tumor progression. Functional analyses in BC cell lines revealed that miR-210 is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conclusions This integrated analysis combining miRNA and mRNA expression demonstrates that miRNA expression provides additional biological information beyond mRNA expression. Expression of miR-210 is linked to tumor proliferation and appears to be a strong potential biomarker of clinical outcome in BC. PMID:21738599

  10. "Fibrous nests" in human hepatocellular carcinoma express a Wnt-induced gene signature associated with poor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Désert, Romain; Mebarki, Sihem; Desille, Mireille; Sicard, Marie; Lavergne, Elise; Renaud, Stéphanie; Bergeat, Damien; Sulpice, Laurent; Perret, Christine; Turlin, Bruno; Clément, Bruno; Musso, Orlando

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 3rd cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most cases arise in a background of chronic inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, severe fibrosis and stem/progenitor cell amplification. Although HCCs are soft cellular tumors, they may contain fibrous nests within the tumor mass. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore cancer cell phenotypes in fibrous nests. Combined anatomic pathology, tissue microarray and real-time PCR analyses revealed that HCCs (n=82) containing fibrous nests were poorly differentiated, expressed Wnt pathway components and target genes, as well as markers of stem/progenitor cells, such as CD44, LGR5 and SOX9. Consistently, in severe liver fibroses (n=66) and in HCCs containing fibrous nests, weighted correlation analysis revealed a gene network including the myofibroblast marker ACTA2, the basement membrane components COL4A1 and LAMC1, the Wnt pathway members FZD1; FZD7; WNT2; LEF1; DKK1 and the Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (SFRPs) 1; 2 and 5. Moreover, unbiased random survival forest analysis of a transcriptomic dataset of 247 HCC patients revealed high DKK1, COL4A1, SFRP1 and LAMC1 to be associated with advanced tumor staging as well as with bad overall and disease-free survival. In vitro, these genes were upregulated in liver cancer stem/progenitor cells upon Wnt-induced mesenchymal commitment and myofibroblast differentiation. In conclusion, fibrous nests express Wnt target genes, as well as markers of cancer stem cells and mesenchymal commitment. Fibrous nests embody the specific microenvironment of the cancer stem cell niche and can be detected by routine anatomic pathology analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HER2-positive circulating tumor cells indicate poor clinical outcome in stage I to III breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wülfing, Pia; Borchard, Julia; Buerger, Horst; Heidl, Stefan; Zänker, Kurt S; Kiesel, Ludwig; Brandt, Burkhard

    2006-03-15

    Early metastasis in node-negative breast cancer indicates that breast cancer cells obviously can bypass the lymph nodes and disseminate directly hematogenous to distant organs. For this purpose, we evaluated the prognostic value of blood-borne, HER2-positive circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood from 42 breast cancer patients with a median follow-up of 95 months. Cells were isolated by the patented combined buoyant density gradient and immunomagnetic separation procedure and analyzed by immunocytochemistry. We detected one to eight CTCs in the peripheral blood of 17 of 35 patients (48.6%) presenting no overt metastasis. As a positive control, 7 of 7 (100%) patients with metastatic disease presented positive. Healthy persons and patients (n = 32) operated for nonmalignant diseases presented negative for CTCs. The presence and frequency of HER2-positive CTCs correlated with a significantly decreased disease-free survival (P < 0.005) and overall survival (P < 0.05). Interestingly, in 12 patients with HER2-positive CTCs, the primary tumor was negative for HER2 as assessed by immunohistochemical score and fluorescence in situ hybridization. This study provides some evidence of a prognostic effect of HER2-positive CTCs in stage I to III breast cancer. Future studies have to determine the outcome of patients treated with HER2-targeting therapies with respect to HER2-positive CTC levels because it is not unlikely that high levels of HER2-positive CTCs reflect the activity of the tumor and may predict response to trastuzumab.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa co-infection is associated with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes and poor clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Limoli, D H; Yang, J; Khansaheb, M K; Helfman, B; Peng, L; Stecenko, A A; Goldberg, J B

    2016-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) patients suffer from accelerated rates of pulmonary decline compared to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). However, the mechanisms underlying this difference are unknown. While CFRD is associated with increased respiratory infections, a link between infection and enhanced pulmonary dysfunction remains unclear. The development of glucose intolerance is spectral, resulting in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) prior to the diagnosis of CFRD. Inclusion of IGT patients within the NGT group may diminish the ability to identify correlations with CFRD. With this in mind, this study aimed to determine if the association between CFRD and respiratory infections is correlated with pulmonary decline. Respiratory cultures from 234 CF patients with confirmed diagnosis of NGT or CFRD were analyzed to measure rates of infection, focusing on the two most prevalent bacteria in CF, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infection status was correlated with pulmonary function and confounding clinical variables including age, gender, blood glucose levels, and CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) phenotype were considered in multivariate analyses. CFRD patients, particularly those with extremely high blood glucose levels, were more likely than NGT patients to be co-infected with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, compared to infection with only one pathogen. Co-infection was associated with decreased lung function and increased frequency of pulmonary exacerbations, even after adjustment for confounding variables. Alterations in the microbial community composition, as opposed to the presence of a single pathogen, may account for greater pulmonary decline in CFRD patients.

  13. Poor Clinical Outcomes for HIV Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Mozambique: Need for Program Quality Improvement and Community Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Vermund, Sten H.; Blevins, Meridith; Moon, Troy D.; José, Eurico; Moiane, Linda; Tique, José A.; Sidat, Mohsin; Ciampa, Philip J.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Vaz, Lara M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Residents of Zambézia Province, Mozambique live from rural subsistence farming and fishing. The 2009 provincial HIV prevalence for adults 15–49 years was 12.6%, higher among women (15.3%) than men (8.9%). We reviewed clinical data to assess outcomes for HIV-infected children on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in a highly resource-limited setting. Methods We studied rates of 2-year mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU) for children <15 years of age initiating cART between June 2006–July 2011 in 10 rural districts. National guidelines define LTFU as >60 days following last-scheduled medication pickup. Kaplan-Meier estimates to compute mortality assumed non-informative censoring. Cumulative LTFU incidence calculations treated death as a competing risk. Results Of 753 children, 29.0% (95% CI: 24.5, 33.2) were confirmed dead by 2 years and 39.0% (95% CI: 34.8, 42.9) were LTFU with unknown clinical outcomes. The cohort mortality rate was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.3, 10.4) after 90 days on cART and 19.2% (95% CI: 16.0, 22.3) after 365 days. Higher hemoglobin at cART initiation was associated with being alive and on cART at 2 years (alive: 9.3 g/dL vs. dead or LTFU: 8.3–8.4 g/dL, p<0.01). Cotrimoxazole use within 90 days of ART initiation was associated with improved 2-year outcomes Treatment was initiated late (WHO stage III/IV) among 48% of the children with WHO stage recorded in their records. Marked heterogeneity in outcomes by district was noted (p<0.001). Conclusions We found poor clinical and programmatic outcomes among children taking cART in rural Mozambique. Expanded testing, early infant diagnosis, counseling/support services, case finding, and outreach are insufficiently implemented. Our quality improvement efforts seek to better link pregnancy and HIV services, expand coverage and timeliness of infant diagnosis and treatment, and increase follow-up and adherence. PMID:25330113

  14. Factors Associated With Poor Outcome in Childhood Swimming Pool Submersions.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, Rohit P; Koerner, Christine E; Cruz, Andrea T; Frost, Mary H; Jones, Jennifer L; Camp, Elizabeth A; Alam, Sartaj; Fraser, John J

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the study were to determine factors associated with poor outcome in childhood swimming pool submersions and to study the association of bystander resuscitation with clinical outcome. This was a retrospective study of swimming pool submersion victims younger than 18 years in a metropolitan area from 2003 to 2007. Submersion, prehospital, and victim data were obtained from hospital, Emergency Medical Services, and fatality records. Outcome based on survival at hospital discharge was favorable (baseline/mild impairment) or poor (death/severe impairment). Logistic regression determined factors associated with poor outcome. There were 260 submersions. Outcomes were available for 211 (81%). The median age was 4 years; 68% were males. Most incidents occurred at single residential pools (48%) and multiresidential pools (35%). Mortality was 23%; 75% had favorable outcomes. Favorable outcomes occurred in 8.6% (3/35) of victims with absent pulse at the scene. Descriptive analyses revealed significant differences in submersions that occurred on weekdays, during the summer, submersions lasting 5 minutes or more, with on-scene apnea or cardiac arrest needing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, rescuer type, and transfer to tertiary care. Logistic regression revealed that poor outcome was significantly associated with prolonged submersions and those that occurred on a weekday. Furthermore, hospitalization reduced the odds of a poor outcome by 81% when compared with victims who were not hospitalized. Bystander resuscitation was not significantly associated with outcome. Childhood swimming pool submersions, which occur on weekdays and with prolonged submersion times, are associated with poor outcome. Bystander resuscitation is not significantly associated with outcome.

  15. Hepatitis B virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: unique clinical features, poor outcome, and hepatitis B surface antigen-driven origin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Song, Yuqin; Young, Ken H; Hu, Shimin; Ding, Ning; Song, Weiwei; Li, Xianghong; Shi, Yunfei; Huang, Huiying; Liu, Weiping; Zheng, Wen; Wang, Xiaopei; Xie, Yan; Lin, Ningjing; Tu, Meifeng; Ping, Lingyan; Ying, Zhitao; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Yingli; Zhu, Jun

    2015-09-22

    While the epidemiologic association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is established, little is known more than this epidemiologic evidence. We studied a cohort of 587 patients with DLBCL for HBV infection status, clinicopathologic features, and the immunoglobulin variable region in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients. Eighty-one (81/587, 13.8%) patients were HBsAg-positive. Compared with HBsAg-negative DLBCL, HBsAg-positive DLBCL displayed a younger median onset age (45 vs. 55 years), more frequent involvement of spleen or retroperitoneal lymph node (40.7% vs. 16.0% and 61.7% vs. 31.0% respectively, both p < 0.001), more advanced disease (stage III/IV: 76.5% vs 59.5%, p = 0.003), and significantly worse outcome (2-year overall survival: 47% versus 70%, p < 0.001). In HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients, almost all (45/47, 96%) amino acid sequences of heavy and light chain complementarity determining region 3 exhibited a high homology to antibodies specific for HBsAg, and the majority (45/50, 90%) of IgHV and IgLV genes were mutated. We conclude that 13.8% of DLBCL cases are HBV-associated in HBV-endemic China and show unique clinical features and poor outcomes. Furthermore, our study strongly suggests that HBV-associated DLBCL might arise from HBV antigen-selected B cells.

  16. Breast Tumors with Elevated Expression of 1q Candidate Genes Confer Poor Clinical Outcome and Sensitivity to Ras/PI3K Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Viveka Thangaraj, Soundara; Periasamy, Jayaprakash; Bhaskar Rao, Divya; Barnabas, Georgina D.; Raghavan, Swetha; Ganesan, Kumaresan

    2013-01-01

    Genomic aberrations are common in cancers and the long arm of chromosome 1 is known for its frequent amplifications in breast cancer. However, the key candidate genes of 1q, and their contribution in breast cancer pathogenesis remain unexplored. We have analyzed the gene expression profiles of 1635 breast tumor samples using meta-analysis based approach and identified clinically significant candidates from chromosome 1q. Seven candidate genes including exonuclease 1 (EXO1) are consistently over expressed in breast tumors, specifically in high grade and aggressive breast tumors with poor clinical outcome. We derived a EXO1 co-expression module from the mRNA profiles of breast tumors which comprises 1q candidate genes and their co-expressed genes. By integrative functional genomics investigation, we identified the involvement of EGFR, RAS, PI3K / AKT, MYC, E2F signaling in the regulation of these selected 1q genes in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Expression of EXO1 module was found as indicative of elevated cell proliferation, genomic instability, activated RAS/AKT/MYC/E2F1 signaling pathways and loss of p53 activity in breast tumors. mRNA–drug connectivity analysis indicates inhibition of RAS/PI3K as a possible targeted therapeutic approach for the patients with activated EXO1 module in breast tumors. Thus, we identified seven 1q candidate genes strongly associated with the poor survival of breast cancer patients and identified the possibility of targeting them with EGFR/RAS/PI3K inhibitors. PMID:24147022

  17. Poor Outcomes in Hepatic Amyloidosis: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yue; Patel, Pruthvi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic amyloidosis is a rare disease entity that results from insoluble amyloid protein deposition in the liver. The disease often presents with vague, nonspecific clinical features. Currently, there is little literature describing treatment outcomes for biopsy-proven hepatic amyloidosis and current treatment guidelines recommend that patients enroll in a clinical trial due to insufficient evidence to suggest an optimal treatment regimen. Here, we present two cases of hepatic amyloidosis at an academic medical center and describe their presentation, treatment, and outcomes. These cases highlight the poor outcomes and difficult management of hepatic amyloidosis. Further understanding and investigation of this rare disease are warranted. PMID:27774327

  18. Ketones and lactate increase cancer cell "stemness," driving recurrence, metastasis and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer: achieving personalized medicine via Metabolo-Genomics.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Prisco, Marco; Ertel, Adam; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Lin, Zhao; Pavlides, Stephanos; Wang, Chengwang; Flomenberg, Neal; Knudsen, Erik S; Howell, Anthony; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2011-04-15

    Previously, we showed that high-energy metabolites (lactate and ketones) "fuel" tumor growth and experimental metastasis in an in vivo xenograft model, most likely by driving oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells. To mechanistically understand how these metabolites affect tumor cell behavior, here we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Briefly, human breast cancer cells (MCF7) were cultured with lactate or ketones, and then subjected to transcriptional analysis (exon-array). Interestingly, our results show that treatment with these high-energy metabolites increases the transcriptional expression of gene profiles normally associated with "stemness," including genes upregulated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, we observe that lactate and ketones promote the growth of bonafide ES cells, providing functional validation. The lactate- and ketone-induced "gene signatures" were able to predict poor clinical outcome (including recurrence and metastasis) in a cohort of human breast cancer patients. Taken together, our results are consistent with the idea that lactate and ketone utilization in cancer cells promotes the "cancer stem cell" phenotype, resulting in significant decreases in patient survival. One possible mechanism by which these high-energy metabolites might induce stemness is by increasing the pool of Acetyl-CoA, leading to increased histone acetylation, and elevated gene expression. Thus, our results mechanistically imply that clinical outcome in breast cancer could simply be determined by epigenetics and energy metabolism, rather than by the accumulation of specific "classical" gene mutations. We also suggest that high-risk cancer patients (identified by the lactate/ketone gene signatures) could be treated with new therapeutics that target oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, such as the anti-oxidant and "mitochondrial poison" metformin. Finally, we propose that this new approach to personalized cancer medicine be termed

  19. Prediction of Poor Outcome After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Afilalo, Jonathan; Spertus, John A; Tang, Yuanyuan; Baron, Suzanne J; Jones, Philip G; Reardon, Michael J; Yakubov, Steven J; Adams, David H; Cohen, David J

    2016-10-25

    A series of models have been developed to identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to help guide treatment choices, offer patients realistic expectations of long-term outcomes, and support decision making. This study examined the performance of the previously developed TAVR Poor Outcome risk models in an external dataset and explored the incremental contribution of geriatric domains to model performance. Poor outcome after TAVR was defined as death, poor quality of life (QOL), or decline in QOL, as assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We tested 4 TAVR Poor Outcome risk models: 6-month and 1-year full and clinical (reduced) models. We examined each model's discrimination and calibration in the CoreValve trial dataset, and then tested the incremental contribution of frailty and disability markers to the model's discrimination using the incremental discrimination index. Among 2,830 patients who underwent TAVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Extreme and High Risk trials and associated continued access registries, 31.2% experienced a poor outcome at 6 months following TAVR (death, 17.6%; very poor QOL, 11.6%; QOL decline, 2.0%) and 50.8% experienced a poor outcome at 1 year (death, 30.2%; poor QOL, 19.6%; QOL, decline 1.0%). The models demonstrated similar discrimination as in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves Trial cohorts (c-indexes, 0.637 to 0.665) and excellent calibration. Adding frailty as a syndrome increased the c-indexes by 0.000 to 0.004 (incremental discrimination index, p < 0.01 for all except the 1-year clinical model), with the most important individual components being disability and unintentional weight loss. Although discrimination of the TAVR Poor Outcome risk models was generally moderate, calibration was excellent among patients with different risk profiles and treated with a different TAVR device. These findings demonstrated the value of these models for

  20. Emotional outcomes after stroke: factors associated with poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, M.; O'Rourke, S.; Lewis, S.; Sharpe, M.; Warlow, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The impact of stroke on the emotional outcome of patients is large. The aim was to describe the emotional outcomes among a cohort of patients which was of sufficient size to provide a precise estimate of their frequency and help identify those factors which are associated with poor outcomes after an acute stroke.
METHODS—372 surviving patients, who had been referred to a hospital and entered into a randomised trial to evaluate a stroke family care worker, were asked to complete questionnaires at a 6 month follow up. These included measures of emotional distress (general health questionnaire 30 item, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and physical functioning (modified Rankin, Barthel index). A regression analysis was used to identify factors which were independently associated with poor outcomes.
RESULTS—184 (60%) surviving patients scored more than 4 on the GHQ-30, 55 (22%) more than 8 on the HAD anxiety subscale, and 49 (20%) more than 8 on the HAD depression subscale. Patients with severe strokes resulting in physical disability were more likely to be depressed whereas there was a less strong relation between disability and anxiety. Patients with posterior circulation strokes had consistently better emotional outcomes than those with anterior circulation strokes.
CONCLUSIONS—These data may help identify those patients at greatest risk of poor emotional outcomes and thus help in planning trials and delivering appropriate interventions. 

 PMID:10601401

  1. Improved glycemic control in veterans with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus using a Specialty Care Access Network-Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes model at primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Watts, Sharon A; Roush, Laura; Julius, Mary; Sood, Ajay

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of patients with diabetes mellitus has created a need for innovative delivery of specialized care not only by diabetes specialists but also by primary care providers (PCPs) as well. A potential avenue to address this need is training of PCPs by specialists via telehealth. The Veteran Affairs (VA) Specialty Care Access Network-Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (SCAN-ECHO) program includes education and case-based learning for PCPs by a multidisciplinary specialty team utilizing videoconferencing technology. Two PCPs completed a year of SCAN-ECHO diabetes training. These two PCPs set up "diabetes mini-clinics" to treat difficult-to-control high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus from their own panel and from their colleagues in the same community-based outpatient clinic (CBOC). We utilized a retrospective program evaluation by t-test using pre/post glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) lab values after being seen by the two PCPs. A total of 39 patients, all with HbA1c > 9.0%, were seen in the two PCP mini-clinics over 15 months. The mean HbA1c improved from 10.2 ± 1.4% to 8.4 ± 1.8% (p < 0.001) over the average follow-up period of five months. This was not explained by system-wide changes or improvements. Care of veteran patients with poorly controlled diabetes by PCPs who participated in SCAN-ECHO program leads to improvement in glycemic control. This model of health care delivery can be effective in remote or rural areas with limited availability of specialists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Compound EGFR mutation is frequently detected with co-mutations of actionable genes and associated with poor clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Eun Na; Park, Heae Surng; Hong, Ji Young; Lim, Seri; Youn, Jong Pil; Hwang, Seung Yong; Chang, Yoon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Compound EGFR mutations, defined as double or multiple mutations in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain, are frequently detected with advances in sequencing technology but its clinical significance is unclear. This study analyzed 61 cases of EGFR mutation positive lung adenocarcinoma using next-generation sequencing (NGS) based repeated deep sequencing panel of 16 genes that contain actionable mutations and investigated clinical implication of compound EGFR mutations. Compound EGFR mutation was detected in 15 (24.6%) of 61 cases of EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. The majority (12/15) of compound mutations are combination of the atypical mutation and typical mutations such as exon19 deletion, L858R or G719X substitutions, or exon 20 insertion whereas 3 were combinations of rare atypical mutations. The patients with compound mutation showed shorter overall survival than those with simple mutations (83.7 vs. 72.8 mo; P = 0.020, Breslow test). Among the 115 missense mutations discovered in the tested genes, a few number of actionable mutations were detected irrelevant to the subtype of EGFR mutations, including ALK rearrangement, BCL2L11 intron 2 deletion, KRAS c.35G>A, PIK3CA c.1633G>A which are possible target of crizotinib, BH3 mimetics, MEK inhibitors, and PI3K-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, respectively. 31 missense mutations were detected in the cases with simple mutations whereas 84 in those with compound mutation, showing that the cases with compound missense mutation have higher burden of missense mutations (P = 0.001, independent sample t-test). Compound EGFR mutations are detected at a high frequency using NGS-based repeated deep sequencing. Because patients with compound EGFR mutations showed poor clinical outcomes, they should be closely monitored during follow-up.

  3. Hepatitis B virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: unique clinical features, poor outcome, and hepatitis B surface antigen-driven origin

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lijuan; Song, Yuqin; Young, Ken H.; Hu, Shimin; Ding, Ning; Song, Weiwei; Li, Xianghong; Shi, Yunfei; Huang, Huiying; Liu, Weiping; Zheng, Wen; Wang, Xiaopei; Xie, Yan; Lin, Ningjing; Tu, Meifeng; Ping, Lingyan; Ying, Zhitao; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Yingli; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    While the epidemiologic association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is established, little is known more than this epidemiologic evidence. We studied a cohort of 587 patients with DLBCL for HBV infection status, clinicopathologic features, and the immunoglobulin variable region in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients. Eighty-one (81/587, 13.8%) patients were HBsAg-positive. Compared with HBsAg-negative DLBCL, HBsAg-positive DLBCL displayed a younger median onset age (45 vs. 55 years), more frequent involvement of spleen or retroperitoneal lymph node (40.7% vs. 16.0% and 61.7% vs. 31.0% respectively, both p < 0.001), more advanced disease (stage III/IV: 76.5% vs 59.5%, p = 0.003), and significantly worse outcome (2-year overall survival: 47% versus 70%, p < 0.001). In HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients, almost all (45/47, 96%) amino acid sequences of heavy and light chain complementarity determining region 3 exhibited a high homology to antibodies specific for HBsAg, and the majority (45/50, 90%) of IgHV and IgLV genes were mutated. We conclude that 13.8% of DLBCL cases are HBV-associated in HBV-endemic China and show unique clinical features and poor outcomes. Furthermore, our study strongly suggests that HBV-associated DLBCL might arise from HBV antigen-selected B cells. PMID:26314957

  4. Predictors of Poor Outcome in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV).

    PubMed

    Vega, Luis E; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-12-01

    It is important to recognize factors that might predict poor outcome and prognosis in patients with AAV. The predictors reported in the literature encompass genetic, histopathological, and clinical ones. Genetic studies (genetic predictors) have found genes that are associated with prediction of poor response to treatment, deterioration of renal function, and risk of mortality. Histopathological studies (histopathological predictors) have shown that sclerotic renal lesions are associated with increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and death. Lastly, scores (clinical predictors) obtained with tool as FFS, Maldini risk score, VDI, and emerging new biomarkers could potentially be helpful in assessment of prognosis in the future.

  5. Is Asymptomatic Vasospasm Associated With Poor Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Julius Gene S.; Lodi, Yahia; El-Zammar, Ziad; Devasenapathy, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vasospasm occurs in up to 70% of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), but only half becomes symptomatic. It is unclear whether asymptomatic vasospasm (AV) detected by noninvasive testing affects outcome. Prophylactic hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic (HHH) therapy is widely used but the benefit remains unproven. We aim to determine whether AV increases the risk of poor outcome and whether HHH is safe. Methods: A total of 175 consecutive patients with aSAH without clinical vasospasm were included. Patients with sonographic (transcranial doppler) or radiologic (computed tomography [CT] Angiography) vasospasm were assigned to AV group, while those without were assigned to no vasospasm (NV) group. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between AV and HHH on poor outcome, defined as modified Rankin scale (mRS) >3 at discharge or 3 to 6 months' follow-up. Results: In all, 106 patients had NV and 25 received HHH. A total of 69 patients had AV and 54 received HHH. Asymptomatic vasospasm compared to NV was not associated with poor outcome (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-8.9; P = .1). Hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic use in patients with AV did not improve the outcome (OR 0.16, 95%CI: 0.009-2.84; P = .2). In patients with NV, HHH use showed trend toward poor outcome after multivariable adjustment (OR 12.6, 95%CI: 1.08-146.5 P = .04). Conclusion: Asymptomatic vasospasm does not appear to be associated with poor outcome in aSAH. Hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic therapy in AV was not associated with improved outcome and may be harmful to patients who do not have vasospasm. Further research is needed to validate this finding. PMID:23983851

  6. Periodontal disease and poor obstetrical outcome.

    PubMed

    Carta, G; Persia, G; Falciglia, K; Iovenitti, P

    2004-01-01

    Maternal infective processes sustained especially by Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria like periodontal disease, during pregnancy, have been demonstrated to perturb the physiologic course of parturition through inflammatory cytokine production, sometimes resulting in preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm low birth weight. In a matched case-control study, the hypothesis that poor oral health of pregnant women is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW) was evaluated. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of PGE2 and IL-1beta were measured in order to determine whether mediator levels were related to current pregnancy outcome. Results indicate that GCF-PGE2 and GCF-IL-1beta levels are significantly higher in preterm low birth weight (PLBW) mothers as compared with normal birth weight controls. The data confirm that there is a possible correlation between periodontal problems typical of pregnancy and the occurrence of complications such as preterm low birth weight.

  7. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijing; Hou, Teng; Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    demonstrated that elevated B3GNT3 expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in early-stage cervical cancer patients. B3GNT3 may be a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  8. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    cancer patients. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that elevated B3GNT3 expression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor outcome in early-stage cervical cancer patients. B3GNT3 may be a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:26709519

  9. Strengthening health human resources and improving clinical outcomes through an integrated guideline and educational outreach in resource-poor settings: a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Schull, Michael J; Banda, Hastings; Kathyola, Damson; Fairall, Lara; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Burciul, Barry; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Sodhi, Sumeet; Thompson, Sandy; Joshua, Martias; Mondiwa, Martha; Bateman, Eric

    2010-12-03

    In low-income countries, only about a third of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients eligible for anti-retroviral treatment currently receive it. Providing decentralized treatment close to where patients live is crucial to a faster scale up, however, a key obstacle is limited health system capacity due to a shortage of trained health-care workers and challenges of integrating HIV/AIDS care with other primary care services (e.g. tuberculosis, malaria, respiratory conditions). This study will test an adapted primary care health care worker training and guideline intervention, Practical Approach to Lung Health and HIV/AIDS Malawi (PALM PLUS), on staff retention and satisfaction, and quality of patient care. A cluster-randomized trial design is being used to compare usual care with a standardized clinical guideline and training intervention, PALM PLUS. The intervention targets middle-cadre health care workers (nurses, clinical officers, medical assistants) in 30 rural primary care health centres in a single district in Malawi. PALM PLUS is an integrated, symptom-based and user-friendly guideline consistent with Malawian national treatment protocols. Training is standardized and based on an educational outreach approach. Trainers will be front-line peer healthcare workers trained to provide outreach training and support to their fellow front-line healthcare workers during focused (1-2 hours), intermittent, interactive sessions on-site in health centers. Primary outcomes are health care worker retention and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes are clinical outcomes measured at the health centre level for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission of HIV and other primary care conditions. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for outcomes will be presented. Assessment of outcomes will occur at 1 year post- implementation. The PALM PLUS trial aims to address a key problem: strengthening middle

  10. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    cholesterol levels are still inversely related to MCVE. The efflux capacity, or ability to relocate cholesterol out of macrophages, is believed to be a major antiatherogenic mechanism responsible for reduction in MCVE mediated in part by healthy HDL. HDL cholesterol is a complex molecule with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory properties, among which is protection of LDL from oxidation. HDL-associated paraoxonase-1 has a major effect on endothelial function. Further, HDL promotes endothelial repair and progenitor cell health, and supports production of nitric oxide. HDL from patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disease may fail to protect or even become proinflammatory or pro-oxidant. Mendelian randomization and other clinical studies in which raising HDL cholesterol has not been beneficial suggest that high plasma levels do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular risk. These data, coupled with extensive preclinical information about the functional heterogeneity of HDL, challenge the "HDL hypothesis", ie, raising HDL cholesterol per se will reduce MCVE. After the equivocal AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes) study and withdrawal of two major cholesteryl ester transfer protein compounds, one for off-target adverse effects and the other for lack of efficacy, development continues for two other agents, ie, anacetrapib and evacetrapib, both of which lower LDL cholesterol substantially. The negative but controversial HPS2-THRIVE (the Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) trial casts further doubt on the HDL cholesterol hypothesis. The growing impression that HDL functionality, rather than abundance, is clinically important is supported by experimental evidence highlighting the conditional pleiotropic actions of HDL. Non-HDL cholesterol reflects the cholesterol in all

  11. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    cholesterol levels are still inversely related to MCVE. The efflux capacity, or ability to relocate cholesterol out of macrophages, is believed to be a major antiatherogenic mechanism responsible for reduction in MCVE mediated in part by healthy HDL. HDL cholesterol is a complex molecule with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antiplatelet, and vasodilatory properties, among which is protection of LDL from oxidation. HDL-associated paraoxonase-1 has a major effect on endothelial function. Further, HDL promotes endothelial repair and progenitor cell health, and supports production of nitric oxide. HDL from patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and autoimmune disease may fail to protect or even become proinflammatory or pro-oxidant. Mendelian randomization and other clinical studies in which raising HDL cholesterol has not been beneficial suggest that high plasma levels do not necessarily reduce cardiovascular risk. These data, coupled with extensive preclinical information about the functional heterogeneity of HDL, challenge the “HDL hypothesis”, ie, raising HDL cholesterol per se will reduce MCVE. After the equivocal AIM-HIGH (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides: Impact on Global Health Outcomes) study and withdrawal of two major cholesteryl ester transfer protein compounds, one for off-target adverse effects and the other for lack of efficacy, development continues for two other agents, ie, anacetrapib and evacetrapib, both of which lower LDL cholesterol substantially. The negative but controversial HPS2-THRIVE (the Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) trial casts further doubt on the HDL cholesterol hypothesis. The growing impression that HDL functionality, rather than abundance, is clinically important is supported by experimental evidence highlighting the conditional pleiotropic actions of HDL. Non-HDL cholesterol reflects the cholesterol in all

  12. Poor weight gain in late third trimester: a predictor of poor perinatal outcome for term deliveries?

    PubMed

    Mola, G D L; Kombuk, B; Amoa, A B

    2011-01-01

    In many parts of the world weighing women in antenatal clinics is no longer thought to be important. At Port Moresby General Hospital we noticed that failure to gain weight in the third trimester (or weight loss) was associated with poor perinatal outcomes. To investigate this issue we designed a prospective case-control study to determine whether poor weight gain in the third trimester is a useful clinical indicator of poor placental function by being associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or inadequate placental function in labour by being significantly associated with suspected intrapartum fetal compromise, birth asphyxia, meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal intensive care unit admission. We found that a failure to gain weight for more than three weeks preceding the onset of labour was significantly associated with intrapartum fetal compromise (OR 2.24), IUGR (OR 2.88), meconium aspiration syndrome (OR 4.19), the presence of thick meconium or the passage of meconium during labour (OR 2.26) and the need for admission to the neonatal intensive care unit for more than 24 hours (OR 2.22). Weighing women in the antenatal clinic setting is a useful way of screening for deteriorating or inadequate placental function, and is particularly relevant in settings where more sophisticated modalities of screening and diagnosis of placental function are not available.

  13. ADP-ribosylation factor 1 expression regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schlienger, Sabrina; Campbell, Shirley; Pasquin, Sarah; Gaboury, Louis; Claing, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic capacities are fundamental features of tumor malignancy. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) 1 has emerged as a key regulator of invasion in breast cancer cells. However, the importance of this GTPase, in vivo, remains to be demonstrated. We report that ARF1 is highly expressed in breast tumors of the most aggressive and advanced subtypes. Furthermore, we show that lowered expression of ARF1 impairs growth of primary tumors and inhibits lung metastasis in a murine xenograft model. To understand how ARF1 contributes to invasiveness, we used a poorly invasive breast cancer cell line, MCF7 (ER+), and examined the effects of overexpressing ARF1 to levels similar to that found in invasive cell lines. We demonstrate that ARF1 overexpression leads to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanistically, ARF1 controls cell–cell adhesion through ß-catenin and E-cadherin, oncogenic Ras activation and expression of EMT inducers. We further show that ARF1 overexpression enhances invasion, proliferation and resistance to a chemotherapeutic agent. In vivo, ARF1 overexpressing MCF7 cells are able to form more metastases to the lung. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ARF1 is a molecular switch for cancer progression and thus suggest that limiting the expression/activation of this GTPase could help improve outcome for breast cancer patients. PMID:26908458

  14. Poor versus rich children with epilepsy have the same clinical course and remission rates but a less favorable social outcome: A population-based study with 25 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Camfield, Carol; Camfield, Peter; Smith, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    To explore the influence of several estimates of family socioeconomic status on the long-term clinical course and social outcomes of children with epilepsy. The Nova Scotia childhood epilepsy cohort is population based and includes all children in this Canadian province who developed epilepsy between 1977 and 1985. Eligible patients had ≥10 years of follow-up. Children with childhood absence epilepsy were excluded. Total family income at seizure onset was assessed at seizure onset and classified as "poor" (first quintile), "adequate" (second to third quintiles), and "well-off" (fourth to fifth quintiles). We also assessed parental education and home ownership. Social outcome was assessed in those with normal intelligence who were ≥18 years of age at the end of follow-up using a semistructured interview that explored eight adverse effects. Of 584 patients, 421 (72%) were included. Average follow-up was 26 ± 5.6 years. Overall 137 families (33%) had "poor" income, 159 (38%) had "adequate income," and 125 (30%) were "well-off." Terminal remission of epilepsy occurred in 65% of the poor, 61% of the adequate, and 61% of the well-off (p = ns). Intractable epilepsy, status epilepticus, number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used, and the number of generalized tonic-clonic or focal with secondary generalization seizures through the clinical course was the same in all groups. Home ownership did not predict remission. Neither paternal nor maternal education was associated with remission. Poor children had significantly more adverse social outcomes including failure to graduate from high school, unemployment, personal poverty, inadvertent pregnancy, and psychiatric diagnoses. In Nova Scotia with universal health care, coming from a poor or more affluent family does not seem to affect the clinical course or long-term seizure outcome of childhood epilepsy. Unfortunately children from poor families are less likely to have a good social outcome. Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  15. Regenerative Endodontic Procedures: Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, Anibal; Ruparel, Nikita B

    2017-01-01

    Immature teeth are at risk for pulp necrosis, resulting in arrested root development and poor long-term prognosis. There is growing evidence that regenerative endodontic procedures promote desirable clinical outcomes. Despite significant advances in the field of regenerative endodontics and acceptable clinical outcomes, current evidence suggests that the tissues formed following currently used procedures do not completely recapitulate the former pulp-dentin complex. Further research is needed to identify prognostic factors and predictors of successful outcomes and to develop different treatment strategies to better predictably achieve all identified clinical outcomes, while favoring tissue formation that more closely resembles the pulp-dentin complex. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. CD63 and GLUT-1 Overexpression Could Predict a Poor Clinical Outcome in GIST: A Study of 54 Cases with Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Lewitowicz, Piotr; Matykiewicz, Jarosław; Koziel, Dorota; Chrapek, Magdalena; Horecka-Lewitowicz, Agata; Gluszek, Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Background and Goals. In light of current knowledge, it seems that alternations underlying GISTs are well explained, although all that is enhanced by various aspects on a daily basis. More recently, attention has been pointed towards exosomes as important particles able to modify healthy and also diseased tissues including cancer. The goal of the present study was an analysis of CD9, CD63, and GLUT-1 as a marker of hypoxia status within 54 cases of GIST and evaluation of their predictive value. Methods. 54 cases of patients suffering from GIST were enrolled into the study, predominantly in the gastric location. All operated cases had no Imatinib and other chemotherapies up to the day of operation. Expression of targeted proteins was performed by immunohistochemistry and, after that, the results with tabulated clinical data were compared by Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazard model of statistical analysis. Results. Our results presented a marked dependence of worsening clinical outcome with high expression CD63 (p = 0.008) as well as with GLUT-1 (p = 0.014). We noted a strict correlation of GLUT-1 expression with CD63 expression (p = 0.03), which could confirm the thesis about the contribution of exosomes in intratumoural hypoxia status. The collected material did not confirm CD9 contribution. Conclusions. As presented here, CD63 and GLUT-1 have a prognostic value in GIST cases. The results confirm the other studies in this scope and can be used in future as an additional prognostic factor.

  17. DLL4 overexpression increases gastric cancer stem/progenitor cell self-renewal ability and correlates with poor clinical outcome via Notch-1 signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Hao; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Song, Yong-Xi; Xu, Ying-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases, and poses a serious threat to the quality of human life. Gastric cancer stem/progenitor cells (GCSPCs) have critical effects on tumor formation, affecting specific features of self-renewal and differentiation and playing a critical role in metastasis. The Notch-1 pathway is crucially important to GCSPCs and is regulated by DLL4. In this study, DLL4 and Nestin levels were measured in 383 gastric cancer tissue samples by immunohistochemistry, and the clinico-pathological features of patients assessed. After DLL4 silencing in selected gastric cancer cell lines, the expression of GCSPC markers and colony formation ability were analyzed and the self-renewal and differentiation capacities of the cells were evaluated. The relationship between DLL4 levels and Notch-1 signaling pathway effector amounts was assessed via Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Finally, the tumor formation ability of the gastric cancer cells was evaluated with different levels of DLL4 and multiple cell densities in vivo. Our results indicate that DLL4 expression is associated with TNM stage and cancer metastasis, with high amounts of DLL4 leading to poor outcome. DLL4 silencing inhibited the self-renewal ability of GCSPCs and increased their multidifferentiation capacity, resulting in reduced GCSPC ratios. DLL4 knockdown also blocked the Notch-1 pathway, weakening invasion ability and resistance to 5-FU chemotherapy. In vivo, DLL4 silencing inhibited the tumor formation ability of GCSPCs. In conclusion, DLL4 affects GCSPC stemness, altering their pathological behavior. DLL4 silencing inhibits GCSPC metastatic potential both in vitro and in vivo by impeding Notch-1 signaling pathway activation, indicating that DLL4 may be a new potential therapeutic target.

  18. 3’UTR Polymorphism in ACSL1 Gene Correlates with Expression Levels and Poor Clinical Outcome in Colon Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Teodoro; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Herranz, Jesús; Cejas, Paloma; Molina, Susana; Mendiola, Marta; Burgos, Emilio; Custodio, Ana B.; De Miguel, María; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Reglero, Guillermo; Feliu, Jaime; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Strong evidence suggests that lipid metabolism (LM) has an essential role in tumor growth to support special energetic and structural requirements of tumor cells. Recently, overexpression of LM-related genes, apolipoproteins related to metabolic syndrome, and ACSL/SCD network involved in fatty acid activation have been proposed as prognostic markers of colon cancer (CC). Furthermore, activation of this latter lipid network has been recently demonstrated to confer invasive and stem cell properties to tumor cells promoting tumor aggressiveness and patient relapse. With the aim of elucidating whether any genetic variation within these genes could influence basal expression levels and consequent susceptibility to relapse, we genotype, in 284 CC patients, 57 polymorphisms located in the 7 genes of these lipid networks previously associated with worse clinical outcome of CC patients (ABCA1, ACSL1, AGPAT1, APOA2, APOC1, APOC2 and SCD), some of them related to CC aggressiveness. After adjusting with clinical confounding factors and multiple comparisons, an association between genotype and disease-free survival (DFS) was shown for rs8086 in 3’-UTR of ACSL1 gene (HR 3.08; 95% CI 1.69–5.63; adjusted p = 0.046). Furthermore, the risk T/T genotype had significantly higher ACSL1 gene expression levels than patients carrying C/T or C/C genotype (means = 5.34; 3.73; 2.37 respectively; p-value (ANOVA) = 0.019), suggesting a functional role of this variant. Thus, we have identified a “risk genotype” of ACSL1 gene that confers constitutive high levels of the enzyme, which is involved in the activation of fatty acids through conversion to acyl-CoA and has been recently related to increased invasiveness of tumor cells. These results suggest that rs8086 of ACSL1 could be a promising prognostic marker in CC patients, reinforcing the relevance of LM in the progression of CC. PMID:27992526

  19. K-line (-) in the Neck-Flexed Position in Patients With Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament Is a Risk Factor for Poor Clinical Outcome After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kazunari; Yokoyama, Toru; Numasawa, Takuya; Yamasaki, Yoshihito; Kudo, Hitoshi; Itabashi, Taito; Chin, Shunfu; Wada, Kan-Ichiro

    2016-12-15

    Retrospective study comparing postoperative clinical outcomes after cervical laminoplasty between K-line (-) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and K-line (+) OPLL in the neck-flexed position. To investigate postoperative outcomes using Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, and grip-and-release (GR) and foot-tap (FT) test scores after laminoplasty in patients with K-line (-) OPLL in the neck-flexed position. Cervical laminoplasty has been reported to lead to poor outcomes in K-line (-) OPLL and good outcomes in K-line (+) OPLL. The cervical spine, however, continues moving in the extension and flexion direction after laminoplasty. Patients with cervical myelopathy were divided into K-line (+) and (-) in the neck-flexed position. We compared postoperative outcomes after cervical laminoplasty using recovery rate, as assessed by the JOA score and degree of improvement in the six JOA score items, and performance, as assessed by GR and (FT) tests, between patients with K-line (+) OPLL (n = 18) and K-line (-) OPLL (n = 23) in the neck-flexed position. Recovery rate of JOA score (23.8%) of patients in the K-line (-) group was significantly lower (P = 0.028) than that (46.3%) of K-line (+) group in the neck-flexed position. In the K-line (+) group, significant improvements were seen in all JOA-score items except bladder function; however, in the K-line (-) group, improvements were seen only in upper- and the lower-extremity sensory functions. In the K-line (+) group, mean GR and FT tests significantly improved, but in the K-line (-) group, only mean FT test significantly improved. The K-line (-) OPLL in the neck-flexed position is a risk factor for poor clinical outcome after cervical laminoplasty. 4.

  20. Effects of Coexistent BRAF(V600E) and TERT Promoter Mutations on Poor Clinical Outcomes in Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Song, Young Shin; Kim, Ye An; Lim, Jung Ah; Cho, Sun Wook; Moon, Jae Hoon; Hahn, Seokyung; Park, Do Joon; Park, Young Joo

    2017-05-01

    The presence of a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation has been suggested as a potential prognostic marker for thyroid cancer, and a synergistic association with the BRAF(V600E) mutation has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to verify the role of this genetic duet in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Studies of the association of BRAF(V600E) and TERT promoter mutations with clinicopathologic features, recurrence, or PTC-related mortality were included from PubMed and Embase databases (inception to September 2016). Thirteen eligible studies incorporating 4347 patients with PTC were included, and 283 (median 8.3%) of these patients had coexistent BRAF(V600E) and TERT promoter mutations. The coexistence of the two mutations was far more strongly associated with high-risk clinicopathologic features than either mutation alone was, including advanced TNM stage (vs. BRAF(V600E): odds ratio [OR] = 4.19 [confidence interval (CI) 3.07-5.71]; vs. TERT: OR = 4.66 [CI 2.67-8.13]), extrathyroidal extension (vs. BRAF(V600E): OR = 3.1 [CI 2.2-4.37]; vs. TERT: OR = 5.66 [CI 3.02-10.6]), lymph node metastasis (vs. BRAF(V600E): OR = 1.59 [CI 1.16-2.17]; vs. TERT: OR = 2.03 [CI 1.22-3.38]), and distant metastasis (vs. BRAF(V600E): OR = 11.76 [CI 5.63-24.58]). The coexistence of the mutations showed the highest risk of recurrence (coexistence vs. no mutations: hazard ratio [HR] = 6.60 [CI 3.82-11.40]; BRAF(V600E) vs. no mutations: HR = 1.31 [CI 0.49-3.46]; TERT vs. no mutations: HR = 3.38 [CI 0.85-13.35]). Moreover, PTC-related mortality was significantly higher with coexistent mutations than in the presence of BRAF(V600E) alone (HR = 20.07 [CI 8.37-48.09]). Coexistent BRAF(V600E) and TERT promoter mutations have a synergistic effect on clinical outcomes in PTC, whereas each mutation alone has a modest effect. Therefore, molecular testing of BRAF(V600E) and TERT promoter mutations together is useful in assessing

  1. Citrobacter Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis: Rare Occurrence with Poor Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Non-Pseudomonas gram-negative bacteria are responsible for an increasing proportion of cases of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. The role of Citrobacter species in the etiology of PD-related peritonitis is often underestimated. In the present study, we aimed to describe the clinical features, laboratory findings, and short- and long-term outcomes in PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter. Methods: A retrospective review of all episodes of PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter from a single center between 1990 and 2010 was performed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes of these episodes were analyzed. Results: Citrobacter species was responsible for 11 PD-related episodes (1.8% of all peritonitis episodes) in 8 patients. Citrobacter freundii was the most common etiologic species (73%), and mixed growth was found in the other 3 episodes (27%). Approximately half (46%) of the episodes were associated with constipation and/or diarrhea. Of the Citrobacter isolates from all episodes, 54% were resistant to cefazolin, and only 18% were susceptible to cefmetazole. All isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, cefepime, carbapenem, and aminoglycosides. More than half of the patients (54%) were hospitalized for index peritonitis, and 27% of the episodes involved a change in antibiotic medication. One patient had relapsing peritonitis caused by C. koseri (9%). The mortality rate of PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter was 18%, and 89% of surviving patients developed technique failure requiring a modality switch after an average of 12 months of follow-up (range 1.2-31.2 months). Conclusion: PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter is associated with poor outcomes, including high rates of antibiotic resistance, a high mortality rate, and a high rate of technique failure among survivors during the follow-up period. PMID:23869184

  2. Inactivation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 may predict clinical outcome and poor overall survival for renal cell carcinoma through epigenetic pathways.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yozo; Hirata, Hiroshi; Arichi, Naoko; Hiraki, Miho; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Chang, Inik; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yamamura, Soichiro; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Shiina, Hiroaki

    2015-04-20

    We investigated whether impaired regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) via epigenetic pathways is associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) pathogenesis. Expression and CpG methylation of the BMP-2 gene were analyzed using RCC cell lines, and 96 matched RCC and normal renal tissues. We also performed functional analysis using BMP-2 restored RCC cells. A significant association of BMP-2 mRNA expression was also found with advanced tumor stage and lymph node involvement, while lower BMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival after radical nephrectomy. In RCC cells, BMP-2 restoration significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation. In addition, BMP-2 overexpression induced p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27(KIP1) expression, and cellular apoptosis in RCC cells. BMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly enhanced in RCC cells by 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine treatment. The prevalence of BMP-2 promoter methylation was significantly greater and BMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in RCC samples as compared to normal kidney samples. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between BMP-2 promoter methylation and mRNA transcription in tumors. Aberrant BMP-2 methylation and the resultant loss of BMP-2 expression may be a useful molecular marker for designing improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for RCC.

  3. Inactivation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 may predict clinical outcome and poor overall survival for renal cell carcinoma through epigenetic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Yozo; Hirata, Hiroshi; Arichi, Naoko; Hiraki, Miho; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Chang, Inik; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yamamura, Soichiro; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Dahiya, Rajvir; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Shiina, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether impaired regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) via epigenetic pathways is associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) pathogenesis. Expression and CpG methylation of the BMP-2 gene were analyzed using RCC cell lines, and 96 matched RCC and normal renal tissues. We also performed functional analysis using BMP-2 restored RCC cells. A significant association of BMP-2 mRNA expression was also found with advanced tumor stage and lymph node involvement, while lower BMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival after radical nephrectomy. In RCC cells, BMP-2 restoration significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and colony formation. In addition, BMP-2 overexpression induced p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expression, and cellular apoptosis in RCC cells. BMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly enhanced in RCC cells by 5-aza-2′-deoxycitidine treatment. The prevalence of BMP-2 promoter methylation was significantly greater and BMP-2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in RCC samples as compared to normal kidney samples. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between BMP-2 promoter methylation and mRNA transcription in tumors. Aberrant BMP-2 methylation and the resultant loss of BMP-2 expression may be a useful molecular marker for designing improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for RCC. PMID:25797254

  4. Expression of PD-1 on CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood associates with poor clinical outcome in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Jianhong; Rice, Shawn J; Wagman, Matthias; Kong, Yaxian; Zhu, Liuluan; Zhu, Junjia; Joshi, Monika; Belani, Chandra P

    2016-08-30

    Recent success of using agents inhibiting the major immune check point, programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathway, offers a great promise for effective cancer therapy. Two blocking antibodies for PD-1, nivolumab and pembrolizumab have recently been approved for treating advanced recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Activation of PD-1 on T cells and PD-L1 on tumor cells or antigen presenting cells leads to T cell exhaustion and ultimately tumor growth. In this study, we performed flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood samples collected from patients with advanced NSCLC at initial diagnosis. We report that surface expression of PD-1 on CD4+ T cells has a prognostic value in NSCLC patients, as high expression of PD-1 is associated with a shorter progression-free survival and overall survival. Importantly, we also found that high PD-1 expression on peripheral CD4+ T cells is associated with inferior clinical response in a subset of patients who received anti-PD-L1 treatment, indicating a potential predictive value of this marker. This work highlights the potential of a non-invasive and effective method to determine prognostic and predictive biomarkers for inhibiting the PD-1 pathway in NSCLC patients.

  5. Activation of Akt predicts poor outcome in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Opel, Daniela; Poremba, Christopher; Simon, Thorsten; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fulda, Simone

    2007-01-15

    Whereas aberrant activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, a key survival cascade, has previously been linked to poor prognosis in several human malignancies, its prognostic effect in neuroblastoma has not yet been explored. We therefore investigated the phosphorylation status of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein as target of mammalian target of rapamycin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in 116 primary neuroblastoma samples by tissue microarray and its correlation with established prognostic markers and survival outcome. Here, we provide for the first time evidence that phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473 (S473) and/or threonine 308 (T308), S6 ribosomal protein, and ERK frequently occurs in primary neuroblastoma. Importantly, we identified Akt activation as a novel prognostic indicator of decreased event-free or overall survival in neuroblastoma, whereas phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein or ERK had no prognostic effect. In addition, Akt activation correlated with variables of aggressive disease, including MYCN amplification, 1p36 aberrations, advanced disease stage, age at diagnosis, and unfavorable histology. Monitoring Akt at T308 or both phosphorylation sites improved the prognostic significance of Akt activation in neuroblastoma specimens compared with S473 phosphorylation. Parallel experiments in neuroblastoma cell lines revealed that activation of Akt by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- or chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent manner because the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 completely reversed the IGF-I-mediated protection of neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis. By showing that activation of Akt correlates with poor prognosis in primary neuroblastoma in vivo and with apoptosis resistance in vitro, our findings indicate that Akt presents a clinically relevant target in neuroblastoma that warrants further investigation.

  6. Expression of miR-23a induces telomere shortening and is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Mamoru; Nasu, Takahito; Takahashi, Yuji; Osaki, Takuya; Hitomi, Sho; Morino, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Motoyuki

    2017-08-01

    Telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF) 2 (TRF2) plays an important role in telomere maintenance. miR-23a may directly inhibit TRF2 expression, thereby, inducing telomere shortening and cellular senescence. The present study aimed to determine whether miR-23a and TRF2 are expressed in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether pitavastatin might affect these levels. The present study included 104 patients with CAD and 50 controls. Patients with CAD were randomly divided into two subgroups (a moderate lipid lowering therapy (LLT) group and an aggressive LLT group). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were taken from patients with CAD and from controls at baseline and after 12 months. Levels of miR-23a were higher in the CAD group than in the controls. Levels of TRF2 protein were lower in the CAD group than in the controls. Our randomized clinical study showed that aggressive LLT decreased miR-23a and increased TRF2 levels, whereas moderate LLT generated no change in these levels. Our transfected cell model showed that miR-23a controlled TRF2 expression. After a mean follow-up of 339 days, cardiovascular events were associated with high miR-23a, low TRF2 or low relative telomere length. Multivariate analysis showed that levels of miR-23a (RR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.9-14.3) were a strong predictor of cardiovascular events after adjustment for baseline characteristics. In conclusion, elevated levels of miR-23a play an important role in coronary atherosclerosis via down-regulated TRF2, and may provide important prognostic information in patients with CAD. Additionally, aggressive LLT may prevent telomere erosion via down-regulated miR-23a. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. ErbB2 overexpression on occult metastatic cells in bone marrow predicts poor clinical outcome of stage I-III breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Braun, S; Schlimok, G; Heumos, I; Schaller, G; Riethdorf, L; Riethmüller, G; Pantel, K

    2001-03-01

    Occult hematogenous micrometastases are the major cause for metastatic relapse and cancer-related death in patients with operable primary breast cancer. Although sensitive immunocytochemical and molecular methods allow detection of individual breast cancer cells in bone marrow (BM), a major site of metastatic relapse, current detection techniques cannot discriminate between nonviable shed tumor cells and seminal metastatic cells. To address this problem, we analyzed the relevance of erbB2 overexpression on disseminated cytokeratin-18-positive breast cancer cells in the BM of 52 patients with locoregionally restricted primary breast cancer using immunocytochemical double labeling with monoclonal antibody 9G6 to the p185erbB2 oncoprotein. Expression of p185erbB2 on BM micrometastases was detected in 31 of 52 (60%) patients independent of established risk factors such as lymph node involvement, primary tumor size, differentiation grade, or expression of p185erbB2 on primary tumor cells. After a median follow-up of 64 months, patients with p185erbB2-positive BM micrometastases had developed fatal metastatic relapses more frequently than patients with p185erbB2-negative micrometastases (21 versus 7 events; P = 0.032). In multivariate analysis, the presence of p185erbB2-positive micrometastases was an independent prognostic factor with a hazard ratio of 2.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-6.96) for overall survival (P = 0.029). We therefore conclude that erbB2 overexpression characterizes a clinically relevant subset of breast cancer micrometastases.

  8. Positive Outcomes from Poor Starts: Predictors of Dropping Back In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lauren E.; Jepsen, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    A vast body of research finds an association between missteps taken during the teen years (such as motherhood or dropping out of high school) and poor economic and educational outcomes. However, youth who take major missteps as teens often have subsequent success in school or the labor market. This paper attempts to draw lessons from youth who…

  9. Urban trees and the risk of poor birth outcomes

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; David T. Butry; Amy D. Sullivan; John M. Chase

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated whether greater tree-canopy cover is associated with reduced risk of poor birth outcomes in Portland, Oregon. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to classified-aerial imagery to calculate tree-canopy cover in 50, 100, and 200 m buffers around each home in our sample (n=5696). Detailed data on maternal characteristics and additional...

  10. Blend sign predicts poor outcome in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wang, Xing-Chen; Cao, Du; Zhu, Dan; Lv, Fa-Jin; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Gang; Xiong, Xin; Li, Rui; Hu, Yun-Xin; Qin, Xin-Yue; Xie, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Blend sign has been recently described as a novel imaging marker that predicts hematoma expansion. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of CT blend sign in patients with ICH. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent baseline CT scan within 6 hours were included. The presence of blend sign on admission nonenhanced CT was independently assessed by two readers. The functional outcome was assessed by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. Blend sign was identified in 40 of 238 (16.8%) patients on admission CT scan. The proportion of patients with a poor functional outcome was significantly higher in patients with blend sign than those without blend sign (75.0% versus 47.5%, P = 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, intraventricular hemorrhage, admission GCS score, baseline hematoma volume and presence of blend sign on baseline CT independently predict poor functional outcome at 90 days. The CT blend sign independently predicts poor outcome in patients with ICH (odds ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval [1.47-8.89];p = 0.005). Early identification of blend sign is useful in prognostic stratification and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for prospective interventional studies.

  11. Satellite Sign: A Poor Outcome Predictor in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoshiteru; Ohtomo, Satoru; Arai, Hiroaki; Okada, Ken; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-06-13

    The presence of high-density starry dots around the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which we termed as a satellite sign, is occasionally observed in CT. The relationship between ICH with a satellite sign and its functional outcome has not been identified. This study aimed to determine whether the presence of a satellite sign could be an independent prognostic factor for patients with ICH. Patients with acute spontaneous ICH were retrospectively identified and their initial CT scans were reviewed. A satellite sign was defined as scattered high-density lesions completely separate from the main hemorrhage in at least the single axial slice. Functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome was defined as mRS scores of 3-6. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to assess the presence of a satellite sign and its association with poor functional outcome. A total of 241 patients with ICH were enrolled in the study. Of these, 98 (40.7%) had a satellite sign. Patients with a satellite sign had a significantly higher rate of poor functional outcome (95.9%) than those without a satellite sign (55.9%, p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that higher age (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.10; p = 0.00016), large hemorrhage size (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.11; p = 0.00015), and ICH with a satellite sign (OR 13.5; 95% CI 4.42-53.4; p < 0.0001) were significantly related to poor outcome. A satellite sign was significantly related with higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0014), higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0117), shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.0427), higher rate of intraventricular bleeding (p < 0.0001), and larger main hemorrhage (p < 0.0001). The presence of a satellite sign in the initial CT scan is associated with a significantly worse functional outcome in ICH patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Poor outcome in radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W. )

    1993-01-15

    The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 [+-] 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage.

  13. High homocysteine and blood pressure related to poor outcome of acute ischemia stroke in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chongke; Lv, Liying; Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19-1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85-1.53), 1.37 (1.03-1.84) and 1.70 (1.29-2.34), respectively. The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility to poor outcome among acute ischemic stroke

  14. Urban trees and the risk of poor birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Geoffrey H; Michael, Yvonne L; Butry, David T; Sullivan, Amy D; Chase, John M

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated whether greater tree-canopy cover is associated with reduced risk of poor birth outcomes in Portland, Oregon. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to classified-aerial imagery to calculate tree-canopy cover in 50, 100, and 200 m buffers around each home in our sample (n=5696). Detailed data on maternal characteristics and additional neighborhood variables were obtained from birth certificates and tax records. We found that a 10% increase in tree-canopy cover within 50 m of a house reduced the number of small for gestational age births by 1.42 per 1000 births (95% CI-0.11-2.72). Results suggest that the natural environment may affect pregnancy outcomes and should be evaluated in future research.

  15. Familial acute necrotizing encephalopathy without RANBP2 mutation: Poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naoko; Higuchi, Yoshihisa; Kimura, Nobusuke; Nozaki, Fumihito; Kumada, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Ai; Saitoh, Makiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    Most childhood cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) involve neither family history nor recurrence. ANE occasionally occurs, however, as a familial disorder or recurs in Caucasian patients. A mutation of RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) has been discovered in more than one half of familial or recurrent ANE patients. In contrast, there has been no report of this mutation in East Asia. Here, we report the first sibling cases of typical ANE in Japan, with poor outcome. DNA analysis of genes associated with ANE or other encephalopathies, including RANBP2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPT2), indicated neither mutations nor disease-related polymorphisms. On literature review, recurrent or familial ANE without the RANBP2 mutation has a more severe outcome and greater predilection for male sex than that with the RANBP2 mutation. This suggests that there are unknown gene mutations linked to ANE. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  16. Household income and poor treatment outcome among patients with tuberculosis in Georgia: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Djibuti, Mamuka; Mirvelashvili, Eka; Makharashvili, Nutsa; Magee, Matthew J

    2014-01-29

    Poverty is associated with increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB) disease onset, but the relation between household income and TB treatment outcomes is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine household income characteristics associated with poor TB treatment outcome among newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB in the country of Georgia. A prospective cohort study was conducted among newly diagnosed smear positive pulmonary TB patients. Clinical and household data were collected from all consecutive patients seeking care at TB facilities in two major cities and one rural region in Georgia. Patients were followed prospectively during anti-TB regimens to determine treatment outcome. Bivariate analyses were used to determine the association of individual patient and household level characteristics with poor TB treatment outcome. A multivariable logistic model was used to estimate the adjusted association between patient household characteristics and poor TB treatment outcome. After six months TB therapy, treatment outcome was available for 193 of 202 enrolled patients, of these 155 (80.3%) had a favorable TB treatment outcome. Compared to TB patients with poor treatment outcome, those with favorable treatment outcomes were younger (median 33.0 vs. 42.5 years), reported higher household monthly income (median $137 USD vs. $85 USD), were less likely to be unemployed (38.7 vs. 47.4%), and had higher level of education (38.7% vs. 31.6% with college education or greater). In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socio-economic indicators, only low household income was remained statistically significantly associated with poor TB treatment outcome. Compared with patients from households with the highest tertile of monthly income, those in the middle tertile (aOR 4.28 95% CI 1.36, 13.53) and those in the lowest category of income (aOR 6.18 95% CI 1.83, 20.94) were significantly more likely to have poor treatment outcomes. We

  17. Factors affecting outcome in poor grade subarachnoid haemorrhage: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Kranthi, Sannepaneni; Sahu, Barada P.; Aniruddh, Purohit

    2016-01-01

    Context: Poor grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually associated with unfavorable outcomes and optimal management is deemed complicated. Most centres follow an expectant management strategy or a less aggressive approach till patients improve to good clinical grades. This approach has been associated with higher mortality and morbidity. However, not all patients with poor clinical condition fare badly. Identification and early aggressive management of this select group of patients may lead to favorable outcomes. Settings and Design: Prospective non-randomized study. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 19 cases presented in WFNS grade 4 and 5 and factors affecting their outcome at a tertiary care centre in south India. This study was aimed at identifying those few poor grade patients who are probable candidates for a good outcome. Statistical Analysis Used: All the variables were analyzed for possible correlations with the SPSS version 13 software. The Chi-square test with a P < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Of 19 cases, 13 were operated and good outcome was seen in 53.8% of the patients who underwent surgery and aggressive management. All 7 patients who were managed conservatively died. 15.8% of the patients had low density changes (P = 0.625). Absence of such changes was associated with a good long term outcome (P = 0.004). 9 patients had intraventricular hemorrhage at presentation and 5 patients having hydrocephalus underwent extra-ventricular drainage. Statistically significant factors precluding good outcome were the presence of infarcts and thick SAH in the cisterns. Conclusions: Poor grade (WFNS 4 and 5) SAH patients with or without ICH, IVH, if operated within 3 days can give rise to favorable outcome in around 50%. However, presence of patchy infarcts associated with thick subarachnoid blood (Fisher grade 3) precludes long term survival or meaningful recovery. Hence, aggressive management is unlikely to alter the

  18. Hyperglycemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a potentially modifiable risk factor for poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, Nyika D; Biessels, Geert Jan; DeVries, J Hans; Luitse, Merel J A; Vermeulen, Marinus; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vandertop, W Peter; Roos, Yvo B

    2010-01-01

    Hyperglycemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs frequently and is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor clinical outcome. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms that cause hyperglycemia after aSAH, and we discuss how hyperglycemia may contribute to poor clinical outcome in these patients. As hyperglycemia is potentially modifiable with intensive insulin therapy (IIT), we systematically reviewed the literature on IIT in aSAH patients. In these patients, IIT seems to be difficult to achieve in terms of lowering blood glucose levels substantially without an increased risk of (serious) hypoglycemia. Therefore, before initiating a large-scale randomized trial to investigate the clinical benefit of IIT, phase II studies, possibly with the help of cerebral blood glucose monitoring by microdialysis, will first have to improve this therapy in terms of both safety and adequacy. PMID:20628402

  19. Poor nutritional status on admission predicts poor outcomes after stroke: observational data from the FOOD trial.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that undernourished patients with acute stroke do badly. The data, however, are not robust. We aimed to reliably assess the importance of baseline nutritional status as an independent predictor of long-term outcome after stroke in a large prospective cohort enrolled in the Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial, a multicenter randomized trial evaluating various feeding policies. Patients admitted to hospital with a recent stroke were enrolled in the FOOD trial. Data on nutritional status and other clinical predictors of outcome were collected at trial entry. At 6 months, the coordinating center collected data on survival and functional status (modified Rankin Scale). Outcome assessment was done by researchers blinded to baseline assessments and treatment allocation. Between November 1996 and November 2001, 3012 patients were enrolled, and 2955 (98%) were followed up. Of the 275 undernourished patients, 102 (37%) were dead by final follow-up compared with only 445 (20%) of 2194 patients of normal nutritional status (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.02). After adjustment for age, prestroke functional state, and stroke severity, this relationship, although weakened, still held (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.47). Undernourished patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding during their hospital admission than other patients. These data provide reliable evidence that nutritional status early after stroke is independently associated with long-term outcome. It supports the rationale for the FOOD trial, which continues to recruit and aims to estimate the effect of different feeding regimes on outcome after stroke and thus determine whether the association observed in this study is likely to be causal.

  20. Malignant cerebellar peduncle lesions - rapid progression and poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Navneet; Kapoor, Ankur; Savardekar, Amey; Radotra, B. D.; Chatterjee, Debjyoti; Gupta, Sunil K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tumors arising from cerebellar peduncle are extremely rare and behave aggressively. The inclusion of these into either cerebellar or brainstem gliomas is contentious. Case Description: We performed clinicopathological review of three patients treated at our institute and surveyed the literature for previous such reported cases. Mean duration of symptoms in our patients was 2 weeks. Subtotal tumor resection was performed in two patients while the third underwent stereotactic biopsy followed by chemoradiotherapy. Histopathology revealed glioblastoma in initial two patients and medulloblastoma Grade IV in the third. The two patients who underwent surgical excision succumbed to the illness within 2 days and a month, respectively. Conclusion: Malignant cerebellar peduncular lesions have poor overall survival despite surgical debulking. It is not confirmed whether these tumors should be considered as cerebellar lesions or brainstem gliomas due to aggressive clinical behavior, and so the ideal line of management is not yet known. PMID:27057396

  1. Stunting is associated with poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Moschovis, Peter P; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O D; Banajeh, Salem; Chisaka, Noel; Christiani, David C; Hayden, Douglas; Jeena, Prakash; MacLeod, William B; Mino, Greta; Patel, Archana; Qazi, Shamim; Santosham, Mathuram; Thea, Donald M; Hibberd, Patricia L

    2015-10-01

    Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials. We analysed data from two WHO and USAID-sponsored inpatient treatment trials, the Severe Pneumonia Evaluation Antimicrobial Research study (n = 958) and the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (n = 1702), which enrolled children aged 2-59 months across 16 sites in LMICs. We assessed the effect of stunting (height-for-age Z score < -2) on treatment outcome and time to resolution of hypoxaemic pneumonia. Among 2542 (96%) children with valid data for height, 28% were stunted and 12.8% failed treatment by 5 days. The failure rate among stunted patients was 16.0% vs. 11.5% among non-stunted patients [unadjusted RR = 1.24 (95% CI 1.08, 1.41); adjusted RR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.10, 1.48)]. An inverse relationship was observed between height and failure rates, even among non-stunted children. Among 845 patients with hypoxaemic pneumonia, stunting was associated with a lower probability of normalisation of respiratory rate [HR = 0.63 (95% CI 0.52, 0.75)] and oxygen saturation [HR = 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.89)]. Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stunting is associated with poor outcomes in childhood pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Moschovis, Peter P.; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O. D.; Banajeh, Salem; Chisaka, Noel; Christiani, David C.; Hayden, Douglas; Jeena, Prakash; MacLeod, William B.; Mino, Greta; Patel, Archana; Qazi, Shamim; Santosham, Mathuram; Thea, Donald M.; Hibberd, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials. Methods We analyzed data from two WHO and USAID-sponsored inpatient treatment trials, the Severe Pneumonia Evaluation Antimicrobial Research study (n=958) and the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (n=1702), which enrolled children aged 2–59 months across 16 sites in LMICs. We assessed the effect of stunting (height-for-age Z score < −2) on treatment outcome and time to resolution of hypoxemic pneumonia. Results Among 2542 (96%) children with valid data for height, 28% were stunted and 12.8% failed treatment by 5 days. The failure rate among stunted patients was 16.0% vs. 11.5% among non-stunted patients (unadjusted RR = 1.24 [95% CI 1.08, 1.41]; adjusted RR = 1.28 [95% CI 1.10, 1.48]). An inverse relationship was observed between height and failure rates, even among non-stunted children. Among 845 patients with hypoxemic pneumonia, stunting was associated with a lower probability of normalization of respiratory rate (HR = 0.63 [95% CI 0.52, 0.75]) and oxygen saturation (HR = 0.74 [95% CI 0.61, 0.89]). Conclusions Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings. PMID:26083963

  3. Access to orphan drugs despite poor quality of clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Alain G; Van Wilder, Philippe B

    2011-04-01

    We analysed the Belgian reimbursement decisions of orphan drugs as compared with those of innovative drugs for more common but equally severe diseases, with special emphasis on the quality of clinical evidence. Using the National Health Insurance Agency administrative database, we evaluated all submitted orphan drug files between 2002 and 2007. A quality analysis of the clinical evidence in the orphan reimbursement files was performed. The evaluation reports of the French 'Haute Autorité de Santé', including the five-point scale parameter 'Service Médical Rendu (SMR), were examined to compare disease severity. Chi-squared tests (at P < 0.05 significance level) were used to compare the outcome of the reimbursement decisions between orphan and non-orphan innovative medicines. Twenty-five files of orphan drugs and 117 files of non-orphan drugs were evaluated. Twenty-two of 25 (88%) submissions of orphan drugs were granted reimbursement as opposed to 74 of the 117 (63%) non-orphan innovative medicines (P= 0.02). Only 52% of the 25 orphan drug files included a randomized controlled trial as opposed to 84% in a random control sample of 25 non-orphan innovative submissions (P < 0.01). The duration of drug exposure was in most cases far too short in relation to the natural history of the disease. Orphan drug designation predicts reimbursement despite poor quality of clinical evidence. The evidence gap at market authorization should be reduced by post-marketing programmes, in which the centralized regulatory and the local reimbursement authorities collaborate in an efficient way across the European Union member states. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Methylene blue is associated with poor outcomes in vasoplegic shock.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Menachem M; Lin, Hung-Mo; Danforth, Dennis; Rao, Srikar; Hosseinian, Leila; Fischer, Gregory W

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients who received methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass had decreased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective analysis. Single tertiary care university hospital. Adult patients who suffered from vasoplegia and underwent all types of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at this institution between 2007 and 2008. With IRB approval, the authors reviewed the charts of the identified patients and divided them into 2 groups based on whether they had received methylene blue. Two hundred twenty-six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria for the study. Fifty-seven of these patients had received methylene blue for vasoplegia. The authors collected data on preoperative and intraoperative variables as well as outcomes. The patients who received methylene blue had higher rates of in-hospital mortality, a compilation of morbidities, as well as renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that receiving methylene blue was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (p value: 0.007, OR 4.26, 95% CI: 1.49-12.12), compilation of morbidities (p value: 0.001, OR 4.80, 95% CI: 1.85-12.43), and hyperbilirubinemia (p value:<0.001, OR 6.58, 95% CI: 2.91-14.89). Using propensity score matching, the association with morbidity was again seen but the association with mortality was not found. The current study identified the use of methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia to be independently associated with poor outcomes. While further studies are required, a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be applied before using methylene blue and, perhaps, it should be relegated to rescue use and not as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of blood biomarkers to predict poor outcome after acute transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, William; Wardlaw, Joanna; Dennis, Martin; Lowe, Gordon; Rumley, Ann; Sattar, Naveed; Welsh, Paul; Green, Alison; Andrews, Mary; Sandercock, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of death or disability ("poor outcome") after stroke by validated clinical models might be improved by the addition of blood biomarker measurements. We investigated whether such measurements improved the classification of patients into 4 categories of predicted risk of poor outcome: very high, intermediate high, intermediate low, and very low. We prospectively recruited symptomatic patients within 24 hours of ischemic cerebrovascular events. We measured clinical prognostic variables in each patient. We drew blood soon after admission and measured markers of inflammation, thrombosis, cardiac strain, and cerebral damage. We assessed poor outcome at 3 months with the modified Rankin Scale and recovery of symptoms at 24 hours. We measured the association between blood marker levels and poor outcome after adjustment for stroke severity and age with multivariate logistic regression. Where these associations were statistically significant, we calculated the net reclassification index. We recruited 270 patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events. At 3 months, 112 patients had a poor outcome. After adjustment for stroke severity and age, only interleukin-6 and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were significantly associated with poor outcome. The addition of either interleukin-6 or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and age did not improve the prediction of a poor outcome. Neither interleukin-6 nor N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide had sufficient predictive power to be of clinical use to predict poor outcome after stroke. The search for better markers to improve the classification of patients across clinically relevant boundaries of predicted probabilities of outcome events needs to continue.

  6. Noncontrast Computed Tomography Hypodensities Predict Poor Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients.

    PubMed

    Boulouis, Gregoire; Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H Bart; Charidimou, Andreas; Jessel, Michael J; Auriel, Eitan; Pontes-Neto, Octavio; Ayres, Alison; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin M; Rosand, Jonathan; Viswanathan, Anand; Gurol, Mahmut E; Greenberg, Steven M; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2016-10-01

    Noncontrast computed tomographic (CT) hypodensities have been shown to be associated with hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but their impact on functional outcome is yet to be determined. We evaluated whether baseline noncontrast CT hypodensities are associated with poor clinical outcome. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected cohort of consecutive patients with primary ICH presenting to a single academic medical center between 1994 and 2016. The presence of CT hypodensities was assessed by 2 independent raters on the baseline CT. Unfavorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin score >3 at 90 days. The associations between CT hypodensities and unfavorable outcome were investigated using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. During the study period, 1342 patients presented with ICH and 800 met restrictive inclusion criteria (baseline CT available for review, and 90-day outcome available). Three hundred and four (38%) patients showed hypodensities on CT, and 520 (65%) patients experienced unfavorable outcome. In univariate analysis, patients with unfavorable outcome were more likely to demonstrate hypodensities (48% versus 20%; P<0.0001). After adjustment for age, admission Glasgow coma scale, warfarin use, intraventricular hemorrhage, baseline ICH volume, and location, CT hypodensities were found to be independently associated with an increase in the odds of unfavorable outcome (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval [1.10-2.65]; P=0.018). The presence of noncontract CT hypodensities at baseline independently predicts poor outcome and comes as a useful and widely available addition to our ability to predict ICH patients' clinical evolution. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Access to orphan drugs despite poor quality of clinical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Alain G; Van Wilder, Philippe B

    2011-01-01

    AIM We analysed the Belgian reimbursement decisions of orphan drugs as compared with those of innovative drugs for more common but equally severe diseases, with special emphasis on the quality of clinical evidence. METHODS Using the National Health Insurance Agency administrative database, we evaluated all submitted orphan drug files between 2002 and 2007. A quality analysis of the clinical evidence in the orphan reimbursement files was performed. The evaluation reports of the French ‘Haute Autorité de Santé’, including the five-point scale parameter ‘Service Médical Rendu (SMR), were examined to compare disease severity. Chi-squared tests (at P < 0.05 significance level) were used to compare the outcome of the reimbursement decisions between orphan and non-orphan innovative medicines. RESULTS Twenty-five files of orphan drugs and 117 files of non-orphan drugs were evaluated. Twenty-two of 25 (88%) submissions of orphan drugs were granted reimbursement as opposed to 74 of the 117 (63%) non-orphan innovative medicines (P = 0.02). Only 52% of the 25 orphan drug files included a randomized controlled trial as opposed to 84% in a random control sample of 25 non-orphan innovative submissions (P < 0.01). The duration of drug exposure was in most cases far too short in relation to the natural history of the disease. CONCLUSIONS Orphan drug designation predicts reimbursement despite poor quality of clinical evidence. The evidence gap at market authorization should be reduced by post-marketing programmes, in which the centralized regulatory and the local reimbursement authorities collaborate in an efficient way across the European Union member states. PMID:21395641

  8. Predictors of mortality and poor functional outcome in severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ferrete-Araujo, A M; Egea-Guerrero, J J; Vilches-Arenas, Á; Godoy, D A; Murillo-Cabezas, F

    2015-10-01

    To analyze mortality and functional outcome in patients with severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and identify the clinical characteristics, radiological findings and therapeutic procedures predictive of mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and during hospitalization, as well as of poor functional results at 6 months. A prospective, observational study was carried out. Neurocritical Care Unit of a university hospital. Patients diagnosed with ICH were included over a period of 23 months. Demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, regular medication, laboratory test parameters, cranial CT findings, therapeutic procedures and outcome data. None. A total of 186 patients with ICH met the inclusion criteria. Surgery to evacuate ICH was performed in 25.8% of the patients. The mortality rate was 46.7%. The modified Rankin score at 6 months was 5 (RI: 4.6). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed the presence of diabetes, prior anticoagulation, as well as APACHE II severity and the type of bleeding on the cranial CT scan to be predictors of mortality and poor functional outcomes. On the other hand, neurosurgical procedures and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were associated with better outcomes. The presence of comorbidities such as diabetes, or previous anticoagulation, as well as the CT findings were associated to poorer outcomes. In contrast, ICP monitoring and early neurosurgery were predictive of longer survival and better functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictors of poor response during asthma therapy differ with definition of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Angela J; Tantisira, Kelan G; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Litonjua, Augusto A; Lasky-Su, Jessica A; Szefler, Stanley J; Strunk, Robert C; Zeiger, Robert S; Weiss, Scott T

    2009-01-01

    Aims To evaluate phenotypic and genetic variables associated with a poor long-term response to inhaled corticosteroid therapy for asthma, based independently on lung function changes or asthma exacerbations. Materials & methods We tested 17 phenotypic variables and polymorphisms in FCER2 and CRHR1 in 311 children (aged 5–12 years) randomized to a 4-year course of inhaled corticosteroid during the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Results Predictors of recurrent asthma exacerbations are distinct from predictors of poor lung function response. A history of prior asthma exacerbations, younger age and a higher IgE level (p < 0.05) are associated with recurrent exacerbations. By contrast, lower bronchodilator response to albuterol and the minor alleles of RS242941 in CRHR1 and T2206C in FCER2 (p < 0.05) are associated with poor lung function response. Poor lung function response does not increase the risk of exacerbations and vice versa (p = 0.72). Conclusion Genetic and phenotypic predictors of a poor long-term response to inhaled corticosteroids differ markedly depending on definition of outcome (based on exacerbations vs lung function). These findings are important in comparing outcomes of clinical trials and in designing future pharmacogenetic studies. PMID:19663668

  10. Methamphetamine use is an independent predictor of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Moon, Karam; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Mitkov, Mario; Ducruet, Andrew F; Wilson, David A; Crowley, R Webster; Nakaji, Peter; McDougall, Cameron G

    2015-05-01

    Clinical outcomes of methamphetamine users with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are unknown. To analyze differences in presentation, in-hospital morbidity, and outcomes between methamphetamine users and non-users. All 472 patients included in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed. Patients with 1- and 3-year follow-up were included in this analysis (n=398). Methamphetamine users were identified as patients who provided a history of methamphetamine use on admission or tested positive on urine toxicology testing. Methamphetamine users were compared with non-users using univariate analysis. Outcomes were then analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models for demographic characteristics, medical comorbidities, radiographic and clinical presentation, and vasospasm. Thirty-one patients (7.8%) were identified as methamphetamine users in this cohort. Methamphetamine users were younger than non-users (mean age 42.8 vs 55 years, p<0.001). In multivariate logistic regression models, methamphetamine use was an independent predictor of poor Glasgow Outcome Scale score at both 1 year (OR=5.02; 95% CI 1.03 to 24.48; p<0.05) and 3 years (OR=7.18; 95% CI 1.73 to 29.87; p=0.007). Other independent predictors in this model included older age, clinical vasospasm, diabetes, and aneurysm size. Cocaine and tobacco use were not significantly associated with poor outcome in our cohort. Methamphetamine use was not significantly associated with vasospasm, higher Fisher or Hunt and Hess grade, or intraparenchymal hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage. Methamphetamine users have significantly worse outcomes at 1 and 3 years following aSAH. Further analysis is necessary to understand the pathological response associated with methamphetamine use in this setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions=Poor Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC LOGIC ESSAY US INTERVENTION IN FAILED STATES: BAD ASSUMPTIONS = POOR ...2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions= Poor ...country remains in the grip of poverty , natural disasters, and stagnation. Rwanda Rwanda, another small African country, is populated principally

  12. Poor medication adherence in clinical trials: consequences and solutions.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, Alasdair; Aronson, Jeffrey K; Blaschke, Terrence F; Hartman, Dan; Peck, Carl C; Vrijens, Bernard

    2017-03-01

    Poor adherence to medicines in clinical trials can undermine the value of the trials; for example, by compromising estimates of the benefits and risks of a medicine. In this article, we highlight such consequences and also discuss approaches to tackle this problem.

  13. Clinical outcome measures of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bonifati, C; Berardesca, E

    2007-01-01

    Several tools have been introduced in clinical trials to quantify the severity and the response to a given therapeutic regimen of both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Each method present specific advantages and limitations. Here we will discuss some of the most popular clinical outcome measures of both psoriasis (Psoriasis Severity Index, Physician Global Assessment, National Psoriasis Fundation-Psoriasis Score, Dermatology Life Quality Index) and psoriatic arthritis (American College Rheumatology response criteria, Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria).

  14. Predictors of poor outcomes in First-Event Ischemic Stroke as assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Ming; Zou, Ya-Fen; Tang, Jiang Wei; Chen, Dan; Yang, Gung-Ming; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-06-16

    Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality worldwide and is a major cause of permanent disability. The purposed of the study was to better understand the risk factors for poor outcomes following ischemic stroke requiring treatment. Three hundred seventy patients with first-event ischemic stroke were enrolled. Good outcomes was defined as a using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score ≤3 without any cardiovascular event, while poor outcomes were any of the following end points: MRS >3 at 3 months, recurrent stroke or death. Prognostic variables for poor outcomes were analyzed based on a stepwise logistic regression model. Seventy-eight patients had poor outcomes (21%, 78/370), assessed at a minimum of six-month follow-up. Higher mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at presentation, presence of early neurologic deterioration (END) and higher mean high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were associated with poor outcomes at discharge. Furthermore, both NIHSS at presentation and the presence of END were associated with poor outcomes, assessed at a minimum of six-month follow-up. A higher mean initial NIHSS score implies not only severe neurologic deficits but also an increased risk of poor outcomes. Since END following ischemic stroke is frequently associated with poor outcomes, more attention should be directed to providing adequate treatment to patients in the acute stage, especially for high risk patients.

  15. Risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with open-globe injuries

    PubMed Central

    Page, Rita D; Gupta, Sumeet K; Jenkins, Thomas L; Karcioglu, Zeynel A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors that are predictive of poor outcomes in penetrating globe trauma. Patients and methods This retrospective case series evaluated 103 eyes that had been surgically treated for an open-globe injury from 2007 to 2010 at the eye clinic of the University of Virginia. A total of 64 eyes with complete medical records and at least 6 months of follow-up were included in the study. Four risk factors (preoperative best-corrected visual acuity [pre-op BCVA], ocular trauma score [OTS], zone of injury [ZOI], and time lapse [TL] between injury and primary repair) and three outcomes (final BCVA, monthly rate of additional surgeries [MRAS], and enucleation) were identified for analysis. Results Pre-op BCVA was positively associated with MRAS, final BCVA, and enucleation. Calculated OTS was negatively associated with the outcome variables. No association was found between TL and ZOI with the outcome variables. Further, age and predictor variable-adjusted analyses showed pre-op BCVA to be independently positively associated with MRAS (P=0.008) and with final BCVA (P<0.001), while the calculated OTS was independently negatively associated with final BCVA (P<0.001), but not uniquely associated with MRAS (P=0.530). Conclusion Pre-op BCVA and OTS are best correlated with prognosis in open-globe injuries. However, no conventional features reliably predict the outcome of traumatized eyes. PMID:27536059

  16. Risk factors for poor outcomes in patients with open-globe injuries.

    PubMed

    Page, Rita D; Gupta, Sumeet K; Jenkins, Thomas L; Karcioglu, Zeynel A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors that are predictive of poor outcomes in penetrating globe trauma. This retrospective case series evaluated 103 eyes that had been surgically treated for an open-globe injury from 2007 to 2010 at the eye clinic of the University of Virginia. A total of 64 eyes with complete medical records and at least 6 months of follow-up were included in the study. Four risk factors (preoperative best-corrected visual acuity [pre-op BCVA], ocular trauma score [OTS], zone of injury [ZOI], and time lapse [TL] between injury and primary repair) and three outcomes (final BCVA, monthly rate of additional surgeries [MRAS], and enucleation) were identified for analysis. Pre-op BCVA was positively associated with MRAS, final BCVA, and enucleation. Calculated OTS was negatively associated with the outcome variables. No association was found between TL and ZOI with the outcome variables. Further, age and predictor variable-adjusted analyses showed pre-op BCVA to be independently positively associated with MRAS (P=0.008) and with final BCVA (P<0.001), while the calculated OTS was independently negatively associated with final BCVA (P<0.001), but not uniquely associated with MRAS (P=0.530). Pre-op BCVA and OTS are best correlated with prognosis in open-globe injuries. However, no conventional features reliably predict the outcome of traumatized eyes.

  17. Driving: A Road to Unhealthy Lifestyles and Poor Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Gebel, Klaus; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian E.; Merom, Dafna

    2014-01-01

    Background Driving is a common part of modern society, but its potential effects on health are not well understood. Purpose The present cross-sectional study (n = 37,570) examined the associations of driving time with a series of health behaviors and outcomes in a large population sample of middle-aged and older adults using data from the Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor Study conducted in New South Wales, Australia, in 2010. Methods Multiple logistic regression was used in 2013 to examine the associations of usual daily driving time with health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep) and outcomes (obesity, general health, quality of life, psychological distress, time stress, social functioning), adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. Results Findings suggested that longer driving time was associated with higher odds for smoking, insufficient physical activity, short sleep, obesity, and worse physical and mental health. The associations consistently showed a dose-response pattern and more than 120 minutes of driving per day had the strongest and most consistent associations with the majority of outcomes. Conclusion This study highlights driving as a potential lifestyle risk factor for public health. More population-level multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the mechanism of how driving affects health. PMID:24911017

  18. Risk factors for decreased range of motion and poor outcomes in open periarticular elbow fractures.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Jonathan F; Wilson, Kevin W; Tintle, Scott M; Heckert, Reed; Gordon, Wade T; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Potter, Benjamin K

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors present at the time of injury that predict poor functional outcomes and heterotopic ossification (HO) in open periarticular elbow fractures. We performed a retrospective review of 136 combat-related open elbow fractures from 2003 to 2010. Patient demographics, injury characteristics, treatment variables, and complications were recorded. Functional outcomes were analyzed to determine range of motion (ROM) and Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Secondary outcome measures included the development of HO, return to duty, and revision operation. At a median 2.7 years from injury the median MEPS was 67.8 (range 30-100) with an average ulnohumeral arc motion of 89°. Bipolar fractures, with periarticular fractures on both sides of the elbow and at least one side containing intra-articular extension, were independently associated with decreased ulnohumeral motion (p=0.02) and decreased MEPS (p<0.004). Additional independent risk factors for decreased ROM included more severe osseous comminution (p=0.001), and increased time to definitive fixation (p=0.03) and HO (p=0.02). More severe soft tissue injury (Gustilo and Anderson fracture type, p=0.02), peripheral nerve injury (p=0.04), and HO (p=0.03) were independently associated with decreased MEPS. HO developed in 65% (89/136) of extremities and was associated with more severe Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) fracture type (p=0.01) and escalating Gustilo and Anderson fracture classification (p=0.049). In the largest series of open elbow fractures, we identified risk factors that portend a poor clinical outcome and decreased ROM. Bipolar elbow fractures, which have not previously been associated with worse results, are particularly prone to decreased ROM and worse outcomes. Prognostic level IV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. High EGFR gene copy number predicts poor outcome in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Heae Surng; Jang, Min Hye; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Hee Jin; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kang, Eunyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Kim, In Ah; Park, So Yeon

    2014-09-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer and is emerging as a therapeutic target. EGFR gene copy number alteration and mutation are highly variable and scientists have been challenged to define their prognostic significance in triple-negative breast cancer. We examined EGFR protein expression, EGFR gene copy number alteration and mutation of exon 18 to 21 in 151 cases of triple-negative breast cancer and correlated these findings with clinical outcomes. In addition, intratumoral agreement of EGFR protein overexpression and gene copy number alteration was evaluated. EGFR overexpression was found in 97 of 151 cases (64%) and high EGFR gene copy number was detected in 50 cases (33%), including 3 gene amplification (2%) and 47 high polysomy (31%). Five EGFR mutations were detected in 4 of 151 cases (3%) and included G719A in exon 18 (n=1), V786M in exon 20 (n=1), and L858R in exon 21 (n=3). One case had two mutations (G719A and L858R). High EGFR copy number, but not EGFR mutation, correlated with EGFR protein overexpression. Intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR protein overexpression and EGFR copy number alteration was not significant. In survival analyses, high EGFR copy number was found to be an independent prognostic factor for poor disease-free survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Our findings showed that EGFR mutation was a rare event, but high EGFR copy number was relatively frequent and correlated with EGFR overexpression in triple-negative breast cancer. Moreover, high EGFR copy number was associated with poor clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting that evaluation of EGFR copy number may be useful for predicting outcomes in patients with triple-negative breast cancer and for selecting patients for anti-EGFR-targeted therapy.

  20. ABCA Transporter Gene Expression and Poor Outcome in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hedditch, Ellen L.; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J.; Lu, Yi; Emmanuel, Catherine; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Harnett, Paul; George, Joshy; Williams, Rebekka T.; Flemming, Claudia; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susan K.; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel P.; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen; Bowtell, David D.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Norris, Murray D.; MacGregor, Stuart; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. Methods The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA–mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the “A” subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e−6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. Conclusions Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor

  1. ABCA transporter gene expression and poor outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedditch, Ellen L; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J; Lu, Yi; Emmanuel, Catherine; Beesley, Jonathan; Johnatty, Sharon E; Chen, Xiaoqing; Harnett, Paul; George, Joshy; Williams, Rebekka T; Flemming, Claudia; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Walsh, Christine; Fasching, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Hein, Alexander; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nakanishi, Toru; Yatabe, Yasushi; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Heitz, Florian; Harter, Philipp; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susan K; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Brown, Bob; Flanagan, James; Metcalf, Michelle D; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sellers, Thomas; Fridley, Brooke; Cunningham, Julie; Schildkraut, Joellen; Iversen, Ed; Weber, Rachel P; Berchuck, Andrew; Goode, Ellen; Bowtell, David D; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; deFazio, Anna; Norris, Murray D; MacGregor, Stuart; Haber, Michelle; Henderson, Michelle J

    2014-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two independent cohorts of high-grade serous EOC tumors was assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, analysis of expression microarray data, and immunohistochemistry. Associations between clinical outcomes and ABCA transporter gene single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in a genome-wide association study. Impact of short interfering RNA-mediated gene suppression was determined by colony forming and migration assays. Association with survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. Associations with outcome were observed with ABC transporters of the "A" subfamily, but not with multidrug transporters. High-level expression of ABCA1, ABCA6, ABCA8, and ABCA9 in primary tumors was statistically significantly associated with reduced survival in serous ovarian cancer patients. Low levels of ABCA5 and the C-allele of rs536009 were associated with shorter overall survival (hazard ratio for death = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.26 to 1.79; P = 6.5e-6). The combined expression pattern of ABCA1, ABCA5, and either ABCA8 or ABCA9 was associated with particularly poor outcome (mean overall survival in group with adverse ABCA1, ABCA5 and ABCA9 gene expression = 33.2 months, 95% CI = 26.4 to 40.1; vs 55.3 months in the group with favorable ABCA gene expression, 95% CI = 49.8 to 60.8; P = .001), independently of tumor stage or surgical debulking status. Suppression of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibited ovarian cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor outcome in serous ovarian cancer, implicating lipid

  2. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15–21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  3. An Attempt of Early Detection of Poor Outcome after Whiplash.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Sebastien; Wang, Danping; Lecompte, Jennyfer; Blancho, Sophie; Sandoz, Baptiste; Feydy, Antoine; Lindberg, Pavel; Adrian, Julien; Chiarovano, Elodie; de Waele, Catherine; Vidal, Pierre-Paul

    2016-01-01

    The main concern with whiplash is that a large proportion of whiplash patients experience disabling symptoms or whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) for months if not years following the accident. Therefore, identifying early prognostic factors of WAD development is important as WAD have widespread clinical and economic consequences. In order to tackle that question, our study was specifically aimed at combining several methods of investigation in the same WAD patients at the acute stage and 6 months later. Our longitudinal, open, prospective, multi-center study included 38 whiplash patients, and 13 healthy volunteers matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status with the whiplash group. Whiplash patients were evaluated 15-21 days after road accident, and 6 months later. At each appointment, patients underwent a neuropsychological evaluation, a full clinical neurological examination, neurophysiological and postural tests, oto-neurological tests, cervical spine cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tractography (DTI). At 6 months, whiplash patients were categorized into two subgroups based on the results of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as having either favorable or unfavorable progression [an unfavorable classification corresponding to the presence of post-concussion symptom (PCS)] and we searched retrospectively for early prognostic factors of WAD predicting the passage to chronicity. We found that patients displaying high level of catastrophizing at the acute stage and/or post-traumatic stress disorder associated with either abnormalities in head or trunk kinematics, abnormal test of the otolithic function and at the Equitest or a combination of these syndromes, turned to chronicity. This study suggests that low-grade whiplash patients should be submitted as early as possible after the trauma to neuropsychological and motor control tests in a specialized consultation. In addition, they should be evaluated by a neuro

  4. Factors associated with poor outcome for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in a series of 334 patients.

    PubMed

    Rivero Rodríguez, D; Scherle Matamoros, C; Fernández Cúe, L; Miranda Hernández, J L; Pernas Sánchez, Y; Pérez Nellar, J

    This study evaluates care-related sociodemographic, clinical, and imaging factors and influences associated with outcome at discharge in patients with aneurismal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Retrospective cohort study in 334 patients treated at Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras in Havana, Cuba between October 2005 and June 2014. Logistic regression analysis determined that the following factors were associated with higher risk of poor outcome: age older than 65 years (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.79-5.7, P=.031), female sex (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.22-3.84, P=.0067), systolic hypertension (OR 4.82, 95% CI 2.27-9.8, P=.0001), and hyperglycaemia at admission (OR 3.93, 95% CI 2.10-7.53, P=.0003). Certain complications were also associated with poor prognosis, including respiratory infection (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.27-5.85, P=.0085), electrolyte disturbances (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.33-8.28, P=.0073), hydrocephalus (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.05-4.63, P=.0039), rebleeding (OR 16.50, 95% CI 8.24-41.24, P=.0000), symptomatic vasospasm (OR 19.00, 95% CI 8.86-41.24, P=.0000), cerebral ischaemia (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.87-7.80, P=.000) and multiplex rebleeding (OR 6.69, 95% CI 1.35-36.39, P=.0019). Grades of iii and iv on the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.12-3.91, P=.0021) and Fisher scales (OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.65-10.29, P=.0008) were also related to poor outcome. Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage was related to age, sex, clinical status at admission to the stroke unit, imaging findings according to the Fisher scale, blood pressure, glycaemia and such complications as electrolyte disturbances, hydrocephalus, rebleeding, and multiplex rebleeding. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing prediction scores for poor outcome after intra-arterial therapy in anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sarraj, Amrou; Albright, Karen; Barreto, Andrew D; Boehme, Amelia K; Sitton, Clark W; Choi, Jeanie; Lutzker, Steven L; Sun, Chung-Huan J; Bibars, Wafi; Nguyen, Claude B; Mir, Osman; Vahidy, Farhaan; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Lopez, George A; Gonzales, Nicole R; Edgell, Randall; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Hallevi, Hen; Chen, Peng Roc; Dannenbaum, Mark; Saver, Jeffrey L; Liebeskind, David S; Nogueira, Raul G; Gupta, Rishi; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I

    2013-12-01

    Intra-arterial therapy (IAT) promotes recanalization of large artery occlusions in acute ischemic stroke. Despite high recanalization rates, poor clinical outcomes are common. We attempted to optimize a score that combines clinical and imaging variables to more accurately predict poor outcome after IAT in anterior circulation occlusions. Patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing IAT at University of Texas (UT) Houston for large artery occlusions (middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery) were reviewed. Independent predictors of poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale, 4-6) were studied. External validation was performed on IAT-treated patients at Emory University. A total of 163 patients were identified at UT Houston. Independent predictors of poor outcome (P≤0.2) were identified as score variables using sensitivity analysis and logistic regression. Houston Intra-Arterial Therapy 2 (HIAT2) score ranges 0 to 10: age (≤59=0, 60-79=2, ≥80 years=4), glucose (<150=0, ≥150=1), National Institute Health Stroke Scale (≤10=0, 11-20=1, ≥21=2), the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (8-10=0, ≤7=3). Patients with HIAT2≥5 were more likely to have poor outcomes at discharge (odds ratio, 6.43; 95% confidence interval, 2.75-15.02; P<0.001). After adjusting for reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction score≥2b) and time from symptom onset to recanalization, HIAT2≥5 remained an independent predictor of poor outcome (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.96-17.64; P=0.02). Results from the cohort of Emory (198 patients) were consistent; patients with HIAT2 score≥5 had 6× greater odds of poor outcome at discharge and at 90 days. HIAT2 outperformed other previously published predictive scores. The HIAT2 score, which combines clinical and imaging variables, performed better than all previous scores in predicting poor outcome after IAT for anterior circulation large artery occlusions.

  6. Predictors of poor outcome after both column acetabular fractures: a 30-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acetabular fractures are often combined with associated injuries to the hip joint. Some of these associated injuries seem to be responsible for poor long-term results and these injuries seem to affect the outcome independent of the quality of the acetabular reduction. The aim of our study was to analyze the outcome of both column acetabular fractures and the influence of osseous cofactors such as initial fracture displacement, hip dislocation, femoral head lesions and injuries of the acetabular joint surface. Methods A retrospective cohort study in patients with both column acetabular fractures treated over a 30 year period was performed. Patients with a follow-up of more than two years were invited for a clinical and radiological examination. Displacement was analyzed on initial and postoperative radiographs. Contusion and impaction of the femoral head was grouped. Injuries of the acetabular joint surface consisting of impaction, contusion and comminution were recorded. The Merle d’Aubigné Score was documented and radiographs were analysed for arthritis (Helfet classification), femoral head avascular necrosis (Ficat/Arlet classification) and heterotopic ossifications (Brooker classification). Results 115 patients were included in the follow up examination. Anatomic reduction (malreduction ≤ 1mm) was associated with a significantly better clinical outcome than nonanatomical reduction (p = 0.001). Initial displacement of more than 10mm (p = 0.031) and initial intraarticular fragments (p = 0.041) were associated with worse outcome. Other associated injuries, such as the presence of a femoral head dislocation, femoral head injuries and injuries to the acetabular joint surface showed no significant difference in outcome individually, but in fractures with more than two associated local injuries the risk for joint degeneration was significant higher (p < 0.001) than in cases with less than two of them. In the subgroup of

  7. Complement component 5 contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Woehrl, Bianca; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Murr, Carmen; Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G B; Baas, Frank; Pfister, Hans W; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Morgan, B Paul; Barnum, Scott R; van der Ende, Arie; Koedel, Uwe; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-10-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of bacterial meningitis. Fatality rates are substantial, and long-term sequelae develop in about half of survivors. Disease outcome has been related to the severity of the proinflammatory response in the subarachnoid space. The complement system, which mediates key inflammatory processes, has been implicated as a modulator of pneumococcal meningitis disease severity in animal studies. Additionally, SNPs in genes encoding complement pathway proteins have been linked to susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, although no associations with disease severity or outcome have been established. Here, we have performed a robust prospective nationwide genetic association study in patients with bacterial meningitis and found that a common nonsynonymous complement component 5 (C5) SNP (rs17611) is associated with unfavorable disease outcome. C5 fragment levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial meningitis correlated with several clinical indicators of poor prognosis. Consistent with these human data, C5a receptor-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis had lower CSF wbc counts and decreased brain damage compared with WT mice. Adjuvant treatment with C5-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented death in all mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Thus, our results suggest C5-specific monoclonal antibodies could be a promising new antiinflammatory adjuvant therapy for pneumococcal meningitis.

  8. Complement component 5 contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Woehrl, Bianca; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Murr, Carmen; Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G.B.; Baas, Frank; Pfister, Hans W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Morgan, B. Paul; Barnum, Scott R.; van der Ende, Arie; Koedel, Uwe; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of bacterial meningitis. Fatality rates are substantial, and long-term sequelae develop in about half of survivors. Disease outcome has been related to the severity of the proinflammatory response in the subarachnoid space. The complement system, which mediates key inflammatory processes, has been implicated as a modulator of pneumococcal meningitis disease severity in animal studies. Additionally, SNPs in genes encoding complement pathway proteins have been linked to susceptibility to pneumococcal infection, although no associations with disease severity or outcome have been established. Here, we have performed a robust prospective nationwide genetic association study in patients with bacterial meningitis and found that a common nonsynonymous complement component 5 (C5) SNP (rs17611) is associated with unfavorable disease outcome. C5 fragment levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial meningitis correlated with several clinical indicators of poor prognosis. Consistent with these human data, C5a receptor–deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis had lower CSF wbc counts and decreased brain damage compared with WT mice. Adjuvant treatment with C5-specific monoclonal antibodies prevented death in all mice with pneumococcal meningitis. Thus, our results suggest C5-specific monoclonal antibodies could be a promising new antiinflammatory adjuvant therapy for pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:21926466

  9. Diabetes and poor outcomes within 6 months after acute ischemic stroke: the China National Stroke Registry.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qian; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Chunxue; Wang, Yilong; Yan, Yu; Li, Hao; Zhong, Liyong; Liu, Liping; Zheng, Huaguang; Zhou, Yong; Wang, Yongjun

    2011-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, controversy exists with regard to the impact of DM on prognosis after ischemic stroke in the Chinese population. We investigated the associations between DM and death, dependency, and stroke recurrence in patients after ischemic stroke onset in a nationwide, prospective registry, the China National Stroke Registry. The China National Stroke Registry consecutively recruited patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke in 2007 to 2008 and who were prospectively followed up for clinical and functional outcomes (death, dependency, and stroke recurrence) at 3 and 6 months after disease onset. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to analyze the association between DM and stroke outcomes after adjusting for potential confounding including age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, glucose level at admission, hypertension, coronary heart disease, smoking, urinary tract infection, and other factors. DM was identified in 3483 (27.0%) of stroke patients. Compared with stroke patients without DM, patients with DM had a significantly higher incidence of death or dependency and of recurrent stroke at 3 and 6 months after stroke onset. DM was an independent risk factor for death or dependency (adjusted odds ratio=1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.37) in patients with ischemic stroke at 6 months after onset. DM independently predicted poor outcomes in Chinese patients after acute ischemic stroke.

  10. Patients With Failed Prior Two-Stage Exchange Have Poor Outcomes After Further Surgical Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kheir, Michael M; Tan, Timothy L; Gomez, Miguel M; Chen, Antonia F; Parvizi, Javad

    2017-04-01

    Failure of 2-stage exchange arthroplasty for the management of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) poses a major clinical challenge. There is a paucity of information regarding the outcomes of further surgical intervention in these patients. Thus, we aim to report the clinical outcomes of subsequent surgery for a failed prior 2-stage exchange arthroplasty. Our institutional database was used to identify 60 patients (42 knees and 18 hips), with a failed prior 2-stage exchange, who underwent further surgical intervention between 1998 and 2012, and had a minimum 2-year follow-up. A retrospective review was performed to extract relevant clinical information, including mortality, microbiology, and subsequent surgeries. Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria were used to define PJI, and treatment success was defined using Delphi criteria. Irrigation and debridement (I&D) was performed after a failed 2-stage exchange in 61.7% of patients; 56.8% subsequently failed. Forty patients underwent an intended second 2-stage exchange; 6 cases required a spacer exchange. Reimplantation occurred only in 65% of cases, and 61.6% had infection controlled. The 14 cases that were not reimplanted resulted in 6 retained spacers, 5 amputations, 2 PJI-related mortalities, and 1 arthrodesis. Further surgical intervention after a failed prior 2-stage exchange arthroplasty has poor outcomes. Although I&D has a high failure rate, many patients who are deemed candidates for a second 2-stage exchange either do not undergo reimplantation or fail after reimplantation. The management of PJI clearly remains imperfect, and there is a dire need for further innovations that may improve the care of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated serum creatinine at baseline predicts poor outcome in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Alaa; El-Saed, Aiman; Voigt, Andrew; Albany, Constantine; Saba, Samir

    2008-05-01

    Renal insufficiency is recognized as a predictor of mortality and poor outcome in heart failure patients. We sought to study the impact of baseline serum creatinine on subsequent outcome in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) recipients. We retrospectively reviewed hospital records of all CRT recipients at Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System (2003-2005) and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (2004). We recorded clinical characteristics at the time of implantation including demographics, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, ejection fraction, QRS duration, cardiomyopathy etiology, medical history, medication use, and serum creatinine. Mortality alone and mortality combined with heart failure hospitalization were the study endpoints. Out of the 330 patients studied, a total of 66 (20.0%) patients died over a mean follow-up duration of 19.7 +/- 9.0 months (range 1-44). The cohort was studied by three creatinine tertiles (0.6-1.0, 1.1-1.3, 1.4-3.0 mg/dL). Both study endpoints were observed more frequently in patients in the highest creatinine tertile compared to others (28.7% vs 14.0%, P = 0.008 for death and 41.6% vs 21.5%, P = 0.001 for the combined endpoint). High creatinine remained an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-3.39, P = 0.032) and the combined endpoint (HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.20-3.13, P = 0.007) in multivariate adjusted models. Studied as a continuous variable, increase in creatinine level by 0.1 mg/dL was associated with an 11% increase in mortality risk and a 7% increase in the combined endpoint. In an unselected cohort of CRT recipients, the baseline creatinine was found to predict worse survival and poor outcome over a modest follow-up duration.

  12. Postoperative Biomarkers Predict Acute Kidney Injury and Poor Outcomes after Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Prasad; Zappitelli, Michael; Sint, Kyaw; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Li, Simon; Kim, Richard W.; Koyner, Jay L.; Coca, Steven G.; Edelstein, Charles L.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Garg, Amit X.; Krawczeski, Catherine D.

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly after pediatric cardiac surgery and associates with poor outcomes. Biomarkers may help the prediction or early identification of AKI, potentially increasing opportunities for therapeutic interventions. Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter cohort study involving 311 children undergoing surgery for congenital cardiac lesions to evaluate whether early postoperative measures of urine IL-18, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), or plasma NGAL could identify which patients would develop AKI and other adverse outcomes. Urine IL-18 and urine and plasma NGAL levels peaked within 6 hours after surgery. Severe AKI, defined by dialysis or doubling in serum creatinine during hospital stay, occurred in 53 participants at a median of 2 days after surgery. The first postoperative urine IL-18 and urine NGAL levels strongly associated with severe AKI. After multivariable adjustment, the highest quintiles of urine IL-18 and urine NGAL associated with 6.9- and 4.1-fold higher odds of AKI, respectively, compared with the lowest quintiles. Elevated urine IL-18 and urine NGAL levels associated with longer hospital stay, longer intensive care unit stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. The accuracy of urine IL-18 and urine NGAL for diagnosis of severe AKI was moderate, with areas under the curve of 0.72 and 0.71, respectively. The addition of these urine biomarkers improved risk prediction over clinical models alone as measured by net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement. In conclusion, urine IL-18 and urine NGAL, but not plasma NGAL, associate with subsequent AKI and poor outcomes among children undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:21836147

  13. Using global gene expression to discriminate thin melanomas with poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hothem, Zachary; Bayci, Andrew; Thibodeau, Bryan J; Ketelsen, Billie E; Fortier, Laura E; Uzieblo, Alison F; Cosner, Diane; Totoraitis, Kristin; Keidan, Richard D; Wilson, George D

    2017-01-01

    Most melanomas present as thin lesions (≤1.0 mm) with a good prognosis; however, a small percentage of patients with thin lesions experience recurrence or metastasis. The aim of our study was to identify a distinct pattern of gene expression within thin melanomas known to have eventually metastasized to regional lymph nodes or distant sites compared with those that followed the typical course with good response to wide local excision alone. Patients who were disease-free for a minimum of 10 y served as controls (n = 10) to the experimental group who developed metastasis (n = 9). Laser capture microdissection was used to specifically isolate cancer cells from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue with subsequent gene expression analysis on Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 Arrays. Although gene expression differences were observed between the patients with thin melanoma with poor clinical outcome and those with good clinical outcome, neither the number of genes nor the magnitude of the fold difference was very substantial or significant. Cluster analysis with this subset of genes could definitively separate a subset of the poor responders from the good responders, but there remained a mixed group of tumors that could not be predicted from gene expression alone. Pathway analysis identified cellular processes that were regulated based on the response, including categories commonly associated with melanoma progression. Ultimately, we concluded that there were very few differences between these groups. Future research will be required and investigation of the mutational landscape may be another strategy to uncover genomic changes that drive recurrence and metastasis in thin melanoma.

  14. Poor Employment Conditions Adversely Affect Mental Health Outcomes Among Surgical Trainees.

    PubMed

    Kevric, Jasmina; Papa, Nathan; Perera, Marlon; Rashid, Prem; Toshniwal, Sumeet

    2017-07-17

    Poor mental health in junior clinicians is prevalent and may lead to poor productivity and significant medical errors. We aimed to provide contemporary data on the mental health of surgical trainees and identify risk factors relating to poorer mental health outcomes. A detailed questionnaire was developed comprising questions based on the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Each of the questionnaires has proven validity and reliability in the clinical context. Ethics approval was obtained from the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The questionnaire was aimed at surgical registrars. We used Physical Activity Questionnaire, SF-36 scores and linear regression to evaluate the effect of putative predictors on mental health. A total of 83 responses were collected during the study period, of which 49 (59%) were from men and 34 (41%) were from women. The mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) score for both sexes was significantly lower than the population mean at ages 25-34 (p < 0.001). Poor satisfaction with one's work culture and a feeling of a lack of support at work were extremely strong predictors of a lower MCS score (p < 0.001). Hours of overtime worked, particularly unpaid overtime, were also strong predictors of a poorer score. Australian surgical trainees reported lower MCS scores from the SF-36 questionnaire compared to the general population. Increasing working hours, unpaid overtime, poor job security, and job satisfaction were associated with poorer scores among trainees. Interventions providing improved working conditions need to be considered by professional training bodies and employers. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. All rights reserved.

  15. Acrophialophora, a Poorly Known Fungus with Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  16. Acrophialophora, a poorly known fungus with clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Gené, Josepa; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Guarro, Josep

    2015-05-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi.

  17. Independent Factors for Prediction of Poor Outcomes in Patients with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Günalp, Müge; Koyunoğlu, Merve; Gürler, Serdar; Koca, Ayça; Yeşilkaya, İlker; Öner, Emre; Akkaş, Meltem; Aksu, Nalan Metin; Demirkan, Arda; Polat, Onur; Elhan, Atilla Halil

    2014-01-01

    Background Febrile neutropenia (FN) is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent management in the emergency department (ED). Recent progress in the treatment of neutropenic fever has underscored the importance of risk stratification. In this study, we aimed to determine independent factors for prediction of poor outcomes in patients with FN. Material/Methods We retrospectively evaluated 200 chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenic patients who visited the ED. Upon arrival at the ED, clinical data, including sex, age, vital signs, underlying systemic diseases, laboratory test results, estimated GFR, blood cultures, CRP, radiologic examinations, and Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) score of all febrile neutropenic patients were obtained. Outcomes were categorized as “poor” if serious complications during hospitalization, including death, occurred. Results The platelet count <50 000 cells/mm3 (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.62–9.43), pulmonary infiltration (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.48–8.07), hypoproteinemia <6 g/dl (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.27–8.56), respiratory rate >24/min (OR 8.75, 95% CI 2.18–35.13), and MASCC score <21 (OR 9.20, 95% CI 3.98–21.26) were determined as independent risk factors for the prediction of death. The platelet count <50 000 cells/mm3 (OR 3.93, 95% CI 1.42–10.92), serum CRP >50 mg/dl (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.68–8.61), hypoproteinemia (OR 7.81, 95% CI 3.43–17.78), eGFR ≤90 ML/min/1.73 m2 (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.13–8.26), and MASCC score <21 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.53–7.79) were determined as independent risk factors for the prediction of poor clinical outcomes of FN patients. Platelet count, protein level, respiratory rate, pulmonary infiltration, CRP, MASCC score, and eGFR were shown to have a significant association with outcome. Conclusions The results of our study may help emergency medicine physicians to prevent serious complications with proper use of simple independent risk factors besides MASCC score. PMID

  18. Ford Class Aircraft Carrier: Poor Outcomes Are the Predictable Consequences of the Prevalent Acquisition Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    are quite typical of weapon systems . Such outcomes persist despite acquisition reforms the Department of Defense and Congress have put forward-such...create a culture in weapon system acquisition that encourages undue optimism about program risks and costs. To the extent Congress funds such programs...FORD CLASS AIRCRAFT CARRIER Poor Outcomes Are the Predictable Consequences of the Prevalent Acquisition Culture

  19. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Clinical features and outcome.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Amy; Ness, Jayne; Pohl, Daniela; Simone, Isabella Laura; Anlar, Banu; Amato, Maria Pia; Ghezzi, Angelo

    2016-08-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) in children manifests with a relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) disease course. Acute relapses consist of new neurologic deficits persisting greater than 24 hours, in the absence of intercurrent illness, and occur with a higher frequency early in the disease as compared to adult-onset RRMS. Most pediatric patients with MS recover well from these early relapses, and cumulative physical disability is rare in the first 10 years of disease. Brainstem attacks, poor recovery from a single attack, and a higher frequency of attacks portend a greater likelihood of future disability. Although prospective pediatric-onset MS cohorts have been established in recent years, there remains very limited prospective data detailing the longer-term clinical outcome of pediatric-onset MS into adulthood. Whether the advent of MS therapies, and the largely off-label access to such therapies in pediatric MS, has improved prognosis is unknown. MS onset during the key formative academic years, concurrent with active cognitive maturation, is an important determinant of long-term outcome, and is discussed in detail in another article in this supplement. Finally, increasing recognition of pediatric MS worldwide, recent launch of phase III trials for new agents in the pediatric MS population, and the clear imperative to more fully appreciate health-related quality of life in pediatric MS through adulthood highlight the need for standardized, validated, and robust outcome measures.

  20. Inflammatory and metalloproteinases profiles predict three-month poor outcomes in ischemic stroke treated with thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Gori, Anna Maria; Giusti, Betti; Piccardi, Benedetta; Nencini, Patrizia; Palumbo, Vanessa; Nesi, Mascia; Nucera, Antonia; Pracucci, Giovanni; Tonelli, Paolina; Innocenti, Eleonora; Sereni, Alice; Sticchi, Elena; Toni, Danilo; Bovi, Paolo; Guidotti, Mario; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Consoli, Domenico; Micieli, Giuseppe; Tassi, Rossana; Orlandi, Giovanni; Sessa, Maria; Perini, Francesco; Delodovici, Maria Luisa; Zedde, Maria Luisa; Massaro, Francesca; Abbate, Rosanna; Inzitari, Domenico

    2017-09-01

    Inflammatory mediators and metalloproteinases are altered in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and play a detrimental effect on clinical severity and hemorrhagic transformation of the ischemic brain lesion. Using data from the Italian multicenter observational MAGIC (MArker bioloGici nell'Ictus Cerebrale) Study, we evaluated the effect of inflammatory and metalloproteinases profiles on three-month functional outcome, hemorrhagic transformation and mortality in 327 patients with AIS treated with intravenous thrombolys in according to SITS-MOST (Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-MOnitoring STudy) criteria. Circulating biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 24 h after thrombolysis. Adjusting for age, sex, baseline glycemia and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, history of atrial fibrillation or congestive heart failure, and of inflammatory diseases or infections, baseline alpha-2macroglobulin (A2M), baseline serum amyloid protein (SAP) and pre-post tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA) variations (Δ) of metalloproteinase 9, remained significantly and independently associated with three-month death [OR (95% CI):A2M:2.99 (1.19-7.53); SAP:5.46 (1.64-18.74); Δmetalloproteinase 9:1.60 (1.12-2.27)]. The addition of baseline A2M and Δmetalloproteinase 9 or baseline SAP and Δmetalloproteinase 9 (model-2 or model-3) to clinical variables (model-1) significantly improved the area under curve for prediction of death [model-2 with A2M: p = 0.0205; model-3 with SAP: p = 0.001]. In conclusion, among AIS patients treated with thrombolysis, circulating A2M, SAP and Δmetalloproteinase 9 are independent markers of poor outcome. These results may prompt controlled clinical research about agents antagonizing their effect.

  1. Postoperative Biomarkers Predict Acute Kidney Injury and Poor Outcomes after Adult Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Coca, Steven G.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Shlipak, Michael G.; Koyner, Jay L.; Wang, Zhu; Edelstein, Charles L.; Devarajan, Prasad; Patel, Uptal D.; Zappitelli, Michael; Krawczeski, Catherine D.; Passik, Cary S.; Swaminathan, Madhav; Garg, Amit X.

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery and increases morbidity and mortality. The identification of reliable biomarkers that allow earlier diagnosis of AKI in the postoperative period may increase the success of therapeutic interventions. Here, we conducted a prospective, multicenter cohort study involving 1219 adults undergoing cardiac surgery to evaluate whether early postoperative measures of urine IL-18, urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), or plasma NGAL could identify which patients would develop AKI and other adverse patient outcomes. Urine IL-18 and urine and plasma NGAL levels peaked within 6 hours after surgery. After multivariable adjustment, the highest quintiles of urine IL-18 and plasma NGAL associated with 6.8-fold and 5-fold higher odds of AKI, respectively, compared with the lowest quintiles. Elevated urine IL-18 and urine and plasma NGAL levels associated with longer length of hospital stay, longer intensive care unit stay, and higher risk for dialysis or death. The clinical prediction model for AKI had an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.69. Urine IL-18 and plasma NGAL significantly improved the AUC to 0.76 and 0.75, respectively. Urine IL-18 and plasma NGAL significantly improved risk prediction over the clinical models alone as measured by net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). In conclusion, urine IL-18, urine NGAL, and plasma NGAL associate with subsequent AKI and poor outcomes among adults undergoing cardiac surgery. (Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT00774137). PMID:21836143

  2. Anti-FSH antibodies associate with poor outcome of ovarian stimulation in IVF.

    PubMed

    Haller, Kadri; Salumets, Andres; Uibo, Raivo

    2008-03-01

    FSH is required for spontaneous folliculogenesis and is widely used in ovarian stimulation in IVF. Previously, increased concentrations of antibodies against FSH (anti-FSH) have been demonstrated in infertile women. This study aimed to: (i) assess the possible association of anti-FSH with an adverse outcome of IVF with regard to clinical parameters characterizing the ovarian reserve; and (ii) compare serum and follicular fluid (FF) anti-FSH concentrations in relation to follicle size and endocrine markers. IVF patients (n = 182) subjected to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-antagonist protocol were assessed for anti-FSH using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Increased concentrations of serum anti-FSH immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA were associated with impaired ovarian stimulation outcome, with cut-off values <1.0 arbitrary units predicting poor ovarian response (poor ovarian response to FSH stimulation in IVF, with anti-FSH IgA and IgG potentially exerting a local FSH antagonizing effect in maturing follicles.

  3. Genomic Signatures Predict Poor Outcome in Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcomas and Leiomyosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Sara Martoreli; Villacis, Rolando Andre Rios; Marchi, Fabio Albuquerque; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Drigo, Sandra Aparecida; Neto, Cristovam Scapulatempo; Lopes, Ademar; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2013-01-01

    Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas (UPSs) display aggressive clinical behavior and frequently develop local recurrence and distant metastasis. Because these sarcomas often share similar morphological patterns with other tumors, particularly leiomyosarcomas (LMSs), classification by exclusion is frequently used. In this study, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to analyze 20 UPS and 17 LMS samples from untreated patients. The LMS samples presented a lower frequency of genomic alterations compared with the UPS samples. The most frequently altered UPS regions involved gains at 20q13.33 and 7q22.1 and losses at 3p26.3. Gains at 8q24.3 and 19q13.12 and losses at 9p21.3 were frequently detected in the LMS samples. Of these regions, gains at 1q21.3, 11q12.2-q12.3, 16p11.2, and 19q13.12 were significantly associated with reduced overall survival times in LMS patients. A multivariate analysis revealed that gains at 1q21.3 were an independent prognostic marker of shorter survival times in LMS patients (HR = 13.76; P = 0.019). Although the copy number profiles of the UPS and LMS samples could not be distinguished using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, one of the three clusters presented cases associated with poor prognostic outcome (P = 0.022). A relative copy number analysis for the ARNT, SLC27A3, and PBXIP1 genes was performed using quantitative real-time PCR in 11 LMS and 16 UPS samples. Gains at 1q21-q22 were observed in both tumor types, particularly in the UPS samples. These findings provide strong evidence for the existence of a genomic signature to predict poor outcome in a subset of UPS and LMS patients. PMID:23825676

  4. Perioperative factors predicting poor outcome in elderly patients following emergency general surgery: a multivariate regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Mackenzie C.; Merani, Shaheed; Tauh, Keerit; Khadaroo, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults (≥ 65 yr) are the fastest growing population and are presenting in increasing numbers for acute surgical care. Emergency surgery is frequently life threatening for older patients. Our objective was to identify predictors of mortality and poor outcome among elderly patients undergoing emergency general surgery. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 65–80 years undergoing emergency general surgery between 2009 and 2010 at a tertiary care centre. Demographics, comorbidities, in-hospital complications, mortality and disposition characteristics of patients were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify covariate-adjusted predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge of patients home. Results Our analysis included 257 patients with a mean age of 72 years; 52% were men. In-hospital mortality was 12%. Mortality was associated with patients who had higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (odds ratio [OR] 3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–10.33, p = 0.008) and in-hospital complications (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.32–2.83, p = 0.001). Nearly two-thirds of patients discharged home were younger (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85–0.99, p = 0.036), had lower ASA class (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27–0.74, p = 0.002) and fewer in-hospital complications (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53–0.90, p = 0.007). Conclusion American Society of Anesthesiologists class and in-hospital complications are perioperative predictors of mortality and disposition in the older surgical population. Understanding the predictors of poor outcome and the importance of preventing in-hospital complications in older patients will have important clinical utility in terms of preoperative counselling, improving health care and discharging patients home. PMID:26204143

  5. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  6. Poor outcome in chronic schizophrenia is associated with progressive loss of volume of the putamen

    PubMed Central

    Mitelman, Serge A.; Canfield, Emily L.; Chu, King-Wai; Brickman, Adam M.; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2009-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that putaminal but not caudate volumes are associated with poor outcome in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Present longitudinal study was designed to investigate progressive differences in striatal volumes among chronic schizophrenia patients with different outcomes and healthy subjects. Method Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at follow-up four years later to evaluate volumetric changes in 26 poor-outcome schizophrenia patients, 23 good-outcome patients and 16 healthy subjects. Results Schizophrenia patients with different outcomes entered the study with similar volumes of the caudate nucleus and putamen. The rate of decline in volumes of the putamen was greater in patients with poor outcome than in the good-outcome group, so that their putaminal but not caudate volumes were significantly smaller at the time of follow-up. There were no differences in baseline and follow-up volumes of the putamen or in the rate of their progression among patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects. The caudate volumes were lower in schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects at baseline and follow-up, but showed no differential patterns of progression between the groups. Conclusions Volumes of the putamen may represent a longitudinal marker of treatment responsiveness and outcome in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:19616411

  7. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one of which was contentious. These included reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments--those involving the species considered most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes, such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments, which was evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which the majority of animal experiments were of good methodological quality. Whilst the effects of some of these problems might be minimised with concerted effort (given their widespread prevalence), the limitations resulting from interspecies differences are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Non-animal models are generally required to pass formal scientific validation prior to their regulatory acceptance. In contrast

  8. Association of axon guidance factor semaphorin 3A with poor outcome in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Müller, Michael W; Giese, Nathalia A; Swiercz, Jakub M; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Esposito, Irene; Hinz, Ulf; Büchler, Peter; Giese, Thomas; Büchler, Markus W; Offermanns, Stefan; Friess, Helmut

    2007-12-01

    Neural alterations and aberrantly expressed nerve-specific factors promoting tumor progression are known to contribute to pancreatic cancer's extremely poor prognosis. Despite hints that axon guidance factor semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) may function as a tumor inhibitor, its clinical importance and therapeutic potential have not yet been explored. The present study investigated the role of SEMA3A and its receptors-plexins A1-A4 (PLXNA1-A4) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1)-in pancreatic cancer. QRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses revealed overexpression of SEMA3A, NRP1 and PLXNA1 in metaplastic ducts, malignant cells and nerves of cancerous specimens, and showed that elevated levels of corresponding mRNA (6.8-fold, 2.0-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively) clearly correlated with negative clinicopathological manifestations such as shorter survival (SEMA3A and PLXNA1) and a lesser degree of tumor differentiation (NRP1) in Stages I-III patients. High SEMA3A expression in pancreata of Stage IV M1 patients and in peritoneal metastases, and consequent functional studies indicated that poor clinical outcome might be related to the ability of SEMA3A to promote dissemination and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through activation of multiple pathways involving Rac1, GSK3b or p42/p44 MAPK, but not E- to N-cadherin switch, MMP-9 or VEGF induction. Thus, this study is the first to quantify expression of the SEMA3A system in human malignancy and to show that overexpression of SEMA3A by nerves and transformed cells leads to a SEMA3A-rich environment which may favor malignant activities of tumor cells. Furthermore, negative clinicopathological correlations suggest that SEMA3A might represent a novel intervention target but not a treatment option for pancreatic cancer patients.

  9. Effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric history.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ilknur; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Biri, Aydan; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in 204 patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes. Patients with poor obstetric history (pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal death, placental abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss) and having hereditary thrombophilia were included in this study. Poor obstetric outcomes were observed more frequently in patients who had not taken anticogulant therapy compared with treated group. Live birth rate, gestational age at birth and Apgar scores were significantly higher in the treated group when compared with the untreated group. There were no significant differences in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery and admission rates to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) had higher gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, live birth rate and a lower abortion rates when compared with controls; in contrast, no significant difference was observed in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. There were no significant differences between control group and both LMWH only and ASA only groups in terms of gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. Only LMWH group had higher live birth rate as compared with control group. The use of only ASA did not seem to affect the perinatal complication rates and outcomes. In conclusion, anticoagulant therapy with both LMWH and ASA seems to provide better obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes.

  10. Chronic hyperglycemia is related to poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Luitse, Merel Ja; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2017-02-01

    Background Acute hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke, but the association between chronic antecedent hyperglycemia and outcome is unclear. Aim We assessed the association between chronic hyperglycemia, measured by hemoglobin A1c, and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We included 812 patients with acute ischemic stroke (mean age 66 ± 14 years; 61.5% male). Patients were categorized per hemoglobin A1c level: no (<39 mmol/mol), moderate (39-42 mmol/mol), or severe chronic hyperglycemia (>42 mmol/mol). Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score > 2 after 3 months. The relation between chronic hyperglycemia and functional outcome was assessed with a Poisson regression analysis and expressed as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals with no chronic hyperglycemia as the reference. Results Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was present in 234 (28.8%) patients and severe chronic hyperglycemia in 183 (22.5%) patients. Acute hyperglycemia on admission was present in 338 (41.6%) patients. Severe chronic hyperglycemia was associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.40; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.79). After adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity, vascular risk factors, and acute hyperglycemia on admission the risk ratios was 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.76). Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was not associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.44). Conclusion Severe chronic hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This association is independent of hyperglycemia in the acute stage of stroke and of an unfavorable vascular risk factor profile.

  11. Phosphorylated protein phosphatase 2A determines poor outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cristóbal, I; Manso, R; Rincón, R; Caramés, C; Zazo, S; del Pulgar, T G; Cebrián, A; Madoz-Gúrpide, J; Rojo, F; García-Foncillas, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a tumour suppressor frequently inactivated in human cancer and its tyrosine-307 phosphorylation has been reported as a molecular inhibitory mechanism. Methods: Expression of phosphorylated PP2A (p-PP2A) was evaluated in 250 metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Chi-square, Kaplan–Meier and Cox analyses were used to determine correlations with clinical and molecular parameters and impact on clinical outcomes. Results: High p-PP2A levels were found in 17.2% cases and were associated with ECOG performance status (P=0.001) and presence of synchronous metastasis at diagnosis (P=0.035). This subgroup showed substantially worse overall survival (OS) (median OS, 6.0 vs 26.2 months, P<0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (median PFS, 3.8 vs 13.3 months, P<0.001). The prognostic impact of p-PP2A was particularly evident in patients aged <70 years (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that p-PP2A retained its prognostic impact for OS (hazard ratio 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–4.1; P<0.001) and PFS (hazard ratio 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–5.0; P<0.001). Conclusions: Phosphorylated PP2A is an alteration that determines poor outcome in metastatic CRC and represents a novel potential therapeutic target in this disease, thus enabling to define a subgroup of patients who could benefit from future treatments based on PP2A activators. PMID:25003662

  12. Animal experiments scrutinised: systematic reviews demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive "Scopus" biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. Of 20 reviews examining clinical utility, authors concluded that the animal models were substantially consistent with or useful in advancing clinical outcomes in only two cases, and the conclusion in one case was contentious. Included were reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments - the species most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of experimental outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which a majority of animal experiments were of good quality. While the latter problems might be minimised with concerted effort, given their widespread nature, the interspecies limitations are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Yet, unlike non-animal models, animal models are not normally subjected to formal scientific validation. Instead of simply assuming they are predictive of human outcomes, the consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their

  13. Clinical Outcome of Hypertensive Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, Deborah; Willermain, François; Relvas, Lia Judice; Makhoul, Dorine; Janssens, Sarah; Janssens, Xavier; Caspers, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To review the clinical outcome of patients with hypertensive uveitis. Methods. Retrospective review of uveitis patients with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) > 25 mmHg and >1-year follow-up. Data are uveitis type, etiology, viral (VU) and nonviral uveitis (NVU), IOP, and medical and/or surgical treatment. Results. In 61 patients, IOP values are first 32.9 mmHg (SD: 9.0), highest 36.6 mmHg (SD: 9.9), 3 months after the first episode 19.54 mmHg (SD: 9.16), and end of follow-up 15.5 mmHg (SD: 6.24). Patients with VU (n = 25) were older (50.6 y/35.7 y, p = 0.014) and had more unilateral disease (100%/72.22%  p = 0.004) than those with NVU (n = 36). Thirty patients (49.2%) had an elevated IOP before topical corticosteroid treatment. Patients with viral uveitis might have higher first elevated IOP (36.0/27.5 mmHg, p = 0,008) and maximal IOP (40.28/34.06 mmHg, p = 0.0148) but this was not significant when limited to the measurements before the use of topical corticosteroids (p = 0.260 and 0.160). Glaucoma occurred in 15 patients (24.59%) and was suspected in 11 (18.03%) without difference in viral and nonviral groups (p = 0.774). Conclusion. Patients with VU were older and had more unilateral hypertensive uveitis. Glaucoma frequently complicates hypertensive uveitis. Half of the patients had an elevated IOP before topical corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26504598

  14. Biceps tenotomy versus tenodesis: clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Slenker, Nicholas R; Lawson, Kevin; Ciccotti, Michael G; Dodson, Christopher C; Cohen, Steven B

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic review of the current literature regarding the use of the 2 most common surgical treatments for lesions of the long head of the biceps brachii, tenotomy or tenodesis. Currently, there is no consensus management in the literature because most studies lack high levels of evidence. PubMed was systematically reviewed for eligible articles relating to biceps tenotomy or tenodesis. Level I to IV evidence and English-language studies reporting on the clinical outcomes of these 2 procedures were included. The primary clinical outcome measurements for each study were determined and were normalized and reported as the percentage of "excellent/good" versus "poor" results based on criteria laid out in each study. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All articles reviewed were of Level IV evidence, except for one Level II prospective cohort study.(10) All studies, a total of 433 tenodesis procedures resulted in an excellent/good outcome in 74% of patients, with an 8% rate of cosmetic deformity. A total of 699 tenotomy procedures resulted in an excellent/good outcome in 77% of patients, with a 43% occurrence of cosmetic deformity. Postoperative bicipital pain was found in 43 of 226 cases (19%) of tenotomy and 18 of 74 cases (24%) of tenodesis. The 4 studies that compared the procedures directly did not show any significant clinical differences between the groups other than a cosmetic deformity being present more frequently after tenotomy. Tenotomy and tenodesis have comparably favorable results in the literature, with the only major difference being a higher incidence of cosmetic deformity with biceps tenotomy. However, there is currently no consensus regarding the use of tenotomy versus tenodesis for the treatment of lesions of the long head of the biceps brachii. The lack of prospective, randomized trials limits our ability to recommend 1 technique over the other. There is a great need for controlled trials to investigate the differences between

  15. Plasma D-dimer may predict poor functional outcomes through systemic complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Lo, Benjamin; Yamamoto, Yu; Handa, Akira; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Yamagata, Sen

    2016-08-12

    OBJECTIVE Plasma D-dimer levels elevate during acute stages of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and are associated with poor functional outcomes. However, the mechanism in which D-dimer elevation on admission affects functional outcomes remains unknown. The aim of this study is to clarify whether D-dimer levels on admission are correlated with systemic complications after aneurysmal SAH, and to investigate their additive predictive value on conventional risk factors for poor functional outcomes. METHODS A total of 187 patients with aneurysmal SAH were retrospectively analyzed from a single-center, observational cohort database. Correlations of plasma D-dimer levels on admission with patient characteristics, initial presentation, neurological complications, and systemic complications were identified. The authors also evaluated the additive value of D-dimer elevation on admission for poor functional outcomes by comparing predictive models with and without D-dimer. RESULTS D-dimer elevation on admission was associated with increasing age, female sex, and severity of SAH. Patients with higher D-dimer levels had increased likelihood of nosocomial infections (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.07-1.39], p = 0.004), serum sodium disorders (OR 1.11 [95% CI 1.01-1.23], p = 0.033), and cardiopulmonary complications (OR 1.20 [95% CI 1.04-1.37], p = 0.01) on multivariable analysis. D-dimer elevation was an independent risk factor of poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale Score 3-6, OR 1.50 [95% CI 1.15-1.95], p = 0.003). A novel prediction model with D-dimer had significantly better discrimination ability for poor outcomes than conventional models without D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS Elevated D-dimer levels on admission were independently correlated with systemic complication, and had an additive value for outcome prediction on conventional risk factors after aneurysmal SAH.

  16. Outcome scores in spinal surgery quantified: excellent, good, fair and poor in terms of patient-completed tools.

    PubMed

    Tafazal, Suhayl I; Sell, Philip J

    2006-11-01

    Outcome scores are very useful tools in the field of spinal surgery as they allow us to assess a patient's progress and the effect of various treatments. The clinical importance of a score change is not so clear. Although previous studies have looked at the minimum clinically important score change, the degree of score change varies considerably. Our study is a prospective cohort study of 193 patients undergoing discectomy, decompression and fusion procedures with minimum 2-year follow-up. We have used three standard outcome measures in common usage, the oswestry disability index (ODI), the low back outcome score (LBOS) and the visual analogue score (VAS). We have defined each of these scores according to a global measure of outcome graded by the patient as excellent, good, fair or poor. We have also graded patient perception and classified excellent and good as success and fair and poor as failure. Our results suggest that a median 24-point change in the ODI equates with a good outcome or is the minimum change needed for success. We have also found that different surgical disorders have very different minimal clinically important differences as perceived by patient perception. We found that for a discectomy a minimum 27-point change in the ODI would be classed as a success, for a decompression the change in ODI needed to class it as a success would be 16 points, whereas for a fusion the change in the ODI would be only 13 points. We believe that patient-rated global measures of outcome are of value and we have quantified them in terms of the standard outcome measures used in spinal surgery.

  17. Severe disease presentation and poor outcomes among pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, L B; Schanberg, L E; Thielman, N; Phuti, A; Kalla, A A; Okpechi, I; Nourse, P; Gajjar, P; Faller, G; Ambaram, P; Reuter, H; Spittal, G; Scott, C

    2016-08-03

    registry. South African patients have severe lupus nephritis and poor renal outcomes compared to North American peers. Our study revealed a severe disease phenotype in the PULSE cohort resulting in poor outcomes in this high-risk population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The outcome of the Mobility total ankle replacement at a mean of four years: Can poor outcomes be predicted from pre- and post-operative analysis?

    PubMed

    Muir, D; Aoina, J; Hong, T; Mason, R

    2013-10-01

    We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 178 Mobility total ankle replacements (TARs) performed by three surgeons between January 2004 and June 2009, and analysed radiological parameters and clinical outcomes in a subgroup of 129 patients. The mean follow-up was 4 years (2 to 6.3). A total of ten revision procedures (5.6%) were undertaken. The mean Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) pain score was 17 (0 to 88) and 86% of patients were clinically improved at follow-up. However, 18 patients (18 TARs, 14%) had a poor outcome with an AOS pain score of > 30. A worse outcome was associated with a pre-operative diagnosis of post-traumatic degenerative arthritis. However, no pre- or post-operative radiological parameters were significantly associated with a poor outcome. Of the patients with persistent pain, eight had predominantly medial-sided pain. Thirty TARs (29%) had a radiolucency in at least one zone. The outcome of the Mobility TAR at a mean of four years is satisfactory in > 85% of patients. However, there is a significant incidence of persistent pain, particularly on the medial side, for which we were unable to establish a cause.

  19. Preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 and 5 years after total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Wylde, Vikki; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - Psychosocial factors are important risk factors for poor outcomes in the first year after total knee replacement (TKR), however their impact on long-term outcomes is unclear. We aimed to identify preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 year and 5 years after TKR. Patients and methods - 266 patients were recruited prior to TKR surgery. Knee pain and function were assessed preoperatively and at 1 and 5 years postoperative using the WOMAC Pain score, WOMAC Function score and American Knee Society Score (AKSS) Knee score. Preoperative depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy and social support were assessed. Statistical analyses involved multiple linear regression and mixed effect linear regression. Results - Higher anxiety was a risk factor for worse pain at 1 year postoperative. No psychosocial factors were associated with any outcomes at 5 years postoperative. Analysis of change over time found that patients with higher pain self-efficacy had lower preoperative pain and experienced less improvement in pain up to 1 year postoperative. Higher pain self-efficacy was associated with less improvement in the AKSS up to 1 year postoperative but more improvement between 1 and 5 years postoperative. Interpretation - Preoperative anxiety was found to influence pain at 1 year after TKR. However, none of the psychosocial variables were risk factors for a poor outcome at 5 years post-operative, suggesting that the negative effects of anxiety on outcome do not persist in the longer-term.

  20. Poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: outcome after treatment with urgent surgery.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, John D; Siu, Kevin H

    2003-12-01

    We sought to determine whether the rebleeding rate in poor-grade patients justified a period of supportive observation before selective treatment and whether unselected ultraearly surgery would lead to acceptable results. A prospectively audited, nonselected series of 177 consecutive poor-grade (i.e., World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Grades IV and V) patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage managed during a 9-year period was analyzed. A management policy of aggressive ultraearly surgery (not selected by age or by grade) was followed. Coiling was not available. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months. Despite the aggressive management policy, surgery could be performed in only 132 poor-grade patients (75%). Twenty percent of all patients were 70 years of age or older (15% of the surgical cases). All surgery was performed within 12 hours of subarachnoid hemorrhage (majority <6 h). Preoperative rebleeding occurred within the first 12 hours (>85% within 6 h) in 20% of the patients, which is four times the rate found in good-grade patients managed according to the same policy. Outcome assessment performed at 3 months in the 132 poor-grade surgical patients revealed that 40% were independent, 15% were dependent, and 45% had died. There was no significant difference in outcomes for young and old (70+ yr) poor-grade surgical patients (P > 0.05). The high ultraearly rebleeding rate indicates a need to urgently secure the ruptured aneurysm by performing surgery or coiling, and this indication is more pronounced for poor-grade patients than for good-grade patients. The outcome results of ultraearly surgery indicate that a nonselective policy does not lead to a large number of dependent survivors, even among elderly poor-grade patients.

  1. Outcome Prediction in Clinical Treatment Processes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengxing; Dong, Wei; Ji, Lei; Duan, Huilong

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcome prediction, as strong implications for health service delivery of clinical treatment processes (CTPs), is important for both patients and healthcare providers. Prior studies typically use a priori knowledge, such as demographics or patient physical factors, to estimate clinical outcomes at early stages of CTPs (e.g., admission). They lack the ability to deal with temporal evolution of CTPs. In addition, most of the existing studies employ data mining or machine learning methods to generate a prediction model for a specific type of clinical outcome, however, a mathematical model that predicts multiple clinical outcomes simultaneously, has not yet been established. In this study, a hybrid approach is proposed to provide a continuous predictive monitoring service on multiple clinical outcomes. More specifically, a probabilistic topic model is applied to discover underlying treatment patterns of CTPs from electronic medical records. Then, the learned treatment patterns, as low-dimensional features of CTPs, are exploited for clinical outcome prediction across various stages of CTPs based on multi-label classification. The proposal is evaluated to predict three typical classes of clinical outcomes, i.e., length of stay, readmission time, and the type of discharge, using 3492 pieces of patients' medical records of the unstable angina CTP, extracted from a Chinese hospital. The stable model was characterized by 84.9% accuracy and 6.4% hamming-loss with 3 latent treatment patterns discovered from data, which outperforms the benchmark multi-label classification algorithms for clinical outcome prediction. Our study indicates the proposed approach can potentially improve the quality of clinical outcome prediction, and assist physicians to understand the patient conditions, treatment inventions, and clinical outcomes in an integrated view.

  2. Internal capsule, corpus callosum and long associative fibers in good and poor outcome schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging survey.

    PubMed

    Mitelman, Serge A; Torosjan, Yuliya; Newmark, Randall E; Schneiderman, Jason S; Chu, King-Wai; Brickman, Adam M; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Hazlett, Erin A; Tang, Cheuk Y; Shihabuddin, Lina; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2007-05-01

    Prior voxelwise studies of white matter anisotropy found widespread reductions involving all major fiber tracts of the schizophrenic brain. We set out to confirm these exploratory findings and evaluate their relation to illness severity using a hypothesis-driven region-of-interest approach. 104 schizophrenia patients (51 with good outcomes, 53 with poor outcomes) and 41 matched comparison subjects participated in the study. Regions of interest were selected on the basis of published voxelwise findings and placed within major fiber tracts using Talairach's stereotaxic coordinates. Fractional anisotropy reductions in schizophrenia patients were confirmed in the left cingulum, anterior thalamic radiation, fronto-occipital and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, as well as bilaterally in the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior limbs of internal capsule, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, and frontotemporal extrafascicular white matter. Anisotropy reductions were more extensive in patients with poor outcomes ("Kraepelinian"), particularly in the posterior corpus callosum, fronto-occipital fasciculus, left optic radiation and frontotemporal white matter. Lower anisotropy in the right hemisphere tracts was associated with more prominent positive symptomatology, whereas negative symptoms were inversely associated with anisotropy values in both hemispheres. These results support a global neural disconnectivity in schizophrenia patients, which is more severe in those with poor clinical outcomes.

  3. Poor outcome prediction by burst suppression ratio in adults with post-anoxic coma without hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinglin; Su, Yingying; Hussain, Mohammed; Chen, Weibi; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Tian, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Burst suppression ratio (BSR) is a quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) parameter. The purpose of our study was to compare the accuracy of BSR when compared to other EEG parameters in predicting poor outcomes in adults who sustained post-anoxic coma while not being subjected to therapeutic hypothermia. EEG was registered and recorded at least once within 7 days of post-anoxic coma onset. Electrodes were placed according to the international 10-20 system, using a 16-channel layout. Each EEG expert scored raw EEG using a grading scale adapted from Young and scored amplitude-integrated electroencephalography tracings, in addition to obtaining qEEG parameters defined as BSR with a defined threshold. Glasgow outcome scales of 1 and 2 at 3 months, determined by two blinded neurologists, were defined as poor outcome. Sixty patients with Glasgow coma scale score of 8 or less after anoxic accident were included. The sensitivity (97.1%), specificity (73.3%), positive predictive value (82.5%), and negative prediction value (95.0%) of BSR in predicting poor outcome were higher than other EEG variables. BSR1 and BSR2 were reliable in predicting death (area under the curve > 0.8, P < 0.05), with the respective cutoff points being 39.8% and 61.6%. BSR1 was reliable in predicting poor outcome (area under the curve  =  0.820, P < 0.05) with a cutoff point of 23.9%. BSR1 was also an independent predictor of increased risk of death (odds ratio  =  1.042, 95% confidence intervals: 1.012-1.073, P  =  0.006). BSR may be a better predictor in prognosticating poor outcomes in patients with post-anoxic coma who do not undergo therapeutic hypothermia when compared to other qEEG parameters.

  4. The iScore predicts poor functional outcomes early after hospitalization for an acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Raptis, Stavroula; Kapral, Moira K; Liu, Ying; Tu, Jack V; Mamdani, Muhammad; Austin, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The iScore is a prediction tool originally developed to estimate the risk of death after hospitalization for an acute ischemic stroke. Our objective was to determine whether the iScore could also predict poor functional outcomes. We applied the iScore to patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke at multiple hospitals in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2008, who had been identified from the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network regional stroke center database (n=3818) and from an external data set, the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network Ontario Stroke Audit (n=4635). Patients were excluded if they were included in the sample used to develop and validate the initial iScore. Poor functional outcomes were defined as: (1) death at 30 days or disability at discharge, in which disability was defined as having a modified Rankin Scale 3 to 5; and (2) death at 30 days or institutionalization at discharge. The prevalence of poor functional outcomes in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network and the Ontario Stroke Audit, respectively, were 55.7% and 44.1% for death at 30 days or disability at discharge and 16.9% and 16.2%, respectively, for death at 30 days or institutionalization at discharge. The iScore stratified the risk of poor outcomes in low- and high-risk individuals. Observed versus predicted outcomes showed high correlations: 0.988 and 0.940 for mortality or disability and 0.985 and 0.993 for mortality or institutionalization in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network and Ontario Stroke Audit cohorts. The iScore can be used to estimate the risk of death or a poor functional outcome after an acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Clinical Features and Outcome of Mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; González-Moreno, Emmanuel Irineo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Rendón-Ramírez, Erick Joel; Ayala-Cortés, Ana Sofía; Fraga-Hernández, Martha Lizeth; García-Labastida, Laura; Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis (MCM) is a life-threatening infection that carries high mortality rates despite recent advances in its diagnosis and treatment. The objective was to report 14 cases of mucormycosis infection and review the relevant literature. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical data of 14 consecutive patients that presented with MCM in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in northern Mexico. The mean age of the patients was 39.9 (range 5–65). Nine of the patients were male. Ten patients had diabetes mellitus as the underlying disease, and 6 patients had a hematological malignancy (acute leukemia). Of the diabetic patients, 3 had chronic renal failure and 4 presented with diabetic ketoacidosis. All patients had rhinocerebral involvement. In-hospital mortality was 50%. All patients received medical therapy with polyene antifungals and 11 patients underwent surgical therapy. Survivors were significantly younger and less likely to have diabetes than nonsurvivors, and had higher levels of serum albumin on admission. The clinical outcome of patients with MCM is poor. Uncontrolled diabetes and age are negative prognostic factors. PMID:25210515

  6. Children of Parents with Intellectual Disability: Facing Poor Outcomes or Faring Okay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collings, Susan; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with intellectual disability are assumed to be at risk of poor outcomes but a comprehensive review of the literature has not previously been undertaken. Method: A database and reference search from March 2010 to March 2011 resulted in 26 studies for review. Results: Two groups of studies were identified. The first…

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Poor Health Outcome at 10 Years of Follow-Up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Joao; Diez-Roux, Ana; Jorgensen, Neal W.; McClelland, Robyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Predictors of healthy aging have not been well-studied using longitudinal data with demographic, clinical, subclinical, and genetic information. The objective was to identify predictors of poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based sample from 6 U.S. communities. Participants 4,355 participants In the MESA Study. Measurements Poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up was defined as having died or having clinical cardiovascular disease, depression, cognitive impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer. Absolute risk regression was used to estimate risk differences in the outcome adjusting for demographic variables, clinical and behavioral risk factors, subclinical cardiovascular disease, and ApoE genotype. Models were weighted to account for selective attrition. Results Mean age at 10 years of follow-up was 69.5 years; 1,480 participants had a poor health outcome, 2,157 participants were in good health, and 718 were unknown. Older age, smoking, not taking a statin, hypertension, diabetes, and higher coronary calcium score were associated with higher probability of poor health outcome. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the lowest income and educational categories had 7 to 14% greater absolute risk of poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up compared to those in the next highest categories of income or education (P = 0.002 for both). Those in the lowest categories of both income and education had 21% greater absolute risk of poor health outcome compared to those in the highest categories of both income and education. Conclusions Low income and educational level predict poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up in an aging cohort, independent of clinical and behavioral risk factors and subclinical cardiovascular disease. PMID:27875557

  8. Poor short term outcome with a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yadin D; Ezzet, Kace A

    2013-08-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have come under scrutiny with reports of high failure rates. Clinical outcome studies with several commercially available MoM THA bearings remain unreported. We evaluated 78 consecutive MoM THAs from a single manufacturer in 68 patients. Sixty-six received cobalt-chrome (CoCr) monoblock and 12 received modular titanium acetabular cups with internal CoCr liners. Femoral components were titanium with modular necks. At average 2.1 years postoperatively, 12 THAs (15.4%) demonstrated aseptic failure (10 revisions, 2 revision recommended). All revised hips demonstrated capsular necrosis with positive histology reaction for aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions/adverse local tissue reactions. Prosthetic instability following revision surgery was relatively common. Female gender was a strong risk factor for failure, though smaller cups were not. Both monoblock and modular components fared poorly. Corrosion was frequently observed around the proximal and distal end of the modular femoral necks.

  9. Neonatal status: an objective scoring method for identifying infants at risk for poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Salamy, A; Davis, S; Eldredge, L; Wakeley, A; Tooley, W H

    1988-01-01

    The likelihood of sustaining neurological, sensory or cognitive deficits is considerably greater for very low birthweight (VLBW) infants who require intensive care in early postnatal life than those without major neonatal illness. Identifying which, if any, medical events are responsible for an adverse outcome is most difficult in the face of multiple concurrent complications. In this research, a principal components analysis was performed in order to arrive at a set of orthogonal variables which succinctly described clinical involvement in the nursery. With this procedure, a single hypothetical factor depicting neonatal status (NS) was computed. Principal component scores were then generated for NS and assigned to 252 VLBW (less than 1500 g) infants. These subjects were followed prospectively from birth to 4 years of age. Standardized measures of neurological, sensory and intellectual function were regularly administered. Neonatal status was shown to be significantly correlated with the various test results and predictive of long-term development. When subjects were divided into quartiles with respect to NS, a specific subgroup was identified as "at high risk" for poor outcome. Those subjects falling into the lower quartile incurred more neurological abnormalities persisting beyond the first year. They also suffered a higher incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and sensori-neural hearing loss. In addition, the lower 25%, as a group, scored well below all others on traditional tests of mental ability. These differences were sustained throughout infancy and early childhood and could not be attributed to a number of demographic variables including sex, gestational age, birthweight, Apgar scores or parental educational level.

  10. Poor Prognostic Outcome in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Dyskinesia and Elevated Platelet Volume.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shousen; Xu, Bingyang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Li, Jun; Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Liangfeng; Zhao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Although about 80% of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have a good prognosis, some patients develop severe complications and a small proportion do not survive. The study included patients who had been diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in our hospital from May 2008 to February 2014. Based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months for outcome, the patients were divided into two groups: good prognosis (mRS score ≤ 2) and poor prognosis (mRS score > 2). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to identify significant prognostic factors for poor outcome. A total of 86 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, 54 males and 32 females, average age 41.3 years (range, 3-83 years), were enrolled. Of these 86 patients, 64 (74.4%) had a good prognosis and 22 (25.6%) a poor prognosis. Univariate analysis revealed that dyskinesia was a significant risk factor (factor with odds ratio >1) for poor prognosis. In multivariate analysis, the risk of poor prognosis in patients with dyskinesia was 23 times higher than for those without dyskinesia (p < 0.001). Thrombosis of the sinus transervus was found to reduce the risk of poor prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Most patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have a good prognosis but patients with dyskinesia have a poorer prognosis.

  11. Comparison of pregnancy outcome after letrozole versus clomiphene treatment for mild ovarian stimulation protocol in poor responders

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Davar, Robab; Pourmasumi, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Poor ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation is one of the most important interest points in assisted reproduction. Mild ovarian stimulation seems to be preferable to high dose of FSH regimens in women with a history of poor ovarian response in previous protocol. Clomiphene citrate and letrozole alone or in combination with FSH have been used in mild ovarian stimulation protocol. Objective: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate for mild ovarian stimulation on assisted reproductive technology outcomes in poor responders. Materials and Methods: In a randomized control study, 184 women aged between 20 and 45 years with the history of poor response to ovarian stimulation who were candidate for ART were randomly subdivided into two groups: group I (n= 80), women who underwent the clomiphene/gonadotropin/antagonist protocol; and group II (n= 87), patients who underwent the letrozole/gonadotropin/antagonist protocol. Groups were compared regarding implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean endometrial thickness between two groups (9.16±1.2 mm vs. 8.3±0.3 mm). The implantation rate was significantly higher in letrozole group compare to clomiphene group (7.2 vs. 6.6%, p=0.024 respectively). No significant differences were found in chemical and clinical pregnancy rate between two groups. Conclusion: In mild ovarian stimulation protocol, letrozole and clomiphene have similar value for the poor responder. The optimal treatment strategy for these patients remains debated. PMID:25709627

  12. Adolescent and Parent Motivation for Change Affects Psychotherapy Outcomes Among Youth With Poorly Controlled Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berio, Heidi; Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate effect of baseline motivation for change on treatment fidelity, therapeutic alliance, treatment dose, and treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of family therapy for youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Methods Seventy-four adolescents and caregivers completed measures of motivation for change. Measures of fidelity, alliance, dose, and youth health status were collected. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect effects of motivation on treatment outcomes. Results Parent motivation was significantly related to alliance and fidelity. Only alliance was significantly related to posttreatment metabolic control. In adolescent models, only motivation was significantly related to alliance. In both models, motivation had a significant indirect effect on metabolic control through alliance. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the importance of parent and youth initial motivational status and treatment alliance to treatment outcome among youth with poorly controlled diabetes. Additional research on treatment techniques that promote motivation for change is needed. PMID:21933812

  13. Diagnosing the Poor Performance of Self-Worth Protective Students: A Product of Future Outcome Uncertainty, Evaluative Threat, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ted; Parker, Cathryn

    2007-01-01

    Self-worth protective students characteristically perform well on some occasions yet on other occasions they perform poorly. In this study, two accounts of the poor performance of self-worth protective students are assessed. The first is that their poor performance is an outcome of evaluative threat. The second is that their poor performance is an…

  14. Predictors of poor perinatal outcome following maternal perception of reduced fetal movements--a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Philip J; Warrander, Lynne K; Roberts, Stephen A; Bernatavicius, Giovanna; Byrd, Louise M; Gaze, David; Kroll, Josh; Jones, Rebecca L; Sibley, Colin P; Frøen, J Frederik; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2012-01-01

    Maternal perception of reduced fetal movement (RFM) is associated with increased risk of stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). RFM is thought to represent fetal compensation to conserve energy due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient transfer resulting from placental insufficiency. To identify predictors of poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM). Prospective cohort study. 305 women presenting with RFM after 28 weeks of gestation were recruited. Demographic factors and clinical history were recorded and ultrasound performed to assess fetal biometry, liquor volume and umbilical artery Doppler. A maternal serum sample was obtained for measurement of placentally-derived or modified proteins including: alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and progesterone. Factors related to poor perinatal outcome were determined by logistic regression. 22.1% of pregnancies ended in a poor perinatal outcome after RFM. The most common complication was small-for-gestational age infants. Pregnancy outcome after maternal perception of RFM was related to amount of fetal activity while being monitored, abnormal fetal heart rate trace, diastolic blood pressure, estimated fetal weight, liquor volume, serum hCG and hPL. Following multiple logistic regression abnormal fetal heart rate trace (Odds ratio 7.08, 95% Confidence Interval 1.31-38.18), (OR) diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.09), estimated fetal weight centile (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94-0.97) and log maternal serum hPL (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.99) were independently related to pregnancy outcome. hPL was related to placental mass. Poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of RFM is closely related to factors which are connected to placental dysfunction. Novel tests of placental function and associated fetal response may provide improved

  15. Predictors of Poor Perinatal Outcome following Maternal Perception of Reduced Fetal Movements – A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Philip J.; Warrander, Lynne K.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Bernatavicius, Giovanna; Byrd, Louise M.; Gaze, David; Kroll, Josh; Jones, Rebecca L.; Sibley, Colin P.; Frøen, J. Frederik; Heazell, Alexander E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal perception of reduced fetal movement (RFM) is associated with increased risk of stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). RFM is thought to represent fetal compensation to conserve energy due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient transfer resulting from placental insufficiency. Objective To identify predictors of poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM). Design Prospective cohort study. Methods 305 women presenting with RFM after 28 weeks of gestation were recruited. Demographic factors and clinical history were recorded and ultrasound performed to assess fetal biometry, liquor volume and umbilical artery Doppler. A maternal serum sample was obtained for measurement of placentally-derived or modified proteins including: alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and progesterone. Factors related to poor perinatal outcome were determined by logistic regression. Results 22.1% of pregnancies ended in a poor perinatal outcome after RFM. The most common complication was small-for-gestational age infants. Pregnancy outcome after maternal perception of RFM was related to amount of fetal activity while being monitored, abnormal fetal heart rate trace, diastolic blood pressure, estimated fetal weight, liquor volume, serum hCG and hPL. Following multiple logistic regression abnormal fetal heart rate trace (Odds ratio 7.08, 95% Confidence Interval 1.31–38.18), (OR) diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.09), estimated fetal weight centile (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.97) and log maternal serum hPL (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02–0.99) were independently related to pregnancy outcome. hPL was related to placental mass. Conclusion Poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of RFM is closely related to factors which are connected to placental dysfunction. Novel tests of

  16. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: A national cohort study across 30 years

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Rickert, Martin E; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-01-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother’s age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960–1989 (N=3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N=485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide, teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and nonviolent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers. PMID:23632141

  17. The association between teenage motherhood and poor offspring outcomes: a national cohort study across 30 years.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Claire A; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2013-06-01

    Teenage motherhood is associated with poor offspring outcomes but these associations may be influenced by offspring birth year because of substantial social changes in recent decades. Existing research also has not examined whether these associations are due to the specific effect of mother's age at childbirth or factors shared by siblings in a family. We used a population-based cohort study in Sweden comprising all children born from 1960 to 1989 (N = 3,162,239), and a subsample of siblings differentially exposed to maternal teenage childbearing (N = 485,259) to address these limitations. We examined the effect of teenage childbearing on offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. Population-wide teenage childbearing was associated with offspring criminal convictions, poor academic performance, and substance-related problems. The magnitude of these associations increased over time. Comparisons of differentially exposed siblings indicated no within-family association between teenage childbearing and offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions or poor academic performance, although offspring born to teenage mothers were more likely to experience substance-related problems than their later-born siblings. Being born to a teenage mother in Sweden has become increasingly associated with negative outcomes across time, but the nature of this association may differ by outcome. Teenage childbearing may be associated with offspring violent and non-violent criminal convictions and poor academic performance because of shared familial risk factors, but may be causally associated with offspring substance-related problems. The findings suggest that interventions to improve offspring outcomes should delay teenage childbearing and also target risk factors influencing all offspring of teenage mothers.

  18. Predictors of poor outcomes in patients with wild mushroom-induced acute liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taerim; Lee, Danbi; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify early predictive markers of poor outcomes in patients with acute liver injury from wild mushroom intoxication. METHODS This observational, retrospective record review involved adults aged ≥ 18 years admitted to emergency department with mushroom intoxication from January 2005 to December 2015. The diagnosis of mushroom intoxication was based on the following: (1) a positive history of recent wild mushroom intake (either raw or cooked); (2) the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as watery diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, after ingestion; and (3) the exclusion of other possible causes of acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was defined by a > 5-fold elevation of liver enzymes or moderate coagulopathy [international normalized ratio (INR) > 2.0]. Clinical and laboratory findings were compared in survivors and non-survivors. RESULTS Of 93 patients with mushroom intoxication, 23, 11 men (47.8%) and 12 women (52.2%), of median age 61 years, developed acute liver injury. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 43.5% (10/23). Among the laboratory variables, mean serum alkaline phosphatase (73.38 ± 10.89 mg/dL vs 180.40 ± 65.39 mg/dL, P < 0.01), total bilirubin (2.312 ± 1.16 mg/dL vs 7.16 ± 2.94 mg/dL, P < 0.01) concentrations and indirect/direct bilirubin (2.45 ± 1.39 mg/dL vs 0.99 ± 0.45 mg/dL, P < 0.01) ratio as well as prothrombin time (1.88 ± 0.83 mg/dL vs 10.43 ± 4.81 mg/dL, P < 0.01), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; 32.48 ± 7.64 s vs 72.58 ± 41.29 s, P = 0.01), were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Logistic regression analysis showed that total bilirubin concentration (OR = 3.58, 95%CI: 1.25-10.22), indirect/direct bilirubin ratio (OR = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.02-0.94) and aPTT (OR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.04-1.63) were significantly associated with mortality. All patients with total bilirubin > 5 mg/dL or aPTT > 50 s on day 3 died. CONCLUSION Monitoring of bilirubin concentrations and aPTT may

  19. Predictors of poor outcomes in patients with wild mushroom-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taerim; Lee, Danbi; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2017-02-21

    To identify early predictive markers of poor outcomes in patients with acute liver injury from wild mushroom intoxication. This observational, retrospective record review involved adults aged ≥ 18 years admitted to emergency department with mushroom intoxication from January 2005 to December 2015. The diagnosis of mushroom intoxication was based on the following: (1) a positive history of recent wild mushroom intake (either raw or cooked); (2) the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as watery diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, after ingestion; and (3) the exclusion of other possible causes of acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was defined by a > 5-fold elevation of liver enzymes or moderate coagulopathy [international normalized ratio (INR) > 2.0]. Clinical and laboratory findings were compared in survivors and non-survivors. Of 93 patients with mushroom intoxication, 23, 11 men (47.8%) and 12 women (52.2%), of median age 61 years, developed acute liver injury. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 43.5% (10/23). Among the laboratory variables, mean serum alkaline phosphatase (73.38 ± 10.89 mg/dL vs 180.40 ± 65.39 mg/dL, P < 0.01), total bilirubin (2.312 ± 1.16 mg/dL vs 7.16 ± 2.94 mg/dL, P < 0.01) concentrations and indirect/direct bilirubin (2.45 ± 1.39 mg/dL vs 0.99 ± 0.45 mg/dL, P < 0.01) ratio as well as prothrombin time (1.88 ± 0.83 mg/dL vs 10.43 ± 4.81 mg/dL, P < 0.01), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT; 32.48 ± 7.64 s vs 72.58 ± 41.29 s, P = 0.01), were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors. Logistic regression analysis showed that total bilirubin concentration (OR = 3.58, 95%CI: 1.25-10.22), indirect/direct bilirubin ratio (OR = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.02-0.94) and aPTT (OR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.04-1.63) were significantly associated with mortality. All patients with total bilirubin > 5 mg/dL or aPTT > 50 s on day 3 died. Monitoring of bilirubin concentrations and aPTT may help in predicting clinical

  20. Clinical management of poor adherence to CPAP: motivational enhancement.

    PubMed

    Aloia, Mark S; Arnedt, J Todd; Riggs, Raine L; Hecht, Jacki; Borrelli, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is poor. Previous studies have attempted to identify specific barriers to treatment, but none has identified the sole cause for the problem. We outline a behavioral approach to the problem of CPAP adherence that is based on the theories of the transtheoretical model and social cognitive theory. We used these theories to guide the development of an intervention based on the methods of motivational interviewing. We present our motivational enhancement therapy for CPAP (ME-CPAP) here, with some brief pilot data to show its efficacy. Finally, we outline some strengths and weaknesses of taking a behavior change approach to the problem of poor CPAP adherence.

  1. Increased length of inpatient stay and poor clinical coding: audit of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Daultrey, Harriet; Gooday, Catherine; Dhatariya, Ketan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives People with diabetes stay in hospital for longer than those without diabetes for similar conditions. Clinical coding is poor across all specialties. Inpatients with diabetes often have unrecognized foot problems. We wanted to look at the relationships between these factors. Design A single day audit, looking at the prevalence of diabetes in all adult inpatients. Also looking at their feet to find out how many were high-risk or had existing problems. Setting A 998-bed university teaching hospital. Participants All adult inpatients. Main outcome measures (a) To see if patients with diabetes and foot problems were in hospital for longer than the national average length of stay compared with national data; (b) to see if there were people in hospital with acute foot problems who were not known to the specialist diabetic foot team; and (c) to assess the accuracy of clinical coding. Results We identified 110 people with diabetes. However, discharge coding data for inpatients on that day showed 119 people with diabetes. Length of stay (LOS) was substantially higher for those with diabetes compared to those without (± SD) at 22.39 (22.26) days, vs. 11.68 (6.46) (P < 0.001). Finally, clinical coding was poor with some people who had been identified as having diabetes on the audit, who were not coded as such on discharge. Conclusion Clinical coding – which is dependent on discharge summaries – poorly reflects diagnoses. Additionally, length of stay is significantly longer than previous estimates. The discrepancy between coding and diagnosis needs addressing by increasing the levels of awareness and education of coders and physicians. We suggest that our data be used by healthcare planners when deciding on future tariffs. PMID:22140609

  2. Blinded Outcome Assessment Was Infrequently Used and Poorly Reported in Open Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Brennan C.; Rehal, Sunita; Cro, Suzie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Unblinded outcome assessment can lead to biased estimates of treatment effect in randomised trials. We reviewed published trials to assess how often blinded assessment is used, and whether its use varies according to the type of outcome or assessor. Design and setting A review of parallel group, individually randomised phase III trials published in four general medical journals (BMJ, Journal of the American Medical Association, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine) in 2010. Main outcome measures Whether assessment of the primary outcome was blinded, and whether this differed according to outcome or assessor type. Results We identified 258 eligible trials. Of these, 106 (41%) were reported as double-blind, and 152 (59%) as partially or fully open-label (that is, they included some groups who were unblinded, such as patients, those delivering the intervention, or those in charge of medical care). Of the 152 open trials, 125 required outcome assessment. Of these 125 trials, only 26% stated that outcome assessment was blinded; 51% gave no information on whether assessment was blinded or not. Furthermore, 18% of trials did not state who performed the assessment. The choice of outcome type (e.g. instrument measured, rated, or naturally occurring event) did not appear to influence whether blinded assessment was performed (range 24-32% for the most common outcome types). However, the choice of outcome assessor did influence blinding; independent assessors were blinded much more frequently (71%) than participant (5%) or physician (24%) assessors. Despite this, open trials did not use independent assessors any more frequently than double-blind trials (17% vs. 18% respectively). Conclusions Blinding of outcome assessors is infrequently used and poorly reported. Increased use of independent assessors could increase the frequency of blinded assessment. PMID:26120839

  3. Assessing depression outcomes in group practice clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Braswell, H R; Williamson, J W

    1979-01-01

    The application of a protocol for the initial assessment of medical care outcomes of geriatric depression management in four multispecialty group practice clinics is described. The clinical findings of this study are limited, but the protocol for the assessment of depression outcomes was found to be feasible, practical and acceptable in all four clinics. The success of the study has positive implications both for improving management of depressed clinic patients and for adapting this quality assurance approach to other health conditions and care settings. PMID:507262

  4. Should Schools Expect Poor Physical and Mental Health, Social Adjustment, and Participation Outcomes in Students with Disability?

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Parsons, Richard; McAuliffe, Tomomi; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs. PMID:25965845

  5. Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Parsons, Richard; McAuliffe, Tomomi; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  6. A systematic review of studies identifying predictors of poor return to work outcomes following workplace injury.

    PubMed

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J

    2015-06-05

    Injuries occurring in the workplace can have serious implications for the health of the individual, the productivity of the employer and the overall economic community. The objective of this paper is to increase the current state of understanding of individual demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with extended absenteeism from the workforce due to a workplace injury. Studies included in this systematic literature review tracked participants' return to work status over a minimum of three months, identified either demographic, psychosocial or general injury predictors of poor return to work outcomes and included a heterogeneous sample of workplace injuries. Identified predictors of poor return to work outcomes included older age, female gender, divorced marital status, two or more dependent family members, lower education levels, employment variables associated with reduced labour market desirability, severity or sensitive injury locations, negative attitudes and outcome perceptions of the participant. There is a need for clear and consistent definition and measurement of return to work outcomes and a holistic theoretical model integrating injury, psychosocial and demographic predictors of return to work. Through greater understanding of the nature of factors affecting return to work, improved outcomes could be achieved.

  7. Clinical tuberculosis and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jordan, T S; Davies, P D

    2010-06-01

    The global targets for tuberculosis (TB) control set by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1991 were detection of at least 70% and cure of at least 85% of new sputum smear-positive TB cases by 2000, later revised to 2005. The DOTS strategy was introduced in the mid-1990s, and later became the cornerstone of the Stop TB Strategy, which was launched along with the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 in 2006. The Global Plan sets out how and to what extent the Stop TB Strategy should be implemented between 2006 and 2015 to achieve the TB-related Millennium Development Goal (MDG) to halt and reverse the incidence of TB by 2015 and the Stop TB Partnership targets to reduce TB prevalence and death rates to 50% of 1990 levels by 2015, and to eliminate TB as a public health concern by 2050. Treatment success and case detection rates are outcome indicators used to measure the effectiveness of TB control along with the impact indicators incidence, prevalence and death rates. Globally, the rate of treatment success for smear-positive cases treated exceeded the WHA global target of 85% for the first time in 2007. This review focuses on articles related to treatment outcome in TB published in the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2009.

  8. Many women undergoing fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices that may affect treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Gormack, Alice A; Peek, John C; Derraik, José G B; Gluckman, Peter D; Young, Natalie L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-07-01

    What are the lifestyle choices and dietary aspects of women about to undergo fertility treatment in New Zealand? A considerable proportion of women about to undergo fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices, including the consumption of alcohol and caffeine. Women undergoing fertility treatment are highly motivated to achieve pregnancy, but there are relatively few published data on their lifestyle, lifestyle changes or dietary aspects. This was a cross-sectional study of 250 women aged 20-43 years, taking place between March 2010 and August 2011. Women about to undergo IVF or ICSI treatment in two large fertility clinics in Auckland and Hamilton, New Zealand. Lifestyle and dietary intake questionnaires were individually administered once to each participant 35 days (SD = 22) prior to fertility treatment initiation. Outcome measures included incidence of smoking, consumption of alcohol and caffeinated beverages, BMI, detailed intake of dietary supplements and fertility treatment success. Consumption of certain nutrient supplements was compared with the general female New Zealand population. There were high rates of alcohol (50.8%) and caffeine (86.8%) consumption. Most women (82.8%) reported at least one lifestyle change in preparation for fertility treatment, but less than half of women who consumed alcohol regularly reduced their intake and 60% did not change consumption of caffeinated beverages. Similarly, the majority of women did not change their exercise levels (64.4%) or BMI (83.6%) ahead of fertility treatment. Coffee intake appeared unrelated to treatment outcome, but women who consumed caffeinated herbal tea (36.4% of the study population consumed green tea) had lower odds of becoming pregnant (odds ratio, OR 0.52; P = 0.041 versus those not consuming caffeinated herbal tea). Women who abstained from drinking or reduced alcohol intake had twice the odds of becoming pregnant than those who maintained their drinking habits prior to fertility treatment

  9. Fetal Musculoskeletal Malformations with a Poor Outcome: Ultrasonographic, Pathologic, and Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Hyun; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee-Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    The early and accurate antenatal diagnosis of fetal musculoskeletal malfomations with a poor outcome has important implications for the management of a pregnancy. Careful ultrasonographic examination of a fetus helps detect such anomalies, and a number of characteristic features may suggest possible differential diagnoses. During the last five years, we have encountered 39 cases of such anomalies, and the typical prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of a number of those are described in this article. PMID:12087201

  10. Urinary potassium is a clinically useful test to detect a poor quality diet.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Irvine, E Jan; Honey, R John D'A; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-04-01

    Poor eating habits, a strong predictor of health outcomes, are not objectively assessed in routine clinical practice. In this study, we evaluated the use of urinary potassium (K(+)) as a means to identify people consuming a poor quality diet. Consecutive patients with kidney stones (n = 220), aged 18-50 y, from a population-based lithotripsy unit, collected a single 24-h urine sample to assess urinary K(+). They also completed a FFQ to derive the recommended foods score (RFS), an index of overall diet quality, and had their blood pressure, heart rate, weight, and height measured. Urinary K(+) was related positively with the intake of recommended food items, including vegetables, fruit, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish and poultry, and wine and negatively to those not recommended by current dietary guidelines, including red meat, fast food, and high-energy drinks. Urinary K(+) was also correlated with the RFS (r = 0.226; P < 0.001). Using a receiver operating characteristic curve, K(+) excretion values below the gender-specific median (men, 60 mmol/d; women, 41 mmol/d) were identified as the optimal cutoff values for a poor quality diet, indicated by the RFS. Higher urinary K(+) was inversely related to adjusted BMI (P-trend = 0.03), diastolic blood pressure (P-trend = 0.04) and heart rate (P-trend = 0.006), after controlling for potential confounders. Urinary K(+) provides a summary measure of diet quality, is significantly related to BMI, blood pressure, and heart rate, and may be useful clinically to detect poor dietary habits and monitor response to dietary interventions.

  11. Blinded Outcome Assessment Was Infrequently Used and Poorly Reported in Open Trials.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Brennan C; Rehal, Sunita; Cro, Suzie

    2015-01-01

    Unblinded outcome assessment can lead to biased estimates of treatment effect in randomised trials. We reviewed published trials to assess how often blinded assessment is used, and whether its use varies according to the type of outcome or assessor. A review of parallel group, individually randomised phase III trials published in four general medical journals (BMJ, Journal of the American Medical Association, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine) in 2010. Whether assessment of the primary outcome was blinded, and whether this differed according to outcome or assessor type. We identified 258 eligible trials. Of these, 106 (41%) were reported as double-blind, and 152 (59%) as partially or fully open-label (that is, they included some groups who were unblinded, such as patients, those delivering the intervention, or those in charge of medical care). Of the 152 open trials, 125 required outcome assessment. Of these 125 trials, only 26% stated that outcome assessment was blinded; 51% gave no information on whether assessment was blinded or not. Furthermore, 18% of trials did not state who performed the assessment. The choice of outcome type (e.g. instrument measured, rated, or naturally occurring event) did not appear to influence whether blinded assessment was performed (range 24-32% for the most common outcome types). However, the choice of outcome assessor did influence blinding; independent assessors were blinded much more frequently (71%) than participant (5%) or physician (24%) assessors. Despite this, open trials did not use independent assessors any more frequently than double-blind trials (17% vs. 18% respectively). Blinding of outcome assessors is infrequently used and poorly reported. Increased use of independent assessors could increase the frequency of blinded assessment.

  12. [Developmental dysplasia of the hip in children with a psychomotor disorder. A risk factor for a poor outcome?].

    PubMed

    Pipa-Muñiz, Iván; de Los Llanos Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María; Felgueroso-Juliana, M Blanca; Riera-Campillo, Manuela; González-Herranz, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Orthopaedic treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has a high success rate in cases that are diagnosed early. However, the outcomes of these patients are not really known when they are subsequently diagnosed with some type of cerebral impairment. A retrospective observational study was conducted on cases of DDH with a poor outcome after orthopaedic treatment, being unknown if they had any type of psychomotor disorder. The patients were clinically and radiologically assessed, and afterwards received neurological valuation by the Child Neurology Unit. Of the 325 cases of DDH diagnosed in 293 patients, 10 patients (3%) with 16 hips with DDH were diagnosed of any cerebral impairment. All them were initially treated orthopedically. Clinical and radiologically evolution was succesful only in 4 cases (25%) being necessary any surgical procedure in the remaining 12 cases. After surgical treatment we got an improvement in the Acetabular Index (p=0.005) and Reimers Extrusion Index (p=0.042). Neck-shaft angle and Wiberg CE angle also improved but this difference was not statically significant. Cerebral impairment was diagnosed at 2,5 years of age and the begining of walking was delayed at 2.4 years of age. Cerebral impairment can lead to an unfavourable outcome in the treatment of DDH, with the relative risk of a poor outcome being 7.2 times higher in these patients. An unfavourable outcome with conventional treatment of DDH must make us suspect the presence of some type of neurological disorder, particularly if there is a delay in walking. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors related to poor outcome after methanol poisoning and the relation between outcome and antidotes--a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Paasma, Raido; Hovda, Knut Erik; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Brahmi, Nozha; Afshari, Reza; Sandvik, Leiv; Jacobsen, Dag

    2012-11-01

    INTRODUCTION. Thorough prognostic and metabolic studies of methanol poisonings are scarce. Our aims were to evaluate the factors associated with sequelae and death from methanol poisoning, to develop a simple risk-assessment chart to evaluate factors associated with sequelae and death from methanol poisoning, and to compare the antidotes ethanol and fomepizole. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We present a retrospective observational case series of methanol-poisoned patients from Norway (1979 and 2002-2005), Estonia (2001) and Tunisia (2003/2004), and patients from two different centers in Iran (Teheran 2004-2009 and Mashhad 2009-2010) who were identified by a positive serum methanol and had a blood acid-base status drawn on admission. The patients were divided into different groups according to their outcome: Survived, survived with sequelae, and died. RESULTS. A total of 320 patients were identified and 117 were excluded. Of the remaining 203 patients, 48 died, and 34 were discharged with neurological sequelae. A pH < 7.00 was found to be the strongest risk factor for poor outcome, along with coma (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) < 8) and a pCO(2) ≥ 3.1 kPa in spite of a pH < 7.00. More patients died despite hyperventilation (low pCO(2)) in the ethanol group. CONCLUSIONS. Low pH (pH < 7.00), coma (GCS < 8), and inadequate hyperventilation (pCO(2) ≥ 3.1 kPa in spite of a pH < 7.00) on admission were the strongest predictors of poor outcome after methanol poisoning. A simple flow-chart may help identify the patients associated with a poor outcome.

  14. Lenticulostriate Artery Involvement is Predictive of Poor Outcomes in Superficial Middle Cerebral Artery Territory Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kijeong; Kim, Eun Hye; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Nam, Hyo Suk; Lee, Hye Sun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Patients with superficial middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction may have concomitant lenticulostriate artery (LSA) territory infarction. We investigated the mechanisms thereof and the outcomes of patients with superficial MCA territory infarction according to the presence or absence of LSA involvement. Materials and Methods Consecutive patients with first-ever infarction in the unilateral superficial MCA territory were included in this study. They were divided into the superficial MCA only (SM) group and the superficial MCA plus LSA (SM+L) group. Results Of the 398 patients, 84 patients (21.1%) had LSA involvement (SM+L group). The SM+L group more frequently had significant stenosis of the proximal MCA or carotid artery and high-risk cardioembolic sources. Stroke severity and outcomes were remarkably different between the groups. The SM+L group showed more severe neurologic deficits (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score 10.8±7.1 vs. 4.0±5.0, p<0.001) and larger infarct in the superficial MCA territory (40.8±62.6 cm3 vs. 10.8±21.8 cm3, p<0.001) than the SM group. A poor functional outcome (mRS >2) at 3 months was more common in the SM+L group (64.3% vs. 15.9%, p<0.001). During a mean follow-up of 26 months, 67 patients died. All-cause (hazard ratio, 2.246) and stroke (hazard ratio, 9.193) mortalities were higher in the SM+L group than the SM group. In multivariate analyses, LSA involvement was an independent predictor of poor functional outcomes and stroke mortality. Conclusion LSA territory involvement is predictive of poor long-term outcomes in patients with superficial MCA territory infarction. PMID:27873504

  15. Thinking About Clinical Outcomes in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Weimar, Dawn; Gray, Jeffrey; Davies, Bud

    2016-01-01

    As Medicaid expands in scope and influence, it is evolving toward being a “purchaser” of quality health care. This commentary discusses measurement and incentivization of clinical outcomes in Medicaid. Advantages and disadvantages of outcome versus process measures are discussed. Distinctions are drawn between the roles of Medicare and Medicaid, including the implications of the growth in Medicaid managed care. Medicaid's influence is particularly notable for obstetric, pediatric, newborn, and long-term care. We provide data on 3 Medicaid outcomes: potentially preventable hospital admissions, readmissions, and complications. The commentary concludes with suggestions for choosing and implementing outcome-oriented value-based purchasing initiatives in Medicaid. PMID:26945295

  16. Outcome instruments for prosthetics: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Allen W; Connelly, Lauri; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Fatone, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Outcome measurement is crucial to assuring high-quality patient services and improving the quality of services provided by prosthetists. This article summarizes recent evidence on the measurement properties of outcome measures, and updates previously published summaries of outcome instruments. The review focuses on measures of mobility, functional status, quality of life, and patient satisfaction, and includes both performance-based and patient-reported outcomes. Amputation-specific and general measures that are suitable for patients served by prosthetists are discussed. It is encouraging that responsiveness of measures is often reported, as this information is needed to improve clinical utility.

  17. TERT Promoter Mutations Are a Major Indicator of Poor Outcome in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Miguel; da Rocha, Adriana Gaspar; Vinagre, João; Batista, Rui; Peixoto, Joana; Tavares, Catarina; Celestino, Ricardo; Almeida, Ana; Salgado, Catarina; Eloy, Catarina; Castro, Patrícia; Prazeres, Hugo; Lima, Jorge; Amaro, Teresina; Lobo, Cláudia; Martins, Maria João; Moura, Margarida; Cavaco, Branca; Leite, Valeriano; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Carrilho, Francisco; Carvalheiro, Manuela; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Context: Telomerase promoter mutations (TERT) were recently described in follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas (FCDTC) and seem to be more prevalent in aggressive cancers. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid lesions and to investigate the prognostic significance of such mutations in a large cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). Design: This was a retrospective observational study. Setting and Patients: We studied 647 tumors and tumor-like lesions. A total of 469 patients with FCDTC treated and followed in five university hospitals were included. Mean follow-up (±SD) was 7.8 ± 5.8 years. Main Outcome Measures: Predictive value of TERT promoter mutations for distant metastasization, disease persistence at the end of follow-up, and disease-specific mortality. Results: TERT promoter mutations were found in 7.5% of papillary carcinomas (PTCs), 17.1% of follicular carcinomas, 29.0% of poorly differentiated carcinomas, and 33.3% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Patients with TERT-mutated tumors were older (P < .001) and had larger tumors (P = .002). In DTCs, TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with distant metastases (P < .001) and higher stage (P < .001). Patients with DTC harboring TERT promoter mutations were submitted to more radioiodine treatments (P = .009) with higher cumulative dose (P = .004) and to more treatment modalities (P = .001). At the end of follow-up, patients with TERT-mutated DTCs were more prone to have persistent disease (P = .001). TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with disease-specific mortality [in the whole FCDTC (P < .001)] in DTCs (P < .001), PTCs (P = .001), and follicular carcinomas (P < .001). After adjusting for age at diagnosis and gender, the hazard ratio was 10.35 (95% confidence interval 2.01–53.24; P = .005) in DTC and 23.81 (95% confidence interval 1.36–415.76; P = .03) in PTCs. Conclusions: TERT promoter

  18. Frequency of Poor Outcome (Death or Poor Quality of Life) After Left Ventricular Assist Device for Destination Therapy: Results From the INTERMACS Registry.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Suzanne V; Jones, Philip G; Allen, Larry A; Cohen, David J; Fendler, Timothy J; Holtz, Jonathan E; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Spertus, John A

    2016-08-01

    A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) improves survival and quality of life for many, but not all, patients with end-stage heart failure who are ineligible for transplantation. We sought to evaluate the frequency of poor outcomes using a novel composite measure that integrates quality of life with mortality. Within the INTERMACS (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support) national registry, poor outcome was defined as death or an average Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire <45 during the year after LVAD (persistently limiting heart failure symptoms and poor quality of life). Among 1638 patients with LVAD, 29.7% had a poor outcome, with death in 22.4% and persistently poor quality of life in 7.3%. Patients who had a poor outcome were more likely to have higher body mass indices (29.3 versus 28.2 kg/m(2); P=0.007), lower hemoglobin levels (11.1 versus 11.4 g/dL; P=0.005), previous cardiac surgery (47.8% versus 39.8%; P=0.004), history of cancer (13.8% versus 9.7%; P=0.025), severe diabetes mellitus (15.6% versus 11.5%; P=0.038), and poorer quality of life preimplant (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores: 29.8 versus 35.3; P<0.001). Nearly one third of patients die or have a persistently poor quality of life during the year after LVAD. We identified several factors associated with a poor outcome, which may inform discussions before LVAD implantation to enable more realistic expectations of recovery. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Patient-related risk factors that predict poor outcome after total hip replacement.

    PubMed Central

    MacWilliam, C H; Yood, M U; Verner, J J; McCarthy, B D; Ward, R E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with poor outcome after total hip replacement (THR) surgery. DATA SOURCES: This article is the first to present results from the American Medical Group Association (AMGA) THR consortium. STUDY DESIGN: The outcomes evaluated were pain and physical function. Eight patient risk factors were evaluated. These included the age, sex, race, marital status, and education of the patient; whether the patient had polyarticular disease or other comorbid conditions; and the patient's preoperative pain and physical function score. DATA COLLECTION: Data were collected from patients using AMGA-approved, self-administered questionnaires preoperatively and at six weeks, three months, six months, one year, and two years postoperatively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the patient risk factors studied, race, education, number of comorbid conditions, and preoperative Health Status Questionnaire (HSQ) score were found to be associated with poor outcome. These risk factors were found to have an effect on both pain and physical function at six months postoperatively. Patients with higher preoperative scores were found to have higher postoperative scores, but substantially fewer of these patients received any benefit from their surgery. For each 10-point increase in preoperative score, patients could expect at least a 6-point decrease in postoperative improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that preoperative status is an important predictor of outcome for THR. PMID:8943994

  20. Azathioprine during pregnancy in systemic lupus erythematosus patients is not associated with poor fetal outcome.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Antonio; Morales, Sara; Ángeles, Ulises; Jara, Luis Javier

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of adverse fetal outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) women exposed to azathioprine during pregnancy. We reviewed the medical records of SLE pregnant women followed from January 2005 to April 2013. The patients were evaluated at least once in each trimester and postpartum. Relevant fetal outcomes were extracted, such as rate of liveborns, fetal loss (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth), term delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, low birth weight, low birth weight at term, and congenital malformations. A detailed history of drug use during pregnancy was obtained. We studied 178 pregnancies (in 172 women), 87 of them were exposed to azathioprine (AZA-group) and the remaining 91 were not exposed (NO AZA-group). Exposure to other drugs was similar in both groups. The rate of live births, spontaneous abortions mean birth weight, weeks of gestation, rate of birth weight <2500 g, and low birth weight at term did not differ between groups. No infant had major congenital abnormalities. Multivariate analysis showed that preeclampsia, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), lupus flare, and anti-DNA positive were associated with an increased risk of poor fetal outcome. Our study suggests that the use of azathioprine is safe and lacks of teratogenity in patients with SLE and pregnancy. Exposure to azathioprine during pregnancy is not associated with poor fetal outcome.

  1. Usefulness of Midregional Proadrenomedullin to Predict Poor Outcome in Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gordo-Remartínez, Susana; Sevillano-Fernández, José A.; Álvarez-Sala, Luis A.; Andueza-Lillo, Juan A.; de Miguel-Yanes, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a prognostic biomarker in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We sought to confirm whether MR-proADM added to Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) improves the potential prognostic value of PSI alone, and tested to what extent this combination could be useful in predicting poor outcome of patients with CAP in an Emergency Department (ED). Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with CAP were enrolled in this prospective, single-centre, observational study. We analyzed the ability of MR-proADM added to PSI to predict poor outcome using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, logistic regression and risk reclassification and comparing it with the ability of PSI alone. The primary outcome was “poor outcome”, defined as the incidence of an adverse event (ICU admission, hospital readmission, or mortality at 30 days after CAP diagnosis). Results 226 patients were included; 33 patients (14.6%) reached primary outcome. To predict primary outcome the highest area under curve (AUC) was found for PSI (0.74 [0.64-0.85]), which was not significantly higher than for MR-proADM (AUC 0.72 [0.63-0.81, p > 0.05]). The combination of PSI and MR-proADM failed to improve the predictive potential of PSI alone (AUC 0.75 [0.65-0.85, p=0.56]). Ten patients were appropriately reclassified when the combined PSI and MR-proADM model was used as compared with the model of PSI alone. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) index was statistically significant (7.69%, p = 0.03) with an improvement percentage of 3.03% (p = 0.32) for adverse event, and 4.66% (P = 0.02) for no adverse event. Conclusion MR-proADM in combination with PSI may be helpful in individual risk stratification for short-term poor outcome of CAP patients, allowing a better reclassification of patients compared with PSI alone. PMID:26030588

  2. Predisposing factors for poor outcome of surgery for cervical spondylotic amyotrophy: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, JingTao; Cui, Can; Liu, Zhao; Tong, Tong; Niu, RuiJie; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize risk factors for poor surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA). We retrospectively reviewed 88 cases of CSA surgery and investigated age, sex, duration of symptoms, atrophy type, preoperative muscle power, signal changes on MRI, anterior horn (AH) or ventral nerve root (VNR) compression, compression levels, surgical approach and postoperative recovery. Fifty (56.8%) patients had good surgical outcome. Logistic regression, with poor outcome as dependent variable, showed independent risks associated with duration of symptoms (OR; 1 for symptom duration less than 3 months versus 3.961 [95% CI; 1.203–13.039, p = 0.024] for symptom duration of 3–6 months versus 18.724 [95% CI; 3.967–88.367, p < 0.001] for symptom duration greater than 6 months), compression type (OR; 1 for VNR versus 4.931 [95% CI; 1.457–16.685, p = 0.010] for AH versus 5.538 [95% CI; 1.170–26.218, p = 0.031] for VNR + AH), and atrophy type (OR; 1 for proximal type versus 6.456 [95% CI; 1.938–21.508, p = 0.002] for distal type). These findings suggest that a long duration of symptoms, AH or both AH and VNR compression, and distal type are risk factors for poor surgical outcome in patients with CSA. PMID:27991596

  3. Low preoperative serum albumin in colon cancer: a risk factor for poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cheng-Chou; You, Jeng-Fu; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Tang, Reiping; Wang, Jeng-Yi; Chin, Chih-Chien

    2011-04-01

    The number of colon cancer patients is increasing worldwide. Malnutrition and comorbidities are frequently associated with these patients. The relationships between the preoperative malnutrition and the outcomes of colon cancer patients are unclear; this study aimed to clarify these issues. A total of 3,849 consecutive colon cancer patients were enrolled in an analysis of short-term outcomes and 2,529 patients were included in an analysis of the long-term outcomes. These patients were divided into the hypoalbuminemic and normal groups according to the definition of hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin < 35 g/L). Advanced age, female gender, abnormal CEA levels, right colon or large tumors, mucinous adenocarcinoma, poor differentiation, stage II cancer, TNM advancing T stage, old cardiovascular accident, diabetes, and liver cirrhosis were more likely to be associated with hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemic patients had a higher rate of postoperative mortality and morbidity, including complications related to wounds, lungs, the urinary system, and anastomosis. The 5-year overall survival rates of patients with normal albumin and hypoalbuminemia were 78.0% and 60.0%, respectively (P < 0.0001), and the 5-year relapse-free survival rates were 78.9% and 73.5%, respectively (P = 0.0042). In a multivariate analysis, the albumin level was also significantly correlated with 5-year overall survival (<35 vs. ≥ 35, HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.08) and 5-year relapse-free survival (<35 vs. ≥ 35, HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.04-1.56). Hypoalbuminemia is a predictor of poor surgical outcomes of colon cancer and is a poor prognosis factor for long-term survival of colon cancer after curative operation.

  4. IVF outcomes in average- and poor-prognosis infertile women according to the number of embryos transferred.

    PubMed

    Vega, Mario G; Gleicher, Norbert; Darmon, Sarah K; Weghofer, Andrea; Wu, Yan-Guang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lin; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Kushnir, Vitaly A

    2016-09-01

    Outcome measures of IVF success, which account for effectiveness of IVF and perinatal outcome risks, have recently been described. The association between number of embryos transferred in average and poor-prognosis IVF patients, and the chances of having good or poor IVF and perinatal outcomes, was investigated. Good IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as the birth of a live, term, normal-weight infant (≥2500 g). Poor IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as no live birth or birth of a very low weight neonate (<1500 g) or severe prematurity (birth at <32 weeks gestation). Each neonate was analysed as a separate outcome. A total of 713 IVF cycles in 504 average and poor-prognosis patients from January 2010 to December 2013 were identified. The odds of having good IVF and perinatal outcomes increased by 28% for each additional embryo transferred. The odds of poor IVF and perinatal outcome decreased by 32% with an additional embryo transferred. The likelihood of live birth with good perinatal outcome in average- and poor-prognosis patients after IVF increases with additional embryos being transferred. These data add to recently reported evidence in favour of multiple embryo transfer in older women and those with average or poor IVF prognosis.

  5. Low-Density-Lipoprotein Particle Size Predicts a Poor Outcome in Patients with Atherothrombotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Song, Tae-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Chang, Yoonkyung; Youn, Minjung; Shin, Min-Jeong; Jo, Inho; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size is considered to be one of the more important cardiovascular risk factors, and small LDL particles are known to have atherogenic potential. The aim of this study was to determine whether LDL particle size is associated with stroke severity and functional outcome in patients with atherothrombotic stroke. Methods Between January 2009 and May 2011, 248 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction who were admitted to our hospital within 7 days after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. LDL particle size was measured using the nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis assay. Stroke severity was assessed by applying the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission. Functional outcome was investigated at 3 months after the index stroke using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and poor functional outcome was defined as an mRS score of ≥3. Results The LDL particle size in the 248 patients was 25.9±0.9 nm (mean±SD). LDL particle size was inversely correlated with the degree of cerebral artery stenosis (p=0.010). Multinomial multivariate logistic analysis revealed that after adjustment for age, sex, and variables with p<0.1 in univariate analysis, LDL particle size was independently and inversely associated with stroke severity (NIHSS score ≥5; reference, NIHSS score 0-2; odds ratio=0.38, p=0.028) and poor functional outcome (odds ratio=0.44, p=0.038). Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that small LDL particles are independently correlated with stroke outcomes. LDL particle size is thus a potential biomarker for the prognosis of atherothrombotic stroke. PMID:25628741

  6. Low-density-lipoprotein particle size predicts a poor outcome in patients with atherothrombotic stroke.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae-Jin; Cho, Hyun-Ji; Chang, Yoonkyung; Youn, Minjung; Shin, Min-Jeong; Jo, Inho; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Yong-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size is considered to be one of the more important cardiovascular risk factors, and small LDL particles are known to have atherogenic potential. The aim of this study was to determine whether LDL particle size is associated with stroke severity and functional outcome in patients with atherothrombotic stroke. Between January 2009 and May 2011, 248 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction who were admitted to our hospital within 7 days after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. LDL particle size was measured using the nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis assay. Stroke severity was assessed by applying the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission. Functional outcome was investigated at 3 months after the index stroke using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and poor functional outcome was defined as an mRS score of ≥3. The LDL particle size in the 248 patients was 25.9±0.9 nm (mean±SD). LDL particle size was inversely correlated with the degree of cerebral artery stenosis (p=0.010). Multinomial multivariate logistic analysis revealed that after adjustment for age, sex, and variables with p<0.1 in univariate analysis, LDL particle size was independently and inversely associated with stroke severity (NIHSS score ≥5; reference, NIHSS score 0-2; odds ratio=0.38, p=0.028) and poor functional outcome (odds ratio=0.44, p=0.038). The results of this study demonstrate that small LDL particles are independently correlated with stroke outcomes. LDL particle size is thus a potential biomarker for the prognosis of atherothrombotic stroke.

  7. Culturing surplus poor-quality embryos to blastocyst stage have positive predictive value of clinical pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai Bo; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Fadlalla, Elfateh; Wang, Rui Xue; Geng, Dong Feng; Liu, Rui Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Clinical reproductive centers produce large amounts of surplus poor-quality embryos annually, how to maximize the use of these embryos, and which of them have the potential to develop into blastocyst stage and influencing factors were lack of systematic research. To investigate the fate of surplus poor-quality embryos which were cultured to obtain blastocyst, determine the factors which may influence the blastulation, and discuss their application in predicting of the pregnancy outcomes. Day 3 (D3) after embryo transfer and freezing, surplus poor-quality embryos from IVF/ICSI cycles were cultured to blastocyst by the sequential method, then the blastulation outcomes were observed. Focusing on the blastulation rate of those embryos with different number cells and different embryonic grade; and last the relationship between the pregnancy outcomes of remained poor-quality embryos with successful blastulation or failed blastulation groups were studied. Of 127 patients with 569 poor-quality in vitro cultured embryos, there were formation of 248 blastocysts from 91 patients (43.59%), which lead to development of 138 high-quality blastocysts (24.25%). With the increase in cells number of D 3 blastomeres, the blastulation rate gradually increased, that, 7-cell blastomeres blastulation rate was the highest (70.59%), and 8-cell blastomeres is a little below (70.37%); while the embryonic levels and blastulation rate did not show this positive relationship. The clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate of those who had successful blastulation (67.03% and 42.39%) were higher than of those who failed to develop to blastocyst (p=0.039). Day 3 poor-quality embryos with successful blastulation or with failed blastulation had predictive value on pregnancy outcomes. For embryo transfer 7-8 cells grade III-IV embryo is better than 4-5 cells grade I-II embryo, in case of lack good-quality embryos.

  8. Autonomic dysfunction independently predicts poor cardiovascular outcomes in asymptomatic individuals with type 2 diabetes in the DIAD study

    PubMed Central

    Wackers, Frans JTh; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Jose, Powell; Weiss, Curtis; Davey, Janice A; Heller, Gary V; Iskandrian, Ami E; Young, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this secondary analysis was to determine whether cardiac autonomic neuropathy independently predicted adverse cardiac outcomes in asymptomatic individuals with type 2 diabetes. Additional aims include the determination of the correlation of standard autonomic testing measures and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the association of diabetes-related and cardiac risk factors with cardiac autonomic neuropathy measures. Methods: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was assessed at the study entry into the Detection of Ischemia in Asymptomatic Diabetics study, using autonomic heart rate and blood pressure testing, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. All participants were prospectively followed for the composite clinical outcome of cardiac death, acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, or coronary revascularization. Results: Over 5 years of follow-up, 94 of 1119 (8.4%) subjects developed symptomatic cardiac disease. In unadjusted bivariate analyses, abnormalities in several cardiac autonomic neuropathy tests, including lower Valsalva and Standing Heart Rate Ratios, higher resting Heart Rate, greater systolic blood pressure decrease on standing, and lower low-frequency power, were predictive of symptomatic disease. Independent predictors of poor cardiac outcome were a lower Valsalva Heart Rate Ratio, non-Black ethnicity, longer diabetes duration, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin use, reported numbness in the extremities, higher pulse pressure, family history of coronary artery disease, and higher waist-to-hip ratio. Clinical factors independently associated with a lower Valsalva Heart Rate Ratio were insulin use, clinical proteinuria, higher pulse pressure, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and non-Black ethnicity. Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy predicted adverse cardiac outcomes in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes without known cardiac disease. Clinical variables may help to

  9. Immediate coma and poor outcome in subarachnoid haemorrhage are independently associated with an aneurysmal origin.

    PubMed

    Tsermoulas, Georgios; Flett, Lisa; Gregson, Barbara; Mitchell, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may present with coma and this is known to be associated with aneurysmal origin and blood load. Aneurysmal origin is associated with increased blood load and existing data do not allow us to determine if the association between coma and aneurysmal SAH is wholly due to blood load or if aneurysmal origin has an additional independent effect. The objective of our study is to find if an aneurysmal origin is a predictor of acute onset of coma independent of blood load. A series of consecutive patients with spontaneous SAH were divided into two groups: aneurysmal (aSAH) and non-aneurysmal--angiographically negative SAH (naSAH). Blood load was quantified so that the effect of aneurysmal origin could be resolved from the effect of the amount of blood spilled. Non-parametric regression was used to relate blood load to coma and poor outcome rates for aneurysmal bleeds. We analysed a total of 421 patients presenting during the period 2009-2011. Ninety aneurysmal cases presented with coma, seventy immediately in the early phase and seven shortly after rebleeding. None of the naSAH cases presented with immediate coma and 1 developed delayed coma. Delayed coma was associated with acute hydrocephalus in both groups. Aneurysmal origin was found to be an independent determinant of immediate coma (p=0.02) and poor outcome (p<0.001). Immediate coma and poor outcome in SAH are associated with an aneurysmal origin and do not characterize naSAH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved biochemical outcome with adjuvant radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer with poor pathologic features

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos; Kestin, Larry L. . E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.edu; Weed, Dan W.; Krauss, Daniel; Vicini, Frank A.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: The indications for adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) are poorly defined. We performed a retrospective comparison of our institution's experience treating prostate cancer with RP vs. RP followed by adjuvant EBRT. Methods and materials: Between 1987 and 1998, 617 patients with clinical Stage T1-T2N0M0 prostate cancer underwent RP. Patients who underwent preoperative androgen deprivation and those with positive lymph nodes were excluded. Of the 617 patients, 34 (5.5%) with an undetectable postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level underwent adjuvant prostatic fossa RT at a median of 0.25 year (range, 0.1-0.6) postoperatively because of poor pathologic features. The median total dose was 59.4 Gy (range, 50.4-66.6 Gy) in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions. These 34 RP+RT patients were compared with the remaining 583 RP patients. Biochemical failure was defined as any postoperative PSA level {>=}0.1 ng/mL and any postoperative PSA level {>=}0.3 ng/mL (at least 30 days after surgery). Administration of androgen deprivation was also scored as biochemical failure when applying either definition. The median clinical follow-up was 8.2 years (range, 0.1-11.2 years) for RP and 8.4 years (range, 0.3-13.8 years) for RP+RT. Results: Radical prostatectomy + radiation therapy patients had a greater pathologic Gleason score (mean, 7.3 vs. 6.5; p < 0.01) and pathologic T stage (median, T3a vs. T2c; p < 0.01). Age (median, 65.7 years) and pretreatment PSA level (median, 7.9 ng/mL) were similar between the treatment groups. Extracapsular extension was present in 72% of RP+RT patients vs. 27% of RP patients (p < 0.01). The RP+RT patients were more likely to have seminal vesicle invasion (29% vs. 9%, p < 0.01) and positive margins (73% vs. 36%, p < 0.01). Despite these poor pathologic features, the 5-year biochemical control (BC) rate (PSA < 0.1 ng/mL) was 57% for RP+RT and 47% for RP (p = 0.28). For patients with extracapsular extension, the

  11. TERT promoter mutations are a major indicator of poor outcome in differentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Melo, Miguel; da Rocha, Adriana Gaspar; Vinagre, João; Batista, Rui; Peixoto, Joana; Tavares, Catarina; Celestino, Ricardo; Almeida, Ana; Salgado, Catarina; Eloy, Catarina; Castro, Patrícia; Prazeres, Hugo; Lima, Jorge; Amaro, Teresina; Lobo, Cláudia; Martins, Maria João; Moura, Margarida; Cavaco, Branca; Leite, Valeriano; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Carrilho, Francisco; Carvalheiro, Manuela; Máximo, Valdemar; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-05-01

    Telomerase promoter mutations (TERT) were recently described in follicular cell-derived thyroid carcinomas (FCDTC) and seem to be more prevalent in aggressive cancers. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in thyroid lesions and to investigate the prognostic significance of such mutations in a large cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs). This was a retrospective observational study. We studied 647 tumors and tumor-like lesions. A total of 469 patients with FCDTC treated and followed in five university hospitals were included. Mean follow-up (±SD) was 7.8 ± 5.8 years. Predictive value of TERT promoter mutations for distant metastasization, disease persistence at the end of follow-up, and disease-specific mortality. TERT promoter mutations were found in 7.5% of papillary carcinomas (PTCs), 17.1% of follicular carcinomas, 29.0% of poorly differentiated carcinomas, and 33.3% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Patients with TERT-mutated tumors were older (P < .001) and had larger tumors (P = .002). In DTCs, TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with distant metastases (P < .001) and higher stage (P < .001). Patients with DTC harboring TERT promoter mutations were submitted to more radioiodine treatments (P = .009) with higher cumulative dose (P = .004) and to more treatment modalities (P = .001). At the end of follow-up, patients with TERT-mutated DTCs were more prone to have persistent disease (P = .001). TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with disease-specific mortality [in the whole FCDTC (P < .001)] in DTCs (P < .001), PTCs (P = .001), and follicular carcinomas (P < .001). After adjusting for age at diagnosis and gender, the hazard ratio was 10.35 (95% confidence interval 2.01-53.24; P = .005) in DTC and 23.81 (95% confidence interval 1.36-415.76; P = .03) in PTCs. TERT promoter mutations are an indicator of clinically aggressive tumors, being correlated with worse outcome and

  12. Decreased expression of RNA interference machinery, Dicer and Drosha, is associated with poor outcome in ovarian cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, William M.; Lin, Yvonne G.; Han, Liz Y.; Kamat, Aparna A.; Spannuth, Whitney A.; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Urbauer, Diana; Pennacchio, Len A.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Zeidan, Alexandra; Wang, Hua; Mueller, Peter; Lenburg, Marc E.; Gray, Joe W.; Mok, Samuel; Birrer, Michael J.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Coleman, Robert L.; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Sood, Anil K.

    2008-05-06

    The clinical and functional significance of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, Dicer and Drosha, in ovarian cancer is not known and was examined. Dicer and Drosha expression was measured in ovarian cancer cell lines (n=8) and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer specimens (n=111) and correlated with clinical outcome. Validation was performed with previously published cohorts of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer patients. Anti-Galectin-3 siRNA and shRNA transfections were used for in vitro functional studies. Dicer and Drosha mRNA and protein levels were decreased in 37% to 63% of ovarian cancer cell lines and in 60% and 51% of human ovarian cancer specimens, respectively. Low Dicer was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (p=0.007), and low Drosha with suboptimal surgical cytoreduction (p=0.02). Tumors with both high Dicer and Drosha were associated with increased median patient survival (>11 years vs. 2.66 years for other groups; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, high Dicer (HR=0.48; p=0.02), high-grade histology (HR=2.46; p=0.03), and poor chemoresponse (HR=3.95; p<0.001) were identified as independent predictors of disease-specific survival. Findings of poor clinical outcome with low Dicer expression were validated in separate cohorts of cancer patients. Galectin-3 silencing with siRNA transfection was superior to shRNA in cell lines with low Dicer (78-95% vs. 4-8% compared to non-targeting sequences), and similar in cell lines with high Dicer. Our findings demonstrate the clinical and functional impact of RNAi machinery alterations in ovarian carcinoma and support the use of siRNA constructs that do not require endogenous Dicer and Drosha for therapeutic applications.

  13. Smoking Status Influences Clinical Outcome in Collagenous Colitis.

    PubMed

    Münch, Andreas; Tysk, Curt; Bohr, Johan; Madisch, Ahmed; Bonderup, Ole K; Mohrbacher, Ralf; Mueller, Ralph; Greinwald, Roland; Ström, Magnus; Miehlke, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between clinical and histological parameters in collagenous colitis (CC) is poorly understood. Smoking is a risk factor for CC, whereas its impact on clinical activity and outcome is not well known. In a post hoc analysis of pooled data from two randomized controlled trials we assessed the association between demographic data (gender, age, smoking habits, family history of inflammatory bowel disease), clinical variables (duration of symptoms, mean number of stools/watery stools per day, abdominal pain, clinical remission) and histological data (thickness of the collagen band, inflammation of the lamina propria, total numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes, degeneration). Moreover, we analysed the predictive value of baseline parameters for clinical outcome in a logistic regression model. Pooled data were available from 202 patients with active CC, of whom 36% were current smokers, 29% former smokers and 35% non-smokers. Smoking status was associated with decreased ability to achieve clinical remission (current smokers vs non-smokers: odds ratio [OR] 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98, p = 0.045; former smokers vs non-smokers: OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.73, p = 0.016). Current smokers had an increased mean number of watery stools at baseline compared with non-smokers (p = 0.051) and increased mean number of watery stools per se was associated with decreased likelihood of obtaining clinical remission (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47-0.86, p = 0.003). Patient characteristics and histology at baseline had no association with clinical parameters and no predictive value for clinical outcome. Smoking worsens clinical symptoms in CC and is associated with an increased number of watery stools and decreased likelihood of achieving clinical remission. There is no significant association between histology and clinical data. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  14. Predictive factors of poor outcome in road traffic injures; a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Shojaee, Majid; Kashani, Parvin; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Aghajani Nargesi, Dorrin; Amini Esfahani, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTI) are among the most important health problems worldwide as they cause more than 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries each year. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the outcome and aftermath of RTI in those who were injured and hospitalized due to a traffic accident. Methods: In the present retrospective cohort study with a one-year follow-up, data were extracted from the profiles of the RTI hospitalized patients. Outcome of the patients was evaluated at the time of discharge and 1-year later including their living state, presence of a disability or complete recovery. Results: 1471 patients were studied (mean age of 32.8±17.0; 80.3% male). 571 (38.8%) had mild disability, 684 (46.5%) moderate disability, and 85 (5.8%) had severe disability at the time of discharge. In the end, 53 (3.6%) died. In the 1-year follow-up, 194 (13.2%) had mild disability, 43 (2.9%) had moderate disability, 9 (0.6%) had severe disability, and 7 (0.5%) were in a vegetative state. Presence of an underlying disease (p=0.03), loss of consciousness for more than 24 hours (p=0.04), spinal injury (p=0.002), presence of multiple trauma (p=0.01), increased ISS (p<0.001), need for ventilator (p<0.001), and organ injuries during hospitalization (p<0.001) are independent factors that increase the risk of poor outcome in RTI patients. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, underlying illnesses, loss of consciousness for more than 24 hours, spinal injury, multiple trauma, increased ISS, need for ventilator, and organ injuries during hospitalization were independent factors that increased the probability of poor outcome in RTI injuries. PMID:28286828

  15. Predictive values of maternal serum PAPP-A level, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry, and fetal biometric measurements for poor pregnancy and poor neonatal outcomes in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Balcı, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine predictive values of maternal serum PAPP-A (msPAPP-A) levels, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry, and fetal biometric measurements (FBMs) for poor pregnancy and poor neonatal outcomes. Material and Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies followed until delivery. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were evaluated with respect to the msPAPP-A level at the 11th–14th weeks, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry at the 15th–18th weeks, and FBMs at the 20th–24th and 28th–32nd weeks of pregnancy. Results One hundred fifty-eight women constituted the study group; 17 (10.75%) of them had at least one poor pregnancy outcome. The cut-off point of 0.72 multiple of the median (MoM) for the PAPP-A level achieved a sensitivity of 82.4% and a specificity of 29.8% for poor pregnancy outcomes. The mean birth weight was significantly lower in the subgroup with a higher mean pulsatility index of uterine arteries (UAPImean≥1.19) (p=0.025) as well as in the subgroup with a higher mean resistance index of uterine arteries (UARImean≥0.62) (p=0.013). When the subgroup of pregnant women under the risk of early-onset IUGR according to FBMs was compared to the low-risk group, statistically significant differences were seen in terms of pregnancy outcomes (p=0.045) and birth weight (p=0.011). Conclusion Maternal serum PAPP-A level and FBMs could be used for predicting pregnancy outcomes, while uterine artery Doppler velocimetry and FBMs could be used for predicting neonatal outcomes, specifically the birth weight. PMID:27651722

  16. Ipsilateral lower extremity joint involvement increases the risk of poor pain and function outcomes after hip or knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor pain and function outcomes are undesirable after an elective surgery such as total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Recent studies have indicated that the presence of contralateral joint influences outcomes of THA/TKA, however the impact of ipsilateral knee/hip involvement on THA/TKA outcomes has not been explored. The objective of this study was to assess the association of ipsilateral knee/hip joint involvement on short-term and medium-term pain and function outcomes after THA/TKA. Methods In this retrospective study of prospectively collected data, we used the data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry to assess the association of ipsilateral knee or hip joint involvement with moderate to severe pain and moderate to severe activity limitation at 2-year and 5-year follow-up after primary and revision THA and TKA using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses. Results At 2 years, 3,823 primary THA, 4,701 primary TKA, 1,218 revision THA and 725 revision TKA procedures were studied. After adjusting for multiple covariates, ipsilateral knee pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary THA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, odds ratio (OR), 2.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 3.6); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.1 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.3); at 5 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 5.0). Ipsilateral hip pain was significantly associated with outcomes after primary TKA (all P values <0.01): (1) moderate to severe pain: at 2 years, OR 3.3 (95% CI 2.3 to 4.7); at 5 years, OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.7); (2) moderate to severe activity limitation: at 2 years, OR 3.6 (95% CI 2.6 to 4.9); at 5 years, OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Similar associations were noted for revision THA and TKA patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the presence of ipsilateral joint involvement after THA or TKA is

  17. Comparison of IVF Outcomes between Minimal Stimulation and High-Dose Stimulation for Patients with Poor Ovarian Reserve.

    PubMed

    Lazer, Tal; Dar, Shir; Shlush, Ekaterina; Al Kudmani, Basheer S; Quach, Kevin; Sojecki, Agata; Glass, Karen; Sharma, Prati; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether treatment with minimum-dose stimulation (MS) protocol enhances clinical pregnancy rates compared to high-dose stimulation (HS) protocol. A retrospective cohort study was performed comparing IVF and pregnancy outcomes between MS and HS gonadotropin-antagonist protocol for patients with poor ovarian reserve (POR). Inclusion criteria included patients with an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ≤8 pmol/L and/or antral follicle count (AFC) ≤5 on days 2-3 of the cycle. Patients from 2008 exclusively had a HS protocol treatment, while patients in 2010 had treatment with a MS protocol exclusively. The MS protocol involved letrozole at 2.5 mg over 5 days, starting from day 2, overlapping with gonadotropins, starting from the third day of letrozole at 150 units daily. GnRH antagonist was introduced once one or more follicles reached 14 mm or larger. The HS group received gonadotropins (≥300 IU/day) throughout their antagonist cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MS protocol compared to the HS protocol (P = 0.007). Furthermore, the live birth rate was significantly higher in the MS group compare to the HS group (P = 0.034). In conclusion, the MS IVF protocol is less expensive (lower gonadotropin dosage) and resulted in a higher clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate than a HS protocol for poor responders.

  18. Comparison of IVF Outcomes between Minimal Stimulation and High-Dose Stimulation for Patients with Poor Ovarian Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Lazer, Tal; Al Kudmani, Basheer S.; Glass, Karen; Sharma, Prati; Librach, Clifford L.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether treatment with minimum-dose stimulation (MS) protocol enhances clinical pregnancy rates compared to high-dose stimulation (HS) protocol. A retrospective cohort study was performed comparing IVF and pregnancy outcomes between MS and HS gonadotropin-antagonist protocol for patients with poor ovarian reserve (POR). Inclusion criteria included patients with an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ≤8 pmol/L and/or antral follicle count (AFC) ≤5 on days 2-3 of the cycle. Patients from 2008 exclusively had a HS protocol treatment, while patients in 2010 had treatment with a MS protocol exclusively. The MS protocol involved letrozole at 2.5 mg over 5 days, starting from day 2, overlapping with gonadotropins, starting from the third day of letrozole at 150 units daily. GnRH antagonist was introduced once one or more follicles reached 14 mm or larger. The HS group received gonadotropins (≥300 IU/day) throughout their antagonist cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MS protocol compared to the HS protocol (P = 0.007). Furthermore, the live birth rate was significantly higher in the MS group compare to the HS group (P = 0.034). In conclusion, the MS IVF protocol is less expensive (lower gonadotropin dosage) and resulted in a higher clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate than a HS protocol for poor responders. PMID:25763403

  19. Universally poor outcomes of pediatric traumatic arrest: a prospective case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Seth L; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Young, Kelly D; Putnam, Brant

    2011-07-01

    Few data are available on traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest in children. Efforts at resuscitation typically result in heavy utilization of finite resources with little understanding of which characteristics, if any, may be associated with success. The objectives of this study were to describe the outcome of children in traumatic cardiac arrest and to identify patients for whom aggressive resuscitation may or may not be warranted. Data were analyzed from a previous study of prehospital pediatric airway management in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, Calif, over a 33-month period. Patients included in this secondary analysis were younger than 13 years and found pulseless and apneic after having had an injury. Data sources included prospective, phone interviews with paramedics after transfer of care to the receiving facility, and chart review to determine outcome. Two main outcomes were assessed: survival and neurological function as measured by the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category. The emergency medical services responded to 118 traumatic arrests during the study period. Of these victims, only 6 (5%) survived. Median Injury Severity Score was 25 with an interquartile range of 16 to 75. The survivors all were neurologically impaired with a median Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category of 5 (interquartile range, 4-5). Children who had trauma resulting in cardiac arrest have universally poor outcomes, and survivors have severe neurological compromise. We are unable to identify a subset of patients for whom aggressive resuscitation is indicated. This is the largest prospective study of pediatric traumatic arrest to date.

  20. Prognostic Factors Predicting Poor Outcome in Living-Donor Liver Transplantation for Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-S; Kim, J M; Kwon, C H D; Kim, S J; Joh, J-W; Lee, S-K

    2017-06-01

    Living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been accepted as feasible treatment for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), although it has generated several debatable issues. In this study, we investigated the prognostic factors predicting fatal outcome after LDLT for FHF. From April 1999 to April 2011, 60 patients underwent LT for acute liver failure, including 42 patients for FHF at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Among 42 patients, 30 patients underwent LDLT for FHF, and the database of these patients was analyzed retrospectively to investigate the prognostic factors after LDLT for FHF. Among 30 patients, 7 patients (23%) died during the in-hospital period within 6 months, and 23 patients (77%) survived until recently. In univariate analyses, donor age (>35 years), graft volume (GV)/standard liver volume (SLV) (<50%), cold ischemic time (>120 minutes), hepatic encephalopathy (grade IV), hepato-renal syndrome (HRS), and history of ventilator care were associated with fatal outcome after LDLT for FHF. In multivariate analyses, HRS, GV/SLV (<50%), and donor age (>35 years) were significantly associated with fatal outcome. Although the statistical significance was not shown in this analysis (P = .059), hepatic encephalopathy grade IV also appears to be a risk factor predicting fatal outcome. The survival of patients with FHF undergoing LDLT was comparable to that in published data. In this study, HRS, GV/SLV <50%, and donor age >35 years are the independent poor prognostic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicians' empathy and clinical outcomes for diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Louis, Daniel Z; Markham, Fred W; Wender, Richard; Rabinowitz, Carol; Gonnella, Joseph S

    2011-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that physicians' empathy is associated with positive clinical outcomes for diabetic patients. A correlational study design was used in a university-affiliated outpatient setting. Participants were 891 diabetic patients, treated between July 2006 and June 2009, by 29 family physicians. Results of the most recent hemoglobin A1c and LDL-C tests were extracted from the patients' electronic records. The results of hemoglobin A1c tests were categorized into good control (<7.0%) and poor control (>9.0%). Similarly, the results of the LDL-C tests were grouped into good control (<100) and poor control (>130). The physicians, who completed the Jefferson Scale of Empathy in 2009, were grouped into high, moderate, and low empathy scorers. Associations between physicians' level of empathy scores and patient outcomes were examined. Patients of physicians with high empathy scores were significantly more likely to have good control of hemoglobin A1c (56%) than were patients of physicians with low empathy scores (40%, P < .001). Similarly, the proportion of patients with good LDL-C control was significantly higher for physicians with high empathy scores (59%) than physicians with low scores (44%, P < .001). Logistic regression analyses indicated that physicians' empathy had a unique contribution to the prediction of optimal clinical outcomes after controlling for physicians' and patients' gender and age, and patients' health insurance. The hypothesis of a positive relationship between physicians' empathy and patients' clinical outcomes was confirmed, suggesting that physicians' empathy is an important factor associated with clinical competence and patient outcomes.

  2. Dislocation is a risk factor for poor outcome after supination external rotation type ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Lazaro, Lionel E; Little, Milton M; Berkes, Marschall B; Warner, Stephen J; Helfet, David L; Lorich, Dean G

    2016-01-01

    Ankle fractures are one of the most common fractures requiring surgical treatment. Ankle fracture-dislocations are significant injuries to the osseous and soft tissue envelope, but studies focused on the effect of dislocation on radiographic and functional outcomes are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dislocations on postoperative outcomes in SER IV ankle fracture patients. From 2004 through 2010, all operative SER IV ankle fractures treated by a single surgeon were enrolled in a prospective database. SER IV ankle fractures were separated into two groups based on clinical or radiographic evidence of dislocation. The primary and secondary functional outcomes measures were the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and ankle and subtalar range of motion (ROM) with a minimum of 1-year follow-up, respectively. 108 patients with SER IV ankle fractures were identified, with 73 in the non-dislocation group (68%) and 35 patients in the dislocation group (32%). Patient demographics and co-morbidities were similar between the two groups. The incidence of open fractures and the application of an external fixator were significantly higher in the dislocation group (p = 0.037 and p = 0.003, respectively). The dislocation group showed a significant decrease in the accuracy of articular reduction (p = 0.003). At a mean follow-up of 21 months, ankle fracture-dislocation patients had increased pain (p = 0.005) and decreased activities of daily living (p = 0.014) on FAOS outcome measures and significantly worse ankle and subtalar ROM. The results of this study suggest that concurrent dislocation at time of ankle fracture is associated with worse radiographic and functional outcomes, but not an increase in superficial or deep infection. The results from this study may be helpful in counseling patients regarding expected clinical outcomes after ankle fracture-dislocation and in the surgical management of this complex injury.

  3. Population Based Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Three Tribal Areas of Andhra Pradesh, India: Risk Factors for Poor Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rohit C.; Pallerla, Srinivasa Reddy; Eeda, Shiva Shankar; Gudapati, Bala Krishna; Cassard, Sandra D.; Rani, Padmaja Kumari; Shantha, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Schein, Oliver D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes of cataract surgery in three Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA) areas of Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods and Results Using validated Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, a population based cross-sectional study, was conducted in three ITDA areas. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 7281 participants aged 50 years and above. Vision assessment using a tumbling E chart and standard ocular examinations were completed. Visual outcomes and risk factors for poor outcomes were assessed among subjects undergoing cataract surgery (1548 eyes of 1124 subjects). Mean age at surgery was 67±8 years; Among the operated eyes, presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) worse than 6/18 was seen in 492 (31.8%; 95% CI, 29.5–34.2%) and 298 eyes (19.3%; 95% CI, 17.3–21.3%), respectively. Similarly, PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 219 (14.1%; 95% CI, 12.4–16%) and 147 eyes (9.5%; 95% CI, 8.1–11.1%), respectively. When either eye was taken into consideration, the PVA and BCVA worse than 6/18 was seen in 323 (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.9–23%) and 144 subjects (9.3%; 95% CI, 7.9–10.9%), respectively. PVA and BCVA worse than 6/60 was seen in 74 (4.8%; 95% CI, 3.8–6%) and 49 subjects (3.2%; 95% CI, 2.4–4.2%), respectively. Posterior capsular opacification was seen in 51 of 1316 pseudophakic eyes (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.9–5.1%). In multivariable analysis among pseudophakic subjects with PVA worse than 6/18, increasing age (p = 0.002) and undergoing free surgery (p = 0.05) were independent risk factors. Undergoing surgery before 2005 (p = 0.05) and being illiterate (p = 0.05) were independent risk factors for BCVA worse than 6/18. Conclusions There are changing trends with improved outcomes in cataract surgery among these tribal populations of India. However, post-operative refractive error correction remains an issue

  4. Germline BRCA Mutations Are Associated With Higher Risk of Nodal Involvement, Distant Metastasis, and Poor Survival Outcomes in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Elena; Goh, Chee; Olmos, David; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Mahmud, Nadiya; Dadaev, Tokhir; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Peock, Susan; Evans, D. Gareth; Tischkowitz, Marc; Cole, Trevor; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Porteous, Mary E.; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Izatt, Louise; Cook, Jackie; Hodgson, Shirley; Kennedy, M. John; Side, Lucy E.; Eason, Jacqueline; Murray, Alex; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. Patients and Methods This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1). Results PCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ≥ 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. Conclusion Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients. PMID:23569316

  5. Engaging women at risk for poor perinatal mental health outcomes: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Myors, Karen A; Johnson, Maree; Cleary, Michelle; Schmied, Virginia

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for poor perinatal mental health are well known. Psychosocial assessment and depression screening during the perinatal period aim to identify women at risk for poor perinatal outcomes. Early intervention programmes are known to improve the mental health outcomes of women and infants. Key to any intervention is initial and ongoing engagement in the therapeutic process. This mixed-methods study reports the proportion of women who engage/do not engage with services and their characteristics, as well as the strategies clinicians use to engage women. Data were collected by reviewing medical records, interviewing perinatal and infant mental health (PIMH) clinicians, their managers, key stakeholders, and women service users. Analyses identified that most (71.3%) women referred engaged with the PIMH service. Themes related to non-engagement are 'time to rethink' and 'stigma'. Themes reflecting the engagement strategies used by PIMH clinicians are initial engagement: 'back to basics' and 'building trust', therapeutic engagement: 'making myself useful', engagement at discharge: 'woman or clinician led', and models that facilitate engagement. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Bijaya K.; Baker, Kelly K.; Dutta, Ambarish; Cumming, Oliver; Freeman, Matthew C.; Satpathy, Radhanatha; Das, Bhabani S.; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as preterm birth and low birth weight in a population-based study in rural India. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort of pregnant women (n = 670) in their first trimester of pregnancy was enrolled and followed until birth. Socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors, along with access to toilets and sanitation practices, were recorded at enrolment (12th week of gestation). A trained community health volunteer conducted home visits to ensure retention in the study and learn about study outcomes during the course of pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals for APOs were estimated by logistic regression models. Of the 667 women who were retained at the end of the study, 58.2% practiced open defecation and 25.7% experienced APOs, including 130 (19.4%) preterm births, 95 (14.2%) births with low birth weight, 11 (1.7%) spontaneous abortions, and six (0.9%) stillbirths. Unadjusted ORs for APOs (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.72–3.71), preterm birth (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.54–3.62), and low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24–3.23) were found to be significantly associated with open defecation practices. After adjustment for potential confounders such as maternal socio-demographic and clinical factors, open defecation was still significantly associated with increased odds of APOs (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49–3.80) and preterm birth (AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29–3.79) but not low birth weight (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.94–2.73). The association between APOs and open defecation was independent of poverty and caste. Even though we accounted for several key

  7. The association between current unemployment and clinically determined poor oral health.

    PubMed

    Al-Sudani, Fouad Y H; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Suominen, Anna L

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether current unemployment was associated with poor oral health and whether there was a difference in oral health according to the duration of the current unemployment. As part of the Health 2000 Survey in Finland (a nationwide comprehensive health examination survey), we used its data based on interviews, questionnaires, and clinical oral examinations of the 30- to 63-year-old respondents (n = 4773). Current employment status was measured in its dichotomous form, employed versus unemployed, and length of current unemployment was classified into four categories. We measured oral health in terms of numbers of missing teeth, of sound teeth, of filled teeth, of decayed teeth, and of teeth with deepened periodontal pockets (≥4 mm, ≥6 mm). Poisson regression models were fitted for all oral health outcomes except number of decayed teeth, for which negative binomial regression model was used. Oral health-related behaviors and sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were added to the analyses. The unemployed subjects had higher numbers of missing teeth, of decayed teeth, and of teeth with periodontal pockets than the employed ones. The association remained consistent even after adjustments. Oral health-related behaviors seemed to mediate the association. We found no association between unemployment and number of sound teeth. Current long-term unemployment showed stronger association with poor oral health than short-term among women. The unemployed can be considered as a risk group for poor oral health. Oral healthcare should be reoriented toward those who are unemployed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Frank Arne; Zietemann, Vera; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Dichgans, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, including stroke and atrial fibrillation. However, its impact on functional outcome after stroke remains unexplored. A total of 165 consecutively recruited patients admitted for ischemic stroke were included in this observational prospective study. Blood samples were taken in the morning within 3 days after symptom onset, and patients were divided into the following 3 groups: subclinical hyperthyroidism (0.1< thyroid-stimulating hormone ≤ 0.44 μU/mL), subclinical hypothyroidism (2.5 ≤ thyroid-stimulating hormone <20 μU/mL), and euthyroid state (0.44< thyroid-stimulating hormone <2.5 μU/mL). Patients with overt thyroid dysfunction were excluded. Follow-up took place 3 months after stroke. Primary outcome was functional disability (modified Rankin Scale), and secondary outcome was level of dependency (Barthel Index). Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for possible confounders. Variables previously reported to be affected by thyroid function, such as atrial fibrillation, total cholesterol, or body mass index, were included in an additional model. Nineteen patients (11.5%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism, and 23 patients (13.9%) had subclinical hypothyroidism. Patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism had a substantially increased risk of functional disability 3 months after stroke compared with subjects with euthyroid state (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-6.82, adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and time of blood sampling). The association remained significant, when including the baseline NIHSS, TIA, serum CRP, atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and total cholesterol as additional variables (odds ratio, 3.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-12.47), and was confirmed by the secondary outcome (Barthel Index: odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.08-39.89). Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for poor outcome 3 months after

  9. Predictive Effects of Good Self-Control and Poor Regulation on Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Do Protective Behavioral Strategies Mediate?

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between self-control constructs and alcohol-related outcomes. According to the two-mode model of self-control, good self-control (planfulness; measured with Future Time Perspective, Problem Solving, and Self-Reinforcement) and poor regulation (impulsivity; measured with Present Time Perspective, Poor Delay of Gratification, Distractibility) are theorized to be relatively independent constructs rather than opposite ends of a single continuum. The analytic sample consisted of 278 college student drinkers (68% women) who responded to a battery of surveys at a single time point. Using a structural equation model based on the two-mode model of self-control, we found that good self-control predicted increased use of three types of protective behavioral strategies (Manner of Drinking, Limiting/Stopping Drinking, and Serious Harm Reduction). Poor regulation was unrelated to use of protective behavioral strategies, but had direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol problems. Further, protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between good self-control and alcohol use. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22663345

  10. Fundamentals of Clinical Outcomes Assessment for Spinal Disorders: Clinical Outcome Instruments and Applications.

    PubMed

    Vavken, Patrick; Ganal-Antonio, Anne Kathleen B; Quidde, Julia; Shen, Francis H; Chapman, Jens R; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-08-01

    Study Design A broad narrative review. Objectives Outcome assessment in spinal disorders is imperative to help monitor the safety and efficacy of the treatment in an effort to change the clinical practice and improve patient outcomes. The following article, part two of a two-part series, discusses the various outcome tools and instruments utilized to address spinal disorders and their management. Methods A thorough review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, irrespective of language, addressing outcome research, instruments and tools, and applications. Results Numerous articles addressing the development and implementation of health-related quality-of-life, neck and low back pain, overall pain, spinal deformity, and other condition-specific outcome instruments have been reported. Their applications in the context of the clinical trial studies, the economic analyses, and overall evidence-based orthopedics have been noted. Additional issues regarding the problems and potential sources of bias utilizing outcomes scales and the concept of minimally clinically important difference were discussed. Conclusion Continuing research needs to assess the outcome instruments and tools used in the clinical outcome assessment for spinal disorders. Understanding the fundamental principles in spinal outcome assessment may also advance the field of "personalized spine care."

  11. Fundamentals of Clinical Outcomes Assessment for Spinal Disorders: Clinical Outcome Instruments and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vavken, Patrick; Ganal-Antonio, Anne Kathleen B.; Quidde, Julia; Shen, Francis H.; Chapman, Jens R.; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A broad narrative review. Objectives Outcome assessment in spinal disorders is imperative to help monitor the safety and efficacy of the treatment in an effort to change the clinical practice and improve patient outcomes. The following article, part two of a two-part series, discusses the various outcome tools and instruments utilized to address spinal disorders and their management. Methods A thorough review of the peer-reviewed literature was performed, irrespective of language, addressing outcome research, instruments and tools, and applications. Results Numerous articles addressing the development and implementation of health-related quality-of-life, neck and low back pain, overall pain, spinal deformity, and other condition-specific outcome instruments have been reported. Their applications in the context of the clinical trial studies, the economic analyses, and overall evidence-based orthopedics have been noted. Additional issues regarding the problems and potential sources of bias utilizing outcomes scales and the concept of minimally clinically important difference were discussed. Conclusion Continuing research needs to assess the outcome instruments and tools used in the clinical outcome assessment for spinal disorders. Understanding the fundamental principles in spinal outcome assessment may also advance the field of “personalized spine care.” PMID:26225283

  12. Collaborative community-based teaching clinics at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College: addressing the needs of local poor communities.

    PubMed

    Kopansky-Giles, Deborah; Vernon, Howard; Steiman, Igor; Tibbles, Anthony; Decina, Philip; Goldin, Jarrod; Kelly, Maureen

    2007-10-01

    Inequities in access to health services, resulting from cuts in public sector budgets and inflation, greatly affect Canada's poorest and most vulnerable people. The purpose of this article is to describe the experiences of the community-based teaching clinics of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC), located in the poor, inner city region of Toronto, where access to chiropractic care for this population has been enabled. Three chiropractic teaching clinics have been established in host facilities in the inner city community of Toronto. For over a decade, CMCC has had collaborative chiropractic clinics in the Sherbourne Health Centre (a southeast Toronto primary care facility), and Anishnawbe Health Toronto (an aboriginal health facility addressing the needs of urban First Nations people). For 3 years, we have been providing chiropractic services in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at St Michael's Hospital. The priority for these programs was the minimization of economic barriers to accessing care for poor and marginalized people. Outcomes have demonstrated high use when there is no economic barrier, excellent clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction, and a high level of collaboration with other health practitioners. The CMCC's external clinics program has enabled access to chiropractic services to thousands of people living in the inner city and urban aboriginal communities of Toronto. This has resulted in the minimization of barriers to accessing care, the provision of appropriate and effective care, and collaboration. These clinics also greatly increase students' awareness of, sensitivity to, and commitment to being part of the solution to these problems.

  13. Predictors of Poor Pregnancy Outcomes Among Antenatal Care Attendees in Primary Health Care Facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria: A Multilevel Model.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Soter; Adeleye, Omokhoa A; Kabiru, Caroline W; Agan, Thomas; Duke, Roseline; Mkpanam, Nkese; Nwoha, Doris

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Pregnancy carries a high risk for millions of women and varies by urban-rural location in Nigeria, a country with the second highest maternal deaths in the world. Addressing multilevel predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes among antenatal care (ANC) attendees in primary health care (PHC) facilities could reduce the high maternal mortality rate in Nigeria. This study utilised the "Risk Approach" strategy to (1) compare the risks of poor pregnancy outcomes among ANC attendees by urban-rural location; and (2) determine predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes among ANC attendees in urban-rural PHC facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 among 400 ANC attendees aged 15-49 years recruited through multistage sampling. Data on risk factors of poor pregnancy outcomes were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and clinic records. Respondents were categorised into low, medium or high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, based on their overall risk scores. Predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes were determined by multilevel ordinal logistic regression. Results A greater proportion of the women in the rural areas were below the middle socio-economic quintile (75 vs. 4 %, p < 0.001), had no education (12 vs. 2 %, p < 0.001), and were in the 15-24 age group (58 vs. 35 %, p < 0.001) whereas women in the urban areas were older than 35 years (10 vs. 5 %, p < 0.001). The women attending antenatal care in the urban PHC facilities had a low overall risk of poor pregnancy outcomes than those in the rural facilities (64 vs. 50 %, p = 0.034). Pregnant women in the urban areas had decreased odds of being at high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes versus the combined medium and low risks compared with those in the rural areas (OR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.09-0.65). Conclusions for Practice Pregnant women attending antenatal care in rural PHC facilities are more at risk of poor pregnancy outcomes than those

  14. Emerging malnutrition during hospitalisation independently predicts poor 3-month outcomes after acute stroke: data from a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Anxin; Zhou, Yong; Yang, Bo; Wei, Na; Yu, Dandan; Lu, Jingjing; Chen, Shengyun; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Chunxue; Xue, Rong; Zhang, Yanqiu; Li, Yansheng; Yu, Ling; Wang, Shaoshi; Chen, Zhenli; Zheng, Tianheng; Zhang, Zhuo; Xia, Meng; He, Maolin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zeng, Fei; Chen, Shengdi; Fu, Yi; Liu, Guidong; Wang, Lijuan; Huang, Zhiheng; Ma, Jianguo; Mu, Fengqun; Xu, Yun; Huang, Rong; Wang, Lin; Wang, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Questions exist regarding the causal relationship between malnutrition and stroke outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether nutritional status changes or malnutrition during hospitalisation could predict 3-month outcomes in acute stroke patients. During a 10-month period, patients who suffered their first stroke within 7 days after stroke onset were included in this prospective multi-centre study. The demographic parameters, stroke risk and severity factors, malnutrition risk factors and dysphagia were recorded. Nutritional status was assessed by 3 anthropometric and 3 biochemical indices. Changes in nutritional status were defined by comparing the admission values with the 2-week values. A Modified Rankin Scale score of 3-6 was defined as a poor outcome at the 3-month follow-up. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the power of nutritional status changes in predicting poor patient outcomes. Data from 760 patients were analysed. Poor outcomes were observed in 264 (34.7%) patients. Malnutrition prevalence was 3.8% at admission and 7.5% after 2-weeks in hospital, which could not predict 3-month outcome. Emerging malnutrition was observed in 36 patients (4.7%) during the 2-week hospitalisation period and independently predicted poor 3-month outcomes after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.83). Emerging malnutrition during hospitalisation independently predicted poor 3-month outcomes in acute stroke patients in this study.

  15. Low T3 syndrome is a strong predictor of poor outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinliang; Wu, Xuejie; Lu, Fang; Zhao, Lifang; Shi, Lingxian; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Low T3 syndrome was previously reported to be linked to poor clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of low T3 syndrome for clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data for 503 patients were analyzed retrospectively, and the primary end point was 30-day mortality. The intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and 30-day mortality were 8.3% and 6.4% respectively. The prevalence of low T3 syndrome differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors (29.1% vs 71.9%, P < 0.001), and low T3 syndrome was associated with a remarkable increased risk of 30-day mortality and ICU admission in patients with severe CAP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis produced an odds ratio of 2.96 (95% CI 1.14–7.76, P = 0.025) for 30-day mortality in CAP patients with low T3 syndrome. Survival analysis revealed that the survival rate among CAP patients with low T3 syndrome was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Adding low T3 syndrome to the PSI and CURB-65 significantly increased the areas under the ROC curves for predicting ICU admission and 30-day mortality. In conclusion, low T3 syndrome is an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality in CAP patients. PMID:26928863

  16. Low T3 syndrome is a strong predictor of poor outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Wu, Xuejie; Lu, Fang; Zhao, Lifang; Shi, Lingxian; Xu, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Low T3 syndrome was previously reported to be linked to poor clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of low T3 syndrome for clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data for 503 patients were analyzed retrospectively, and the primary end point was 30-day mortality. The intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and 30-day mortality were 8.3% and 6.4% respectively. The prevalence of low T3 syndrome differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors (29.1% vs 71.9%, P < 0.001), and low T3 syndrome was associated with a remarkable increased risk of 30-day mortality and ICU admission in patients with severe CAP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis produced an odds ratio of 2.96 (95% CI 1.14-7.76, P = 0.025) for 30-day mortality in CAP patients with low T3 syndrome. Survival analysis revealed that the survival rate among CAP patients with low T3 syndrome was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Adding low T3 syndrome to the PSI and CURB-65 significantly increased the areas under the ROC curves for predicting ICU admission and 30-day mortality. In conclusion, low T3 syndrome is an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality in CAP patients.

  17. Does aberrant membrane transport contribute to poor outcome in adult acute myeloid leukemia?

    PubMed Central

    Chigaev, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia in adults is a highly heterogeneous disease. Gene expression profiling performed using unsupervised algorithms can be used to distinguish specific groups of patients within a large patient cohort. The identified gene expression signatures can offer insights into underlying physiological mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. Here, the analysis of several related gene expression clusters associated with poor outcome, worst overall survival and highest rates of resistant disease and obtained from the patients at the time of diagnosis or from previously untreated individuals is presented. Surprisingly, these gene clusters appear to be enriched for genes corresponding to proteins involved in transport across membranes (transporters, carriers and channels). Several ideas describing the possible relationship of membrane transport activity and leukemic cell biology, including the “Warburg effect,” the specific role of chloride ion transport, direct “import” of metabolic energy through uptake of creatine phosphate, and modification of the bone marrow niche microenvironment are discussed. PMID:26191006

  18. Inappropriate left ventricular mass and poor outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bao-Tao; Peng, Yong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Huang, Fang-Yang; Wang, Peng-Ju; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chai, Hua; Li, Qiao; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Ren, Xin; Huang, Kai-Sen; Meng, Qing-Tao; Chen, Chi; Huang, De-Jia; Chen, Mao

    2015-03-01

    Although inappropriate left ventricular mass has been associated with clustered cardiac geometric and functional abnormalities, its predictive value in patients with coronary artery disease is still unknown. This study examined the association of inappropriate left ventricular mass with clinical outcomes in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction. Consecutive patients diagnosed with angina pectoris whose ejection fraction was normal were recruited from 2008 to 2012. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was determined when the ratio of actual left ventricular mass to the predicted one exceeded 150%. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. Clinical outcomes between the inappropriate and appropriate left ventricular mass group were compared before and after propensity matching. Of the total of 1515 participants, 18.3% had inappropriate left ventricular mass. Patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass had a higher composite event rate compared with those with appropriate left ventricular mass (11.2 vs. 6.6%, P=0.010). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that inappropriate left ventricular mass was an independent risk factor for adverse events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.45; P=0.035). The worse outcome in patients with inappropriate left ventricular mass was further validated in a propensity matching cohort and patients with the traditional definition of left ventricular hypertrophy. Inappropriate left ventricular mass was associated with an increased risk of adverse events in patients with angina pectoris and normal ejection fraction.

  19. Duration of untreated illness in panic disorder: a poor outcome risk factor?

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Carlo; Santini, Annalisa; Salvadori, Daniele; Mundo, Emanuela

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to evaluate the impact of the duration of untreated illness (DUI) on the outcome and treatment response of panic disorder (PD). Ninety-six outpatients with PD who underwent an 8-week open-label treatment with serotonergic antidepressants were subdivided into two subgroups: those with DUI 1 year. The main baseline demographic and clinical variables were calculated and compared between the two subgroups of patients (chi-square test or t-test for independent samples). The effect of the antipanic medication was evaluated by analysis of variance with repeated measures considering Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Clinical Global Impression rating scores, and the number of panic attacks/week as the dependent variables (outcome measures), while the subgroups were the independent ones. Comorbidity with onset later than PD was also considered. There were no differences between patients with DUI 1 year with respect to the outcome measures considered. However, patients with DUI > 1 year (N = 64) had a higher frequency of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) with onset later than PD (p = 0.006). Results from this study suggest that the DUI may be a predictor of the development of comorbid MDD in PD. Further investigations on larger samples and with longer follow-up are warranted.

  20. Duration of untreated illness in panic disorder: a poor outcome risk factor?

    PubMed Central

    Altamura, A Carlo; Santini, Annalisa; Salvadori, Daniele; Mundo, Emanuela

    2005-01-01

    Objective The aim of this naturalistic study was to evaluate the impact of the duration of untreated illness (DUI) on the outcome and treatment response of panic disorder (PD). Methods Ninety-six outpatients with PD who underwent an 8-week open-label treatment with serotonergic antidepressants were subdivided into two subgroups: those with DUI ≤ 1 year and those with DUI > 1 year. The main baseline demographic and clinical variables were calculated and compared between the two subgroups of patients (chi-square test or t-test for independent samples). The effect of the antipanic medication was evaluated by analysis of variance with repeated measures considering Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, Clinical Global Impression rating scores, and the number of panic attacks/week as the dependent variables (outcome measures), while the subgroups were the independent ones. Comorbidity with onset later than PD was also considered. Results There were no differences between patients with DUI ≤ 1 year and patients with DUI > 1 year with respect to the outcome measures considered. However, patients with DUI > 1 year (N = 64) had a higher frequency of comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) with onset later than PD (p = 0.006). Conclusions Results from this study suggest that the DUI may be a predictor of the development of comorbid MDD in PD. Further investigations on larger samples and with longer follow-up are warranted. PMID:18568114

  1. Hypocalcemic tetany: a simple bedside marker of poor outcome in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Puneet; Rana, Surinder S; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Ravi; Bhasin, Deepak K

    2016-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is a marker of poor prognosis in acute pancreatitis (AP) but the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP has not been studied. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP. Consecutive patients of AP who presented within 7 days of symptoms were included. Serum calcium levels were measured on admission and the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence (group 1) or absence of hypocalcemia (group 2). Chvostek and Trousseau signs were sought in all patients with hypocalcemia and the outcome measures were compared between patients with normocalcemia, asymptomatic and symptomatic hypocalcemia (tetany). The outcome parameters assessed were persistent organ failure (POF), need for intervention, and mortality. Of 105 patients (53 male; mean age 37.34±12.62 years), 37 (35.2%) had hypocalcemia (group 1) and 68 (64.8%) had normal corrected serum calcium levels (group 2). Patients with hypocalcemia had significantly higher frequency of POF, mortality and need for intervention (P<0.05). Twelve of 37 (32.4%) patients with hypocalcemia had tetany. Patients with tetany had significantly lower serum corrected calcium and ionized calcium levels compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (P<0.05). Patients with tetany had significantly higher mortality rates compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (100% vs. 8%; P=0.00001) as well as POF (100% vs. 32%; P=0.000006). Presence of hypocalcemic tetany in AP patients bears a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality.

  2. Hypocalcemic tetany: a simple bedside marker of poor outcome in acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Puneet; Rana, Surinder S.; Sharma, Vishal; Sharma, Ravi; Bhasin, Deepak K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypocalcemia is a marker of poor prognosis in acute pancreatitis (AP) but the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP has not been studied. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of hypocalcemic tetany in patients with AP. Methods Consecutive patients of AP who presented within 7 days of symptoms were included. Serum calcium levels were measured on admission and the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence (group 1) or absence of hypocalcemia (group 2). Chvostek and Trousseau signs were sought in all patients with hypocalcemia and the outcome measures were compared between patients with normocalcemia, asymptomatic and symptomatic hypocalcemia (tetany). The outcome parameters assessed were persistent organ failure (POF), need for intervention, and mortality. Results Of 105 patients (53 male; mean age 37.34±12.62 years), 37 (35.2%) had hypocalcemia (group 1) and 68 (64.8%) had normal corrected serum calcium levels (group 2). Patients with hypocalcemia had significantly higher frequency of POF, mortality and need for intervention (P<0.05). Twelve of 37 (32.4%) patients with hypocalcemia had tetany. Patients with tetany had significantly lower serum corrected calcium and ionized calcium levels compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (P<0.05). Patients with tetany had significantly higher mortality rates compared with patients with asymptomatic hypocalcemia (100% vs. 8%; P=0.00001) as well as POF (100% vs. 32%; P=0.000006). Conclusion Presence of hypocalcemic tetany in AP patients bears a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality. PMID:27065735

  3. Exposure to violence predicts poor educational outcomes in young children in South Africa and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Sherr, L.; Hensels, I. S.; Skeen, S.; Tomlinson, M.; Roberts, K. J.; Macedo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence during childhood may affect short and long-term educational factors. There is scant literature on younger children from resource poor settings. Methods This study assessed child violence experiences (harsh punishment and exposure to domestic or community violence) and school enrolment, progress and attendance in children attending community-based organisations in South Africa and Malawi (n=989) at baseline and at 15 months' follow-up, examining differential experience of HIV positive, HIV affected and HIV unaffected children. Results Violence exposure was high: 45.4% experienced some form of psychological violence, 47.8% physical violence, 46.7% domestic violence and 41.8% community violence. Primary school enrolment was 96%. Violence was not associated with school enrolment at baseline but, controlling for baseline, children exposed to psychological violence for discipline were more than ten times less likely to be enrolled at follow-up (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.57). Harsh discipline was associated with poor school progress. For children HIV positive a detrimental effect of harsh physical discipline was found on school performance (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.61). Conclusion Violence experiences were associated with a number of educational outcomes, which may have long-term consequences. Community-based organisations may be well placed to address such violence, with a particular emphasis on the challenges faced by children who are HIV positive. PMID:26678567

  4. Poor outcome after cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis with signet ring cell histology.

    PubMed

    van Oudheusden, T R; Braam, H J; Nienhuijs, S W; Wiezer, M J; van Ramshorst, B; Luyer, P; de Hingh, I H

    2015-02-01

    Signet ring cell cancer (SRCC) patients have a poor oncologic outcome. The aim of this study was to determine whether the potential drawbacks of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) outweigh the benefits in patients with peritoneally metastasized SRCC. Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal origin referred to two tertiary centers between April 2005 and December 2013 were identified and retrospectively analyzed. Data were compared between SRCC histology and other differentiations. Three-hundred-fifty-one patients were referred for CRS+HIPEC among which 20 (5.7%) patients were identified with SRCC histology. CRS + HIPEC was performed in 16 of these 20 (80%) and 252 out of the 331 remaining patients (76.1%). A higher proportion of patients in the SRCC-group were diagnosed with N2 stage (62.5% vs. 36.1%, P=0.04). A macroscopic complete resection was achieved in 87.5% and 97.2% respectively (P=0.04). Median survival was 14.1 months compared to 35.1 months (P<0.01). Recurrence occurred in 68.8% of the SRCC patients and in 43.7% of the other histology patients (P=0.05). Patients with SRCC and PC treated with CRS+HIPEC have a poor median survival only slightly reaching over 1 year. In the presence of other relative contraindications, SRCC histology should refrain a surgeon from performing CRS and HIPEC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Characterizing non-monosexual women at risk for poor mental health outcomes: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Manley, Melissa H; Goldberg, Abbie E; Januwalla, Alia; Williams, Keisha; Flanders, Corey E

    2017-09-14

    Non-monosexual women - those who report attraction to or sexual relationships with individuals of more than one gender - have elevated risk for poor mental health outcomes. We aimed to examine which elements of non-monosexual experience are associated with this elevated risk. We conducted a sequential exploratory mixed methods analysis of qualitative interview and survey data from 39 non-monosexual women recruited consecutively through prenatal care providers. Qualitative analyses identified distinguishing features, and quantitative analyses tested associations between these features and mental health symptoms. Nine qualitative themes were identified to describe distinguishing features of non-monosexual women. Of these, current and past five years partner gender, lack of LGBTQ community connection, and low centrality of sexual minority identity were associated with anxiety symptoms. Latent class analysis revealed significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms among non-monosexual women partnered with men relative to those partnered with women. Sexual minority women who partner with men may be particularly at risk for poor mental health. Considering this group's invisibility in public health research and practice, interventions are needed to address this disparity.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression is associated with poor outcome in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cañueto, J; Cardeñoso, E; García, J L; Santos-Briz, Á; Castellanos-Martín, A; Fernández-López, E; Blanco Gómez, A; Pérez-Losada, J; Román-Curto, C

    2017-05-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the second most frequent cancer in humans after basal cell carcinoma, and its incidence is dramatically rising. CSCC is rarely problematic, but given its high frequency, the absolute number of complicated cases is also high. It is necessary to identify molecular markers in order to recognize those CSCCs with poor prognosis. There is controversy concerning the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a marker of prognosis in CSCC. In addition, EGFR-targeted therapies have emerged in recent years and a better understanding of the role of EGFR in CSCC may be of help for some patients in predicting prognosis and guiding curative management. To evaluate the role of EGFR as a prognostic factor in CSCC. We evaluated clinical and histopathological features, including events of poor clinical evolution, in a series of 94 cases of CSCC. We also analysed EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We detected EGFR in 85 cases (90%), with overexpression in 33 cases (35%), and aberrant EGFR expression in the cytoplasm in 50 cases (53%). EGFR overexpression in the primary tumours was associated with lymph node progression, tumour-nodes-metastasis stage progression and proliferation (Ki-67 staining) in CSCC. EGFR overexpression and poor grade of differentiation were the strongest independent variables defining lymph node metastasis and progression in CSCC in a logistic regression model. We demonstrate that EGFR overexpression has prognostic implications associated with lymph node metastasis and progression in CSCC. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of septic bursitis.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Sarah B; Fowler, Mary Louise; Zhu, Clara; Moore, Andrew; Shmerling, Robert H; Paz, Ziv

    2017-05-29

    Limited data guide practice in evaluation and treatment of septic bursitis. We aimed to characterize clinical characteristics, microbiology, and outcomes of patients with septic bursitis stratified by bursal involvement, presence of trauma, and management type. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to a single center from 1998 to 2015 with culture-proven olecranon and patellar septic bursitis. Baseline characteristics, clinical features, microbial profiles, operative interventions, hospitalization lengths, and 60-day readmission rates were determined. Patients were stratified by bursitis site, presence or absence of trauma, and operative or non-operative management. Of 44 cases of septic bursitis, patients with olecranon and patellar bursitis were similar with respect to age, male predominance, and frequency of bursal trauma; patients managed operatively were younger (p = 0.05). Clinical features at presentation and comorbidities were similar despite bursitis site, history of trauma, or management. The most common organism isolated from bursal fluid was Staphylococcus aureus. Patients managed operatively were discharged to rehabilitation less frequently (p = 0.04). This study of septic bursitis is among the largest reported. We were unable to identify presenting clinical features that differentiated patients treated surgically from those treated conservatively. There was no clear relationship between preceding trauma or bursitis site and clinical course, management, or outcomes. Patients with bursitis treated surgically were younger. Additional study is needed to identify patients who would benefit from early surgical intervention for septic bursitis.

  8. Clinical outcomes following osteochondral autologous transplantation (OATS).

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amit; Burks, Robert T; Greis, Patrick E; Chapman, Andrew W; Ford, Gregory M; Fink, Barbara P

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluated the clinical outcome in 21 patients (22 knees) undergoing osteochondral autologous transplantation (OATS) in the knee over a 5-year period. Sixteen knees in 15 patients were available for follow-up at an average of 40 months after the procedure. The clinical outcome was analyzed using the IKDC and Knee and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) evaluation forms, a subjective questionnaire, and a clinical examination. At final follow-up, the average KOOS result for pain was 80.6 (range: 56-94), symptoms 53.6 (range: 25-71), function of activities of daily living 93.4 (range: 79-100), function of sports and recreational activities 65.3 (range: 20-100), and quality of life 51.0 (range: 6-88). The average IKDC score was 68.2. On our subjective questionnaire, the average preoperative grade given was 3.1 (range: 1-7) with an improvement at the most recent follow-up to a grade of 8.0 (range: 5-10) (P < .00001). Thirteen (86%) patients reported that they would have the surgery again if they had to make the decision a second time. Age did not correlate with subjective results on the IKDC evaluation (P = .7048) or score difference on our questionnaire (P = .9175). This procedure provides an option for articular resurfacing of the femoral condyles for focal areas of chondral defects with promising results regarding subjective improvement.

  9. White matter damage of the brain is associated with poor outcome in vascular surgery patients with claudication: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, S; Utriainen, K T; Parkkola, R; Airaksinen, J K; Laitio, R; Scheinin, H; Hakovirta, H; Laitio, T T

    2014-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a systemic atherosclerotic syndrome with high post-operative morbidity and mortality. Fractional anisotropy (FA), an index measured by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), has been shown to be exceedingly sensitive to microstructural damage in brain white matter tracts. It is hypothesized that pre-operative white matter damage is more extensive in PAD patients scheduled for vascular surgery who experience an adverse long-term outcome. Preoperative FA values were obtained in 24 consecutive PAD patients (age >40 years) scheduled for elective infrainguinal revascularization surgery and in 15 healthy age matched participants. All patients had their clinical history taken and underwent physical examination and laboratory tests. After surgery, patients were followed for a median of 52 months (range 40-63) and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were recorded. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline demographic or clinical variables between the MACCE group and the non-MACCE group. During follow up, eight PAD patients suffered a MACCE and they had lower FA values than patients without MACCE or healthy controls (mean ± SD 0.370 ± 0.017 vs. 0.392 ± 0.023 vs. 0.412 ± 0.018, p = .036 and p = .00007, respectively). Voxelwise analysis of the FA data revealed diffuse spatial distribution of white matter damage in PAD patients. There was no statistically significant association between the FA values and other clinical variables. Microstructural white matter damage was associated with poor outcome in PAD patients with claudication requiring surgical revascularization, and its extent may have clinical value in risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymptomatic Antibody-mediated Rejection After Heart Transplantation Predicts Poor Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Grace W.; Kobashigawa, Jon A.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Patel, Jignesh K.; Kittleson, Michelle M.; Reed, Elaine F.; Kiyosaki, Krista K.; Ardehali, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with poor outcome after heart transplantation. The diagnosis of AMR usually includes endomyocardial biopsy findings of endothelial cell swelling, intravascular macrophages, C4d+ staining, and associated left ventricular dysfunction. The significance of AMR findings in biopsy specimens of asymptomatic heart transplant patients (normal cardiac function and no symptoms of heart failure) is unclear. Methods Between July 1997 and September 2001, AMR was found in the biopsy specimens of 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: asymptomatic AMR (AsAMR, n = 21) and treated AMR (TxAMR with associated left ventricular dysfunction, n = 22). For comparison, a control group of 86 contemporaneous patients, without AMR, was matched for age, gender, and time from transplant. Outcomes included 5-year actuarial survival and development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Patients were considered to have AMR if they had ≥ 1 endomyocardial biopsy specimen positive for AMR. Results The 5-year actuarial survival for the AsAMR (86%), TxAMR (68%), and control groups (79%) was not significantly different (p = 0.41). Five-year freedom from CAV (≥ 30% stenosis in any vessel) was AsAMR, 52%; TxAMR, 68%; and control, 79%. Individually, freedom from CAV was significantly lower in the AsAMR group compared with the control group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between AsAMR vs TxAMR and TxAMR vs control for CAV. Conclusions Despite comparable 5-year survival with controls after heart transplantation, AsAMR rejection is associated with a greater risk of CAV. Trials to treat AsAMR to alter outcome are warranted. PMID:19416767

  11. Asymptomatic antibody-mediated rejection after heart transplantation predicts poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Grace W; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Fishbein, Michael C; Patel, Jignesh K; Kittleson, Michelle M; Reed, Elaine F; Kiyosaki, Krista K; Ardehali, Abbas

    2009-05-01

    Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) has been associated with poor outcome after heart transplantation. The diagnosis of AMR usually includes endomyocardial biopsy findings of endothelial cell swelling, intravascular macrophages, C4d+ staining, and associated left ventricular dysfunction. The significance of AMR findings in biopsy specimens of asymptomatic heart transplant patients (normal cardiac function and no symptoms of heart failure) is unclear. Between July 1997 and September 2001, AMR was found in the biopsy specimens of 43 patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups: asymptomatic AMR (AsAMR, n = 21) and treated AMR (TxAMR with associated left ventricular dysfunction, n = 22). For comparison, a control group of 86 contemporaneous patients, without AMR, was matched for age, gender, and time from transplant. Outcomes included 5-year actuarial survival and development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV). Patients were considered to have AMR if they had > or = 1 endomyocardial biopsy specimen positive for AMR. The 5-year actuarial survival for the AsAMR (86%), TxAMR (68%), and control groups (79%) was not significantly different (p = 0.41). Five-year freedom from CAV (> or = 30% stenosis in any vessel) was AsAMR, 52%; TxAMR, 68%; and control, 79%. Individually, freedom from CAV was significantly lower in the AsAMR group compared with the control group (p = 0.02). There was no significant difference between AsAMR vs TxAMR and TxAMR vs control for CAV. Despite comparable 5-year survival with controls after heart transplantation, AsAMR rejection is associated with a greater risk of CAV. Trials to treat AsAMR to alter outcome are warranted.

  12. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Gene Expression Profiles Predict Poor Outcome in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Noth, Imre; Duncan, Steven R.; Kim, SungHwan; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Tseng, George C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Juan-Guardela, Brenda M.; Richards, Thomas J.; Lussier, Yves; Huang, Yong; Vij, Rekha; Lindell, Kathleen O.; Xue, Jianmin; Gibson, Kevin F.; Shapiro, Steven D.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Kaminski, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression profiles predictive of poor outcomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by performing microarray experiments of PBMCs in discovery and replication cohorts of IPF patients. Microarray analyses identified 52 genes associated with transplant-free survival (TFS) in the discovery cohort. Clustering the microarray samples of the replication cohort using the 52-gene outcome-predictive signature distinguished two patient groups with significant differences in TFS. We studied the pathways associated with TFS in each independent microarray cohort and identified decreased expression of “The costimulatory signal during T cell activation” Biocarta pathway and, in particular, the genes CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK, results confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). A proportional hazards model, including the qRT-PCR expression of CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK along with patient’s age, gender, and percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%), demonstrated an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 78.5% at 2.4 months for death and lung transplant prediction in the replication cohort. To evaluate the potential cellular source of CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK expression, we analyzed and found significant correlation of these genes with the PBMC percentage of CD4+CD28+ T cells in the replication cohort. Our results suggest that CD28, ICOS, LCK, and ITK are potential outcome biomarkers in IPF and should be further evaluated for patient prioritization for lung transplantation and stratification in drug studies. PMID:24089408

  13. Intra-arterial nimodipine for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage: Influence on clinical course and predictors of clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri; Cortsen, Marie; Eskesen, Vagn; Wagner, Aase

    2016-01-01

    Intra-arterial nimodipine (IAN) has shown a promising effect on cerebral vasospasm (CV) after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. At our institution, Rigshospitalet, IAN treatment has been used since 2009, but the short- and long-term clinical efficacy of IAN has not yet been assessed. The purpose was to evaluate the efficacy and clinical outcome of IAN treatment of symptomatic CV, and to assess the predictors of clinical outcome. Medical records of 25 patients undergoing a total of 41 IAN treatment sessions were retrospectively reviewed. Data on angiographic results, blood-flow velocities and the clinical condition before and after the IAN treatment were recorded. Predictors of the clinical outcome were assessed with a linear regression model. Positive angiographic response was achieved in 95.1% of 41 IAN treatment sessions. Flow-velocity measurements showed no relationship with angiographic responses of IAN. The immediate clinical improvement was observed in three patients (12%). Five patients (20%) had a favourable outcome at discharge and at three-month follow-up; 10 patients (40%) had a moderate to poor outcome; and the rest (40%) died. Increased number of affected vessels and number of procedures carried out per patient, and a trend toward an increased delay time from symptomatic CV to confirming angiographic CV and thus instituting IAN treatment predicted the poor clinical outcome. IAN treatment appears to be effective in reversing angiographic CV. However, it is not always effective in reversing clinical deterioration, as several other factors including treatment delay affect the clinical course. PMID:26825134

  14. Visual outcomes of bilateral congenital and developmental cataracts in young children in south India and causes of poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rohit C; Foster, Allen; Krishnaiah, Sannapaneni; Mehta, Manohar K; Gogate, Parikshit M

    2013-01-01

    Context: Bilateral pediatric cataracts are important cause of visual impairment in children. Aim: To study the outcome of bilateral pediatric cataract surgery in young children. Setting and Design: Retrospective case series in a tertiary center. Materials and Methods: Records of pediatric cataracts operated between January 2001 and December 2003, with a minimum follow-up of 3 months, were reviewed retrospectively. Statistical Methods: Independent sample t-test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science, Chicago, USA) version 12. Results: 215/257 (83.7%) patients had a minimum follow-up of 3 months. The mean age of presentation to the hospital was 53 months (range: 0-168 months). Congenital cataract was present in 107 patients (58.2%) and developmental cataract in 77 patients (41.8%). The mean age at surgery was 55.2 months (range: 1-168 months). Out of 430 eyes, 269 (62.6%) had an intraocular lens implanted. The mean duration of follow-up was 13.1 months (range: 3-38 months). Pre-operatively, 102 patients (47.3%) had visual acuity <6/60, in the better eye, compared to 37 patients (17.2%) post-operatively (P < 0.001). Eighty-five patients (39.5%) had visual acuity >6/18. The most common early post-operative complication was fibrinous uveitis in 57 eyes (13.3%) and the most common delayed post-operative complication was posterior capsular opacification in 118 eyes (27.4%). The most important prognostic factor for poor outcome was congenital cataract (odds ratio [OR]: 26.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-158.5) and total cataract (OR: 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-17). PMID:23412523

  15. Poor outcome and death among youth, young adults, and midlife adults with eating disorders: an investigation of risk factors by age at assessment.

    PubMed

    Ackard, Diann M; Richter, Sara; Egan, Amber; Cronemeyer, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) present across a broad age range, yet little is known about the characteristics and outcome of midlife patients compared to younger patients. Among patients seeking ED treatment who were stratified by age at initial assessment (IA), this study aimed to (1) discern sociodemographic and clinical differences, (2) determine outcome rates, and (3) identify predictors of poor outcome including death. Participants [219 females (12 years or older, 94.1% Caucasian) who completed outcome assessment and 31 known decedents] were stratified by age at IA (<18 as youth, 18-39 as young adult, and ≥40 years as midlife adult). Analyses of variance and chi-square tests identified group differences; ordered logistic regression with stepwise selection identified factors predicting outcome. Midlife adults were more significantly compromised at follow-up compared to youths and young adults, including psychological and physical quality of life, ineffectiveness, interpersonal concerns, and general psychological maladjustment. Midlife adults had the highest rates of poor outcome or death; good outcome was achieved by only 5.9% of midlife adult compared to 14.0% of young adult and 27.5% of youth patients. Older age at IA, alcohol and/or drug misuse, endocrine concerns, and absence of family ED history predicted poor outcome or death. Midlife adults seeking ED treatment have more complex medical and psychological concerns and poorer outcomes than youths and young adults; further exploration is needed to improve treatment outcome. Specialized treatment focusing on quality of life, comorbid medical concerns, interpersonal connection, and emotion regulation is encouraged. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Poorly Performing Physicians: Does the Script Concordance Test Detect Bad Clinical Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Francois; Jacques, Andre; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Shabah, Abdo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of poorly performing physicians is a worldwide concern for licensing bodies. The College des Medecins du Quebec currently assesses the clinical competence of physicians previously identified with potential clinical competence difficulties through a day-long procedure called the Structured Oral Interview (SOI). Two peer…

  17. Poorly Performing Physicians: Does the Script Concordance Test Detect Bad Clinical Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Francois; Jacques, Andre; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Shabah, Abdo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of poorly performing physicians is a worldwide concern for licensing bodies. The College des Medecins du Quebec currently assesses the clinical competence of physicians previously identified with potential clinical competence difficulties through a day-long procedure called the Structured Oral Interview (SOI). Two peer…

  18. Impact of Patient Sex on Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teitsma, Xavier M.; van der Hoeven, Henk; Tamminga, Rob; de Bie, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Combined Quality Care Anterior Cruciate Ligament registry provides data for clinical research regarding primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Purpose: To explore the data with regard to the clinical outcomes between sexes after ACL reconstruction in a Dutch population. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data involving patients diagnosed with an ACL tear and eligible for surgery were recorded. Isokinetic muscle strength, functional muscle performance, and anterior-posterior translation of the knee joint were documented preoperatively and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively. Patients completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm, and Tegner rating scales during each examination using a web-based questionnaire. Results: Approximately 90% of ACL injuries occurred during sport activities. The mean (SD) age at surgery was 28 (11) years for both men and women, and the majority of patients were treated with hamstring tendon autografts (94%). Four percent received bone–patellar tendon–bone autografts, and 2% of the patients received other grafts. Preoperatively, the KOOS, Lysholm, and Tegner scores were significantly higher in males. Twelve months postoperatively, both sexes showed comparable isokinetic strength (P = .336), knee laxity (P = .680), and hop test for distance (P = .122) when comparing the injured with the uninjured side. Self-reported knee function was comparable between sexes as assessed by the KOOS (P = .202), Lysholm (P = .872), and Tegner (P = .767) questionnaires during the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: One year after ACL surgery, all patients had improved greatly, showing only minor differences between sexes. The male group showed slightly better results when evaluating self-reported knee questionnaires. Comparable outcomes and knee function between sexes can therefore be presumed with patients who are treated with hamstring tendon autografts in a Dutch

  19. Pyruvate kinase M2 prevents apoptosis via modulating Bim stability and associates with poor outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Lu, Shi-Xun; Li, Min; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Li-Li; Fu, Jia; Jin, Jie-Tian; Luo, Rong-Zhen; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2015-03-30

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) contributes to the Warburg effect, a hallmark of cancer. We showed that PKM2 levels were correlated with overall survival (hazard ration = 1.675, 95% confidence interval: 1.389-2.019, P < 0.001) and disease-free survival (hazard ration = 1.573, 95% confidence interval: 1.214-2.038, P < 0.001) in a cohort of 490 patients with HCC. The correlations were further validated in an independent cohort of 148 HCC patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that PKM2 was an independent indicator of poor outcome in HCC. The knockdown of PKM2 in HCC cells inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Bim siRNA markedly abolished the PKM2-depletion-induced apoptosis. PKM2 depletion decreased the degradation of Bim. In clinical samples, PKM2 expression was reversely correlated with Bim expression. Combination of PKM2 and Bim levels had the best prognostic significance. We suggest that PKM2 serves as a promising biomarker for poor prognosis of patients with HCC and its knockdown induces HCC apoptosis by stabilizing Bim.

  20. Clinical outcome measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alessandro; Giancane, Gabriella; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Davì, Sergio; Calandra, Serena; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo

    2016-04-18

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), as a chronic condition, is associated with significant disease- and treatment-related morbidity, thus impacting children's quality of life. In order to optimize JIA management, the paediatric rheumatologist has begun to regularly use measurements of disease activity developed, validated and endorsed by international paediatric rheumatology professional societies in an effort to monitor the disease course over time and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in JIA patients.A literature review was performed to describe the main outcome measures currently used in JIA patients to determine disease activity status.The Juvenile Disease Activity Score (JADAS), in its different versions (classic JADAS, JADAS-CRP and cJADAS) and the validated definitions of disease activity and response to treatment represent an important tool for the assessment of clinically relevant changes in disease activity, leading more and more to a treat-to-target strategy, based on a tight and thorough control of the patient condition. Moreover, in recent years, increasing attention on the incorporation of patient-reported or parent-reported outcomes (PRCOs), when measuring the health state of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases has emerged.We think that the care of JIA patients cannot be possible without taking into account clinical outcome measures and, in this regard, further work is required.

  1. Vitamin D and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Coral; Gutgarts, Victoria; Eisenberg, Elliot; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Most dialysis patients are vitamin D deficient, including deficiencies in both activated vitamin D (1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D) and the less active 25-hydroxyvitamin D. These and other abnormalities associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), if they remain untreated, lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism and bone changes, such as osteitis fibrosa cystica. Activated vitamin D has been proven to decrease parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in dialysis patients and is currently used for this indication. There are multiple other potential “pleotrophic” effects associated with vitamin D therapy. These include associations with lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, lower rates of infections and improved glycemic indexes. Meta-analyses of multiple observational studies have shown activated vitamin D therapy to be associated with improved survival. Observational data also suggest fewer infections and better glucose control. There have been no randomized clinical trials powered to evaluate mortality or other clinical outcomes. Small trials of nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol) showed increases in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels without hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia, even when given in addition to activated vitamin D therapy. While activated vitamin D therapy is associated with improved outcomes, it also leads to higher fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels, which may be detrimental in dialysis patients. Further research is needed to evaluate whether activated or nutritional vitamin D therapy are beneficial in dialysis patients for outcomes other than secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:26424141

  2. Incidence, National Trend, and Outcome of Nontraumatic Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in Taiwan: Initial Lower Mortality, Poor Long-Term Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsing-Lin; Soo, Kwan-Ming; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lin, Yen-Ko; Lin, Tsung-Ying; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Lee, Wei-Che; Huang, Shiuh-Lin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal trend of nontraumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), we analyzed the annual population-based incidence and mortality rate of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in Taiwan. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of mortality. The average incidence rate (IR) of nontraumatic SAH was 6.25 ± 0.88 per 100,000 per year. The prevalence of female patients was higher than in the male population (54.5% versus 45.5%). The average age of these patients was 55.78 ± 17.09 and females were older than males (58.50 ± 15.9 versus 52.45 ± 18.50, P < 0.001). Of these patients, 97.6% (611/626) were treated with surgical intervention with clipping procedure and 2.9% (18/626) with coiling. Total mortality of these patients was 13.4% (84/626). In adjusted analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-0.98; P < 0.001) and Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 0.709; 95% CI, 0.57–0.88; P = 0.002) remained independent predictors of the mortality. Patients with nontraumatic SAH had a much higher prevalence in older age groups and in females than in the general population. Patients with old age and more comorbidity have higher mortality. Aggressive management of patients might reduce the initial mortality; however, patient outcome still remains poor. PMID:24804209

  3. Incidence, national trend, and outcome of nontraumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage in Taiwan: initial lower mortality, poor long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsing-Lin; Soo, Kwan-Ming; Chen, Chao-Wen; Lin, Yen-Ko; Lin, Tsung-Ying; Kuo, Liang-Chi; Lee, Wei-Che; Huang, Shiuh-Lin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal trend of nontraumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), we analyzed the annual population-based incidence and mortality rate of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in Taiwan. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of mortality. The average incidence rate (IR) of nontraumatic SAH was 6.25 ± 0.88 per 100,000 per year. The prevalence of female patients was higher than in the male population (54.5% versus 45.5%). The average age of these patients was 55.78 ± 17.09 and females were older than males (58.50 ± 15.9 versus 52.45 ± 18.50, P < 0.001). Of these patients, 97.6% (611/626) were treated with surgical intervention with clipping procedure and 2.9% (18/626) with coiling. Total mortality of these patients was 13.4% (84/626). In adjusted analysis, age (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-0.98; P < 0.001) and Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 0.709; 95% CI, 0.57-0.88; P = 0.002) remained independent predictors of the mortality. Patients with nontraumatic SAH had a much higher prevalence in older age groups and in females than in the general population. Patients with old age and more comorbidity have higher mortality. Aggressive management of patients might reduce the initial mortality; however, patient outcome still remains poor.

  4. The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Bladen, Catherine L.; Mayhew, Anna; James, Meredith; Bettinson, Karen; Moore, Ursula; Smith, Fiona E.; Rufibach, Laura; Cnaan, Avital; Bharucha-Goebel, Diana X.; Blamire, Andrew M.; Bravver, Elena; Carlier, Pierre G.; Day, John W.; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Eagle, Michelle; Grieben, Ulrike; Harms, Matthew; Jones, Kristi J.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Mendell, Jerry R.; Mori-Yoshimura, Madoka; Paradas, Carmen; Pegoraro, Elena; Pestronk, Alan; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Semplicini, Claudio; Spuler, Simone; Stojkovic, Tanya; Straub, Volker; Takeda, Shin'ich; Rocha, Carolina Tesi; Walter, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the baseline clinical and functional characteristics of an international cohort of 193 patients with dysferlinopathy. Methods: The Clinical Outcome Study for dysferlinopathy (COS) is an international multicenter study of this disease, evaluating patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathy over 3 years. We present a cross-sectional analysis of 193 patients derived from their baseline clinical and functional assessments. Results: There is a high degree of variability in disease onset, pattern of weakness, and rate of progression. No factor, such as mutation class, protein expression, or age at onset, accounted for this variability. Among patients with clinical diagnoses of Miyoshi myopathy or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, clinical presentation and examination was not strikingly different. Respiratory impairment and cardiac dysfunction were observed in a minority of patients. A substantial delay in diagnosis was previously common but has been steadily reducing, suggesting increasing awareness of dysferlinopathies. Conclusions: These findings highlight crucial issues to be addressed for both optimizing clinical care and planning therapeutic trials in dysferlinopathy. This ongoing longitudinal study will provide an opportunity to further understand patterns and variability in disease progression and form the basis for trial design. PMID:27602406

  5. Nonword repetition in children with cochlear implants: a potential clinical marker of poor language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Sansom, Emily; Twersky, Jill; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2014-11-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) can facilitate the acquisition of spoken language for deaf children, but challenges remain. Language skills dependent on phonological sensitivity are most at risk for these children, so having an effective way to diagnose problems at this level would be of value for school speech-language pathologists. The goal of this study was to assess whether a nonword repetition (NWR) task could serve that purpose. Participants were 104 second graders: 49 with normal hearing (NH) and 55 with CIs. In addition to NWR, children were tested on 10 measures involving phonological awareness and processing, serial recall of words, vocabulary, reading, and grammar. Children with CIs performed more poorly than children with NH on NWR, and sensitivity to phonological structure alone explained that performance for children in both groups. For children with CIs, 2 audiological factors positively influenced outcomes on NWR: being identified with hearing loss at a younger age and having experience with wearing a hearing aid on the unimplanted ear at the time of receiving a 1st CI. NWR scores were better able to rule out than to rule in such language deficits. Well-designed NWR tasks could have clinical utility in assessments of language acquisition for school-age children with CIs.

  6. Nonword repetition in children with cochlear implants: A potential clinical marker of poor language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Sansom, Emily; Twersky, Jill; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cochlear implants (CIs) can facilitate the acquisition of spoken language for deaf children, but challenges remain. Language skills dependent upon phonological sensitivity are most at risk for these children, so having an effective way to diagnose problems at this level would be of value for school speech-language pathologists. The goal of this study was to assess whether a nonword repetition (NWR) task could serve that purpose. Method 104 second graders participated: 49 with NH and 55 with CIs. In addition to NWR, children were tested on ten measures involving phonological awareness/processing, serial recall of words, vocabulary, reading, and grammar. Results Children with CIs performed more poorly than children with NH on NWR, and sensitivity to phonological structure alone explained that performance for children in both groups. For children with CIs, two audiological factors positively influenced outcomes on NWR: being identified with hearing loss at younger ages and having experience wearing a hearing aid on the unimplanted ear at the time of receiving a first CI. NWR scores were better able to rule out language deficits than rule in such deficits. Conclusions Well-designed NWR tasks could have clinical utility in assessments of language acquisition for school-age children with CIs. PMID:25340675

  7. Renal involvement in AA amyloidosis: clinical outcomes and survival.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Murvet; Unsal, Abdulkadir; Sokmen, Mehmet; Kaptanogullari, Ozlem Harmankaya; Alkim, Canan; Kabukcuoglu, Fevziye; Ozagari, Aysim; Bor, Emire

    2013-01-01

    The natural history of AA amyloidosis is typically progressive, leading to multiple organ failure and death. We analyzed the etiology as well as clinical and laboratory features of patients with biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis and evaluated the ultimate outcome. Seventy-three patients (24 female; mean age 41.85±15.89 years) were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic, clinical and laboratory features were studied and the outcome was assessed. Familial Mediterranean Fever and tuberculosis were the most frequent causes of amyloidosis. Mean serum creatinine and proteinuria at diagnosis were 4.65±4.89 mg/dl and 8.04±6.09 g/day, respectively; and stage I, II, III, IV and V renal disease were present in 19.2%, 13.7%, 16.4%, 11%, and 39.7% of the patients, respectively. ESRD developed in 16 patients during the follow-up period. All of the ESRD patients started a dialysis programme. Thirty patients (41%) died during the follow-up period; median patient survival was 35.9±6.12 months. Old age, tuberculosis etiology, advanced renal disease and low serum albumin levels were associated with a worse prognosis. Serum albumin was a predictor of mortality in logistic regression analysis. The ultimate outcome of the patients with AA amyloidosis is poor, possibly due to the late referral to the nephrology clinics. Early referral may be helpful to improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Food insecurity is associated with poor sleep outcomes among US adults.

    PubMed

    Ding, Meng; Keiley, Margaret K; Garza, Kimberly B; Duffy, Patricia A; Zizza, Claire A

    2015-03-01

    Although food insecure (FI) adults are at risk of chronic conditions, little research attention is given to their health behaviors, such as sleep. We examined the associations between adult food security status and sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep complaints reported to a health care professional. Our population-based sample included 5637 men and 5264 women (≥22 y) who participated in the NHANES 2005-2010. Food security status was assessed with USDA's 10-item adult Food Security Survey Module. Self-reported information about sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep complaints to a health care professional were used as sleep outcomes. Multiple linear, stratified by sex, and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between food security status and the 3 sleep outcomes. Very low food secure (FS) women reported significantly shorter sleep duration than fully FS women (difference: -30 ± 5.2 min; P < 0.01); however, no relation to sleep duration was observed among men. Among men, participants who were marginally FS (4 ± 1.1 min), low FS (4 ± 1.7 min), and very low FS (5 ± 1.8 min) reported significantly longer sleep latency than fully FS men (P < 0.05), but no association with sleep latency was observed among women. The divergent patterns in sleep duration and latency were likely because of our reference groups reporting undesirable sleep outcomes; fully FS men reported inadequate sleep and fully FS women reported long sleep latency. Among both men and women, marginally FS (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.16), low FS (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.30), and very low FS (OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.36, 2.92) participants were more likely to report sleep complaints than their fully FS counterparts (P < 0.05). Poor sleep quantity and quality may predispose FI adults to adverse health outcomes. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. LAMP3 and TP53 overexpression predicts poor outcome in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaoxia; You, Yiwen; Huang, Jianfei; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a newly identified tumor-specific and hypoxia-induced protein. It is a downstream target gene of tumor suppressor TP53 and its expression has been associated with hypoxia-induced metastasis and poor overall survival in cervical, breast and gastrointestinal cancers. However, little is known of LAMP3 protein expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its prognostic value. We determined protein expression of LAMP3 and TP53 in LSCC tissues (n=117) by immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarray (TMA), their expression was correlated with patients' clinical parameters and overall survival. LAMP3 and TP53 protein expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissues compared to adjacent normal surgical margin tissues. Both high LAMP3 and high TP53 protein expression was significantly associated with tumor stage and size. Significant correlation between LAMP3 and TP53 expression was observed. Patients with high LAMP3 or high TP53 expression had a poor overall survival. Our data suggest that both epithelial LAMP3 expression and TP53 expression are independent prognostic markers for LSCC.

  10. Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope Predicts Poor Outcome in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhihong; Ma, Xiuping; Zhao, Zhihui; Huang, Zhiwei; Gao, Liu; Jin, Qi; Xiong, Changming; Ni, Xinhai

    2017-06-30

    Few published studies have evaluated the power of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) to predict outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), who typically die of right-sided heart failure. Our study sought to evaluate the power of OUES to predict clinical worsening and mortality in patients with IPAH. Patients with newly diagnosed IPAH who underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing from November 11, 2010, to June 25, 2015, in our hospital were prospectively enrolled and followed for up to 66 months. Clinical worsening and mortality were recorded. A total of 210 patients with IPAH (159 women; mean age, 32±10 years) were studied with a median follow-up of 41 months. Thirty-one patients died, 1 patient underwent lung transplantation, and 85 patients presented with clinical worsening. The univariate analysis revealed that OUES, OUESI (OUESI=OUES/body surface area), peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2), peak V˙O2/kg, ventilation (V˙E)/carbon dioxide output (V˙CO2) slope, peak systolic blood pressure, heart rate recovery, pulmonary vascular resistance, cardiac index, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, and World Health Organization functional class were all predictive of clinical worsening and mortality (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that OUESI and cardiac index were independently predictive of clinical worsening, and OUESI and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide were independently predictive of mortality. Patients with OUESI ≤0.52 m(-2) had a worse 5-year survival rate than patients with OUESI >0.52 m(-2) (41.9% versus 89.8%, P<0.0001). The OUES, a submaximal parameter obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing, provides prognostic information for predicting clinical worsening and mortality in patients with IPAH. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Exposure to violence predicts poor educational outcomes in young children in South Africa and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Sherr, L; Hensels, I S; Skeen, S; Tomlinson, M; Roberts, K J; Macedo, A

    2016-01-01

    Violence during childhood may affect short and long-term educational factors. There is scant literature on younger children from resource poor settings. This study assessed child violence experiences (harsh punishment and exposure to domestic or community violence) and school enrolment, progress and attendance in children attending community-based organisations in South Africa and Malawi (n=989) at baseline and at 15 months' follow-up, examining differential experience of HIV positive, HIV affected and HIV unaffected children. Violence exposure was high: 45.4% experienced some form of psychological violence, 47.8% physical violence, 46.7% domestic violence and 41.8% community violence. Primary school enrolment was 96%. Violence was not associated with school enrolment at baseline but, controlling for baseline, children exposed to psychological violence for discipline were more than ten times less likely to be enrolled at follow-up (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.57). Harsh discipline was associated with poor school progress. For children HIV positive a detrimental effect of harsh physical discipline was found on school performance (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.61). Violence experiences were associated with a number of educational outcomes, which may have long-term consequences. Community-based organisations may be well placed to address such violence, with a particular emphasis on the challenges faced by children who are HIV positive. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Gut barrier failure biomarkers are associated with poor disease outcome in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Tornai, Tamas; Palyu, Eszter; Vitalis, Zsuzsanna; Tornai, Istvan; Tornai, David; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Norman, Gary L; Shums, Zakera; Veres, Gabor; Dezsofi, Antal; Par, Gabriella; Par, Alajos; Orosz, Peter; Szalay, Ferenc; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Papp, Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of a panel of serologic markers that reflect gut barrier dysfunction in a mixed cohort of pediatric and adult primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. METHODS Sera of 67 PSC patients [median age (range): 32 (5-79) years, concomitant IBD: 67% and cirrhosis: 20%] were assayed for the presence of antibodies against to F-actin (AAA IgA/IgG) and gliadin (AGA IgA/IgG)] and for serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) by ELISA. Markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure [LPS binding protein (LBP)] and various anti-microbial antibodies [anti-OMP Plus IgA and endotoxin core IgA antibody (EndoCAb)] were also determined. Poor disease outcome was defined as orthotopic liver transplantation and/or liver-related death during the follow-up [median: 99 (14-106) mo]. One hundred and fifty-three healthy subjects (HCONT) and 172 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were the controls. RESULTS A total of 28.4%, 28.0%, 9% and 20.9% of PSC patients were positive for AAA IgA, AAA IgG, AGA IgA and AGA IgG, respectively. Frequencies of AAA IgA and AAA IgG (P < 0.001, for both) and AGA IgG (P = 0.01, for both) but not AGA IgA were significantly higher compared to both of the HCONT and the UC groups. In survival analysis, AAA IgA-positivity was revealed as an independent predictor of poor disease outcome after adjusting either for the presence of cirrhosis [HR = 5.15 (1.27-20.86), P = 0.022 or for the Mayo risk score (HR = 4.24 (0.99-18.21), P = 0.052]. AAA IgA-positivity was significantly associated with higher frequency of anti-microbial antibodies (P < 0.001 for EndoCab IgA and P = 0.012 for anti-OMP Plus IgA) and higher level of the enterocyte damage marker (median I-FABPAAA IgA pos vs neg: 365 vs 166 pg/mL, P = 0.011), but not with serum LBP level. CONCLUSION Presence of IgA type AAA identified PSC patients with progressive disease. Moreover, it is associated with enhanced mucosal immune response to various microbial antigens and

  13. Gut barrier failure biomarkers are associated with poor disease outcome in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Tornai, Tamas; Palyu, Eszter; Vitalis, Zsuzsanna; Tornai, Istvan; Tornai, David; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Norman, Gary L; Shums, Zakera; Veres, Gabor; Dezsofi, Antal; Par, Gabriella; Par, Alajos; Orosz, Peter; Szalay, Ferenc; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Papp, Maria

    2017-08-07

    To assess the prevalence of a panel of serologic markers that reflect gut barrier dysfunction in a mixed cohort of pediatric and adult primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. Sera of 67 PSC patients [median age (range): 32 (5-79) years, concomitant IBD: 67% and cirrhosis: 20%] were assayed for the presence of antibodies against to F-actin (AAA IgA/IgG) and gliadin (AGA IgA/IgG)] and for serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) by ELISA. Markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure [LPS binding protein (LBP)] and various anti-microbial antibodies [anti-OMP Plus IgA and endotoxin core IgA antibody (EndoCAb)] were also determined. Poor disease outcome was defined as orthotopic liver transplantation and/or liver-related death during the follow-up [median: 99 (14-106) mo]. One hundred and fifty-three healthy subjects (HCONT) and 172 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were the controls. A total of 28.4%, 28.0%, 9% and 20.9% of PSC patients were positive for AAA IgA, AAA IgG, AGA IgA and AGA IgG, respectively. Frequencies of AAA IgA and AAA IgG (P < 0.001, for both) and AGA IgG (P = 0.01, for both) but not AGA IgA were significantly higher compared to both of the HCONT and the UC groups. In survival analysis, AAA IgA-positivity was revealed as an independent predictor of poor disease outcome after adjusting either for the presence of cirrhosis [HR = 5.15 (1.27-20.86), P = 0.022 or for the Mayo risk score (HR = 4.24 (0.99-18.21), P = 0.052]. AAA IgA-positivity was significantly associated with higher frequency of anti-microbial antibodies (P < 0.001 for EndoCab IgA and P = 0.012 for anti-OMP Plus IgA) and higher level of the enterocyte damage marker (median I-FABPAAA IgA posvsneg: 365 vs 166 pg/mL, P = 0.011), but not with serum LBP level. Presence of IgA type AAA identified PSC patients with progressive disease. Moreover, it is associated with enhanced mucosal immune response to various microbial antigens and enterocyte damage further

  14. Atrial Fibrillation: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Staerk, Laila; Sherer, Jason A; Ko, Darae; Benjamin, Emelia J; Helm, Robert H

    2017-04-28

    The past 3 decades have been characterized by an exponential growth in knowledge and advances in the clinical treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). It is now known that AF genesis requires a vulnerable atrial substrate and that the formation and composition of this substrate may vary depending on comorbid conditions, genetics, sex, and other factors. Population-based studies have identified numerous factors that modify the atrial substrate and increase AF susceptibility. To date, genetic studies have reported 17 independent signals for AF at 14 genomic regions. Studies have established that advanced age, male sex, and European ancestry are prominent AF risk factors. Other modifiable risk factors include sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, and elevated blood pressure predispose to AF, and each factor has been shown to induce structural and electric remodeling of the atria. Both heart failure and myocardial infarction increase risk of AF and vice versa creating a feed-forward loop that increases mortality. Other cardiovascular outcomes attributed to AF, including stroke and thromboembolism, are well established, and epidemiology studies have championed therapeutics that mitigate these adverse outcomes. However, the role of anticoagulation for preventing dementia attributed to AF is less established. Our review is a comprehensive examination of the epidemiological data associating unmodifiable and modifiable risk factors for AF and of the pathophysiological evidence supporting the mechanistic link between each risk factor and AF genesis. Our review also critically examines the epidemiological data on clinical outcomes attributed to AF and summarizes current evidence linking each outcome with AF. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Continuous circular cycling in bipolar disorder as a predictor of poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Antonio; Calabrese, Joseph R; Marchetti, Fulvia; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Proietti, Luca; De Filippis, Rocco

    2013-09-25

    This prospective study aims to determine if patients with bipolar disorder with a continuous circular course (CCC) are significantly different on clinical characteristics and response to long-term treatment from those with a non-continuous circular course (N-CCC). CCC was defined as the alternation of depression and (hypo)mania without a completely free interval, and N-CCC as the presence of free intervals after the sequence mania-depression or depression-mania. The study sample includes 140 consecutive patients with bipolar I or II disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, aged 18-65 years and receiving prophylactic treatment for. Treatment was based upon international guidelines and clinical experience at the time of patient's enrollment (from January 1998 to January 2006). Primary outcome was the absence of new episodes during the follow-up. Significance level was set at p<0.05. Twenty-eight percent of the sample has CCC. Compared with N-CCC, CCC patients were older, had a later onset, a higher number of total, depressive and (hypo)manic episodes, and of switches, and spent a higher percentage of time ill in the year before entering the study. Polarity at onset and subsequent recurrences were more frequently mixed in N-CCC than in CCC patients. The proportion of patients in the CCC group who had no recurrences during the follow-up was significantly lower than in the N-CCC group. The presence or absence of a free intervals over the course of illness identifies two subtypes of bipolar disorder that differ in clinical presentation, outcome, and response to long-term treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical and Polysomnographic Predictors of the Natural History of Poor Sleep in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Karataraki, Maria; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Liao, Duanping

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Approximately 8-10% of the general population suffers from chronic insomnia, whereas another 20-30% of the population has insomnia symptoms at any given time (i.e., poor sleep). However, few longitudinal studies have examined risk factors of the natural history of poor sleep, and none have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population sample of 1,741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1,395 were followed up after 7.5 yr. Measurements: Full medical evaluation and 1-night PSG at baseline and telephone interview at follow-up. Results: The rate of incident poor sleep was 18.4%. Physical (e.g., obesity, sleep apnea, and ulcer) and mental (e.g., depression) health conditions and behavioral factors (e.g., smoking and alcohol consumption) increased the odds of incident poor sleep as compared to normal sleep. The rates of persistent, remitted, and poor sleepers who developed chronic insomnia were 39%, 44%, and 17%, respectively. Risk factors for persistent poor sleep were physical health conditions combined with psychologic distress. Shorter objective sleep duration and a family history of sleep problems were risk factors for poor sleep evolving into chronic insomnia. Conclusions: Poor sleep appears to be primarily a symptom of physical and mental health conditions, whereas the persistence of poor sleep is associated with psychologic distress. Importantly, sleep apnea appears to be associated with incident poor sleep but not with chronic insomnia. Finally, this study suggests that objective short sleep duration in poor sleepers is a biologic marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. Citation: Fernandez-Mendoza J; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Singareddy R; Shaffer ML; Calhoun SL; Karataraki M; Vela-Bueno A; Liao D. Clinical and polysomnographic predictors of the natural history of poor sleep in the general population

  17. Factors and outcomes associated with ultra-early surgery for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a multicentre retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bing; Zhao, Yuanli; Tan, Xianxi; Cao, Yong; Wu, Jun; Zhong, Ming; Wang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine factors and outcomes associated with ultra-early surgery for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Design A multicentre retrospective analysis, observational study. Setting High-volume teaching hospitals (more than 150 aSAH cases per year). Participants 118 patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grades IV and V underwent surgical treatment. Ultra-early surgery was defined as surgery performed within 24 h of aSAH, and delayed surgery as surgery performed after 24 h. Outcome was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The mean time of follow-up was 12.5±3.4 months (range 6–28 months). Results 47 (40%) patients underwent ultra-early surgery, and 71 (60%) patients underwent delayed surgery. Patients with WFNS grade V (p=0.011) and brain herniation (p=0.004) more often underwent ultra-early surgery. Postoperative complications were similar in ultra-early and delayed surgery groups. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed the outcomes were similar between the two groups. Multivariate analysis of predictors of poor outcome, ultraearly surgery was not an independent predictor of poor outcome, while advanced age, postresuscitation WFNS V grade, intraventricular haemorrhage, brain herniation and non-middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions Although patients with WFNS grade V and brain herniation more often undergo ultra-early surgery, postoperative complications and outcomes in selected patients were similar in the two groups. Patients of younger age, WFNS grade IV, absence of intraventricular haemorrhage, absence of brain herniation and MCA aneurysms are more likely to have a good outcome. Ultra-early surgery could improve outcomes in carefully selected patients with poor-grade aSAH. PMID:25877280

  18. Factors and outcomes associated with ultra-early surgery for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a multicentre retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bing; Zhao, Yuanli; Tan, Xianxi; Cao, Yong; Wu, Jun; Zhong, Ming; Wang, Shuo

    2015-04-15

    To determine factors and outcomes associated with ultra-early surgery for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). A multicentre retrospective analysis, observational study. High-volume teaching hospitals (more than 150 aSAH cases per year). 118 patients with World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grades IV and V underwent surgical treatment. Ultra-early surgery was defined as surgery performed within 24 h of aSAH, and delayed surgery as surgery performed after 24 h. Outcome was assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The mean time of follow-up was 12.5±3.4 months (range 6-28 months). 47 (40%) patients underwent ultra-early surgery, and 71 (60%) patients underwent delayed surgery. Patients with WFNS grade V (p=0.011) and brain herniation (p=0.004) more often underwent ultra-early surgery. Postoperative complications were similar in ultra-early and delayed surgery groups. Adjusted multivariate analysis showed the outcomes were similar between the two groups. Multivariate analysis of predictors of poor outcome, ultraearly surgery was not an independent predictor of poor outcome, while advanced age, postresuscitation WFNS V grade, intraventricular haemorrhage, brain herniation and non-middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms were associated with poor outcome. Although patients with WFNS grade V and brain herniation more often undergo ultra-early surgery, postoperative complications and outcomes in selected patients were similar in the two groups. Patients of younger age, WFNS grade IV, absence of intraventricular haemorrhage, absence of brain herniation and MCA aneurysms are more likely to have a good outcome. Ultra-early surgery could improve outcomes in carefully selected patients with poor-grade aSAH. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Oedema is associated with clinical outcome following emergency abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan-Shaw, PG; Saunders, J; Smith, T; King, AT

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Oedema is observed frequently following surgery and may be associated with worse outcomes. To date, no study has investigated the role of oedema in the emergency surgical patient. This study assesses the incidence of oedema following emergency abdominal surgery and the value of early postoperative oedema measurement in predicting clinical outcome. Methods A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery at a university unit over a two-month period was undertaken. Nutritional and clinical outcome data were collected and oedema was measured in the early postoperative period. Predictors of oedema and outcomes associated with postoperative oedema were identified through univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Overall, 55 patients (median age: 66 years) were included in the study. Postoperative morbidity included ileus (n=22) and sepsis (n=6) with 12 deaths at follow-up. Postoperative oedema was present in 19 patients and was associated with prolonged perioperative fasting (107 vs 30 hours, p=0.009) but not with body mass index (24kg/m2 vs 27kg/m2, p=0.169) or preadmission weight loss (5% vs 3%, p=0.923). On multivariate analysis, oedema was independently associated with gastrointestinal recovery (B=6.91, p=0.038), artificial nutritional support requirement (odds ratio: 6.91, p=0.037) and overall survival (χ2=13.1, df=1, p=0.001). Conclusions Generalised oedema is common after emergency abdominal surgery and appears to independently predict gastrointestinal recovery, the need for artificial nutritional support and survival. Oedema is not associated with commonly applied markers of nutritional status such as body mass index or recent weight loss. Measurement of oedema offers utility in identifying those at risk of poor clinical outcome or those requiring artificial nutritional support following emergency abdominal surgery. PMID:24025285

  20. Oedema is associated with clinical outcome following emergency abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Shaw, P G; Saunders, J; Smith, T; King, A T; Stroud, M A

    2013-09-01

    Oedema is observed frequently following surgery and may be associated with worse outcomes. To date, no study has investigated the role of oedema in the emergency surgical patient. This study assesses the incidence of oedema following emergency abdominal surgery and the value of early postoperative oedema measurement in predicting clinical outcome. A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery at a university unit over a two-month period was undertaken. Nutritional and clinical outcome data were collected and oedema was measured in the early postoperative period. Predictors of oedema and outcomes associated with postoperative oedema were identified through univariate and multivariate analysis. Overall, 55 patients (median age: 66 years) were included in the study. Postoperative morbidity included ileus (n=22) and sepsis (n=6) with 12 deaths at follow-up. Postoperative oedema was present in 19 patients and was associated with prolonged perioperative fasting (107 vs 30 hours, p=0.009) but not with body mass index (24 kg/m(2) vs 27 kg/m(2), p=0.169) or preadmission weight loss (5% vs 3%, p=0.923). On multivariate analysis, oedema was independently associated with gastrointestinal recovery (B=6.91, p=0.038), artificial nutritional support requirement (odds ratio: 6.91, p=0.037) and overall survival (χ(2) =13.1, df=1, p=0.001). Generalised oedema is common after emergency abdominal surgery and appears to independently predict gastrointestinal recovery, the need for artificial nutritional support and survival. Oedema is not associated with commonly applied markers of nutritional status such as body mass index or recent weight loss. Measurement of oedema offers utility in identifying those at risk of poor clinical outcome or those requiring artificial nutritional support following emergency abdominal surgery.

  1. Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase II (INPP4B) is associated with chemoresistance and poor outcome in AML.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Sewa; Fleming, Shaun; Cummings, Nik; Rynkiewicz, Natalie K; Ooms, Lisa M; Nguyen, Nhu-Y N; Teh, Tse-Chieh; Avery, Sharon; McManus, Julie F; Papenfuss, Anthony T; McLean, Catriona; Guthridge, Mark A; Mitchell, Christina A; Wei, Andrew H

    2015-04-30

    Phosphoinositide signaling regulates diverse cellular functions. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) generates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, leading to the activation of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Termination of phosphoinositide signaling requires hydrolysis of inositol ring phosphate groups through the actions of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 3-phosphatase (PTEN), PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases (eg, SHIP), and PtdIns(3,4)P2 4-phosphatases (eg, INPP4B). The biological relevance of most of these phosphoinositide phosphatases in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poorly understood. Mass spectrometry-based gene expression profiling of 3-, 4- and 5-phosphatases in human AML revealed significant overexpression of INPP4B. Analysis of an expanded panel of 205 AML cases at diagnosis revealed INPP4B overexpression in association with reduced responses to chemotherapy, early relapse, and poor overall survival, independent of other risk factors. Ectopic overexpression of INPP4B conferred leukemic resistance to cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), daunorubicin, and etoposide. Expression of a phosphatase inert variant (INPP4B C842A) failed to abrogate resistance of AML cells to chemotherapy in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, targeted suppression of endogenously overexpressed INPP4B by RNA interference sensitized AML cell lines and primary AML to chemotherapy. These findings demonstrate a previously unsuspected and clinically relevant role for INPP4B gain of function as a mediator of chemoresistance and poor survival outcome in AML independent of its phosphoinositide phosphatase function.

  2. Identifying possible reasons why female street sex workers have poor drug treatment outcomes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jeal, Nikki; Macleod, John; Salisbury, Chris; Turner, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore street sex workers (SSWs) views and experiences of drug treatment, in order to understand why this population tend to experience poor drug treatment outcomes. Design In-depth interviews. Setting Bristol, UK. Participants 24 current and exited SSWs with current or previous experience of problematic use of heroin and/or crack cocaine. Findings Participants described how feeling unable to discuss their sex work in drug treatment groups undermined their engagement in the treatment process. They outlined how disclosure of sex work resulted in stigma from male and female service users as well as adverse interactions with male service users. Participants highlighted that non-disclosure meant they could not discuss unresolved trauma issues which were common and which emerged or increased when they reduced their drug use. As trauma experiences had usually involved men as perpetrators participants said it was not appropriate to discuss them in mixed treatment groups. SSWs in recovery described how persistent trauma-related symptoms still affected their lives many years after stopping sex work and drug use. Participants suggested SSW-only services and female staff as essential to effective care and highlighted that recent service changes were resulting in loss of trusted staff and SSW-only treatment services. This was reported to be reducing the likelihood of SSWs engaging in drug services, with the resultant loss of continuity of care and reduced time with staff acting as barriers to an effective therapeutic relationship. Conclusions SSWs face many barriers to effective drug treatment. SSW-only treatment groups, continuity of care with treatment staff and contact with female staff, particularly individuals who have had similar lived experience, could improve the extent to which SSWs engage and benefit from drug treatment services. Service engagement and outcomes may also be improved by drug services that include identification and treatment of trauma

  3. A large Venous-Arterial PCO2 Is Associated with Poor Outcomes in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Silva, João M.; Oliveira, Amanda M. Ribas R.; Segura, Juliano Lopes; Ribeiro, Marcel Henrique; Sposito, Carolina Nacevicius; Toledo, Diogo O.; Rezende, Ederlon; Malbouisson, Luiz M. Sá

    2011-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated whether large venous-arterial CO2 gap (PCO2 gap) preoperatively is associated to poor outcome. Method. Prospective study which included adult high-risk surgical patients. The patients were pooled into two groups: wide [P(v-a)CO2] versus narrow [P(v-a)CO2]. In order to determine the best value to discriminate hospital mortality, it was applied a ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve for the [P(v-a)CO2] values collected preoperatively, and the most accurate value was chosen as cut-off to define the groups. Results. The study included 66 patients. The [P(v-a)CO2] value preoperatively that best discriminated hospital mortality was 5.0 mmHg, area = 0.73. Preoperative patients with [P(v-a)CO2] more than 5.0 mmHg presented a higher hospital mortality (36.4% versus 4.5% P = 0.004), higher prevalence of circulatory shock (56.8% versus 22.7% P = 0.01) and acute renal failure postoperatively (27.3% versus 4.5% P = 0.02), and longer hospital length of stays 20.0 (14.0–30.0) versus 13.5 (9.0–25.0) days P = 0.01. Conclusions. The PCO2 gap values more than 5.0 mmHg preoperatively were associated with worse postoperatively outcome. PMID:22007204

  4. Determinant Factors of Poor Visual Outcome After Ocular Trauma: A Retrospective Study in Central Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yong, Geng-Yi; Pan, Shin-Wei; Humayun Akhter, Faisal; Law, Thomas Ngo-Hieng; Toh, Teck-Hock

    2016-01-01

    To study the demographic characteristics of ocular trauma in Central Sarawak and identify the determinant factors of poor visual outcome. A retrospective study of ocular trauma cases presenting at the referral hospital in 2013. Patients were identified and recruited from hospital records. Those presenting for follow-up review were excluded. Case records were retrieved and reviewed after recruitment. We studied 168 patients with 179 ocular injuries, of which 44% were work related. Compared with non-work-related cases, work-related cases were more likely to be male [odds ratio (OR), 19.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.6-150.9] and foreign (OR, 18.0; 95% CI, 2.3-142.0). Open globe injuries constituted a higher percentage of impaired visual acuity (VA) during the first visit: 84.6% compared with 18.1% for closed globe injuries (OR, 25.0; 95% CI, 5.3-118.4; P < 0.001). Of the open globe injuries, 61.5% worsened or showed no improvement in VA after 3 months compared with closed globe injuries (28.9%) (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7; P = 0.015). Of cases presenting 7 or more days after trauma, 76.9% worsened or showed no improvement in VA after 3 months compared with those presenting in less than 7 days (27.7%) (OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.3-33.0; P < 0.001). Among those with work-related injuries, 23.1% had used eye protective devices (EPDs). Ocular injuries in Central Sarawak were predominantly work related, occurring at industrial premises, and involving males and foreigners. Both open globe injuries and a delay in seeking treatment resulted in significantly poorer visual outcomes.

  5. Clinical Outcomes Following Revision Anterior Shoulder Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Mellano, Chris; Shin, Jason J.; Feldheim, Terrence F.; Mascarenhas, Randhir; Yanke, Adam Blair; Cole, Brian J.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes following revision anterior shoulder stabilization performed either via all-arthroscopic soft tissue repair or via Latarjet coracoid transfer. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 91 shoulders undergoing revision anterior shoulder stabilization was performed. All patients underwent prior soft tissue stabilization; those with prior open bone grafting procedures were excluded. For patients with 25% glenoid bone loss, Latarjet was performed (n=28). Patients were queried regarding recurrent instability (subluxation or dislocation). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using validated patient reported outcome questionnaires including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). Results: A total of 63 shoulders in 62 patients (46 males, 16 females) with an average age of 23.2 ± 6.9 years were included in the revision arthroscopy group. At an average follow-up of 46.9 ± 16.8 months (range, 15 to 78), the mean WOSI score was 80.1 (range, 15.0 to 100), and there were significant improvements (p<0.001) in ASES (63.7 to 85.1), SST (6.2 to 9.1), and VAS pain scores (2.89 to 0.81). Recurrent instability occurred in 12 of 63 shoulders (19%); the number of prior surgeries and baseline hyperlaxity were significant risk factors for failure (p<0.001 and p=0.04, respectively). No patients developed clinical or radiographic evidence of arthritis. A total of 28 shoulders in 28 patients (21 male, 7 female) with an average age of 27.5 years (range 14 to 45) were included in the Latarjet group. Thirteen (46%) had more than one previous stabilization attempt. ), the average WOSI score was 71.9, and there were significant improvements (p<0.001) in ASES (65.7 to 87.0), SST (7.2 to 10.3), and VAS (3.1 to 1.1). Recurrent instability occurred in 2 of 28 shoulders

  6. Pregnancy Outcomes after Clinical Recovery from AKI.

    PubMed

    Tangren, Jessica Sheehan; Powe, Camille E; Ankers, Elizabeth; Ecker, Jeffrey; Bramham, Kate; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    The effect of clinically recovered AKI (r-AKI) on future pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We retrospectively studied all women who delivered infants between 1998 and 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital to assess whether a previous episode of r-AKI associated with subsequent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including preeclampsia. AKI was defined as rise in serum creatinine concentration to 1.5-fold above baseline. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with r-AKI without history of CKD (eGFR>90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) before conception; n=105) with outcomes in women without kidney disease (controls; n=24,640). The r-AKI and control groups had similar prepregnancy serum creatinine measurements (0.70±0.20 versus 0.69±0.10 mg/dl; P=0.36). However, women with r-AKI had increased rates of preeclampsia compared with controls (23% versus 4%; P<0.001). Infants of women with r-AKI were born earlier than infants of controls (37.6±3.6 versus 39.2±2.2 weeks; P<0.001), with increased rates of small for gestational age births (15% versus 8%; P=0.03). After multivariate adjustment, r-AKI associated with increased risk for preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.6 to 9.7) and adverse fetal outcomes (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.7). When women with r-AKI and controls were matched 1:2 by age, race, body mass index, diastolic BP, parity, and diabetes status, r-AKI remained associated with preeclampsia (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1 to 10.1) and adverse fetal outcomes (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.7). Thus, a past episode of AKI, despite return to normal renal function before pregnancy, associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Food security and nutritional outcomes among urban poor orphans in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Holding, Penny A; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Ezeh, Alex C; Madise, Nyovani J; Kahurani, Elizabeth N; Zulu, Eliya M

    2011-06-01

    The study examines the relationship between orphanhood status and nutritional status and food security among children living in the rapidly growing and uniquely vulnerable slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study was conducted between January and June 2007 among children aged 6-14 years, living in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard procedures and z scores generated using the NCHS/WHO reference. Data on food security were collected through separate interviews with children and their caregivers, and used to generate a composite food security score. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine factors related to vulnerability with regards to food security and nutritional outcomes. The results show that orphans were more vulnerable to food insecurity than non-orphans and that paternal orphans were the most vulnerable orphan group. However, these effects were not significant for nutritional status, which measures long-term food deficiencies. The results also show that the most vulnerable children are boys, those living in households with lowest socioeconomic status, with many dependants, and female-headed and headed by adults with low human capital (low education). This study provides useful insights to inform policies and practice to identify target groups and intervention programs to improve the welfare of orphans and vulnerable children living in urban poor communities.

  8. Why cachexia kills: examining the causality of poor outcomes in wasting conditions.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Rhee, Connie; Sim, John J; Stenvinkel, Peter; Anker, Stefan D; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2013-06-01

    Weight loss is the hallmark of any progressive acute or chronic disease state. In its extreme form of significant lean body mass (including skeletal muscle) and fat loss, it is referred to as cachexia. It has been known for millennia that muscle and fat wasting leads to poor outcomes including death. On one hand, conditions and risk factors that lead to cachexia and inadequate nutrition may independently lead to increased mortality. Additionaly, cachexia per se, withdrawal of nutritional support in progressive cachexia, and advanced age may lead to death via cachexia-specific pathways. Despite the strong and consistent association of cachexia with mortality, no unifying mechanism has yet been suggested as to why wasting conditions are associated with an exceptionally high mortality risk. Hence, the causality of the cachexia-death association, even though it is biologically plausible, is widely unknown. This century-long uncertainty may have played a role as to why the field of cachexia treatment development has not shown major advances over the past decades. We suggest that cachexia-associated relative thrombocytosis and platelet activation may play a causal role in cachexia-related death, while other mechanisms may also contribute including arrhythmia-associated sudden deaths, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, and immune system compromise leading to infectious events and deaths. Multidimensional research including examining biologically plausible models is urgently needed to investigate the causality of the cachexia-death association.

  9. Prognostic indicators of poor outcome in horses with laminitis at a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Orsini, James A; Parsons, Corrina Snook; Capewell, Linda; Smith, Gary

    2010-06-01

    This retrospective study investigated the factors associated with a poor outcome (death by euthanasia or from other causes) in horses treated for laminitis at a tertiary care hospital. Cases (n = 247) were defined as patients with laminitis that were euthanized or that died of other causes during hospitalization. Controls (n = 344) were patients with laminitis that survived to be discharged from the hospital. In the final multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk for death and their respective odds ratios (OR) were as follows: Thoroughbred (OR = 1.57); racehorse (OR = 1.76); treatment with flunixin meglumine (OR = 1.76); vascular pathology (OR = 2.12); distal displacement of the third phalanx (OR = 2.68); pneumonia (OR = 2.87); and lameness of Obel grade II (OR = 2.99), grade III (OR = 9.63), or grade IV (OR = 20.48). The use of glue-on shoes significantly reduced the risk for death (OR = 0.36).

  10. Prognostic indicators of poor outcome in horses with laminitis at a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, James A.; Parsons, Corrina Snook; Capewell, Linda; Smith, Gary

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated the factors associated with a poor outcome (death by euthanasia or from other causes) in horses treated for laminitis at a tertiary care hospital. Cases (n = 247) were defined as patients with laminitis that were euthanized or that died of other causes during hospitalization. Controls (n = 344) were patients with laminitis that survived to be discharged from the hospital. In the final multivariate analysis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk for death and their respective odds ratios (OR) were as follows: Thoroughbred (OR = 1.57); racehorse (OR = 1.76); treatment with flunixin meglumine (OR = 1.76); vascular pathology (OR = 2.12); distal displacement of the third phalanx (OR = 2.68); pneumonia (OR = 2.87); and lameness of Obel grade II (OR = 2.99), grade III (OR = 9.63), or grade IV (OR = 20.48). The use of glue-on shoes significantly reduced the risk for death (OR = 0.36). PMID:20808574

  11. Spinal radiosurgery: technology and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Avanzo, M; Romanelli, P

    2009-01-01

    The development of computer-based image guidance has allowed stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy to be freed from the constraints imposed by the stereotactic frames once required for intracranial radiosurgery. This freedom has led to the application of radiosurgery to targets outside the brain. In this paper, we briefly review the technologies, treatment parameters, and clinical outcomes of radiosurgical treatment for spinal pathology, including metastatic tumors and rare but challenging lesions such as arteriovenous malformations and benign tumors. A special emphasis is put on the newest development, fiducial-less robotic radiosurgery. Spinal radiosurgery is associated with excellent rates of tumor control and pain relief with a good dose sparing of the highly sensitive spinal cord. Further research is required to optimize treatment strategies and to assess clinical benefits and toxicity in the long term.

  12. Perinatal, neonatal, and family social factors predicting poor school outcome of low-birth-weight survivors: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Holditch-Davis, Diane L; Darcy-Mahoney, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship of perinatal factors, neonatal factors, and family characteristics with school outcomes of low-birth-weight (LBW) children. An integrative review of the literature was performed using electronic databases focusing on key words, including school outcome, school performance, educational outcome, academic outcome/academic achievement, and LBW. The in utero or neonatal risk factors for poor school outcome included in this review were perinatal brain injury, brain structural abnormality, motor deficits, and neonatal conditions. Social risk factors found to contribute to poorer school outcomes were family structure, family stability, parental education, poverty, male sex, nonwhite race, and acculturation level. Long-term school outcomes of LBW children are influenced by a number of factors related to the characteristics of both children and their families. These factors need to be considered when designing preventive interventions.

  13. Renal macrophage infiltration is associated with a poor outcome in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros; Costa, Roberto Silva; Ravinal, Roberto Cuan; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Reis, Marlene Antonia dos; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Romao, Elen Almeida; Coimbra, Terezila Machado; Dantas, Márcio

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of our study were as follows: 1) to analyze the prognostic value of macrophage infiltration in primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and 2) to study the relationship between macrophages and other factors associated with the development of renal fibrosis, including mast cells, TGF-β1, α-SMA and NF-kB. We analyzed 62 patients who had been diagnosed with IgAN between 1987 and 2003. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with monoclonal antibodies against CD68 and mast cell tryptase and polyclonal antibodies against TGF-β1, α-SMA and NF-kB p65. We also used Southwestern histochemistry for the in situ detection of activated NF-kB. The infiltration of macrophages into the tubulointerstitial compartment correlated with unfavorable clinical and histological parameters, and a worse clinical course of IgAN was significantly associated with the number of tubulointerstitial macrophages. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that increased macrophage infiltration was associated with decreased renal survival. Moreover, the presence of macrophages was associated with mast cells, tubulointerstitial α-SMA expression and NF-kB activation (IH and Southwestern histochemistry). In the multivariate analysis, the two parameters that correlated with macrophage infiltration, proteinuria and tubulointerstitial injury, were independently associated with an unfavorable clinical course. An increased number of macrophages in the tubulointerstitial area may serve as a predictive factor for poor prognosis in patients with IgAN, and these cells were also associated with the expression of pro-fibrotic factors.

  14. Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis in Taiwan: an underrecognized disease with poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non-nosocomial healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (NNHCA-IE) is a new category of IE of increasing importance. This study described the clinical and microbiological characteristics and outcome of NNHCA-IE in Taiwan. Methods A retrospective study was conducted of all patients with IE admitted to the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan over a five-year period from July 2004 to July 2009. The clinical and microbiological features of NNHCA-IE were compared to those of community-acquired and nosocomial IE. Predictors for in-hospital death were determined. Results Two-hundred episodes of confirmed IE occurred during the study period. These included 148 (74%) community-acquired, 30 (15%) non-nosocomial healthcare-associated, and 22 (11%) nosocomial healthcare-associated IE. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen. Patients with NNHCA-IE compared to community-acquired IE, were older (median age, 67 vs. 44, years, p < 0.001), had more MRSA (43.3% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.001), more comorbidity conditions (median Charlson comorbidity index [interquartile range], 4[2-6] vs. 0[0-1], p < 0.001), a higher in-hospital mortality (50.0% vs. 17.6%, p < 0.001) and were less frequently recognized by clinicians on admission (16.7% vs. 47.7%, p = 0.002). The overall in-hospital mortality rate for all patients with IE was 25%. Shock was the strongest risk factor for in-hospital death (odds ratio 7.8, 95% confidence interval 2.4-25.2, p < 0.001). Conclusions NNHCA-IE is underrecognized and carries a high mortality rate. Early recognition is crucial to provide optimal management and improve outcome. PMID:21849057

  15. Elevated troponin T on discharge predicts poor outcome of decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Koide, Kimi; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Nagatomo, Yuji; Kohsaka, Shun; Anzai, Toshihisa; Meguro, Tomomi; Ogawa, Satoshi

    2010-05-01

    Persistent elevation of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) predicts an adverse clinical outcome in patients with chronic heart failure (HF), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. We investigated the association between predischarge cTnT elevation and coexistent pathophysiology in patients with decompensated HF. Plasma cTnT levels were determined before discharge in 170 patients with decompensated HF. We divided the patients into a group that was positive for cTnT [cTnT(+) group, n = 40] and a group that was negative for cTnT [cTnT(-) group, n = 130]. Multivariate analysis showed that use of beta-blocker therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.236, P = 0.003), an elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level (OR = 3.731, P = 0.006), a high brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level (OR = 3.570, P = 0.007), diabetes (OR = 3.090, P = 0.018), and anemia (OR = 2.330, P = 0.047) were independently associated with cTnT positivity. During a mean follow-up period of 441 days after discharge, total mortality (P < 0.001), cardiac death (P < 0.001), and exacerbation of HF requiring hospitalization (P = 0.007) were all more common in the cTnT(+) group than in the cTnT(-) group. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that cTnT positivity was an independent predictor of total mortality (hazard ratio = 5.008, P = 0.004) in an age- and gender-matched model. Elevation of cTnT during convalescence was associated with lack of beta-blocker therapy, a high hsCRP level at discharge, a high BNP level at discharge, diabetes, and anemia, and a worse clinical outcome in patients with decompensated HF.

  16. Poor cognitive outcome in shunt-responsive idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Anne M; Alafuzoff, Irina; Savolainen, Sakari; Sutela, Anna; Rummukainen, Jaana; Kurki, Mitja; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Soininen, Hilkka; Rinne, Jaakko; Leinonen, Ville

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) causes cognitive decline that can be alleviated by shunting, but long-term outcome studies are scarce. To elucidate the long-term cognitive condition of shunt-responsive iNPH patients. The follow-up data (Kuopio University Hospital NPH Registry) of 146 patients diagnosed with iNPH by clinical and radiological examination, 24-hour intraventricular pressure monitoring, frontal cortical biopsy, and response to the shunt were analyzed for signs of dementia. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and specified memory disorder criteria were used. Median follow-up was 4.8 years. At the end of follow-up, 117 (80%) of the 146 iNPH patients had cognitive decline and 67 (46%) had clinical dementia. The most common clinical diagnoses were Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. In multivariate analysis of the 146 iNPH patients, memory deficit as a first symptom before shunt (odds ratio [OR] 18.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-175), male sex (OR 3.29; 95% CI 1.11-9.73), age (OR 1.17 year; 95% CI 1.07-1.28), and follow-up time (OR 1.20 year; 95% CI 1.02-1.40) predicted dementia. Interestingly, 8 (5%) iNPH patients had dementia without any signs of other neurodegenerative diseases in clinical, neuroradiological, or brain biopsy evaluation. These patients initially presented a full triad of symptoms, with gait disturbance being the most frequent initial symptom followed by deterioration in cognition. The novel findings were (a) a significant risk of dementia in iNPH initially responsive to cerebrospinal fluid shunt, (b) cognitive impairment most commonly due to iNPH-related dementia followed by concurrent degenerative brain disease, and (c) a subgroup with dementia related to iNPH without comorbidities.

  17. Clinical profile and outcome of acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil; Murkey, Rajneesh; Ahuja, Sanjeev; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2003-11-01

    To examine the etiological factors, clinical features, treatment modalities and outcome of acute respiratory failure in children. This hospital-based prospective observational study was conducted over 15 months. Fifty children with acute respiratory failure, diagnosed by serial arterial blood gas analysis, were consecutively enrolled. Ventilation therapy was initiated when the FiO2 requirement went above 0.6. Pulmonary diseases accounted for majority (68%) of cases, followed by nervous system (12%); and cardiovascular and skeletal muscle system diseases (10%, each). Bronchopneumonia was the commonest cause of acute respiratory failure (11 cases). The majority of cases were in the age group 1 month to < 1 year (26 cases). The commonest signs were altered depth and pattern of respiration (100%), chest wall retractions (88%), flaring of alae nasae (88%), tachypnea (84%), tachycardia (82%), and irritability (64%). Cyanosis was noticed in only 26 (52%) cases. Thirty-six (72%) children required ventilation therapy. The overall mortality was 58%. The mortality was high (55.9% to 66.7%), irrespective of the primary system involved. Significantly higher mortality was associated with co-existent malnutrition (p<0.001), Type I failure (p=0.039) and ventilation therapy (p<0.0001). Acute respiratory failure has varied etiology and clinical manifestations, and a high mortality. Its outcome is independent of age of the child and the primary system involved. Malnutrition and Type I failure are factors associated with a poor outcome.

  18. Clinical outcomes of revision biceps tenodesis

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, J. M.; Harwood, D. P.; Gochanour, E.; Sherman, S. L.; Romeo, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Biceps tenotomy and tenodesis are effective treatment options for biceps pathology, but outcomes of revision surgery are not known. This study examines the clinical outcomes of patients who have undergone a revision biceps tenodesis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all patients since 2004 (N = 21) who had undergone a revision biceps tenodesis with greater than 6-month follow-up was completed. A follow-up survey was carried out, and the visual analog scale (VAS), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and University of California – Los Angeles (UCLA) scores were obtained, along with SF-12 Mental (MCS-12) and Physical Component Summaries (PCS-12). Results: Indications for revision surgery were continued pain (14) and ruptured biceps (7). Complete follow-up examinations were performed in 15 of 21 patients (71.4%). Average follow-up was 33.4 ± 23.5 months. The mean postoperative scores were 1.9 out of 10, VAS; 79 out of 100, SANE; 10.2 out of 12, SST; 83 out of 100, ASES; 29 out of 35, UCLA; 44, PCS- 12; and 47.1, MCS- 12. Five patients were considered failures with a UCLA score below 27. Seventeen of twenty-one patient underwent concomitant procedures. Complete preoperative and postoperative data were collected for 14 patients. All scores demonstrated highly significant improvement from preoperative levels (P < 0.005), except for the MCS-12. There was no statistically significant difference in the outcomes of revision due to rupture and revision due to persistent pain. Conclusions: The results suggest that revision subpectoral biceps tenodesis provides significant pain relief and improvement in functional outcomes at a mean follow-up of 33.4 months. Level of Evidence: Case Series, Level 4. PMID:22787333

  19. Midterm clinical outcomes following arthroscopic transosseous rotator cuff repair

    PubMed Central

    Flanagin, Brody A.; Garofalo, Raffaele; Lo, Eddie Y.; Feher, LeeAnne; Castagna, Alessandro; Qin, Huanying; Krishnan, Sumant G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic transosseous (TO) rotator cuff repair has recently emerged as a new option for surgical treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tears. Limited data is available regarding outcomes using this technique. This study evaluated midterm clinical outcomes following a novel arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair technique. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 107 patients and 109 shoulders underwent arthroscopic TO (anchorless) rotator cuff repair for a symptomatic full-thickness tear. Pre and postoperative range of motion (ROM) was compared at an average of 11.8 months. Postoperative outcome scores were obtained at an average of 38.0 months. Statistical analysis was performed to compare pre and postoperative ROM data. Univariate analysis was performed using Student's t-test to compare the effect of other clinical characteristics on final outcome. Results: Statistically significant improvements were noted in forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation (P < 0.0001). Average postoperative subjective shoulder value was 93.7, simple shoulder test 11.6, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score 94.6. According to ASES scores, results for the 109 shoulders available for final follow-up were excellent in 95 (87.1%), good in 8 (7.3%), fair in 3 (2.8%), and poor in 3 (2.8%). There was no difference in ROM or outcome scores in patients who underwent a concomitant biceps procedure (tenodesis or tenotomy) compared with those who did not. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in outcome between patients who underwent either biceps tenodesis or tenotomy. Age, history of injury preceding the onset of pain, tear size, number of TO tunnels required to perform the repair, and presence of fatty infiltration did not correlate with postoperative ROM or subjective outcome measures at final follow-up. Two complications and four failures were noted. Conclusions: Arthroscopic TO rotator cuff repair technique leads to

  20. 1H–NMR Metabolomic Biomarkers of Poor Outcome after Hemorrhagic Shock are Absent in Hibernators

    PubMed Central

    Bogren, Lori K.; Murphy, Carl J.; Johnston, Erin L.; Sinha, Neeraj; Serkova, Natalie J.; Drew, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R), was used as a negative control. Methodology/principal findings Male Sprague-Dawley rats and AGS were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg and maintaining the low MAP for 20 min before reperfusing with Ringers. The animals’ temperature was maintained at 37±0.5°C for the duration of the experiment. Plasma samples were taken immediately before hemorrhage and three hours after reperfusion. Hydrophilic and lipid metabolites from plasma were then analyzed via 1H–NMR from unprocessed plasma and lipid extracts, respectively. Rats, susceptible to I/R injury, had a qualitative shift in their hydrophilic metabolic fingerprint including differential activation of glucose and anaerobic metabolism and had alterations in several metabolites during I/R indicative of metabolic adjustments and organ damage. In contrast, I/R injury resistant AGS, regardless of season or body temperature, maintained a stable metabolic homeostasis revealed by a qualitative 1H–NMR metabolic profile with few changes in quantified metabolites during HS-induced global I/R. Conclusions/significance An increase in circulating metabolites indicative of anaerobic metabolism and activation of glycolytic pathways is associated with poor prognosis after HS in

  1. Clinical manifestations and outcomes of pulmonary aspergillosis: experience from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Irfan, Muhammad; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Jabeen, Kauser; Awan, Safia; Khan, Javaid A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary aspergillosis has variable course of illness, severity and outcomes depending on underlying conditions. There is limited data available on the clinical manifestations and outcome of pulmonary aspergillosis from Pakistan. Methods To determine the clinical manifestations and outcome of pulmonary aspergillosis in a tertiary care hospital a retrospective study was conducted from 2004 to 2014 in patients admitted with pulmonary aspergillosis at the Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Results Of the 280 cases with provisional diagnosis of aspergillosis 69 met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 45±15.7 years, 48 (69.6%) were men and 21 (30.4%) had diabetes mellitus (DM). The average length of hospital stay (LOS) was 10.61±9.08 days. Aspergillus fumigatus was the most common (42.0%), followed by Aspergillus flavus (28.9%). More than one-third of patients previously had tuberculosis (TB) (39.13%). The commonest pulmonary manifestation was chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) 47 (68.1%) followed by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) 12 (17.4%) and subacute invasive aspergillosis (SAIA) 8 (11.6%). Surgical excision was performed in 28 patients (40.57%). Intensive care unit admission was required for 18 patients (26.08%). Case fatality rate was 14/69 (20.3%). DM, mean LOS and hypoxic respiratory failure were identified as independent risk factors of mortality on multivariate analysis. Conclusion A. fumigatus was the most frequent species found especially in patients with prior TB. CPA was the commonest pulmonary manifestation seen as post TB sequel. Diabetes, hypoxic respiratory failure and increased LOS were independent predictors of poor outcomes. Overall patients had good outcome with CPA compared with SAIA and IPA. PMID:28074136

  2. Clinical Outcomes following median to radial nerve transfers

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wilson Z.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In this study the authors evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with radial nerve palsy who underwent nerve transfers utilizing redundant fascicles of median nerve (innervating the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi radialis muscles) to the posterior interosseous nerve and the nerve to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Methods A retrospective review of the clinical records of 19 patients with radial nerve injuries who underwent nerve transfer procedures using the median nerve as a donor nerve were included. All patients were evaluated using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system. Results The mean age of patients was 41 years (range 17 – 78 years). All patients received at least 12 months of follow-up (20.3 ± 5.8 months). Surgery was performed at a mean of 5.7 ± 1.9 months post-injury. Post-operative functional evaluation was graded according to the following scale: grades MRC 0/5 - MRC 2/5 were considered poor outcomes, while MRC of 3/5 was a fair result, MRC grade 4/5 was a good result, and grade 4+/5 was considered an excellent outcome. Seventeen patients (89%) had a complete radial nerve palsy while two patients (11%) had intact wrist extension but no finger or thumb extension. Post-operatively all patients except one had good to excellent recovery of wrist extension. Twelve patients recovered good to excellent finger and thumb extension, two patients had fair recovery, five patients had a poor recovery. Conclusions The radial nerve is a commonly injured nerve, causing significant morbidity in affected patients. The median nerve provides a reliable source of donor nerve fascicles for radial nerve reinnervation. This transfer was first performed in 1999 and evolved over the subsequent decade. The important nuances of both surgical technique and motor re-education critical for to the success of this transfer have been identified and are discussed. PMID:21168979

  3. Somatic Mutations Predict Poor Outcome in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndrome After Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bejar, Rafael; Stevenson, Kristen E.; Caughey, Bennett; Lindsley, R. Coleman; Mar, Brenton G.; Stojanov, Petar; Getz, Gad; Steensma, David P.; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert; Antin, Joseph H.; Alyea, Edwin; Armand, Philippe; Ho, Vincent; Koreth, John; Neuberg, Donna; Cutler, Corey S.; Ebert, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recurrently mutated genes in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are pathogenic drivers and powerfully associated with clinical phenotype and prognosis. Whether these types of mutations predict outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with MDS is not known. Patients and Methods We used massively parallel sequencing to examine tumor samples collected from 87 patients with MDS before HSCT for coding mutations in 40 recurrently mutated MDS genes. Results Mutations were identified in 92% of patients, most frequently in the ASXL1 (29%), TP53 (21%), DNMT3A (18%), and RUNX1 (16%) genes. In univariable analyses, only TP53 mutations were associated with shorter overall (OS; hazard ratio [HR], 3.74; P < .001) and progression-free survival (HR, 3.97; P < .001). After adjustment for clinical variables associated with these end points, mutations in TP53 (HR, 2.30; P = .027), TET2 (HR, 2.40; P = .033), and DNMT3A (HR, 2.08; P = .049) were associated with decreased OS. In multivariable analysis including clinical variables, complex karyotype status, and candidate genes, mutations in TP53 (HR, 4.22; P ≤ .001) and TET2 (HR, 1.68; P = .037) were each independently associated with shorter OS. Nearly one half of patients (46%) carried a mutation in TP53, DNMT3A, or TET2 and accounted for 64% of deaths. Three-year OS in patients without these mutations was 59% (95% CI, 43% to 72%), versus 19% (95% CI, 9% to 33%) in patients with these mutations. Conclusion Mutations in TP53, TET2, or DNMT3A identify patients with MDS with shorter OS after HSCT. PMID:25092778

  4. Poor glycemic control in younger women attending Malaysian public primary care clinics: findings from adults diabetes control and management registry.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Ai Theng; Lee, Ping Yein; Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Mohamad Adam, Bujang; Chew, Boon How; Mastura, Ismail; Jamaiyah, Haniff; Syed Alwi, Syed-Abdul-Rahman; Sri Wahyu, Taher; Nafiza, Mat-Nasir

    2013-12-10

    Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women. This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control. Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides. Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted.

  5. Spontaneous Primary Intraventricular Hemorrhage: Clinical Features and Early Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià; García-Eroles, Luis; Vicens, Adela; Oliveres, Montserrat; Massons, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Primary hemorrhage in the ventricular system without a recognizable parenchymal component is very rare. This single-center retrospective study aimed to further characterize the clinical characteristics and early outcome of this stroke subtype. Methods. All patients with primary intraventricular hemorrhage included in a prospective hospital-based stroke registry over a 19-year period were assessed. A standardized protocol with 161 items, including demographics, risk factors, clinical data, neuroimaging findings, and outcome, was used for data collection. A comparison was made between the groups of primary intraventricular hemorrhage and subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage. Predictors of primary intraventricular hemorrhage were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results. There were 12 patients with primary intraventricular hemorrhage (0.31% of all cases of stroke included in the database) and 133 in the cohort of subcortical hemorrhage. Very old age (≥85 years) (odds ratio (OR) 9.89), atrial fibrillation (OR 8.92), headache (OR 6.89), and altered consciousness (OR 4.36) were independent predictors of intraventricular hemorrhage. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 41.7% (5/12) but increased to 60% (3/5) in patients aged 85 years or older. Conclusion. Although primary intraventricular hemorrhage is uncommon, it is a severe clinical condition with a high early mortality. The prognosis is particularly poor in very old patients. PMID:22966468

  6. Hypochloraemia as a predictor of developing hyponatraemia and poor outcome in acute heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Bojana; Potočnjak, Ines; Dokoza Terešak, Sanda; Trbušić, Matias; Vrkić, Nada; Malogorski, Davorin; Starčević, Neven; Milošević, Milan; Frank, Saša; Degoricija, Vesna

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health issue currently affecting more than 23 million patients worldwide. Hyponatraemia has been shown to be a predictor of poor outcome in patients with acute and chronic HF. Therefore, we aimed at finding a marker for early detection of patients at risk for developing hyponatraemia. To this end, the present study investigated the relationship between initial serum chloride and follow-up sodium levels in acute heart failure (AHF) patients. The present study was performed as a prospective, single-centre, observational research with a total of 152 hospitalised AHF patients. Compared to patients with initial normochloraemia, patients with initial hypochloraemia had a statistically significantly higher incidence of hyponatraemia after a 3-month follow-up [P<0.001; odds ratio (OR)=27.08, CI: 4.3-170.7]. A similar finding was obtained upon exclusion of patients with initial hyponatraemia with Fishers test [P=0.034; odds ratio (OR)=15.5, CI:1.7-140.6]. Binary logistic regression revealed a significantly increased in-hospital mortality in the hypochloraemic/normonatriaemic (OR=4.08, CI 1.08-15.43, P=0.039), but not in the hypochloraemic/hyponatraemic, normochloraemic/hyponatraemic or normonatriaemic/normochloraemic patients. Ejection fraction (EF) at admission was significantly higher in hypochloraemic/normonatriaemic, compared to normonatriaemic/normochloraemic patients, but similar to EF in both hypochloraemic/hyponatraemic and normochloraemic/hyponatraemic patients. The N-terminal precursor Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP) levels at admission were significantly lower in hypochloraemic/normonatriaemic compared to hypochloraemic/hyponatraemic and normonatriaemic/normochloraemic patients, respectively. The data show that initial low serum chloride concentration is predictive of developing hyponatraemia and associated with increased in-hospital mortality in AHF patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical Research of Traditional Chinese Medicine Needs to Develop Its Own System of Core Outcome Sets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Junhua; Chen, Jing; Xing, Dongmei; Wang, Jiaying

    2013-01-01

    Currently, quality issues concerning clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have come into the spotlight. It has been recognized that poorly-devised research methodology largely restricted the development of clinical research in TCM. The choice of appropriate outcome measurements is key to the success of clinical research; however, the current procedure for outcomes selection in clinical research of TCM is problematic due to the underdevelopment of clinical methodology. Under this circumstance, we propose the introduction to the concept of Core Outcome Set (COS) and discuss the feasibility of developing a COS system that caters for clinical studies in TCM, in the hope that the outcome evaluation system could be up to international standards. PMID:24312133

  8. Clinical profile and outcome of children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Sarkar, Jhuma; Bansal, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    The opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome is a distinct disorder characterized by opsoclonus, myoclonus, and ataxia, along with marked irritability and behavioral changes. Worldwide, data on its epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome are scarce. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical profile and outcome of children with this disorder. A retrospective study of all children admitted with a diagnosis of opsoclonus-myoclonus from 2000 to 2012 was done. Outcome was assessed on follow-up by direct assessment and by telephonic interview. Eleven patients with a diagnosis of opsoclonus-myoclonus were admitted over a 12-year period. Of the 11, 4 had paraneoplastic etiology. Children with paraneoplastic opsoclonus had more relapses and a poor outcome as compared to an idiopathic group. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus had a poor outcome in our experience.

  9. Association between poor clinical prognosis and sleep duration among breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mansano-Schlosser, Thalyta Cristina; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2017-06-05

    to investigate the association between clinical progression and the quality and duration of sleep in women with breast cancer. longitudinal study, with 114 participants, conducted in a hospital in Brazil. The instruments used were: questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Beck Depression Inventory and Herth Hope Scale. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and survival analyses (outcome: poor clinical progression), using the Kaplan-Meier curve, Log-rank test and Cox proportional model. a higher probability of poor clinical progression was verified in women with sleep durations of less than six hours or nine hours and over (p=.0173). the results suggest the importance of further studies that seek to verify whether the quantitative management of sleep disorders would have an impact on the progression of breast cancer. Women should be encouraged to report sleep problems to nurses. mensurar a associação entre evolução clínica e qualidade e duração do sono em mulheres com câncer de mama. estudo longitudinal, com 114 participantes, realizado em um hospital do Brasil. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica, Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh; Inventário de Depressão de Beck e Escala de Esperança de Herth. Os dados foram analisados via análises descritivas e de sobrevivência (resultado: evolução clínica desfavorável), utilizando-se a curva de Kaplan-Meier, o teste log-rank e o modelo proporcional de Cox. verificou-se maior probabilidade de evolução clínica desfavorável em mulheres com duração de sono inferior a seis ou mais de nove horas (p = 0,0173). os resultados sugerem a importância de mais estudos que buscam verificar se a gestão quantitativa dos distúrbios do sono teria um impacto sobre a evolução do câncer de mama. As mulheres devem ser encorajadas a relatar isso espontaneamente aos enfermeiros. medir

  10. Aberrant DNA Methylation Is Associated with a Poor Outcome in Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Muramatsu, Hideki; Okuno, Yusuke; Makishima, Hideki; Xu, Yinyan; Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Wang, Xinan; Narita, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Doisaki, Sayoko; Yoshida, Nao; Hama, Asahito; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Miyano, Satoru; Ogawa, Seishi; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), an overlap of myelodysplastic / myeloproliferative neoplasm, is an intractable pediatric myeloid neoplasm. Epigenetic regulation of transcription, particularly by CpG methylation, plays an important role in tumor progression, mainly by repressing tumor-suppressor genes. To clarify the clinical importance of aberrant DNA methylation, we studied the hypermethylation status of 16 target genes in the genomes of 92 patients with JMML by bisulfite conversion and the pryosequencing technique. Among 16 candidate genes, BMP4, CALCA, CDKN2A, and RARB exhibited significant hypermethylation in 72% (67/92) of patients. Based on the number of hypermethylated genes, patients were stratified into three cohorts based on an aberrant methylation score (AMS) of 0, 1–2, or 3–4. In the AMS 0 cohort, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and transplantation-free survival (TFS) were good (69% and 76%, respectively). In the AMS 1–2 cohort, the 5-year OS was comparable to that in the AMS 0 cohort (68%), whereas TFS was poor (6%). In the AMS 3–4 cohort, 5-year OS and TFS were markedly low (8% and 0%, respectively). Epigenetic analysis provides helpful information for clinicians to select treatment strategies for patients with JMML. For patients with AMS 3–4 in whom hematopoietic stem cell transplantation does not improve the prognosis, alternative therapies, including DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and new molecular-targeting agents, should be established as treatment options. PMID:26720758

  11. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may be associated with poor reproductive outcomes: a prospective study in IVF patients.

    PubMed

    Haahr, T; Jensen, J S; Thomsen, L; Duus, L; Rygaard, K; Humaidan, P

    2016-04-01

    IVF patients were included in the study, a larger sample size is needed to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible adverse effect of an abnormal vaginal microbiota in relation to the clinical pregnancy rate and other reproductive outcomes. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may negatively affect the clinical pregnancy rate in IVF patients. If a negative correlation between abnormal vaginal microbiota and the clinical pregnancy rate is corroborated, patients could be screened and subsequently treated for abnormal vaginal microbiota prior to fertility treatment. This study was funded by The AP Møller Maersk Foundation for the advancement of Medical Science and Hospital of Central Jutland Research Fund, Denmark. No competing interests. The project was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (file number NCT02042352). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Tentative nil per os leads to poor outcomes in older adults with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji

    2016-10-01

    Patients with aspiration pneumonia (AP) may experience swallowing function declines during treatment, necessitating artificial feeding methods. Proper AP treatment contributes to maintaining activities of daily living. The aim was to assess the effect of tentative nil per os (NPO) status on the recovery of AP patients and declines in their swallowing abilities. In this retrospective cohort study, 331 patients with AP having oral food intake in premorbid status were included after exclusions for reasons such as vomiting or respiratory insufficiency. We divided subjects into 2 groups: an early oral intake (EOI) group and a tentative NPO group according to the directions by the attending doctors at admission. We created a population model related to groupings from all subjects, which was a homoscedastic model without statistical differences by the inverse probability of treatment weighted (IPTW) method and compared outcomes between the groups. In the IPTW model, tentative NPO status resulted in poorer nutritional intake every day for 1 week from the date of admission (p < 0.05), a significantly longer treatment duration (50% treatment length: NPO group, 13 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 12.04-13.96] and EOI group, 8 days [95% CI, 7.69-8.31 [log-rank test, p < 0.001]) and greater decline in swallowing ability over the course of treatment (p < 0.001). Tentative NPO status with AP at hospital admission resulted in adverse effects on patients, including prolonged treatment duration and declines in swallowing ability. Avoiding unnecessary NPO might be another method to treat AP and contribute to the patient's outcomes in addition to medication administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Poor health and social outcomes for ex-prisoners with a history of mental disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cutcher, Zoe; Degenhardt, Louisa; Alati, Rosa; Kinner, Stuart A

    2014-10-01

    To examine the association between self-reported lifetime diagnosis of mental disorder and health-related outcomes in prisoners during the first six months after release. We interviewed 1,324 adult prisoners in Queensland, Australia, within six weeks of expected release and one, three and six months post-release. Outcomes of interest included health service access, housing, employment, substance use and criminal activity. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the association between self-reported, lifetime diagnosis of mental disorder and these health-related outcomes post-release, adjusting for pre-existing disadvantage. 43.4% of participants reported a lifetime diagnosis of mental disorder. This group had increased crude odds of poor outcomes across all evaluated domains. After adjusting for pre-existing disadvantage, significantly increased odds of poor outcomes persisted in the substance use, mental health, crime and health service access domains. People with a history of mental disorder experience particularly poor outcomes following release from prison that are not fully explained by pre-existing disadvantage. Evidence-based transitional programs for prisoners with a history of mental disorder should be provided at a level commensurate with need. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Functional Outcome After Poor-Grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Single-Center Study and Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Mansur, Ann; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; Germans, Menno R; Jaja, Blessing N R; Kouzmina, Ekaterina; Marotta, Thomas R; Abrahamson, Simon; Schweizer, Tom A; Spears, Julian; Macdonald, R Loch

    2016-12-01

    Poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 4 and 5) is associated with high mortality rates and unfavorable functional outcomes. We report a single-center cohort of poor-grade SAH patients, combined with a systematic review of studies reporting functional outcome in the poor-grade SAH population. Data on a cohort of poor-grade SAH patients treated between 2009 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and combined with a systematic review (from inception to November 2015; PubMed, Embase). Two reviewers assessed the studies independently based on predefined inclusion criteria: consecutive poor-grade SAH, functional outcome measured at least 3 months after hemorrhage, and the report of patients who died before aneurysm treatment. The search yielded 329 publications, and 23 met our inclusion criteria with 2713 subjects enrolled from 1977 to 2014 in 10 countries (including 179 poor-grade patients from our cohort). Mortality rate was 60 % (1683 patients), of which 806 (29 %) died before and 877 (31 %) died after aneurysm treatment, respectively. Treatment was undertaken in 1775 patients (1775/2826-63 %): 1347 by surgical clipping (1347/1775-76 %) and 428 (428/1775-24 %) by endovascular methods. Outcome was favorable in 794 patients (28 %) and unfavorable in 1867 (66 %). When the studies were grouped into decades, favorable outcome increased from 13 % in the late 1970s to early 1980s to 35 % in the late 1980s to early 1990s, and remained unchanged thereafter. Although mortality remains high in poor-grade SAH patients, a favorable functional outcome can be achieved in approximately one-third of patients. The development of new diagnostic methods and implementation of therapeutic approaches were probably responsible for the decrease in mortality and improvement in the functional outcome from 1970 to the 1990s. The plateau in functional outcome seen thereafter might be explained by the treatment of sicker and older

  15. The clinical outcome of childhood masturbation.

    PubMed

    Unal, F

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical outcome of childhood masturbation. For this purpose 50 children (mean age = 48.7 +/- 24.5 months, 34 girls females and 16 boys males) with masturbation symptoms were examined at first visit to the Department of Child Psychiatry and two years thereafter with psychiatric interviews. The mean masturbation frequency at the initial interview was significantly decreased after two years. It was noted that 39 children (78%) were completely recovered and 11 children (22%) continued to masturbate after two years. Children who did not recover were significantly younger, began to masturbate earlier and masturbated more frequently than others at the time of initial evaluation. It was concluded that the findings about the beneficial effect of sedative drugs in combination with parental guidance, education and means for behavior modification were promising.

  16. Functional heartburn: clinical characteristics and outcome.

    PubMed

    Surdea Blaga, Teodora; Dumitrascu, Dan; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas

    2013-03-01

    Patients with heartburn and normal upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, normal oesophageal acid exposure, no symptom-reflux association and who fail to respond to a proton-pump inhibitor are classified as having functional heartburn (FH). This study aimed (i) to characterize the symptoms and functional abnormalities of patients with FH and (ii) to describe their clinical outcome. Among all patients referred for 24 h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH), patients with FH were identified. The clinical characteristics and high-resolution oesophageal pressure topography recordings of FH patients were analyzed at the time of the 24-h MII-pH test. A symptom-related and health-related quality-of-life questionnaire was then sent to FH patients to assess the long-term outcome. Forty patients fulfilled the criteria for FH, representing 8.5% of the referred population. Twenty-two months after initial testing, 66% of patients still suffered from heartburn. The rate of mixed reflux (liquid/gas) was higher in patients with persisting heartburn at the final evaluation (63 vs. 50%, P=0.04). Sixty-six per cent of patients had one or more manometric abnormalities. Acid clearance time in MII-pH was significantly higher in patients with weak peristalsis than patients with normal peristalsis (60 ± 45 vs. 31 ± 19 s, P=0.03). A high rate of mixed reflux and/or a manometric abnormality were associated with a higher risk of persistent heartburn. FH is a chronic disorder with persisting symptoms in two-thirds of patients. An increased rate of mixed reflux and/or the presence of manometric abnormalities are associated with a higher risk of persisting symptoms and may help to identify the population with unmet therapeutic needs.

  17. Regulatory T Cells in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Patients Are Associated with Poor Outcomes: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Emily; Otieno, Juliana A.; Ong’echa, John Michael; Nixon, Christina E.; Vulule, John; Münz, Christian; Stewart, V. Ann; Moormann, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell immunosurveillance appear to precede the development of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), a malaria-associated pediatric cancer common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, T cell contributions to eBL disease progression and survival have not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate regulatory and inflammatory T cell responses in eBL patients associated with clinical outcomes. By multi-parameter flow cytometry, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 38 eBL patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya from 2008–2010, and 14 healthy age-matched Kenyan controls. Children diagnosed with eBL were prospectively followed and outcomes categorized as 2-year event-free survivors, cases of relapses, or those who died. At the time of diagnosis, eBL children with higher CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell frequencies were less likely to survive than patients with lower Treg frequencies (p = 0·0194). Non-survivors also had higher absolute counts of CD45RA+Foxp3lo naïve and CD45RA-Foxp3hi effector Treg subsets compared to survivors and healthy controls. Once patients went into clinical remission, Treg frequencies remained low in event-free survivors. Patients who relapsed, however, showed elevated Treg frequencies months prior to their adverse event. Neither concurrent peripheral blood EBV load nor malaria infection could explain higher Treg cell frequencies. CD8+ T cell PD-1 expression was elevated in all eBL patients at time of diagnosis, but relapse patients tended to have persistently high PD-1 expression compared to long-term survivors. Non-survivors produced more CD4+ T-cell IL-10 in response to both Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) (p = 0·026) and the malaria antigen Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (p = 0·0158) compared to survivors, and were concurrently deficient in (EBNA-1)-specific CD8+ T-cell derived IFN-γ production (p = 0·002). In addition

  18. Regulatory T Cells in Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma Patients Are Associated with Poor Outcomes: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Emily; Otieno, Juliana A; Ong'echa, John Michael; Nixon, Christina E; Vulule, John; Münz, Christian; Stewart, V Ann; Moormann, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Deficiencies in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell immunosurveillance appear to precede the development of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), a malaria-associated pediatric cancer common in sub-Saharan Africa. However, T cell contributions to eBL disease progression and survival have not been characterized. Our objective was to investigate regulatory and inflammatory T cell responses in eBL patients associated with clinical outcomes. By multi-parameter flow cytometry, we examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 38 eBL patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya from 2008-2010, and 14 healthy age-matched Kenyan controls. Children diagnosed with eBL were prospectively followed and outcomes categorized as 2-year event-free survivors, cases of relapses, or those who died. At the time of diagnosis, eBL children with higher CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cell frequencies were less likely to survive than patients with lower Treg frequencies (p = 0·0194). Non-survivors also had higher absolute counts of CD45RA+Foxp3lo naïve and CD45RA-Foxp3hi effector Treg subsets compared to survivors and healthy controls. Once patients went into clinical remission, Treg frequencies remained low in event-free survivors. Patients who relapsed, however, showed elevated Treg frequencies months prior to their adverse event. Neither concurrent peripheral blood EBV load nor malaria infection could explain higher Treg cell frequencies. CD8+ T cell PD-1 expression was elevated in all eBL patients at time of diagnosis, but relapse patients tended to have persistently high PD-1 expression compared to long-term survivors. Non-survivors produced more CD4+ T-cell IL-10 in response to both Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA-1) (p = 0·026) and the malaria antigen Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Egress Antigen-1 (p = 0·0158) compared to survivors, and were concurrently deficient in (EBNA-1)-specific CD8+ T-cell derived IFN-γ production (p = 0·002). In addition, we

  19. Factors Leading to a Poor Functional Outcome in Spinal Meningioma Surgery: Remarks on 173 Cases.

    PubMed

    Raco, Antonino; Pesce, Alessandro; Toccaceli, Giada; Domenicucci, Maurizio; Miscusi, Massimo; Delfini, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Spinal meningiomas are common spinal tumors, in most cases benign and with a good surgical prognosis. However, specific location, infiltration of spinal cord, vascular encasement, or spinal root involvement can bring a less favorable prognosis. To correlate these data with clinical/functional outcome. Two hundred twenty-four consecutive patients with spinal meningiomas treated from 1976 to 2013 in our institution were analyzed; among these, 51 were excluded for incomplete clinical data or follow-up. The remaining 173 cases were classified in regards to sex, age, symptoms, axial location, Simpson grade resection, and functional pre-/postoperative status. Most recurring onset symptoms were pain (32.9%) and motor deficit (31.8%); thoracic spine was the most severely affected (69.8%). Functional improvement on the follow-up was observed in 86.7% of cases; 6.4% of patients resulted stable and 6.9% worsened. A low functional grade before surgery was connected to a lesser improvement after. Anterolateral meningiomas were the most represented (42.2%); a gross total resection (Simpson grades I and II) was conducted in 98.8%, and a macroscopically complete removal without dural resection or coagulation (Simpson grade III) was performed in 1.2%. Of the meningiomas, 98.3% were classified as WHO grade I. Recurrence rate was 2.3%, and 7 cases presented complications (4 of 7 required surgical procedure). We can affirm that negative prognostic factors in our study were anterior or anterolateral axial location, prolonged presentation before diagnosis, WHO grade >I, Simpson grade resections II and III, sphincter involvement, and worse functional grade at onset.

  20. Integrated Classification of Prostate Cancer Reveals a Novel Luminal Subtype with Poor Outcome.

    PubMed

    You, Sungyong; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Erho, Nicholas; Alshalalfa, Mohammed; Takhar, Mandeep; Al-Deen Ashab, Hussam; Davicioni, Elai; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A; Den, Robert B; Ross, Ashley E; Schaeffer, Edward M; Garraway, Isla P; Kim, Jayoung; Freeman, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease with variable molecular alterations underlying cancer initiation and progression. Despite recent advances in understanding prostate cancer heterogeneity, better methods for classification of prostate cancer are still needed to improve prognostic accuracy and therapeutic outcomes. In this study, we computationally assembled a large virtual cohort (n = 1,321) of human prostate cancer transcriptome profiles from 38 distinct cohorts and, using pathway activation signatures of known relevance to prostate cancer, developed a novel classification system consisting of three distinct subtypes (named PCS1-3). We validated this subtyping scheme in 10 independent patient cohorts and 19 laboratory models of prostate cancer, including cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models. Analysis of subtype-specific gene expression patterns in independent datasets derived from luminal and basal cell models provides evidence that PCS1 and PCS2 tumors reflect luminal subtypes, while PCS3 represents a basal subtype. We show that PCS1 tumors progress more rapidly to metastatic disease in comparison with PCS2 or PCS3, including PSC1 tumors of low Gleason grade. To apply this finding clinically, we developed a 37-gene panel that accurately assigns individual tumors to one of the three PCS subtypes. This panel was also applied to circulating tumor cells (CTC) and provided evidence that PCS1 CTCs may reflect enzalutamide resistance. In summary, PCS subtyping may improve accuracy in predicting the likelihood of clinical progression and permit treatment stratification at early and late disease stages. Cancer Res; 76(17); 4948-58. ©2016 AACR.

  1. Low Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes: Evidence for a Gradient Relationship in an Urban, Poor, African American Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Noonan, Kelly; Martin, Roy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study is one of the first to investigate the relationship between low birth weight and cognitive outcomes in an urban, poor, prospectively designed African-American birth cohort. Multivariate analyses of the Pathways to Adulthood study, a subset of the Johns Hopkins Collaborative Perinatal study, compared low birth weight African-American…

  2. Endocarditis and spondylodiscitis associated with tunneled cuffed hemodialysis catheters: hospitalizations with poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ana; Castro, Rui; Santos, Josefina

    2015-04-01

    Patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis using tunneled cuffed catheters (TCCs) are at increased risk of metastatic infections, namely endocarditis and spondydodiscitis, and mortality is high in this group. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical features, causative organisms, its susceptibility and outcomes in patients hospitalized with these infections from a single center. All consecutive patients with TCC and endocarditis and/or spondylodiscitis treated at the authors' institution between 2005 and 2011 were selected retrospectively. A total of 7 cases of endocarditis and 7 cases of spondylodiscitis were diagnosed. Concurrent infection was present in 1 patient. The mean age was 63.4 years, 53.8% were male, 23% had diabetes and 31% had previous immunosuppression. The average time on hemodialysis was 24 months. Those patients with endocarditis presented with fever, and 43% had previous valvular disease; mitral valve involvement was the most common. Early surgery was performed in 2 patients.Concerning spondylodiscitis, the median time from first symptom to diagnosis was 48 days. The first manifestation was back pain in 86% percent of patients, and 71% had an epidural or paraspinous abscess demonstrated by neuroimaging. One patient underwent surgical drainage of the abscess. Regarding both infections, staphylococcus aureus was the most common causative agent with a lower rate of negative blood cultures. All patients received intravenous antibiotics for a mean duration of six weeks. The mortality rate was 46%. A high index of suspicion is critical in the early recognition and management of both of these infections.

  3. Poor outcomes after hepatectomy in patients with ascites infected by methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Hidetoshi; Beppu, Toru; Itoyama, Akari; Higashi, Takaaki; Sakamoto, Keita; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Mima, Kosuke; Okabe, Hirohisa; Imai, Katsunori; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the association between infectious ascites, clinical parameters and treatment outcomes after hepatectomy. Of 891 patients who underwent hepatectomy between 2006 and 2013, 74 who underwent paracentesis for bacterial cultivation of postoperative ascites after hepatectomy were analyzed. Of the 74 patients, 42 had positive bacterial cultures (positive group) and 32 patients had negative cultures (negative group). Hospital mortality was significantly higher in the positive group than in the negative group [9/42 (21.4%) vs. 2/32 (6.3%); P = 0.035]. Hospital mortality associated with each bacterial strain was as follows: methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) (5/13, 38.5%), staphylococci (2/11, 18.2%), enterococci (2/12, 16.7%), Enterobacter (0/3, 0%), Klebsiella (0/2, 0%), and others (0/1, 0%). Cox proportional multivariate analysis revealed that MRS infection in ascites was the only risk factor of hospital death (HR = 5.08, P = 0.041) and MRS wound infection was the only risk factor to predict MRS infection in ascites (HR = 5.67, P = 0.015). Postoperative MRS infection in postoperative ascites after hepatectomy is a potentially fatal complication; therefore, the prevention of MRS wound infection is critical to decrease postoperative hospital mortality. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  4. Nursing and midwifery students' encounters with poor clinical practice: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ion, Robin; Smith, Kate; Dickens, Geoff

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review evidence about nursing and midwifery students' encounters with poor clinical care. We undertook a systematic review of English language empirical research using multiple databases from inception to April 2016. Hand searching was also undertaken. Included papers contained accounts of empirical research which reported on students' encounters with poor care. These were quality-assessed, information was extracted into tables, and study results were synthesized using thematic analysis. N = 14 papers met inclusion criteria; study quality was moderate to good. Study synthesis revealed four themes: i) encounters with poor practice: students encounter poor practice that is likely to be worthy of professional sanction; ii) while intention to report is high in hypothetical scenarios, this appears not always to translate to actual practice; iii) a range of influencing factors impact the likelihood of reporting; iv) the consequences of encountering and subsequently reporting poor practice appeared to have a lasting effect on students. Research is required to determine the frequency and nature of students' encounters with poor care, when and where they encounter it, how to increase the likelihood that they will report it, and how they can be supported in doing so.

  5. NOTCH1 mutations identify a genetic subgroup of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with high risk of transformation and poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Villamor, N; Conde, L; Martínez-Trillos, A; Cazorla, M; Navarro, A; Beà, S; López, C; Colomer, D; Pinyol, M; Aymerich, M; Rozman, M; Abrisqueta, P; Baumann, T; Delgado, J; Giné, E; González-Díaz, M; Hernández, J M; Colado, E; Payer, A R; Rayon, C; Navarro, B; José Terol, M; Bosch, F; Quesada, V; Puente, X S; López-Otín, C; Jares, P; Pereira, A; Campo, E; López-Guillermo, A

    2013-04-01

    NOTCH1 has been found recurrently mutated in a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To analyze biological features and clinical impact of NOTCH1 mutations in CLL, we sequenced this gene in 565 patients. NOTCH1 mutations, found in 63 patients (11%), were associated with unmutated IGHV, high expression of CD38 and ZAP-70, trisomy 12, advanced stage and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. Sequential analysis in 200 patients demonstrated acquisition of mutation in one case (0.5%) and disappearance after treatment in two. Binet A and B patients with NOTCH1-mutated had a shorter time to treatment. NOTCH1-mutated patients were more frequently refractory to therapy and showed shorter progression-free and overall survival after complete remission. Overall survival was shorter in NOTCH1-mutated patients, although not independently from IGHV. NOTCH1 mutation increased the risk of transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma independently from IGHV, with this being validated in resampling tests of replicability. In summary, NOTCH1 mutational status, that was rarely acquired during the course of the disease, identify a genetic subgroup with high risk of transformation and poor outcome. This recently identified genetic subgroup of CLL patients deserves prospective studies to define their best management.

  6. Organ trafficking for live donor kidney transplantation in Indoasians resident in the west midlands: high activity and poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Nithya; Cockwell, Paul; Devulapally, Pavan; Gerber, Barbara; Hanvesakul, Raj; Higgins, Robert; Ready, Andrew; Carmichael, Paul; Tomlinson, Kerry; Kumar, Shiv; Baharani, Jyoti; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2010-06-27

    Some Indoasian (IA) patients with established renal failure travel abroad for commercial kidney transplantation. We compared the 1-year outcomes of IA patients from one UK region who received overseas transplants with IA patients receiving local living donor (LD) kidney transplantation, deceased donor (DD) transplantation, and dialysis. Between 1996 and 2006, 40 adults were transplanted overseas; 38 were IA, and follow-up data were available on 36 patients. Forty IA patients received LD transplants, and 156 patients received DD transplants locally. A cohort of 120 prospective dialysis patients was also used as a comparator group. In the overseas cohort, 20 patients (56%) were not active in the UK transplant waiting list at the time of kidney transplantation overseas. One-year graft survival was 87%, and 1-year patient survival was 83%. Composite graft and patient survival was 69.5% at 1 year. In the local LD transplant recipients, patient survival was 97.5% (39 of 40; P=0.03), and graft survival was 97.5% (39 of 40; P=0.06). Composite graft and patient survival was 95% (P=0.003). In the overseas group, 42% had major infections compared with 15% in the local group (P=0.02). One-year graft survival for DD transplant was 84.6% (132 of 156), and 1-year patient survival was 93% (145 of 156; P=NS and P=0.06, respectively). In the dialysis group, 1-year patient survival was 96.7% (116 of 120; P=0.001). IA patients who choose to travel overseas for kidney transplantation have poor clinical outcomes and should be counseled accordingly.

  7. The National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry.

    PubMed

    Liau, Adrian; Havidich, Jeana E; Onega, Tracy; Dutton, Richard P

    2015-12-01

    The Anesthesia Quality Institute (AQI) was chartered in 2008 by the American Society of Anesthesiologists to develop the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry (NACOR). In this Technical Communication, we will describe how data enter NACOR, how they are authenticated, and how they are analyzed and reported. NACOR accepts case-level administrative, clinical, and quality capture data from voluntarily participating anesthesia practices and health care facilities in the United States. All data are transmitted to the AQI in summary electronic files generated by billing, quality capture, and electronic health care record software, typically on a monthly basis. All data elements are mapped to fields in the NACOR schema in accordance with a publicly available data dictionary. Incoming data are loaded into NACOR by AQI technologists and are subject to both manual and automated review to identify systematically missing elements, miscoding, and inadvertent corruption. Data are deidentified in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations. The database server of AQI, which houses the NACOR database, is protected by 2 firewalls within the American Society of Anesthesiologists' network infrastructure; this system has not been breached. The NACOR Participant User File, a deidentified case-level dataset of information from NACOR, is available to researchers at participating institutions. NACOR architecture and the nature of the Participant User File include both strengths and weaknesses.

  8. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-09-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  9. Cinacalcet and Clinical Outcomes in Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication of end-stage renal disease and is one of the most prominent causes of a markedly increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease in this patient population. Cinacalcet hydrochloride is a new option for the treatment of SHPT, and the efficacy and effectiveness to lower parathyroid hormone levels and to improve control of mineral metabolism, even in patients with severe disease, has been well established in many clinical trials and observational studies. Currently, the focus has moved to the impact of cinacalcet on hard clinical outcomes, and two randomized controlled trials, ADVANCE and EVOLVE, have been performed to assess the effects of cinacalcet on cardiovascular calcification and the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality, respectively. Although the primary analysis of both trials did not find significant effects of cinacalcet, the benefit of cinacalcet was suggested in the subanalyses in which the potential problems of the trials were taken into account. These positive results are consistent with experimental studies showing favorable effects of cinacalcet on bone metabolism and vascular calcification, providing plausibility to support the beneficial effects of cinacalcet. Definitive evidence is, however, still lacking, and further efforts should be made to establish the optimal role of cinacalcet in the treatment of SHPT.

  10. Imipramine blood levels and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Rigal, J G; Albin, H C; Duchier, A R; D'Aulnay, J M; Fenelon, J H; Vincon, G A; Demotes-Mainard, F M

    1987-08-01

    Fifty-one depressed inpatients, after 1 drug-free week, were treated for 5 weeks with imipramine 4 mg/kg day. Plasma levels of imipramine (IMI) and its active metabolite desmethylimipramine (DMI) were measured weekly, 15 hours after the last drug intake. Steady state blood levels (IMI + DMI) ranged from 60 to 585 ng/ml. The mean value for plasma concentration (IMI + DMI) at day 42 was 271 ng/ml. In the same way, therapeutic effectiveness was assessed every week using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS). There was a significant correlation between plasma concentration and the decrease of Hamilton scores. The IMI/DMI ratio showed a responder-nonresponder difference; 86% patients with a ratio between 0.4 and 1 were responders. Conversely, most patients with a ratio below 0.4 or above 1 were nonresponders. The ideal ratio for clinical response would be 0.68. The ratio is a subject-specific feature, able to be an early predictor of clinical outcome.

  11. Extended Anatomical Grading in Diffuse Axonal Injury Using MRI: Hemorrhagic Lesions in the Substantia Nigra and Mesencephalic Tegmentum Indicate Poor Long-Term Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Marklund, Niklas; Lannsjö, Marianne; Howells, Tim; Raininko, Raili; Wikström, Johan; Enblad, Per

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Clinical outcome after traumatic diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is difficult to predict. In this study, three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences were used to quantify the anatomical distribution of lesions, to grade DAI according to the Adams grading system, and to evaluate the value of lesion localization in combination with clinical prognostic factors to improve outcome prediction. Thirty patients (mean 31.2 years ±14.3 standard deviation) with severe DAI (Glasgow Motor Score [GMS] <6) examined with MRI within 1 week post-injury were included. Diffusion-weighted (DW), T2*-weighted gradient echo and susceptibility-weighted (SWI) sequences were used. Extended Glasgow outcome score was assessed after 6 months. Number of DW lesions in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and internal capsule and number of SWI lesions in the mesencephalon correlated significantly with outcome in univariate analysis. Age, GMS at admission, GMS at discharge, and low proportion of good monitoring time with cerebral perfusion pressure <60 mm Hg correlated significantly with outcome in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent relation with poor outcome for age (p = 0.005) and lesions in the mesencephalic region corresponding to substantia nigra and tegmentum on SWI (p = 0.008). We conclude that higher age and lesions in substantia nigra and mesencephalic tegmentum indicate poor long-term outcome in DAI. We propose an extended MRI classification system based on four stages (stage I—hemispheric lesions, stage II—corpus callosum lesions, stage III—brainstem lesions, and stage IV—substantia nigra or mesencephalic tegmentum lesions); all are subdivided by age (≥/<30 years). PMID:27356857

  12. Profiling of differentially expressed proteins in stage IV colorectal cancers with good and poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Kang, Un-Beom; Lee, Hanna; Jung, Ji-Han; Lee, Seung-Taek; Yu, Myeong-Hee; Kim, Hoguen; Lee, Cheolju

    2012-06-06

    Screening patients at high risk of recurrence of cancer would allow for more accurate and personalized treatment. In this study, we tried to identify the prognosis-related protein profile by applying two different quantitative proteomic techniques, difference in-gel electrophoresis and cleavable isotope-coded affinity tag method. Six tumor tissues were obtained from stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, of which three have survived more than five years (good prognostic group, GPG) and the other three died within 25 months (poor prognostic group, PPG) after palliative surgery and subsequent chemotherapy treatment. From the two independent quantitative analyses, we identified 175 proteins with abundance ratios greater than 2-fold. Gene ontology analysis revealed that proteins related to cellular assembly/organization and movement were generally increased in the PPG. Twenty-two proteins, including caveolin-1, were chosen for confirmatory studies by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The Western blot data for each individual protein were analyzed with Mann-Whitney tests, and a multi-marker panel was generated by logistic regression analysis. Five proteins, fatty acid binding protein 1, intelectin 1, transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase, transgelin and tropomyosin 2, were significantly different between the two prognostic groups within 95% confidence. No single protein could completely distinguish the two groups from each other. However, a combination of the five proteins effectively distinguished PPG from GPG patients (AUC=1). Our study suggests a multi-marker panel composed of proteome signatures that provide accurate predictive information and potentially assist personalized therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics: The clinical link. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma Proenkephalin and Poor Long-Term Outcome in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Kieneker, Lyanne M; Hartmann, Oliver; Struck, Joachim; Bergmann, Andreas; Gansevoort, Ron T; Joosten, Michel M; van den Berg, Else; de Boer, Rudolf A; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-08-01

    Proenkephalin (pro-ENK), a stable and reliable surrogate marker for unstable enkephalins, was found to be associated with acute kidney injury and chronic renal failure in previous studies. We aimed to investigate whether pro-ENK is linked to chronic kidney injury and poor long-term outcome in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We included 664 stable RTR and 95 healthy kidney donors. Pro-ENK was measured in plasma with a double monoclonal sandwich immunoassay. Graft failure was defined as return to dialysis therapy or retransplantation. Median pro-ENK was 110 pmol/L (interquartile range [IQR], 85-148 pmol/L) in RTR and 48 pmol/L (IQR, 42-55 pmol/L) in kidney donors. Pro-ENK was correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (rs = -0.80, P < 0.001) in RTR and with measured GFR (rs = -0.74, P < 0.001) in kidney donors. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (IQR, 2.7-3.9 years), 45 RTR developed graft failure and 76 died. Pro-ENK was positively associated with risk (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation increment of the logarithm of pro-ENK; 95% confidence interval [CI]) of graft failure (HR, 4.80; 95% CI, 3.55-6.48) and mortality (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.22-1.85). After adjustment of age, sex, and estimated GFR, the association of pro-ENK with graft failure remained significant (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.37-4.06), whereas no significant association of pro-ENK with risk of all-cause mortality was observed (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.90-2.09). Plasma pro-ENK is associated with kidney function as reflected by correlations with measured GFR in both RTR and kidney donors. In addition, pro-ENK was independently associated with increased risk of graft failure in RTR. Pro-ENK may aid in identification of RTR at risk for late graft failure.

  14. Prolonged elevated heart rate is a risk factor for adverse cardiac events and poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J Michael; Crimmins, Michael; Lantigua, Hector; Fernandez, Andres; Zammit, Chris; Falo, Cristina; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Mayer, Stephan A

    2014-06-01

    Sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We sought to determine whether uncontrolled prolonged heart rate elevation is a risk factor for adverse cardiopulmonary events and poor outcome after SAH. We prospectively studied 447 SAH patients between March 2006 and April 2012. Prior studies define prolonged elevated heart rate (PEHR) as heart rate >95 beats/min for >12 h. Major adverse cardiopulmonary events were documented according to the predefined criteria. Global outcome at 3 months was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). 175 (39 %) patients experienced PEHR. Nonwhite race/ethnicity, admission Hunt-Hess grade ≥4, elevated APACHE-2 physiological subscore, and modified Fisher score were significant admission predictors of PEHR, whereas documented pre-hospital beta-blocker use was protective. After controlling for admission Hunt-Hess grade, Cox regression using time-lagged covariates revealed that PEHR onset in the previous 48 h was associated with an increased hazard for delayed cerebral ischemia, myocardial injury, and pulmonary edema. PEHR was associated with 3-month poor outcome (mRS 4-6) after controlling for known predictors. PEHR is associated with major adverse cardiopulmonary events and poor outcome after SAH. Further study is warranted to determine if early sympatholytic therapy targeted at sustained heart rate control can improve outcome after SAH.

  15. Pediatric atlanto-occipital dissociation: radiographic findings and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    du Plessis, Jean-Pierre; Dix-Peek, Stewart; Hoffman, Eduard Bernard; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Dunn, Robert Neil

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Retrospective diagnostic feasibility study and clinical review. Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility of making an initial atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD) diagnosis from four radiological measurements of the craniocervical relationship on lateral cervical spine x-rays and to assess the AOD patients' clinical outcomes relative to their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Methods: The Powers ratio, Wackenheim line, basion-dens distance (BDD), and the C1/2:C2/3 interspinous ratio were measured in 58 pediatric controls and ten MRI-confirmed patients with AOD. The ability to identify the required anatomical landmarks and make the measurements was noted and sensitivity and specificity calculated. The correspondence between the clinical presentation and outcomes for patients with AOD and their MRI features was investigated. Results: Clear landmarks for measuring interspinous ratio and Wackenheim line were confirmed by all x-rays. The BDD was measureable in 90% and the Powers ratio could be calculated in only possible in 59%. The interspinous ratio and BDD offered high sensitivities and specificity. Although the Wackenheim line was consistantly measured, it conferred a low sensitivity but reasonable specificity. The Powers ratio offered high specificity with low sensitivity. On MRI, all patients with AOD had apical ligament disruption, with a high rate of interspinous ligamentous injury (8/9); prevertebral swelling (7/9); retroclival hematoma (6/9); and tectorial membrane injury (4/9). The only MRI feature associated with poor outcome was that of altered cord signal. Both patients who died had cord signal changes on T1- and T2-weighted images. The third patient with cord signal change was limited to T2 changes with a normal T1. He had a C5-L3 sensory deficit that resolved. The degree of tectorial membrane injury did not appear to influence outcome. Conclusions: The BDD and interspinous ratio offer the best measures for initial x

  16. Poor peripheral blood stem cell mobilization affects long-term outcomes in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Moreb, Jan S; Byrne, Michael; Shugarman, Ilicia; Zou, Fei; Xiong, Sican; May, William S; Norkin, Maxim; Hiemenz, John; Brown, Randall; Cogle, Christopher; Wingard, John R; Hsu, Jack W

    2017-05-29

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization is routinely undertaken prior to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). A number of studies have identified risk factors for poor PBSC mobilization, however, little data exists to correlate mobilization with disease-specific outcomes in this patient population. Prospective work in MM has demonstrated similar outcomes in a homogenous patient population. In this single institution analysis, we retrospectively studied the impact of poor PBSC mobilization on progression free survival (PFS) and OS in MM patients undergoing PBSC mobilization. Poor mobilizers are defined as patients that collected < 4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg over maximum of 5 apheresis days, or those that required ≥2 mobilization cycles to achieve this target. We confirm that poor PBSC mobilization is significantly associated with a shortened PFS (P = .0012) and OS (P = .0005) compared with good mobilizers. Our univariate analysis also shows that independent risk factors for poor mobilization include male gender, higher ideal body weight, and a greater median number of lines of chemotherapy prior to PBSC mobilization. However, by multivariate analysis, only number of prior lines of chemotherapy remains significantly predictive of poor mobilization (Odds ratio 1.857, P = .0095). The use of high-dose G-CSF (> 10 mcg/kg/day) and/or plerixafor can significantly improve mobilization and ASCT chances in this population. These data indicate that poor mobilization can be predictable and is associated with more aggressive disease biology and worse outcomes, warranting intensive post-ASCT management. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina; Ahmad Tajudin, Liza Sharmini; Wan Hitam, Wan-Hazabbah

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp. serology. Results. Of the 19 patients in our series, females were predominant (63.2%). The mean age was 29.3 years. The majority (63.2%) had unilateral involvement. Five patients (26.3%) had a history of contact with cats. Neuroretinitis was the most common presentation (62.5%). Azithromycin was the antibiotic of choice (42.1%). Concurrent systemic corticosteroids were used in approximately 60% of cases. The presenting visual acuity was worse than 6/18 in approximately 60% of eyes; on final review, 76.9% of eyes had a visual acuity better than 6/18. Conclusion. Ocular bartonellosis tends to present with neuroretinitis. Azithromycin is a viable option for treatment. Systemic corticosteroids may be considered in those with poor visual acuity on presentation.

  18. Clinical Profile and Visual Outcome of Ocular Bartonellosis in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chai Lee; Fhun, Lai Chan; Abdul Gani, Nor Hasnida; Muhammed, Julieana; Tuan Jaafar, Tengku Norina

    2017-01-01

    Background. Ocular bartonellosis can present in various ways, with variable visual outcome. There is limited data on ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Objective. We aim to describe the clinical presentation and visual outcome of ocular bartonellosis in Malaysia. Materials and Methods. This was a retrospective review of patients treated for ocular bartonellosis in two ophthalmology centers in Malaysia between January 2013 and December 2015. The diagnosis was based on clinical features, supported by a positive Bartonella spp. serology. Results. Of the 19 patients in our series, females were predominant (63.2%). The mean age was 29.3 years. The majority (63.2%) had unilateral involvement. Five patients (26.3%) had a history of contact with cats. Neuroretinitis was the most common presentation (62.5%). Azithromycin was the antibiotic of choice (42.1%). Concurrent systemic corticosteroids were used in approximately 60% of cases. The presenting visual acuity was worse than 6/18 in approximately 60% of eyes; on final review, 76.9% of eyes had a visual acuity better than 6/18. Conclusion. Ocular bartonellosis tends to present with neuroretinitis. Azithromycin is a viable option for treatment. Systemic corticosteroids may be considered in those with poor visual acuity on presentation. PMID:28265290

  19. Trending Fibrinolytic Dysregulation: Fibrinolysis Shutdown in the Days After Injury Is Associated With Poor Outcome in Severely Injured Children.

    PubMed

    Leeper, Christine M; Neal, Matthew D; McKenna, Christine J; Gaines, Barbara A

    2017-09-01

    To trend fibrinolysis after injury and determine the influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and massive transfusion on fibrinolysis status. Admission fibrinolytic derangement is common in injured children and adults, and is associated with poor outcome. No studies examine fibrinolysis days after injury. Prospective study of severely injured children at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. Rapid thromboelastography was obtained on admission and daily for up to 7 days. Standard definitions of hyperfibrinolysis (HF; LY30 ≥3), fibrinolysis shutdown (SD; LY30 ≤0.8), and normal (LY30 = 0.9-2.9) were applied. Antifibrinolytic use was documented. Outcomes were death, disability, and thromboembolic complications. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests were performed. Exploratory subgroups included massively transfused and severe TBI patients. In all, 83 patients were analyzed with median (interquartile ranges) age 8 (4-12) and Injury Severity Score 22 (13-34), 73.5% blunt mechanism, 47% severe TBI, 20.5% massively transfused. Outcomes were 14.5% mortality, 43.7% disability, and 9.8% deep vein thrombosis. Remaining in or trending to SD was associated with death (P = 0.007), disability (P = 0.012), and deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.048). Median LY30 was lower on post-trauma day (PTD)1 to PTD4 in patients with poor compared with good outcome; median LY30 was lower on PTD1 to PTD3 in TBI patients compared with non-TBI patients. HF without associated shutdown was not related to poor outcome, but extreme HF (LY30 >30%, n = 3) was lethal. Also, 50% of massively transfused patients in hemorrhagic shock demonstrated SD physiology on admission. All with HF (fc31.2%) corrected after hemostatic resuscitation without tranexamic acid. Fibrinolysis shutdown is common postinjury and predicts poor outcomes. Severe TBI is associated with sustained shutdown. Empiric antifibrinolytics for children should be questioned; thromboelastography-directed selective use should be considered for

  20. Clinical outcome parameters for necrotizing otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Verim, Ayşegül; Naiboğlu, Bariş; Karaca, Çigdem Tepe; Seneldir, Lütfü; Külekçi, Semra; Oysu, Çağatay

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the duration of time elapsed between the onset of symptoms for necrotizing external otitis (NEO) and admission to hospital that may play a role in patient outcome. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Fourteen consecutive male patients with NEO with no improvement from the previous course of antibiotherapy and with findings of osteomyelitis on temporal bone CT, MRI, and positive detection of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate on temporal bone, admitted as inpatients between 2008 and 2012. Medical treatment of NEO and surgical debridement. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to median time elapsed between onset of symptoms and hospitalization (<30 d or >30 d). HbA1c, fasting blood sugar, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, pain intensity, radiologic grade, improvement since diagnosis, and total time to cure were compared according to the groups. The relationships between the laboratory data were analyzed to determine the parameters associated with time to recovery. Otalgia was significantly worse in patients who were admitted to hospital greater than 30 days after symptom onset (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.002). Blood glucose increased related to delayed admission time (p < 0.001). CRP results were independently elevated from the admission time (p < 0.112). There was a statistically significant difference between groups according to ESR levels and recovery time (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.004 and p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between HbA1c levels and recovery time in Group 1 and between ESR levels and recovery time in Group 2 (r = 0.872, p = 0.044; r = 0.630, p = 0.039). Clinical, laboratory, and outcome data worsen later than 30 days in NEO.

  1. The reproductive life plan as a strategy to decrease poor birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Malnory, Margaret E; Johnson, Teresa S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of implementing a life course perspective model that includes a reproductive life plan to improve health outcomes, especially in populations at risk for adverse outcomes. A reproductive life plan is a comprehensive strategy that can be incorporated into nursing practice at all levels to improve birth outcomes. Health care providers, especially nurses, should incorporate reproductive life planning into their daily encounters with patients.

  2. Clinical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Abdul Razak; Sangrasi, Ahmed Khan; Shaikh, Gulshan Ara

    2009-01-01

    Appendectomy, being the most common surgical procedure performed in general surgery, is still being performed by both open and laparoscopic methods due to a lack of consensus as to which is the most appropriate method. Because further trials are necessary and few such studies have been performed in developing countries, we decided to evaluate the outcomes of the 2 procedures to share our experience with the international community. Consecutive patients with suspected acute appendicitis who underwent laparoscopic (LA) (n=48) and open (n=52) appendectomy (OA) over a period of 3 years were studied. Clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups in relation to operative time, analgesia used, length of hospital stay, return to work, resumption of a regular diet, and postoperative complications. Mean age of patients was 25.8 years in the laparoscopic and 25.5 years in the open group. Patient demographics were similar in both groups (P>0.05). There was significantly less need for analgesia (1.0+/-0.5 in LA and 1.5+/-0.6 doses in OA), a short hospital stay (1.4+/-0.7 in LA and 3.4+/-1.0 days in OA), early return to work (12.6+/-3.3 in LA and 19.1+/-3.1 days in OA), and less time needed to return to a regular diet (20.1+/-2.9 in LA and 22.0+/-4.7, P<0.05 in OA) in the laparoscopic appendectomy group. Operative time was significantly shorter (54.9+/-14.7 in LA and 13.6+/-12.6 minutes in OA) in the open group. Total number of complications was less in the laparoscopic group; however, there was no statistically significant difference. The laparoscopic technique is a safe and clinically beneficial operative procedure. It provides certain advantages over open appendectomy, including short hospital stay, decreased requirement of postoperative analgesia, early food tolerance, and earlier return to normal activities. Where feasible, laparoscopy should be undertaken as the initial procedure of choice for most cases of suspected appendicitis.

  3. Poor R wave progression in the precordial leads: clinical implications for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Colby, J; Hakki, A H; Manno, B; Horowitz, L N; Iskandrian, A S

    1983-12-01

    A definite diagnosis of anterior myocardial infarction is often difficult to make in patients when a pattern of poor R wave progression in the precordial leads is present on the electrocardiogram. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mathematical model could be devised to identify patients with anterior infarction among 102 consecutive patients with poor R wave progression. Each patient underwent exercise testing with thallium scanning. The diagnosis of anterior infarction was established in 20 (20%) of the 102 patients by the presence of fixed thallium-201 perfusion defects in the anterior wall or septum, or both. With the use of a multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis of clinical and electrocardiographic variables, five variables (sex, ST-T changes, S wave amplitude in leads V2 and V3 and the sum of the R wave amplitude in leads V3 and V4) that were statistically significant by univariate analysis were selected by the model to identify patients with anterior infarction (sensitivity 85%, specificity 71%). The discriminant model was subsequently applied prospectively to an additional 21 patients with poor R wave progression and provided a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 88%. Thus, anterior infarction (fixed thallium-201 defects in the anteroseptal segments) was present in 20% of patients with poor R wave progression in the precordial leads; and a mathematical model can be used to identify a subset of patients with anterior infarction in a group of patients with poor R wave progression.

  4. Even Four Minutes of Poor Quality of CPR Compromises Outcome in a Porcine Model of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Heng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhengfei; Huang, Zitong; Chen, Bihua; Li, Yongqin; Yu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Untrained bystanders usually delivered suboptimal chest compression to victims who suffered from cardiac arrest in out-of-hospital settings. We therefore investigated the hemodynamics and resuscitation outcome of initial suboptimal quality of chest compressions compared to the optimal ones in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Methods. Fourteen Yorkshire pigs weighted 30 ± 2 kg were randomized into good and poor cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) groups. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and untreated for 6 mins. In good CPR group, animals received high quality manual chest compressions according to the Guidelines (25% of animal's anterior-posterior thoracic diameter) during first two minutes of CPR compared with poor (70% of the optimal depth) compressions. After that, a 120-J biphasic shock was delivered. If the animal did not acquire return of spontaneous circulation, another 2 mins of CPR and shock followed. Four minutes later, both groups received optimal CPR until total 10 mins of CPR has been finished. Results. All seven animals in good CPR group were resuscitated compared with only two in poor CPR group (P < 0.05). The delayed optimal compressions which followed 4 mins of suboptimal compressions failed to increase the lower coronary perfusion pressure of five non-survival animals in poor CPR group. Conclusions. In a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest, even four minutes of initial poor quality of CPR compromises the hemodynamics and survival outcome. PMID:24364028

  5. Relationship between management philosophy and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Naresh; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Petroski, Gregory F; Meyer, Wilbert

    2007-01-01

    Medical research continues to focus overwhelmingly on biomedical interventions, such as drugs, devices, and procedures. The dysfunctional health care cultures and systems need more attention for quality of care to improve further. The existing health services management research has not used a systematic theoretical framework to predict the effects of organizational variables on clinical outcomes. This study tests the theoretical model proposed by N. Khatri, A. Baveja, S. Boren, and A. Mammo (2006). This study surveyed employees from hospitals in Missouri. The sample consisted of 77 respondents from 16 hospitals. The control-based management approach (Management Control and Silos) was found to be positively associated with Culture of Blame and negatively with Learning From Mistakes. In contrast, the commitment-based approach (Fair Management Practices and Employee Participation) was negatively associated with Culture of Blame and positively with Learning From Mistakes, Camaraderie, and Motivation. Mediating variables of Learning From Mistakes and Camaraderie showed a significant negative relationship with Medical Errors. Learning From Mistakes, Camaraderie, and Motivation all showed a significant positive relationship with Quality of Patient Care. The mediating variables had much stronger relationships with Medical Errors and Quality of Patient Care than did the independent variables, lending support to the proposed mediation. Health care organizations can improve the quality of care and reduce medical errors significantly by enhancing learning from mistakes and boosting camaraderie and morale of their employees. They can do so by breaking down silos in their structures, implementing just and fair management practices, and involving employees in decision making.

  6. Biocompatible Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids: Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeoungjee; Badve, Sunil V.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Wiggins, Kathryn; Johnson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a preferred home dialysis modality and has a number of added advantages including improved initial patient survival and cost effectiveness over haemodialysis. Despite these benefits, uptake of PD remains relatively low, especially in developed countries. Wider implementation of PD is compromised by higher technique failure from infections (e.g., PD peritonitis) and ultrafiltration failure. These are inevitable consequences of peritoneal injury, which is thought to result primarily from continuous exposure to PD fluids that are characterised by their “unphysiologic” composition. In order to overcome these barriers, a number of more biocompatible PD fluids, with neutral pH, low glucose degradation product content, and bicarbonate buffer have been manufactured over the past two decades. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated their benefit in terms of improvement in host cell defence, peritoneal membrane integrity, and cytokine profile. This paper aims to review randomised controlled trials assessing the use of biocompatible PD fluids and their effect on clinical outcomes. PMID:23251801

  7. Factors that predict poor clinical course among patients hospitalized with pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Terao, Miyoko; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Yano, Tetsu; Kozuma, Shiro

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that can predict clinical course among patients hospitalized with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Ninety-three patients who needed hospitalization with a diagnosis of PID were retrospectively studied. Patients who were discharged within 7 days by conservative treatment were defined as favorable course cases (n = 44). Patients who needed more than 7 days of hospitalization and/or surgery were defined as poor course cases (n = 49). Twenty variables were evaluated by univariate and logistic regression analysis: age, history of pregnancy/delivery, gynecological open/laparoscopic surgery, PID, oral contraceptives/intrauterine device use and intrauterine operation before onset, body temperature, signs of peritoneal irritation, vomiting/diarrhea, abnormal vaginal discharge, endometriosis/fibroid/adenomyosis/any cystic lesion detected by ultrasonography, white blood cell counts/C-reactive protein (CRP) levels . The cut-off value was calculated by receiver-operator curve (ROC) analysis. Factors associated with poor clinical course were advanced age (P < 0.01), history of gynecological open surgery (P < 0.05), any cystic lesion detected by ultrasonography (P < 0.05) and high CRP levels (P < 0.05). High CRP levels and intrauterine operation before onset were independently associated with poor clinical course. The cut-off value for CRP was 4.4 mg/dL. This study identified variables that can predict poor clinical course of PID. These results can assist gynecologists with identifying patients at risk and optimizing the choice of management. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Aggressive Chordomas: Clinical Outcome of 13 Patients.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Angelini, Andrea; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Pala, Elisa; Calabrò, Teresa; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Katzouraki, Galatia; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Pneumaticos, Spyros G; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    The authors reviewed the files of all patients with chordomas who were admitted and treated at their institutions from 1975 to 2012. Patients were categorized by early local recurrence and metastasis. Aggressive clinical behavior was defined as local recurrence and metastasis within 24 months of diagnosis and adequate treatment (wide en bloc resection with microscopically negative tumor margins). According to these criteria, 13 patients (14.3%) had aggressive chordomas, including 7 men and 6 women, with mean age of 54 years (range, 37-65 years) at diagnosis and treatment. All patients had preoperative tumor biopsy, followed by resection with partial (7 patients) or total sacrectomy (6 patients). In all cases, biopsy and histologic analysis of resected tumor specimens showed conventional chordomas. Resection margins were wide (grossly negative) in 6 patients and wide contaminated in 7 patients. Mean maximum tumor diameter was 11.8 cm (range, 5-21 cm). Mean follow-up was 43 months (range, 8-131 months). Rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and death were evaluated. At the last follow-up, all patients had local recurrence at a mean of 13 months (range, 5-22 months). Histologic examination of recurrent tumors showed a dedifferentiated chordoma with a fibrosarcoma component in 2 patients and no histologic change in the remaining patients. In addition, 8 patients had metastases at a mean of 13 months (range, 4-24 months) and died of their disease. All histologic findings of metastatic lesions were similar to those of primary tumors. Early diagnosis of aggressive tumors requires close follow-up of patients with chordomas. Metastasis is common, with resultant poor survival. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e248-e254.].

  9. Nitroglycerin reverts clinical manifestations of poor peripheral perfusion in patients with circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Lima, Alexandre; van Genderen, Michel E; van Bommel, Jasper; Klijn, Eva; Jansem, Tim; Bakker, Jan

    2014-06-19

    Recent clinical studies have shown a relationship between abnormalities in peripheral perfusion and unfavorable outcome in patients with circulatory shock. Nitroglycerin is effective in restoring alterations in microcirculatory blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitroglycerin could correct the parameters of abnormal peripheral circulation in resuscitated circulatory shock patients. This interventional study recruited patients who had circulatory shock and who persisted with abnormal peripheral perfusion despite normalization of global hemodynamic parameters. Nitroglycerin started at 2 mg/hour and doubled stepwise (4, 8, and 16 mg/hour) each 15 minutes until an improvement in peripheral perfusion was observed. Peripheral circulation parameters included capillary refill time (CRT), skin-temperature gradient (Tskin-diff), perfusion index (PI), and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) during a reactive hyperemia test (RincStO2). Measurements were performed before, at the maximum dose, and after cessation of nitroglycerin infusion. Data were analyzed by using linear model for repeated measurements and are presented as mean (standard error). Of the 15 patients included, four patients (27%) responded with an initial nitroglycerin dose of 2 mg/hour. In all patients, nitroglycerin infusion resulted in significant changes in CRT, Tskin-diff, and PI toward normal at the maximum dose of nitroglycerin: from 9.4 (0.6) seconds to 4.8 (0.3) seconds (P < 0.05), from 3.3 °C (0.7 °C) to 0.7 °C (0.6 °C) (P < 0.05), and from [log] -0.5% (0.2%) to 0.7% (0.1%) (P < 0.05), respectively. Similar changes in StO2 and RincStO2 were observed: from 75% (3.4%) to 84% (2.7%) (P < 0.05) and 1.9%/second (0.08%/second) to 2.8%/second (0.05%/second) (P < 0.05), respectively. The magnitude of changes in StO2 was more pronounced for StO2 of less than 75%: 11% versus 4%, respectively (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent infusion of nitroglycerin reverted abnormal peripheral perfusion and

  10. Nitroglycerin reverts clinical manifestations of poor peripheral perfusion in patients with circulatory shock

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent clinical studies have shown a relationship between abnormalities in peripheral perfusion and unfavorable outcome in patients with circulatory shock. Nitroglycerin is effective in restoring alterations in microcirculatory blood flow. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nitroglycerin could correct the parameters of abnormal peripheral circulation in resuscitated circulatory shock patients. Methods This interventional study recruited patients who had circulatory shock and who persisted with abnormal peripheral perfusion despite normalization of global hemodynamic parameters. Nitroglycerin started at 2 mg/hour and doubled stepwise (4, 8, and 16 mg/hour) each 15 minutes until an improvement in peripheral perfusion was observed. Peripheral circulation parameters included capillary refill time (CRT), skin-temperature gradient (Tskin-diff), perfusion index (PI), and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) during a reactive hyperemia test (RincStO2). Measurements were performed before, at the maximum dose, and after cessation of nitroglycerin infusion. Data were analyzed by using linear model for repeated measurements and are presented as mean (standard error). Results Of the 15 patients included, four patients (27%) responded with an initial nitroglycerin dose of 2 mg/hour. In all patients, nitroglycerin infusion resulted in significant changes in CRT, Tskin-diff, and PI toward normal at the maximum dose of nitroglycerin: from 9.4 (0.6) seconds to 4.8 (0.3) seconds (P <0.05), from 3.3°C (0.7°C) to 0.7°C (0.6°C) (P <0.05), and from [log] -0.5% (0.2%) to 0.7% (0.1%) (P <0.05), respectively. Similar changes in StO2 and RincStO2 were observed: from 75% (3.4%) to 84% (2.7%) (P <0.05) and 1.9%/second (0.08%/second) to 2.8%/second (0.05%/second) (P <0.05), respectively. The magnitude of changes in StO2 was more pronounced for StO2 of less than 75%: 11% versus 4%, respectively (P <0.05). Conclusions Dose-dependent infusion of nitroglycerin reverted

  11. Ageing, deep vein thrombosis and male gender predict poor outcome after acute Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Arverud, E Domeij-; Anundsson, P; Hardell, E; Barreng, G; Edman, G; Latifi, A; Labruto, F; Ackermann, P W

    2016-12-01

    Patients with an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) take a long time to heal, have a high incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and widely variable functional outcomes. This variation in outcome may be explained by a lack of knowledge of adverse factors, and a subsequent shortage of appropriate interventions. A total of 111 patients (95 men, 16 women; mean age 40.3, standard deviation 8.4) with an acute total ATR were prospectively assessed. At one year post-operatively a uniform outcome score, Achilles Combined Outcome Score (ACOS), was obtained by combining three validated, independent, outcome measures: Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score, heel-rise height test, and limb symmetry heel-rise height. Predictors of ACOS included treatment; gender; age; smoking; body mass index; time to surgery; physical activity level pre- and post-injury; symptoms; quality of life and incidence of DVT. There were three independent variables that correlated significantly with the dichotomised outcome score (ACOS), while there was no correlation with other factors. An age of less than 40 years old was the strongest independent predictor of a good outcome one year after ATR (odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08 to 0.51), followed by female gender (OR) 4.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 17.24). Notably, patients who did not have a DVT while immobilised post-operatively had a better outcome (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.80). Over the age of 40 years, male gender and having a DVT while immobilised are independent negative predictors of outcome in patients with an acute ATR. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1635-41. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. New-onset refractory status epilepticus: Etiology, clinical features, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Gaspard, Nicolas; Foreman, Brandon P; Alvarez, Vincent; Cabrera Kang, Christian; Probasco, John C; Jongeling, Amy C; Meyers, Emma; Espinera, Alyssa; Haas, Kevin F; Schmitt, Sarah E; Gerard, Elizabeth E; Gofton, Teneille; Kaplan, Peter W; Lee, Jong W; Legros, Benjamin; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Westover, Brandon M; LaRoche, Suzette M; Hirsch, Lawrence J

    2015-11-03

    The aims of this study were to determine the etiology, clinical features, and predictors of outcome of new-onset refractory status epilepticus. Retrospective review of patients with refractory status epilepticus without etiology identified within 48 hours of admission between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, in 13 academic medical centers. The primary outcome measure was poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as a score >3 on the modified Rankin Scale). Of 130 cases, 67 (52%) remained cryptogenic. The most common identified etiologies were autoimmune (19%) and paraneoplastic (18%) encephalitis. Full data were available in 125 cases (62 cryptogenic). Poor outcome occurred in 77 of 125 cases (62%), and 28 (22%) died. Predictors of poor outcome included duration of status epilepticus, use of anesthetics, and medical complications. Among the 63 patients with available follow-up data (median 9 months), functional status improved in 36 (57%); 79% had good or fair outcome at last follow-up, but epilepsy developed in 37% with most survivors (92%) remaining on antiseizure medications. Immune therapies were used less frequently in cryptogenic cases, despite a comparable prevalence of inflammatory CSF changes. Autoimmune encephalitis is the most commonly identified cause of new-onset refractory status epilepticus, but half remain cryptogenic. Outcome at discharge is poor but improves during follow-up. Epilepsy develops in most cases. The role of anesthetics and immune therapies warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Below-Knee Amputation Failure and Poor Functional Outcomes Are Higher Than Predicted in Contemporary Practice.

    PubMed

    Columbo, Jesse A; Nolan, Brian W; Stucke, Ryland S; Rzucidlo, Eva M; Walker, Karen L; Powell, Richard J; Suckow, Bjoern D; Stone, David H

    2016-11-01

    The perceived functional benefit of below-knee amputation (BKA) must be carefully weighed against the need for potential reinterventions. This study sought to examine the contemporary clinical and functional outcomes of patients undergoing BKA in the endovascular era. All patients who underwent BKA from January 2008 to December 2014 at a single tertiary medical center were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, comorbidities, ambulation status, and transcutaneous oximetry (TcPO2) values were recorded. Study end points included freedom from conversion to above-knee amputation (AKA), freedom from conversion to AKA or death, BKA healing, and ambulation. Statistical modeling was performed to determine associations with BKA failure. Over the study interval, 130 limbs underwent BKA in 120 patients. Transcutaneous oximetry studies were obtained in 65% (n = 85). Thirty-eight percent (n = 46) of all BKA patients went on to heal and ambulate. Twenty-five percent (n = 33) required reintervention, 24 with conversion to AKA, and 9 with BKA revision. One-year freedom from conversion to AKA was 76% and was decreased among those with lower TcPO2 levels (60% TcPO2 <40 vs 81% TcPO2 ≥40; P = .04). One-year composite freedom from conversion to AKA/death was 60% and was decreased among those with lower TcPO2 readings (39% TcPO2 <40 vs 69% TcPO2 ≥40; P = .01). Despite a perceived functional bias toward knee salvage at the time of major amputation, most patients failed to postoperatively ambulate. Those with decreased TcPO2 levels (<40 mm Hg) have a 2-fold higher risk of AKA conversion or death, while nearly one-fourth of all BKA patients will succumb to the same fate irrespective of TcPO2. This suggests that many BKA patients in the endovascular era fail to derive the perceived benefit of knee salvage at the time of their index amputation. These findings highlight the need for careful patient selection and for a shared decision-making model in this frail population.

  14. Thyroid Surgery in Children: Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, C K; Decoppi, Paolo; Pierro, Agostino; Brain, Caroline; Hindmarsh, Peter; Butler, Gary; Dattani, Mehul; Spoudeas, Helen; Kurzawinski, Tom R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to review the outcomes of thyroid surgery in children operated for both benign and malignant conditions. Demography, clinical features, and surgical outcomes were noted retrospectively for operations performed during the last 23 years. Results were analyzed using Fisher exact test and Woolf (logit) method with p value < 0.05 considered as significant. In total, 61 children (43 girls and 18 boys) underwent thyroidectomy for benign (70%) and malignant (30%) conditions. Median follow-up period was 1.4 years. In the benign group, 84% children had Graves disease and 16% had other conditions. In this study, 42% children had total, 22% had near-total, 27% had subtotal, and 9% had type 2 hemithyroidectomy. In the malignant group, 50% had multiple endocrine neoplasia, 33% had papillary, 11% had follicular cancer, and 6% had B-cell lymphoma. Fifty percent children had prophylactic thyroidectomy, 44% had total thyroidectomy plus lymphadenectomy, and 6% had hemithyroidectomy. At the time of surgery, children with benign conditions were older than those with malignancy (median, 12 vs. 7.5 years). There were no incidents of postoperative bleeding or infection. Hypocalcemia was significantly more frequent in the malignant group (39 vs. 9%, p value = 0.01). The type of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury was more serious in the benign group (one bilateral and one unilateral permanent injury) than in the malignant group (transient hoarseness in three). Overall rate of complications was higher for operations for malignancy (56 vs. 28%, p value = 0.07). In Graves disease, the subtotal thyroidectomies had a recurrence of 30% but no recurrence was seen following total or near-total thyroidectomy group (p value = 0.01). There was no recurrence in the malignant group. Children operated after 2000 were younger than those operated before 2000 (median age, 9 vs. 14 years). Malignant conditions were more common in children operated after 2000 in

  15. Risk Factors for Reporting Poor Cultural Competency Among Patients with Diabetes in Safety-Net Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Fernandez, Alicia; Stern, Rachel J.; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Quan, Judy; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Cultural Competency (CAHPS-CC) Item Set assesses patient perceptions of aspects of the cultural competence of their health care. Objective To determine characteristics of patients who identify the care they receive as less culturally competent Research Design Cross-sectional survey consisting of face-to-face interviews Subjects Safety-net population of patients with type 2 diabetes (n=600) receiving ongoing primary care Measures Participants completed the CAHPS-CC and answered questions about their race/ethnicity, gender, age, education, health status, depressive symptoms, insurance coverage, English proficiency, duration of relationship with primary care provider, and co-morbidities. Results In adjusted models, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with poor cultural competency in the Doctor Communication – Positive Behaviors domain (OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.11, 2.69). African-Americans were less likely than Whites to report poor cultural competence in the Doctor Communication – Positive Behaviors domain (OR 0.52, 0.28–0.97). Participants who reported a longer relationship (≥3 years) with their primary care provider were less likely to report poor cultural competence in the Doctor Communication – Health Promotion (OR 0.35, 0.21–0.60) and Trust domains (OR 0.4, 0.24–0.67), while participants with lower educational attainment were less likely to report poor cultural competence in the Trust domain (OR 0.51, 0.30–0.86). Overall, however, sociodemographic and clinical differences in reports of poor cultural competence were insignificant or inconsistent across the various domains of cultural competence examined. Conclusions Cultural competence interventions in safety-net settings should be implemented across populations, rather than being narrowly focused on specific sociodemographic or clinical groups. PMID:22895232

  16. Risk factors for reporting poor cultural competency among patients with diabetes in safety net clinics.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Hilary K; Fernandez, Alicia; Stern, Rachel J; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Quan, Judy; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2012-09-01

    The Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Cultural Competency Item Set assesses patient perceptions of aspects of the cultural competence of their health care. To determine characteristics of patients who identify the care they receive as less culturally competent. Cross-sectional survey consisting of face-to-face interviews. Safety-net population of patients with type 2 diabetes (n=600) receiving ongoing primary care. Participants completed the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Cultural Competency and answered questions about their race/ethnicity, sex, age, education, health status, depressive symptoms, insurance coverage, English proficiency, duration of relationship with primary care provider, and comorbidities. In adjusted models, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with poor cultural competency in the Doctor Communication--Positive Behaviors domain [odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.69]. African Americans were less likely than whites to report poor cultural competence in the Doctor Communication--Positive Behaviors domain (OR 0.52, 95% CI, 0.28-0.97). Participants who reported a longer relationship (≥ 3 y) with their primary care provider were less likely to report poor cultural competence in the Doctor Communication--Health Promotion (OR 0.35, 95% CI, 0.21-0.60) and Trust domains (OR 0.4, 95% CI, 0.24-0.67), whereas participants with lower educational attainment were less likely to report poor cultural competence in the Trust domain (OR 0.51, 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). Overall, however, sociodemographic and clinical differences in reports of poor cultural competence were insignificant or inconsistent across the various domains of cultural competence examined. Cultural competence interventions in safety-net settings should be implemented across populations, rather than being narrowly focused on specific sociodemographic or clinical groups.

  17. Mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) contributes to poor disease outcome in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Kasanmoentalib, E Soemirien; Valls Seron, Mercedes; Ferwerda, Bart; Tanck, Michael W; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Baas, Frank; van der Ende, Arie; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-01-03

    Pneumococcal meningitis is the most common and severe form of bacterial meningitis. Fatality rates are substantial, and long-term sequelae develop in about half of survivors. Disease outcome has been related to the severity of the pro-inflammatory response in the subarachnoid space. The complement system, which mediates key inflammatory processes, has been implicated as a modulator of pneumococcal meningitis disease severity in animal studies. We investigated mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP-2) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples derived from the diagnostic lumbar puncture, which was available for 307 of 792 pneumococcal meningitis episodes included in our prospective nationwide cohort study (39%), and the association between these levels and clinical outcome. Subsequently, we studied the role of MASP-2 in our experimental pneumococcal meningitis mouse model using Masp2 (-/-) mice and evaluated the potential of adjuvant treatment with MASP-2-specific monoclonal antibodies in wild-type (WT) mice. MASP-2 levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bacterial meningitis were correlated with poor functional outcome. Consistent with these human data, Masp2-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis had lower cytokine levels and increased survival compared to WT mice. Adjuvant treatment with MASP-2-specific monoclonal antibodies led to reduced complement activation and decreased disease severity. MASP-2 contributes to poor disease outcome in human and mice with pneumococcal meningitis. MASP-2-specific monoclonal antibodies can be used to attenuate the inflammatory response in pneumococcal meningitis.

  18. Preoperative factors predicting poor outcomes following laparoscopic choledochotomy: a multivariate analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoming; Hong, Xiaoming; Ni, Kaiyuan; Teng, Xiaoping; Xie, Kaigang

    2013-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic surgery for common bile duct stones varies procedurally from a transcystic approach to laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC) with or without biliary drainage. However, LC is a difficult procedure with higher documented morbidity than the transcystic approach. We retrospectively investigated risk factors for adverse outcomes of LC. Methods We used logistic regression models to assess 4 categories of adverse outcomes: overall, complications, conversion to open operation and failed surgical clearance. We calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Results We included 201 patients who underwent LC in our analysis. Adverse outcomes occurred in 48 (23.9%) patients, complications occurred in 43 (21.4%), retained stones were observed in 8 (4%), and conversion to laparotomy occurred in 7 (3.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that total bilirubin (BIL) and the presence of medical risk factors (MRFs) were significant predictors of adverse outcomes and complications. We calculated the probability of adverse outcomes (p) using the following formula: logit(p) = 0.977 (MRFs) + 0.014 (BIL) − 2.919. p = EXP (logit(p)) ÷ [1+EXP (logit(p))]. According to their logit(p), all patients were divided into a low-risk group (logit(p) ≤ −1.32, n = 130) and a high-risk group (logit(p) > −1.32, n = 71). Patients in the low-risk group had about a 1 in 10 chance (12 of 130) of adverse outcomes developing. Of the 71 patients in the high-risk group, 36 (50.7%) experienced adverse outcomes. Conclusion High BIL and the presence of MRFs could predict adverse outcomes in patients undergoing LC. PMID:23883491

  19. Pathways to poor educational outcomes for HIV/AIDS-affected youth in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Cluver, Lucie D; Zhang, Yuning

    2014-01-01

    A recent systematic review of studies in the developing world has critically examined linkages from familial HIV/AIDS and associated factors such as poverty and child mental health to negative child educational outcomes. In line with several recommendations in the review, the current study modelled relationships between familial HIV/AIDS, poverty, child internalising problems, gender and four educational outcomes: non-enrolment at school, non-attendance, deficits in grade progression and concentration problems. Path analyses reveal no direct associations between familial HIV/AIDS and any of the educational outcomes. Instead, HIV/AIDS-orphanhood or caregiver HIV/AIDS-sickness impacted indirectly on educational outcomes via the poverty and internalising problems that they occasioned. This has implications for evidence-based policy inferences. For instance, by addressing such intervening variables generally, rather than by seeking to target families affected by HIV/AIDS, interventions could avoid exacerbating stigmatisation, while having a more direct and stronger impact on children's educational outcomes. This analytic approach also suggests that future research should seek to identify causal paths, and may include other intervening variables related to poverty (such as child housework and caring responsibilities) or to child mental health (such as stigma and abuse), that are linked to both familial HIV/AIDS and educational outcomes.

  20. The primary outcome measure and its importance in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-10-01

    The primary outcome measure is the outcome that an investigator considers to be the most important among the many outcomes that are to be examined in the study. The primary outcome needs to be defined at the time the study is designed. There are 2 reasons for this: it reduces the risk of false-positive errors resulting from the statistical testing of many outcomes, and it reduces the risk of a false-negative error by providing the basis for the estimation of the sample size necessary for an adequately powered study. This article discusses the setting of the primary outcome measure, the need for it, the increased risk of false-positive and false-negative errors in secondary outcome results, how to regard articles that do not state the primary outcome, how to interpret results when secondary outcomes are statistically significant but not the primary outcome, and limitations of the concept of a primary outcome measure in clinical trial research.

  1. Experimental Intervention Research on Students with Specific Poor Comprehension: A Systematic Review of Treatment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sung Hee; Tsai, Shu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Students with specific poor comprehension (SPC) can sound out words accurately, but have difficulty understanding what they read. However, most existing reading intervention studies on students with reading disabilities did not differentiate students with SPC from other types of students with reading disabilities who accompany with decoding…

  2. Improving Educational Outcomes for Poor Children. Discussion Paper No. 1352-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Ludwig, Jens

    2008-01-01

    One of the best ways to avoid being poor as an adult is to obtain a good education. Individuals with higher academic achievement and more years of schooling earn more than those with lower levels of human capital. This is not surprising given that we believe that schooling makes people more productive, allowing them to command higher wages in the…

  3. Using Predictive Modelling to Identify Students at Risk of Poor University Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Pengfei; Maloney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modelling is used to identify students at risk of failing their first-year courses and not returning to university in the second year. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, we want to understand the factors that lead to poor first-year experiences at university. Secondly, we want to develop simple, low-cost tools that would allow universities to…

  4. Improving Educational Outcomes for Poor Children. Discussion Paper No. 1352-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Ludwig, Jens

    2008-01-01

    One of the best ways to avoid being poor as an adult is to obtain a good education. Individuals with higher academic achievement and more years of schooling earn more than those with lower levels of human capital. This is not surprising given that we believe that schooling makes people more productive, allowing them to command higher wages in the…

  5. Using Predictive Modelling to Identify Students at Risk of Poor University Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Pengfei; Maloney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modelling is used to identify students at risk of failing their first-year courses and not returning to university in the second year. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, we want to understand the factors that lead to poor first-year experiences at university. Secondly, we want to develop simple, low-cost tools that would allow universities to…

  6. Poor relation between biomechanical and clinical studies for the proximal femoral locking compression plate.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Bjarke; Rasmussen, Katrine M V; Overgaard, Søren; Rogmark, Cecilia

    2017-08-01

    Background and purpose - The proximal femur locking compression plate (PF-LCP) is a new concept in the treatment of hip fractures. When releasing new implants onto the market, biomechanical studies are conducted to evaluate performance of the implant. We investigated the relation between biomechanical and clinical studies on PF-LCP. Methods - A systematic literature search of relevant biomechanical and clinical studies was conducted in PubMed on December 1, 2015. 7 biomechanical studies and 15 clinical studies were included. Results - Even though the biomechanical studies showed equivalent or higher failure loads for femoral neck fracture, the clinical results were far worse, with a 37% complication rate. There were no biomechanical studies on pertrochanteric fractures. Biomechanical studies on subtrochanteric fractures showed that PF-LCP had a lower failure load than with proximal femoral nail, but higher than with angled blade plate. 4 clinical studies had complication rates less than 8% and 9 studies had complication rates between 15% and 53%. Interpretation - There was no clear relation between biomechanical and clinical studies. Biomechanical studies are generally inherently different from clinical studies, as they examine the best possible theoretical use of the implant without considering the long-term outcome in a clinical setting. Properly designed clinical studies are mandatory when introducing new implants, and they cannot be replaced by biomechanical studies.

  7. Adolescent acromegaly: clinical parameters and treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Bhansali, A; Upreti, V; Dutta, P; Mukherjee, K K; Nahar, U; Santosh, R; Das, S; Walia, R; Pathak, A

    2010-10-01

    Adolescent acromegaly is a rare disorder and these patients present with tall stature/gigantism, tumor mass effects and menstrual irregularities. 34 consecutive (26 males) patients having onset of disease prior to 21 years of age were included in this retrospective analysis. Their clinical features and treatment outcome were studied. Mean age and lag time at presentation were 21.6 +/- 3.9 years and 5.1 +/- 3.5 years respectively. Common presenting manifestations included acral enlargement, tumor mass effects and menstrual irregularities. Mean height at presentation was 174.6 +/- 13.7 cms (range: 150-210 cm) and one third had gigantism (height > or =97th percentile, WHO growth charts). Hypertension and glucose intolerance were seen in 15% and 23.5% respectively. Mean nadir GH after glucose load was 58.2 +/- 13.7 ng/ml and IGF -1 was 534.8 +/- 132.8 ng/ml. Half of the patients had concomitant hyperprolactinemia. Almost all (97%) had macroadenoma and anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies were frequent (75%). Patients with gigantism were younger (19.6 +/- 4.9 vs. 22.6 +/- 2.9 years; p = 0.001), had higher GH values (66.68 +/- 27.22 vs. 53.98 +/- 15.99 ng/ml; p = 0.04) and hypogonadism was more common (90.9% vs. 56.5%, p = 0.03) than those with normal stature. 32 patients (94.1%) were treated primarily with surgery, 7 (21.9%) received post operative radiotherapy. Mean duration of follow up was 33.1 +/- 10.1 months. Only 30% had nadir GH values of <1 ng/ml. One third of adolescent patients had acrogigantism. These patients were younger, had higher GH levels and concurrent hypogonadism was more common. Cure could be achieved only in about one third of the patients.

  8. Pooling of cross-cultural PRO data in multinational clinical trials: how much can poor measurement affect statistical power?

    PubMed

    Regnault, Antoine; Hamel, Jean-François; Patrick, Donald L

    2015-02-01

    Cultural differences and/or poor linguistic validation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments may result in differences in the assessment of the targeted concept across languages. In the context of multinational clinical trials, these measurement differences may add noise and potentially measurement bias to treatment effect estimation. Our objective was to explore the potential effect on treatment effect estimation of the "contamination" of a cultural subgroup by a flawed PRO measurement. We ran a simulation exercise in which the distribution of the score in the overall sample was considered a mixture of two normal distributions: a standard normal distribution was assumed in a "main" subgroup and a normal distribution which differed either in mean (bias) or in variance (noise) in a "contaminated" subgroup (the subgroup with potential flaws in the PRO measurement). The observed power was compared to the expected power (i.e., the power that would have been observed if the subgroup had not been contaminated). Even if differences between the expected and observed power were small, some substantial differences were obtained (up to a 0.375 point drop in power). No situation was systematically protected against loss of power. The impact of poor PRO measurement in a cultural subgroup may induce a notable drop in the study power and consequently reduce the chance of showing an actual treatment effect. These results illustrate the importance of the efforts to optimize conceptual and linguistic equivalence of PRO measures when pooling data in international clinical trials.

  9. Do antisocial females exhibit poor outcomes in adulthood? An Australian cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bor, William; McGee, Tara Renae; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Dean, Angela; Najman, Jake M

    2010-07-01

    Antisocial behaviour in young people is common and associated with adverse effects in adulthood. The question whether these effects are observed in both genders remains controversial. A typology of antisocial behaviour that captures childhood limited (CL), adolescent onset (AO) and life course persistent behaviour (LCP) through both developmental stages is utilized to examine young adult outcomes in both sexes. The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) data set is a longitudinal study following up a cohort of 7223 infants and mothers from antenatal care to the child's 21st year. Data on child antisocial behaviour was collected at ages 5 and 14 years. At the 21-year follow up, self-reported outcomes were collected on antisocial behaviour, use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, physical and mental health functioning. The relationship between the three antisocial sub-types and negative young adult outcomes was examined for both males and females using a series of logistic regressions. Complete data across 21 years was available for 3173 participants. Males experienced higher levels of antisocial behaviour. In both males and females, AO and LCP groups exhibited elevated risk of negative outcomes including continuing antisocial behaviour, cannabis use, general health problems and depression/anxiety symptoms. The CL group exhibited poorer outcomes in physical and mental health but not in other domains. Both males and females exhibiting AO and LCP antisocial behaviour are at increased risk of serious adverse outcomes in young adulthood. The significant loss to follow up of high-risk groups suggests the important relationship between early antisocial behaviour and problems in adulthood have been underestimated. Further research is required to understand antisocial behaviour in adolescence, identify factors that reinforce its continuity into adulthood, and identify interventions which are able to modify adult outcomes.

  10. Clinical features and outcome of severe malaria in Gambian children.

    PubMed

    Waller, D; Krishna, S; Crawley, J; Miller, K; Nosten, F; Chapman, D; ter Kuile, F O; Craddock, C; Berry, C; Holloway, P A

    1995-09-01

    The clinical and laboratory features of severe falciparum malaria in 180 Gambian children were studied between 1985 and 1989. Of the 180 children, 118 (66%) presented with seizures, 77 (43%) had cerebral malaria, 35 (20%) had witnessed seizures after admission, 29 (16%) were hypoglycemic, and 27 (15%) died. Respiratory distress was a common harbinger of a fatal outcome. The differences in admission parasite counts in the blood, hematocrit, and opening cerebrospinal pressures for patients who died and survivors were not significant. A multiple logistic regression model identified neurological status (coma, particularly if associated with extensor posturing), stage of parasite development on the peripheral blood film, pulse rate of > 150 or respiratory rate of > 50, hypoglycemia, and hyperlactatemia (plasma lactate level, > 5 mmol/L) as independent indicators of a fatal outcome. Biochemical evidence of hepatic and renal dysfunction was an additional marker of a poor prognosis, but, in contrast to severe malaria in adults, none of these children with severe malaria had acute renal failure.

  11. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingge; Zeng, Jihong; Guo, Bo; He, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Lu, Fang; Chen, Danian

    2016-10-01

    To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome.A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied.A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (71%). Tumors were intraocular in 91.3% cases, extraocular in 8.7% cases. Extraocular RB patients had a longer median lag period than intraocular patients (9 months vs 2 months, P < 0.0001). In the intraocular group, 89.5% were advanced group D or E diseases. Enucleation was the major treatment for intraocular RB. However, over 10 years, the enucleation rate decreased constantly while more patients received chemotherapy. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 87.8%, 81.4%, and 74.8% at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, extraocular RB (P = 0.0008) and treatment abandonment (P < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome; bilateral RB (P = 0.0116) and advanced pathological grade pT4 (P = 0.0011) were associated with poor outcome of intraocular RB.Most RB patients from South Western China were diagnosed at advanced clinical stage. Delayed presentation is related to extraocular RB which is a risk factor for poor outcome. Chemotherapy increased the eye salvage but had no effects to overall survival. Education for parents and general physicians for the early signs of RB (such as leukocoria), therapeutic strategy and treatment outcomes of RB may promote early diagnosis, improve the compliance, and outcome.

  12. Clinical presentation and treatment outcome of retinoblastoma in children of South Western China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jingge; Zeng, Jihong; Guo, Bo; He, Weimin; Chen, Jun; Lu, Fang; Chen, Danian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome among children in South Western China with retinoblastoma (RB) and to determine factors predictive of poor outcome. A retrospective review of children diagnosed with RB from 2006 to 2015 at West China Hospital was undertaken. Demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes were studied. A total of 253 patients (unilateral 80.2%, bilateral 19.8%) were studied. Twenty six patients (10.3%) were from minority ethnic groups of China. The median onset age was 21 months. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (71%). Tumors were intraocular in 91.3% cases, extraocular in 8.7% cases. Extraocular RB patients had a longer median lag period than intraocular patients (9 months vs 2 months, P < 0.0001). In the intraocular group, 89.5% were advanced group D or E diseases. Enucleation was the major treatment for intraocular RB. However, over 10 years, the enucleation rate decreased constantly while more patients received chemotherapy. The Kaplan–Meier survival probability was 87.8%, 81.4%, and 74.8% at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, extraocular RB (P = 0.0008) and treatment abandonment (P < 0.0001) were associated with poor outcome; bilateral RB (P = 0.0116) and advanced pathological grade pT4 (P = 0.0011) were associated with poor outcome of intraocular RB. Most RB patients from South Western China were diagnosed at advanced clinical stage. Delayed presentation is related to extraocular RB which is a risk factor for poor outcome. Chemotherapy increased the eye salvage but had no effects to overall survival. Education for parents and general physicians for the early signs of RB (such as leukocoria), therapeutic strategy and treatment outcomes of RB may promote early diagnosis, improve the compliance, and outcome. PMID:27759657

  13. Clinical studies with oral lipid based formulations of poorly soluble compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros, Dimitrios G; Karpf, Ditte M; Nielsen, Flemming S; Mullertz, Anette

    2007-01-01

    This work is an attempt to give an overview of the clinical data available on lipid based formulations. Lipid and surfactant based formulations are recognized as a feasible approach to improve bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. However not many clinical studies have been published so far. Several drug products intended for oral administration have been marketed utilizing lipid and surfactant based formulations. Sandimmune® and Sandimmune Neoral® (cyclosporin A, Novartis), Norvir® (ritonavir), and Fortovase® (saquinavir) have been formulated in self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). This review summarizes published pharmacokinetic studies of orally administered lipid based formulations of poorly aqueous soluble drugs in human subjects. Special attention has been paid to the physicochemical characteristics of the formulations, when available and the impact of these properties on the in vivo performance of the formulation. Equally important is the effect of concurrent food intake on the bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The effect of food on the bioavailability of compounds formulated in lipid and surfactant based formulations is also reviewed. PMID:18472981

  14. Increased length of inpatient stay and poor clinical coding: audit of patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Daultrey, Harriet; Gooday, Catherine; Dhatariya, Ketan

    2011-11-01

    People with diabetes stay in hospital for longer than those without diabetes for similar conditions. Clinical coding is poor across all specialties. Inpatients with diabetes often have unrecognized foot problems. We wanted to look at the relationships between these factors. A single day audit, looking at the prevalence of diabetes in all adult inpatients. Also looking at their feet to find out how many were high-risk or had existing problems. A 998-bed university teaching hospital. All adult inpatients. (a) To see if patients with diabetes and foot problems were in hospital for longer than the national average length of stay compared with national data; (b) to see if there were people in hospital with acute foot problems who were not known to the specialist diabetic foot team; and (c) to assess the accuracy of clinical coding. We identified 110 people with diabetes. However, discharge coding data for inpatients on that day showed 119 people with diabetes. Length of stay (LOS) was substantially higher for those with diabetes compared to those without (± SD) at 22.39 (22.26) days, vs. 11.68 (6.46) (P < 0.001). Finally, clinical coding was poor with some people who had been identified as having diabetes on the audit, who were not coded as such on discharge. Clinical coding - which is dependent on discharge summaries - poorly reflects diagnoses. Additionally, length of stay is significantly longer than previous estimates. The discrepancy between coding and diagnosis needs addressing by increasing the levels of awareness and education of coders and physicians. We suggest that our data be used by healthcare planners when deciding on future tariffs.

  15. Education Research: Bias and poor interrater reliability in evaluating the neurology clinical skills examination

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, L A.; London, Z; Neel, R; Brock, C; Kissela, B M.; Schultz, L; Gelb, D J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) has recently replaced the traditional, centralized oral examination with the locally administered Neurology Clinical Skills Examination (NEX). The ABPN postulated the experience with the NEX would be similar to the Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise, a reliable and valid assessment tool. The reliability and validity of the NEX has not been established. Methods: NEX encounters were videotaped at 4 neurology programs. Local faculty and ABPN examiners graded the encounters using 2 different evaluation forms: an ABPN form and one with a contracted rating scale. Some NEX encounters were purposely failed by residents. Cohen’s kappa and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for local vs ABPN examiners. Results: Ninety-eight videotaped NEX encounters of 32 residents were evaluated by 20 local faculty evaluators and 18 ABPN examiners. The interrater reliability for a determination of pass vs fail for each encounter was poor (kappa 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11, 0.53). ICC between local faculty and ABPN examiners for each performance rating on the ABPN NEX form was poor to moderate (ICC range 0.14-0.44), and did not improve with the contracted rating form (ICC range 0.09-0.36). ABPN examiners were more likely than local examiners to fail residents. Conclusions: There is poor interrater reliability between local faculty and American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology examiners. A bias was detected for favorable assessment locally, which is concerning for the validity of the examination. Further study is needed to assess whether training can improve interrater reliability and offset bias. GLOSSARY ABIM = American Board of Internal Medicine; ABPN = American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology; CI = confidence interval; HFH = Henry Ford Hospital; ICC = intraclass correlation coefficients; IM = internal medicine; mini-CEX = Mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise; NEX = Neurology Clinical

  16. Temporal Relation Extraction in Outcome Variances of Clinical Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takanori; Wakata, Yoshifumi; Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Franagan, Brendan; Nakashima, Naoki; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2015-01-01

    Recently the clinical pathway has progressed with digitalization and the analysis of activity. There are many previous studies on the clinical pathway but not many feed directly into medical practice. We constructed a mind map system that applies the spanning tree. This system can visualize temporal relations in outcome variances, and indicate outcomes that affect long-term hospitalization.

  17. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Poor Substance Use Outcome Following Adolescent Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Stitzer, Maxine A.; Clemmey, Philip; Kolodner, Ken; Fishman, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterize baseline depressive symptoms among substance-abusing adolescents and determine their association with post residential treatment substance use outcomes. Method: In total, 153 adolescents (mean age 6.6 years, plus or minus 0.11) entering residential treatment were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Beck…

  18. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  19. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Poor Substance Use Outcome Following Adolescent Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Geetha A.; Stitzer, Maxine A.; Clemmey, Philip; Kolodner, Ken; Fishman, Marc J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterize baseline depressive symptoms among substance-abusing adolescents and determine their association with post residential treatment substance use outcomes. Method: In total, 153 adolescents (mean age 6.6 years, plus or minus 0.11) entering residential treatment were assessed at intake and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Beck…

  20. How Effective Are Poor Schools? Poverty and Educational Outcomes in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Berg, Servaas

    2008-01-01

    Given South Africa's divided past, it is imperative to improve educational outcomes to overcome labour market inequalities. Historically white and Indian schools still outperform black and coloured schools in examinations, and intraclass correlation coefficients (rho) reflect far greater between-school variance than for other countries. SACMEQ's…

  1. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  2. Admission Heart Rate Predicts Poor Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Miaoyan; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Wang, Xia; Carcel, Cheryl; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Sandset, Else C; Delcourt, Candice; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-06-01

    Faster heart rate predicts higher mortality in coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke, but its prognostic significance in intracerebral hemorrhage remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of admission heart rate on clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. A post hoc pooled analysis of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT 1 and 2). Clinical outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days; and imaging outcome was absolute growth in hematoma volume during the initial 24 hours. Patients were divided into 4 categories according to baseline heart rate (<65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 bpm) and analyzed using multivariable adjusted models with the lowest heart rate group as the reference. Of 3185 patients with available data, higher admission heart rate was associated with both mortality and worse modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted hazard ratio for heart rate (≥85 versus <65 bpm) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.11) and adjusted odds ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.63), respectively (both P-trend <0.05). There was no significant relationship between heart rate and absolute growth in hematoma volume (P-trend, 0.196). Higher admission heart rate is independently associated with death and poor functional outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00226096 and NCT00716079. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Usefulness of the Seattle Heart Failure Model to identify adults with congenital heart disease at high risk of poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Stefanescu, Ada; Macklin, Eric A; Lin, Elaine; Dudzinski, David M; Johnson, Jacob; Kennedy, Kevin F; Jacoby, Daniel; DeFaria Yeh, Doreen; Lewis, Gregory D; Yeh, Robert W; Liberthson, Richard; Lui, George; Bhatt, Ami B

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) differentiates patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) at high versus low risk for cardiovascular outcomes and poor exercise capacity. The ACHD population is growing and presents increasingly for care in the community and at tertiary centers. Few strategies exist to identify the patients with ACHD at high risk for heart failure and mortality.We studied 153 adults with transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, and single ventricle from 2 ACHD centers. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, with a secondary composite outcome of death, transplant, ventricular assist device, cardiovascular admission, and treatment for arrhythmia. We defined risk groups based on SHFM 5-year predicted survival: high (predicted survival <70%), intermediate (70% to 85%), and low risk (>85%). Ten patients had the primary outcome of death, and 46 the combined end point. The hazard of death in the SHFM high- versus the intermediate-risk group was 7.09 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 33.4, p = 0.01; no deaths in the low-risk group) and the hazard of the composite outcome between the high- versus low-risk group was 6.64 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 17.6, p = 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed greater probability of all-cause mortality (p = 0.003) in the high-risk group. In conclusion, the SHFM can help identify subjects with ACHD at risk for adverse outcome and poor cardiopulmonary efficiency. This may add to the care of patients with ACHD in the community and streamline care at tertiary centers.

  4. Poor Regenerative Outcome after Skeletal Muscle Necrosis Induced by Bothrops asper Venom: Alterations in Microvasculature and Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Rosario; Cabalceta, Carmen; Saravia-Otten, Patricia; Chaves, Alessandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Viperid snakebite envenoming is characterized by prominent local tissue damage, including muscle necrosis. A frequent outcome of such local pathology is deficient skeletal muscle regeneration, which causes muscle dysfunction, muscle loss and fibrosis, thus provoking permanent sequelae that greatly affect the quality of life of patients. The causes of such poor regenerative outcome of skeletal muscle after viperid snakebites are not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A murine model of muscle necrosis and regeneration was adapted to study the effects of the venom and isolated toxins of Bothrops asper, the medically most important snake in Central America. Gastrocnemius muscle was injected with either B. asper venom, a myotoxic phospholipase A2 (Mtx), a hemorrhagic metalloproteinase (SVMP), or saline solution. At various time intervals, during one month, tissue samples were collected and analyzed by histology, and by immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical techniques aimed at detecting muscle fibers, collagen, endothelial cells, myoblasts, myotubes, macrophages, TUNEL-positive nuclei, and axons. A successful regenerative response was observed in muscle injected with Mtx, which induces myonecrosis but does not affect the microvasculature. In contrast, poor regeneration, with fibrosis and atrophic fibers, occurred when muscle was injected with venom or SVMP, both of which provoke necrosis, microvascular damage leading to hemorrhage, and poor axonal regeneration. Conclusions/Significance The deficient skeletal muscle regeneration after injection of B. asper venom is likely to depend on the widespread damage to the microvasculature, which affects the removal of necrotic debris by phagocytes, and the provision of nutrients and oxygen required for regeneration. In addition, deficient axonal regeneration is likely to contribute to the poor regenerative outcome in this model. PMID:21629691

  5. Multimodal Cancer Care in Poor Prognosis Cancers: Resection Drives Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Mark A.; Yin, Huiying; Wong, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hospitals with high complex oncologic surgical volume have improved short-term outcomes. However, for long-term outcomes, the influence of other therapies must be considered. We compared effects of resection with other therapies on long-term outcomes across U.S. hospitals. Methods We examined claims in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare dataset for patients with esophageal (EC) and pancreatic (PC) cancers between 2005–2009, with follow-up through 2011, performing multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. We stratified hospitals by volume and compared rates of treatments in the context of survival. Results We studied 905 EC and 3,293 PC patients at 138 and 375 hospitals, respectively. For EC, resection rates were significantly higher (32.9% vs. 9.5%, P<0.001) in the highest versus lowest volume hospitals. Adjusted survival was also statistically significantly better (48.5% vs. 43.1%, P<0.001). For PC, resection rates were also statistically significantly higher (30.1% vs. 12.0%, P<0.001) with higher adjusted survival (21.5% vs. 19.9%, P = 0.01). We did not find variation in rates of other cancer treatments across hospitals. Conclusions A significant association exists between long-term survival and rates of cancer-directed surgery across hospitals, without variation in rates of other therapies. Access to resection appears to be key to reducing variation in long-term survival. PMID:26953166

  6. Characteristics and clinical outcome in patients after popliteal artery injury.

    PubMed

    Lang, Nikolaus W; Joestl, Julian B; Platzer, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of popliteal artery injury (PAI) caused by blunt or penetrating mechanism is demanding. Concomitant injuries and prolonged ischemia are the major causes of lower extremity morbidity and poor rates of limb salvage. This study assessed the amputation rate and, subsequently, the therapeutic management and clinical outcomes regarding the affect of concomitant injuries among patients with PAI in a setting of central European trauma care. Sixty-four patients (20 female and 44 male), with an average age of 44 years (range, 17-79 years) at the time of injury, were evaluated for clinical characteristics, concomitant injuries, complications, amputation rates, and functional outcome after traumatic PAI. The mechanism of injury was blunt trauma in 35 patients (54.7%) and penetrating trauma in 29 (45.3%). The Mangled Extremity Severity Score and the Injury Severity Score were assessed initially and the modified Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Score at 12 months after the primary surgery. Thirty patients (47%) returned to their normal activity level within 1 year after trauma, and 16 (25%) were limited in their daily activity or suffered from chronic pain symptoms. Within the blunt trauma group 26 of 35 patients (74%) sustained severe concomitant injuries, whereas two of 29 patients (7%) in the penetrating group showed severe concomitant injuries (P < .046). Eleven patients (17%) had to undergo revision surgery due to their associated injuries. The median modified FIM score was 10.3, whereas patients with blunt trauma had significantly lower FIM score (P < .0082). The median Mangled Extremity Severity Score was 6 points (range, 6-16 points). Primary or secondary amputation was required in 18 patients (28%) due to failure of revascularization. Patients who sustained blunt trauma had significantly higher amputation rates than those with penetrating injuries (P < .035). Clinical outcome and limb salvage of patients with PAI were influenced by the mechanism of

  7. The distribution of outcomes research papers across clinical journals.

    PubMed

    Goldsack, Jennifer; McLaughlin, Chris; Bristol, Mirar N; Loeb, Alex; Bergey, Meredith; Sonnad, Seema S

    2011-06-01

    This study examines the distribution of health outcomes research (HOR) studies in the clinical literature by clinical areas and journal impact factor. The authors reviewed 535 journals and divided the sample into higher and lower impact journals across four clinical area. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine differences across four categories of outcomes research articles published, specifically the incidence of articles in higher versus lower impact journals and differences across clinical areas. All high-impact journals published more safety and quality articles than process assessment, quality of life, or cost analysis studies. The number of each type of outcomes research study published was highly variable across all clinical areas. Only arthritis and outcomes research journals showed statistically significant differences between higher versus lower impact journals. Authors may benefit from considering these differences in their clinical specialty area when deciding where to submit HOR studies.

  8. Loss of estrogen receptor Beta expression in follicular thyroid carcinoma predicts poor outcome.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Annukka; Hagström, Jaana; Mäenpää, Hanna; Louhimo, Johanna; Siironen, Päivi; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2013-04-01

    Well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually act indolently, while aggressively acting tumors are difficult to detect early enough. Estrogen receptors (ERs) have prognostic significance in many cancers. Thyroid diseases, including neoplasms, are associated with the female sex. The prognostic significance of ERs in FTCs has not been reported previously. We studied the role of ERα and ERβ in 83 cases of follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) and 43 FTC cases, including seven cases of poorly differentiated FTC, obtained from the Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1990 and 2009. Patient follow-up was conducted until March 2011. Expression of ERα, ERβ, and MIB-1/Ki-67 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, including survival. Two major observations were apparent. First, ERβ expression was significantly higher in FTA than in FTC, and it was a stronger differential diagnostic marker than MIB-1/Ki-67. Second, low ERβ expression correlated with poor survival in FTC. All cancer-specific deaths due to FTC were among low ERβ-score patients. ERβ is a differential marker for malignancy and could thus be used as a preoperative tool. FTC patients with a low ERβ score need more thorough follow-up and may benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes in Patients With Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Chen, Jingchang; Shen, Tao; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Lin, Xiaoming; Wu, Heping; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian; Li, Jianqun; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes in a large sample of patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) as well as an analysis of risk factors associated with surgical failures are presented in this article. Data from IXT patients who received surgical management at the Eye Hospital, in the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University, China from January 2009 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Included within this analysis were data from pre- and postoperative ocular motility, primary alignment, and binocular vision. A total of 1228 patients with IXT were reviewed. Males (50.4%) and females (49.6%) were nearly equally represented in this sample. Thirty-two patients (2.6%) had a family history of strabismus. The mean age at onset was 6.77 ± 6.43 years (range 7 months –48.5 years), mean duration at presentation was 7.35 ± 6.68 years (range 6 months–47 years), and mean age at surgery was 13.7 ± 8.8 years (range 3–49 years). The mean refractive error was −0.84 ± 2.69 diopter in the right eye and −0.72 ± 2.58 diopter in the left eye. Amblyopia (4.2%), oblique muscle dysfunction (7.0%), and dissociated vertical deviation (4.7%) were also present in these patients. The most common subtype of IXT was the basic type (88.1%). Orthophoria was observed in 80.5% of patients and the ratios of surgical undercorrection and overcorrection were 14.7% and 4.8%, respectively, as determined with a mean follow-up time of 7.8 ± 3.7 months. When combining ocular alignment with binocular vision as the success criteria, the success rate decreased to 35.6%. Multivariate risk factor analysis showed that only the loss of stereoacuity (P = 0.002) was associated with a poor outcome. There were no differences in the long-term results between bilateral lateral rectus recession and unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection. Most IXT patients displayed normal vision, with few having positive

  10. Outcome assessment in cellulitis clinical trials: is telephone follow up sufficient?

    PubMed

    Nambudiri, V E; Dwyer, R C; Camargo, C A; Kupper, T S; Pallin, D J

    2015-07-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has scrutinized clinical trial methodology in cellulitis, partly because the definition and timing of cure are debatable. We analysed the validity of telephone self-report as a proxy for in-person follow up in a cellulitis treatment trial comparing cephalexin alone with cephalexin-plus-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Our results demonstrate poor agreement between these two methods of outcome determination and have implications for future cellulitis clinical trial design and clinical management. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Malnutrition determined by the patient-generated subjective global assessment is associated with poor outcomes in acute stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Judy; Bauer, Judith D; Isenring, Elisabeth; Cohen, Sarah

    2005-12-01

    The extent of malnutrition in hospitalised stroke patients and its influence on outcomes including hospital complications, length of stay and discharge destination are important issues. The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional status of patients admitted to an acute stroke unit and the association between nutritional status and health outcomes. Nutritional status was determined prospectively using the scored patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) in patients (n=73) admitted to an acute stroke unit within 48 h of admission to an Australian private hospital. Outcome data were collected by retrospective audit. On admission, 19.2% of patients were malnourished and this was associated with a significantly greater PG-SGA score (15 vs. 5) and lower body weight (59.8 kg vs. 75.8 kg) compared to well-nourished patients. In terms of health outcomes, malnourished patients had longer length of stay (13 vs. 8 days), increased complications (50% vs. 14%), increased frequency of dysphagia (71% vs. 32%) and enteral feeding (93% vs. 59%). No association was found between nutritional status and serum albumin level or discharge destination. Malnutrition on admission to hospital after acute stroke is associated with poor outcomes including increased length of stay and increased prevalence of dysphagia and complications. The scored PG-SGA is a nutrition assessment tool that allows quick identification of malnourished stroke patients.

  12. Poor Reporting of Outcomes Beyond Accuracy in Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis: A Call for a Framework

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Yalda; Joseph, Lawrence; Vadnais, Caroline; Pant Pai, Nitika

    2014-01-01

    Background. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for syphilis can contribute to epidemic control by offering a timely knowledge of serostatus. Although accuracy data on POC syphilis tests have been widely published, few studies have evaluated broader outcomes beyond accuracy that impact patients and health systems. We comprehensively reviewed evidence and reporting of these implementation research outcomes (IROs), and proposed a framework to improve their quality. Methods. Three reviewers systematically searched 6 electronic databases from 1980 to 2014 for syphilis POC studies reporting IROs. Data were abstracted and findings synthesised narratively. Results. Of 71 studies identified, 38 documented IROs. IROs were subclassified into preference (7), acceptability (15), feasibility (15), barriers and challenges (15), impact (13), and prevalence (23). Using our framework and definitions, a pattern of incomplete documentation, inconsistent definitions, and lack of clarity was identified across all IROs. Conclusion. Although POC screening tests for syphilis were generally favourably evaluated across a range of outcomes, the quality of evidence was compromised by inconsistent definitions, poor methodology, and documentation of outcomes. A framework for standardized reporting of outcomes beyond accuracy was proposed and considered a necessary first step towards an effective implementation of these metrics in POC diagnostics research. PMID:24795821

  13. Shunt surgery in poor grade patients with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus: effects of response to external ventricular drainage and other variables on long term outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, J.; Rajshekhar, V.; Chandy, M.

    1998-01-01

    Thirty two poor grade patients (grade 3, 20 patients and grade 4, 12 patients) with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus were prospectively studied to evaluate the response to external ventricular drainage in predicting outcome after shunt surgery. All grade 3 patients underwent a shunt procedure irrespective of their response to external ventricular drainage, and an attempt was made to correlate the immediate response to external ventricular drainage to their long term outcome. Patients in grade 4 underwent shunt surgery only if there was clinical improvement by at least one grade after external ventricular drainage. Follow up (mean 23.1 months) was available for 30 patients (93%). Of the 20 patients in grade 3, seven underwent shunt surgery directly, 13 after an external ventricular drainage. In the group which underwent drainage, the immediate clinical response was improvement in six, no change in six, and death in one. Long term improvement or death occurred almost equally in all the subgroups. The immediate response to external ventricular drainage was not predictive of the long term outcome in grade 3 patients. All 12 patients in grade 4 underwent an external ventricular drainage and only one improved. The rest continued to deteriorate and succumbed to the disease. Grade at admission was the single most important predictor of good outcome (p=0.002) and severity of hydrocephalus had an adverse impact on outcome (p= 0.04). The rest of the variables studied (age, duration of illness, duration of altered sensorium, CSF cell count, and CSF protein concentrations) had no effect on long term outcome. All patients in grade 3 should be given the benefit of shunt surgery without a trial of external ventricular drainage. However, patients in grade 4 should undergo an external ventricular drainage in view of the high mortality in this group. 

 PMID:9667572

  14. Adverse childhood experiences: translating knowledge into identification of children at risk for poor outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marie-Mitchell, Ariane; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    To pilot test a tool to screen for adverse childhood experiences (ACE), and to explore the ability of this tool to distinguish early child outcomes among lower- and higher-risk children. This cross-sectional study used data collected of 102 children between the ages of 4 and 5 years presenting for well-child visits at an urban federally qualified health center. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for child sex, ethnicity, and birth weight were used to test the association between each dichotomized child outcome and risk exposure based on a 6-item (maltreatment suspected, domestic violence, substance use, mental illness, criminal behavior, single parent) and 7-item (plus maternal education) Child ACE tool. Effect sizes were generally similar for the 6-item and 7-item Child ACE tools, with the exception of 2 subscales measuring development. The adjusted odds of behavior problems was higher for children with a higher compared to a lower 7-item Child ACE score (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-7.22), as was the odds of developmental delay (aOR 3.66, 95% CI 1.10-12.17), and injury visits (aOR 5.65, 95% CI 1.13-28.24), but lower for obesity (aOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11-0.92). Brief tools can be used to screen for ACE and identify specific early child outcomes associated with ACE. We suggest that follow-up studies test the incorporation of the 7-item Child ACE tool into practice and track rates of child behavior problems, developmental delays, and injuries. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Obesity stigma as a determinant of poor birth outcomes in women with high BMI: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    DeJoy, Sharon Bernecki; Bittner, Krystle

    2015-04-01

    Obesity stigma has been linked to poor health outcomes on an individual and population basis. However, little research has been conducted on the role of chronic or recent obesity stigma in the health disparities experienced by pregnant women with high body mass index. The purpose of this article is to discuss poor birth outcomes in this population from an integrated perinatal health framework perspective, incorporating obesity stigma as a social determinant. In studies of non-pregnant populations, obesity stigma has been associated with stress, unhealthy coping strategies, psychological disorders, and exacerbations of physical illness. This article examines the mechanisms by which obesity stigma influences health outcomes and suggests how they might apply to selected complications of pregnancy, including macrosomia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery. Given the rates of obesity and associated pregnancy complications in the United States, it is critical to examine the determinants of those problems from a life course and multiple determinants perspective. This paper offers a conceptual framework to guide exploratory research in this area, incorporating the construct of obesity stigma.

  16. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less

    PubMed Central

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children’s language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  17. The economic impact of poor sample quality in clinical chemistry laboratories: results from a global survey.

    PubMed

    Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.

  18. MYC/BCL6 double-hit lymphoma (DHL): a tumour associated with an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Desai, Parth; Lin, Pei; Yin, C Cameron; Tang, Guilin; Wang, Xuan J; Konoplev, Sergej N; Khoury, Joseph D; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Large B cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL6/3q27 rearrangements, designated MYC/BCL6 DHL, are uncommon. Our aim was to better characterize this group of tumours. We studied the clinicopathological features and outcome of 13 patients with MYC/BCL6 DHL and compared this group to a group of 83 MYC/BCL2 DHL patients. There were eight men and five women, with a median age of 63 years. Eleven tumours were classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and two were B cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma (BCLU). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these tumours were positive for BCL6 (100%), BCL2 (eight of 10; 80%) and CD10 (eight of 10; 80%). Nine of 12 (75%) cases had a germinal centre B cell (GCB) immunophenotype; in one case data were incomplete. All patients were treated with chemotherapy. The clinicopathological features of MYC/BCL6 DHL were similar to MYC/BCL2 DHL, except that MYC/BCL6 DHL had a GCB immunophenotype less often. Patients with MYC/BCL6 DHL had a poor overall survival, similar to patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL (P = 0.32). MYC/BCL6 DHL is an aggressive B cell lymphoma and patients often have an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis, similar to patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The BRAF V600E mutation predicts poor survival outcome in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Shuijun; Zheng, Shouhua; Zhang, Danhua; Qiu, Xinguang

    2015-01-01

    There have been contradictory data on whether or not BRAF V600E mutation should be regard as a poor prognosis predictor of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To settle down the conflict, this metaanalysis is prepared to clarify the present prognostic role of BRAF V600E mutation in patients with PTC. The relevant published researches were incorporated according to the defined inclusion/exclusion criteria from PubMed. The effect sizes of outcome parameters were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs). The current meta-analysis included 19 researches with a total of 6087 patients. We have found that patients with BRAF V600E mutation have a poor overall survival (the pooled HR=2.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-6.29). Furthermore, subgroup analysis of the recurrence-free survival (RFS) of PTC patients by races indicated that BRAF V600E mutation predicts poor RFS of patients (the pooled HR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.37-1.93), both Caucasian (the pooled HR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.30-1.90) and Asian (the pooled HR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.28-2.87). The poor prognosis predicted role of BRAF V600E mutation in PTC was certified from the current meta-analysis. The BRAF V600E mutation may be used as a prognostic predictor of patients with PTC.

  20. Female gender remains an independent risk factor for poor outcome after acute nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ganti, Latha; Jain, Anunaya; Yerragondu, Neeraja; Jain, Minal; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Gilmore, Rachel M; Rabinstein, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To study whether gender influences outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods. Cohort study of 245 consecutive adults presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous ICH from January 2006 to December 2008. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, extradural hemorrhage, and recurrence of hemorrhage were excluded. Results. There were no differences noted between genders in stroke severity (NIHSS) at presentation, ICH volume, or intraventricular extension (IVE) of hemorrhage. Despite this, females had 1.94 times higher odds of having a bad outcome (modified Rankin score (mRs) ≥3) as compared to males (95% CI 1.12 to 3.3) and 1.84 times higher odds of early mortality (95% CI 1.02-3.33). analyzing known variables influencing mortality in ICH, the authors found that females did have higher serum glucose levels on arrival (P = 0.0096) and 4.2 times higher odds for a cerebellar involvement than males (95% CI 1.63-10.75). After adjusting for age, NIHSS, glucose levels, hemorrhage volume, and IVE, female gender remained an independent predictor of early mortality (P = 0.0127). Conclusions. Female gender may be an independent predictor of early mortality in ICH patients, even after adjustment for stroke severity, hemorrhage volume, IVE, serum glucose levels, and age.

  1. Low Level of Microsatellite Instability Correlates with Poor Clinical Prognosis in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Mirtalebi, Hanieh; Taleghani, Mohammad Yaghoob; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Savabkar, Sanaz; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microsatellite instability (MSI) on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) requires more investigation. We assessed the role of MSI status in survival of individuals diagnosed with primary colorectal cancer. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the MSI status was determined in 158 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors and their matched normal tissues from patients who underwent curative surgery. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to assess the clinical prognostic significance. In this study we found that MSI-H tumors were predominantly located in the colon versus rectum (p = 0.03), associated with poorer differentiation (p = 0.003) and TNM stage II/III of tumors (p = 0.02). In CRC patients with stage II, MSI-L cases showed significantly poorer survival compared with patients who had MSI-H or MSS tumors (p = 0.04). This study indicates that MSI-L tumors correlate with poorer clinical outcome in patients with stage II tumors (p = 0.04) or in tumors located in the colon (p = 0.02). MSI-L characterizes a distinct subgroup of CRC patients who have a poorer outcome. This study suggests that MSI status in CRC, as a clinical prognostic marker, is dependent on other factors, such as tumor stage and location. PMID:27429617

  2. Clinical Outcome Metrics for Optimization of Robust Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D.; Byrne, V. E.; McGuire, K. M.; Hurst, V. W., IV; Kerstman, E. L.; Cole, R. W.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Garcia, K. M,; Foy, M. H.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Gibson, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis of this research is on the Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) "Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities". Specifically, this project aims to contribute to the closure of gap ExMC 2.02: We do not know how the inclusion of a physician crew medical officer quantitatively impacts clinical outcomes during exploration missions. The experiments are specifically designed to address clinical outcome differences between physician and non-physician cohorts in both near-term and longer-term (mission impacting) outcomes.

  3. The United Farm Workers clinic in Delano, Calif.: a study of the rural poor.

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, P

    1975-01-01

    Data on the utilization of services and morbidity were obtained for 1972 from the Rodrigo Terronez Memorial Clinic in Delano, Calif., a health care facility operated without government funds, which was established to serve the rural poor, specifically farmworkers and their dependents. There were 23,141 patient visits in the study year. The average number of physician visits per patient 3.4; 65 percent of the visits were by appointment, 9 percent were after hours, and 1 percent resulted in hospitalization. Only 0.2 percent constituted true emergencies. Ninety-nine percent of the prescriptions written at the clinic were from a 190-item drug formulary developed by the staff physicians. The data on the clinic are roughly comparable with those from other urban rural comprehensive health centers. The Terronez Clinic, however, differed significantly from most of these other centers in its orientation. It served as an organizing tool for a labor union trying to mobilize agricultural workers in the area so they would act together to improve their living conditions. Images p331-a p337-a PMID:808819

  4. Higher brain extracellular potassium is associated with brain metabolic distress and poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elevated brain potassium levels ([K+]) are associated with neuronal damage in experimental models. The role of brain extracellular [K+] in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and its association with hemorrhage load, metabolic dysfunction and outcome has not been studied so far. Methods Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) samples from 28 poor grade aSAH patients were analyzed for CMD [K+] for 12 consecutive days after ictus, and time-matched to brain metabolic and hemodynamic parameters as well as corresponding plasma [K+]. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized estimating equation with an autoregressive function to handle repeated observations of an individual patient. Results CMD [K+] did not correlate with plasma [K+] (Spearman’s ρ = 0.114, P = 0.109). Higher CMD [K+] was associated with the presence of intracerebral hematoma on admission head computed tomography, CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio >40 and CMD lactate >4 mmol/L (P < 0.05). In vitro retrodialysis data suggest that high CMD [K+] was of brain cellular origin. Higher CMD [K+] was significantly associated with poor 3-month outcome, even after adjusting for age and disease severity (P < 0.01). Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that brain extracellular [K+] may serve as a biomarker for brain tissue injury in poor-grade aSAH patients. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relevance of brain interstitial K+ levels in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury after aSAH. PMID:24920041

  5. Magnitude of visceral leishmaniasis and poor treatment outcome among HIV patients: meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Alemayehu, Mekuriaw; Wubshet, Mamo; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfection with HIV/AIDS most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and premature deaths. Scarce data are available, regarding the magnitude and poor treatment outcomes of VL-HIV coinfection. Objective The main objective of this systematic review was to describe the pooled prevalence of VL and poor treatment outcome among HIV patients. Review methods Electronic databases mainly PubMed were searched. Databases, such as Google and Google scholar, were searched for gray literature. Articles were selected based on their inclusion criterion, whether they included HIV-positive individuals with VL diagnosis. STATA 11 software was used to conduct a meta-analysis of pooled prevalence of VL-HIV coinfection. Results Fifteen of the 150 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A majority of the study participants were males between 25 years and 41 years of age. The pooled prevalence of VL-HIV coinfection is 5.2% with 95% confidence interval of (2.45–10.99). Two studies demonstrated the impact of antiretroviral treatment on reduction in relapse rate compared with patients who did not start antiretroviral treatment. One study showed that the higher the baseline CD4+ cell count (>100 cells/mL) the lower the relapse rate. Former VL episodes were identified as risk factors for relapse in two articles. In one of the articles, an earlier bout of VL remains significant in the model adjusted to other variables. Conclusion The pooled prevalence of VL in HIV-infected patients is low and an earlier bout of VL and CD4+ count <100 cells/mL at the time of primary VL diagnosis are factors that predict poor treatment outcome. PMID:27042142

  6. Comorbid depression, but not comorbid anxiety disorders, predicts poor outcome in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    van Balkom, Anton J L M; van Boeijen, Christine A; Boeke, A Joan P; van Oppen, Patricia; Kempe, Pieter T; van Dyck, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Influence of type of comorbidity was studied over the course of 1 year in a sample of 141 outpatients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and generalized anxiety disorder, who were receiving different forms of cognitive behavior therapy. Influence of type of comorbidity was determined on the basis of change scores (linear regression analysis) and remission data (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). Three categories, as assessed at baseline, were compared: no comorbidity, comorbidity among anxiety disorders, and comorbidity with mood disorders. Primary outcome variable: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State subscale measured at four assessments (0, 12, 24, and 52 weeks). Analyses of change and remission indicated that comorbidity with mood disorders led to (i) less improvement and (ii) a lower remission rate than comorbidity among anxiety disorders and no comorbidity. Because comorbidity has a critical influence on prognosis, it seems to be important to make a reliable diagnosis of the disorders present. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Maternal Obesity: Lifelong Metabolic Outcomes for Offspring from Poor Developmental Trajectories During the Perinatal Period.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Elena; Ibáñez, Carlos; Martínez-Samayoa, Paola M; Lomas-Soria, Consuelo; Durand-Carbajal, Marta; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in developed and developing countries around the world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely impacts both maternal health and offspring phenotype, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life including obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects including programming of hypothalamic appetite-regulating centers, increasing maternal, fetal and offspring glucocorticoid production, changes in maternal metabolism and increasing maternal oxidative stress. Effective interventions during human pregnancy are needed to prevent both maternal and offspring metabolic dysfunction due to maternal obesity. This review addresses the relationship between maternal obesity and its negative impact on offspring development and presents some maternal intervention studies that propose strategies to prevent adverse offspring metabolic outcomes. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impairment of heart rate recovery after peak exercise predicts poor outcome after pediatric heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Giardini, Alessandro; Fenton, Matthew; Derrick, Graham; Burch, Michael

    2013-09-10

    A blunted heart rate recovery (HRR) from peak exercise is associated with adverse outcome in adults with ischemic heart disease. We assessed HRR after pediatric heart transplantation (HTx) and its prognostic use. Between 2004 and 2010 we performed 360 maximal exercise tests (median, 2 tests/patient; range, 1-7) in 128 children (66 men; age at test, 14 ± 3 years) who received HTx (age, 8.5 ± 5.1 years) because of cardiomyopathy (66%) or congenital heart defects (34%). The change in heart rate from peak exercise to 1 minute of recovery was measured as HRR and was expressed as Z score calculated from reference data obtained in 160 healthy children. HRR was impaired soon after HTx (average in first 2 years Z=-1.9 ± 3.5) but improved afterward (Z=+0.52/y), such that HRR Z score normalized in most patients by 6 years after HTx (average, 0.6 ± 1.8). A subsequent decline in HRR Z score was noted from 6 years after HTx (rate of Z=-0.11/y). After 27 ± 15 months from the most recent exercise test, 19 patients died or were re-heart transplantation. For the follow-up after 6 years, HRR Z score was the only predi