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Sample records for poor cloud traced

  1. Clouds and trace gas distributions during TRACE-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J.; Olson, J.; Davis, D.; Chen, G.; Barrick, J.; Shetter, R.; Lefer, B.; Jordan, C.; Anderson, B.; Clarke, A.; Sachse, G.; Blake, D.; Singh, H.; Sandolm, S.; Tan, D.; Kondo, Y.; Avery, M.; Flocke, F.; Eisele, F.; Mauldin, L.; Zondlo, M.; Brune, W.; Harder, H.; Martinez, M.; Talbot, R.; Bandy, A.; Thornton, D.

    2003-11-01

    This paper addresses the question: To what extent do trace gas distributions correspond to cloudiness? Observations taken during NASA's TRACE-P experiment indicate that there can be statistically significant differences in trace gas concentrations between clear-sky and cloudy areas. During the TRACE-P mission, frontal outflow of Asian emissions from the Pacific Rim to the western, North Pacific was sampled by NASA's DC-8 and P-3B aircraft. On several occasions, enhanced CO mixing ratios were observed in and around frontal clouds. A more detailed analysis of trace gas distributions revealed CO enhancements of 30% in the lower free troposphere (1-5 km) for cloudy regions as compared to clear areas. These enhancements exist within clouds as well as above and below clouds. In the upper free troposphere (5-11 km), overall enhancement in CO of 15% was observed although enhancements are mainly restricted to observations within clouds. These in-cloud observations were enhanced by factors of 1.5 to 2 over clear air data. Similar enhancements were seen for many other anthropogenic tracers. By contrast, distributions for O3 revealed no clear differences between cloudy and clear regions suggesting that other influences (e.g., stratosphere-troposphere exchange) might complicate any correspondence with local cloudiness. Expected cloud influences on oxidation chemistry were evident in enhanced OH concentrations above clouds and depressed OH below clouds. These findings are particularly relevant to current and future satellite investigations of the troposphere. Understanding the potential biases created by the inability to probe cloudy regions will improve the interpretation of regional and globally averaged satellite observations.

  2. Are CO Observations of Interstellar Clouds Tracing the H2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Glover, S. C. O.; Klessen, R. S.; Mac Low, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interstellar clouds are commonly observed through the emission of rotational transitions from carbon monoxide (CO). However, the abundance ratio of CO to molecular hydrogen (H2), which is the most abundant molecule in molecular clouds is only about 10-4. This raises the important question of whether the observed CO emission is actually tracing the bulk of the gas in these clouds, and whether it can be used to derive quantities like the total mass of the cloud, the gas density distribution function, the fractal dimension, and the velocity dispersion--size relation. To evaluate the usability and accuracy of CO as a tracer for H2 gas, we generate synthetic observations of hydrodynamical models that include a detailed chemical network to follow the formation and photo-dissociation of H2 and CO. These three-dimensional models of turbulent interstellar cloud formation self-consistently follow the coupled thermal, dynamical and chemical evolution of 32 species, with a particular focus on H2 and CO (Glover et al. 2009). We find that CO primarily traces the dense gas in the clouds, however, with a significant scatter due to turbulent mixing and self-shielding of H2 and CO. The H2 probability distribution function (PDF) is well-described by a log-normal distribution. In contrast, the CO column density PDF has a strongly non-Gaussian low-density wing, not at all consistent with a log-normal distribution. Centroid velocity statistics show that CO is more intermittent than H2, leading to an overestimate of the velocity scaling exponent in the velocity dispersion--size relation. With our systematic comparison of H2 and CO data from the numerical models, we hope to provide a statistical formula to correct for the bias of CO observations. CF acknowledges financial support from a Kade Fellowship of the American Museum of Natural History.

  3. Micelle Mediated Trace Level Sulfide Quantification through Cloud Point Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Devaramani, Samrat; Malingappa, Pandurangappa

    2012-01-01

    A simple cloud point extraction protocol has been proposed for the quantification of sulfide at trace level. The method is based on the reduction of iron (III) to iron (II) by the sulfide and the subsequent complexation of metal ion with nitroso-R salt in alkaline medium. The resulting green-colored complex was extracted through cloud point formation using cationic surfactant, that is, cetylpyridinium chloride, and the obtained surfactant phase was homogenized by ethanol before its absorbance measurement at 710 nm. The reaction variables like metal ion, ligand, surfactant concentration, and medium pH on the cloud point extraction of the metal-ligand complex have been optimized. The interference effect of the common anions and cations was studied. The proposed method has been successfully applied to quantify the trace level sulfide in the leachate samples of the landfill and water samples from bore wells and ponds. The validity of the proposed method has been studied by spiking the samples with known quantities of sulfide as well as comparing with the results obtained by the standard method. PMID:22619597

  4. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. I. Ray trace analysis and wave-front reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Landesman, B T; Kindilien, P J; Matson, C L; Caudill, T R

    2000-10-20

    A new technique for modeling image transfer through cirrus clouds is presented. The technique uses a ray trace to model beam propagation through a three-dimensional volume of polydisperse, hexagonal ice crystals. Beyond the cloud, the technique makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation methods. At the air-cloud interface, each wave front is resolved into a ray distribution for input to the ray trace software. Similarly, a wave front is reconstructed from the output ray distribution at the cloud-air interface. Simulation output from the ray trace program is presented and the modulation transfer function for stars imaged through cirrus clouds of varying depths is discussed.

  5. Clouding tracing: Visualization of the mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Philip J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a highly interactive method for computer visualization of the basic physical process of dispersion and mixing of fluid elements in convection-diffusion systems. It is based on transforming the vector field from a traditionally Eulerian reference frame into a Lagrangian reference frame. Fluid elements are traced through the vector field for the mean path as well as the statistical dispersion of the fluid elements about the mean position by using added scalar information about the root mean square value of the vector field and its Lagrangian time scale. In this way, clouds of fluid elements are traced and are not just mean paths. We have used this method to visualize the simulation of an industrial incinerator to help identify mechanisms for poor mixing.

  6. Cloud identification in atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy infrared occultation measurements.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Brian H; Eldering, Annmarie; Irion, Fredrick W; Mills, Franklin P; Sen, Bhaswar; Gunson, Michael R

    2002-05-20

    High-resolution infrared nongas absorption spectra derived from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment are analyzed for evidence of the presence of cirrus clouds. Several nonspherical ice extinction models based on realistic size distributions and crystal habits along with a stratospheric sulfate aerosol model are fit to the spectra, and comparisons are made with different model combinations. Nonspherical ice models often fit observed transmission spectra better than a spherical Mie ice model, and some discrimination among nonspherical models is noted. The ATMOS lines of sight for eight occultations are superimposed on coincident geostationary satellite infrared imagery, and brightness temperatures along the lines of sight are compared with retrieved vertical temperature profiles. With these comparisons, studies of two cases of clear sky, three cases of opaque cirrus, and three cases of patchy cirrus are discussed.

  7. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.; Pinardi, G.; van Roozendael, M.

    2008-11-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds show that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column density (VCD) retrievals is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1) are lower than the tropospheric NO2VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04), in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about -2.12×1014molec cm-2.

  8. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.; Pinardi, G.; van Roozendael, M.

    2008-05-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds shows that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1) are lower than the tropospheric NO2 VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04), in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about -2.12×1014 molec cm-2.

  9. Disk of the Small Magellanic Cloud as traced by Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni

    2015-01-01

    Context. The structure and evolution of the disk of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are traced by studying the Cepheids. Aims: We aim to estimate the orientation measurements of the disk, such as the inclination, i, and the position angle of the line of nodes (PAlon), φ, and the depth of the disk. We also derive the age of the Cepheids and hence the age distribution of the SMC Cepheids. Methods: We used the V and I band photometric data of the fundamental and first-overtone Cepheids from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment survey. The period-luminosity (PL) relations were used to estimate the relative distance and reddening of each Cepheid. The right ascension, declination, and relative distance from the centroid of each Cepheid were converted into x, y, and z Cartesian coordinates. A weighted least-square plane fitting method was then applied to estimate the structural parameters. The line-of-sight depth and then the orientation corrected depth or thickness of the disk were estimated from the relative distance measurements. The period-age-colour relation of Cepheids were used to derive the age of the Cepheids. Results: A break in the PL relations of both the fundamental mode and first-overtone Cepheids at P ~ 2.95 days and P ~ 1 day are observed. An inclination of 64.̊4±0.̊7 and a PAlon 155°.3 ± 6°.3 are obtained from the full sample. A reddening map of the SMC disk is also presented. The orientation-corrected depth or thickness of the SMC disk is found to be 1.76±0.6 kpc. The scale height is estimated to be 0.82±0.3 kpc. The age distribution of Cepheids matches the SMC cluster age distribution. Conclusions: The radial variation of the disk parameters mildly indicate structures and disturbances in the inner SMC (0.5

  10. Mercury and trace elements in cloud water and precipitation collected on Mt. Mansfield, Vermont.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Elizabeth G; Keeler, Gerald J; Lawson, Sean T; Sherbatskoy, Timothy D

    2003-08-01

    The lack of high quality measurements of Hg and trace elements in cloud and fog water led to the design of a new collector for clean sequential sampling of cloud and fog water. Cloud water was collected during nine non-precipitating cloud events on Mt. Mansfield, VT in the northeastern USA between August 1 and October 31, 1998. Sequential samples were collected during six of these events. Mercury cloud water concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 71.8 ng l(-1), with a mean of 24.8 ng l(-1). Liquid water content explained about 60% of the variability in Hg cloud concentrations. Highest Hg cloud water concentrations were found to be associated with transport from the Mid-Atlantic and Ohio River Valley, and lowest concentrations with transport from the north of Mt. Mansfield out of Canada. Twenty-nine event precipitation samples were collected during the ten-week cloud sampling period near the base of Mt. Mansfield as part of a long-term deposition study. The Hg concentrations of cloud water were similar to, but higher on average (median of 12.5 ng l(-1)) than Hg precipitation concentrations (median of 10.5 ng l(-1)). Cloud and precipitation samples were analyzed for fifteen trace elements including Mg, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb by ICP-MS. Mean concentrations were higher in cloud water than precipitation for elements with predominately anthropogenic, but not crustal origin in samples from the same source region. One possible explanation is greater in-cloud scavenging of crustal elements in precipitating than non-precipitating clouds, and greater below-cloud scavenging of crustal than anthropogenic aerosols.

  11. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF METAL-POOR RR LYRAE STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, Raoul; Grebel, Eva K.; Duffau, Sonia; Frebel, Anna; Hansen, Camilla J.; Koch, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    We present for the first time a detailed spectroscopic study of chemical element abundances of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud (LMC and SMC). Using the MagE echelle spectrograph at the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes, we obtain medium resolution (R {approx} 2000-6000) spectra of six RR Lyrae stars in the LMC and three RR Lyrae stars in the SMC. These stars were chosen because their previously determined photometric metallicities were among the lowest metallicities found for stars belonging to the old populations in the Magellanic Clouds. We find the spectroscopic metallicities of these stars to be as low as [Fe/H]{sub spec} = -2.7 dex, the lowest metallicity yet measured for any star in the Magellanic Clouds. We confirm that for metal-poor stars, the photometric metallicities from the Fourier decomposition of the light curves are systematically too high compared to their spectroscopic counterparts. However, for even more metal-poor stars below [Fe/H]{sub phot} < -2.8 dex this trend is reversed and the spectroscopic metallicities are systematically higher than the photometric estimates. We are able to determine abundance ratios for 10 chemical elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Sr, and Ba), which extend the abundance measurements of chemical elements for RR Lyrae stars in the Clouds beyond [Fe/H] for the first time. For the overall [{alpha}/Fe] ratio, we obtain an overabundance of 0.36 dex, which is in very good agreement with results from metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo as well as from the metal-poor tail in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Comparing the abundances with those of the stars in the Milky Way halo we find that the abundance ratios of stars of both populations are consistent with another. Therefore, we conclude that from a chemical point of view early contributions from Magellanic-type galaxies to the formation of the Galactic halo as claimed in cosmological models are plausible.

  12. Nitric acid depressions in and near midlatitude cirrus clouds during TRACE-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondlo, M. A.; Cantrell, C. A.; Clarke, A.; Kosciuch, E.; Mauldin, R. L.; Eisele, F. L.

    2003-12-01

    Cirrus cloud ice particles have been implicated in scavenging a wide variety soluble and semisoluble species. Species removed by an ice surface can undergo a number of significant processes including heterogeneous reactions with other adsorbed species, vertical redistribution in the troposphere from sedimenting particles, or modifying the microphysical properties of the ice particle. Nitric acid (HNO3) has been shown in the laboratory to readily adsorb onto ice surfaces, and modeling studies suggest significant perturbations to its distribution can result. Unfortunately, field observations of HNO3 within and near cirrus clouds have shown mixed and sometimes contradictory results. The NASA P-3B aircraft sampled numerous upper tropospheric, mid-latitude ice clouds during Flight 24 of the NASA TRACE-P field experiment. In contrast to tropical cirrus clouds, the cirrus ice clouds sampled by the P-3B were at warmer temperatures of -17 to -32 degrees Celsius and at pressures of 365-436 mb. The clouds' origins ranged from jet stream induced cirrostratus clouds to convectively-induced cirrus anvils. Nitric acid levels decreased 60-70 pptv (35-60%) within the clouds compared to areas just outside of it. Slight asymmetries in the HNO3 profiles around the cloud were noted, with the lee or downwind sides of clouds containing more gradual returns from inside cloud levels to "background" levels, potentially due to greater mixing as the cloud evaporated. If HNO3 removed inside the cloud were distributed evenly onto ice surfaces, approximately one tenth of a monolayer of HNO3 was adsorbed onto ice (based on estimates of ice surface area density of 5000 microns squared per cubic centimeter). The incorporation of HNO3 into existing liquid quaternary NH3/H2SO4/HNO3/H2O aerosols within the cloud could also be important due to the sampling location over central North America where elevated NH3 emissions exist. The midlatitude HNO3/cirrus cases observed on the P-3B will be contrasted to

  13. Cloud disruption via ionized feedback: tracing pillar dynamics in Vulpecula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaassen, P. D.; Mottram, J. C.; Dale, J. E.; Juhasz, A.

    2014-06-01

    The major physical processes responsible for shaping and sculpting pillars in the clouds surrounding massive stars (i.e. the `Pillars of Creation') are now being robustly incorporated into models quantifying the ionizing radiation from massive stars. The detailed gas dynamics within these pillars can now be compared with observations. Our goal is to quantify the gas dynamics in a pillar being sculpted by a nearby massive star. To do this, we use the CO, 13CO and C18O J = 1-0 emission towards a pillar in the Vulpecula Rift. These data are a combination of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy and Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory observations providing high-resolution (˜5) imaging of large-scale pillar structures (>100 arcsec). We find that this cold (˜18 K), low-density (8 × 103 cm-3) material is fragmenting on Jeans scales, has very low velocity dispersions (˜0.5 km s-1), and appears to be moving away from the ionizing source. We are able to draw direct comparisons with three models from the literature, and find that those with lower velocity dispersions best fit our data, although the dynamics of any one model do not completely agree with our observations. We do, however, find that our observed pillar exhibits many of the characteristics expected from simulations.

  14. Microscopic evaluation of trace metals in cloud droplets in an acid precipitation region.

    PubMed

    Li, Weijun; Wang, Yan; Collett, Jeffrey L; Chen, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaoye; Wang, Zifa; Wang, Wenxing

    2013-05-01

    Mass concentrations of soluble trace metals and size, number, and mixing properties of nanometal particles in clouds determine their toxicity to ecosystems. Cloud water was found to be acidic, with a pH of 3.52, at Mt. Lu (elevation 1,165 m) in an acid precipitation region in South China. A combination of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for the first time demonstrates that the soluble metal concentrations and solid metal particle number are surprisingly high in acid clouds at Mt. Lu, where daily concentrations of SO2, NO2, and PM10 are 18 μg m(-3), 7 μg m(-3), and 22 μg m(-3). The soluble metals in cloudwater with the highest concentrations were zinc (Zn, 200 μg L(-1)), iron (Fe, 88 μg L(-1)), and lead (Pb, 77 μg L(-1)). TEM reveals that 76% of cloud residues include metal particles that range from 50 nm to 1 μm diameter with a median diameter of 250 nm. Four major metal-associated particle types are Pb-rich (35%), fly ash (27%), Fe-rich (23%), and Zn-rich (15%). Elemental mapping shows that minor soluble metals are distributed within sulfates of cloud residues. Emissions of fine metal particles from large, nonferrous industries and coal-fired power plants with tall stacks were transported upward to this high elevation. Our results suggest that the abundant trace metals in clouds aggravate the impacts of acid clouds or associated precipitation on the ecosystem and human health.

  15. MUSE searches for galaxies near very metal-poor gas clouds at z ˜ 3: new constraints for cold accretion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Dekel, Avishai; Morris, Simon L.; O'Meara, John M.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We report on the search for galaxies in the proximity of two very metal-poor gas clouds at z ˜ 3 towards the quasar Q0956+122. With a 5-hour Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integration in a ˜500 × 500 kpc2 region centred at the quasar position, we achieve a ≥80 per cent complete spectroscopic survey of continuum-detected galaxies with mR ≤ 25 mag and Lyα emitters with luminosity LLyα ≥ 3 × 1041 erg s- 1. We do not identify galaxies at the redshift of a z ˜ 3.2 Lyman limit system (LLS) with log Z/Z⊙ = -3.35 ± 0.05, placing this gas cloud in the intergalactic medium or circumgalactic medium of a galaxy below our sensitivity limits. Conversely, we detect five Lyα emitters at the redshift of a pristine z ˜ 3.1 LLS with log Z/Z⊙ ≤ -3.8, while ˜0.4 sources were expected given the z ˜ 3 Lyα luminosity function. Both this high detection rate and the fact that at least three emitters appear aligned in projection with the LLS suggest that this pristine cloud is tracing a gas filament that is feeding one or multiple galaxies. Our observations uncover two different environments for metal-poor LLSs, implying a complex link between these absorbers and galaxy haloes, which ongoing MUSE surveys will soon explore in detail. Moreover, in agreement with recent MUSE observations, we detected a ˜ 90 kpc Lyα nebula at the quasar redshift and three Lyα emitters reminiscent of a `dark galaxy' population.

  16. Interactions of atmospheric particulate and trace gases with clouds at Cheeka Peak, WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samberg, Tristine Marie

    1997-12-01

    Measurements of various aerosol, trace gas, and cloud water constituents were made during two intensive observation periods at the Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO) on the Washington state coast. These measurements were a part of the second and third Cloud and Aerosol Chemistry Experiments (CAChE 2 and CAChE 3) conducted from April 19 to May 18, 1994 and August 30 to September 23, 1994, respectively. Gas phase hydrogen peroxide was measured continuously during these two time periods. Cloud water samples were analyzed for major ion constituents and aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The cloud water samples collected during CAChE 2 represented bulk collection, whereas the cloud water samples collected during CAChE 3 were segregated into two size fractions, with mean droplet diameter of approximately 12 μm and 13 μm. Major ion concentrations (e.g., Na+, NH4+, H+, NO3/sp-, SO4/sp=, etc.) were higher than previously observed at Cheeka Peak, but comparable to other West coast locations. Despite the small difference in collected droplet size, size dependence was observed for several species. Seasalt ions and NO3/sp- were more concentrated in the larger drops, whereas peroxide was more concentrated in the smaller drops. Size dependence was not observed for MSA, non seasalt sulfate (nss-SO4/sp=) and NH4+, and was only weakly observed for H+. Cloud-free gas phase H2O2 and organic peroxide average concentrations were on the order of a few hundred pptv and did not vary much by wind sector; slightly higher concentrations were observed from the continental sector. In general, these concentrations were lower than those measured at east coast sites. Average cloudwater H2O2 concentrations for both CAChE experiments were approximately 35 μM and indicated conditions at Cheeka Peak were never oxidant-limited.. Evidence for sulfate production via H2O2 oxidation was observed but was not conclusive. Finally, a preliminary comparison was made between predictions of a size-resolved cloud chemical

  17. Solubilisation of aerosol trace metals by cloud processing: A laboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Spokes, L.J.; Jickells, T.D.; Lim, B. )

    1994-08-01

    The atmosphere has now been recognized as a major source of both trace metals and nutrients to the oceans, with wet deposition being a major contributor to the flux. Solution pH has been suggested to be the major control on metal solubility in rainwater, but for many trace metals this relationship is not a simple one. Aerosols are typically exposed to [approximately]10 condensation/evaporation cloud cycles before removal in rain and, as a result of H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] uptake and SO[sub 2] oxidation, cloudwater pH can be very low. Laboratory studies have been conducted, using Saharan and Urban aerosols, to assess the effect of pH on trace metal solubility. The results for the crustal elements Al and Fe in the Saharan aerosol show that metal solubility is a strong function of pH with highest solubilities seen under low pH conditions, comparable to those found in clouds. Increasing the pH to simulate neutralization of acidity by ammonia and crustal material results in almost complete removal of these elements from the solution phase, suggesting that a simple relationship between pH and solubility should exist in rainwater. For Al and Fe in the Urban aerosol there is evidence that some of the material solubilized at low pH is kept in solution at high pH, perhaps as the result of complexation by organic matter. Manganese shows high solubility after the initial acidification from both the Saharan and Urban materials with only slight removal from solution at increased pH. For this element it appears, therefore, that the pH-dependent dissolution process is not reversible. It is tentatively suggested that Fe in the Urban aerosol, under these experimental conditions, is under solubility control.

  18. An Overview of Current Issues in the Uptake of Atmospheric Trace Gasses by Aerosols and Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, JPD; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, Bruce C.; George, C.; Griffiths, T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, Gordon; Poschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M.; Rudich, Yinon; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, Paul J.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-10

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change a European Network) Joint Research Programme on Aerosols and the Programme on Access to Laboratory Data. The aim of the workshop was to hold ‘Gordon Conference’ type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review. In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  19. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, B. C.; George, C.; Griffiths, P. T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, G.; Pöschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Rudich, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, P. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-01

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change - a European Network) Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review. In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  20. Application of rapid cloud point extraction method for trace cobalt analysis coupled with spectrophotometric determination.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaodong; He, Lei; Shi, Chunsheng; Deng, Qingwen; Wang, Jiwei; Zhao, Xia

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was improved through the coupling of effective preconcentration method with spectrophotometric determination. Rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was used to pre-concentrate ultra trace cobalt and firstly coupled with spectrophotometric determination. The developed coupling was simple, rapid and efficient. The factors influencing RS-CPE and spectrophotometer were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.6μgL(-1), with sensitivity enhancement factor of 23. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for seven replicate measurements of 50μgL(-1) of cobalt was 4.3%. The recoveries for the spiked samples were in the acceptable range of 93.8-105%.

  1. Application of rapid cloud point extraction method for trace cobalt analysis coupled with spectrophotometric determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaodong; He, Lei; Shi, Chunsheng; Deng, Qingwen; Wang, Jiwei; Zhao, Xia

    2013-11-01

    In this work, the analytical performance of conventional spectrophotometer was improved through the coupling of effective preconcentration method with spectrophotometric determination. Rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was used to pre-concentrate ultra trace cobalt and firstly coupled with spectrophotometric determination. The developed coupling was simple, rapid and efficient. The factors influencing RS-CPE and spectrophotometer were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.6 μg L-1, with sensitivity enhancement factor of 23. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for seven replicate measurements of 50 μg L-1 of cobalt was 4.3%. The recoveries for the spiked samples were in the acceptable range of 93.8-105%.

  2. Determination of Trace Mercury by Cloud Point Extraction Preconcentration Coupled with Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Farokhi, Elham; Adnani, Atena; Ziaian, Mona

    A new micell-mediated phase separation method for preconcentration of ultra-trace quantities of mercury as a prior step to its determination spectrophotometry has been developed. The method is based on the Cloud Point Extraction (CPE) of mercury with Triton X-100 in the absence of chelating agent. Mercury react with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) in a surfactant solution yielding a hydrophobic complex, which then is entrapped in surfactant micelles. Separation of the two phases was accomplished by centrifugation for 10 min at 4000 rpm. Under the optimum conditions i.e., pH 9.0, cloud point temperature 45°C, [DDTC] = 1.6x10-5 mol L-1, [Triton X-114] = 0.032%. Analytical graphs were rectilinear in the concentration range of 4-240 µg L-1 and relative standard deviation for five replicate determinations of Mercury at 8 (μg L-1) concentration level, were 1.9%, respectively (n = 5, c = 8 µg L-1).

  3. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions versus the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo), were classified by principal component analysis (PCA). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the Pearl River delta (PRD), and the neighbouring provinces of Mt. Lushan as the major source regions and transport pathways for anthropogenic elements. Northern China was identified as a major source region for crustal elements. It should be noted that apart from the YRD, the area around Mt. Lushan has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements. Element solubility can be partially determined by emission sources. However, enhanced solubility of trace elements corresponding to increased concentrations of sulfate after the occurrence of cloud events indicated significant effects of cloud processing on aerosol element dissolution. Metal particles mixed with sulfate in cloud droplet residues were further investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was confirmed to be highly responsible for the enhancement of trace element solubility. The findings from this study imply an

  4. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  5. Clouds and wet removal as causes of variability in the trace-gas composition of the marine troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Cicerone, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A modeling study of the effects of clouds and wet removal on the chemistry of the remote marine troposphere is described. Using a time-dependent model with parameterized vertical transport to calculate trace-gas concentrations, it is found that large variations in key species (e.g., HNO3, H2CO, and H2O2) result from simulations of sporadic rainfall, changes in cloud cover, and external inputs such as surface NO sources. Depending on the frequency and intensity of an event, the effects of these perturbations may persist for several days, thereby invalidating assumptions of photochemical equilibrium in the interpretation of measurements. Long-term integrations with fixed boundary conditions and regularly occurring cloud and rain episodes demonstrate a strong sensitivity of the mean concentration of longer-lived soluble gases to precipitation frequency but also confirm the validity of using properly chosen parameterizations of wet removal in steady state calculations.

  6. Effects of ice-crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud experimental and ray-tracing modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Sassen, K; Knight, N C; Takano, Y; Heymsfield, A J

    1994-07-20

    During the 1986 Project FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) field campaign, four 22° halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a groundbased polarization lidar and an instrumented aircraft. The lidar data show the vertical cloud structure and the relative position of the aircraft, which collected a total of 84 slides by impaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic examination. Although many particles were too fragile to survive impaction intact, a large fraction of the identifiable crystals were columns and radial bullet rosettes, with both displaying internal cavitations, and radial plate-column combinations. Particles that were solid or displayed only a slight amount of internal structure were relatively rare, which shows that the usual model postulated by halo theorists, i.e., the randomly oriented, solid hexagonal crystal, is inappropriate for typical cirrus clouds. With the aid of new ray-tracing simulations for hexagonal hollow ended column and bullet-rosette models, we evaluate the effects of more realistic ice-crystal structures on halo formation and lidar depolarization and consider why the common halo is not more common in cirrus clouds.

  7. Effects of Ice-Crystal Structure on Halo Formation: Cirrus Cloud Experimental and Ray-Tracing Modeling Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Knight, Nancy C.; Takano, Yoshihide; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1986 Project FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) field campaign, four 22 deg halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground-based polarization lidar and an instrumented aircraft. The lidar data show the vertical cloud structure and the relative position of the aircraft, which collected a total of 84 slides by impaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic examination. Although many particles were too fragile to survive impaction intact, a large fraction of the identifiable crystals were columns and radial bullet rosettes, with both displaying internal cavitations and radial plate-column combinations. Particles that were solid or displayed only a slight amount of internal structure were relatively rare, which shows that the usual model postulated by halo theorists, i.e., the randomly oriented, solid hexagonal crystal, is inappropriate for typical cirrus clouds. With the aid of new ray-tracing simulations for hexagonal hollow-ended column and bullet-rosette models, we evaluate the effects of more realistic ice-crystal structures on halo formation and lidar depolarization and consider why the common halo is not more common in cirrus clouds.

  8. NARROW Na AND K ABSORPTION LINES TOWARD T TAURI STARS: TRACING THE ATOMIC ENVELOPE OF MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Pascucci, I.; Simon, M. N.; Edwards, S.; Heyer, M.; Rigliaco, E.; Hillenbrand, L.; Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.

    2015-11-20

    We present a detailed analysis of narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines toward nearly 40 T Tauri stars in Taurus with the goal of clarifying their origin. The Na i λ5889.95 line is detected toward all but one source, while the weaker K i λ7698.96 line is detected in about two-thirds of the sample. The similarity in their peak centroids and the significant positive correlation between their equivalent widths demonstrate that these transitions trace the same atomic gas. The absorption lines are present toward both disk and diskless young stellar objects, which excludes cold gas within the circumstellar disk as the absorbing material. A comparison of Na i and CO detections and peak centroids demonstrates that the atomic gas and molecular gas are not co-located, the atomic gas being more extended than the molecular gas. The width of the atomic lines corroborates this finding and points to atomic gas about an order of magnitude warmer than the molecular gas. The distribution of Na i radial velocities shows a clear spatial gradient along the length of the Taurus molecular cloud filaments. This suggests that absorption is associated with the Taurus molecular cloud. Assuming that the gradient is due to cloud rotation, the rotation of the atomic gas is consistent with differential galactic rotation, whereas the rotation of the molecular gas, although with the same rotation axis, is retrograde. Our analysis shows that narrow Na i and K i absorption resonance lines are useful tracers of the atomic envelope of molecular clouds. In line with recent findings from giant molecular clouds, our results demonstrate that the velocity fields of the atomic and molecular gas are misaligned. The angular momentum of a molecular cloud is not simply inherited from the rotating Galactic disk from which it formed but may be redistributed by cloud–cloud interactions.

  9. Evaluation of trace elements contamination in cloud/fog water at an elevated mountain site in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-huan; Wai, Ka-ming; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Peng-hui; Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng-ju; Wang, Wen-xing

    2012-07-01

    Totally 117 cloud/fog water samples were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534m a.s.l.)-the highest mountain in the Northern China Plain. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including back trajectory model, regional air quality and dust storm models, satellite observations and Principal Component Analysis. Elemental concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with stringent quality control measures. Higher elemental concentrations were found at Mt. Tai compared with those reported by other overseas studies. The larger proportions and higher concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and As in cloud/fog water compared with those in rainwater at Mt. Tai suggests higher potential hazards of cloud/fog water as a source of contamination in polluted areas to the ecosystem. Peak concentrations of trace elements were frequently observed during the onset of cloud/fog events when liquid water contents of cloud/fog water were usually low and large amount of pollutants were accumulated in the ambient air. Inverse relationship between elemental concentrations and liquid water contents were only found in the samples with high electrical conductivities and liquid water contents lower than 0.3gm(-3). Affected mainly by the emissions of steel industries and mining activities, air masses transported from south/southwest of Mt. Tai were frequently associated with higher elemental concentrations. The element Mn is attributed to play an important role in the acidity of cloud/fog water. The composition of cloud/fog water influenced by an Asian dust storm event was reported, which was seldom found in the literature. PMID:22503636

  10. Evaluation of trace elements contamination in cloud/fog water at an elevated mountain site in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-huan; Wai, Ka-ming; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Peng-hui; Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng-ju; Wang, Wen-xing

    2012-07-01

    Totally 117 cloud/fog water samples were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534m a.s.l.)-the highest mountain in the Northern China Plain. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including back trajectory model, regional air quality and dust storm models, satellite observations and Principal Component Analysis. Elemental concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with stringent quality control measures. Higher elemental concentrations were found at Mt. Tai compared with those reported by other overseas studies. The larger proportions and higher concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and As in cloud/fog water compared with those in rainwater at Mt. Tai suggests higher potential hazards of cloud/fog water as a source of contamination in polluted areas to the ecosystem. Peak concentrations of trace elements were frequently observed during the onset of cloud/fog events when liquid water contents of cloud/fog water were usually low and large amount of pollutants were accumulated in the ambient air. Inverse relationship between elemental concentrations and liquid water contents were only found in the samples with high electrical conductivities and liquid water contents lower than 0.3gm(-3). Affected mainly by the emissions of steel industries and mining activities, air masses transported from south/southwest of Mt. Tai were frequently associated with higher elemental concentrations. The element Mn is attributed to play an important role in the acidity of cloud/fog water. The composition of cloud/fog water influenced by an Asian dust storm event was reported, which was seldom found in the literature.

  11. Aerosol, Cloud and Trace Gas Observations Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Radiance and Direct Beam Measurements in Recent Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    The AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) ground-based suite of sunphotometers provides measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), precipitable water and spectral sky radiance, which can be inverted to retrieve aerosol microphysical properties that are critical to assessments of aerosol-climate interactions. Because of data quality criteria and sampling constraints, there are significant limitations to the temporal and spatial coverage of AERONET data and their representativeness for global aerosol conditions. The 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument, jointly developed by NASA Ames and PNNL with NASA Goddard collaboration, combines airborne sun tracking and AERONET-like sky scanning with spectroscopic detection. Being an airborne instrument, 4STAR has the potential to fill gaps in the AERONET data set. Dunagan et al. [2013] present results establishing the performance of the instrument, along with calibration, engineering flight test, and preliminary scientific field data. The 4STAR instrument operated successfully in the SEAC4RS [Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys] experiment in Aug./Sep. 2013 aboard the NASA DC-8 and in the DoE [Department of Energy]-sponsored TCAP [Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013] experiment aboard the DoE G-1 aircraft (Shinozuka et al., 2013), and acquired a wealth of data in support of mission objectives on all SEAC4RS and TCAP research flights. 4STAR provided direct beam measurements of hyperspectral AOD, columnar trace gas retrievals (H2O, O3, NO2; Segal-Rosenheimer et al., 2014), and the first ever airborne hyperspectral sky radiance scans, which can be inverted to yield the same products as AERONET ground-based observations. In addition, 4STAR measured zenith radiances underneath cloud decks for retrievals of cloud optical depth and effective diameter. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the new

  12. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-01

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is anticipated

  13. Reddening and age of six poorly studied star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, J. H.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Benítez-Llambay, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: To increase the number of studied star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (λ = 3700-6800 Å) for six poorly studied LMC SCs of IVA type. This type corresponds to the age range between 200 and 400 Myr. We also aim at creating a new template spectrum representative of this age range at the metallicity level of the LMC. Methods: Foreground reddening E(B - V) values and ages are derived by applying the template matching method that consists of comparing the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties. The equivalent width (EW) of the Balmer lines and the diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines were also employed as age indicators. Results: For the first time, we provide estimates of the clusters' reddenings and ages. As expected, all the clusters appear to be of nearly the same age, their mean value being (400 ± 100) Myr, while the resulting mean E(B - V) values range between 0.00 and 0.10 mag. Conclusions: The present cluster sample complements previous ones in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. By averaging the reddening-corrected integrated spectra, weighted by their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), a new high S/N template spectrum of 400 Myr has been created. Integrated spectra for each star cluster are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A49

  14. Investigation of analytical performance for rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction of trace amounts of copper combined with spectrophotometric determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaodong; Ye, Liqing; Deng, Qingwen; Peng, Li

    2011-12-01

    In this work, an improved preconcentration method named as rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was established for copper preconcentration and determination. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) was used as extractant. Octanol worked as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent, which successfully decreased the cloud point temperature (CPT) of TX-100 to realize the room temperature (about 20 °C) CPE without heating. The established RS-CPE pretreatment was simple, rapid and effective. Compared with traditional CPE (about 40 min for heating, incubation and cooling), the extraction time of the proposed method was very short (1 min). The improved extraction technique RS-CPE was combined with traditional spectrophotometer to improve the analytical performance and expand the application of spectrophotometric determination. The influence factors relevant to RS-CPE, such as concentrations of TX-100 and octanol, concentration of chelating agent, pH, conditions of phase separation, salt effect, environmental temperature and instrumental conditions, were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for copper was 0.4 μg L -1, with sensitivity enhancement factor (EF) of 18. The proposed method was applied to the determination of trace copper in real samples and certified samples with satisfactory analytical results.

  15. Comparison of rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction and ultrasound-assisted cloud point extraction for trace selenium coupled with spectrophotometric determination.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yanyan; Li, Chunyan; Fang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaocan

    2014-04-01

    In this work, rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) and ultrasound-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) were firstly compared and coupled with spectrophotometer for selenium preconcentration and detection. The established RS-CPE pretreatment was simple, rapid and high effective. The extraction time was only 1min without heating process. Under the effect of ultrasound, UA-CPE accomplished extraction efficiently although the extraction procedure was relatively time-consuming. In this study, RS-CPE and UA-CPE were firstly applied for selenium preconcentration and coupled with conventional spectrophotometer. Their applications were expanded and the analytical performance of spectrophotometric determination for selenium was considerably improved. The influence factors relevant to RS-CPE and UA-CPE were studied in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) for selenium were respectively 0.2μgL(-1) of RS-CPE and 0.3μgL(-1) of UA-CPE with sensitivity enhancement factors (EFs) of 124 and 103. The developed methods were applied to the determination of trace selenium in real water samples with satisfactory analytical results.

  16. Implementation of Cloud Retrievals for Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Atmospheric Retrievals: Part 1. Description and Characterization of Errors on Trace Gas Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulawik, Susan S.; Worden, John; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin; Gunson, Michael; Osterman, Gregory B.; Zhang, Lin; Clough, Shepard A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Beer, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    We develop an approach to estimate and characterize trace gas retrievals in the presence of clouds in high spectral measurements of upwelling radiance in the infrared spectral region (650-2260/cm). The radiance contribution of clouds is parameterized in terms of a set of frequency-dependent nonscattering optical depths and a cloud height. These cloud parameters are retrieved jointly with surface temperature, emissivity, atmospheric temperature, and trace gases such as ozone from spectral data. We demonstrate the application of this approach using data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and test data simulated with a scattering radiative transfer model. We show the value of this approach in that it results in accurate estimates of errors for trace gas retrievals, and the retrieved values improve over the initial guess for a wide range of cloud conditions. Comparisons are made between TES retrievals of ozone, temperature, and water to model fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), temperature retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), tropospheric ozone columns from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) GEOS-Chem, and ozone retrievals from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). In each of these cases, this cloud retrieval approach does not introduce observable biases into TES retrievals.

  17. Determination of trace mercury species by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiting; Chen, Jianguo; Jin, Xianzhong; Wei, Danyi

    2009-12-30

    A sensitive method for speciation analysis of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) and methyl mercury (MeHg(+)) has been developed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after cloud point extraction. The analytes were complexed with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) and preconcentrated by a non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. Mercury species were effectively separated by HPLC in less than 6 min. The enhancement factors for 25 mL sample solution were 42 and 21, and the limits of detection were 4 and 10 ng L(-1) for Hg(2+) and MeHg(+), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amount of mercury species in environmental and biological samples.

  18. TRACING THE MAGNETIC FIELD MORPHOLOGY OF THE LUPUS I MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, G. A. P.; Alves, F. O. E-mail: falves@mpe.mpg.de

    2015-07-01

    Deep R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for fields with lines of sight toward the Lupus I molecular cloud is used to investigate the properties of the magnetic field within this molecular cloud. The observed sample contains about 7000 stars, almost 2000 of them with a polarization signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5. These data cover almost the entire main molecular cloud and also sample two diffuse infrared patches in the neighborhood of Lupus I. The large-scale pattern of the plane-of-sky projection of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the main axis of Lupus I, but parallel to the two diffuse infrared patches. A detailed analysis of our polarization data combined with the Herschel/SPIRE 350 μm dust emission map shows that the principal filament of Lupus I is constituted by three main clumps that are acted on by magnetic fields that have different large-scale structural properties. These differences may be the reason for the observed distribution of pre- and protostellar objects along the molecular cloud and the cloud’s apparent evolutionary stage. On the other hand, assuming that the magnetic field is composed of large-scale and turbulent components, we find that the latter is rather similar in all three clumps. The estimated plane-of-sky component of the large-scale magnetic field ranges from about 70 to 200 μG in these clumps. The intensity increases toward the Galactic plane. The mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is much smaller than unity, implying that Lupus I is magnetically supported on large scales.

  19. Tracing the Magnetic Field Morphology of the Lupus I Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, G. A. P.; Alves, F. O.

    2015-07-01

    Deep R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for fields with lines of sight toward the Lupus I molecular cloud is used to investigate the properties of the magnetic field within this molecular cloud. The observed sample contains about 7000 stars, almost 2000 of them with a polarization signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5. These data cover almost the entire main molecular cloud and also sample two diffuse infrared patches in the neighborhood of Lupus I. The large-scale pattern of the plane-of-sky projection of the magnetic field is perpendicular to the main axis of Lupus I, but parallel to the two diffuse infrared patches. A detailed analysis of our polarization data combined with the Herschel/SPIRE 350 μm dust emission map shows that the principal filament of Lupus I is constituted by three main clumps that are acted on by magnetic fields that have different large-scale structural properties. These differences may be the reason for the observed distribution of pre- and protostellar objects along the molecular cloud and the cloud’s apparent evolutionary stage. On the other hand, assuming that the magnetic field is composed of large-scale and turbulent components, we find that the latter is rather similar in all three clumps. The estimated plane-of-sky component of the large-scale magnetic field ranges from about 70 to 200 μG in these clumps. The intensity increases toward the Galactic plane. The mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is much smaller than unity, implying that Lupus I is magnetically supported on large scales. Based on observations collected at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (LNA/MCTI, Brazil).

  20. Cloud point extraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry method for preconcentration and determination of trace cadmium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jinyan; Jiao, Yang; Zhao, Jiao; Meng, Lifen; Yang, Yaling

    2014-01-01

    A method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) separation/preconcentration of trace cadmium (Cd) as a prior step to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry has been developed. Cadmium reacted with 8-hydroxyquinoline to form hydrophobic chelates, which were extracted into the micelles of nonionic surfactant oligoethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (Genapol X-080) in an alkaline medium. Octanol was used to depress the cloud point of Genapol X-080 in the extraction process. The chemical variables that affect the CPE, such as pH of complexation reaction, amount of chelating agent, Genapol X-080 and octanol were evaluated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, linearity was obeyed in the range of 10-500 μg/L, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9993. For 5 mL of sample solution, the enhancement factor was about 20. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were 0.21 and 0.63 μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n = 6) was 3.2% for a solution containing 100 μg/L of Cd. The accuracy of the preconcentration system was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked water samples. Recoveries of spiked samples varied in the range of 94.1-103.8%.

  1. Cloud point extraction for trace inorganic arsenic speciation analysis in water samples by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shan; Wang, Mei; Zhong, Yizhou; Zhang, Zehua; Yang, Bingyi

    2015-09-01

    A new cloud point extraction technique was established and used for the determination of trace inorganic arsenic species in water samples combined with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HGAFS). As(III) and As(V) were complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and molybdate, respectively. The complexes were quantitatively extracted with the non-ionic surfactant (Triton X-114) by centrifugation. After addition of antifoam, the surfactant-rich phase containing As(III) was diluted with 5% HCl for HGAFS determination. For As(V) determination, 50% HCl was added to the surfactant-rich phase, and the mixture was placed in an ultrasonic bath at 70 °C for 30 min. As(V) was reduced to As(III) with thiourea-ascorbic acid solution, followed by HGAFS. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detection of 0.009 and 0.012 μg/L were obtained for As(III) and As(V), respectively. Concentration factors of 9.3 and 7.9, respectively, were obtained for a 50 mL sample. The precisions were 2.1% for As(III) and 2.3% for As(V). The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of trace As(III) and As(V) in water samples, with satisfactory recoveries.

  2. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Hayzoun, H; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Lenoble, V; Le Poupon, C; Angeletti, B; Ouammou, A; Mounier, S

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status.

  3. Mid-J CO Shock Tracing Observations of Infrared Dark Clouds. III. SLED Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pon, A.; Kaufman, M. J.; Johnstone, D.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Butler, M. J.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Palau, A.; Tan, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Giant molecular clouds contain supersonic turbulence that can locally heat small fractions of gas to over 100 K. We run shock models for low-velocity, C-type shocks propagating into gas with densities between 103 and 105 cm-3 and find that CO lines are the most important cooling lines. Comparison to photodissociation region (PDR) models indicates that mid-J CO lines (J = 8 \\to 7 and higher) should be dominated by emission from shocked gas. In Papers I and II we presented CO J = 3 \\to 2, 8 \\to 7, and 9 \\to 8 observations toward four primarily quiescent clumps within infrared dark clouds. Here we fit PDR models to the combined spectral line energy distributions and show that the PDR models that best fit the low-J CO emission underpredict the mid-J CO emission by orders of magnitude, strongly hinting at a hot gas component within these clumps. The low-J CO data clearly show that the integrated intensities of both the CO J = 8 \\to 7 and 9 \\to 8 lines are anomalously high, such that the line ratio can be used to characterize the hot gas component. Shock models are reasonably consistent with the observed mid-J CO emission, with models with densities near {10}4.5 cm-3 providing the best agreement. Where this mid-J CO is detected, the mean volume filling factor of the hot gas is 0.1%. Much of the observed mid-J CO emission, however, is also associated with known protostars and may be due to protostellar feedback.

  4. Use of incident and reflected solar particle beams to trace the topology of magnetic clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O.; Tan, L.; Reames, D.; Ng, C.; Wang, L.; Dorrian, G.

    2012-04-01

    Occasionally, large solar energetic particle (SEP) events occur inside magnetic clouds (MCs). In this work the onset time analysis, the peak intensity analysis, and the decay phase analysis of SEPs are used to investigate two large SEP events inside MCs: the 1998 May 2 and 2002 April 21 events. The onset time analysis of non-relativistic electrons and ~MeVnucleon-1 heavy ions exhibits the stability of the magnetic loop structure during a period of a few hours in the events examined. The joint analysis of pitch-angle distributions (PADs) and peak intensities of electrons indicates that in the April event the reflected particles with nearly zero pitch-angle at 1 AU could reach the vicinity of the Sun, implying that the magnetic loop was a magnetic bottle connected to the Sun with both legs. In contrast, in the May event the magnetic mirror was formed by a compressed field enhancement behind the interplanetary shock driven by a preceding coronal mass ejection, being consistent with its open field line topology. We have also measured the anisotropy characteristic of SEPs in the solar wind frame. At the MC boundary the PADs of both non-relativistic electrons and ~MeVnucleon-1 heavy ions are nearly isotropic, suggesting a diffusive transport environment of SEPs there. This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252)

  5. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore » cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it

  6. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is

  7. Ray tracing to study of waxes around the cloud point by optical absorption tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Alvarez, L.; Meneses-Fabian, C.; Herrera, J. N.; Rodríguez-Zurita, G.

    2011-10-01

    In optical tomography of parallel projections, the light rays that cross the slice of the object are experimentally approached to suffer minimal refraction, i.e. take refractional limits. Generally, a media is used for immersion whose refractive index rate tied the environment to study, but the geometry of the containment vessels also affects refraction and may be the case that the approach is not subject performed. In this work we make a numerical study of the refraction of a ray of light that enters a typical experimental system for studying the thermodynamic behaviour of a paraffinic wax around their cloud point. Since it has special properties in the heat capacity and refractive index near the phase transition, these results will be used to characterize the transition and is intended to give tomographic information to the study of thermal properties obtained using the T-History calorimetric technique. In this study, we simulate the behaviour of the refraction of parallel rays crossing the T-History test system to find the optimal values of the dimensions of the containment vessels and the index of refraction of the medium for immersion, considering that the optical properties of the sample under study vary with temperature. Thus, we obtain the optimum conditions of minimum refraction technique for which reconstruction of a tomographic slice parallel projection can be applied. The distribution of the linear attenuation coefficient on the slice of the object, typically, is obtained by applying the filtered backprojection algorithm to the set of projections (sinogram) obtained experimentally, which constitutes a way to detect mobile interfacial boundaries in real time. The projections are sequentially measuring the intensity of the wave emerging from the slice of the object at different angles.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium content in parenteral solutions by combined cloud point preconcentration-flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Sombra, L; Luconi, M; Silva, M F; Olsina, R A; Fernandez, L

    2001-07-01

    A cloud point preconcentration and flow injection (FI) analysis methodology for aluminium(III) determination has been developed. The analyte in the initial aqueous solution was complexed with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) in the presence of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BDTAC). The absorption spectroscopic characteristics of the ternary complex [Al(III)-CAS-BDTAC] were examined in detail. The preconcentration step was carried out by means of the non-ionic surfactant polyethylene glycol p-nonylphenyl ether (PONPE 7.5). The enriched analyte solution was injected into an FI system using an HPLC pump. The chemical variables affecting the analytical performance of the combined methodology were studied and optimised. The developed approach was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in parenteral solutions without previous treatment. Under the optimum experimental conditions, 99.9% extraction was achieved for a preconcentration factor of 50. The limit of detection was 1.12 x 10(-7) mol(-1). The calibration plot was linear over at least two orders of magnitude of aluminium concentration. The developed coupled methodology, which thoroughly satisfies the typical requirements for pharmaceutical control processes, is appropriate for monitoring the aluminium concentration in parenteral nutrition.

  9. The Magnetic Field of the L1544 Starless Dark Cloud, Traced Using Near-Infrared Background Starlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Goldsmith, Paul; Tassis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    What roles do interstellar magnetic fields play in star formation processes? We have studied the B-field of L1544, a dark cloud with a starless dense core showing active gas infall, and located only 140 pc away in Taurus, via deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging polarimetry with the Mimir instrument. We find the B-field orientations in the plane of the sky change significantly at L1544, mimicking its shape and extent. The elongated spine of L1544 is also where the dispersion of NIR linear polarization position angles is smallest, suggesting strengthening of the B-field. Archival WISE, SCUPOL, Herschel, and Planck data were analyzed to characterize dust extinction and emission across L1544 and the field around it. Three-dimensional modeling, constrained through matching two-dimensional integrated model properties to observed dust distributions, led us to develop maps of effective gas mass densities and non-thermal gas velocity dispersions. These were combined with the NIR polarimetry, under the Chandrasekhar & Fermi (1953) approach, to yield a map of B-field strength across the entire 400 sq-arcmin region surveyed. The trends of B-field strength with gas volume density, mass-to-flux ratio with radius, and plane-of-sky B-field strengths with Zeeman-traced line-of-sight B-field strengths were found and compared to previous published work to establish the role of B-fields in L1544. We find field strengths in the 3 - 30 uG range, quite similar to the OH Zeeman values found by Crutcher et al. (2009) for L1544.This work was partially supported by grants to Boston University from NSF (AST-0907790, 1412269) and NASA (NNX15AE51G).

  10. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO2(2+)-Sal1] and [UO2(2+)-Sal2]. Among them, [UO2(2+)-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO2(2+)-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO2(2+)-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57ngmL(-1), the linear regression equation was ΔF=438.0 c (ngmL(-1))+175.6 with the correlation coefficient r=0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066ngmL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed.

  11. A new laboratory facility to study the interactions of aerosols, cloud droplets/ice crystals, and trace gases in a turbulent environment: The Π Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, W. H., II; Chang, K.; Ciochetto, D.; Niedermeier, D.; Bench, J.; Shaw, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A detailed understanding of gas-aerosol-cloud interaction within the turbulent atmosphere is of prime importance for an accurate understanding of Earth's climate system. As one example: While every cloud droplet began as an aerosol particle, not every aerosol particle becomes a cloud droplet. The particle to droplet transformation requires that the particle be exposed to some critical concentration of water vapor, which differs for different combinations of particle size and chemical composition. Similarly, the formation of ice particles in mixed phase clouds is also catalyzed by aerosol particles. Even in the simplest scenarios it is challenging to gain a full understanding of the aerosol activation and ice nucleation processes. At least two other factors contribute significantly to the complexity observed in the atmosphere. First, aerosols and cloud particles are not static entities, but are continuously interacting with their chemical environment, and therefore changing in their properties. Second, clouds are ubiquitously turbulent, so thermodynamic and compositional variables, such as water vapor or other trace gas concentrations, fluctuate in space and time. Indeed, the coupling between turbulence and microphysical processes is one of the major research challenges in cloud physics. We have developed a multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, (dubbed the Π Chamber, after the internal volume of 3.14 cubic meters) designed to address the problems outlined above. It is capable of pressures ranging from sea level to ~ 100 mbar, and can sustain temperatures of +40 to -55 ºC. We can independently control the temperatures on the surfaces of three heat transfer zones. This allows us to establish a temperature gradient between the floor and ceiling inducing Rayleigh-Benard convection and inducing a turbulent environment. Interior surfaces are electropolished stainless steel to facilitate cleaning before and after chemistry experiments. At present, supporting

  12. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  13. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples. PMID:23657452

  14. Laser induced-thermal lens spectrometry after cloud point extraction for the determination of trace amounts of palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokoufi, N.; Shemirani, F.; Shokoufi, M.

    2009-10-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) in combination with thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) has been developed for the preconcentration and determination of palladium. TLS and CPE methods have good matching conditions for the combination because TLS is a suitable method for the analysis of low volume samples obtained after CPE. Palladium was complexed with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) as a complexing agent in an aqueous medium and concentrated by octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) as a surfactant. After the phase separation at 60 °C based on the cloud point extraction of the mixture, the surfactant-rich phase was dried and the remaining phase was dissolved using 20 μL of carbon tetrachloride. The obtained solution was introduced into a quartz microcell and the analyte was determined by laser induced-thermal lens spectrometry (LI-TLS). The single-laser TLS was used as a sensitive method for the determination of palladium-PAN complex in 20 μL of the sample. Under optimum conditions, the analytical curve was linear for the concentration range of 0.3-60 ng mL -1 and the detection limit was 0.04 ng mL -1. The enhancement factor of 460 was achieved for 10 mL samples containing the analyte and relative standard deviations were lower than 5%. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of palladium in water samples.

  15. Assessment of the Accuracy of the Conventional Ray-Tracing Technique: Implications in Remote Sensing and Radiative Transfer Involving Ice Clouds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Lei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations involving ice clouds is the ability to compute accurate optical properties for individual ice particles. While relatively simple and intuitively appealing, the conventional geometric-optics method (CGOM) is used frequently for the solution of light scattering by ice crystals. Due to the approximations in the ray-tracing technique, the CGOM accuracy is not well quantified. The result is that the uncertainties are introduced that can impact many applications. Improvements in the Invariant Imbedding T-matrix method (II-TM) and the Improved Geometric-Optics Method (IGOM) provide a mechanism to assess the aforementioned uncertainties. The results computed by the II-TMþIGOM are considered as a benchmark because the IITM solves Maxwell's equations from first principles and is applicable to particle size parameters ranging into the domain at which the IGOM has reasonable accuracy. To assess the uncertainties with the CGOM in remote sensing and radiative transfer simulations, two independent optical property datasets of hexagonal columns are developed for sensitivity studies by using the CGOM and the II-TMþIGOM, respectively. Ice cloud bulk optical properties obtained from the two datasets are compared and subsequently applied to retrieve the optical thickness and effective diameter from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements. Additionally, the bulk optical properties are tested in broadband radiative transfer (RT) simulations using the general circulation model (GCM) version of the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTMG) that is adopted in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM, version 5.1). For MODIS retrievals, the mean bias of uncertainties of applying the CGOM in shortwave bands (0.86 and 2.13 micrometers) can be up to 5% in the optical thickness and as high as 20% in the effective diameter, depending on cloud optical

  16. Determination of trace inorganic mercury species in water samples by cloud point extraction and UV-vis spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Halil Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    A new micelle-mediated extraction method was developed for preconcentration of ultratrace Hg(II) ions prior to spectrophotometric determination. 2-(2'-Thiazolylazo)-p-cresol (TAC) and Ponpe 7.5 were used as the chelating agent and nonionic surfactant, respectively. Hg(II) ions form a hydrophobic complex with TAC in a micelle medium. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of the medium, concentrations of TAC and Ponpe 7.5, and equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An overall preconcentration factor of 33.3 was obtained upon preconcentration of a 50 mL sample. The LOD obtained under the optimal conditions was 0.86 microg/L, and the RSD for five replicate measurements of 100 microg/L Hg(II) was 3.12%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg in environmental water samples.

  17. Determination of trace elements in water samples by ultrasonic nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cloud point extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita da Silva, Márcia Andreia; Azzolin Frescura, Vera Lúcia; Curtius, Adilson José

    2000-07-01

    A preconcentration method for low concentrations of Ag, As, Au, Cd, Cu, Pb and Se in water, using cloud point extraction is proposed. The analytes in the initial aqueous solution, acidified with hydrochloric acid, are complexed with ammonium O, O-diethyl-dithiophosphate, and 0.05% m/v Triton X-114 is added as surfactant. The complexation allows the separation of the analytes from alkali, alkaline earth and other elements, which are not complexed. After phase separation, by increasing the temperature above 20°C, depending on the cloud point of the mixture, and dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with a mixture of 60% v/v methanol and 40% v/v of 1% v/v aqueous nitric acid solution, the enriched analytes are determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, using ultrasonic nebulization, injecting 100 μl of the enriched phase with a flow injection (FI) system. Since the initial volume is 40 ml and the final volume is 1 ml, good enrichment factors are obtained. After optimization of the complexation (pH and DDTP concentration), of extraction conditions, sample introduction (FI and ultrasonic nebulizer parameters) and spectrometer conditions, the method was applied to the analysis of riverine water, sea water and enriched water reference materials, and good agreement with the certified values was obtained. By introducing the organic extract with the FI system and using ultrasonic nebulization, no carbon deposits on the interface cones and lens were observed, allowing extensive use of the spectrometer without cleaning and re-optimization.

  18. Origins of the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy as traced by the elemental abundances of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruchti, Gregory Randal

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the formation and evolution of disks in galaxies in the early universe is very important for understanding the forms of galaxies today. Recent studies of the Milky Way Galaxy, an ideal galaxy for analyzing individual stars within its disk, indicate that the formation of the Galactic disk is very complex. Most of these studies, however, contain very few stars at low metallicities. Metal-poor stars are important, because they are potential survivors of the earliest star formation in the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy. I therefore measured elemental abundances of a statistically significant sample of metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≲ - 1.0) stars in the disk of the Galaxy, chosen from the RAVE survey in order to study the early formation history of the Galactic disk. I report on a sample of 214 red giant branch, 31 red clump/horizontal branch, and 74 dwarf/sub-giant metal-poor thick-disk candidate stars. I found that the [alpha/Fe] ratios are enhanced implying that enrichment proceeded by purely core-collapse supernovae. This requires that star formation in each star forming region had a short duration. The relative lack of scatter in the [alpha/Fe] ratios implies good mixing in the interstellar medium prior to star formation. In addition, the ratios resemble that of the halo, indicating that the halo and thick disk share a similar massive star initial mass function. I further looked for radial or vertical gradients in metallicity or alpha-enhancement for the metal-poor thick disk, never before done for such a sample. I found no radial gradient and a moderate vertical gradient in my derived iron abundance, and only minimal-amplitude gradients in [alpha/Fe]. In addition, I show that the distribution of orbital eccentricities for my metal-poor thick-disk stars requires that the thick disk was formed primarily in situ, with direct accretion being extremely minimal. I conclude that the alpha-enhancement of the metal-poor thick disk, and the lack of obvious radial or

  19. Integrated ray tracing simulation of annual variation of spectral bio-signatures from cloud free 3D optical Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongok; Kim, Sug-Whan; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Hanshin; Park, Won Hyun; Seong, Sehyun; Ham, Sun-Jeong

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the Earth spectral bio-signatures provides an important reference datum for accurate de-convolution of collapsed spectral signals from potential earth-like planets of other star systems. This study presents a new ray tracing computation method including an improved 3D optical earth model constructed with the coastal line and vegetation distribution data from the Global Ecological Zone (GEZ) map. Using non-Lambertian bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) models, the input earth surface model is characterized with three different scattering properties and their annual variations depending on monthly changes in vegetation distribution, sea ice coverage and illumination angle. The input atmosphere model consists of one layer with Rayleigh scattering model from the sea level to 100 km in altitude and its radiative transfer characteristics is computed for four seasons using the SMART codes. The ocean scattering model is a combination of sun-glint scattering and Lambertian scattering models. The land surface scattering is defined with the semi empirical parametric kernel method used for MODIS and POLDER missions. These three component models were integrated into the final Earth model that was then incorporated into the in-house built integrated ray tracing (IRT) model capable of computing both spectral imaging and radiative transfer performance of a hypothetical space instrument as it observes the Earth from its designated orbit. The IRT model simulation inputs include variation in earth orientation, illuminated phases, and seasonal sea ice and vegetation distribution. The trial simulation runs result in the annual variations in phase dependent disk averaged spectra (DAS) and its associated bio-signatures such as NDVI. The full computational details are presented together with the resulting annual variation in DAS and its associated bio-signatures.

  20. Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) Upgrade to Full Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry Capability for Airborne Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunagan, S. E.; Flynn, C. J.; Johnson, R. R.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Spectrometers for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR) instrument has been developed at NASA Ames in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and NASA Goddard, supported substantially since 2009 by NASA's Radiation Science Program and Earth Science Technology Office. It combines grating spectrometers with fiber optic links to a tracking, scanning head to enable sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith viewing. 4STAR builds on the long and productive heritage of the NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers (AATS-6 and -14), which have yielded more than 100 peer-reviewed publications and extensive archived data sets in many NASA Airborne Science campaigns from 1986 to the present. The baseline 4STAR instrument has provided extensive data supporting the TCAP (Two Column Aerosol Project, July 2012 & Feb. 2013), SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys, 2013), and ARISE (Arctic Radiation - IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment, 2014), field campaigns.This poster presents plans and progress for an upgrade to the 4STAR instrument to achieve full science capability, including (1) direct-beam sun tracking measurements to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (2) sky radiance measurements to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index and mode-resolved size distribution), (3) cloud properties via zenith radiance, and (4) trace gas spectrometry. Technical progress in context with the governing physics is reported on several upgrades directed at improved light collection and usage, particularly as related to spectrally and radiometrically stable propagation through the collection light path. In addition, improvements to field calibration and verification, and flight operability and reliability are addressed.

  1. Use of cloud-point preconcentration for spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of antimony in biological and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    El-Sharjawy, Abdel-Azeem M; Amin, Alaa S

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a cloud-point extraction process using the micelle-mediated extraction method for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of Sb(III) and Sb(V) species in biological and environmental samples as a prior preconcentration step to their spectrophotometric determination. The analytical system is based on the selective reaction between Sb(III) and 3-dichloro-6-(3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCHNAQ) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and potassium iodide at pH 4.5. Total Sb concentration was determined after reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in the presence of potassium iodide and ascorbic acid. The optimal reaction conditions and extraction were studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limits of detection and quantification, linear range, preconcentration, improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity for Sb(III) was obeyed in the range of 0.2-20 ng ml(-1). The detection and quantification limits for the determination of Sb(III) were 0.055 and 0.185 ng ml(-1), respectively. The method has a lower detection limit and wider linear range, inexpensive instrument, and low cost, and is more sensitive compared with most other methods. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also studied. The method was applied to the determination of Sb(III) in the presence of Sb(V) and total antimony in blood plasma, urine, biological, and water samples.

  2. Cloud-point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace quantities of copper in food, water and biological samples.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ayman A; Amin, Alaa S

    2014-01-01

    A new, simple and sensitive cloud point extraction procedure was presented for the preconcentration and determination of copper(II) ion in food, water and biological samples. The analyte was complexed with a new synthesized reagent, 2-amino-4-(m-tolylazo)pyridine-3-ol (ATAP) as a new complexing agent and Triton X-114 as the surfactant. After centrifugation, dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with 0.4 mL of ethanol acidified with 1.0M HNO3 was performed after phase separation, and the copper contents were measured by spectrophotometry at λmax 608 nm. The influence of analytical parameters including concentration of complexing agent, Triton X-114, pH, equilibration temperature and time, centrifuge rate and time were optimized. The analytical characteristics of the method (e.g. linear range, molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, optimum Ringbom concentration ranges limits of detection and quantification, preconcentration factor, and improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 4.0-115 ng mL(-1) of Cu(II) ion. The detection and quantification limits of the method were 1.20 and 3.94 ng mL(-1) of Cu(II) ion, respectively. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied for determination of copper in food, water and biological samples.

  3. Trace Gas Measurements in Nascent, Aged and Cloud-processed Smoke from Africa Savanna Fires by Airborne Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (AFTIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokelson, Robert J.; Bertschi, Isaac T.; Christian, Ted J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Ward, Darold E.; Hao, Wei Min

    2003-01-01

    We measured stable and reactive trace gases with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR) on the University of Washington Convair-580 research aircraft in August/September 2000 during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign in Southern Africa. The measurements included vertical profiles of C02, CO, H20, and CH4 up to 5.5 km on six occasions above instrumented ground sites and below the TERRA satellite and ER-2 high-flying research aircraft. We also measured the trace gas emissions from 10 African savanna fires. Five of these fires featured extensive ground-based fuel characterization, and two were in the humid savanna ecosystem that accounts for most African biomass burning. The major constituents we detected in nascent CH3OOH, HCHO, CH30H, HCN, NH3, HCOOH, and C2H2. These are the first quantitative measurements of the initial emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC), NH3, and HCN from African savanna fires. On average, we measured 5.3 g/kg of OVOC and 3.6 g/kg of hydrocarbons (including CH4) in the initial emissions from the fires. Thus, the OVOC will have profound, largely unexplored effects on tropical tropospheric chemistry. The HCN emission factor was only weakly dependent on fire type; the average value (0.53 g/kg) is about 20 times that of a previous recommendation. HCN may be useful as a tracer for savanna fires. Delta O3/Delta CO and Delta CH3COO/Delta CO increased to as much as 9% in <1 h of photochemical processing downwind of fires. Direct measurements showed that cloud processing of smoke greatly reduced CH30H, NH3, CH3COOH, SO2, and NO2 levels, but significantly increased HCHO and NO.

  4. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of manganese(II) in water and food samples.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Ayman A

    2014-10-15

    A new cloud point extraction (CPE) process using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to extract manganese(II) from aqueous solution was investigated. The method is based on the complexation reaction of manganese(II) with 1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (quinalizarin) in the presence of borate buffer at pH 8.5 and micelle-mediated extraction of the complex. The enriched analyte in the surfactant-rich phase was determined by spectrophotometry at 528nm. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g. pH, reagent and surfactant concentrations, temperature and centrifugation times) were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection (LOD), linear range, preconcentration and improvement factors) were obtained. The proposed CPE method showed linear calibration within the range 5.0-200ngmL(-1) of manganese(II) and the limit of detection of the method was 0.8ngmL(-1) with an preconcentration factor of ∼50 when 25mL of sample solution was preconcentrated to 0.5mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error were found to be 1.35% and 1.42%, respectively (CMn(II)=150ngmL(-1), n=6) for pure standard solutions. The interference effect of some cations and anions was also studied. In the presence of foreign ions, no significant interference was observed. The method was applied to the determination of manganese(II) in water and food samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 95.87-102.5%.

  5. Cloud point extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amount of manganese(II) in water and food samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, Ayman A.

    2014-10-01

    A new cloud point extraction (CPE) process using the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114 to extract manganese(II) from aqueous solution was investigated. The method is based on the complexation reaction of manganese(II) with 1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (quinalizarin) in the presence of borate buffer at pH 8.5 and micelle-mediated extraction of the complex. The enriched analyte in the surfactant-rich phase was determined by spectrophotometry at 528 nm. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g. pH, reagent and surfactant concentrations, temperature and centrifugation times) were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection (LOD), linear range, preconcentration and improvement factors) were obtained. The proposed CPE method showed linear calibration within the range 5.0-200 ng mL-1 of manganese(II) and the limit of detection of the method was 0.8 ng mL-1 with an preconcentration factor of ∼50 when 25 mL of sample solution was preconcentrated to 0.5 mL. The relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error were found to be 1.35% and 1.42%, respectively (CMn(II) = 150 ng mL-1, n = 6) for pure standard solutions. The interference effect of some cations and anions was also studied. In the presence of foreign ions, no significant interference was observed. The method was applied to the determination of manganese(II) in water and food samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 95.87-102.5%.

  6. Tracing thalamo-cortical connections in tenrecA further attempt to characterize poorly differentiated neocortical regions, particularly the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Künzle, Heinz

    2009-02-01

    The hedgehog tenrec (Afrosoricidae) has a very poorly differentiated neocortex. Previously its primary sensory regions have been characterized with hodological and electrophysiological techniques. Unlike the marsupial opossum the tenrec may also have a separate motor area as far as there are cortico-spinal cells located rostral to the primary somatosensory cortex. However, not knowing its thalamic input it may be premature to correlate this area with the true (mirror-image-like) primary motor cortex in higher mammals. For this reason the tenrec's thalamo-cortical connections were studied following tracer injections into various neocortical regions. The main sensory areas were confirmed by their afferents from the principal thalamic nuclei. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, in addition, was connected with the retrosplenial area and a rostromedial visual region. Unlike the somatosensory cortex the presumed motor area did not receive afferents from the ventrobasal thalamus but fibers from the cerebello-thalamic target regions. These projections, however, were not restricted to the motor area, but involved the entire somatosensorimotor field as well as adjacent regions. The projections appeared similar to those arising in the rat thalamic ventromedial nucleus known to have a supporting function rather than a specific motor task. The question was raised whether the input from the basal ganglia might play a crucial role in the evolution of the mammalian motor cortex? Certainly, in the tenrec, the poor differentiation of the motor cortex coincides with the virtual absence of an entopeduncular projection to the ventrolateral thalamus.

  7. Assessment of trace aluminium content in parenteral solutions by combined cloud point preconcentration-flow injection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sombra, Lorena L; Luconi, Marta O; Fernández, Liliana P; Olsina, Roberto A; Silva, María F; Martínez, Luis D

    2003-01-01

    A micelle-mediated phase separation without added chelating agents to preconcentrate trace levels of aluminium in parenteral solutions as a prior step to its determination by flow injection inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The enrichment step is based on the cloud point extraction of aluminium with the non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono-p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 7.5). The chemical variables affecting the sensitivity of the extractive-spectrometric procedure were studied in detail. After optimization, a preconcentration factor of 200 and a %E higher than 99.9 were achieved. The detection limit (DL) value of aluminium for the preconcentration of 50 ml of parenteral solution was 0.25 microgl(-1). The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for aluminium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997 at levels near the DLs up to at least 200 microgl(-1). The developed hyphenated assay, which thoroughly satisfies the typical requirements for pharmaceutical control processes, is appropriate to monitor the aluminium concentration in parenteral nutrition.

  8. Cloud Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical cloud models have been developed and applied extensively to study cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. The distinctive aspect of these cloud models is their ability to treat explicitly (or resolve) cloud-scale dynamics. This requires the cloud models to be formulated from the non-hydrostatic equations of motion that explicitly include the vertical acceleration terms since the vertical and horizontal scales of convection are similar. Such models are also necessary in order to allow gravity waves, such as those triggered by clouds, to be resolved explicitly. In contrast, the hydrostatic approximation, usually applied in global or regional models, does allow the presence of gravity waves. In addition, the availability of exponentially increasing computer capabilities has resulted in time integrations increasing from hours to days, domain grids boxes (points) increasing from less than 2000 to more than 2,500,000 grid points with 500 to 1000 m resolution, and 3-D models becoming increasingly prevalent. The cloud resolving model is now at a stage where it can provide reasonably accurate statistical information of the sub-grid, cloud-resolving processes poorly parameterized in climate models and numerical prediction models.

  9. FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH- AND INTERMEDIATE-VELOCITY CLOUDS: TRACING COSMIC RAYS IN THE HALO OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Tibaldo, L.; Digel, S. W.; Franckowiak, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T. A.; Reimer, O.; Casandjian, J. M.; Grenier, I. A.; Marshall, D. J.; Strong, A. W. E-mail: digel@stanford.edu

    2015-07-10

    It is widely accepted that cosmic rays (CRs) up to at least PeV energies are Galactic in origin. Accelerated particles are injected into the interstellar medium where they propagate to the farthest reaches of the Milky Way, including a surrounding halo. The composition of CRs coming to the solar system can be measured directly and has been used to infer the details of CR propagation that are extrapolated to the whole Galaxy. In contrast, indirect methods, such as observations of γ-ray emission from CR interactions with interstellar gas, have been employed to directly probe the CR densities in distant locations throughout the Galactic plane. In this article we use 73 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range between 300 MeV and 10 GeV to search for γ-ray emission produced by CR interactions in several high- and intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) located at up to ∼7 kpc above the Galactic plane. We achieve the first detection of IVCs in γ rays and set upper limits on the emission from the remaining targets, thereby tracing the distribution of CR nuclei in the halo for the first time. We find that the γ-ray emissivity per H atom decreases with increasing distance from the plane at 97.5% confidence level. This corroborates the notion that CRs at the relevant energies originate in the Galactic disk. The emissivity of the upper intermediate-velocity Arch hints at a 50% decline of CR densities within 2 kpc from the plane. We compare our results to predictions of CR propagation models.

  10. Fermi-LAT Observations of High- and Intermediate-velocity Clouds: Tracing Cosmic Rays in the Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibaldo, L.; Digel, S. W.; Casandjian, J. M.; Franckowiak, A.; Grenier, I. A.; Jóhannesson, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T. A.; Reimer, O.; Strong, A. W.

    2015-07-01

    It is widely accepted that cosmic rays (CRs) up to at least PeV energies are Galactic in origin. Accelerated particles are injected into the interstellar medium where they propagate to the farthest reaches of the Milky Way, including a surrounding halo. The composition of CRs coming to the solar system can be measured directly and has been used to infer the details of CR propagation that are extrapolated to the whole Galaxy. In contrast, indirect methods, such as observations of γ-ray emission from CR interactions with interstellar gas, have been employed to directly probe the CR densities in distant locations throughout the Galactic plane. In this article we use 73 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the energy range between 300 MeV and 10 GeV to search for γ-ray emission produced by CR interactions in several high- and intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs) located at up to ∼7 kpc above the Galactic plane. We achieve the first detection of IVCs in γ rays and set upper limits on the emission from the remaining targets, thereby tracing the distribution of CR nuclei in the halo for the first time. We find that the γ-ray emissivity per H atom decreases with increasing distance from the plane at 97.5% confidence level. This corroborates the notion that CRs at the relevant energies originate in the Galactic disk. The emissivity of the upper intermediate-velocity Arch hints at a 50% decline of CR densities within 2 kpc from the plane. We compare our results to predictions of CR propagation models.

  11. Evaluation of a cloud point extraction approach for the preconcentration and quantification of trace CuO nanoparticles in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Kelly, Barry C; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-03-01

    The cloud point extraction (CPE) of commercial copper(II) oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs, mean diameter of 28nm) in water samples was fully investigated. Factors such as Triton X-114 (TX-114) concentration, pH, incubation temperature and time, were optimized. The effects of CuO NP behavior like agglomeration, dissolution, and surface adsorption of natural organic matter, Cu(2+), and coating chemicals, on its recovery were studied. The results indicated that all the CPE factors had significant effects on the extraction efficiency. An enrichment factor of ∼89 was obtained under optimum CPE conditions. The hydrodynamic diameter of CuO NPs increased to 4-5 μm upon agglomeration of NP-micelle assemblies, and decreased at pH >10.0 at which the extraction efficiency was also lowered. The solubility and therefore, the loss of NPs were greatly enhanced at pH <8.5 and in the first 60 min of incubation, whereas it declined at elevated incubation temperatures. Our results showed that the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >5 mg C L(-1) and Cu(2+) >2 times that of CuO NPs, lowered and enhanced the extraction efficiency, respectively. Pre-treatment of samples with 3% wv(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 10 mM of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid minimized the interferences posed by DOC and Cu(2+), respectively. The decrease in CPE efficiency was also evident for ligands like poly(ethylene glycol). The TX-114-rich phase could be determined with either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave digestion, or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits for CuO NPs were 0.02 and 0.06 μg L(-1) using these techniques, respectively. The optimum sample pre-treatment and CPE conditions were successfully applied to the river and wastewater samples. The relative recoveries of CuO NPs spiked at 5-100 μg L(-1) (as Cu) in these samples were in the range of between 59.2 and 108.2%. The approach demonstrates a robust analytical method for detecting trace

  12. Inference of cloud altitude and optical properties from MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasse, Jan-Marcus; Zielcke, Johannes; Frieß, Udo; Lampel, Johannes; König-Langlo, Gert; Platt, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a widely used technique for the detection of atmospheric trace gases, e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, HCHO, but also for the oxygen collision complex O4. The atmospheric distribution of the latter is proportional to the square of the molecular oxygen concentration and thus well known. By comparing measured O4 differential slant column densities (dSCDs) from MAX-DOAS measurements with modeled ones, information on aerosol distributions and optical properties, as well as on clouds can be obtained using an algorithm based on optimal estimation. Here the ability of MAX-DOAS observations to detect cloud altitude and cloud optical properties of different cloud covers based on measurements of O4 will be discussed. The analysis uses measurements made by a ship-borne instrument on two cruises of the German research vessel Polarstern to the Antarctic Weddell Sea from June to October 2013. During this time a broad range of cloud and aerosol conditions was encountered, in particular persistent low cloud cover with a high optical thickness. Aerosol and particle extinction profiles were retrieved with temporal resolutions of up to 15 minutes. For clouds at altitudes up to 2000 m the results show a very good agreement with co-located measurements of a commercial ceilometer and pictures from a cloud camera. Unless visibility was very poor due to fog, even rapid changes in cloud altitude or cover could be detected by MAX-DOAS. These results indicate that under homogeneous cloud cover an accurate retrieval of trace gas vertical profiles can be possible despite the strong influence of clouds on atmospheric light paths. We will discuss advantages and limitations of cloud detection with MAX-DOAS, implications for the subsequent retrieval of trace gas profiles and the possible use of external (ceilometer) data as a priori information for the profile retrieval algorithm.

  13. Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Partha; Padhan, Susanta K; Dash, Sukalyan; Patel, Sabita; Mishra, Bijay K

    2011-02-17

    A study on the phenomenon of clouding and the applications of cloud point technology has been thoroughly discussed. The phase behaviour of clouding and various methods adopted for the determination of cloud point of various surfactant systems have been elucidated. The systems containing anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants as well as microemulsions have been reviewed with respect to their clouding phenomena and the effects of structural variation in the surfactant systems have been incorporated. Additives of various natures control the clouding of surfactants. Electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, organic substances as well as ionic surfactants, when present in the surfactant solutions, play a major role in the clouding phenomena. The review includes the morphological study of clouds and their applications in the extraction of trace inorganic, organic materials as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources.

  14. Clouding behaviour in surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Partha; Padhan, Susanta K; Dash, Sukalyan; Patel, Sabita; Mishra, Bijay K

    2011-02-17

    A study on the phenomenon of clouding and the applications of cloud point technology has been thoroughly discussed. The phase behaviour of clouding and various methods adopted for the determination of cloud point of various surfactant systems have been elucidated. The systems containing anionic, cationic, nonionic surfactants as well as microemulsions have been reviewed with respect to their clouding phenomena and the effects of structural variation in the surfactant systems have been incorporated. Additives of various natures control the clouding of surfactants. Electrolytes, nonelectrolytes, organic substances as well as ionic surfactants, when present in the surfactant solutions, play a major role in the clouding phenomena. The review includes the morphological study of clouds and their applications in the extraction of trace inorganic, organic materials as well as pesticides and protein substrates from different sources. PMID:21296314

  15. Identifying Nearby Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Shah, R. Y., Jackson, J. M.; Bania, T. M.; Clemens, D. P.; Johnson, A. M.; Flynn, E.; Bonaventura, N.; Simon, R.; Meyer, M. H.

    2004-12-01

    Recent molecular surveys, such as the BU-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey, are revealing the complex structure and dynamics of clouds within the Galactic plane. Yet, difficulties often remain in separating molecular clouds along a line of sight. Identification of nearby clouds is facilitated through the combination of molecular datasets and extinction maps. Star counts at optical and infrared (IR) wavelengths indirectly trace extinction, and when morphologically similar to molecular emission, unambiguously reveal nearby clouds. Here we present the methodology and data used to separate and determine the relative distance to two molecular clouds along the same line of sight (GRSMC 45.60+0.30 and GRSMC 45.46+0.05). We use a combination of optical and near-IR star count maps (derived from the US Naval Observatory and 2MASS catalogs, respectively) and molecular data from the BU-FCRAO Galactic Ring Survey.

  16. THE IMMIGRANT POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEGALMAN, RALPH

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LIVES OF THE POOR IN AMERICA WILL SHOW DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE IMMIGRANT (AND REFUGEE) POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR (NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, LATIN AMERICANS, INDIANS, AND OTHERS). THE IMMIGRANT POOR WERE ACCULTURATED AND ABSORBED INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF AMERICAN LIFE WITHIN THREE GENERATIONS, WHEREAS THE RESIDUAL POOR HAVE BEEN…

  17. Application of dual-cloud point extraction for the trace levels of copper in serum of different viral hepatitis patients by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Abbasi, Abdul Rasool; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah; Shanker, Bhawani; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2014-12-01

    An efficient, innovative preconcentration method, dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of copper (Cu2+) in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients prior to couple with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The d-CPE procedure was based on forming complexes of elemental ions with complexing reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), and subsequent entrapping the complexes in nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Then the surfactant rich phase containing the metal complexes was treated with aqueous nitric acid solution, and metal ions were back extracted into the aqueous phase, as second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using conventional nebulization. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables for the recovery of Cu2+ using d-CPE. In optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection and the enrichment factor were 0.046 μg L-1 and 78, respectively. The validity and accuracy of proposed method were checked by analysis of Cu2+ in certified sample of serum (CRM) by d-CPE and conventional CPE procedure on same CRM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cu2+ in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients and healthy controls.

  18. Application of dual-cloud point extraction for the trace levels of copper in serum of different viral hepatitis patients by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: a multivariate study.

    PubMed

    Arain, Salma Aslam; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Abbasi, Abdul Rasool; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Naeemullah; Shanker, Bhawani; Arain, Mohammad Balal

    2014-12-10

    An efficient, innovative preconcentration method, dual-cloud point extraction (d-CPE) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of copper (Cu(2+)) in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients prior to couple with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The d-CPE procedure was based on forming complexes of elemental ions with complexing reagent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), and subsequent entrapping the complexes in nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Then the surfactant rich phase containing the metal complexes was treated with aqueous nitric acid solution, and metal ions were back extracted into the aqueous phase, as second cloud point extraction stage, and finally determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using conventional nebulization. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental variables for the recovery of Cu(2+) using d-CPE. In optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection and the enrichment factor were 0.046μgL(-1) and 78, respectively. The validity and accuracy of proposed method were checked by analysis of Cu(2+) in certified sample of serum (CRM) by d-CPE and conventional CPE procedure on same CRM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cu(2+) in serum samples of different viral hepatitis patients and healthy controls.

  19. Spectrophotometeric determination of trace amounts of Al3+ ion in water samples after cloud point extraction using quinizarin as a complexing agent.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Roghayeh

    2014-02-01

    In this study, cloud point extraction was used for the preconcentration of Al(3+) ion after the complex formation with 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (Quinizarin [QUIN]), and subsequent analysis by spectrophotometeric method, using Triton X-114 as surfactant. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions were studied (i.e., pH = 5.5, 0.1 mM QUIN, Triton X-114 = 0.1% (w/v)), and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection, linear range, preconcentration, and enrichment factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 3.33-166.67 ng ml(-1) of Al(3+) ion. The detection limit of the method was 2.09 ng ml(-1) for Al(3+) ion. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied to determine Al(3+) ion in water samples.

  20. Nonaqueous catalytic fluorometric trace determination of vanadium based on the pyronine B-hydrogen peroxide reaction and flow injection after cloud point extraction.

    PubMed

    Paleologos, E K; Koupparis, M A; Karayannis, M I; Veltsistas, P G

    2001-09-15

    The catalytic effect of vanadium on the pyronine B-H2O2 system is examined. Enhancement of the catalytic reaction rate along with the efficiency and selectivity against vanadium is achieved in a formic acid environment in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Elimination of drastic interference caused by inorganic acids and aqueous matrix along with a 50-fold preconcentration of vanadium are facilitated through cloud point extraction of its neutral complex with 8-quinolinol in an acidic solution. Subsequent flow injection analysis (FIA) with fluorometric detection renders the proposed method ideal for selective and cost-effective determination of as little as 0.020 microng L(-1) vanadium in environmental, biological, and food substrates. The preconcentration step can be applied simultaneously to multiple samples, allowing for massive preparation prior to analysis, compensating, thus, for the time-consuming procedure.

  1. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and select aldehydes in cloud and fog water: the role of the aqueous phase in impacting trace gas budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ervens, B.; Wang, Y.; Eagar, J.; Leaitch, W. R.; Macdonald, A. M.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Herckes, P.

    2013-05-01

    Cloud and fog droplets efficiently scavenge and process water-soluble compounds and, thus, modify the chemical composition of the gas and particle phases. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aqueous phase reach concentrations on the order of ~ 10 mgC L-1 which is typically on the same order of magnitude as the sum of inorganic anions. Aldehydes and carboxylic acids typically comprise a large fraction of DOC because of their high solubility. The dissolution of species in the aqueous phase can lead to (i) the removal of species from the gas phase preventing their processing by gas phase reactions (e.g., photolysis of aldehydes) and (ii) the formation of unique products that do not have any efficient gas phase sources (e.g., dicarboxylic acids). We present measurements of DOC and select aldehydes in fog water at high elevation and intercepted clouds at a biogenically-impacted location (Whistler, Canada) and in fog water in a more polluted area (Davis, CA). Concentrations of formaldehyde, glyoxal and methylglyoxal were in the micromolar range and comprised ≤ 2% each individually of the DOC. Comparison of the DOC and aldehyde concentrations to those at other locations shows good agreement and reveals highest levels for both in anthropogenically impacted regions. Based on this overview, we conclude that the fraction of organic carbon (dissolved and insoluble inclusions) in the aqueous phase of clouds or fogs, respectively, comprises 2-~ 40% of total organic carbon. Higher values are observed to be associated with aged air masses where organics are expected to be more highly oxidised and, thus, more soluble. Accordingly, the aqueous/gas partitioning ratio expressed here as an effective Henry's law constant for DOC (KH*DOC) increases by an order of magnitude from 7 × 103 M atm-1 to 7 × 104 M atm-1 during the ageing of air masses. The measurements are accompanied by photochemical box model simulations. These simulations are used to contrast two

  2. Deuteration in infrared dark clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackington, Matias; Fuller, Gary A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Garay, Guido; Peretto, Nicolas; Traficante, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Much of the dense gas in molecular clouds has a filamentary structure but the detailed structure and evolution of this gas is poorly known. We have observed 54 cores in infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) using N2H+ (1-0) and (3-2) to determine the kinematics of the densest material, where stars will form. We also observed N2D+ (3-2) towards 29 of the brightest peaks to analyse the level of deuteration which is an excellent probe of the quiescent of the early stages of star formation. There were 13 detections of N2D+ (3-2). This is one of the largest samples of IRDCs yet observed in these species. The deuteration ratio in these sources ranges between 0.003 and 0.14. For most of the sources the material traced by N2D+ and N2H+ (3-2) still has significant turbulent motions, however three objects show subthermal N2D+ velocity dispersion. Surprisingly the presence or absence of an embedded 70μm source shows no correlation with the detection of N2D+ (3-2), nor does it correlate with any change in velocity dispersion or excitation temperature. Comparison with recent models of deuteration suggest evolutionary time-scales of these regions of several free-fall times or less.

  3. Validation of AIRS Cloud Cleared Radiances Using MODIS and its Affect on QualityControl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. C.; Schreier, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) was launched aboard the AQUA satellite to provide measurements of temperature, humidity, and various trace gases in support of climate research and weather prediction. Only clear sky measurements of the outgoing radiance are used in the AIRS physical retrieval of temperature, water vapor, and certain trace gases. To overcome cloud contamination the clear sky radiance is estimated using an iterative procedure that combines an initial estimate of the clear state from a neural network along with a three by three grid of AIRS measurements. The radiance error estimate, a component critical to the AIRS physical retrieval, must include contributions from all assumed parameters input to the forward model on top of instrument noise and amplification from cloud clearing. When the error estimate is too large the AIRS physical retrieval becomes over-constrained to the first guess profile. Therefore quantifying the cloud cleared error estimate is essential to an effective physical retrieval. We will validate the cloud-cleared radiances through the use of nearby clear ocean scenes and with comparisons to clear pixels from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS). AIRS cloud cleared radiances are spectrally convolved to MODIS channels for this comparison. This analysis quantifies error due to cloud-clearing and demonstrates that clear MODIS pixels can be used with the standard AIRS quality control procedure to improve identification poor retrievals.

  4. Isotopic, major and trace element constraints on the sources of granites in an 1800-Ma-old igneous complex near St. Cloud, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    A suite of basic to granitic rocks was emplaced near St. Cloud, MN about 1800 Ma ago. These are strongly LREE enriched and were derived from LREE enriched sources. Nd-Sm systematics suggest that LREE enrichment occurred during the Early Proterozoic. Initial Pb ratios for basic rocks through granites are similar to inferred 1800 Ma old mantle Pb, and suggest sources that became U/Pb enriched during the Proterozoic or latest Archean. These sources had long-term Th/U ratios similar to inferred mantle or average crustal values. Oxygen isotopes indicate that granitic rocks incorporated a small previous crustal component. Petrogenetic modeling suggest these processes: Granodiorite represents an evolved high Mg-andesite or a partial melt of a basic precursor distinct from the nearby basic rocks. Granites and quartz monzonites were derived at temperatures of ca. 800-950 (e.g. water-undersaturated) and at 15 to 20 km depth. The sources are inferred to have been quartz saturated with respect to tholeiite. Because granites have similar isotopic histories as basic, sources of granites were ultimately derived from the mantle. REE and Nd isotope systematics allow these scenarios: (1) 40-75% of the Nd in the rocks was derived from continental crust recycled into the mantle. (2) The mantle source had a chondritic REE geochemistry but was enriched in LREE shortly before melting. (3) The rocks were in fact derived by melting a basic lower crust that included a small fraction of intercalated sedimentary rocks.

  5. Cloud-point formation based on mixed micelles for the extraction, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of beryllium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Beiraghi, Asadollah; Zarei, Ali Reza; Babaee, Saeed

    2007-05-01

    A cloud-point extraction process using a mixed micelle of the cationic surfactant cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 to extract beryllium from aqueous solutions was investigated. The method is based on the color reaction of beryllium with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) in acetate buffer and the mixed micelle-mediated extraction of the complex. This complex was concentrated in a surfactant-rich phase after separation. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g. pH, reagent and surfactant concentrations, temperature, incubation and centrifuge times) were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g. limit of detection, linear range and preconcentration factor) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 0.30 - 18 ng mL(-1) of beryllium and the detection limit of the method was 0.05 ng mL(-1). The interference effect of some cations and anions was also studied. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of beryllium in real water samples.

  6. Toward a robust analytical method for separating trace levels of nano-materials in natural waters: cloud point extraction of nano-copper(II) oxide.

    PubMed

    Majedi, Seyed Mohammad; Kelly, Barry C; Lee, Hian Kee

    2014-10-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) factors, namely Triton X-114 (TX-114) concentration, pH, ionic strength, incubation time, and temperature, were optimized for the separation of nano-sized copper(II) oxide (nCuO) in aqueous matrices. The kinetics of phase transfer was studied using UV-visible spectroscopy. From the highest separation rate, the most favorable conditions were observed with 0.2 % w/v of TX-114, pH = 9.0, ionic strength of 10 mM NaCl, and incubation at 40 °C for 60 min, yielding an extraction efficiency of 89.2 ± 3.9 % and a preconcentration factor of 86. The aggregate size distribution confirmed the formation of very large nCuO-micelle assemblies (11.9 μm) under these conditions. The surface charge of nCuO was also diminished effectively. An extraction efficiency of 91 % was achieved with a mixture of TX-100 and TX-114 containing 30 wt.% of TX-100. Natural organic and particulate matters, represented by humic acid (30 mg/L) and micron-sized silica particles (50 mg/L), respectively, did not significantly reduce the CPE efficiency (<10 %). The recovery of copper(II) ions (20 mg/L) in the presence of humic acid was low (3-10 %). The spiked natural water samples were analyzed either directly or after CPE by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following acid digestion/microwave irradiation. The results indicated the influence of matrix effects and their reduction by CPE. A delay between spiking nCuO and CPE may also influence the recovery of nCuO due to aggregation and dissolution. A detection limit of 0.04 μg Cu/L was achieved for nCuO.

  7. Determination of ultra-trace amount methyl-, phenyl- and inorganic mercury in environmental and biological samples by liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cloud point extraction preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Hengwu; Jin, Xianzhong; Chen, Haiting

    2009-02-15

    The cloud point extraction (CPE) preconcentration of ultra-trace amount of mercury species prior to reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection was studied. Mercury species including methyl-, ethyl-, phenyl- and inorganic mercury were transformed into hydrophobic chelates by reaction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, and the hydrophobic chelates were extracted into a surfactant-rich phase of Triton X-114 upon heating in a water bath at 40 degrees C. Ethylmercury was found partially decomposed during the CPE process, and was not included in the developed method. Various experimental conditions affecting the CPE preconcentration, HPLC separation, and ICP-MS determination were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, detection limits of 13, 8 and 6 ng l(-1) (as Hg) were achieved for MeHg(+), PhHg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively. Seven determinations of a standard solution containing the three mercury species each at 0.5 ng ml(-1) level produced relative standard deviations of 5.3, 2.3 and 4.4% for MeHg(+), PhHg(+) and Hg(2+), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the three mercury species in environmental water samples and biological samples of human hair and ocean fish.

  8. Search Cloud

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/cloud.html Search Cloud To use the sharing features on this ... of Top 110 zoster vaccine Share the MedlinePlus search cloud with your users by embedding our search ...

  9. Dust clouds of Sagittarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malin, D. F.

    1982-03-01

    The development of knowledge of the exact nature of the dust clouds in the southern Milky Way galaxy is traced. First observation of the clouds were made by Herschel in 1784, and identification came with Barnard in 1916. The region around Barnard 86 is reviewed, noting the presence of the cluster NGC 6520 and NGC 6523, which is an area of a wide and dark dust lane backed by a blue nebulosity. Further attention is given to the blue objects NGC 6589, and NGC 6590, the Trifid nebula M20, the H II region NGC 6559 and IC 1274-5, and the six hot stars in the Sagittarius constellation.

  10. Upgrade of the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) to its Full Science Capability of Sun-Sky-Cloud-Trace Gas Spectrometry in Airborne Science Deployments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Roy R.; Russell, P.; Dunagan, S.; Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; LeBlanc, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this task in the AITT (Airborne Instrument Technology Transition) Program are to (1) upgrade the NASA 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) instrument to its full science capability of measuring (a) direct-beam sun transmission to derive aerosol optical depth spectra, (b) sky radiance vs scattering angle to retrieve aerosol absorption and type (via complex refractive index spectra, shape, and mode-resolved size distribution), (c) zenith radiance for cloud properties, and (d) hyperspectral signals for trace gas retrievals, and (2) demonstrate its suitability for deployment in challenging NASA airborne multiinstrument campaigns. 4STAR combines airborne sun tracking, sky scanning, and zenith pointing with diffraction spectroscopy to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to air pollution, radiant energy budgets (hence climate), and remote measurements of Earth's surfaces. Direct beam hyperspectral measurement of optical depth improves retrievals of gas constituents and determination of aerosol properties. Sky scanning enhances retrievals of aerosol type and size distribution. 4STAR measurements are intended to tighten the closure between satellite and ground-based measurements. 4STAR incorporates a modular sun-tracking/sky-scanning optical head with fiber optic signal transmission to rack mounted spectrometers, permitting miniaturization of the external optical head, and future detector evolution. 4STAR test flights, as well as science flights in the 2012-13 TCAP (Two-Column Aerosol Project) and 2013 SEAC4RS (Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys) have demonstrated that the following are essential for 4STAR to achieve its full science potential: (1) Calibration stability for both direct-beam irradiance and sky radiance, (2) Improved light collection and usage, and (3) Improved flight operability and reliability. A particular challenge

  11. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  12. The Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES): An Observational Campaign for Determining Role of Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation in Climate System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarquhar, G. M.; Wood, R.; Bretherton, C. S.; Alexander, S.; Jakob, C.; Marchand, R.; Protat, A.; Quinn, P.; Siems, S. T.; Weller, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) region is one of the cloudiest on Earth, and as such clouds determine its albedo and play a major role in climate. Evidence shows Earth's climate sensitivity and the Intertropical Convergence Zone location depend upon SO clouds. But, climate models are challenged by uncertainties and biases in the simulation of clouds, aerosols, and air-sea exchanges in this region which trace back to a poor process-level understanding. Due to the SO's remote location, there have been sparse observations of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, radiation and the air-sea interface apart from those from satellites. Plans for an upcoming observational program, SOCRATES, are outlined. Based on feedback on observational and modeling requirements from a 2014 workshop conducted at the University of Washington, a plan is described for obtaining a comprehensive dataset on the boundary-layer structure and associated vertical distributions of liquid and mixed-phase cloud and aerosol properties across a range of synoptic settings, especially in the cold sector of cyclonic storms. Four science themes are developed: improved climate model simulation of SO cloud and boundary layer structure in a rapidly varying synoptic setting; understanding seasonal and synoptic variability in SO cloud condensation and ice nucleus concentration and the role of local biogenic sources; understanding supercooled liquid and mixed-phase clouds and their impacts; and advancing retrievals of clouds, precipitation, aerosols, radiation and surface fluxes. Testable hypotheses for each theme are identified. The observational strategy consists of long-term ground-based observations from Macquarie Island and Davis, continuous data collection onboard Antarctic supply ships, satellite retrievals, and a dedicated field campaign covering 2 distinct seasons using in-situ and remote sensors on low- and high-altitude aircraft, UAVs, and a ship-borne platform. A timeline for these activities is proposed.

  13. Fast Simulators for Satellite Cloud Optical Centroid Pressure Retrievals, 1. Evaluation of OMI Cloud Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Vasilkov, A.; Gupta, P.; Bhartia, P. K.; Veefkind, P.; Sneep, M.; de Haan, J.; Polonsky, I.; Spurr, R.

    2012-01-01

    The cloud Optical Centroid Pressure (OCP), also known as the effective cloud pressure, is a satellite-derived parameter that is commonly used in trace-gas retrievals to account for the effects of clouds on near-infrared through ultraviolet radiance measurements. Fast simulators are desirable to further expand the use of cloud OCP retrievals into the operational and climate communities for applications such as data assimilation and evaluation of cloud vertical structure in general circulation models. In this paper, we develop and validate fast simulators that provide estimates of the cloud OCP given a vertical profile of optical extinction. We use a pressure-weighting scheme where the weights depend upon optical parameters of clouds and/or aerosol. A cloud weighting function is easily extracted using this formulation. We then use fast simulators to compare two different satellite cloud OCP retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) with estimates based on collocated cloud extinction profiles from a combination of CloudS at radar and MODIS visible radiance data. These comparisons are made over a wide range of conditions to provide a comprehensive validation of the OMI cloud OCP retrievals. We find generally good agreement between OMI cloud OCPs and those predicted by CloudSat. However, the OMI cloud OCPs from the two independent algorithms agree better with each other than either does with the estimates from CloudSat/MODIS. Differences between OMI cloud OCPs and those based on CloudSat/MODIS may result from undetected snow/ice at the surface, cloud 3-D effects, low altitude clouds missed by CloudSat, and the fact that CloudSat only observes a relatively small fraction of an OMI field-of-view.

  14. Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman and Ian Foster

    2009-12-04

    Chicago Matters: Beyond Burnham (WTTW). Chicago has become a world center of "cloud computing." Argonne experts Pete Beckman and Ian Foster explain what "cloud computing" is and how you probably already use it on a daily basis.

  15. Thin Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... their delicate appearance, thin, feathery clouds of ice crystals called cirrus may contribute to global warming. Some scientists ... July 9, 2002 - Thin, feathery clouds of ice crystals over the Caribbean Sea. project:  MISR ...

  16. Quantifying wet scavenging processes in aircraft observations of nitric acid and cloud condensation nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.; Avey, L.; Palmer, P. I.; Stohl, A.; Neuman, J. A.; Brock, C. A.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    Wet scavenging is an important sink term for many atmospheric constituents. However, production of precipitation in clouds is poorly understood, and pollutant removal through wet scavenging is difficult to separate from removal through dry scavenging, atmospheric mixing, or chemical transformations. Here we use airborne data from the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation project to show that measured ratios of soluble and insoluble trace gases provide a useful indicator for quantifying wet scavenging. Specifically, nitric acid (HNO3), produced as a by-product of combustion, is highly soluble and removed efficiently from clouds by rain. Regional carbon monoxide (CO), which is also an indicator of anthropogenic activity, is insoluble and has a lifetime against oxidation of about a month. We find that relative concentrations of HNO3 to regional CO observed in clear air are negatively correlated with precipitation production rates in nearby cloudy air (r2 = 0.85). Also, we show that relative concentrations of HNO3 and CO can be used to quantify cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) scavenging by precipitating clouds. This is because CCN and HNO3 molecules are both fully soluble in cloud water and hence can be treated as analogous species insofar as wet scavenging is concerned. While approximate, the practical advantage of this approach to scavenging studies is that it requires only measurement in clear air and no a priori knowledge of the cloud or aerosol properties involved.

  17. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  18. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 2: Locating clouds tops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made of the vertical distribution of high-level cloud tops derived from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements and from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) for all Julys and Januarys in 1985 to 1990. The results suggest that ISCCP overestimates the pressure of high-level clouds by up to 50-150 mbar, particularly at low latitudes. This is caused by the frequent presence of clouds with diffuse tops (greater than 50% time when cloudy events are observed). The averaged vertical extent of the diffuse top is about 1.5 km. At midlatitudes where the SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressure agree best, clouds with distinct tops reach a maximum relative proportion of the total level cloud amount (about 30-40%), and diffuse-topped clouds are reduced to their minimum (30-40%). The ISCCP-defined cloud top pressure should be regarded not as the material physical height of the clouds but as the level which emits the same infrared radiance as observed. SAGE II and ISCCP cloud top pressures agree for clouds with distinct tops. There is also an indication that the cloud top pressures of optically thin clouds not overlying thicker clouds are poorly estimated by ISCCP at middle latitudes. The average vertical extent of these thin clouds is about 2.5 km.

  19. Parameterization of clouds and radiation in climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Roeckner, E.

    1995-09-01

    Clouds are a very important, yet poorly modeled element in the climate system. There are many potential cloud feedbacks, including those related to cloud cover, height, water content, phase change, and droplet concentration and size distribution. As a prerequisite to studying the cloud feedback issue, this research reports on the simulation and validation of cloud radiative forcing under present climate conditions using the ECHAM general circulation model and ERBE top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes.

  20. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  1. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  2. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama; Raths, David; Schaffhauser, Dian; Skelly, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    For many IT shops, the cloud offers an opportunity not only to improve operations but also to align themselves more closely with their schools' strategic goals. The cloud is not a plug-and-play proposition, however--it is a complex, evolving landscape that demands one's full attention. Security, privacy, contracts, and contingency planning are all…

  3. Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    This article features a major statewide initiative in North Carolina that is showing how a consortium model can minimize risks for districts and help them exploit the advantages of cloud computing. Edgecombe County Public Schools in Tarboro, North Carolina, intends to exploit a major cloud initiative being refined in the state and involving every…

  4. Cloud Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Your learning curriculum needs a new technological platform, but you don't have the expertise or IT equipment to pull it off in-house. The answer is a learning system that exists online, "in the cloud," where learners can access it anywhere, anytime. For trainers, cloud-based coursework often means greater ease of instruction resulting in greater…

  5. Arctic Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ...   View Larger Image Stratus clouds are common in the Arctic during the summer months, and are important modulators of ... from MISR's two most obliquely forward-viewing cameras. The cold, stable air causes the clouds to persist in stratified layers, and this ...

  6. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  7. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-08-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  8. Fuzzy cloud concepts for assessing radiation feedbacks

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.

    1995-09-01

    The importance of clouds in the climate system is well-known but poorly understood. Modeling and observational studies have suggested that there may be positive feedbacks associated with certain cloud processes, but it is not known how strong these feedbacks are in the context of the overall system. Examples include ice microphysics feedback, as shown by Liou`s model, and the relationship between SST and cloud cover in the tropics, which is the focus of this research. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Mature Deep Convective Cloud Morphology as Observed by CloudSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, M.; van den Heever, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    The role of oceanic deep convective tropical clouds in weather and climate systems remains poorly defined for individual, deep convective clouds in the tropics. It is the goal of this work to try to determine those roles by analyzing cloud length scales observed by CloudSat. It is shown that misperceptions of cloud scales could lead consequently to a misunderstanding of the roles of deep convection. Using a recently developed cloud identification algorithm, CloudSat data is parsed into individual cloud objects that are present in large enough numbers to provide powerful statistics. The methodology also provides a means of counting the number of convective cores within the 'pedestal' of a cloud object. As the number of convective cores within a single cloud object increases, various changes in the morphology of storms occur. Not only do they get wider as the number of cores increases, but the anvil base lowers and the storm deepens. Correlations between different aspects of cloud morphology are evaluated with a focus on the up scale relationship of pedestals to anvils. The results implicate mesoscale organization of tropical clouds as being important for the general circulation. Finally, the sensitivity to local environmental characteristics of the cloud morphology is assessed and connections are made between the environment and the role of the cloud.

  10. Complex Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Multi-layer Clouds Over the South Indian Ocean     View Larger Image ... a noticeable cyclonic circulation over the Southern Indian Ocean, to the north of Enderbyland, East Antarctica. The image at left was ...

  11. Noctilucent clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadsden, M.

    An assessment of spacecraft, sounding rocket and ground level observational data on the noctilucent clouds which appear during summertime, at high latitudes, near the top of the mesosphere shows that these data are not sufficiently unambiguous and clear to permit conclusions as to the nature of the clouds. Although they seem to be ice particles nucleated at very low temperatures and pressures by either meteoric smoke or atmospheric ions, the very existence of the clouds poses the problem of how so much water vapor could be present at such a great height. An attempt is made to predict the microscopic behavior of the cloud particles through consideration of the relative importance of radiometer effects, radiation balance, Brownian movement, electric polarization, and the influence of Coulomb attraction on the growth of large clustered ions.

  12. Cloud parameterization for climate modeling - Status and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of cloud parameterization research is reviewed. It is emphasized that the upper tropospheric stratiform clouds associated with deep convection are both physically important and poorly parameterized in current models. Emerging parameterizations are described in general terms, with emphasis on prognostic cloud water and fractional cloudiness, and how these relate to the problem just mentioned.

  13. Poor school performance.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-11-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents. There are many reasons for children to under perform at school, such as, medical problems, below average intelligence, specific learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, poor socio-cultural home environment, psychiatric disorders and even environmental causes. The information provided by the parents, classroom teacher and school counselor about the child's academic difficulties guides the pediatrician to form an initial diagnosis. However, a multidisciplinary evaluation by an ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, counselor, clinical psychologist, special educator, and child psychiatrist is usually necessary before making the final diagnosis. It is important to find the reason(s) for a child's poor school performance and come up with a treatment plan early so that the child can perform up to full potential. PMID:16391452

  14. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2015-01-01

    Children described as "poor comprehenders" (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this…

  15. Neptune's clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The bright cirrus-like clouds of Neptune change rapidly, often forming and dissipating over periods of several to tens of hours. In this sequence Voyager 2 observed cloud evolution in the region around the Great Dark Spot (GDS). The surprisingly rapid changes which occur separating each panel shows that in this region Neptune's weather is perhaps as dynamic and variable as that of the Earth. However, the scale is immense by our standards -- the Earth and the GDS are of similar size -- and in Neptune's frigid atmosphere, where temperatures are as low as 55 degrees Kelvin (-360 F), the cirrus clouds are composed of frozen methane rather than Earth's crystals of water ice. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications

  16. CLOUD CHEMISTRY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.

    2001-03-01

    Clouds present substantial concentrations of liquid-phase water, which can potentially serve as a medium for dissolution and reaction of atmospheric gases. The important precursors of acid deposition, SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides NO and NO{sub 2} are only sparingly soluble in clouds without further oxidation to sulfuric and nitric acids. In the case of SO{sub 2} aqueous-phase reaction with hydrogen peroxide, and to lesser extent ozone, are identified as important processes leading to this oxidation, and methods have been described by which to evaluate the rates of these reactions. The limited solubility of the nitrogen oxides precludes significant aqueous-phase reaction of these species, but gas-phase reactions in clouds can be important especially at night.

  17. [Poor prognosis childhood cancers].

    PubMed

    Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Minard, Véronique

    2007-05-31

    Poor prognosis childhood cancers are mainly metastatic diseases represented by stage IV neuroblastomas developed in children more than one year and metastatic Ewing tumours. These both diseases are chemosensitive but not curable with conventional chemotherapy. In these indications, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cells transplantation is delivered in patients achieving a good partial remission with conventional treatment. The toxicity of these procedures is high but manageable; these approaches have improved the prognosis of these patients.

  18. Gathering clouds.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Many physicians are finding their heads in a "cloud" as they ponder adopting or upgrading an electronic health record (EHR). That doesn't mean they're not in touch with reality. It means they now can choose new web-based systems, also known as cloud-based EHRs, that allow them to pay a monthly subscription fee to access an EHR rather than purchase it. They don't have to buy an expensive server with its associated hardware and software; a computer with an Internet connection will do. PMID:22714732

  19. Gathering clouds.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Many physicians are finding their heads in a "cloud" as they ponder adopting or upgrading an electronic health record (EHR). That doesn't mean they're not in touch with reality. It means they now can choose new web-based systems, also known as cloud-based EHRs, that allow them to pay a monthly subscription fee to access an EHR rather than purchase it. They don't have to buy an expensive server with its associated hardware and software; a computer with an Internet connection will do.

  20. Our World: Cool Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn how clouds are formed and watch an experiment to make a cloud using liquid nitrogen. Find out how scientists classify clouds according to their altitude and how clouds reflect and absorb ligh...

  1. Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Whiteway, J A; Komguem, L; Dickinson, C; Cook, C; Illnicki, M; Seabrook, J; Popovici, V; Duck, T J; Davy, R; Taylor, P A; Pathak, J; Fisher, D; Carswell, A I; Daly, M; Hipkin, V; Zent, A P; Hecht, M H; Wood, S E; Tamppari, L K; Renno, N; Moores, J E; Lemmon, M T; Daerden, F; Smith, P H

    2009-07-01

    The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well mixed, up to heights of around 4 kilometers, by the summer daytime turbulence and convection. The water-ice clouds were detected at the top of the PBL and near the ground each night in late summer after the air temperature started decreasing. The interpretation is that water vapor mixed upward by daytime turbulence and convection forms ice crystal clouds at night that precipitate back toward the surface.

  2. Mars water-ice clouds and precipitation.

    PubMed

    Whiteway, J A; Komguem, L; Dickinson, C; Cook, C; Illnicki, M; Seabrook, J; Popovici, V; Duck, T J; Davy, R; Taylor, P A; Pathak, J; Fisher, D; Carswell, A I; Daly, M; Hipkin, V; Zent, A P; Hecht, M H; Wood, S E; Tamppari, L K; Renno, N; Moores, J E; Lemmon, M T; Daerden, F; Smith, P H

    2009-07-01

    The light detection and ranging instrument on the Phoenix mission observed water-ice clouds in the atmosphere of Mars that were similar to cirrus clouds on Earth. Fall streaks in the cloud structure traced the precipitation of ice crystals toward the ground. Measurements of atmospheric dust indicated that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) on Mars was well mixed, up to heights of around 4 kilometers, by the summer daytime turbulence and convection. The water-ice clouds were detected at the top of the PBL and near the ground each night in late summer after the air temperature started decreasing. The interpretation is that water vapor mixed upward by daytime turbulence and convection forms ice crystal clouds at night that precipitate back toward the surface. PMID:19574386

  3. What can simulated molecular clouds tell us about real molecular clouds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Dobbs, C. L.

    2016-06-01

    We study the properties of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) from a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a portion of a spiral galaxy, modelled at high resolution, with robust representations of the physics of the interstellar medium. We examine the global molecular gas content of clouds, and investigate the effect of using CO or H2 densities to define the GMCs. We find that CO can reliably trace the high-density H2 gas, but misses less dense H2 clouds. We also investigate the effect of using 3D CO densities versus CO emission with an observer's perspective, and find that CO-emission clouds trace well the peaks of the actual GMCs in 3D, but can miss the lower density molecular gas between density peaks which is often CO-dark. Thus, the CO emission typically traces smaller clouds within larger GMC complexes. We also investigate the effect of the galactic environment (in particular the presence of spiral arms), on the distribution of GMC properties, and we find that the mean properties are similar between arm and inter-arm clouds, but the tails of some distributions are indicative of intrinsic differences in the environment. We find highly filamentary clouds (similar to the giant molecular filaments of our Galaxy) exclusively in the inter-arm region, formed by galactic shear. We also find that the most massive GMC complexes are located in the arm, and that as a consequence of more frequent cloud interactions/mergers in the arm, arm clouds are more sub-structured and have higher velocity dispersions than inter-arm clouds.

  4. Cloud Front

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02171 Cloud Front

    These clouds formed in the south polar region. The faintness of the cloud system likely indicates that these are mainly ice clouds, with relatively little dust content.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -86.7N, Longitude 212.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Cloud Arcs

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... a sinking motion elsewhere, are very common, the degree of organization exhibited here is relatively rare, as the wind field at different altitudes usually disrupts such patterns. The degree of self organization of this cloud image, whereby three or four such circular events ...

  6. Photometric Properties of Galaxies in Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T.

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using optical photometry. We select these poor clusters as luminous, extended X-ray sources identified with poor galaxy systems in the EMSS catalogue of clusters of galaxies. The clusters are at moderate redshifts (0.08traced by the tightness of their color--magnitude relations and accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo Cluster. The fraction of blue galaxies is similar to those of low-redshift richness 0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The luminosity functions (LFs) of the individual clusters are not significantly different from each other. Using these, we construct composite LFs in B, V , and R bands (to MV=-18). The faint-end of these LFs are flat, like the V-band LF of other (e.g., MKW/AWM) poor clusters, but steeper than the field LF in the R-band. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts.

  7. The use of rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction for the separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Ni (II) ions from food and water samples coupling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Reyhaneh; Najafi, Marzieh

    2016-03-01

    A novel improved preconcentration method known as rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (RS-CPE) was established for nickel preconcentration and determination prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this work, the traditional CPE pattern was changed and greatly simplified in order to be applicable in metal extraction and detection. This method was accomplished in room temperature in 1 min. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 was used as extractant. Octanol worked as cloud point revulsant and synergic reagent. The various parameters affecting the extraction and preconcentration of nickel such as sample pH, 2,2'-Furildioxime concentration, amounts of octanol, amounts of Triton X-114, type of diluting solvent, extraction time, and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve showed an excellent linearity in the concentration range of 2-200 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection was 0.6 μg L(-1) for nickel. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of nickel in food and water samples. The results showed that, the proposed method can be used as a cheap, rapid, and efficient method for the extraction and preconcentration of nickel from real samples.

  8. The MAGellanic Inter-Cloud (MAGIC) project - II. Slicing up the Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, N. E. D.; Conn, B. C.; Read, J. I.; Carrera, R.; Dolphin, A.; Rix, H.-W.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the gas in between the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), known as the Magellanic Bridge, has always been the subject of controversy. To shed light into this, we present the results from the MAGellanic Inter-Cloud II (MAGIC II) project aimed at probing the stellar populations in 10 large fields located perpendicular to the main ridge-line of H I in the Inter-Cloud region. We secured these observations of the stellar populations in between the MCs using the WFI (Wide Field Imager) camera on the 2.2 m telescope in La Silla. Using colour-magnitude diagrams, we trace stellar populations across the Inter-Cloud region. In good agreement with MAGIC I, we find significant intermediate-age stars in the Inter-Cloud region as well as young stars of a similar age to the last pericentre passage in between the MCs (˜200 Myr ago). We show here that the young, intermediate-age and old stars have distinct spatial distributions. The young stars correlate well with the H I gas suggesting that they were either recently stripped from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) or formed in situ. The bulk of intermediate-age stars are located mainly in the Bridge region where the H I column density is higher, but they are more spread out than the young stars. They have very similar properties to stars located ˜2 kpc from the SMC centre, suggesting that they were tidally stripped from this region. Finally, the old stars extend to some 8 kpc from the SMC supporting the idea that all galaxies have a large extended metal-poor stellar halo.

  9. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    satisfactorily model and predict the behavior of most of the trace elements in hydrosystems?An impressive literature has dealt with experimental works on aqueous complexation, uptake of trace elements by surface complexation (inorganic and organic), uptake by living organisms (bioaccumulation) that we have not reported here, except when the results of such studies directly explain natural data. As continental waters encompass a greater range of physical and chemical conditions, we focus on river waters and do not discuss trace elements in groundwaters, lakes, and the ocean. In lakes and in the ocean, the great importance of life processes in regulating trace elements is probably the major difference from rivers.Section 5.09.2 of this chapter reports data. We will review the present-day literature on trace elements in rivers to show that our knowledge is still poor. By comparing with the continental abundances, a global mobility index is calculated for each trace element. The spatial and temporal variability of trace-element concentrations in rivers will be shown to be important. In Section 5.09.3, sources of trace elements in river waters are indicated. We will point out the great diversity of sources and the importance of global anthropogenic contamination for a number of elements. The question of inorganic and organic speciation of trace elements in river water will then be addressed in Section 5.09.4, considering some general relationships between speciation and placement in the periodic table. In Section 5.09.5, we will show that studies on organic-rich rivers have led to an exploration of the "colloidal world" in rivers. Colloids are small particles, passing through the conventional filters used to separate dissolved and suspended loads in rivers. They appear as major carriers of trace elements in rivers and considerably complicate aqueous-speciation calculation. Finally, in Section 5.09.6, the significance of interactions between solutes and solid surfaces in river waters

  10. Toward ab initio extremely metal poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Jeremy S.; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Milosavljević, Miloš; Bromm, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Extremely metal poor stars have been the focus of much recent attention owing to the expectation that their chemical abundances can shed light on the metal and dust yields of the earliest supernovae. We present our most realistic simulation to date of the astrophysical pathway to the first metal enriched stars. We simulate the radiative and supernova hydrodynamic feedback of a 60 M⊙ Population III star starting from cosmological initial conditions realizing Gaussian density fluctuations. We follow the gravitational hydrodynamics of the supernova remnant at high spatial resolution through its freely-expanding, adiabatic, and radiative phases, until gas, now metal-enriched, has resumed runaway gravitational collapse. Our findings are surprising: while the Population III progenitor exploded with a low energy of 1051 erg and injected an ample metal mass of 6 M⊙, the first cloud to collapse after the supernova explosion is a dense surviving primordial cloud on which the supernova blast wave deposited metals only superficially, in a thin, unresolved layer. The first metal-enriched stars can form at a very low metallicity, of only 2 - 5 × 10-4 Z⊙, and can inherit the parent cloud's highly elliptical, radially extended orbit in the dark matter gravitational potential.

  11. Chemical and physical characterisation of low clouds: results from the FEBUKO ground-based cloud experiment.

    PubMed

    Acker, Karin; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2003-12-01

    Clouds play an immense role in transport and transformation of atmospheric trace species. In the joint project FEBUKO (Field investigations of budgets and conversions of particle phase organics in tropospheric cloud processes) the microphysics and chemistry of different types of aerosols, the role of aerosol chemical composition for cloud formation as well as the chemical transformation in cloud processes have been investigated by means of ground-based cloud experiments at Mt. Schmücke in the Thuringian Forest (Germany). The groups involved used a wide range of measurements of trace gases, aerosol particles and cloud droplets at three sites to study their sources and sinks, especially those in cloud. Although kind and behaviour of organic substances were of special interest (e.g., organic acids, peroxides, organic carbon, soot) attention was paid to the role of inorganic soluble material being the main part of the cloud condensation nuclei. In this paper we present selected results from the first experiment in autumn 2001.

  12. Poor ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  13. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  14. Cloud radiative forcing on surface shortwave fluxes: A case study based on Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei

    1994-12-01

    Shortwave downward fluxes for selected stratus, cirrus, and mixed phase cloud cases are analyzed based on cloud and surface radiation measurements from the Cloud Lidar and Radar Exploratory Test conducted in the Denver-Boulder area of Colorado during September-October, 1989. A medium resolution, discrete-ordinate shortwave radiative transfer model is used to provide clear-sky conditions and to examine the cloud shortwave radiative forcing. The model simulation indicates that for stratus clouds the effective radius increases with increasing liquid water path. For cirrus cloud simulation, the model results are within 10% agreement with the surface flux measurements. However, using the one-dimensional plane-parallel model, the model results are in poor agreement for the inhomogeneous mixed phase cloud case. Over the elevated observation site, the reduction in shortwave downward flux by clouds can be as large as 40% for a small cloud water path value of 20 g m-2. The variation in observed cloud shortwave forcing is highly correlated with the integrated cloud water path. The normalized (by the clear-sky value) cloud shortwave forcing increases rapidly when the cloud water path is small. The rate of increase decreases, and the normalized cloud forcing approaches saturation when cloud water path becomes large. The magnitude of the saturation value depends on cloud optical properties. The variation in observed cloud forcing is consistent with the theoretical curve for cloudy atmospheric albedo variation. At a constant value of cloud water path, the normalized cloud forcing increases with solar zenith angle. The solar zenith angle effect is less significant for larger value of cloud water path.

  15. Linear Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

    These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. GCM Simulations of Cirrus Clouds and Cloud Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelGenio, Anthony D.

    1998-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are a particularly uncertain component of general circulation model (GCM simulations of long-term climate change for a variety of reasons: (1) They encompass a wide range of optical thicknesses and altitudes, from thin tropopause cirrus to thick anvil cirrus that descend to the freezing level, and thus can exert both positive and negative forcing and feedback on the climate; (2) The dynamical processes that create them are poorly resolved in climate GCMs and different in the tropics and midlatitudes; (3) Predictions of their formation and microphysical properties depend on the accuracy of dynamical transports of small concentrations of water vapor to and within the upper troposphere; (4) The relative humidity conditions at which they form depends on the nature and concentration of nucleating particles and is poorly understood; (5) They are more difficult to observe than other cloud types, and hence their parameterization is more loosely constrained by available data. We will illustrate the potential sensitivity of the perturbed climate to uncertainties in cirrus cloud formulation. We will also examine the processes that form cirrus in climate models and discuss the accuracy with which climate GCMs represent these processes. We will also discuss ways in which GCM grid-scale parameterizations might be derived from cloud-scale observations. Finally, we will emphasize the types of global observations needed to constrain parameterizations of cirrus in climate GCMs.

  17. Photometric Properties of Poor Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2002-12-01

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using multi-color optical photometry obtained at the Vainu Bappu Telescope, India. The clusters, selected from the EMSS Catalog, are at moderate redshifts (0.08 < z < 0.25), of equivalent Abell richness R=0, and appear to be dynamically young. The early-type galaxy populations are clearly evolved, as traced by the tightness of the color-magnitude relations and the accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo cluster. The blue galaxy fractions are similar to those of R=0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The composite luminosity functions (LFs) in B, V, and R bands are flat at the faint end, similar to the V-band LF derived by Yamagata & Maehara for other (MKW/AWM) poor clusters but steeper than the R-band field LF derived by Lin et al. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts. The brightest galaxies of three of these poor clusters appear to be luminous ellipticals with no incontrovertible signatures of a halo. It is likely that they were formed from multiple mergers early in the history of the clusters.

  18. Urban poor program launched.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  19. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Children described as poor comprehenders (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this study was to examine morphosyntax in fourth grade PCs and typically developing readers (TDs), using three experimental tasks involving finiteness marking. Participants also completed standardized, norm-referenced assessments of phonological memory, vocabulary, and broader language skills. PCs displayed weakness relative to TDs on all three morphosyntax tasks and on every other assessment of oral language except phonological memory, as indexed by nonword repetition. These findings help to clarify the linguistic profile of PCs, suggesting that their language weaknesses include grammatical weaknesses that cannot be fully explained by semantic factors. Because finiteness markers are usually mastered prior to formal schooling in typical development, we call for future studies to examine whether assessments of morphosyntax could be used for the early identification of children at risk for future reading comprehension difficulty. PMID:27397969

  20. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  1. Epidemic contact tracing via communication traces.

    PubMed

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. PMID:24787614

  2. Preliminary investigation of radiatively driven convection in marine stratocumulus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, P.

    1995-09-01

    Marine stratocumulus play an important yet still poorly modeled role in the climate system. These clouds cool the planet, having a large albedo, but little infrared effect. A fundamental question is whether such clouds will exist at a given time and location. Stratocumulus is often formed at higher latitudes as stratus and advected equatorward until it breaks up. Possible mechanisms for cloud breakup include strong subsidence, cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI), drizzle, solar heating and resultant boundary layer decoupling, and surface forcing. The Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) was conducted to investigate these potential cloud breakup mechanisms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Cloud-radiation interactions - Effects of cirrus optical thickness feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a cloud-radiation feedback mechanism which may be an important component of the climate changes expected from increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace greenhouse gases. A major result of the study is that cirrus cloud optical thickness feedbacks may indeed tend to increase the surface warming due to trace gas increases. However, the positive feedback from cirrus appears to be generally weaker than the negative effects due to lower clouds. The results just confirm those of earlier research indicating that the net effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks may be a negative feedback which may substantially (by a factor of about 2) reduce the surface warming due to the doubling of CO2, even in the presence of cirrus clouds.

  4. Parametric Trace Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore (Inventor); Chen, Feng (Inventor); Chen, Guo-fang; Wu, Yamei; Meredith, Patrick O. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A program trace is obtained and events of the program trace are traversed. For each event identified in traversing the program trace, a trace slice of which the identified event is a part is identified based on the parameter instance of the identified event. For each trace slice of which the identified event is a part, the identified event is added to an end of a record of the trace slice. These parametric trace slices can be used in a variety of different manners, such as for monitoring, mining, and predicting.

  5. Development of a simple, sensitive and inexpensive ion-pairing cloud point extraction approach for the determination of trace inorganic arsenic species in spring water, beverage and rice samples by UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Gürkan, Ramazan; Kır, Ufuk; Altunay, Nail

    2015-08-01

    The determination of inorganic arsenic species in water, beverages and foods become crucial in recent years, because arsenic species are considered carcinogenic and found at high concentrations in the samples. This communication describes a new cloud-point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of low quantity of arsenic species in the samples, purchased from the local market by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). The method is based on selective ternary complex of As(V) with acridine orange (AOH(+)) being a versatile fluorescence cationic dye in presence of tartaric acid and polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-114) at pH 5.0. Under the optimized conditions, a preconcentration factor of 65 and detection limit (3S blank/m) of 1.14 μg L(-1) was obtained from the calibration curve constructed in the range of 4-450 μg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9932 for As(V). The method is validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs).

  6. A new ultrasonic-assisted cloud-point-extraction procedure for pre-concentration and determination of ultra-trace levels of copper in selected beverages and foods by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Orhan, Ulaş

    2015-01-01

    A new ultrasonic-assisted cloud-point-extraction (UA-CPE) method was developed for the pre-concentration of Cu(II) in selected beverage and food samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) analysis. For this purpose, Safranin T was used as an ion-pairing reagent based on charge transfer in the presence of oxalate as the primary chelating agent at pH 10. Non-ionic surfactant, poly(ethyleneglycol-mono-p-nonylphenylether) (PONPE 7.5) was used as an extracting agent in the presence of NH4Cl as the salting out agent. The variables affecting UA-CPE efficiency were optimised in detail. The linear range for Cu(II) at pH 10 was 0.02-70 µg l(-)(1) with a very low detection limit of 6.10 ng l(-)(1), while the linear range for Cu(I) at pH 8.5 was 0.08-125 µg l(-)(1) with a detection limit of 24.4 ng l(-)(1). The relative standard deviation (RSD %) was in the range of 2.15-4.80% (n = 5). The method was successfully applied to the quantification of Cu(II), Cu(I) and total Cu in selected beverage and food samples. The accuracy of the developed method was demonstrated by the analysis of two standard reference materials (SRMs) as well as recoveries of spiked samples.

  7. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  8. Arthur Ziegler: Prophet of Preservation for the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliff, Ursula

    1975-01-01

    This article traces the history and development of the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation. This foundation has been notably successful in preserving neighborhoods for their original inhabitants and now has the first urban renewal program to be based on historic preservation for poor people. (BT)

  9. Martian Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during early spring near the North Pole. The linear 'ripples' are transparent water-ice clouds. This linear form is typical for polar clouds. The black regions on the margins of this image are areas of saturation caused by the build up of scattered light from the bright polar material during the long image exposure.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.1, Longitude 147.9 East (212.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS

  10. The Oort cloud in transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of theoretical and empirical models of the Oort cloud (OC) since it was first proposed by Oort in 1950 is traced, and the main features of current models are discussed, in a general review. Consideration is given to work on the classical OC (Monte Carlo simulations of OC evolution, population and mass estimates, and OC perturbation by passing stars and giant molecular clouds), models of a massive inner OC (simulations of planetesimal-swarm evolution in the Uranus-Neptune zone and IRAS observations of circumstellar dust shells), evidence for random and/or periodic comet showers, and the possible role of the Galactic missing mass. The current OC model comprises an almost spherical outer (10,000-100,000-AU) cloud of mass 7-8 earth mass and population (1.4-2.3) x 10 to the 12th, and a flat disklike inner (40-10,000 AU) cloud of mass 100-200 earth mass and population (1-10) x 10 to the 13th.

  11. Violent relaxation of ellipsoidal clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaiem, David; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    An isolated, initially cold and ellipsoidal cloud of self-gravitating particles represents a relatively simple system in which to study the effects of deviations from spherical symmetry in the mechanism of violent relaxation. Initial deviations from spherical symmetry are shown to play a dynamical role that is equivalent to that of density fluctuations in the case of an initially spherical cloud. Indeed, these deviations control the amount of particle-energy change and thus determine the properties of the final energy distribution, particularly the appearance of two species of particles: bound and free. Ejection of mass and energy from the system, together with the formation of a density profile decaying as ρ(r) ˜ r-4 and a Keplerian radial velocity dispersion profile, are prominent features similar to those observed after the violent relaxation of spherical clouds. In addition, we find that ejected particles are characterized by highly non-spherical shapes, the features of which can be traced in the initial deviations from spherical symmetry that are amplified during the dynamical evolution: particles can indeed form anisotropic configurations, like bars and/or discs, even though the initial cloud was very close to spherical.

  12. Fresh clouds: A parameterized updraft method for calculating cloud densities in one-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael H.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kuhn, William R.; Romani, Paul N.; Mihalka, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Models of cloud condensation under thermodynamic equilibrium in planetary atmospheres are useful for several reasons. These equilibrium cloud condensation models (ECCMs) calculate the wet adiabatic lapse rate, determine saturation-limited mixing ratios of condensing species, calculate the stabilizing effect of latent heat release and molecular weight stratification, and locate cloud base levels. Many ECCMs trace their heritage to Lewis (Lewis, J.S. [1969]. Icarus 10, 365-378) and Weidenschilling and Lewis (Weidenschilling, S.J., Lewis, J.S. [1973]. Icarus 20, 465-476). Calculation of atmospheric structure and gas mixing ratios are correct in these models. We resolve errors affecting the cloud density calculation in these models by first calculating a cloud density rate: the change in cloud density with updraft length scale. The updraft length scale parameterizes the strength of the cloud-forming updraft, and converts the cloud density rate from the ECCM into cloud density. The method is validated by comparison with terrestrial cloud data. Our parameterized updraft method gives a first-order prediction of cloud densities in a “fresh” cloud, where condensation is the dominant microphysical process. Older evolved clouds may be better approximated by another 1-D method, the diffusive-precipitative Ackerman and Marley (Ackerman, A.S., Marley, M.S. [2001]. Astrophys. J. 556, 872-884) model, which represents a steady-state equilibrium between precipitation and condensation of vapor delivered by turbulent diffusion. We re-evaluate observed cloud densities in the Galileo Probe entry site (Ragent, B. et al. [1998]. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22891-22910), and show that the upper and lower observed clouds at ∼0.5 and ∼3 bars are consistent with weak (cirrus-like) updrafts under conditions of saturated ammonia and water vapor, respectively. The densest observed cloud, near 1.3 bar, requires unexpectedly strong updraft conditions, or higher cloud density rates. The cloud

  13. Crater Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06085 Crater Clouds

    The crater on the right side of this image is affecting the local wind regime. Note the bright line of clouds streaming off the north rim of the crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -78.8N, Longitude 320.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  15. Interpretation of FRESCO cloud retrievals in case of absorbing aerosol events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tilstra, L. G.; de Graaf, M.; Stammes, P.

    2012-10-01

    Cloud and aerosol information is needed in trace gas retrievals from satellite measurements. The Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band (FRESCO) cloud algorithm employs reflectance spectra of the O2 A band around 760 nm to derive cloud pressure and effective cloud fraction. In general, clouds contribute more to the O2 A band reflectance than aerosols. Therefore, the FRESCO algorithm does not correct for aerosol effects in the retrievals and attributes the retrieved cloud information entirely to the presence of clouds, and not to aerosols. For events with high aerosol loading, aerosols may have a dominant effect, especially for almost cloud free scenes. We have analysed FRESCO cloud data and Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument on the Metop-A satellite for events with typical absorbing aerosol types, such as volcanic ash, desert dust and smoke. We find that the FRESCO effective cloud fractions are correlated with the AAI data for these absorbing aerosol events and that the FRESCO cloud pressure contains information on aerosol layer pressure. For cloud free scenes, the derived FRESCO cloud pressure is close to the aerosol layer pressure, especially for optically thick aerosol layers. For cloudy scenes, if the strongly absorbing aerosols are located above the clouds, then the retrieved FRESCO cloud pressure may represent the height of the aerosol layer rather than the height of the clouds. Combining FRESCO and AAI data, an estimate for the aerosol layer pressure can be given.

  16. Turbulence effect on cloud radiation.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, K; Onishi, R; Kurose, R; Komori, S

    2012-06-01

    The effect of turbulent clustering of water droplets on radiative transfer is investigated by means of both a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of particle-laden homogeneous isotropic turbulence and a radiative transfer simulation based on a Monte Carlo photon tracing method. The results show that turbulent clustering causes the formation of void regions of droplets and hence increases the direct transmittance. This effect decreases as the turbulent Reynolds number increases and is estimated to be negligibly small under the conditions in real clouds.

  17. Cloud Infrastructure & Applications - CloudIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Anthony; Reich, Christoph; Doelitzscher, Frank

    The idea behind Cloud Computing is to deliver Infrastructure-as-a-Services and Software-as-a-Service over the Internet on an easy pay-per-use business model. To harness the potentials of Cloud Computing for e-Learning and research purposes, and to small- and medium-sized enterprises, the Hochschule Furtwangen University establishes a new project, called Cloud Infrastructure & Applications (CloudIA). The CloudIA project is a market-oriented cloud infrastructure that leverages different virtualization technologies, by supporting Service-Level Agreements for various service offerings. This paper describes the CloudIA project in details and mentions our early experiences in building a private cloud using an existing infrastructure.

  18. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  19. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, J. -Y.C.; Gregory, L.; Wagener, R.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud formation, dissipation and interactions with aerosol and drizzle. They are also a crucial determinant of Earth’s radiative and water-energy balances. However, these properties are poorly predicted in climate models. As a result, the response of clouds to climate change is one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction.

  20. Satellite retrieval of cloud properties from the O2 A-band for air quality and climate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.

    2009-04-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar measurements of clouds shows that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. From ground-based validation (P. Wang et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6565-6576, 2008) it appears that the FRESCO+ cloud retrievals improve the retrieval of tropospheric NO2 as compared to FRESCO. So FRESCO+ contributes to better monitoring of air quality from space. The FRESCO+ cloud algorithm has been applied to GOME and SCIAMACHY measurements since the beginning of the missions. Monthly averaged SCIAMACHY FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure maps show similar patterns as the ISCCP cloud maps, although there are some differences, due to the different meaning of the cloud products and due to the fact that photons in the O2 A-band penetrate into clouds. The 6-year averaged seasonal cloud maps from SCIAMACHY data have good agreement with the global circulation patterns. Therefore, the FRESCO+ products are not only efficient for cloud correction of trace gas retrievals but also contribute additional information for climate research.

  1. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. II. Wave-front segmentation and imaging.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Barbara T; Matson, Charles L

    2002-12-20

    A hybrid technique to simulate the imaging of space-based objects through cirrus clouds is presented. The method makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation beyond the cloud boundary and a novel vector trace approach within the cloud. At the top of the cloud, the wave front is divided into an array of input gradient vectors, which are in turn transmitted through the cloud model by use of the Coherent Illumination Ray Trace and Imaging Software for Cirrus. At the bottom of the cloud, the output vector distribution is used to reconstruct a wave front that continues propagating to the ground receiver. Images of the object as seen through cirrus clouds with different optical depths are compared with a diffraction-limited image. Turbulence effects from the atmospheric propagation are not included.

  2. Morphological diagnostics of star formation in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Christopher Norris

    Molecular clouds are the birth sites of all star formation in the present-day universe. They represent the initial conditions of star formation, and are the primary medium by which stars transfer energy and momentum back to parsec scales. Yet, the physical evolution of molecular clouds remains poorly understood. This is not due to a lack of observational data, nor is it due to an inability to simulate the conditions inside molecular clouds. Instead, the physics and structure of the interstellar medium are sufficiently complex that interpreting molecular cloud data is very difficult. This dissertation mitigates this problem, by developing more sophisticated ways to interpret morphological information in molecular cloud observations and simulations. In particular, I have focused on leveraging machine learning techniques to identify physically meaningful substructures in the interstellar medium, as well as techniques to inter-compare molecular cloud simulations to observations. These contributions make it easier to understand the interplay between molecular clouds and star formation. Specific contributions include: new insight about the sheet-like geometry of molecular clouds based on observations of stellar bubbles; a new algorithm to disambiguate overlapping yet morphologically distinct cloud structures; a new perspective on the relationship between molecular cloud column density distributions and the sizes of cloud substructures; a quantitative analysis of how projection effects affect measurements of cloud properties; and an automatically generated, statistically-calibrated catalog of bubbles identified from their infrared morphologies.

  3. Can cirrus clouds produce glories?

    PubMed

    Sassen, K; Arnott, W P; Barnett, J M; Aulenbach, S

    1998-03-20

    A vague glory display was photographed over central Utah from an airplane beginning its descent through a cirrus cloud layer with an estimated cloud top temperature of -45 and -55 degrees C. Photographic analysis reveals a single reddish-brown ring of 2.5-3.0 degrees radius around the antisolar point, although a second ring appeared visually to have been present over the brief observation period. Mie and approximate nonspherical theory scattering simulations predict a population of particles with modal diameters between 9 and 15 mum. Although it is concluded that multiple-ringed glories can be accounted for only through the backscattering of light from particles that are strictly spherical in shape, the poor glory colorization in this case could imply the presence of slightly aspherical ice particles. The location of this display over mountainous terrain suggests that it was generated by an orographic wave cloud, which we speculate produced numerous frozen cloud droplets that only gradually took on crystalline characteristics during growth.

  4. The Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marochnik, Leonid S.; Mukhin, Lev M.; Sagdeev, Roald Z.

    1991-01-01

    Views of the large-scale structure of the solar system, consisting of the Sun, the nine planets and their satellites, changed when Oort demonstrated that a gigantic cloud of comets (the Oort cloud) is located on the periphery of the solar system. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the Oort cloud's mass; (2) Hill's cloud mass; (3) angular momentum distribution in the solar system; and (4) the cometary cloud around other stars.

  5. The Etiology of Poor Neighborhoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Stanley B.

    The inner city aggregations of blacks, Appalachian whites, and Mexicans are not simply the focal points for short-term instability or remedial governmental programs: they are the first native American urban poor. The poor neighborhoods of America's inner city are a result of three great population movements. One originated in the Atlantic Coastal…

  6. Cirrus cloud iridescence: a rare case study.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2003-01-20

    On the evening of 25 November 1998, a cirrus cloud revealing the pastel colors of the iridescence phenomenon was photographed and studied by a polarization lidar system at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). The diffraction of sunlight falling on relatively minute cloud particles, which display spatial gradients in size, is the cause of iridescence. According to the 14-year study of midlatitude cirrus clouds at FARS, cirrus rarely produce even poor iridescent patches, making this particularly long-lived and vivid occurrence unique. In this unusually high (13.2-14.4-km) and cold (-69.7 degrees to -75.5 degrees) tropopause-topped cirrus cloud, iridescence was noted from approximately 6.0 degrees to approximately 13.5 degrees from the Sun. On the basis of simple diffraction theory, this indicates the presence of particles of 2.5-5.5-microm effective diameter. The linear depolarization ratios of delta = 0.5 measured by the lidar verify that the cloud particles were nonspherical ice crystals. The demonstration that ice clouds can generate iridescence has led to the conclusion that iridescence is rarely seen in midlatitude cirrus clouds because populations of such small particles do not exist for long in the presence of the relatively high water-vapor supersaturations needed for ice-particle nucleation. PMID:12570270

  7. Cirrus cloud iridescence: a rare case study.

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2003-01-20

    On the evening of 25 November 1998, a cirrus cloud revealing the pastel colors of the iridescence phenomenon was photographed and studied by a polarization lidar system at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). The diffraction of sunlight falling on relatively minute cloud particles, which display spatial gradients in size, is the cause of iridescence. According to the 14-year study of midlatitude cirrus clouds at FARS, cirrus rarely produce even poor iridescent patches, making this particularly long-lived and vivid occurrence unique. In this unusually high (13.2-14.4-km) and cold (-69.7 degrees to -75.5 degrees) tropopause-topped cirrus cloud, iridescence was noted from approximately 6.0 degrees to approximately 13.5 degrees from the Sun. On the basis of simple diffraction theory, this indicates the presence of particles of 2.5-5.5-microm effective diameter. The linear depolarization ratios of delta = 0.5 measured by the lidar verify that the cloud particles were nonspherical ice crystals. The demonstration that ice clouds can generate iridescence has led to the conclusion that iridescence is rarely seen in midlatitude cirrus clouds because populations of such small particles do not exist for long in the presence of the relatively high water-vapor supersaturations needed for ice-particle nucleation.

  8. Cirrus cloud iridescence: a rare case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    On the evening of 25 November 1998, a cirrus cloud revealing the pastel colors of the iridescence phenomenon was photographed and studied by a polarization lidar system at the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS). The diffraction of sunlight falling on relatively minute cloud particles, which display spatial gradients in size, is the cause of iridescence. According to the 14-year study of midlatitude cirrus clouds at FARS, cirrus rarely produce even poor iridescent patches, making this particularly long-lived and vivid occurrence unique. In this unusually high (13.2-14.4-km) and cold (-69.7 ° to -75.5°) tropopause-topped cirrus cloud, iridescence was noted from ~6.0° to ~13.5° from the Sun. On the basis of simple diffraction theory, this indicates the presence of particles of 2.5-5.5-μm effective diameter. The linear depolarization ratios of δ = 0.5 measured by the lidar verify that the cloud particles were nonspherical ice crystals. The demonstration that ice clouds can generate iridescence has led to the conclusion that iridescence is rarely seen in midlatitude cirrus clouds because populations of such small particles do not exist for long in the presence of the relatively high water-vapor supersaturations needed for ice-particle nucleation.

  9. Analysis of Organic matter from cloud particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, Shelton; Castillo, Raymond

    1987-03-01

    Organic matter collected from filtration of two separate cloud events was analysed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Particles collected from different size filters were separated by color and each type of particle gave rise to a characteristic spectrum. The major constituents were identified as complex proteins and cellulose. Additionally, some degraded material (likely protein) and an unidentified orange-brown material were present. Finally some trace components were identified as wax, oil, silicon oil, polyvinyl chloride, calcium carbonate, clay, sand and polyethylene.

  10. Separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace levels of inorganic Sb and Se from different sample matrices by charge transfer sensitized ion-pairing using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2016-10-01

    In the existing study, a new, simple and low cost process for separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace level of inorganic Sb and Se from natural waters, beverages and foods using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS, is proposed. The process is based on charge transfer sensitized complex formations of Sb(III) and Se(IV) with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride (Neutral red, NRH(+)) in presence of pyrogallol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as both sensitivity enhancement and counter ion at pH 6.0. Under the optimized reagent conditions, the calibration curves were highly linear in the ranges of 8-300ngL(-1) and 12-250ngL(-1) (r(2)≥0.993) for Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The limits of detection were 2.45 and 3.60ngL(-1) with sensitivity enhancement factors of 155 and 120, respectively. The recovery rate was higher than 96% with a relative standard deviation lower than 5.3% for five replicate measurements of 25, 75 and 150ngL(-1) Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs), and was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable speciation and determination of the contents of total Sb/Sb(III), and total Se/Se(IV) after UA-CPE of the pretreated sample matrices with and without pre-reduction with a mixture of l-cysteine and tartaric acid. Their Sb(V) and Se(VI) contents were calculated from the differences between total Sb and Sb(III) and/or total Se and Se(IV) levels. PMID:27474317

  11. Separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace levels of inorganic Sb and Se from different sample matrices by charge transfer sensitized ion-pairing using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS.

    PubMed

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2016-10-01

    In the existing study, a new, simple and low cost process for separation/preconcentration of ultra-trace level of inorganic Sb and Se from natural waters, beverages and foods using ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction (UA-CPE) prior to their speciation and determination by hydride generation AAS, is proposed. The process is based on charge transfer sensitized complex formations of Sb(III) and Se(IV) with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine hydrochloride (Neutral red, NRH(+)) in presence of pyrogallol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as both sensitivity enhancement and counter ion at pH 6.0. Under the optimized reagent conditions, the calibration curves were highly linear in the ranges of 8-300ngL(-1) and 12-250ngL(-1) (r(2)≥0.993) for Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The limits of detection were 2.45 and 3.60ngL(-1) with sensitivity enhancement factors of 155 and 120, respectively. The recovery rate was higher than 96% with a relative standard deviation lower than 5.3% for five replicate measurements of 25, 75 and 150ngL(-1) Se(IV) and Sb(III), respectively. The method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs), and was successfully applied to the accurate and reliable speciation and determination of the contents of total Sb/Sb(III), and total Se/Se(IV) after UA-CPE of the pretreated sample matrices with and without pre-reduction with a mixture of l-cysteine and tartaric acid. Their Sb(V) and Se(VI) contents were calculated from the differences between total Sb and Sb(III) and/or total Se and Se(IV) levels.

  12. Direct observations of excess solar absorption by clouds.

    PubMed

    Pilewskie, P; Valero, F P

    1995-03-17

    Aircraft measurements of solar flux in the cloudy tropical atmosphere reveal that solar absorption by clouds is anomalously large when compared to theoretical estimates. The ratio of cloud forcing at an altitude of 20 kilometers to that at the surface is 1.58 rather than 1.0, as predicted by models. These results were derived from a cloud radiation experiment in which identical instrumentation was deployed on coordinated stacked aircraft. These findings indicate a significant difference between measurements and theory and imply that the interaction between clouds and solar radiation is poorly understood.

  13. Direct Observations of Excess Solar Absorption by Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilewskie, Peter; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of solar flux in the cloudy tropical atmosphere reveal that solar absorption by clouds is anomalously large when compared to theoretical estimates. The ratio of cloud forcing at an altitude of 20 kilometers to that at the surface is 1.58 rather than 1.0 as predicted by models. These results were derived from a cloud radiation experiment in which identical instrumentation was deployed on coordinated stacked aircraft. These findings indicate a significant difference between measurements and theory and imply that the interaction between clouds and solar radiation is poorly understood.

  14. Introduction to field tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrowski, F.; Kuhn, M.

    2011-03-01

    Field tracing is the generalization of ray tracing and enables electromagnetic system modeling. Harmonic fields are traced through the optical system instead of ray bundles. This allows the smooth combination of different modeling techniques in different subdomains of the system, e.g. to use the rigorous spectrum-of-plane-wave operator for homogeneous media, geometrical optics to trace through a lens and finite element methods to include the effect of some scatterer. All modeling techniques have to be formulated for vectorial harmonic fields. The paper introduces the basic concepts of field tracing and derives the corresponding operator equations. Propagation in homogeneous media is of special concern in field tracing to interconnect the modeling in different subdomains of the system. A new concept for a smart propagation algorithm is presented. Because of the success of geometrical optics in ray tracing, it is reasonable to consider its application in field tracing. In this paper we discuss generalizations of geometrical optics that have been enforced by field tracing. Although the basic field tracing equations are formulated for vectorial harmonic fields, general fields can be treated by suitable decompositions into sets of harmonic modes.

  15. Modelling the Martian CO2 Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Listowski, Constantino; Määttänen, A.; Montmessin, F.; Lefèvre, F.

    2012-10-01

    Martian CO2 ice cloud formation represents a rare phenomenon in the Solar System: the condensation of the main component of the atmosphere. Moreover, on Mars, condensation occurs in a rarefied atmosphere (large Knudsen numbers, Kn) that limits the growth efficiency. These clouds form in the polar winter troposphere and in the mesosphere near the equator. CO2 ice cloud modeling has turned out to be challenging: recent efforts (e.g. [1]) fail in explaining typical small sizes (80 nm-130 nm) observed for mesospheric clouds [2]. Supercold pockets (T<< Tcond), which appear to be common in the mesosphere [3],might be exclusively responsible of the formation of such clouds, as a consequence of gravity waves propagating throughout the atmosphere [4]. In order to understand by modeling the effect CO2 clouds could have on the Martian climate, one needs to properly predict the crystal sizes, and so the growth rates involved. We will show that Earth microphysical crystal growth models, which deal with the condensation of trace gases, are misleading when transposed for CO2 cloud formation: they overestimate the growth rates at high saturation ratios. On the other hand, an approach based on the continuum regime (small Kn), corrected to account for the free molecular regime (high Kn) remains efficient. We present our new approach for modelling the growth of Martian CO2 cloud crystals, investigated with a 1D-microphysical model. [1] Colaprete, A., et al., (2008) PSS, 56, 150C [2] Montmessin, F., et al., (2006) Icarus, 183, 403-410 [3] Montmessin at al., (2011) mamo, 404-405 [4] Spiga, A., et al., (2012), GRL, 39, L02201 [5] Wood, S. E., (1999), Ph.D. thesis, UCLA [6] Young, J. B., J. Geophys. Res., 36, 294-2956, 1993

  16. Ice Nuclei Production in Volcanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper [Durant et al., 2008] includes a review of research on ice nucleation in explosive volcanic clouds in addition to reporting their own research on laboratory measurements focused on single-particle ice nucleation. Their research as well as the research they reviewed were concerned with the freezing of supercooled water drops (250 to 260 K) by volcanic ash particles acting as ice freezing nuclei. Among their conclusions are: Fine volcanic ash particles are very efficient ice freezing nuclei. Volcanic clouds likely contain fine ash concentrations 104 to 105 times greater than found in meteorological clouds. This overabundance of ice nuclei will produce a cloud with many small ice crystals that will not grow larger as they do in meteorological clouds because the cloud water content is widely distributed among the numerous small ice crystals. The small ice crystals have a small fall velocity, thus volcanic clouds are very stable. The small ice crystals are easily lofted into the stratosphere transporting water and adsorbed trace gasses. In this paper we examine the mechanism for the production of the small ice nuclei and develop a simple model for calculating the size of the ice nuclei based upon the distribution of magma around imbedded bubbles. We also have acquired a volcanic bomb that exhibits bubble remnants on its entire surface. The naturally occurring fragments from the volcanic bomb reveal a size distribution consistent with that predicted by the simple model. Durant, A. J., R. A. Shaw, W. I. Rose, Y. Mi, and G. G. J. Ernst (2008), Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D09206, doi:10.1029/2007JD009064.

  17. The poor man's cell block

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a simple method for making formalin or isopropyl alcohol vapour fixed cell blocks from fine needle aspiration cytology specimens that we refer to as ‘The Poor Man's Cell Block.’ PMID:20671053

  18. Economic Rationality of the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Jan M.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing ethnographic data on several rural families, the economic rationality of the rural poor is demonstrated to be implicit in their behavior. Identification is also made of some of the constraints within which these consumer decisions are made. (JC)

  19. Formaldehyde in Absorption: Tracing Molecular Gas in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early-Type Galaxies (ETGs) have been long-classified as the red, ellipsoidal branch of the classic Hubble tuning fork diagram of galactic structure. In part with this classification, ETGs are thought to be molecular and atomic gas-poor with little to no recent star formation. However, recent efforts have questioned this ingrained classification. Most notably, the ATLAS3D survey of 260 ETGs within ~40 Mpc found 22% contain CO, a common tracer for molecular gas. The presence of cold molecular gas also implies the possibility for current star formation within these galaxies. Simulations do not accurately predict the recent observations and further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms of ETGs.CO traces molecular gas starting at densities of ~102 cm-3, which makes it a good tracer of bulk molecular gas, but does little to constrain the possible locations of star formation within the cores of dense molecular gas clouds. Formaldehyde (H2CO) traces molecular gas on the order of ~104 cm-3, providing a further constraint on the location of star-forming gas, while being simple enough to possibly be abundant in gas-poor ETGs. In cold molecular clouds at or above ~104 cm-3 densities, the structure of formaldehyde enables a phenomenon in which rotational transitions have excitation temperatures driven below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), ~2.7 K. Because the CMB radiates isotropically, formaldehyde can be observed in absorption, independent of distance, as a tracer of moderately-dense molecular clouds and star formation.This novel observation technique of formaldehyde was incorporated for observations of twelve CO-detected ETGs from the ATLAS3D sample, including NGC 4710 and PGC 8815, to investigate the presence of cold molecular gas, and possible star formation, in ETGs. We present images from the Very Large Array, used in its C-array configuration, of the J = 11,0 - 11,1 transition of formaldehyde towards these sources. We report our

  20. Using assertions with trace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazimek, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Algorithms for dynamic detection of assertions are designed to find different types of dependences in programs based only on information collected during their execution without static analysis. Specificity of those algorithms and limited quantity of data to analyze needs to investigate the usage principle of discovered assertions for software dependability increase. This article introduces techniques for increasing usage efficiency of detected assertions through using program execution trace. Concept of trace and of an assertion with trace were defined. The work describes algorithms for reducing the number of traces, shortening traces lengths and reducing the number of observation points identifiers in traces. For several applications fault injection based experiments were conducted in order to check the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Cloud Processed CCN Affect Cloud Microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.; Tabor, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the bimodality/monomodality of CCN spectra (Hudson et al. 2015) exert opposite effects on cloud microphysics in two aircraft field projects. The figure shows two examples, droplet concentration, Nc, and drizzle liquid water content, Ld, against classification of CCN spectral modality. Low ratings go to balanced separated bimodal spectra, high ratings go to single mode spectra, strictly monomodal 8. Intermediate ratings go merged modes, e.g., one mode a shoulder of another. Bimodality is caused by mass or hygroscopicity increases that go only to CCN that made activated cloud droplets. In the Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) small cumuli with lower Nc, greater droplet mean diameters, MD, effective radii, re, spectral widths, σ, cloud liquid water contents, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal (lower modal ratings) below cloud CCN spectra whereas clouds with higher Nc, smaller MD, re, σ, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN (higher modal ratings). In polluted stratus clouds of the MArine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) clouds that had greater Nc, and smaller MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more bimodal CCN spectra whereas clouds with lower Nc, and greater MD, re, σ, Lc, and Ld were closer to more monomodal CCN. These relationships are opposite because the dominant ICE-T cloud processing was coalescence whereas chemical transformations (e.g., SO2 to SO4) were dominant in MASE. Coalescence reduces Nc and thus also CCN concentrations (NCCN) when droplets evaporate. In subsequent clouds the reduced competition increases MD and σ, which further enhance coalescence and drizzle. Chemical transformations do not change Nc but added sulfate enhances droplet and CCN solubility. Thus, lower critical supersaturation (S) CCN can produce more cloud droplets in subsequent cloud cycles, especially for the low W and effective S of stratus. The increased competition reduces MD, re, and σ, which inhibit coalescence and thus reduce drizzle

  2. OMMYDCLD: a New A-train Cloud Product that Co-locates OMI and MODIS Cloud and Radiance Parameters onto the OMI Footprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Brad; Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Veefkind, Pepijn; Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Clouds cover approximately 60% of the earth's surface. When obscuring the satellite's field of view (FOV), clouds complicate the retrieval of ozone, trace gases and aerosols from data collected by earth observing satellites. Cloud properties associated with optical thickness, cloud pressure, water phase, drop size distribution (DSD), cloud fraction, vertical and areal extent can also change significantly over short spatio-temporal scales. The radiative transfer models used to retrieve column estimates of atmospheric constituents typically do not account for all these properties and their variations. The OMI science team is preparing to release a new data product, OMMYDCLD, which combines the cloud information from sensors on board two earth observing satellites in the NASA A-Train: Aura/OMI and Aqua/MODIS. OMMYDCLD co-locates high resolution cloud and radiance information from MODIS onto the much larger OMI pixel and combines it with parameters derived from the two other OMI cloud products: OMCLDRR and OMCLDO2. The product includes histograms for MODIS scientific data sets (SDS) provided at 1 km resolution. The statistics of key data fields - such as effective particle radius, cloud optical thickness and cloud water path - are further separated into liquid and ice categories using the optical and IR phase information. OMMYDCLD offers users of OMI data cloud information that will be useful for carrying out OMI calibration work, multi-year studies of cloud vertical structure and in the identification and classification of multi-layer clouds.

  3. Noctilucent Cloud Sightings

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar Mesospheric Clouds form during each polar region's summer months in the coldest place in the atmosphere, 50 miles above Earth's surface. Noctilucent Clouds were first observed in 1885 by an a...

  4. Cloud Computing for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Safvi, Amjad; Thind, Ss; Singh, Amarjit

    2012-07-01

    Cloud computing is a concept wherein a computer grid is created using the Internet with the sole purpose of utilizing shared resources such as computer software, hardware, on a pay-per-use model. Using Cloud computing, radiology users can efficiently manage multimodality imaging units by using the latest software and hardware without paying huge upfront costs. Cloud computing systems usually work on public, private, hybrid, or community models. Using the various components of a Cloud, such as applications, client, infrastructure, storage, services, and processing power, Cloud computing can help imaging units rapidly scale and descale operations and avoid huge spending on maintenance of costly applications and storage. Cloud computing allows flexibility in imaging. It sets free radiology from the confines of a hospital and creates a virtual mobile office. The downsides to Cloud computing involve security and privacy issues which need to be addressed to ensure the success of Cloud computing in the future.

  5. Poor smokers, poor quitters, and cigarette tax regressivity.

    PubMed

    Remler, Dahlia K

    2004-02-01

    The traditional view that excise taxes are regressive has been challenged. I document the history of the term regressive tax, show that traditional definitions have always found cigarette taxes to be regressive, and illustrate the implications of the greater price responsiveness observed among the poor. I explain the different definitions of tax burden: accounting, welfare-based willingness to pay, and welfare-based time inconsistent. Progressivity (equity across income groups) is sensitive to the way in which tax burden is assessed. Analysis of horizontal equity (fairness within a given income group) shows that cigarette taxes heavily burden poor smokers who do not quit, no matter how tax burden is assessed.

  6. Computer animation of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.

    1994-01-28

    Computer animation of outdoor scenes is enhanced by realistic clouds. I will discuss several different modeling and rendering schemes for clouds, and show how they evolved in my animation work. These include transparency-textured clouds on a 2-D plane, smooth shaded or textured 3-D clouds surfaces, and 3-D volume rendering. For the volume rendering, I will present various illumination schemes, including the density emitter, single scattering, and multiple scattering models.

  7. The Kimball Free-Cloud Model: A Failed Innovation in Chemical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2014-01-01

    This historical review traces the origins of the Kimball free-cloud model of the chemical bond, otherwise known as the charge-cloud or tangent-sphere model, and the central role it played in attempts to reform the introductory chemical curriculum at both the high school and college levels in the 1960s. It also critically evaluates the limitations…

  8. Cloud Scaling Properties and Cloud Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Cloud liquid and cloud traction variability is studied as a function of horizontal scale in the ECMWF forecast model during several 10-day runs at the highest available model resolution, recently refined from approximately 60 km (T213) down to approximately 20 km (T639). At higher resolutions, model plane-parallel albedo biases are reduced, so that models may be tuned to have larger, more realistic, cloud liquid water amounts, However, the distribution of cloud liquid assumed -within- each gridbox, for radiative and thermodynamic computations, depends on ad hoc assumptions that are not necessarily consistent with observed scaling properties, or with scaling properties produced by the model at larger scales. To study the larger-scale cloud properties, ten locations on the Earth are chosen to coincide with locations having considerable surface data available for validation, and representing a variety of climatic regimes, scaling exponents are determined from a range or scales down to model resolution, and are re-computed every three hours, separately for low, medium and high clouds, as well as column-integrated cloudiness. Cloud variability fluctuates in time, due to diurnal, synoptic and other' processes, but scaling exponents are found to be relatively stable. various approaches are considered for applying computed cloud scaling to subgrid cloud distributions used for radiation, beyond simple random or maximal overlap now in common use. Considerably more work is needed to compare model cloud scaling with observations. This will be aided by increased availability of high-resolution surface, aircraft and satellite data, and by the increasing resolution of global models,

  9. New MISR Cloud Data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-08-06

    ... are provided for 70% of clouds observed by MISR with vector RMS difference from atmospheric motion vectors from other sources ranging from ... m/s. Cloud top heights are provided for 80% of clouds with RMS differences of less than 1 km (the same as for the existing Level 2 Stereo ...

  10. Clouds in Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R.

    1999-01-01

    In the terrestrial atmosphere clouds are familiar as vast collections of small water drops or ice cyrstals suspended in the air. The study of clouds touches on many facets of armospheric science. The chemistry of clouds is tied to the chemistry of the surrounding atmosphere.

  11. Cloud Computing Explained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Rosalyn

    2010-01-01

    While many talk about the cloud, few actually understand it. Three organizations' definitions come to the forefront when defining the cloud: Gartner, Forrester, and the National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST). Although both Gartner and Forrester provide definitions of cloud computing, the NIST definition is concise and uses…

  12. Security in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  13. Jets and Water Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yuan; Showman, A. P.

    2012-10-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations show that Jupiter exhibits multiple banded zonal jet structures. These banded jets correlate with dark and bright clouds, often called "belts" and "zones". The mechanisms that produce these banded zonal jets and clouds are poorly understood. Our previous studies showed that the latent heat released by condensation of water vapor could produce equatorial superrotation along with multiple zonal jets in the mid-to-high latitudes. However, that previous work assumed complete and instant removal of condensate and therefore could not predict the cloud formation. Here we present an improved 3D Jupiter model to investigate some effects of cloud microphysics on large-scale dynamics using a closed water cycle that includes condensation, three-dimensional advection of cloud material by the large-scale circulation, evaporation and sedimentation. We use a dry convective adjustment scheme to adjust the temperature towards a dry adiabat when atmospheric columns become convectively unstable, and the tracers are mixed within the unstable layers accordingly. Other physics parameterizations included in our model are the bottom drag and internal heat flux as well as the choices of either Newtonian heating scheme or gray radiative transfer. Given the poorly understood cloud microphysics, we perform case studies by treating the particle size and condensation/evaporation time scale as free parameters. We find that, in some cases, the active water cycle can produce multiple banded jets and clouds. However, the equatorial jet is generally very weak in all the cases because of insufficient supply of eastward eddy momentum fluxes. These differences may result from differences in the overall vertical stratification, baroclinicity, and moisture distribution in our new models relative to the older ones; we expect to elucidate the dynamical mechanisms in continuing work.

  14. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  15. Aerosols, clouds, and precipitation in the North Atlantic trades observed during the Barbados aerosol cloud experiment - Part 1: Distributions and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eunsil; Albrecht, Bruce A.; Feingold, Graham; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Chuang, Patrick; Donaher, Shaunna L.

    2016-07-01

    Shallow marine cumulus clouds are by far the most frequently observed cloud type over the Earth's oceans; but they are poorly understood and have not been investigated as extensively as stratocumulus clouds. This study describes and discusses the properties and variations of aerosol, cloud, and precipitation associated with shallow marine cumulus clouds observed in the North Atlantic trades during a field campaign (Barbados Aerosol Cloud Experiment- BACEX, March-April 2010), which took place off Barbados where African dust periodically affects the region. The principal observing platform was the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter (TO) research aircraft, which was equipped with standard meteorological instruments, a zenith pointing cloud radar and probes that measured aerosol, cloud, and precipitation characteristics.The temporal variation and vertical distribution of aerosols observed from the 15 flights, which included the most intense African dust event during all of 2010 in Barbados, showed a wide range of aerosol conditions. During dusty periods, aerosol concentrations increased substantially in the size range between 0.5 and 10 µm (diameter), particles that are large enough to be effective giant cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The 10-day back trajectories showed three distinct air masses with distinct vertical structures associated with air masses originating in the Atlantic (typical maritime air mass with relatively low aerosol concentrations in the marine boundary layer), Africa (Saharan air layer), and mid-latitudes (continental pollution plumes). Despite the large differences in the total mass loading and the origin of the aerosols, the overall shapes of the aerosol particle size distributions were consistent, with the exception of the transition period.The TO was able to sample many clouds at various phases of growth. Maximum cloud depth observed was less than ˜ 3 km, while most clouds were less than 1 km

  16. Thin Lens Ray Tracing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatland, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a ray tracing approach to thin lens analysis based on a vector form of Snell's law for paraxial rays as an alternative to the usual approach in introductory physics courses. The ray tracing approach accommodates skew rays and thus provides a complete analysis. (Author/KHR)

  17. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1994-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  18. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G

    2015-11-01

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5.

  19. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G.

    2015-01-01

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve—from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4–0.5. PMID:26489652

  20. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G

    2015-11-01

    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5. PMID:26489652

  1. The management of poor performance

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of poor performance is in an integral part of government policy. The suggested approach for the identification of such problems, advocated by the General Medical Council, is that of appraisal. However, traditionally, there has been a reluctance to deal with poor performers, as all doctors have made mistakes and are usually only too ready to forgive and be non‐critical of colleagues. The problems are widespread, and 6% of the senior hospital workforce in any 5‐year period may have problems. PMID:17308213

  2. INFRARED DARK CLOUDS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Young; Stanimirovic, Snezana; Devine, Kathryn E.; Ott, Juergen; Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Jones, Paul A.; Cunningham, Maria R. E-mail: sstanimi@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: jott@nrao.edu E-mail: joana@astro.keele.ac.uk E-mail: pjones@phys.unsw.edu.au

    2009-10-15

    We have applied the unsharp-masking technique to the 24 {mu}m image of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, to search for high-extinction regions. This technique has been used to locate very dense and cold interstellar clouds in the Galaxy, particularly infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). Fifty-five candidate regions of high extinction, namely, high-contrast regions (HCRs), have been identified from the generated decremental contrast image of the SMC. Most HCRs are located in the southern bar region and mainly distributed in the outskirts of CO clouds, but most likely contain a significant amount of H{sub 2}. HCRs have a peak contrast at 24 {mu}m of 2%-2.5% and a size of 8-14 pc. This corresponds to the size of typical and large Galactic IRDCs, but Galactic IRDCs are 2-3 times darker at 24 {mu}m than our HCRs. To constrain the physical properties of the HCRs, we have performed NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, HNC, HCO{sup +}, and HCN observations toward one of the HCRs, HCR LIRS36-east, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Mopra single-dish radio telescope. We did not detect any molecular line emission, however, our upper limits to the column densities of molecular species suggest that HCRs are most likely moderately dense with n {approx} 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. This volume density is in agreement with predictions for the cool atomic phase in low-metallicity environments. We suggest that HCRs may be tracing clouds at the transition from atomic to molecule-dominated medium, and could be a powerful way to study early stages of gas condensation in low-metallicity galaxies. Alternatively, if made up of dense molecular clumps <0.5 pc in size, HCRs could be counterparts of Galactic IRDCs, and/or regions with highly unusual abundance of very small dust grains.

  3. Cloud microstructure studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blau, H. H., Jr.; Fowler, M. G.; Chang, D. T.; Ryan, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Over two thousand individual cloud droplet size distributions were measured with an optical cloud particle spectrometer flown on the NASA Convair 990 aircraft. Representative droplet spectra and liquid water content, L (gm/cu m) were obtained for oceanic stratiform and cumuliform clouds. For non-precipitating clouds, values of L range from 0.1 gm/cu m to 0.5 gm/cu m; with precipitation, L is often greater than 1 gm/cu m. Measurements were also made in a newly formed contrail and in cirrus clouds.

  4. Clouds Over Crater Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Clouds above the rim of 'Endurance Crater' in this image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity can remind the viewer that Mars, our celestial neighbor, is subject to weather. On Earth, clouds like these would be referred to as 'cirrus' or the aptly nicknamed 'mares' tails.' These clouds occur in a region of strong vertical shear. The cloud particles (ice in this martian case) fall out, and get dragged along away from the location where they originally condensed, forming characteristic streamers. Opportunity took this picture with its navigation camera during the rover's 269th martian day (Oct. 26, 2004).

    The mission's atmospheric science team is studying cloud observations to deduce seasonal and time-of-day behavior of the clouds. This helps them gain a better understanding of processes that control cloud formation.

  5. Poor Memory: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Malcolm L.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a case study of a person who had a cardiac arrest with some right-sided brain damage. Describes the effects of poor memory on cognition, personality, and interpersonal relationships based on personal observations during memory impairment. Highlights the course of rehabilitation over a two-year period. (PAS)

  6. Traceds: An Experimental Trace Element Partitioning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this project, which is part of the EARTHCHEM initiative, is to compile the existing experimental trace element partitioning data, and to develop a transparent, accessible resource for the community. The primary goal of experimental trace element partitioning studies is to create a database that can be used to develop models of how trace elements behave in natural geochemical systems. The range of approaches as to how this is accomplished and how the data are reported differs dramatically from one system to another and one investigator to another. This provides serious challenges to the creation of a coherent database - and suggests the need for a standard format for data presentation and reporting. The driving force for this compilation is to provide community access to the complete database for trace element experiments. Our new effort includes all the published analytical results from experimental determinations. In compiling the data, we have set a minimum standard for the data to be included. The threshold criteria include: Experimental conditions (temperature, pressure, device, container, time, etc.) Major element composition of the phases Trace element analyses of the phases Data sources that did not report these minimum components were not included. The rationale for not including such data is that the degree of equilibration is unknown, and more important, no rigorous approach to modeling the behavior of trace elements is possible without a knowledge of the actual concentrations or the temperature and pressure of formation. The data are stored using a schema derived from that of the Library of Experimental Phase Relations (LEPR), modified to account for additional metadata, and restructured to permit multiple analytical entries for various element/technique/standard combinations. Our ultimate goal is to produce a database together with a flexible user interface that will be useful for experimentalists to set up their work and to build

  7. Theoretical development of Monte Carlo codes for modeling cumulus cloud fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Reflected fluxes are calculated for stratocumulus cloud fields as a function of skycover, cloud aspect ratio, and cloud shape. Cloud liquid water volume is held invariant as cloud shape is varied so that the results can be utilized more effectively by general circulation models and climate models. On the basis of required accuracy in the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment program, an order of magnitude value of 10 W/sq m is used to estimate significant differences between plane parallel and broken cloudiness. This limit is exceeded for cloud covers between 10% and 90%, indicating that plane paralel calculations are not satisfactory at most values of cloud cover. The choice of cloud shape also leads to large differences in reflected fluxes. These differences are traced to the anisotropic intensity pattern out the cloud sides, to the size and shape of the holes between clouds, and to variations in cloud area as viewed from the solar direction. An empirical relationship for effective cloud cover is given at solar zenith angle of theta = 60 deg. This relationship allows for the relatively accurate (delta F = 10 - 15 W/sq m.) computation of broken cloud field reflected fluxes from plane parallel calculations.

  8. Interpretation of FRESCO cloud retrievals in case of absorbing aerosol events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Tilstra, L. G.; Stammes, P.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud and aerosol information is needed in trace gas retrievals from satellite measurements. The Fast REtrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A band (FRESCO) cloud algorithm employs reflectance spectra of the O2 A band around 760 nm to derive cloud pressure and effective cloud fraction. In general, clouds contribute more to the O2 A band reflectance than aerosols. Therefore, the FRESCO algorithm does not correct for aerosol effects in the retrievals and attributes the retrieved cloud information entirely to the presence of clouds, and not to aerosols. For events with high aerosol loading, aerosols may have a dominant effect, especially for almost cloud-free scenes. We have analysed FRESCO cloud data and Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument on the Metop-A satellite for events with typical absorbing aerosol types, such as volcanic ash, desert dust and smoke. We find that the FRESCO effective cloud fractions are correlated with the AAI data for these absorbing aerosol events and that the FRESCO cloud pressures contain information on aerosol layer pressure. For cloud-free scenes, the derived FRESCO cloud pressures are close to those of the aerosol layer for optically thick aerosols. For cloudy scenes, if the strongly absorbing aerosols are located above the clouds, then the retrieved FRESCO cloud pressures may represent the height of the aerosol layer rather than the height of the clouds. Combining FRESCO cloud data and AAI, an estimate for the aerosol layer pressure can be given, which can be beneficial for aviation safety and operations in case of e.g. volcanic ash plumes.

  9. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables. PMID:23666849

  10. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables.

  11. High velocity clouds in nearby disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulman, Eric; Bregman, Joel N.; Roberts, Morton S.; Brinks, Elias

    1993-01-01

    Clouds of neutral hydrogen in our galaxy with the absolute value of v greater than 100 km/s cover approximately 10 percent of the sky to a limiting column density of 1 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -2). These high velocity clouds (HVCs) may dominate the kinetic energy of neutral hydrogen in non-circular motion, and are an important though poorly understood component of galactic gas. It has been suggested that the HVCs can be reproduced by a combination of three phenomena: a galactic fountain driven by disk supernovae which would account for most of the HVCs, material tidally torn from the Magellanic Clouds, and an outer arm complex which is associated with the large scale structure of the warped galactic disk. We sought to detect HVCs in external galaxies in order to test the galactic fountain model.

  12. OH 18 cm TRANSITION AS A THERMOMETER FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-10

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H{sub 2} densities (10{sup 2}–10{sup 7} cm{sup −3}). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (∼60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H{sub 2} is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  13. OH 18 cm Transition as a Thermometer for Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisawa, Yuji; Inokuma, Hiroshi; Sakai, Nami; Menten, Karl M.; Maezawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    We have observed the four hyperfine components of the 18 cm OH transition toward the translucent cloud eastward of Heiles Cloud 2 (HCL2E), the cold dark cloud L134N, and the photodissociation region of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope. We have found intensity anomalies among the hyperfine components in all three regions. In particular, an absorption feature of the 1612 MHz satellite line against the cosmic microwave background has been detected toward HCL2E and two positions of the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud. On the basis of statistical equilibrium calculations, we find that the hyperfine anomalies originate from the non-LTE population of the hyperfine levels, and can be used to determine the kinetic temperature of the gas over a wide range of H2 densities (102-107 cm-3). Toward the center of HCL2E, the gas kinetic temperature is determined to be 53 ± 1 K, and it increases toward the cloud peripheries (˜60 K). The ortho-to-para ratio of H2 is determined to be 3.5 ± 0.9 from the averaged spectrum for the eight positions. In L134N, a similar increase of the temperature is also seen toward the periphery. In the ρ-Ophiuchi molecular cloud, the gas kinetic temperature decreases as a function of the distance from the exciting star HD 147889. These results demonstrate a new aspect of the OH 18 cm line that can be used as a good thermometer of molecular cloud envelopes. The OH 18 cm line can be used to trace a new class of warm molecular gas surrounding a molecular cloud, which is not well traced by the emission of CO and its isotopologues.

  14. THE CALIFORNIA MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Lada, Charles J.; Lombardi, Marco; Alves, Joao F. E-mail: mlombard@eso.or

    2009-09-20

    We present an analysis of wide-field infrared extinction maps of a region in Perseus just north of the Taurus-Auriga dark cloud complex. From this analysis we have identified a massive, nearby, but previously unrecognized, giant molecular cloud (GMC). Both a uniform foreground star density and measurements of the cloud's velocity field from CO observations indicate that this cloud is likely a coherent structure at a single distance. From comparison of foreground star counts with Galactic models, we derive a distance of 450 +- 23 pc to the cloud. At this distance the cloud extends over roughly 80 pc and has a mass of {approx} 10{sup 5} M{sub sun}, rivaling the Orion (A) molecular cloud as the largest and most massive GMC in the solar neighborhood. Although surprisingly similar in mass and size to the more famous Orion molecular cloud (OMC) the newly recognized cloud displays significantly less star formation activity with more than an order of magnitude fewer young stellar objects than found in the OMC, suggesting that both the level of star formation and perhaps the star formation rate in this cloud are an order of magnitude or more lower than in the OMC. Analysis of extinction maps of both clouds shows that the new cloud contains only 10% the amount of high extinction (A{sub K} > 1.0 mag) material as is found in the OMC. This, in turn, suggests that the level of star formation activity and perhaps the star formation rate in these two clouds may be directly proportional to the total amount of high extinction material and presumably high density gas within them and that there might be a density threshold for star formation on the order of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} a few x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}.

  15. Silicon photonics cloud (SiCloud)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Peter T. S.; Jiang, Yunshan; Lynch, Michael; Miyatake, Taira; Carmona, Christopher; Chan, Andrew C.; Muniam, Kuhan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-02-01

    We present SiCloud (Silicon Photonics Cloud), the first free, instructional web-based research and education tool for silicon photonics. SiCloud's vision is to provide a host of instructional and research web-based tools. Such interactive learning tools enhance traditional teaching methods by extending access to a very large audience, resulting in very high impact. Interactive tools engage the brain in a way different from merely reading, and so enhance and reinforce the learning experience. Understanding silicon photonics is challenging as the topic involves a wide range of disciplines, including material science, semiconductor physics, electronics and waveguide optics. This web-based calculator is an interactive analysis tool for optical properties of silicon and related material (SiO2, Si3N4, Al2O3, etc.). It is designed to be a one stop resource for students, researchers and design engineers. The first and most basic aspect of Silicon Photonics is the Material Parameters, which provides the foundation for the Device, Sub-System and System levels. SiCloud includes the common dielectrics and semiconductors for waveguide core, cladding, and photodetection, as well as metals for electrical contacts. SiCloud is a work in progress and its capability is being expanded. SiCloud is being developed at UCLA with funding from the National Science Foundation's Center for Integrated Access Networks (CIAN) Engineering Research Center.

  16. Health solutions for the poor.

    PubMed

    Castro, J L; Fujiwara, P I; Bhambal, P; Emaille-Léotard, N; Harries, A D

    2014-03-21

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organisation involved in the fight against tuberculosis. In 2008, the Institute of The Union was challenged to think boldly about the future and to develop a diverse work portfolio covering a wide spectrum of lung health and other disease-related problems. The vision adopted by The Union at that time was 'Health solutions for the poor'. More recently, there has been lengthy debate about the need for the Union to concentrate just on its core mandate of tuberculosis and lung health and for the Union's vision to reflect this narrower spectrum of activity as 'Lung health solutions for the poor'. In this viewpoint article we outline our reasons for believing that this narrower vision is incompatible with The Union's mission statement, and we argue that making such a change would be a mistake.

  17. Trace Organic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1978-01-01

    Trace organic analysis (TOA) is seen as a more useful way to quantify environmental pollutants. Current practices and future trends are discussed in detail. Seven steps in TOA are identified: collection, storage, extraction, concentration, isolation, identification, and quantification. (MA)

  18. Trace Elements and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1972-01-01

    Summarizes the effects of arsenic, lead, zinc, mercury, and cadmium on human health, indicates the sources of the elements in water, and considers the possibility of students in high schools analyzing water for trace amounts of the elements. (AL)

  19. Cloud formation in Titan's Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Erika

    2016-06-01

    In addition to the organic haze particles produced photochemically in Titan's upper atmosphere, a number of trace gases are also created. These hydrocarbon and nitrile species include C2H6, C2H2, C4H10, HCN, HC3N, C2H5CN and many more. While both Voyager and Cassini observations have found evidence for ices (e.g. C4N2, HCN) in the atmosphere above Titan's poles, these species are also likely to condense at other latitudes forming optically thin ice layers in the stratosphere. A series of simulations have been conducted using Titan CARMA, a 1-D microphysics and radiative transfer model, to explore cloud particle formation with ˜20 of Titan's trace hydrocarbon and nitrile gases. These species reach their condensation temperatures between 60 and 110 km. Most condense solely as ices, however, C3H8 will condense first near 70 km as a liquid and then freeze as the droplets descend toward the surface. C3H8 and C2H6 join CH4 as a liquid at Titan's surface. Many ices have long condensation timescales resulting in particle radii ˜1 micron or less. Several (including HCN, C3H8, C2H2) will grow 10-50 times larger. Expected condensation altitudes and particle sizes will be presented, as well as the implications for the optical properties of Titan's stratospheric aerosol particles.

  20. SMEAT atmosphere trace contaminants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schornick, J. L.; Heinrich, C. T.; Garcia, G. S., Jr.; Verostko, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The atmosphere trace contaminant analysis support provided for the Skylab Medical Experiments Altitude Test (SMEAT) which was conducted from July 26 through September 20, 1972, at the JSC Crew Systems Division facility is discussed. Sample acquisition techniques and analytical instrumentation methodology utilized for identification and quantification of the trace contaminants are described. Emphasis is placed on the contaminants found, their occurrence patterns, and possible sources.

  1. Genotoxicity of poorly soluble particles.

    PubMed

    Schins, Roel P F; Knaapen, Ad M

    2007-01-01

    Poorly soluble particles such as TiO2, carbon black, and diesel exhaust particles have been evaluated for their genotoxicity using both in vitro and in vivo assays, since inhalation of these compounds by rats at high concentrations has been found to lead to tumor formation. Two principle modes of genotoxic action can be considered for particles, referred to as primary and secondary genotoxicity. Primary genotoxicity is defined as genetic damage elicited by particles in the absence of pulmonary inflammation, whereas secondary genotoxicity implies a pathway of genetic damage resulting from the oxidative DNA attack by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), generated during particle-elicited inflammation. Conceptually, primary genotoxicity might operate via various mechanisms, such as the actions of ROS (e.g., as generated from reactive particle surfaces), or DNA-adduct formation by reactive metabolites of particle-associated organic compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). Currently available literature data, however, merely indicate that the tumorigenesis of poorly soluble particles involves a mechanism of secondary genotoxicity. However, further research is urgently required, since (1) causality between pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity has not yet been established, and (2) effects of inflammation on fundamental DNA damage responses that orchestrate mutagenesis and carcinogenic outcome,that is, cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, proliferation, and apoptosis, are currently poorly understood. PMID:17886067

  2. Stratus Cloud Supersaturations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, S.; Hudson, J. G.; Jha, V.

    2009-12-01

    Extensive aircraft measurements of cloud microphysics and complete CCN spectra from 15 flights in central California stratus clouds are presented. Cloud droplet and CCN concentrations varied over an order of magnitude in this July-August, 2008 POST project. Correlation coefficients (R) between CCN and average total cloud droplet concentrations within parcels with specific minimal liquid water contents (LWC) are shown in the table. For most LWC thresholds R is greatest for CCN concentrations at rather high supersaturations (S); i.e., 1%. The highest R for the 0.1 gm-3 are for the 300’ altitude CCN measurements but the number of cases is very small. The 0.5 g-3 R values are higher at lower S but the number of cases is also very small. The high cloud S implied by most R values goes against conventional wisdom that low stratus cloud updraft velocities limit cloud S to < 0.3%. On the other hand average droplet concentrations for most LWC thresholds match best the CCN concentrations at 0.2-0.3% S, which is more in keeping with conventional wisdom. However, these average droplet concentrations were probably reduced from adiabatic values by entrainment, which would suggest higher initial cloud S. Yum and Hudson (2002, Tellus) did report S > 1% in some maritime clouds. Further research is ongoing with this data set to substantiate stratus cloud S values. If stratus cloud S is determined to be higher than previous estimates this would imply that a much larger subset of particles (even smaller sizes) influence cloud microphysics and this would have important climate implications. As has recently been reported for small cumulus clouds (Hudson et al. 2009 JGR and Hudson and Noble 2009 GRL) negative R values were found for CCN with larger cloud droplets and drizzle drop concentrations. Correlation coefficients (R) between average droplet and CCN concentrations. 1st row (1 min)is for CCN measurements in ascents or descents closest to cloud base. 2nd row is for CCN averaged in

  3. Traces of Drosophila Memory

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies using functional cellullar imaging of living flies have identified six memory traces that form in the olfactory nervous system after conditioning with odors. These traces occur in distinct nodes of the olfactory nervous system, form and disappear across different windows of time, and are detected in the imaged neurons as increased calcium influx or synaptic release in response to the conditioned odor. Three traces form at, or near acquisition and co-exist with short-term behavioral memory. One trace forms with a delay after learning and co-exists with intermediate-term behavioral memory. Two traces form many hours after acquisition and co-exist with long-term behavioral memory. The transient memory traces may support behavior across the time-windows of their existence. The experimental approaches for dissecting memory formation in the fly, ranging from the molecular to the systems, make it an ideal system for dissecting the logic by which the nervous system organizes and stores different temporal forms of memory. PMID:21482352

  4. TraceContract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  5. Energy Aware Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgerie, Anne-Cécile; de Assunção, Marcos Dias; Lefèvre, Laurent

    Cloud infrastructures are increasingly becoming essential components for providing Internet services. By benefiting from economies of scale, Clouds can efficiently manage and offer a virtually unlimited number of resources and can minimize the costs incurred by organizations when providing Internet services. However, as Cloud providers often rely on large data centres to sustain their business and offer the resources that users need, the energy consumed by Cloud infrastructures has become a key environmental and economical concern. This chapter presents an overview of techniques that can improve the energy efficiency of Cloud infrastructures. We propose a framework termed as Green Open Cloud, which uses energy efficient solutions for virtualized environments; the framework is validated on a reference scenario.

  6. Submm-Wave Radiometry for Cloud/Humidity/Precipitation Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2011-01-01

    Although active sensors can provide cloud profiles at good vertical resolution, clouds are often coupled with dynamics to form fast and organized structures. Lack of understanding of these organized systems leads to great challenge for numerical models. The deficiency is partly reflected, for example, in poorly modeled intraseasonal variations (e.g., MJD). Remote sensing clouds in the middle and upper troposphere has been challenging from space. Vis/IR sensors are sensitive to the topmost cloud layers whereas low-frequency MW techniques are sensitivity to liquid and precipitation at the bottom of cloud layers. The middle-level clouds, mostly in the ice phase, require a sensor that has moderate penetration and sensitivity to cloud scattering, in order to measure cloud water content. Sensors at submm wavelengths provide promising sensitivity and coverage with the spatial resolution needed to measure cloud water content floating in the upper air. In addition, submm-wave sensors are able to provide better measurements of upper-tropospheric humidity than traditional microwave instruments.

  7. Physical properties of luminous dust-poor quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-20

    We identify and characterize a population of luminous, dust-poor quasars at 0 < z < 5 that is photometrically similar to objects previously found at z > 6. This class of active galactic nuclei is known to show little IR emission from dusty structure, but it is poorly understood in terms of number evolution and dependence on physical quantities. To better understand the properties of these quasars, we compile a rest-frame UV to IR library of 41,000 optically selected type 1 quasars with L {sub bol} > 10{sup 45.7} erg s{sup –1}. After fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with accretion disk and dust components, we find 0.6% of our sample to be hot dust-poor, with rest-frame 2.3 μm to 0.51 μm flux density ratios of –0.5 dex or less. The dust-poor SEDs are blue in the UV-optical and weak in the mid-IR, such that their accretion disks are less obscured and the hot dust emission traces that of warm dust down to the dust-poor regime. At a given bolometric luminosity, dust-poor quasars are lower in black hole mass and higher in Eddington ratio than general luminous quasars, suggesting that they are in a rapidly growing evolutionary state in which the dust-poor phase appears as a short or rare phenomenon. The dust-poor fraction increases with redshift, and possible implications for their evolution are discussed.

  8. The alignment of molecular cloud magnetic fields with the spiral arms in M33.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-bai; Henning, Thomas

    2011-11-24

    The formation of molecular clouds, which serve as stellar nurseries in galaxies, is poorly understood. A class of cloud formation models suggests that a large-scale galactic magnetic field is irrelevant at the scale of individual clouds, because the turbulence and rotation of a cloud may randomize the orientation of its magnetic field. Alternatively, galactic fields could be strong enough to impose their direction upon individual clouds, thereby regulating cloud accumulation and fragmentation, and affecting the rate and efficiency of star formation. Our location in the disk of the Galaxy makes an assessment of the situation difficult. Here we report observations of the magnetic field orientation of six giant molecular cloud complexes in the nearby, almost face-on, galaxy M33. The fields are aligned with the spiral arms, suggesting that the large-scale field in M33 anchors the clouds.

  9. The alignment of molecular cloud magnetic fields with the spiral arms in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua-Bai; Henning, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    The formation of molecular clouds, which serve as stellar nurseries in galaxies, is poorly understood. A class of cloud formation models suggests that a large-scale galactic magnetic field is irrelevant at the scale of individual clouds, because the turbulence and rotation of a cloud may randomize the orientation of its magnetic field. Alternatively, galactic fields could be strong enough to impose their direction upon individual clouds, thereby regulating cloud accumulation and fragmentation, and affecting the rate and efficiency of star formation. Our location in the disk of the Galaxy makes an assessment of the situation difficult. Here we report observations of the magnetic field orientation of six giant molecular cloud complexes in the nearby, almost face-on, galaxy M33. The fields are aligned with the spiral arms, suggesting that the large-scale field in M33 anchors the clouds.

  10. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  11. Clouds and hazes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knollenberg, R. G.

    1982-03-01

    Characteristics of the planetary-scale cloud and haze system on Venus are discussed. The clouds have been found to be rather tenuous, with an average visibility of about 1 km, and the main cloud deck is at an altitude of 45-70 km. Haze layers, with optical depths from about 0.1 to 1 in., overlie and underlie the main cloud deck. A multi-modal cloud particle size distribution has been obtained, corresponding to populations of aerosols varying in composition with altitude, H2SO4 droplets, and larger particles including H2SO4 droplets and possibly crystals of unknown composition. The entire cloud system has an optical depth of 20-35 at visible wavelengths, a radiometric albedo increasing from 0.77 to 0.82 from equator to pole, single scattering albedoes from 0.995 in the upper cloud region to 0.999 in the lower clouds, and striking UV absorption contrasts. Although embedded in the zonal circulation at altitudes of greatest wind velocity and vertical shear, cloud particle growth is most strongly influenced by radiative exchanges.

  12. JINR cloud infrastructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, A. V.; Balashov, N. A.; Kutovskiy, N. A.; Semenov, R. N.

    2016-09-01

    To fulfil JINR commitments in different national and international projects related to the use of modern information technologies such as cloud and grid computing as well as to provide a modern tool for JINR users for their scientific research a cloud infrastructure was deployed at Laboratory of Information Technologies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. OpenNebula software was chosen as a cloud platform. Initially it was set up in simple configuration with single front-end host and a few cloud nodes. Some custom development was done to tune JINR cloud installation to fit local needs: web form in the cloud web-interface for resources request, a menu item with cloud utilization statistics, user authentication via Kerberos, custom driver for OpenVZ containers. Because of high demand in that cloud service and its resources over-utilization it was re-designed to cover increasing users' needs in capacity, availability and reliability. Recently a new cloud instance has been deployed in high-availability configuration with distributed network file system and additional computing power.

  13. Cloud Computing: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ling; Luo, Zhiguo; Du, Yujian; Guo, Leitao

    In order to support the maximum number of user and elastic service with the minimum resource, the Internet service provider invented the cloud computing. within a few years, emerging cloud computing has became the hottest technology. From the publication of core papers by Google since 2003 to the commercialization of Amazon EC2 in 2006, and to the service offering of AT&T Synaptic Hosting, the cloud computing has been evolved from internal IT system to public service, from cost-saving tools to revenue generator, and from ISP to telecom. This paper introduces the concept, history, pros and cons of cloud computing as well as the value chain and standardization effort.

  14. SparkClouds: visualizing trends in tag clouds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bongshin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Karlson, Amy K; Carpendale, Sheelash

    2010-01-01

    Tag clouds have proliferated over the web over the last decade. They provide a visual summary of a collection of texts by visually depicting the tag frequency by font size. In use, tag clouds can evolve as the associated data source changes over time. Interesting discussions around tag clouds often include a series of tag clouds and consider how they evolve over time. However, since tag clouds do not explicitly represent trends or support comparisons, the cognitive demands placed on the person for perceiving trends in multiple tag clouds are high. In this paper, we introduce SparkClouds, which integrate sparklines into a tag cloud to convey trends between multiple tag clouds. We present results from a controlled study that compares SparkClouds with two traditional trend visualizations—multiple line graphs and stacked bar charts—as well as Parallel Tag Clouds. Results show that SparkClouds ability to show trends compares favourably to the alternative visualizations.

  15. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Turner, David D.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m‑2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  16. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Van Tricht, K; Lhermitte, S; Lenaerts, J T M; Gorodetskaya, I V; L'Ecuyer, T S; Noël, B; van den Broeke, M R; Turner, D D; van Lipzig, N P M

    2016-01-12

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m(-2). Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  17. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tricht, Kristof; Lhermitte, Stef; Lenaerts, Jan T. M.; Gorodetskaya, Irina V.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Turner, David D.; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m-2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  18. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (+/-5.2) W m-2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise.

  19. Clouds enhance Greenland ice sheet meltwater runoff

    PubMed Central

    Van Tricht, K.; Lhermitte, S.; Lenaerts, J. T. M.; Gorodetskaya, I. V.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Noël, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Turner, D. D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has become one of the main contributors to global sea level rise, predominantly through increased meltwater runoff. The main drivers of Greenland ice sheet runoff, however, remain poorly understood. Here we show that clouds enhance meltwater runoff by about one-third relative to clear skies, using a unique combination of active satellite observations, climate model data and snow model simulations. This impact results from a cloud radiative effect of 29.5 (±5.2) W m−2. Contrary to conventional wisdom, however, the Greenland ice sheet responds to this energy through a new pathway by which clouds reduce meltwater refreezing as opposed to increasing surface melt directly, thereby accelerating bare-ice exposure and enhancing meltwater runoff. The high sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to both ice-only and liquid-bearing clouds highlights the need for accurate cloud representations in climate models, to better predict future contributions of the Greenland ice sheet to global sea level rise. PMID:26756470

  20. Effects of observed horizontal inhomogeneities within cirrus clouds on solar radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschmann, Nicole; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    2002-10-01

    In situ microphysical and combined radar and radiometer measurements of 11 cirrus clouds from Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX), European Cloud and Radiation Experiment (EUCREX), investigation of Clouds by Ground-Based and Airborne Radar and Lidar (CARL), and First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are used to investigate effects of horizontal cloud inhomogeneities on solar radiative transfer. A three-dimensional ray-tracing model (GRIMALDI), based on the Monte Carlo method, is used to calculate upward and downward flux densities and absorption for the spectral range from 0.38 to 4.0 μm. Radiative flux densities are calculated using the inhomogeneous clouds derived from the observations and for horizontally and vertically averaged homogeneous clouds. Horizontally averaged values of radiative flux densities and absorption for heterogeneous clouds can differ by up to 30% from those calculated for the homogeneous clouds for convectively induced tropical cirrus clouds. The midlatitude cases examined tended to be more homogeneous, and hence differences between radiative properties for the homogeneous and heterogeneous clouds did not exceed 10%. For cirrus clouds with mean optical thicknesses smaller than 5 and with relative variances of optical thickness smaller than 0.2, errors caused by the homogeneous assumption are smaller than ±10%.

  1. Retrieval of cloud height from SCIAMACHY using oxygen absorption around 630nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzegorski, Michael; Deutschmann, Tim; Platt, Ulrich; Wang, Ping; Wagner, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectrometer for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) on ENVISAT allows measurements of different atmospheric trace gases (e.g. O3, NO2, SO2, CH4, HCHO, CO, BrO, H2O, O2, O4) using the DOAS technique. The HICRU algorithm retrieves cloud height using the spectral analysis of the oxygen absorption around 630nm combined with results of the Monte-Carlo model TRACY-II and a new SCIAMACHY surface albedo database. The results are compared to: 1.) cloud height retrievals of other satellite instruments (MERIS, MODIS) 2.) ISCCP climatology 3.) SCIAMACHY cloud algorithms (SACURA, FRESCO+) 4.) LIDAR/RADAR measurements. For low clouds, the HICRU algorithm retrieves cloud heights more close to the the top, because of the assumption of an appropriate cloud model with a realistic estimation of the scattering inside the cloud. It is also demonstrated, that none the three SCIAMACHY cloud algorithms HICRU, SACURA and FRESCO+ is able to retrieve the top of high clouds because of principal characteristics of the retrieval methods based on oxygen absorption. But oxygen absorptions can provide important additional information on the vertical cloud structure and multiple cloud layers if the method is combined with cloud-top-retrieval using windows in the thermal infrared. An application of these concepts to the GOSAT instrument will be discussed.

  2. HI clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.

    We present HI and Halpha surveys of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the Parkes multibeam receiver, and the 16 inch optical telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (SSO). Using a Fourier-plane technique, we have merged both ATCA and Parkes observations, providing an accurate set of images of the LMC sensitive to structure on scales of 9 pc upward. The spatial dynamic range (2.8 orders of magnitude), velocity resolution (1.649 km/sec per channel) allow for studies of phenomena ranging from the galaxy-wide interaction of the LMC with its close neighbors to the small-scale injection of energy from supernovae and stellar associations into the ISM of the LMC. On the large scale, the HI disk appears to be remarkably symmetric and to have a well-organized and orderly, if somewhat complex, rotational field. The bulk of the HI resides in a disk of 7.3 kpc in diameter. The mass of disk component of the LMC is 2.5 x10^9 M[sun ]and the mass within a radius of 4 kpc is about 3.5 x 10^9 M[sun ]. The structure of the neutral atomic ISM in the LMC is dominated by HI filaments combined with numerous shell, holes, and HI clouds. 23 HI supergiant shells and 103 giant shells are catalogued. Supergiant shells are defined as those regions whose extent is much larger than the HI scale height. The size distribution of HI shells follows a crude power law, N(log R) =AR^-1.5 . The HI clouds have been identified by defining a cloud to be an object composed of all pixels in right ascension, declination, and velocity that are connected and that lie above the threshold brightness temperature. The size spectrum of HI clouds is similar to the typical size spectrum of holes and shells in the HI distribution. The relationship between the size and the velocity dispersion of HI cloud is found to have the power law relationship so called as Larson's scaling law. A slope of the power law varies from 1.2 to 1.6. The virial masses of HI clouds range from 10

  3. Why are the many poor?

    PubMed

    Townsend, P

    1986-01-01

    In this article the author restates the same arguments put forward in the first Fabian Tract of 1884 entitled Why Are the Many Poor? Today, mass poverty is still the central problem facing the British nation and all nations. The only long-term remedy is to restrict the power and wealth of the rich, to dismantle the present structures of social privilege, and to build social institutions based on fair allocation of wealth and on social equality. The public debate of one hundred years ago on the connections between poverty and wealth is revived in this article.

  4. Air-sea interactions and cirrus cloud-radiation feedbacks on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1988-01-01

    A single cloud-radiation feedback mechanism, which may play a role in the climate changes expected from increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace greenhouse gases, is described. An improved radiative-convective model was developed and used to study the role of cirrus clouds in the optical thickness feedback mechanism. The model includes prescribed relative humidity and ozone profiles and a surface energy balance. The results suggest that the cloud optical thickness feedback mechanism can cause a substantial reduction in the surface warming due to doubling CO2, even in the presence of cirrus clouds.

  5. Fast cloud parameter retrievals of MIPAS/Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, R.; Arndt, K.; Dudhia, A.; Höpfner, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Hurley, J.; Grainger, R. G.; Griessbach, S.; Poulsen, C.; Remedios, J. J.; Riese, M.; Sembhi, H.; Siddans, R.; Waterfall, A.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    The infrared limb spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Envisat satellite include detailed information on tropospheric clouds and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). However, no consolidated cloud product is available for the scientific community. Here we describe a fast prototype processor for cloud parameter retrieval from MIPAS (MIPclouds). Retrieval of parameters such as cloud top height, temperature, and extinction are implemented, as well as of microphysical parameters, e.g. effective radius and the integrated quantities over the limb path (surface area density and volume density). MIPclouds classifies clouds as either liquid or ice cloud in the upper troposphere and polar stratospheric clouds types in the stratosphere based on statistical combinations of colour ratios and brightness temperature differences. Comparison of limb measurements of clouds with model results or cloud parameters from nadir looking instruments is often difficult due to different observation geometries. We therefore introduce a new concept, the limb-integrated surface area density path (ADP). By means of validation and radiative transfer calculations of realistic 2-D cloud fields as input for a blind test retrieval (BTR), we demonstrate that ADP is an extremely valuable parameter for future comparison with 3-D model data of ice water content, when applying limb integration (ray tracing) through the model fields. In addition, ADP is used for a more objective definition of a cloud detection threshold. Based on BTR, a detection threshold for ADP of 107 μm2 cm-2 and an ice water content of 10-5 g m-3 is estimated, depending on the horizontal and vertical extent of the cloud. Intensive validation of the cloud detection methods shows that the limb-sounding MIPAS instrument has a sensitivity in detecting stratospheric and tropospheric clouds similar to that of space- and ground-based lidars, with a tendency for higher cloud top heights

  6. Rain chemistry and cloud composition and microphysics in a Caribbean tropical montane cloud forest under the influence of African dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Delgado, Elvis; Valle-Diaz, Carlos J.; Baumgardner, Darrel; McDowell, William H.; González, Grizelle; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that huge amounts of mineral dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions in Africa over the Atlantic Ocean reaching the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America; however, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how the presence of this dust affects cloud's composition and microphysics. This African dust reaches the Caribbean region mostly in the summer time. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes in a tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) in the Caribbean region we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summer 2013, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and in summer 2014, as a part of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) and in collaboration with the Saharan Aerosol Long-Range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE). Measurements were performed at the TMCF of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Data from aerosol models, satellites, and back-trajectories were used together with CSJ measurements to classify air masses and samples collected at PE in the presence or absence of dust. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH and conductivity were measured for cloud and rainwater. Preliminary results for summer 2013 showed that in the presence of LRTAD (1) the average conductivity of cloud water

  7. A new method for automated discontinuity trace mapping on rock mass 3D surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaojun; Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an automated discontinuity trace mapping method on a 3D surface model of rock mass. Feature points of discontinuity traces are first detected using the Normal Tensor Voting Theory, which is robust to noisy point cloud data. Discontinuity traces are then extracted from feature points in four steps: (1) trace feature point grouping, (2) trace segment growth, (3) trace segment connection, and (4) redundant trace segment removal. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify optimal values for the parameters used in the proposed method. The optimal triangular mesh element size is between 5 cm and 6 cm; the angle threshold in the trace segment growth step is between 70° and 90°; the angle threshold in the trace segment connection step is between 50° and 70°, and the distance threshold should be at least 15 times the mean triangular mesh element size. The method is applied to the excavation face trace mapping of a drill-and-blast tunnel. The results show that the proposed discontinuity trace mapping method is fast and effective and could be used as a supplement to traditional direct measurement of discontinuity traces.

  8. The turbulent destruction of clouds - III. Three-dimensional adiabatic shock-cloud simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittard, J. M.; Parkin, E. R.

    2016-04-01

    We present 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the adiabatic interaction of a shock with a dense, spherical cloud. We compare how the nature of the interaction changes with the Mach number of the shock, M, and the density contrast of the cloud, χ. We examine the differences with 2D axisymmetric calculations, perform detailed resolution tests, and compare `inviscid' results to those obtained with the inclusion of a k-ɛ subgrid turbulence model. Resolutions of 32-64 cells per cloud radius are the minimum necessary to capture the dominant dynamical processes in 3D simulations, while the 3D inviscid and k-ɛ simulations typically show very good agreement. Clouds accelerate and mix up to five times faster when they are poorly resolved. The interaction proceeds very similarly in 2D and 3D - although non-azimuthal modes lead to different behaviour, there is very little effect on key global quantities such as the lifetime of the cloud and its acceleration. In particular, we do not find significant differences in the hollowing or `voiding' of the cloud between 2D and 3D simulations with M = 10 and χ = 10, which contradicts previous work in the literature.

  9. Lost in Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Shetye, Sandeep D.; Chilukuri, Sri; Sturken, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing can reduce cost significantly because businesses can share computing resources. In recent years Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) have used Cloud effectively for cost saving and for sharing IT expenses. With the success of SMBs, many perceive that the larger enterprises ought to move into Cloud environment as well. Government agency s stove-piped environments are being considered as candidates for potential use of Cloud either as an enterprise entity or pockets of small communities. Cloud Computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than as a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility over a network. Underneath the offered services, there exists a modern infrastructure cost of which is often spread across its services or its investors. As NASA is considered as an Enterprise class organization, like other enterprises, a shift has been occurring in perceiving its IT services as candidates for Cloud services. This paper discusses market trends in cloud computing from an enterprise angle and then addresses the topic of Cloud Computing for NASA in two possible forms. First, in the form of a public Cloud to support it as an enterprise, as well as to share it with the commercial and public at large. Second, as a private Cloud wherein the infrastructure is operated solely for NASA, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The paper addresses the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms of public and private Clouds, in both internally and externally operated settings. The content of the paper is from a NASA perspective but is applicable to any large enterprise with thousands of employees and contractors.

  10. Seven poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.; Latham, D. W.; Davis, R. J.

    1984-08-01

    The authors have measured 83 new redshifts for galaxies in the region of seven of the poor clusters of galaxies identified by Morgan, Kayser, and White and Albert, White, and Morgan. For three systems (MKW 1s, AWM 1, and AWM 7) complete redshift samples were obtained for galaxies brighter than mB(0) = 15.7 within 1° of the D or cD galaxy. The authors estimate masses for the clusters by applying both the virial theorem and the projected mass method. For the two clusters with the highest X-ray luminosities, the line-of-sight velocity dispersions are ≡700 km s-1, and mass-to-light ratios M/LB(0) ⪆ 400 M_sun;/L_sun;. For the five other clusters the velocity dispersions are ⪉370 km s-1, and four of the five have mass-to-light ratios ⪉250 M_sun;/L_sun;. The D or cD galaxy in each poor cluster is at the kinematic center of the system.

  11. Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

    2008-05-27

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds.

  12. Clouds over Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heavy concentration of these cirrocumulus and nimbostratus clouds over open ocean - location unknown, indicate that a heavy downpouring of rain is occuring on the Earth's surface below. Towering anvils, seen rising high above the base cloud cover and casting long shadows, also indicate high winds and possible tornado activity.

  13. Clouds over Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heavy concentration of these cirrocumulus and nimbostratus clouds over open ocean - location unknown, indicate that a heavy downpouring of rain is occuring on the Earth's surface below. Towering anvils, rising above the base cloud cover, also indicate high winds and possible tornado activity.

  14. On Cloud Nine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget; Weil, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Across the U.S., innovative collaboration practices are happening in the cloud: Sixth-graders participate in literary salons. Fourth-graders mentor kindergarteners. And teachers use virtual Post-it notes to advise students as they create their own television shows. In other words, cloud computing is no longer just used to manage administrative…

  15. Cloud Resolving Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.

  16. Weather Fundamentals: Clouds. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) discusses how clouds form, the different types of clouds, and the important role they play in…

  17. Learning in the Clouds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Engaged learning--the type that happens outside textbooks and beyond the four walls of the classroom--moves beyond right and wrong answers to grappling with the uncertainties and contradictions of a complex world. iPhones back up to the "cloud." GoogleDocs is all about "cloud computing." Facebook is as ubiquitous as the sky.…

  18. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree. The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.

  19. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    2013-02-19

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallell application. STAT uses the MRNet tree based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to from a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence slasses. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  20. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree.more » The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.« less

  1. Stack Trace Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-16

    STAT is a light weight debugging tool that gathers and merges stack traces from all of the processes in a parallel application. STAT uses the MRNet free based overlay network to broadcast commands from the tool front-end to the STAT daemons and for the front-end to gather the traces from the STAT daemons. As the traces propagate through the MRNet network tree, they are merged across all tasks to form a single call prefix tree. The call prefix tree can be examined to identify tasks with similar function call patterns and to delineate a small set of equivalence classes. A representative task from each of these classes can then be fed into a full feature debugger like TotalView for root cause analysis.

  2. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

    2011-07-21

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

  3. Fast cloud parameter retrievals of MIPAS/Envisat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spang, R.; Arndt, K.; Dudhia, A.; Höpfner, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Hurley, J.; Grainger, R. G.; Griessbach, S.; Poulsen, C.; Remedios, J. J.; Riese, M.; Sembhi, H.; Siddans, R.; Waterfall, A.; Zehner, C.

    2012-08-01

    The infrared limb spectra of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on board the Envisat satellite include detailed information on tropospheric clouds and polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). However, no consolidated cloud product is available for the scientific community. Here we describe a fast prototype processor for cloud parameter retrieval from MIPAS (MIPclouds). Retrieval of parameters such as cloud top height, temperature, and extinction are implemented, as well as retrieval of microphysical parameters, e.g. effective radius and the integrated quantities over the limb path (surface area density and volume density). MIPclouds classifies clouds as either liquid or ice cloud in the upper troposphere and polar stratospheric clouds types in the stratosphere based on statistical combinations of colour ratios and brightness temperature differences. Comparison of limb measurements of clouds with model results or cloud parameters from nadir looking instruments is often difficult due to different observation geometries. We therefore introduce a new concept, the limb-integrated surface area density path (ADP). By means of validation and radiative transfer calculations of realistic 2-D cloud fields as input for a blind test retrieval (BTR), we demonstrate that ADP is an extremely valuable parameter for future comparison with model data of ice water content, when applying limb integration (ray tracing) through the model fields. In addition, ADP is used for a more objective definition of detection thresholds of the applied detection methods. Based on BTR, a detection threshold of ADP = 107 μm2 cm-2 and an ice water content of 10-5 g m-3 is estimated, depending on the horizontal and vertical extent of the cloud. Intensive validation of the cloud detection methods shows that the limb-sounding MIPAS instrument has a sensitivity in detecting stratospheric and tropospheric clouds similar to that of space- and ground-based lidars, with a tendency

  4. Cloud computing security.

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-10-01

    Cloud computing is a paradigm rapidly being embraced by government and industry as a solution for cost-savings, scalability, and collaboration. While a multitude of applications and services are available commercially for cloud-based solutions, research in this area has yet to fully embrace the full spectrum of potential challenges facing cloud computing. This tutorial aims to provide researchers with a fundamental understanding of cloud computing, with the goals of identifying a broad range of potential research topics, and inspiring a new surge in research to address current issues. We will also discuss real implementations of research-oriented cloud computing systems for both academia and government, including configuration options, hardware issues, challenges, and solutions.

  5. Polarization of clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goloub, Philippe; Herman, Maurice; Parol, Frederic

    1995-12-01

    This paper reports the main results concerning polarization by clouds derived from POLDER (polarization and directionality of earth's reflectances) airborne version. These results tend to confirm the high information content in the polarization (phase, altimetry). The preliminary results of EUCREX'94 (European Cloud Radiation Experiment) evidenced the drastically different polarized signatures for ice crystals and water droplets. Here we report systematic and statistically significative observations over the whole EUCREX data set. The results show that the cirrus exhibit their own signature. Preliminary observations performed during CLEOPATRA'91 (Cloud Experiment Ober Pfaffenhofen And Transport) and EUCREX'94 campaigns have shown the feasibility of cloud altimetry using spectral information (443 nm and 865 nm) of the polarized light over liquid water droplets clouds. Altimetry technique has been generalized on ASTEX-SOFIA'92 and EUCREX'94 data sets. All these results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Cloud model bat algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi

    2014-01-01

    Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: "bats approach their prey." Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization. PMID:24967425

  7. SMILES ice cloud products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MilláN, L.; Read, W.; Kasai, Y.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N.; Mendrok, J.; Sagawa, H.; Sano, T.; Shiotani, M.; Wu, D. L.

    2013-06-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor and clouds play an important role in Earth's climate, but knowledge of them, in particular diurnal variation in deep convective clouds, is limited. An essential variable to understand them is cloud ice water content. The Japanese Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) on board the International Space Station (ISS) samples the atmosphere at different local times allowing the study of diurnal variability of atmospheric parameters. We describe a new ice cloud data set consisting of partial Ice Water Path and Ice Water Content. Preliminary comparisons with EOS-MLS, CloudSat-CPR and CALIOP-CALIPSO are presented. Then, the diurnal variation over land and over open ocean for partial ice water path is reported. Over land, a pronounced diurnal variation peaking strongly in the afternoon/early evening was found. Over the open ocean, little temporal dependence was encountered. This data set is publicly available for download in HDF5 format.

  8. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Marshall, John; Shen, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The chemical evolution hypothesis of Woese (1979), according to which prebiotic reactions occurred rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns was criticized by Scherer (1985). This paper proposes a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that answers Scherer's concerns and supports Woese's hypothesis. According to this mechanism, rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by, or synthesized during entry of meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust, would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and would be polymerized within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and evaporation of cloud drops.

  9. Tropospheric trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R.; Wofsy, S. C.; Cicerone, R. J.; Delany, A. C.; Harriss, R. T.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Logan, J. A.; Midgley, P.; Prather, M.

    1985-01-01

    Trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere reflect in part the overall metabolism of the biosphere, and in part the broad range of human activities such as agriculture, production of industrial chemicals, and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. There is compelling evidence that the composition of the atmosphere is now changing. Observed trends in trace gas levels are reviewed and implications for the chemistry of the atmosphere are discussed. Throughout the discussion, particular emphasis is given to those species which are now increasing in the atmosphere.

  10. Atom trap trace analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O'Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  11. Cirrus cloud retrieval using infrared sounding data: Multilevel cloud errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, Bryan A.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1994-01-01

    In this study we perform an error analysis for cloud-top pressure retrieval using the High-Resolution Infrared Radiometric Sounder (HIRS/2) 15-microns CO2 channels for the two-layer case of transmissive cirrus overlying an overcast, opaque stratiform cloud. This analysis includes standard deviation and bias error due to instrument noise and the presence of two cloud layers, the lower of which is opaque. Instantaneous cloud pressure retrieval errors are determined for a range of cloud amounts (0.1-1.0) and cloud-top pressures (850-250 mb). Large cloud-top pressure retrieval errors are found to occur when a lower opaque layer is present underneath an upper transmissive cloud layer in the satellite field of view (FOV). Errors tend to increase with decreasing upper-cloud effective cloud amount and with decreasing cloud height (increasing pressure). Errors in retrieved upper-cloud pressure result in corresponding errors in derived effective cloud amount. For the case in which a HIRS FOV has two distinct cloud layers, the difference between the retrieved and actual cloud-top pressure is positive in all cases, meaning that the retrieved upper-cloud height is lower than the actual upper-cloud height. In addition, errors in retrieved cloud pressure are found to depend upon the lapse rate between the low-level cloud top and the surface. We examined which sounder channel combinations would minimize the total errors in derived cirrus cloud height caused by instrument noise and by the presence of a lower-level cloud. We find that while the sounding channels that peak between 700 and 1000 mb minimize random errors, the sounding channels that peak at 300-500 mb minimize bias errors. For a cloud climatology, the bias errors are most critical.

  12. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  13. Osteoporosis and trace elements--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aaseth, Jan; Boivin, Georges; Andersen, Ole

    2012-06-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine functional, exercise related and nutritional factors. Of particular considerations are calcium (Ca) status, vitamin D, fluoride, magnesium and other trace elements. Several trace elements such as zinc and copper are essential for normal development of the skeleton in humans and animals. Fluoride accumulates in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified. Numerous investigators have evaluated the role of medications and supplementations with minerals and trace substances to reverse the progression of this disease. Although bisphosphonates are still the drugs of choice, low-dosed fluoride and strontium salts have shown promise for the future. PMID:22575536

  14. Cloud computing: a new business paradigm for biomedical information sharing.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Arnon; Mork, Peter; Li, Maya Hao; Stanford, Jean; Koester, David; Reynolds, Patti

    2010-04-01

    We examine how the biomedical informatics (BMI) community, especially consortia that share data and applications, can take advantage of a new resource called "cloud computing". Clouds generally offer resources on demand. In most clouds, charges are pay per use, based on large farms of inexpensive, dedicated servers, sometimes supporting parallel computing. Substantial economies of scale potentially yield costs much lower than dedicated laboratory systems or even institutional data centers. Overall, even with conservative assumptions, for applications that are not I/O intensive and do not demand a fully mature environment, the numbers suggested that clouds can sometimes provide major improvements, and should be seriously considered for BMI. Methodologically, it was very advantageous to formulate analyses in terms of component technologies; focusing on these specifics enabled us to bypass the cacophony of alternative definitions (e.g., exactly what does a cloud include) and to analyze alternatives that employ some of the component technologies (e.g., an institution's data center). Relative analyses were another great simplifier. Rather than listing the absolute strengths and weaknesses of cloud-based systems (e.g., for security or data preservation), we focus on the changes from a particular starting point, e.g., individual lab systems. We often find a rough parity (in principle), but one needs to examine individual acquisitions--is a loosely managed lab moving to a well managed cloud, or a tightly managed hospital data center moving to a poorly safeguarded cloud?

  15. Cloud computing: a new business paradigm for biomedical information sharing.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Arnon; Mork, Peter; Li, Maya Hao; Stanford, Jean; Koester, David; Reynolds, Patti

    2010-04-01

    We examine how the biomedical informatics (BMI) community, especially consortia that share data and applications, can take advantage of a new resource called "cloud computing". Clouds generally offer resources on demand. In most clouds, charges are pay per use, based on large farms of inexpensive, dedicated servers, sometimes supporting parallel computing. Substantial economies of scale potentially yield costs much lower than dedicated laboratory systems or even institutional data centers. Overall, even with conservative assumptions, for applications that are not I/O intensive and do not demand a fully mature environment, the numbers suggested that clouds can sometimes provide major improvements, and should be seriously considered for BMI. Methodologically, it was very advantageous to formulate analyses in terms of component technologies; focusing on these specifics enabled us to bypass the cacophony of alternative definitions (e.g., exactly what does a cloud include) and to analyze alternatives that employ some of the component technologies (e.g., an institution's data center). Relative analyses were another great simplifier. Rather than listing the absolute strengths and weaknesses of cloud-based systems (e.g., for security or data preservation), we focus on the changes from a particular starting point, e.g., individual lab systems. We often find a rough parity (in principle), but one needs to examine individual acquisitions--is a loosely managed lab moving to a well managed cloud, or a tightly managed hospital data center moving to a poorly safeguarded cloud? PMID:19715773

  16. Reconstruction of doses and deposition in the western trace from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Sikkeland, T; Skuterud, L; Goltsova, N I; Lindmo, T

    1997-05-01

    A model is presented for the explosive cloud of particulates that produced the western trace of high radioactive ground contamination in the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986. The model was developed to reproduce measured dose rates and nuclide contamination and to relate estimated doses to observed changes in: (1) infrared emission from the foliage and (2) morphological and histological structures of individual pines. Dominant factors involved in ground contamination were initial cloud shape, particle size distribution, and rate of particle fallout. At time of formation, the cloud was assumed to be parabolical and to contain a homogeneous distribution of spherically shaped fuel particulates having a log-normal size distribution. The particulates were dispersed by steady winds and diffusion that produced a straight line deposition path. The analysis indicates that two clouds, denoted by Cloud I and Cloud II, were involved. Fallout from the former dominated the far field region and fallout from latter the region near the reactor. At formation they had a full width at half maximum of 1800 m and 500 m, respectively. For wind velocities of 5-10 m s(-1) the particulates' radial distribution at formation had a standard deviation and mode of 1.8 microm and 0.5 microm, respectively. This distribution corresponds to a release of 390 GJ in the runaway explosion. The clouds' height and mass are not uniquely determined but are coupled together. For an initial height of 3,600 m, Cloud I contained about 400 kg fuel. For Cloud II the values were, respectively, 1,500 m and 850 kg. Loss of activities from the clouds is found to be small. Values are obtained for the rate of radionuclide migration from the deposit. Various types of biological damage to pines, as reported in the literature, are shown to be mainly due to ionizing radiation from the deposit by Cloud II. A formula is presented for the particulate size distribution in the trace area.

  17. Interaction between Cassiopeia A and Nearby Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpatrick, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Rieke, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    We present spectroscopy of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) observed at infrared wavelengths from 10 to 40 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope and at millimeter wavelengths in 12CO and 13CO J =2-1 (230 and 220 GHz) with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The IR spectra demonstrate high-velocity features toward a molecular cloud coincident with a region of bright radio continuum emission along the northern shock front of Cas A. The millimeter observations indicate that CO emission is broadened by a factor of two in some clouds toward Cas A, particularly to the south and west. We believe that these features trace interactions between the Cas A shock front and nearby molecular clouds. In addition, some of the molecular clouds that exhibit broadening in CO lie 1'-2' away from the furthest extent of the supernova remnant shock front. We propose that this material may be accelerated by ejecta with velocity significantly larger than the observed free-expansion velocity of the Cas A shock front. These observations may trace cloud interactions with fast-moving outflows such as the bipolar outflow along the southwest to northeast axis of the Cas A supernova remnant, as well as fast-moving knots seen emerging in other directions.

  18. Interaction between Cassiopeia A and nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, C. D.; Bieging, J. H.; Rieke, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    We present spectroscopy of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) observed at infrared wavelengths from 10 to 40 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope and at millimeter wavelengths in {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J =2-1 (230 and 220 GHz) with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope. The IR spectra demonstrate high-velocity features toward a molecular cloud coincident with a region of bright radio continuum emission along the northern shock front of Cas A. The millimeter observations indicate that CO emission is broadened by a factor of two in some clouds toward Cas A, particularly to the south and west. We believe that these features trace interactions between the Cas A shock front and nearby molecular clouds. In addition, some of the molecular clouds that exhibit broadening in CO lie 1'-2' away from the furthest extent of the supernova remnant shock front. We propose that this material may be accelerated by ejecta with velocity significantly larger than the observed free-expansion velocity of the Cas A shock front. These observations may trace cloud interactions with fast-moving outflows such as the bipolar outflow along the southwest to northeast axis of the Cas A supernova remnant, as well as fast-moving knots seen emerging in other directions.

  19. The aerosol impact on ice clouds and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jonathan; Su, Hui; Schoeberl, Mark; Massie, Steven; Colarco, Peter; Platnick, Steven

    Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions are a very challenging problem in climate research and model predictions. The magnitude and mechanisms of aerosol impacts on cloud properties (e.g. particle radii), and the resulting influence on precipitation are poorly known, primarily due to the lack of accurate global scale observations. The aerosol impact on ice clouds is especially lacking. New data from NASA's satellites, particularly from the "A-train constellation", create a new opportunity to advance understanding of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. In this study we analyze nearly-simultaneous measurements of clouds and pollutants along A- train tracks. In particular, Aura MLS measured CO at 215 hPa is used together with ice water content(IWC) observed by MLS to classify cirrus clouds as "clean" or "polluted". We analyze Aqua MODIS cloud particle radii and TRMM precipitation to investigate how pollution may change precipitation, cloud ice and their correlations. Aerosol optical depth data from MODIS and CALIPSO are also used in our study. Analysis results for South America are presented. We find evidence of suppressed precipitation and reduced ice particle radii associated with the polluted clouds during the dry bio-mass burning season, in which there is a strong correlation between the observed CO and aerosol, indicating microphysical influence of aerosols on ice clouds. In contrast, there is neither significant changes in precipitation nor in ice particle size associated with the CO-polluted clouds during the wet rainy season, in which the observed CO is not well-correlated with aerosol.

  20. Trace metal speciation and bioavailability in anaerobic digestion: A review.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Pham Minh; Ketheesan, Balachandran; Yan, Zhou; Stuckey, David

    2016-01-01

    Trace metals are essential for the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, however, in practice they are often added to anaerobic digesters in excessive amounts, which can lead to inhibition. The concept of bioavailability of metals in anaerobic digestion has been poorly understood in the past, and a lack of deep understanding of the relationship between trace metal speciation and bioavailability can result in ineffective metal dosing strategies for anaerobic digesters. Sequential extraction schemes are useful for fractionating trace metals into their different forms, and metal sulfides can serve as a store and source for trace metals during anaerobic digestion, while natural/synthetic chelating agents (soluble microbial products-SMPs, extracellular polysaccharides-EPS, and EDTA/NTA) are capable of controlling trace metal bioavailability. Nevertheless, more work is needed to: investigate the speciation and bioavailability of Ca, Mg, Mn, W, and Se; compare the bioavailability of different forms of trace metals e.g. carbonates, sulfides, phosphates to different anaerobic trophic groups; determine what factors influence metal sulfide dissolution; investigate whether chelating agents can increase trace metal bioavailability; develop and adapt specialized analytical techniques, and; determine how trace metal dynamics change in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR).

  1. Visible Traces. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASIA Society, New York, NY.

    This teacher's guide is based on the exhibition, "Visible Traces: Rare Books and Special Collections from the National Library of China," a collaborative effort of the Queens Borough Public Library and the National Library of China; it links rare treasures from the National Library of China to curriculum standards. The following themes are…

  2. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  3. Spectral Bayesian Knowledge Tracing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falakmasir, Mohammad; Yudelson, Michael; Ritter, Steve; Koedinger, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian Knowledge Tracing (BKT) has been in wide use for modeling student skill acquisition in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). BKT tracks and updates student's latent mastery of a skill as a probability distribution of a binary variable. BKT does so by accounting for observed student successes in applying the skill correctly, where success is…

  4. Interstellar molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, J.

    1986-04-01

    The physical properties of the molecular phase of the interstellar medium are studied with regard to star formation and the structure of the Galaxy. Most observations of molecular clouds are made with single-dish, high-surface precision radio telescopes, with the best resolution attainable at 0.2 to 1 arcmin; the smallest structures that can be resolved are of order 10 to the 17th cm in diameter. It is now believed that: (1) most of the mass of the Galaxy is in the form of giant molecular clouds; (2) the largest clouds and those responsible for most massive star formation are concentrated in spiral arms; (3) the molecular clouds are the sites of perpetual star formation, and are significant in the chemical evolution of the Galaxy; (4) giant molecular clouds determine the evolution of the kinematic properties of galactic disk stars; (5) the total gas content is diminishing with time; and (6) most clouds have supersonic internal motions and do not form stars on a free-fall time scale. It is concluded that though progress has been made, more advanced instruments are needed to inspect the processes operating within stellar nurseries and to study the distribution of the molecular clouds in more distant galaxies. Instruments presently under construction which are designed to meet these ends are presented.

  5. Community Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  6. Clouds in GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacmeister, Julio; Rienecker, Michele; Suarez, Max; Norris, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The GEOS-5 atmospheric model is being developed as a weather-and-climate capable model. It must perform well in assimilation mode as well as in weather and climate simulations and forecasts and in coupled chemistry-climate simulations. In developing GEOS-5, attention has focused on the representation of moist processes. The moist physics package uses a single phase prognostic condensate and a prognostic cloud fraction. Two separate cloud types are distinguished by their source: "anvil" cloud originates in detraining convection, and large-scale cloud originates in a PDF-based condensation calculation. Ice and liquid phases for each cloud type are considered. Once created, condensate and fraction from the anvil and statistical cloud types experience the same loss processes: evaporation of condensate and fraction, auto-conversion of liquid or mixed phase condensate, sedimentation of frozen condensate, and accretion of condensate by falling precipitation. The convective parameterization scheme is the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert, or RAS, scheme. Satellite data are used to evaluate the performance of the moist physics packages and help in their tuning. In addition, analysis of and comparisons to cloud-resolving models such as the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model are used to help improve the PDFs used in the moist physics. The presentation will show some of our evaluations including precipitation diagnostics.

  7. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  8. Trace analysis in EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jercinovic, M. J.; Williams, M. L.; Allaz, J.; Donovan, J. J.

    2012-03-01

    Trace element micro-analysis has evolved steadily since the early days of EPMA, yet remains an extraordinarily challenging subject. The enhanced capabilities of modern instrumentation, including the use of spectrometers with high X-ray collection efficiencies, high brightness electron sources, and improved stability all contribute to our ability to improve detection limits and analytical spatial resolution. Along with much improved software for data acquisition and analysis, recent progress in EPMA has made the trace realm more accessible than ever. High count precision can be obtained in order to easily bring analytical sensitivity into the single ppm range, but accuracy remains the greatest struggle. With the exception of the calibration, all sources of error encountered in major element analysis are magnified in trace analysis, and other sources become apparent where high spatial resolution is needed. Beam damage and charge effects are difficult problems in high sensitivity, high spatial resolution analysis, particularly in the analysis of insulators. Software can minimize some of the resulting effects on count rates during acquisition in order to improve accuracy, and analysts can empirically evaluate the conditions of analysis (count time, voltage, current, etc.) to try to minimize these effects. Trace analysis is fundamentally an exercise in background characterisation, and the acquisition and evaluation of background is a subject of developing methodology. Background curvature and interferences can result in considerable inaccuracy, but can be dealt with via detailed quantitative wavelength scanning or multi-point spectral acquisitions which allow proper regression of the background shape. In the absence of excellent quality trace element secondary standards of similar matrix to unknowns, blank testing and consistency standards can be used to test at least some aspects of the methods employed. Ultimately, the analyst must rely on accuracy evolving from

  9. Diagnosing AIRS Sampling with CloudSat Cloud Classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric; Yue, Qing; Guillaume, Alexandre; Kahn, Brian

    2011-01-01

    AIRS yield and sampling vary with cloud state. Careful utilization of collocated multiple satellite sensors is necessary. Profile differences between AIRS and ECMWF model analyses indicate that AIRS has high sampling and excellent accuracy for certain meteorological conditions. Cloud-dependent sampling biases may have large impact on AIRS L2 and L3 data in climate research. MBL clouds / lower tropospheric stability relationship is one example. AIRS and CloudSat reveal a reasonable climatology in the MBL cloud regime despite limited sampling in stratocumulus. Thermodynamic parameters such as EIS derived from AIRS data map these cloud conditions successfully. We are working on characterizing AIRS scenes with mixed cloud types.

  10. Flamingos near-infrared study of the Serpens cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Priya

    We present the results of a deep near-infrared imaging survey of the Serpens Cloud made with FLAMINGOS at the 2.1 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We study the distribution of young embedded sources using the nearest neighbor method applied to a carefully selected sample of near-infrared excess (NIRX) stars that trace the latest episode of star formation in the complex. Our analysis finds the existence of six clusters, of which three are new in the molecular cloud. We determined a median age for the cluster to be 1-2 Myr at a mean distance of 300 pc.

  11. Optical properties of continental haze and cumulus and orographic clouds based on Space Shuttle polarimetric observations.

    PubMed

    Egan, W G; Israel, S; Sidran, M; Hindman, E E; Johnson, W R; Whitehead, V S

    1993-11-20

    Digitized Space Shuttle imagery in the red, green, and blue spectral regions (0.600, 0.540, and 0.435 µm, respectively) is used to characterize the mean radius and the index of refraction of droplets in cumulus and orographic clouds. The clouds are shown to consist concurrently of submicrometer and supermicrometer droplets, with the percent polarization indicative of the dominant sizes. Cloud development from haze as well as inhomogeneities in the cloud decks can be traced remotely. The absorption properties of clouds can also be determined remotely. An optical depth of continental haze in the same three spectral regions as the clouds is computed from the polarimetric and photometric contributions. Both Mie and Rayleigh scattering are included in the model.

  12. Stormy Clouds of Star Birth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is an exceptionally bright source of radio emission called DR21. Visible light images reveal no trace of what is happening in this region because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion).

    New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud.

    This image shows a 24-micron image mosaic, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer aboard Spitzer (MIPS). This image maps the cooler infrared emission from interstellar dust found throughout the interstellar medium. The DR21 complex is clearly seen near the center of the strip, which covers about twice the area of the IRAC image.

    Perhaps the most fascinating feature in this image is a long and shadowy linear filament extending towards the 10 o'clock position of DR21. This jet of cold and dense gas, nearly 50 light-years in extent, appears in silhouette against a warmer background. This filament is too long and massive to be a stellar jet and may have formed from a pre-existing molecular cloud core sculpted by DR21's strong winds. Regardless of its true nature, this jet and the numerous other arcs and wisps of cool dust signify the interstellar turbulence normally unseen by the human eye.

  13. Cloud computing basics for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article.

  14. Cloud computing basics for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2012-01-01

    "Cloud computing" is the name for the recent trend of moving software and computing resources to an online, shared-service model. This article briefly defines cloud computing, discusses different models, explores the advantages and disadvantages, and describes some of the ways cloud computing can be used in libraries. Examples of cloud services are included at the end of the article. PMID:22289098

  15. A Universal Dynamic Threshold Cloud Detection Algorithm (UDTCDA) supported by a prior surface reflectance database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lin; Wei, Jing; Wang, Jian; Mi, Xueting; Guo, Yamin; Lv, Yang; Yang, Yikun; Gan, Ping; Zhou, Xueying; Jia, Chen; Tian, Xinpeng

    2016-06-01

    Conventional cloud detection methods are easily affected by mixed pixels, complex surface structures, and atmospheric factors, resulting in poor cloud detection results. To minimize these problems, a new Universal Dynamic Threshold Cloud Detection Algorithm (UDTCDA) supported by a priori surface reflectance database is proposed in this paper. A monthly surface reflectance database is constructed using long-time-sequenced MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer surface reflectance product (MOD09A1) to provide the surface reflectance of the underlying surfaces. The relationships between the apparent reflectance changes and the surface reflectance are simulated under different observation and atmospheric conditions with the 6S (Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum) model, and the dynamic threshold cloud detection models are developed. Two typical remote sensing data with important application significance and different sensor parameters, MODIS and Landsat 8, are selected for cloud detection experiments. The results were validated against the visual interpretation of clouds and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation cloud measurements. The results showed that the UDTCDA can obtain a high precision in cloud detection, correctly identifying cloudy pixels and clear-sky pixels at rates greater than 80% with error rate and missing rate of less than 20%. The UDTCDA cloud product overall shows less estimation uncertainty than the current MODIS cloud mask products. Moreover, the UDTCDA can effectively reduce the effects of atmospheric factors and mixed pixels and can be applied to different satellite sensors to realize long-term, large-scale cloud detection operations.

  16. Cloud Distribution Statistics from LITE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission has demonstrated the utility of spaceborne lidar in observing multilayer clouds and has provided a dataset showing the distribution of tropospheric clouds and aerosols. These unambiguous observations of the vertical distribution of clouds will allow improved verification of current cloud climatologies and GCM cloud parameterizations. Although there is now great interest in cloud profiling radar, operating in the mm-wave region, for the spacebased observation of cloud heights the results of the LITE mission have shown that satellite lidars can also make significant contributions in this area.

  17. A Sample of What We Have Learned from A-Train Cloud Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, Joanna; Vasilkov, Alexander; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil; Spurr, Robert; Bhartia, P. K.; Krotkov, Nick; Sneep, Maarten; Menzel, Paul; Platnick, Steve; Stephens, Graeme; Wennberg, Paul; Avery, Melody; Wentz, Frank; Vanbaunce, Claudine; Pilewski, Peter; Diskin, Glenn; Vay, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The A-train active sensors CloudSat and CALIPSO provide detailed information about cloud vertical structure. Coarse vertical information can also be obtained from a combination of passive sensors (e.g. cloud liquid water content from AMSR-E, cloud ice properties from MLS and HIRDLS, cloud-top pressure from MODIS and AIRS, and UVNISINear IR absorption and scattering from OMI, MODIS, and POLDER). In addition, the wide swaths of instruments such as MODIS, AIRS, OMI, POLDER, and AMSR-E can be exploited to create estimates of the three-dimensional cloud extent. We will show how data fusion from A-train sensors can be used, e.g., to detect and map the presence of multiple layer/phase clouds. Ultimately, combined cloud information from Atrain instruments will allow for estimates of heating and radiative flux at the surface as well as UV/VIS/Near IR trace-gas absorption at the overpass time on a near-global daily basis. CloudSat has also dramatically improved our interpretation of visible and UV passive measurements in complex cloudy situations such as deep convection and multiple cloud layers. This has led to new approaches for unique and accurate constituent retrievals from A-train instruments. For example, ozone mixing ratios inside tropical deep convective clouds have recently been estimated using the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Field campaign data from TC4 provide additional information about the spatial variability and origin of trace-gases inside convective clouds. We will highlight some of the new applications of remote sensing in cloudy conditions that have been enabled by the synergy between the A-train active and passive sensors.

  18. Modelling aerosol-cloud-meteorology interaction: A case study with a fully coupled air quality model (GEM-MACH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Milbrandt, J.; Gravel, S.; Hayden, K. L.; Macdonald, A. M.; Leaitch, W. R.

    2015-08-01

    A fully coupled on-line air quality forecast model, GEM-MACH, was used to study aerosol-cloud interactions for a case of an urban-industrial plume impacting stratocumulus. The aerosol effect on the cloud microphysics was achieved by the use of parameterization of cloud droplet nucleation predicted from the on-line size- and composition-resolved aerosols and coupled with a double-moment cloud microphysics parameterization. The model simulations with and without the on-line aerosol effect on cloud microphysics were compared and evaluated against in-situ aerosol and cloud observations from ICARTT 2004. Inclusion of the on-line aerosol interaction with cloud resulted in an increase in modelled cloud amount and cloud liquid water content (LWC) due to increased cloud droplet number concentration (Nd), a decrease in cloud droplet size and a reduction in warm precipitation. The modelled LWC and Nd agreed more closely with the observations when the on-line aerosol was allowed to affect the cloud than when aerosol effects on cloud were not explicitly simulated. The increased cloud amount due to the aerosol effects reduced the modelled downward shortwave radiative flux and air temperature at the surface, contributing to a decrease in ozone over the region of enhanced cloud and an increase in particle sulphate from an increased capacity for aqueous-phase production. Aerosol activation is shown to have a significant influence on the cloud microphysics and cloud processing of trace gases and aerosols. The importance of reasonable parameterization of cloud updraft speed is demonstrated.

  19. Ray Tracing with Virtual Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinoff, Stuart

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the method of ray tracing to analyze the refraction or reflection of real or virtual images from multiple optical devices. Discusses ray-tracing techniques for locating images using convex and concave lenses or mirrors. (MDH)

  20. My NASA Data Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lesson has two activities that help students develop a basic understanding of the relationship between cloud type and the form of precipitation and the relationship between the amount of water...

  1. Turbulence in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, R. L.

    The basic aim of this paper is to offer a primer of basic concepts and methods of analysis for observationally-oriented individuals who wish to work in the rapidly developing area of molecular cloud turbulence. First the difficulties which beset early attempts to determine the nature of gas motions within molecular clouds are reviewed. Some aspects of turbulence as a hydrodynamic phenomenon are considered next along with an introduction to the statistical vocabulary of the subject which is required to understand the methods for analyzing observational data. A simple and useful approximation for estimating the velocity correlation length of a molecular cloud is also described. The paper concludes with a final perspective, which considers the extent to which size-velocity dispersion correlations can serve as a probe of chaotic velocity fields in molecular clouds.

  2. Methanol in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friberg, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Madden, S. C.; Irvine, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The first observation of methanol in cold dark clouds TMC 1, L 134 N, and B 335 is reported. In all three clouds, the relative abundance of methanol was found to be in the range of 10 to the -9th (i.e., almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde), with no observable variation between the clouds. Methanol emission showed a complex velocity structure; in TMC 1, clear indications of non-LTE were observed. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L 134 N; the upper limit of the column density of dimethyl ether in L 134 N was estimated to be 4 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, assuming 5 K rotation temperature and LTE. This limit makes the abundance ratio (CH3)2O/CH3OH not higher than 1/5, indicating that dimethyl ether is not overabundant in this dark cloud.

  3. GEOS-5 Modeled Clouds

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows clouds from a simulation using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Verison 5 (GEOS-5). The global atmospheric simulation covers a period from Feb 3, 2010 through Feb ...

  4. Closed Large Cell Clouds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Closed Large Cell Clouds in the South Pacific     ... unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. When the cell centers are cloudy and the main sinking motion is concentrated at cell ...

  5. Noctilucent Clouds in Motion

    NASA Video Gallery

    Swedish photographer Peter Rosén took this close-up, time-lapse movieof Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) over Stockholm, Sweden on the evening ofJuly 16, 2012. "What looked like a serene view from a di...

  6. Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud.

    PubMed

    Meadow, James F; Altrichter, Adam E; Bateman, Ashley C; Stenson, Jason; Brown, G Z; Green, Jessica L; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 10(6) biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources. Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions. Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.5-4 h. Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud.

  7. Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud

    PubMed Central

    Altrichter, Adam E.; Bateman, Ashley C.; Stenson, Jason; Brown, GZ; Green, Jessica L.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 106 biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources. Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions. Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.5–4 h. Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud. PMID:26417541

  8. Cloud Formation In The Troposphere Of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, I.-Chun; Chen, J.; Liang, M.

    2010-10-01

    Methane-nitrogen containing clouds are known to be present in the troposphere of Titan. However, their formation mechanism and chemical properties remain poorly known. One major difficulty is due to the lack of laboratory constraints, resulting in great uncertainties in modeling cloud formation using microphysical models. Recently CH4-N2 clouds are synthesized in lab under conditions similar to that of Titan, providing a crucial constraint for microphysics model. In this study, a detail microphysical model is developed and used to analyze nucleation and condensation processes occurred in the troposphere of Titan. Sensitivity for the most probable unary and binary nucleation pathways and the subsequent condensation growth of particles is performed based on observed chemical and thermodynamic conditions of Titan's atmosphere. The model is first validated using a laboratory simulation. Comparing to laboratory results, our model simulation shows that binary nucleation from CH4 and N2 produces reasonable particle number concentration as in Titan's atmosphere when appropriate accommodation coefficient for vapor condensation is applied. Applying this detailed model to a model Titan atmosphere, clouds can be formed between 10-30 km, depending on the updraft velocity, with particle sizes of 1-10 μm. These results provide not only information of the size and composition of particles in Titan's atmosphere but also help to design laboratory experiments for measuring critical thermodynamic parameters relevant to the particle production mechanisms, as well as for interpreting observations.

  9. Humans differ in their personal microbial cloud.

    PubMed

    Meadow, James F; Altrichter, Adam E; Bateman, Ashley C; Stenson, Jason; Brown, G Z; Green, Jessica L; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal of microbes between humans and the built environment can occur through direct contact with surfaces or through airborne release; the latter mechanism remains poorly understood. Humans emit upwards of 10(6) biological particles per hour, and have long been known to transmit pathogens to other individuals and to indoor surfaces. However it has not previously been demonstrated that humans emit a detectible microbial cloud into surrounding indoor air, nor whether such clouds are sufficiently differentiated to allow the identification of individual occupants. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the airborne bacterial contribution of a single person sitting in a sanitized custom experimental climate chamber. We compared that to air sampled in an adjacent, identical, unoccupied chamber, as well as to supply and exhaust air sources. Additionally, we assessed microbial communities in settled particles surrounding each occupant, to investigate the potential long-term fate of airborne microbial emissions. Most occupants could be clearly detected by their airborne bacterial emissions, as well as their contribution to settled particles, within 1.5-4 h. Bacterial clouds from the occupants were statistically distinct, allowing the identification of some individual occupants. Our results confirm that an occupied space is microbially distinct from an unoccupied one, and demonstrate for the first time that individuals release their own personalized microbial cloud. PMID:26417541

  10. Arctic Winter Thin Ice Clouds Using RAMS, CloudSat, and CALIPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigel, R. B.; Stephens, G. L.; Cotton, W. R.; Carrio, G. G.; Blanchet, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Polar regions are an integral part of Earth's energy budget, however they are poorly understood mainly due to their remoteness and lack of observations. The recent launch of two successful satellites, CloudSat and CALIPSO, into the A-Train constellation are providing excellent insight into wintertime clouds and precipitation at the Poles. One distinguishable characteristic seen from satellite data during Arctic winter and spring is an optically thin cloud containing ice crystals large enough to precipitate out. These "thin ice clouds" (TIC) occur in regions most affected by anthropogenic pollution. It is hypothesized that the anthropogenic pollution, likely sulfuric acid, coat the available ice forming nuclei (IN) and render them as inactive particles. Therefore, the effective IN concentrations are reduced in these regions and there is less competition for the same available moisture and large ice crystals form in relatively small concentrations. The ice crystals grow large enough for fall-out and dehydrates the Arctic atmosphere. We use Colorado State University's Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) configured as a large eddy simulation (LES) version to simulate these TIC's. RAMS contains three grids with the finest resolution of 50m, which can adequately resolve all relevant microphysical processes. By performing sensitivity experiments to recreate the observed microphysical quantities based on both CloudSat and CALIPSO, we extract the initial conditions to further understand the potential for precipitation dehydration and the effects of aerosol on this process.

  11. Marine cloud brightening.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-09-13

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could-subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein-have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  12. Magellanic Clouds: Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mould, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Magellanic Clouds (figure 1) have long been seen as the prototypical young STELLAR POPULATION. The presence of young GLOBULAR CLUSTERS in the Clouds spoke to southern hemisphere observers of the opportunity to study close up processes which have not occurred in the Milky Way for a long time. Young globulars are also seen in other gas-rich, highly disturbed environments, such as merging galaxi...

  13. Light tunneling in clouds.

    PubMed

    Nussenzveig, H Moyses

    2003-03-20

    Solar radiation, traveling outside cloud water droplets, excites sharp resonances and surface waves by tunneling into the droplets. This effect contributes substantially to the total absorption (typically, of the order of 20%) and yields the major contribution to backscattering, producing the meteorological glory. Usual computational practices in atmospheric science misrepresent resonance contributions and cannot be relied on in the assessment of possible anomalies in cloud absorption.

  14. Mesospheric cloud formations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Formation of mesospheric clouds as a result of deposition of large amounts of H2O by the heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) of the solar power satellite system is discussed. The conditions which must be met in order to form and maintain clouds near the mesopause are described. The frequency and magnitude of H2O injections from the HLLV rocket exhaust are considered.

  15. Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.

  16. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  17. FIRE Arctic Clouds Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; King, M. D.; Randall, D. A.; Minnis, P.; Issac, G. A.; Pinto, J. O.; Uttal, T.; Bucholtz, A.; Cripe, D. G.; Gerber, H.; Fairall, C. W.; Garrett, T. J.; Hudson, J.; Intrieri, J. M.; Jakob, C.; Jensen, T.; Lawson, P.; Marcotte, D.; Nguyen, L.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Clouds Experiment that was conducted in the Arctic during April through July, 1998. The principal goal of the field experiment was to gather the data needed to examine the impact of arctic clouds on the radiation exchange between the surface, atmosphere, and space, and to study how the surface influences the evolution of boundary layer clouds. The observations will be used to evaluate and improve climate model parameterizations of cloud and radiation processes, satellite remote sensing of cloud and surface characteristics, and understanding of cloud-radiation feedbacks in the Arctic. The experiment utilized four research aircraft that flew over surface-based observational sites in the Arctic Ocean and Barrow, Alaska. In this paper we describe the programmatic and science objectives of the project, the experimental design (including research platforms and instrumentation), conditions that were encountered during the field experiment, and some highlights of preliminary observations, modelling, and satellite remote sensing studies.

  18. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  19. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  20. Anisotropic ray trace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  1. Precipitation-generated oscillations in open cellular cloud fields.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Graham; Koren, Ilan; Wang, Hailong; Xue, Huiwen; Brewer, Wm Alan

    2010-08-12

    Cloud fields adopt many different patterns that can have a profound effect on the amount of sunlight reflected back to space, with important implications for the Earth's climate. These cloud patterns can be observed in satellite images of the Earth and often exhibit distinct cell-like structures associated with organized convection at scales of tens of kilometres. Recent evidence has shown that atmospheric aerosol particles-through their influence on precipitation formation-help to determine whether cloud fields take on closed (more reflective) or open (less reflective) cellular patterns. The physical mechanisms controlling the formation and evolution of these cells, however, are still poorly understood, limiting our ability to simulate realistically the effects of clouds on global reflectance. Here we use satellite imagery and numerical models to show how precipitating clouds produce an open cellular cloud pattern that oscillates between different, weakly stable states. The oscillations are a result of precipitation causing downward motion and outflow from clouds that were previously positively buoyant. The evaporating precipitation drives air down to the Earth's surface, where it diverges and collides with the outflows of neighbouring precipitating cells. These colliding outflows form surface convergence zones and new cloud formation. In turn, the newly formed clouds produce precipitation and new colliding outflow patterns that are displaced from the previous ones. As successive cycles of this kind unfold, convergence zones alternate with divergence zones and new cloud patterns emerge to replace old ones. The result is an oscillating, self-organized system with a characteristic cell size and precipitation frequency.

  2. FORMATION OF MASSIVE MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES BY CLOUD-CLOUD COLLISION

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Yasuo

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC 3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive molecular cloud cores have large effective Jeans mass owing to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength by shock compression and turbulence in the compressed layer. Our results predict that massive molecular cloud cores formed by the cloud-cloud collision are filamentary and threaded by magnetic fields perpendicular to the filament.

  3. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  4. Bayesian Exploration of Cloud Microphysical Sensitivities in Mesoscale Cloud Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that changes in cloud microphysical processes can have a significant effect on the structure and evolution of cloud systems. In particular, changes in water phase and the associated energy sources and sinks have a direct influence on cloud mass and precipitation, and an indirect effect on cloud system thermodynamic properties and dynamics. The details of cloud particle nucleation and growth, as well as the interactions among vapor, liquid, and ice phases, occur on scales too small to be explicitly simulated in the vast majority of numerical models. These processes are represented by approximations that introduce uncertainty into the simulation of cloud mass and spatial distribution and by extension the simulation of the cloud system itself. This presentation demonstrates how Bayesian methodologies can be used to explore the relationships between cloud microphysics and cloud content, precipitation, dynamics, and radiative transfer. Specifically, a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is used to compute the probability distribution of cloud microphysical parameters consistent with particular mesoscale environments. Two different physical systems are considered. The first example explores the multivariate functional relationships between precipitation, cloud microphysics, and the environment in a deep convective cloud system. The second examines how changes in cloud microphysical parameters may affect orographic cloud structure, precipitation, and dynamics. In each case, the Bayesian framework can be shown to provide unique information on the inter-dependencies present in the physical system.

  5. Comments on the Formation of Globular Clusters from Coalesced Clouds.

    PubMed

    Smith

    1999-11-20

    If a substantial fraction of the proto-Galactic halo was constituted of cloudy structures of sizes 1 kpc or larger, then collisions between these clouds would have been common during the infall of the Galaxy. Such collisions would have shaped the properties of the clouds from which globular clusters formed. If Milky Way globular clusters formed from progenitor clouds which in turn had been constructed from the coalescence of smaller cloud structures, then cluster properties that could naturally be accounted for include: (1) the low percentage of stars in globular clusters relative to the halo field, (2) the chemical homogeneity of globular clusters with respect to heavy elements, and (3) the fact that the lowest metallicity globular clusters are not as metal-poor as some halo field stars.

  6. Global Dust Budgets of the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Mikako

    2013-03-01

    Within galaxies, gas and dust are constantly exchanged between stars and the interstellar medium (ISM). The life-cycle of gas and dust is the key to the evolution of galaxies. Despite its importance, it is has been very difficult to trace the life-cycle of gas and dust via observations. The Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have provided a great opportunity to study the life-cycle of the gas and dust in very nearby galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds. AGB stars are more important contributors to the dust budget in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), while in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), SNe are dominant. However, it seems that the current estimates of the total dust production from AGB stars is insufficient to account for dust present in the ISM. Other dust sources are needed, and supernovae are promising sources. Alternatively the time scale of dust lifetime itself needs some revisions, potentially because they could be unevenly distributed in the ISM or clumps.

  7. The chemical evolution of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglesias, E.

    1977-01-01

    The nonequilibrium chemistry of dense molecular clouds (10,000 to 1 million hydrogen molecules per cu cm) is studied in the framework of a model that includes the latest published chemical data and most of the recent theoretical advances. In this model the only important external source of ionization is assumed to be high-energy cosmic-ray bombardment; standard charge-transfer reactions are taken into account as well as reactions that transfer charge from molecular ions to trace-metal atoms. Schemes are proposed for the synthesis of such species as NCO, HNCO, and CN. The role played by adsorption and condensation of molecules on the surface of dust grains is investigated, and effects on the chemical evolution of a dense molecular cloud are considered which result from varying the total density or the elemental abundances and from assuming negligible or severe condensation of gaseous species on dust grains. It is shown that the chemical-equilibrium time scale is given approximately by the depletion times of oxygen and nitrogen when the condensation efficiency is negligible; that this time scale is probably in the range from 1 to 4 million years, depending on the elemental composition and initial conditions in the cloud; and that this time scale is insensitive to variations in the total density.

  8. Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplissy, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Aplin, K. L.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Avngaard, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bondo, T.; Bingham, R.; Carslaw, K.; Curtius, J.; David, A.; Fastrup, B.; Gagné, S.; Hahn, F.; Harrison, R. G.; Kellett, B.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Lillestol, E.; Lockwood, M.; Mäkelä, J.; Makhmutov, V.; Marsh, N. D.; Nieminen, T.; Onnela, A.; Pedersen, E.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Polny, J.; Reichl, U.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Sipilä, M.; Stozhkov, Y.; Stratmann, F.; Svensmark, H.; Svensmark, J.; Veenhof, R.; Viisanen, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Wehrle, G.; Weingartner, E.; Wex, H.; Wilhelmsson, M.; Winkler, P. M.

    2009-09-01

    During a 4-week run in October-November 2006, a pilot experiment was performed at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in preparation for the CLOUD1 experiment, whose aim is to study the possible influence of cosmic rays on clouds. The purpose of the pilot experiment was firstly to carry out exploratory measurements of the effect of ionising particle radiation on aerosol formation from trace H2SO4 vapour and secondly to provide technical input for the CLOUD design. A total of 44 nucleation bursts were produced and recorded, with formation rates of particles above the 3 nm detection threshold of between 0.1 and 100 cm-3s-1, and growth rates between 2 and 37 nm h-1. The corresponding H2SO4 concentrations were typically around 106 cm-3 or less. The experimentally-measured formation rates and H2SO4 concentrations are comparable to those found in the atmosphere, supporting the idea that sulphuric acid is involved in the nucleation of atmospheric aerosols. However, sulphuric acid alone is not able to explain the observed rapid growth rates, which suggests the presence of additional trace vapours in the aerosol chamber, whose identity is unknown. By analysing the charged fraction, a few of the aerosol bursts appear to have a contribution from ion-induced nucleation and ion-ion recombination to form neutral clusters. Some indications were also found for the accelerator beam timing and intensity to influence the aerosol particle formation rate at the highest experimental SO2 concentrations of 6 ppb, although none was found at lower concentrations. Overall, the exploratory measurements provide suggestive evidence for ion-induced nucleation or ion-ion recombination as sources of aerosol particles. However in order to quantify the conditions under which ion processes become significant, improvements are needed in controlling the experimental variables and in the reproducibility of the experiments. Finally, concerning technical aspects, the most important lessons for the CLOUD design

  9. Molecular Complexity in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, Kinsuk; Herbst, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Recently, we studied chemical complexity in the Large and Small Magellanic clouds. These are irregular satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Both are metal- and dust-poor, although the SMC is significantly poorer in both. The dust temperature in these galaxies could also be higher compared to our Galaxy; this can have a profound effect on the synthesis of molecules in these galaxies. Our simulations show that the cold, dense regions of the LMC and SMC can have a rich chemistry. We found major gas phase species, as well as water and CO2 ices, could be found in abundant quantity. In this presentation I will discuss the complex organic molecules that are found in abundant quantity in our Galaxy, and how their abundance varies in the Magellanic clouds. This comparison will help us to understand the role of metallicity and dust grain temperature in the formation of complex organic molecules.

  10. New Particle Formation in and Around Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axisa, D.; Reeves, J. M.; Wilson, J. C.; Lawson, P.; Sargent, M. R.; Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Schiller, C.; Kraemer, M.

    2012-12-01

    The MACPEX mission permitted observation of aerosol size distributions in the 4 to 1000 nm diameter range, cloud particles and water vapor in and around clouds in the mid-latitude upper troposphere. The NMASS consists of 5 condensation particle counters (cpcs) operating in parallel. The 5 cpcs have lower detection limits of approximately 4 nm, 8 nm, 16 nm, 32 nm and 50 nm. The FCAS measures the optical size of particles in the 100 nm to 1000 nm range. The data from these instruments are combined to provide size distributions from 4 to 1000 nm. Size distributions that show a local maximum in the smallest size range are evidence for recent new particle formation since the lifetime of particles in this size range is short due to coagulation. Size distributions showing evidence of new particle formation were observed inside and near clouds in the altitude range from 10 to 14 km. The cloud particles in these high clouds are expected to be ice. Care was taken to avoid interpreting shattering of ice on the aerosol inlets as new particles. The size distributions showing new particle formation are contrasted with size distributions that do not show new particle formation in and out of the clouds. Temperature, relative humidity and trace gas abundances in air parcels exhibiting new particle formation are contrasted with those in air parcels not showing new particle formation.

  11. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, RT; Protat, A; Alexander, SP

    2015-12-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are poorly represented in present day reanalysis products and global climate model simulations. Errors in top-of-atmosphere (TOA) broadband radiative fluxes in this region are among the largest globally, with large implications for modeling both regional and global scale climate responses (e.g., Trenberth and Fasullo 2010, Ceppi et al. 2012). Recent analyses of model simulations suggest that model radiative errors in the Southern Ocean are due to a lack of low-level postfrontal clouds (including clouds well behind the front) and perhaps a lack of supercooled liquid water that contribute most to the model biases (Bodas-Salcedo et al. 2013, Huang et al. 2014). These assessments of model performance, as well as our knowledge of cloud and aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean, rely heavily on satellite data sets. Satellite data sets are incomplete in that the observations are not continuous (i.e., they are acquired only when the satellite passes nearby), generally do not sample the diurnal cycle, and view primarily the tops of cloud systems (especially for the passive instruments). This is especially problematic for retrievals of aerosol, low-cloud properties, and layers of supercooled water embedded within (rather than at the top of) clouds, as well as estimates of surface shortwave and longwave fluxes based on these properties.

  12. I/O Performance of Virtualized Cloud Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, Devarshi; Canon, Shane; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-11-03

    The scientific community is exploring the suitability of cloud infrastructure to handle High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. The goal of Magellan, a project funded through DOE ASCR, is to investigate the potential role of cloud computing to address the computing needs of the Department of Energy?s Office of Science, especially for mid-range computing and data-intensive applications which are not served through existing DOE centers today. Prior work has shown that applications with significant communication orI/O tend to perform poorly in virtualized cloud environments. However, there is a limited understanding of the I/O characteristics in virtualized cloud environments. This paper will present our results in benchmarking the I/O performance over different cloud and HPC platforms to identify the major bottlenecks in existing infrastructure. We compare the I/O performance using IOR benchmark on two cloud platforms - Amazon and Magellan. We analyze the performance of different storage options available, different instance types in multiple availability zones. Finally, we perform large-scale tests in order to analyze the variability in the I/O patterns over time and region. Our results highlight the overhead and variability in I/O performance on both public and private cloud solutions. Our results will help applications decide between the different storage options enabling applications to make effective choices.

  13. Atmospheric nucleation and growth in the CLOUD experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, Jasper; Cloud Collaboration

    2013-05-01

    Nucleation and growth of new particles in the atmosphere is thought to account for up to half of all cloud condensation nuclei. However the vapours and formation rates that underly this process are poorly understood, due both to the ultra low concentrations of participating vapours in the presence of high backgrounds and to the many sources of uncontrolled variability in the atmosphere. In consequence, laboratory measurements made under clean and precisely controlled conditions play an important role in identifying the vapours responsible and quantifying their associated nucleation and growth rates. The CLOUD experiment at CERN is studying the nucleation and growth of aerosol particles, and their interaction with clouds, in a 3 m stainless steel aerosol/cloud chamber. The experiment is optimised to study the influence of ions, for which the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) provides an adjustable source of 'cosmic rays'. Extraordinary care has been paid in the design and construction of CLOUD and its associated systems-gas, thermal, UV and electric field-to suppress contaminants at the technological limit. The unprecedented low contamination achieved in the CLOUD chamber has revealed that atmospheric nucleation and growth is sensitive to certain atmospheric vapours at mixing ratios of only a few parts-per-trillion by volume (pptv). Here we provide an overview of the design of CLOUD and its experimental programme over four years of operation at CERN.

  14. Stratocumulus cloud evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Rogers, D.P.; Norris, P.M.; Johnson, D.W.; Martin, G.M.

    1994-12-31

    The structure and evolution of the extra-tropical marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) depends largely on the variability of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. The typical boundary-layer is capped by a temperature inversion that limits exchange with the free atmosphere. Cloud-top is usually coincident with the base of the inversion. Stratus clouds are generally associated with a well-mixed MABL, whereas daytime observations of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layers indicate that the cloud and subcloud layers are often decoupled due to shortwave radiative heating of the cloud layer. In this case the surface-based mixed layer is separated from the base of the stratocumulus (Sc) by a layer that is stable to dry turbulent mixing. This is sometimes referred to as the transition layer. Often cumulus clouds (Cu) develop in the transition layer. The cumulus tops may remain below the Sc base or they may penetrate into the Sc layer and occasionally through the capping temperature inversion. While this cloud structure is characteristic of the daytime MABL, it may persist at night also. The Cu play an important role in connecting the mixed layer to the Sc layer. If the Cu are active they transport water vapor from the sea surface that maintains the Sc against the dissipating effects of shortwave heating. The Cu, however, are very sensitive to small changes in the heat and moisture in the boundary-layer and are transient features. Here the authors discuss the effect of these small Cu on the turbulent structure of the MABL.

  15. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  16. EXCITATION OF C{sub 2} IN DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare E-mail: ccp@oa-cagliari.inaf.it

    2012-04-10

    We investigate the effects and the implications of incorporating new collision and radiative rates in modeling the excitation of diatomic carbon molecule. The present results suggest that diffuse and translucent interstellar clouds may present a structure in which regions with different densities and kinetic temperatures overlap along the line of sight, such as core-halo clouds, the nested structure of the molecular gas, and clumpiness. Such conclusion reflects the response of the C{sub 2} rotational ladder to the interplay of thermal and radiative conditions, with low and high rotational levels tracing different regions of the parameter space. To relieve constraints to the formation and excitation of C{sub 2} molecules, we propose a scenario in which the chemistry in diffuse clouds is supplemented by chemistry in many transient and tiny perturbations.

  17. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  18. Trace gas emissions from the marine biosphere.

    PubMed

    Liss, Peter S

    2007-07-15

    A wide variety of trace gases (e.g. dimethyl sulphide, organohalogens, ammonia, non-methane and oxygenated hydrocarbons, volatile oxygenated organics and nitrous oxide) are formed in marine waters by biological and photochemical processes. This leads in many, but not all, cases to supersaturation of the water relative to marine air concentrations and a net flux of trace gas to the atmosphere. Since the gases are often in their reduced forms in the water, once in the atmosphere they are subject to oxidation by photolysis or radical attack to form chemically reactive species that can affect the oxidizing capacity of the air. They can also lead to the formation of new particles or the growth of existing ones that can then contribute to both direct and indirect (via the formation of cloud condensation nuclei) aerosol effects on climate. These cycles are discussed with respect to their impacts on the chemistry of the atmosphere, climate and human health. This whole topic was the subject of an extensive review (Nightingale & Liss 2003 In Treatise in geochemistry (eds H. D. Holland & K. K. Turekian), pp. 49-81) and what will be attempted here is a brief update of the earlier paper. There is no attempt to be comprehensive either in terms of gases covered or to give a complete review of all the recent literature. It is a personal view of recent advances both from my own research group as well as significant work from others. Questions raised at the meeting 'Trace gas biogeochemistry and global change' are dealt with at appropriate places in the text (rather than at the end of the piece). Discussion of each of the gases or group of gases is given in the following separate sections.

  19. Microphysics of Pyrocumulonimbus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fridlind, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The intense heat from forest fires can generate explosive deep convective cloud systems that inject pollutants to high altitudes. Both satellite and high-altitude aircraft measurements have documented cases in which these pyrocumulonimbus clouds inject large amounts of smoke well into the stratosphere (Fromm and Servranckx 2003; Jost et al. 2004). This smoke can remain in the stratosphere, be transported large distances, and affect lower stratospheric chemistry. In addition recent in situ measurements in pyrocumulus updrafts have shown that the high concentrations of smoke particles have significant impacts on cloud microphysical properties. Very high droplet number densities result in delayed precipitation and may enhance lightning (Andrew et al. 2004). Presumably, the smoke particles will also lead to changes in the properties of anvil cirrus produces by the deep convection, with resulting influences on cloud radiative forcing. In situ sampling near the tops of mature pyrocumulonimbus is difficult due to the high altitude and violence of the storms. In this study, we use large eddy simulations (LES) with size-resolved microphysics to elucidate physical processes in pyrocumulonimbus clouds.

  20. Orbiter cloud photopolarimeter investigation.

    PubMed

    Travis, L D; Coffeen, D L; Hansen, J E; Kawabata, K; Lacis, A A; Lane, W A; Limaye, S S; Stone, P H

    1979-02-23

    The first polarization measurements of the orbiter cloud photopolarimeter have detected a planet-wide layer of submicrometer aerosols of substantial visible optical thickness, of the order of 0.05 to 0.1, in the lower stratosphere well above the main visible sulfuric acid cloud layer. Early images show a number of features observed by Mariner 10 in 1974, including planetary scale markings that propagate around the planet in the retrograde sense at roughly 100 meters per second and bright- and dark-rimmed cells suggesting convective activity at low latitudes. The polar regions are covered by bright clouds down to latitudes aproximately 50 degrees, with both caps significantly brighter (relative to low latitudes) than the south polar cloud observed by Mariner 10. The cellular features, often organized into clusters with large horizontal scale, exist also at mid-latitudes, and include at least one case in which a cell cuts across the edge of the bright polar cloud of the northern hemisphere.

  1. Major Characteristics of Southern Ocean Cloud Regimes and Their Effects on the Energy Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, John M.; Jakob, Christian; Rossow, William B.; Tselioudis, George; Brown, Josephine

    2011-01-01

    Clouds over the Southern Ocean are often poorly represented by climate models, but they make a significant contribution to the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation balance, particularly in the shortwave portion of the energy spectrum. This study seeks to better quantify the organization and structure of Southern Hemisphere midlatitude clouds by combining measurements from active and passive satellite-based datasets. Geostationary and polar-orbiter satellite data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) are used to quantify large-scale, recurring modes of cloudiness, and active observations from CloudSat and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) are used to examine vertical structure, radiative heating rates, and precipitation associated with these clouds. It is found that cloud systems are organized into eight distinct regimes and that ISCCP overestimates the midlevel cloudiness of these regimes. All regimes contain a relatively high occurrence of low cloud, with 79%of all cloud layers observed having tops below 3 km, but multiple-layered clouds systems are present in approximately 34% of observed cloud profiles. The spatial distribution of regimes varies according to season, with cloud systems being geometrically thicker, on average, during the austral winter. Those regimes found to be most closely associated with midlatitude cyclones produce precipitation the most frequently, although drizzle is extremely common in low-cloud regimes. The regimes associated with cyclones have the highest in-regime shortwave cloud radiative effect at the TOA, but the low-cloud regimes, by virtue of their high frequency of occurrence over the oceans, dominate both TOA and surface shortwave effects in this region as a whole.

  2. Temporal variation of the cloud top height over the tropical Pacific observed by geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, N.; Hamada, A.

    2012-12-01

    Stratiform clouds (nimbostratus and cirriform clouds) in the upper troposphere accompanied with cumulonimbus activity cover large part of the tropical region and largely affect the radiation and water vapor budgets there. Recently new satellites (CloudSat and CALIPSO) can give us the information of cloud height and cloud ice amount even over the open ocean. However, their coverage is limited just below the satellite paths; it is difficult to capture the whole shape and to trace the lifecycle of each cloud system by using just these datasets. We made, as a complementary product, a dataset of cloud top height and visible optical thickness with one-hour resolution over the wide region, by using infrared split-window data of the geostationary satellites (AGU fall meeting 2011) and released on the internet (http://database.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/arch/ctop/). We made lookup tables for estimating cloud top height only with geostationary infrared observations by comparing them with the direct cloud observation by CloudSat (Hamada and Nishi, 2010, JAMC). We picked out the same-time observations by MTSAT and CloudSat and regressed the cloud top height observation of CloudSat back onto 11μm brightness temperature (Tb) and the difference between the 11μm Tb and 12μm Tb. We will call our estimated cloud top height as "CTOP" below. The area of our coverage is 85E-155W (MTSAT2) and 80E-160W(MTSAT1R), and 20S-20N. The accuracy of the estimation with the IR split-window observation is the best in the upper tropospheric height range. We analyzed the formation and maintenance of the cloud systems whose top height is in the upper troposphere with our CTOP analysis, CloudSat 2B-GEOPROF, and GSMaP (Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation) precipitation data. Most of the upper tropospheric stratiform clouds have their cloud top within 13-15 km range. The cloud top height decreases slowly when dissipating but still has high value to the end. However, we sometimes observe that a little

  3. Global observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Asmi, Ari; Chin, Mian; Leeuw, Gerrit; Donovan, David P.; Kahn, Ralph; Kinne, Stefan; Kivekäs, Niku; Kulmala, Markku; Lau, William; Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Suni, Tanja; Wagner, Thomas; Wild, Martin; Quaas, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Cloud drop condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) particles determine to a large extent cloud microstructure and, consequently, cloud albedo and the dynamic response of clouds to aerosol-induced changes to precipitation. This can modify the reflected solar radiation and the thermal radiation emitted to space. Measurements of tropospheric CCN and IN over large areas have not been possible and can be only roughly approximated from satellite-sensor-based estimates of optical properties of aerosols. Our lack of ability to measure both CCN and cloud updrafts precludes disentangling the effects of meteorology from those of aerosols and represents the largest component in our uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing. Ways to improve the retrieval accuracy include multiangle and multipolarimetric passive measurements of the optical signal and multispectral lidar polarimetric measurements. Indirect methods include proxies of trace gases, as retrieved by hyperspectral sensors. Perhaps the most promising emerging direction is retrieving the CCN properties by simultaneously retrieving convective cloud drop number concentrations and updraft speeds, which amounts to using clouds as natural CCN chambers. These satellite observations have to be constrained by in situ observations of aerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate (ACPC) interactions, which in turn constrain a hierarchy of model simulations of ACPC. Since the essence of a general circulation model is an accurate quantification of the energy and mass fluxes in all forms between the surface, atmosphere and outer space, a route to progress is proposed here in the form of a series of box flux closure experiments in the various climate regimes. A roadmap is provided for quantifying the ACPC interactions and thereby reducing the uncertainty in anthropogenic climate forcing.

  4. Cloud condensation nucleus-sulfate mass relationship and cloud albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegg, Dean A.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of previously published, simultaneous measurements of cloud condensation nucleus number concentration and sulfate mass concentration suggest a nonlinear relationship between the two variables. This nonlinearity reduces the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in the sulfur cycle.

  5. Cloud top entrainment instability and cloud top distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boers, Reinout; Spinhirne, James D.

    1990-01-01

    Classical cloud-top entrainment instability condition formulation is discussed. A saturation point diagram is used to investigate the details of mixing in cases where the cloud-top entrainment instability criterion is satisfied.

  6. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  7. HNCO in molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.M.; Armstrong, J.T.; Barrett, A.H.

    1984-05-15

    In a survey of 18 molecular clouds, HNCO J/sub K/-1K1..-->..J'/sub K/'-1K'1 = 5/sub 05/..-->..4/sub 05/ and 4/sub 04/..-->..3/sub 03/ emission was etected in seven clouds, and possibly in one other. Emission in these transitions originates in high-density regions (n> or approx. =10/sup 6/ cm/sup -3/). The molecule's excitation requirements allow us to derive limits to excitation temperatures an optical depths. We discuss the possibility of clumping with respect to the beam and compare our results with data from other molecular species. The HNCO emission from Sgr A is an ordder of magnitude larger than the other detected sources as is the ratio ..delta..T +- /sub A/(HNCO 5/sub 05/..-->..4/sub 04/)/..delta..T +- /sub A/(C/sup 18/O 1..-->..0). HNCO is probably a constituent of most molecular clouds.

  8. Winter Clouds Over Mie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    12 March 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red wide angle image shows late winter clouds over the 104 km (65 mi) diameter crater, Mie. Cellular clouds occur in the lower martian atmosphere, surrounding Mie Crater. Their cloudtops are at an altitude that is below the crater rim. Higher than the crater rim occurs a series of lee wave clouds, indicating air circulation moving from west/northwest (left) toward the east/southeast (right). Mie Crater is located in Utopia Planitia, not too far from the Viking 2 landing site, near 48.5 N, 220.4 W. Sunlight illuminates this January 2004 scene from the lower left.

  9. Comparisons of global cloud ice from MLS, CloudSat, and correlative data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. L.; Austin, R. T.; Deng, M.; Durden, S. L.; Heymsfield, A. J.; Jiang, J. H.; Lambert, A.; Li, J.-L.; Livesey, N. J.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Pittman, J. V.; Stephens, G. L.; Tanelli, S.; Vane, D. G.; Waliser, D. E.

    2009-04-01

    Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 2.2 (V2.2) and CloudSat R04 (release 4) ice water content (IWC) and partial-column ice water path (pIWP) measurements are analyzed and compared to other correlative data sets. The MLS IWC, representing an average over ˜300 × 7 × 4 km3 volume, is retrieved at 215-268 hPa with precision varying between 0.06 and 1 mg/m3. The MLS pIWP products, representing the partial columns over ˜100 × 7 km2 area with the bottom at ˜8, ˜6, and ˜11 km for 115, 240, and 640 GHz, have estimated precisions of 5, 1.5, and 0.8 g/m2, respectively. CloudSat, on the other hand, shows a minimum detectable sensitivity of -31 dBZ in the reflectivity measurement at 94 GHz. CloudSat IWC is an average over ˜1.8 × 1.4 × 0.5 km3 volume, and its precision varies from 0.4 mg/m3 at 8 km to 1.6 mg/m3 at 12 km. The estimated single-profile precision for CloudSat IWP is ˜9 g/m2. However, these measurements are associated with relatively large systematic error, mostly due to uncertainties in the retrieval assumptions about microphysics, which lead to relatively poor accuracy compared to measurement precision. To characterize systematic differences among various observations and those derived from models, we employ the normalized probability density function (pdf) in the comparisons. CloudSat IWC shows generally consistent slopes of pdf distribution with in situ observations, particularly at ˜12 km where the in situ data come mostly from long-leg flights. Despite similar IWC morphology found between MLS and CloudSat observations, CloudSat R04 IWC retrieval is higher compared to MLS, especially at 14-17 km where the MLS technique is not limited by sensitivity saturation. The MLS and CloudSat IWC pdf's agree well in the overlapped sensitivity range with relative difference <50%, but the difference appears to increase with IWC. MLS and CloudSat cloud ice measurements are compared with other data sets in terms of monthly map and pdf. Comparisons with

  10. Trace conditioning in insects—keep the trace!

    PubMed Central

    Dylla, Kristina V.; Galili, Dana S.; Szyszka, Paul; Lüdke, Alja

    2013-01-01

    Trace conditioning is a form of associative learning that can be induced by presenting a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) following each other, but separated by a temporal gap. This gap distinguishes trace conditioning from classical delay conditioning, where the CS and US overlap. To bridge the temporal gap between both stimuli and to form an association between CS and US in trace conditioning, the brain must keep a neural representation of the CS after its termination—a stimulus trace. Behavioral and physiological studies on trace and delay conditioning revealed similarities between the two forms of learning, like similar memory decay and similar odor identity perception in invertebrates. On the other hand differences were reported also, like the requirement of distinct brain structures in vertebrates or disparities in molecular mechanisms in both vertebrates and invertebrates. For example, in commonly used vertebrate conditioning paradigms the hippocampus is necessary for trace but not for delay conditioning, and Drosophila delay conditioning requires the Rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (Rut-AC), which is dispensable in trace conditioning. It is still unknown how the brain encodes CS traces and how they are associated with a US in trace conditioning. Insects serve as powerful models to address the mechanisms underlying trace conditioning, due to their simple brain anatomy, behavioral accessibility and established methods of genetic interference. In this review we summarize the recent progress in insect trace conditioning on the behavioral and physiological level and emphasize similarities and differences compared to delay conditioning. Moreover, we examine proposed molecular and computational models and reassess different experimental approaches used for trace conditioning. PMID:23986710

  11. Trace element emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; Hauserman, W.B.; Hassett, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The predicting of inorganic transformations (major and minor components) during coal combustion has long been the focus of many research programs (Zygarlicke et al., 1992; Wilemski et al., 1992; Baxter, 1992). In the program described in this paper, the predictive techniques that have been applied to combustion are being modified to predict inorganic transformations under gasification conditions. Many of the current trace element predictive techniques are based on the assumption of equilibrium conditions and not on actual kinetically constrained transformations that occur during coal utilization. The approach used in this program is to combine inorganic transformation algorithms and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Ramanathan et al., 1989, 1991). These techniques will be developed to predict the particle-size and composition distribution of the resulting coal ash particulate, along with the state of the vapor species at selected conditions for major, minor, and trace constituents. Many of the computer models recently to predict the evolution of major developed and minor elements during coal gasification were made possible by the development on a highly quantitative analytical technique for coal analysis, CCSEM (Steadman et al., 1990). CCSEM provides a particle-size and composition distribution for the mineral contents of a particular coal for twelve major and minor elements. These raw CCSEM data are the primary input to the newest computer models of ash formation.

  12. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  13. Formation of jets and water clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Y.; Showman, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations show that Jupiter exhibits multiple banded zonal jet structures. These banded jets correlate with dark and bright clouds, often called "belts" and "zones". The mechanisms that produce these banded zonal jets and clouds are poorly understood. Our previous studies showed that the latent heat released by condensation of water vapor could produce equatorial superrotation along with multiple zonal jets in the mid-to-high latitudes. However, that previous work assumed complete and instant removal of condensate and therefore could not predict the cloud formation. Here we present an improved 3D Jupiter model to investigate some effects of cloud microphysics on large-scale dynamics using a closed water cycle that includes condensation, three-dimensional advection of cloud material by the large-scale circulation, evaporation and sedimentation. We use a simplified Betts-Miller scheme to relax the temperature and water vapor towards moist adiabat and saturation profile respectively when atmospheric columns become conditionally unstable, and apply a dry convective adjustment scheme in region deeper than the cloud base to mix heat and tracers. We further assume that the liquid particles are well mixed within the clouds during condensation. Other physics parameterizations included in our model are the bottom drag and internal heat flux as well as the Newtonian heating. We find that the active water cycle can produce numerous convective storms and multiple banded jets with equatorial superrotation. However the clouds are sporadic and not coherent with the jet structures. Here we will discuss the jet-forming mechanism compared to our previous studies and cloud morphologies under the influence of large-scale dynamics.

  14. The Oort cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessman, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    Although the outermost planet, Pluto, is 6 x 10 to the 9th km from the sun, the sun's gravitational sphere of influence extends much further, out to about 2 x 10 to the 13th km. This space is occupied by the Oort cloud, comprising 10 to the 12th-10 to the 13th cometary nuclei, formed in the primordial solar nebula. Observations and computer modeling have contributed to a detailed understanding of the structure and dynamics of the cloud, which is thought to be the source of the long-period comets and possibly comet showers.

  15. Infrared cloud radiance.

    PubMed

    Kattawar, G W; Plass, G N

    1969-06-01

    The radiance of clouds is calculated at nine wavelengths in the ir. The single scattering function is obtained by Mie theory from the measured values of the complex index of refraction and with two different drop size distributions. Multiple scattering is taken into account by a Monte Carlo technique which computes the exact three-dimensional paths of the photons. The upward and downward radiance is obtained as a function of optical thickness, angle of observation, drop size distribution, and incident solar angle. The mean optical path of the photon, the cloud albedo, and the flux at the lower and upper boundaries are also given.

  16. Opaque cloud detection

    DOEpatents

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  17. Cloud and Precipitation Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Martin; Höller, Hartmut; Schmidt, Kersten

    Precipitation or weather radar is an essential tool for research, diagnosis, and nowcasting of precipitation events like fronts or thunderstorms. Only with weather radar is it possible to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure of thunderstorms and to investigate processes like hail formation or tornado genesis. A number of different radar products are available to analyze the structure, dynamics and microphysics of precipitation systems. Cloud radars use short wavelengths to enable detection of small ice particles or cloud droplets. Their applications differ from weather radar as they are mostly orientated vertically, where different retrieval techniques can be applied.

  18. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  19. Real World: Global Cloud Observation Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about precipitation and how clouds are formed. Find out why scientists study clouds and how you can help NASA collect cloud observation data as part of the Students' Cloud Observation OnLine,...

  20. Relationships among cloud occurrence frequency, overlap, and effective thickness derived from CALIPSO and CloudSat merged cloud vertical profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Seiji; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Miller, Walter F.; Rose, Fred G.; Chen, Yan; Minnis, Patrick; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    A cloud frequency of occurrence matrix is generated using merged cloud vertical profiles derived from the satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and cloud profiling radar. The matrix contains vertical profiles of cloud occurrence frequency as a function of the uppermost cloud top. It is shown that the cloud fraction and uppermost cloud top vertical profiles can be related by a cloud overlap matrix when the correlation length of cloud occurrence, which is interpreted as an effective cloud thickness, is introduced. The underlying assumption in establishing the above relation is that cloud overlap approaches random overlap with increasing distance separating cloud layers and that the probability of deviating from random overlap decreases exponentially with distance. One month of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat data (July 2006) support these assumptions, although the correlation length sometimes increases with separation distance when the cloud top height is large. The data also show that the correlation length depends on cloud top hight and the maximum occurs when the cloud top height is 8 to 10 km. The cloud correlation length is equivalent to the decorrelation distance introduced by Hogan and Illingworth (2000) when cloud fractions of both layers in a two-cloud layer system are the same. The simple relationships derived in this study can be used to estimate the top-of-atmosphere irradiance difference caused by cloud fraction, uppermost cloud top, and cloud thickness vertical profile differences.

  1. Active Imaging through Cirrus Clouds.

    PubMed

    Landesman, B; Kindilien, P; Pierson, R; Matson, C; Mosley, D

    1997-11-24

    The presence of clouds of ice particles in the uplink and downlink path of an illumination beam can severely impede the performance of an active imaging system. Depending on the optical depth of the cloud, i.e., its density and depth, the beam can be completely scattered and extinguished, or the beam can pass through the cloud with some fraction attenuated, scattered, and depolarized. In particular, subvisual cirrus clouds, i.e., high, thin cirrus clouds that cannot be observed from the ground, can affect the properties and alignment of both uplink and downlink beams. This paper discusses the potential for active imaging in the presence of cirrus clouds. We document field data results from an active imaging experiment conducted several years ago, which the authors believe to show the effects of cirrus clouds on an active imaging system. To verify these conclusions, we include the results of a simulation of the interaction of a coherent illumination scheme with a cirrus cloud.

  2. Cloud structure from infrared imagery.

    PubMed

    Blau, H H

    1968-10-01

    Infrared images of clouds recorded in reflected sunlight at wavelengths at which water and ice absorb will show greater structural detail than visible images, and, in principle, can provide information on cloud phase and particle size distributions.

  3. Animated View of Noctilucent Cloud

    NASA Video Gallery

    Polar mesospheric clouds, as they are known to those who study them from satellite observations, are also often called "noctilucent," or night shining, clouds as seen by ground-based observers. Bec...

  4. G2 Gas Cloud Simulation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulation shows the future behavior of the G2 gas cloud now approaching Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. X-ray emission from the cloud's tidal interaction w...

  5. Stratocumulus Clouds, eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This sheet of closed-cell stratocumulus clouds was sighted in the eastern Pacific Ocean (13.5N, 141.0W) southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. This cloud sheet has a distinctive fracture zone that separates an older cloud layer (right side of scene) from a newly formed layer (left). Stratocumulus cloud sheets originate over the cold waters of the California current and migrate westward over the Pacific Ocean.

  6. Retrieval Of Cloud Pressure And Chlorophyll Content Using Raman Scattering In GOME Ultraviolet Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Joiner, Joanna; Vasikov, Alexander; Flittner, David; Gleason, James; Bhartia, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable cloud pressure estimates are needed for accurate retrieval of ozone and other trace gases using satellite-borne backscatter ultraviolet (buv) instruments such as the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME). Cloud pressure can be derived from buv instruments by utilizing the properties of rotational-Raman scattering (RRS) and absorption by O2-O2. In this paper we estimate cloud pressure from GOME observations in the 355-400 nm spectral range using the concept of a Lambertian-equivalent reflectivity (LER) surface. GOME has full spectral coverage in this range at relatively high spectral resolution with a very high signal-to-noise ratio. This allows for much more accurate estimates of cloud pressure than were possible with its predecessors SBUV and TOMS. We also demonstrate the potential capability to retrieve chlorophyll content with full-spectral buv instruments. We compare our retrieved LER cloud pressure with cloud top pressures derived from the infrared ATSR instrument on the same satellite. The findings confirm results from previous studies that showed retrieved LER cloud pressures from buv observations are systematically higher than IR-derived cloud-top pressure. Simulations using Mie-scattering radiative transfer algorithms that include O2-O2 absorption and RRS show that these differences can be explained by increased photon path length within and below cloud.

  7. Dust-correlated cm wavelength continuum emission from translucent clouds ζ Oph and LDN 1780

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, M.; Casassus, S.; Dickinson, C.; Witt, A. N.; Castellanos, P.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; Cabrera, G.; Cleary, K.; Allison, J. R.; Bond, J. R.; Bronfman, L.; Bustos, R.; Jones, M. E.; Paladini, R.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Sievers, J. L.; Taylor, A. C.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse cm wave IR-correlated signal, the 'anomalous' CMB foreground, is thought to arise in the dust in cirrus clouds. We present Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) cm wave data of two translucent clouds, ζ Oph and LDN 1780 with the aim of characterizing the anomalous emission in the translucent cloud environment. In ζ Oph, the measured brightness at 31 GHz is 2.4σ higher than an extrapolation from 5-GHz measurements assuming a free-free spectrum on 8 arcmin scales. The SED of this cloud on angular scales of 1° is dominated by free-free emission in the cm range. In LDN 1780 we detected a 3σ excess in the SED on angular scales of 1° that can be fitted using a spinning dust model. In this cloud, there is a spatial correlation between the CBI data and IR images, which trace dust. The correlation is better with near-IR templates (IRAS 12 and 25 μm) than with IRAS 100 μm, which suggests a very small grain origin for the emission at 31 GHz. We calculated the 31-GHz emissivities in both clouds. They are similar and have intermediate values between that of cirrus clouds and dark clouds. Nevertheless, we found an indication of an inverse relationship between emissivity and column density, which further supports the VSGs origin for the cm emission since the proportion of big relative to small grains is smaller in diffuse clouds.

  8. Results from the CERN pilot CLOUD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplissy, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Aplin, K. L.; Arnold, F.; Aufmhoff, H.; Avngaard, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Bondo, T.; Bingham, R.; Carslaw, K.; Curtius, J.; David, A.; Fastrup, B.; Gagné, S.; Hahn, F.; Harrison, R. G.; Kellett, B.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Laakso, L.; Laaksonen, A.; Lillestol, E.; Lockwood, M.; Mäkelä, J.; Makhmutov, V.; Marsh, N. D.; Nieminen, T.; Onnela, A.; Pedersen, E.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Polny, J.; Reichl, U.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Sipilä, M.; Stozhkov, Y.; Stratmann, F.; Svensmark, H.; Svensmark, J.; Veenhof, R.; Verheggen, B.; Viisanen, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Wehrle, G.; Weingartner, E.; Wex, H.; Wilhelmsson, M.; Winkler, P. M.

    2010-02-01

    During a 4-week run in October-November 2006, a pilot experiment was performed at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in preparation for the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment, whose aim is to study the possible influence of cosmic rays on clouds. The purpose of the pilot experiment was firstly to carry out exploratory measurements of the effect of ionising particle radiation on aerosol formation from trace H2SO4 vapour and secondly to provide technical input for the CLOUD design. A total of 44 nucleation bursts were produced and recorded, with formation rates of particles above the 3 nm detection threshold of between 0.1 and 100 cm-3s-1, and growth rates between 2 and 37 nm h-1. The corresponding H2O concentrations were typically around 106 cm-3 or less. The experimentally-measured formation rates and htwosofour concentrations are comparable to those found in the atmosphere, supporting the idea that sulphuric acid is involved in the nucleation of atmospheric aerosols. However, sulphuric acid alone is not able to explain the observed rapid growth rates, which suggests the presence of additional trace vapours in the aerosol chamber, whose identity is unknown. By analysing the charged fraction, a few of the aerosol bursts appear to have a contribution from ion-induced nucleation and ion-ion recombination to form neutral clusters. Some indications were also found for the accelerator beam timing and intensity to influence the aerosol particle formation rate at the highest experimental SO2 concentrations of 6 ppb, although none was found at lower concentrations. Overall, the exploratory measurements provide suggestive evidence for ion-induced nucleation or ion-ion recombination as sources of aerosol particles. However in order to quantify the conditions under which ion processes become significant, improvements are needed in controlling the experimental variables and in the reproducibility of the experiments. Finally, concerning technical aspects, the most

  9. Utilizing clouds for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the use of cloud computing resources for the Belle II experiment. A number of different methods are used to exploit the private and opportunistic clouds. Clouds are making significant contributions to the generation of Belle II MC data samples and it is expected that their impact will continue to grow over the coming years.

  10. A View from the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is definitely a thing now, but it's not new and it's not even novel. Back when people were first learning about the Internet in the 1990s, every diagram that one saw showing how the Internet worked had a big cloud in the middle. That cloud represented the diverse links, routers, gateways, and protocols that passed traffic around in…

  11. Wind measurements in noctilucent clouds.

    PubMed

    Theon, J S; Smith, W S; McGovern, W E

    1969-05-01

    The results of eight soundings conducted from sites at high latitude during the summers of 1963 through 1965 suggest that a relation exists between the winds at the mesopause and the occurrence of noctilucent clouds. These measurements indicate that situations in which noctilucent clouds are present are associated with lower wind speeds than is the case where there are no clouds.

  12. The Basics of Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Most school business officials have heard the term "cloud computing" bandied about and may have some idea of what the term means. In fact, they likely already leverage a cloud-computing solution somewhere within their district. But what does cloud computing really mean? This brief article puts a bit of definition behind the term and helps one…

  13. AceCloud: Molecular Dynamics Simulations in the Cloud.

    PubMed

    Harvey, M J; De Fabritiis, G

    2015-05-26

    We present AceCloud, an on-demand service for molecular dynamics simulations. AceCloud is designed to facilitate the secure execution of large ensembles of simulations on an external cloud computing service (currently Amazon Web Services). The AceCloud client, integrated into the ACEMD molecular dynamics package, provides an easy-to-use interface that abstracts all aspects of interaction with the cloud services. This gives the user the experience that all simulations are running on their local machine, minimizing the learning curve typically associated with the transition to using high performance computing services.

  14. The VOCALS Regional Experiment: Aerosol-Cloud-Precipitation Interactions in Marine Boundary Layer Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, R.

    2012-12-01

    Robert Wood, C.S. Bretherton, C. R. Mechoso, R. A. Weller, B. J. Huebert, H. Coe, B. A. Albrecht, P. H. Daum, D. Leon, A. Clarke, P. Zuidema, C. W. Fairall, G. Allen, S. deSzoeke, G. Feingold, J. Kazil, S. Yuter, R. George, A. Berner, C. Terai, G. Painter, H. Wang, M. Wyant, D. Mechem The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) is an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific (SEP), a region dominated by strong coastal upwelling, extensive cold SSTs, and home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northen Chile. A central theme of VOCALS-REx is the improved understanding of links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties. In this presentation, we will present a synthesis of results from VOCALS-REx focusing on the following questions: (a) how are aerosols, clouds and precipitation inter-related in the SEP region? (b) what microphysical-macrophysical interactions are necessary for the formation and maintenance of open cells? (c) how do cloud and MBL properties change across the strong microphysical gradients from the South American coast to the remote ocean?

  15. Training in the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretlow, Cassi; Jayroe, Tina

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share how cloud-based applications, such as Google Calendar, Wikidot, Google Docs, Google Sites, YouTube, and Craigslist, played a big part in the success of their plan of implementing a technology training program for customers and employees. A few years ago the Denver Public Library, where the authors work, developed…

  16. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nm

    Images from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.

    Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.

    The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.

    The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter

  17. Invisible Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer's (MODIS') cloud detection capability is so sensitive that it can detect clouds that would be indistinguishable to the human eye. This pair of images highlights MODIS' ability to detect what scientists call 'sub-visible cirrus.' The image on top shows the scene using data collected in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum-the part our eyes can see. Clouds are apparent in the center and lower right of the image, while the rest of the image appears to be relatively clear. However, data collected at 1.38um (lower image) show that a thick layer of previously undetected cirrus clouds obscures the entire scene. These kinds of cirrus are called 'sub-visible' because they can't be detected using only visible light. MODIS' 1.38um channel detects electromagnetic radiation in the infrared region of the spectrum. These images were made from data collected on April 4, 2000. Image courtesy Mark Gray, MODIS Atmosphere Team

  18. Clouds over Open Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    These cirrocumulus clouds photographed over open ocean - location unknown, seem to be in a state of agitation as in the early stages of storm development. The window frame at the top of this scene obscures almost half of the image and the panel seen in the middle of the scene is a corner of one of the payload bay closure doors.

  19. Data Products on Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, Vuong T.; Mandl, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation lays out the data processing products that exist and are planned for the Matsu cloud for Earth Observing 1. The presentation focuses on a new feature called co-registration of Earth Observing 1 with Landsat Global Land Survey chips.

  20. Methanol in dark clouds.

    PubMed

    Friberg, P; Madden, S C; Hjalmarson, A; Irvine, W M

    1988-01-01

    We report observations, for the first time, of the 2(0) - 1(0)A+ and E, 2(-1) - 1(-1) E, and 1(0) - 0(0)A+ lines of methanol (CH3OH) in three dark cold clouds, TMC1, L134N, and B335. The CH3OH emission is extended in these clouds and shows a complex velocity structure. Clear indications of non LTE excitation are observed in TMC 1. Estimated column densities are a few 10(13) cm-2. Although less abundant than formaldehyde (H2CO), methanol is almost an order of magnitude more abundant than acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), in these clouds. Dimethyl ether was searched for in L134N, to an upper limit of 4 10(12) cm-2 (3 sigma). Implications for dark cloud excitation and chemistry are discussed. A new, more accurate, rest frequency 96741.39(0.01) MHz is determined for the 2(0) - 1(0) A+ E line of methanol.

  1. Interstellar molecular clouds.

    PubMed

    Bally, J

    1986-04-11

    The interstellar medium in our galaxy contains matter in a variety of states ranging from hot plasma to cold and dusty molecular gas. The molecular phase consists of giant clouds, which are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the galaxy, the primary reservoir of material for the ongoing birth of new stars, and the medium regulating the evolution of galactic disks.

  2. Seeding the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2013-01-01

    For any institution looking to shift enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to the cloud, big savings can be achieved--but only if the school has properly prepped "before" negotiations begin. These three steps can help: (1) Mop up the mess first; (2) Understand the true costs for services; and (3) Calculate the cost of transition.

  3. Living under a Cloud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursky, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the efforts of three high school teachers at Richland High School in Richland (Washington) to change the school logo from a mushroom cloud, the symbol for a nuclear explosion. Opposition to these teachers' efforts has come from school administrators and fellow teachers, students, alumnae, and community residents. (IAH)

  4. Data in the Cloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Garofalo, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The ability to move from one representation of data to another is one of the key characteristics of expert mathematicians and scientists. Cloud computing will offer more opportunities to create and display multiple representations of data, making this skill even more important in the future. The advent of the Internet led to widespread…

  5. Computing in the Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Web-based applications offer teachers, students, and school districts a convenient way to accomplish a wide range of tasks, from accounting to word processing, for free. Cloud computing has the potential to offer staff and students better services at a lower cost than the technology deployment models they're using now. Saving money and improving…

  6. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  7. Ice clouds over Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayetha, Vinay Kumar

    Arctic clouds have been recognized long ago as one of the key elements modulating the global climate system. They have gained much interest in recent years because the availability of new continuous datasets is opening doors to explore cloud and aerosol properties as never before. This is particularly important in the light of current climate change studies that predict changing weather scenarios around the world. This research investigates the occurrence and properties of a few types of ice clouds over the Arctic region with datasets available through the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (AFARS; 64.86° N, 147.84° W). This study exclusively focuses on ice clouds that form in the upper (cirrus clouds) and midlevels of the troposphere, and that are transparent to laser pulses (visible optical depth, tau < 3.0 -- 4.0). Cirrus clouds are ice-dominated clouds that are formed in the upper levels of the troposphere and are relatively thin such that their visual appearances range from bluish to gray in color. Mid-level ice clouds are those clouds primarily composed of ice crystals forming in the midlevels of the troposphere. It is hypothesized that unlike the basic midlevel cloud type (altostratus), other varieties of midlevel ice clouds exist at times over the Arctic region. The midlevel ice clouds studied here are also transparent to laser pulses and sometimes appear as a family of cirrus clouds to a surface observer. Because of their intermediate heights of occurrence in the troposphere, these could have microphysical properties and radiative effects that are distinct from those associated with upper level ice clouds in the troposphere. A ground-based lidar dataset with visual observations for identifying cloud types collected at AFARS over eight years is used to investigate this hypothesis. Cloud types over AFARS have been identified by a surface observer (Professor Kenneth Sassen) using established characteristics traits. Essential macrophysical

  8. The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Andrew S; Kirkpatrick, Michael P; Stevens, David E; Toon, Owen B

    2004-12-23

    Some of the global warming from anthropogenic greenhouse gases is offset by increased reflection of solar radiation by clouds with smaller droplets that form in air polluted with aerosol particles that serve as cloud condensation nuclei. The resulting cooling tendency, termed the indirect aerosol forcing, is thought to be comparable in magnitude to the forcing by anthropogenic CO2, but it is difficult to estimate because the physical processes that determine global aerosol and cloud populations are poorly understood. Smaller cloud droplets not only reflect sunlight more effectively, but also inhibit precipitation, which is expected to result in increased cloud water. Such an increase in cloud water would result in even more reflective clouds, further increasing the indirect forcing. Marine boundary-layer clouds polluted by aerosol particles, however, are not generally observed to hold more water. Here we simulate stratocumulus clouds with a fluid dynamics model that includes detailed treatments of cloud microphysics and radiative transfer. Our simulations show that the response of cloud water to suppression of precipitation from increased droplet concentrations is determined by a competition between moistening from decreased surface precipitation and drying from increased entrainment of overlying air. Only when the overlying air is humid or droplet concentrations are very low does sufficient precipitation reach the surface to allow cloud water to increase with droplet concentrations. Otherwise, the response of cloud water to aerosol-induced suppression of precipitation is dominated by enhanced entrainment of overlying dry air. In this scenario, cloud water is reduced as droplet concentrations increase, which diminishes the indirect climate forcing.

  9. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Marshall, J; Shen, T

    1991-01-01

    In the traditional concept for the origin of life as proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s, prebiotic reactants became slowly concentrated in the primordial oceans and life evolved slowly from a series of highly protracted chemical reactions during the first billion years of Earth's history. However, chemical evolution may not have occurred continuously because planetesimals and asteroids impacted the Earth many times during the first billion years, may have sterilized the Earth, and required the process to start over. A rapid process of chemical evolution may have been required in order that life appeared at or before 3.5 billion years ago. Thus, a setting favoring rapid chemical evolution may be required. A chemical evolution hypothesis set forth by Woese in 1979 accomplished prebiotic reactions rapidly in droplets in giant atmospheric reflux columns. However, in 1985 Scherer raised a number of objections to Woese's hypothesis and concluded that it was not valid. We propose a mechanism for prebiotic chemistry in clouds that satisfies Scherer's concerns regarding the Woese hypothesis and includes advantageous droplet chemistry. Prebiotic reactants were supplied to the atmosphere by comets, meteorites, and interplanetary dust or synthesized in the atmosphere from simple compounds using energy sources such as ultraviolet light, corona discharge, or lightning. These prebiotic monomers would have first encountered moisture in cloud drops and precipitation. We propose that rapid prebiotic chemical evolution was facilitated on the primordial Earth by cycles of condensation and evaporation of cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei and nonvolatile monomers. For example, amino acids supplied by , or synthesized during entry of, meteorites, comets, and interplanetary dust would have been scavenged by cloud drops containing clay condensation nuclei. Polymerization would have occurred within cloud systems during cycles of condensation, freezing, melting, and

  10. Impact of Antarctic mixed-phase clouds on climate

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, R. Paul; Gettelman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Precious little is known about the composition of low-level clouds over the Antarctic Plateau and their effect on climate. In situ measurements at the South Pole using a unique tethered balloon system and ground-based lidar reveal a much higher than anticipated incidence of low-level, mixed-phase clouds (i.e., consisting of supercooled liquid water drops and ice crystals). The high incidence of mixed-phase clouds is currently poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). As a result, the effects that mixed-phase clouds have on climate predictions are highly uncertain. We modify the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) GCM to align with the new observations and evaluate the radiative effects on a continental scale. The net cloud radiative effects (CREs) over Antarctica are increased by +7.4 Wm−2, and although this is a significant change, a much larger effect occurs when the modified model physics are extended beyond the Antarctic continent. The simulations show significant net CRE over the Southern Ocean storm tracks, where recent measurements also indicate substantial regions of supercooled liquid. These sensitivity tests confirm that Southern Ocean CREs are strongly sensitive to mixed-phase clouds colder than −20 °C. PMID:25489069

  11. Impact of Antarctic mixed-phase clouds on climate.

    PubMed

    Lawson, R Paul; Gettelman, Andrew

    2014-12-23

    Precious little is known about the composition of low-level clouds over the Antarctic Plateau and their effect on climate. In situ measurements at the South Pole using a unique tethered balloon system and ground-based lidar reveal a much higher than anticipated incidence of low-level, mixed-phase clouds (i.e., consisting of supercooled liquid water drops and ice crystals). The high incidence of mixed-phase clouds is currently poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). As a result, the effects that mixed-phase clouds have on climate predictions are highly uncertain. We modify the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model (CESM) GCM to align with the new observations and evaluate the radiative effects on a continental scale. The net cloud radiative effects (CREs) over Antarctica are increased by +7.4 Wm(-2), and although this is a significant change, a much larger effect occurs when the modified model physics are extended beyond the Antarctic continent. The simulations show significant net CRE over the Southern Ocean storm tracks, where recent measurements also indicate substantial regions of supercooled liquid. These sensitivity tests confirm that Southern Ocean CREs are strongly sensitive to mixed-phase clouds colder than -20 °C.

  12. Arsia Mons Spiral Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the benefits of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is the opportunity to observe how the planet's weather changes during a second full martian year. This picture of Arsia Mons was taken June 19, 2001; southern spring equinox occurred the same day. Arsia Mons is a volcano nearly large enough to cover the state of New Mexico. On this particular day (the first day of Spring), the MOC wide angle cameras documented an unusual spiral-shaped cloud within the 110 km (68 mi) diameter caldera--the summit crater--of the giant volcano. Because the cloud is bright both in the red and blue images acquired by the wide angle cameras, it probably consisted mostly of fine dust grains. The cloud's spin may have been induced by winds off the inner slopes of the volcano's caldera walls resulting from the temperature differences between the walls and the caldera floor, or by a vortex as winds blew up and over the caldera. Similar spiral clouds were seen inside the caldera for several days; we don't know if this was a single cloud that persisted throughout that time or one that regenerated each afternoon. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. Distances of Three High-Galactic Latitude Diffuse Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Kelly, M. E.; Burrows, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The Sun is embedded within a large, irregularly-shaped region of plasma called the Local Bubble. Lallement et al. (2003) have traced its convoluted boundary by using the equivalent widths of NaD lines in 1005 distant stars. To avoid directional bias, however, they intentionally avoided targeting stars that shared lines-of-sight with clouds visible on IR, X-ray, or radio maps. Thus, to complement their study, we have determined the distances of three diffuse clouds that were also classified as soft X-ray shadows by Snowden et al. (2000). We targeted these objects since X-ray shadows are expected to lie at or near the bubble's boundary. Thus, their distances and radial velocities provide information about the bubble's edge. In addition, a small fraction of the clouds that are also shadows may prove to lie well within the bubble. The number and nature of such interlopers allows us to place constraints on the bubble's history. To determine the distances and radial velocities, we collected moderately high-resolution spectra of 62 bright, early-type stars lying near the three clouds using the Sandiford Cassegrain-Echelle spectrograph of the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope. We then searched the stars’ spectra for interstellar Na-D lines and used their known distances to bracket the distances to the clouds.

  14. Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability.

    PubMed

    Ghan, Steven; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Shipeng; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Gettelman, Andrew; Griesfeller, Jan; Kipling, Zak; Lohmann, Ulrike; Morrison, Hugh; Neubauer, David; Partridge, Daniel G; Stier, Philip; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-05-24

    A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

  15. A Linearized Prognostic Cloud Scheme in NASAs Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald M.; Gelaro, Ronald; Kim, Jong G.; Mahajan, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    A linearized prognostic cloud scheme has been developed to accompany the linearized convection scheme recently implemented in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. The linearization, developed from the nonlinear cloud scheme, treats cloud variables prognostically so they are subject to linearized advection, diffusion, generation, and evaporation. Four linearized cloud variables are modeled, the ice and water phases of clouds generated by large-scale condensation and, separately, by detraining convection. For each species the scheme models their sources, sublimation, evaporation, and autoconversion. Large-scale, anvil and convective species of precipitation are modeled and evaporated. The cloud scheme exhibits linearity and realistic perturbation growth, except around the generation of clouds through large-scale condensation. Discontinuities and steep gradients are widely used here and severe problems occur in the calculation of cloud fraction. For data assimilation applications this poor behavior is controlled by replacing this part of the scheme with a perturbation model. For observation impacts, where efficiency is less of a concern, a filtering is developed that examines the Jacobian. The replacement scheme is only invoked if Jacobian elements or eigenvalues violate a series of tuned constants. The linearized prognostic cloud scheme is tested by comparing the linear and nonlinear perturbation trajectories for 6-, 12-, and 24-h forecast times. The tangent linear model performs well and perturbations of clouds are well captured for the lead times of interest.

  16. From Regional Cloud-Albedo to a Global Albedo Footprint - Studying Aerosol Effects on the Radiation Budget Using the Relation Between Albedo and Cloud Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, F.; Engström, A.; Karlsson, J.; Wood, R.; Charlson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's albedo is the primary determinant of the amount of energy absorbed by the Earth-atmosphere system. The main factor controlling albedo is the amount of clouds present, but aerosols can affect and alter both clear-sky and cloudy-sky reflectance. How albedo depends on cloud fraction and how albedo varies at a given cloud fraction and a given cloud water content, reveals information about these aerosol effects on the radiation budget. Hence, the relation between total albedo and cloud fraction can be used for illustration and quantification of aerosol effects, and as a diagnostic tool, to test model performance. Here, we show examples of the utilisation of this relation focusing on satellite observations from CERES and MODIS on Aqua, as well as from Calipso and CloudSat, and performing comparisons with climate models on the way: In low-cloud regions in the subtropics, we find that climate models well represent a near-constant regional cloud albedo, and this representation has improved from CMIP3 to CMIP5. CMIP5 models indicate more reflective clouds in present-day climate than pre-industrial, as a result of increased aerosol burdens. On monthly mean time scale, models are found to over-estimate the regional cloud-brightening due to aerosols. On the global scale we find an increasing cloud albedo with increasing cloud fraction - a relation that is very well defined in observations, and less so in CMIP5 models. Cloud brightening from pre-industrial to present day is also seen on global scale. Further, controlling for both cloud fraction and cloud water content we can trace small variations in albedo, or perturbations of solar reflectivity, that create a near-global coherent geographical pattern that is consistent with aerosol impacts on climate, with albedo enhancement in regions dominant of known aerosol sources and suppression of albedo in regions associated with high rates of aerosol removal (deduced using CloudSat precipitation estimates). This mapping can be

  17. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  18. Overlap Properties of Clouds Generated by a Cloud Resolving Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreopoulos, L.; Khairoutdinov, M.

    2002-01-01

    In order for General Circulation Models (GCMs), one of our most important tools to predict future climate, to correctly describe the propagation of solar and thermal radiation through the cloudy atmosphere a realistic description of the vertical distribution of cloud amount is needed. Actually, one needs not only the cloud amounts at different levels of the atmosphere, but also how these cloud amounts are related, in other words, how they overlap. Currently GCMs make some idealized assumptions about cloud overlap, for example that contiguous cloud layers overlap maximally and non-contiguous cloud layers overlap in a random fashion. Since there are difficulties in obtaining the vertical profile of cloud amount from observations, the realism of the overlap assumptions made in GCMs has not been yet rigorously investigated. Recently however, cloud observations from a relatively new type of ground radar have been used to examine the vertical distribution of cloudiness. These observations suggest that the GCM overlap assumptions are dubious. Our study uses cloud fields from sophisticated models dedicated to simulate cloud formation, maintenance, and dissipation called Cloud Resolving Models . These models are generally considered capable of producing realistic three-dimensional representation of cloudiness. Using numerous cloud fields produced by such a CRM we show that the degree of overlap between cloud layers is a function of their separation distance, and is in general described by a combination of the maximum and random overlap assumption, with random overlap dominating as separation distances increase. We show that it is possible to parameterize this behavior in a way that can eventually be incorporated in GCMs. Our results seem to have a significant resemblance to the results from the radar observations despite the completely different nature of the datasets. This consistency is encouraging and will promote development of new radiative transfer codes that will

  19. Poor Rural Children Attract Close Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    Growing up poor in isolated rural areas and small towns is qualitatively different from growing up poor in the city. Yet most of what experts know about the effects of poverty on children's development comes from studies conducted in big cities. Now, an ambitious project run by universities in Pennsylvania and North Carolina is putting what some…

  20. The Crisis of the Near Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Katherine S.; Tan Chen, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the "missing class," the near poor whose incomes place them above the poverty line, but well below the middle class. Near-poor families with two parents and two children subsist on $20,000 to $40,000 a year, which disqualifies them for virtually all public subsidies, but is a far cry from what they need to be…

  1. Extent of Malnourishment among the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    Uses national survey data to demonstrate that, compared to the rural or U.S. non-poor, the rural poor consumed less of eight of nine key nutrients; and disparities were greatest for vitamins A and C, iron, and calcium, and for the youngest (two-five years) age group studied. (SV)

  2. Cognitive Profiles of Korean Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Ji, Yu-Kyong

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 30 poor readers in the third grade with those of 30 average readers of the same age and 30 younger readers matched with the same reading level on phonological, visuo-perceptual, orthographic, and naming speed tasks. Individual data revealed heterogeneous profiles for the poor readers: six (20%) exhibited…

  3. Cognitive and Behavioral Distancing from the Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Bernice

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that distancing is the dominant response to poor people by those who are not poor and that distancing, separation, exclusion, and devaluing operationally define discrimination. Examines U.S. classism in the context of theoretical propositions about the moral exclusion of stigmatized others. Describes cognitive, institutional, and…

  4. Three-Dimension Analysis of the TRACE-P Aircraft Observations using the STEM Regional-Scale Chemical Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Carmichael, G. R.; Uno, I.; Woo, J.; Kurata, G.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Street, D. G.; Shetter, R. E.; Huang, H.

    2002-12-01

    A three-dimensional regional-scale chemical transport model, STEM, coupled with a detailed radiation computation scheme is used to calculate the transport and chemistry of trace gases and aerosols in Asia during the TRACE-P experiment. Extensive comparison of calculated results with aircraft observations will be presented, and it is found that many of the important features observed in the behavior of trace gases and aerosols are captured by the model. Based on these results, we evaluate various factors influencing the distribution of trace gases during the TRACE-P period. Clouds are shown to have a large impact on photolysis rates during the observation period of TRACE-P. Clouds are shown to decrease J[NO2] by 22% below clouds and enhance photolysis rates by 33% from 1 km to 10km. Clouds also exert a dominant influence on short-lived species, like OH and HO2. For example, clouds reduce OH by 23% at altitudes below 1km and increase OH by 25% above 1km. Asian aerosols contain large amounts of carbonaceous material, inorganic components such as sulfates, and mineral oxides. These aerosols significantly influence J-values and photochemical processes. When averaged over all TRACE-P DC-8 and P-3 scientific flights, the aerosol influence via affecting J-values is to reduce OH by 41% below 1km, and by 24% above 1km. Aerosols have a stronger impact on longer-lived chemical species than clouds do, because aerosols tend to be co-emitted with precursors and have a longer contact time with the polluted air masses than clouds do. The accumulated aerosol impact generally is to reduce O3 concentrations by about 6ppbv in the biomass plumes emitted from Southeast Asia. In megacity plumes, aerosols can increase NOx concentration by 40% via reducing its photolytic loss, and reduce NOz concentration by a similar amount. Biomass burning plays a very important role during March of 2001. Our simulations show that biomass emissions contributed 15% of CO and 69% of Black Carbon during the

  5. The Origin of the Most Iron-poor Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marassi, S.; Chiaki, G.; Schneider, R.; Limongi, M.; Omukai, K.; Nozawa, T.; Chieffi, A.; Yoshida, N.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars starting from the recently discovered [Fe/H] < -7.1 star SMSS J031300. We show that the elemental abundances observed on the surface of SMSS J031300 can be well fit by the yields of faint, metal-free, supernovae (SNe). Using properly calibrated faint SN explosion models, we study, for the first time, the formation of dust grains in such carbon-rich, iron-poor SN ejecta. Calculations are performed assuming both unmixed and uniformly mixed ejecta and taking into account the partial destruction by the SN reverse shock. We find that, due to the paucity of refractory elements beside carbon, amorphous carbon is the only grain species to form, with carbon condensation efficiencies that range between (0.15 and 0.84), resulting in dust yields in the range (0.025-2.25) M ⊙. We follow the collapse and fragmentation of a star-forming cloud enriched by the products of these faint SN explosions and we explore the role played by fine structure line cooling and dust cooling. We show that even if grain growth during the collapse has a minor effect of the dust-to-gas ratio, due to C depletion into CO molecules at an early stage of the collapse, the formation of CEMP low-mass stars, such as SMSS J031300, could be triggered by dust cooling and fragmentation. A comparison between model predictions and observations of a sample of C-normal and C-rich metal-poor stars supports the idea that a single common pathway may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars.

  6. The origin of the most iron-poor star

    SciTech Connect

    Marassi, S.; Schneider, R.; Limongi, M.; Omukai, K.; Nozawa, T.; Chieffi, A.

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars starting from the recently discovered [Fe/H] < -7.1 star SMSS J031300. We show that the elemental abundances observed on the surface of SMSS J031300 can be well fit by the yields of faint, metal-free, supernovae (SNe). Using properly calibrated faint SN explosion models, we study, for the first time, the formation of dust grains in such carbon-rich, iron-poor SN ejecta. Calculations are performed assuming both unmixed and uniformly mixed ejecta and taking into account the partial destruction by the SN reverse shock. We find that, due to the paucity of refractory elements beside carbon, amorphous carbon is the only grain species to form, with carbon condensation efficiencies that range between (0.15 and 0.84), resulting in dust yields in the range (0.025-2.25) M {sub ☉}. We follow the collapse and fragmentation of a star-forming cloud enriched by the products of these faint SN explosions and we explore the role played by fine structure line cooling and dust cooling. We show that even if grain growth during the collapse has a minor effect of the dust-to-gas ratio, due to C depletion into CO molecules at an early stage of the collapse, the formation of CEMP low-mass stars, such as SMSS J031300, could be triggered by dust cooling and fragmentation. A comparison between model predictions and observations of a sample of C-normal and C-rich metal-poor stars supports the idea that a single common pathway may be responsible for the formation of the first low-mass stars.

  7. Formation of giant molecular clouds in global spiral structures: The role of orbital dynamics and cloud-cloud collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. W., Jr.; Stewart, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    The different roles played by orbital dynamics and dissipative cloud-cloud collisions in the formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in a global spiral structure are investigated. The interstellar medium (ISM) is simulated by a system of particles, representing clouds, which orbit in a spiral-perturbed, galactic gravitational field. The overall magnitude and width of the global cloud density distribution in spiral arms is very similar in the collisional and collisionless simulations. The results suggest that the assumed number density and size distribution of clouds and the details of individual cloud-cloud collisions have relatively little effect on these features. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions play an important steadying role for the cloud system's global spiral structure. Dissipative cloud-cloud collisions also damp the relative velocity dispersion of clouds in massive associations and thereby aid in the effective assembling of GMC-like complexes.

  8. Distances of Four High-Galactic Latitude Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon L.; Rombach, C. E.; Birney, C. Y.; Burrows, D. N.

    2006-12-01

    The Sun is embedded within a large, irregularly-shaped region of plasma called the Local Bubble that formed when relatively nearby stars exploded as supernovae several million years ago. Lallement et al. (2003) have traced its convoluted boundary by using the equivalent widths of NaD lines in 1005 distant stars. To avoid directional bias, however, they intentionally avoided targeting stars that shared lines-of-sight with clouds visible on IR, X-ray, or radio maps. Thus, to complement their study, we have determined the distances and radial velocities of four molecular clouds that were also classified as soft X-ray shadows by Snowden et al. (2000). We targeted these objects since X-ray shadows are expected to lie at or near the bubble’s boundary. Thus, their distances and radial velocities provide information about the bubble’s edge. In addition, a small fraction of the clouds that are also shadows may prove to lie well within the bubble. The number and nature of such interlopers places constraints on the bubble’s history. The clouds' distances and radial velocities were determined using moderately high-resolution spectra of 88 bright, early-type stars lying near the clouds. The spectra were obtained using the Sandiford Cassegrain-Echelle spectrograph of the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope. We then searched the stars’ spectra for interstellar Na-D lines and used their known distances to bracket the distances to the clouds. We use the derived distances to calculate the density and pressure of the Local Bubble in the direction of these clouds.

  9. Io's Sodium Cloud (Clear Filter)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of Jupiter's moon Io and its surrounding sky is shown in false color. It was taken at 5 hours 30 minutes Universal Time on Nov. 9, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, using a clear filter whose wavelength range was approximately 400 to 1100 nanometers. This picture differs in two main ways from the green-yellow filter image of the same scene which was released yesterday.

    First, the sky around Io is brighter, partly because the wider wavelength range of the clear filter lets in more scattered light from Io's illuminated crescent and from Prometheus' sunlit plume. Nonetheless, the overall sky brightness in this frame is comparable to that seen through the green-yellow filter, indicating that even here much of the diffuse sky emission is coming from the wavelength range of the green-yellow filter (i.e., from Io's Sodium Cloud).

    The second major difference is that a quite large roundish spot has appeared in Io's southern hemisphere. This spot -- which has been colored red -- corresponds to thermal emission from the volcano Pele. The green-yellow filter image bears a much smaller trace of this emission because the clear filter is far more sensitive to those relatively long wavelengths where thermal emission is strongest.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  10. Alpine cloud climatology: regional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Martina; Kriebel, Karl T.

    1996-12-01

    The present understanding of moist atmospheric processes and the role of clouds in the hydrologic cycle shows severe gaps of knowledge. Water vapor plays an essential part in atmospheric dynamics. For example, the release of large amounts of latent heat, due to the condensation in convective clouds, plays an important role in the general circulation. Knowledge of the distribution of clouds and its transport is essential to understand atmospheric dynamics. Clouds can have a positive as well as a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. A cloud cover climatology in a 15 km grid resolution has been retrieved by means of the APOLLO algorithm using the 5 calibrated AVHRR channels. The monthly means of total cloud cover are about 15 percent too high compared to conventional data, the standard deviation is +/- 12 percent. The high resolution cloud cover maps show topometeorological features like 'Fohn' on single days but not in monthly means, because these events are too rare. But increased cloud cover in the luff regions are detected in monthly means as well as some cloud sparse regions like Lake Garda, Ticino or the Swiss Rhone valley. The different annual cycles of cloud cover show the different climatic regions, which are temperate, Alpine, and Mediterranean climate. This is indicated, for example, by the remarkably smaller cloud cover in the Alpine region in winter as compared to the northern and southern forelands.

  11. Fractal statistics of cloud fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and Thematic Mapper (TM) data, with 80 and 30 m spatial resolution, respectively, have been employed to study the spatial structure of boundary-layer and intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) clouds. The probability distributions of cloud areas and cloud perimeters are found to approximately follow a power-law, with a different power (i.e., fractal dimension) for each cloud type. They are better approximated by a double power-law behavior, indicating a change in the fractal dimension at a characteristic size which depends upon cloud type. The fractal dimension also changes with threshold. The more intense cloud areas are found to have a higher perimeter fractal dimension, perhaps indicative of the increased turbulence at cloud top. A detailed picture of the inhomogeneous spatial structure of various cloud types will contribute to a better understanding of basic cloud processes, and also has implications for the remote sensing of clouds, for their effects on remote sensing of other parameters, and for the parameterization of clouds in general circulation models, all of which rely upon plane-parallel radiative transfer algorithms.

  12. Using the VIMS Dataset to Understand Titan’s Hydrologic Cycle Through Cloud Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corlies, Paul; Hayes, Alexander G.; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Adamkovics, Mate; Rojo, Patricio; Turtle, Elizabeth P.

    2015-11-01

    Along with Earth, Titan is the only body in our Solar System to possess an active hydrologic cycle. Monitoring how Titan’s methane-based hydrologic cycle varies with season over Saturn’s 29.7-year orbital period is essential for understanding its climate system.Using a newly developed radiative transfer pipeline, with updated HITRAN methane line parameters, we will present an ongoing analysis of the known cloud observations in the VIMS dataset. Although much work has gone into finding clouds in this dataset, little work has been done on understanding the characteristics of these clouds, barring a handful of individual analyses. Our pipeline allows for fast determination of these cloud characteristics including optical depth, altitude, and mean drop size. VIMS offers two advantages: providing consecutive observations of individual cloud systems to help diagnose formation mechanism and providing a decade long dataset to track seasonal variations, like those observed in cloud frequency and location. Characterizing clouds allows for an understanding of seasonally varying formation mechanisms, traces Titan’s atmospheric methane content across seasonal timescales, and can indicate clouds that could potentially have precipitated to provide context for interpreting observed surface features.We will also present an update on an ongoing ground based- cloud monitoring campaign. This campaign, begun in April 2014, has (nearly) continually monitored Titan on a variety of telescopes for the past 1.5 years. To date, no cloud activity has been observed, despite the variety in observation techniques that multiple telescopes allow. This is interesting because large cloud outbursts were observed during the equivalent point in southern summer and suggest a dichotomy in the seasonal dynamics of Titan’s atmosphere. Understanding when and with what frequency clouds begin to form in the north is crucial to understanding Titan’s hydrologic cycle on seasonal time scales.

  13. Scientific Workflows in the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juve, Gideon; Deelman, Ewa

    The development of cloud computing has generated significant interest in the scientific computing community. In this chapter we consider the impact of cloud computing on scientific workflow applications. We examine the benefits and drawbacks of cloud computing for workflows, and argue that the primary benefit of cloud computing is not the economic model it promotes, but rather the technologies it employs and how they enable new features for workflow applications. We describe how clouds can be configured to execute workflow tasks and present a case study that examines the performance and cost of three typical workflow applications on Amazon EC2. Finally, we identify several areas in which existing clouds can be improved and discuss the future of workflows in the cloud.

  14. Aircraft measurements of wave clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z.; Blyth, A. M.; Bower, K. N.; Crosier, J.; Choularton, T.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free) wave clouds made at temperatures greater than -5°C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15-45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. The measurements presented here and in previous recent studies suggest a different interaction of dynamics and microphysics in wave clouds from the accepted model. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and cloud.

  15. Aircraft measurements of wave cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z.; Blyth, A. M.; Bower, K. N.; Crosier, J.; Choularton, T.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free) wave clouds made at temperatures greater than -5 °C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15-45 μm. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. A new definition of a mountain-wave cloud is given, based on the measurements presented here and previous studies. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and clouds.

  16. Trace metal transformations in gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.; O`Keefe, C.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is carrying out an investigation that will provide methods to predict the fate of selected trace elements in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems to aid in the development of methods to control the emission of trace elements determined to be air toxics. The goal of this project is to identify the effects of critical chemical and physical transformations associated with trace element behavior in IGCC and IGFC systems. The trace elements included in this project are arsenic, chromium, cadmium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and lead. The research seeks to identify and fill, experimentally and/or theoretically, data gaps that currently exist on the fate and composition of trace elements. The specific objectives are to (1) review the existing literature to identify the type and quantity of trace elements from coal gasification systems, (2) perform laboratory-scale experimentation and computer modeling to enable prediction of trace element emissions, and (3) identify methods to control trace element emissions.

  17. Ray Tracing in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majewski, Mirek

    1997-01-01

    Ray tracing is a method that allows the creation of photo-realistic images on a computer. This article describes a shareware ray tracing program called PovRay and includes some ideas on how PovRay can be used in teaching and in 3-D geometry, physics, and other high school and university subjects. (Author/AIM)

  18. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  19. Airborne observations of cloud properties on HALO during NARVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konow, Heike; Hansen, Akio; Ament, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation processes is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate and weather predictions. To validate model predictions of convective processes over the Atlantic ocean, usually satellite data are used. However, satellite products provide just a coarse view with poor temporal resolution of convective maritime clouds. Aircraft-based observations offer a more detailed insight due to lower altitude and high sampling rates. The research aircraft HALO (High Altitude Long Range Research Aircraft) is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). With a ceiling of 15 km, and a range of 10,000 km and more than 10 hours it is able to reach remote regions and operate from higher altitudes than most other research aircraft. Thus, it provides the unique opportunity to exploit regions of the atmosphere that cannot be easily accessed otherwise. Measurements conducted on HALO provide more detailed insights than achievable from satellite data. Therefore, this measurement platform bridges the gap between previous airborne measurements and satellites. The payload used for this study consists of, amongst others, a suite of passive microwave radiometers, a cloud radar, and a water vapor DIAL. To investigate cloud and precipitation properties of convective maritime clouds, the NARVAL (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) campaign was conducted in winter 2013/2014 out of Barbados and Keflavik (Iceland). This campaign was one of the first that took place on the HALO aircraft. During the experiment's two parts 15 research flights were conducted (8 flights during NARVAL-South out of Barbados to investigate trade-wind cumuli and 7 flights out of Keflavik with focus on mid-latitude cyclonic systems). Flight durations were between five and nine hours, amounting to roughly 118 flight hours overall. 121 dropsondes were deployed. In fall 2016 two additional aircraft campaigns with the same payload will take place: The

  20. Cloud Radiative Effect in dependence on Cloud Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aebi, Christine; Gröbner, Julian; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Vuilleumier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    Radiative transfer of energy in the atmosphere and the influence of clouds on the radiation budget remain the greatest sources of uncertainty in the simulation of climate change. Small changes in cloudiness and radiation can have large impacts on the Earth's climate. In order to assess the opposing effects of clouds on the radiation budget and the corresponding changes, frequent and more precise radiation and cloud observations are necessary. The role of clouds on the surface radiation budget is studied in order to quantify the longwave, shortwave and the total cloud radiative forcing in dependence on the atmospheric composition and cloud type. The study is performed for three different sites in Switzerland at three different altitude levels: Payerne (490 m asl), Davos (1'560 m asl) and Jungfraujoch (3'580 m asl). On the basis of data of visible all-sky camera systems at the three aforementioned stations in Switzerland, up to six different cloud types are distinguished (Cirrus-Cirrostratus, Cirrocumulus-Altocumulus, Stratus-Altostratus, Cumulus, Stratocumulus and Cumulonimbus-Nimbostratus). These cloud types are classified with a modified algorithm of Heinle et al. (2010). This cloud type classifying algorithm is based on a set of statistical features describing the color (spectral features) and the texture of an image (textural features) (Wacker et al. (2015)). The calculation of the fractional cloud cover information is based on spectral information of the all-sky camera data. The radiation data are taken from measurements with pyranometers and pyrgeometers at the different stations. A climatology of a whole year of the shortwave, longwave and total cloud radiative effect and its sensitivity to integrated water vapor, cloud cover and cloud type will be calculated for the three above-mentioned stations in Switzerland. For the calculation of the shortwave and longwave cloud radiative effect the corresponding cloud-free reference models developed at PMOD/WRC will be

  1. Correlation between Gas and Dust in Molecular Clouds: L977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, João; Lada, Charles J.; Lada, Elizabeth A.

    1999-04-01

    We report observations of the J=(1-0) C18O molecular emission line toward the L977 molecular cloud. To study the correlation between C18O emission and dust extinction we constructed a Gaussian smoothed map of the infrared extinction measured by Alves et al. at the same angular resolution (50") as our molecular-line observations. This enabled a direct comparison of C18O integrated intensities and column densities with dust extinction over a relatively large range of cloud depth (2cloud depths corresponding to AV<~10 mag. For cloud depths above this threshold there is a notable break in the linear correlation. Although either optically thick C18O emission or extremely low (Tex<5 K) excitation temperatures at high extinctions could produce this departure from linearity, CO depletion in the denser, coldest regions of L977 may be the most likely cause of the break in the observed correlation. We directly derive the C18O abundance in this cloud over a broad range of cloud depths and find it to be virtually the same as that derived for IC 5146 from the data of Lada et al. In regions of very high extinction (AV>10 mag), such as dense cores, our results suggest that C18O would be a very poor tracer of mass. Consequently, using C18O as a column density tracer in molecular clouds can lead to a 10% to 30% underestimation of overall cloud mass. We estimate the minimum total column density required to shield C18O from the interstellar radiation field to be 1.6+/-0.5 mag of visual extinction.

  2. Pressure-driven fragmentation of multiphase clouds at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanoa, H.; Mackey, J.; Yates, J.

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of a hyper metal-poor star with total metallicity of ≤10-5 Z⊙ has motivated new investigations of how such objects can form from primordial gas polluted by a single supernova. In this paper, we present a shock-cloud model which simulates a supernova remnant interacting with a cloud in a metal-free environment at redshift z = 10. Pre-supernova conditions are considered, which include a multiphase neutral medium and H II region. A small dense clump (n = 100 cm-3), located 40 pc from a 40 M⊙ metal-free star, embedded in an n = 10 cm-3 ambient cloud. The evolution of the supernova remnant and its subsequent interaction with the dense clump is examined. We include a comprehensive treatment of the non-equilibrium hydrogen and helium chemistry and associated radiative cooling that is occurring at all stages of the shock-cloud model, covering the temperature range 10-109 K. Deuterium chemistry and its associated cooling are not included because the UV radiation field produced by the relic H II region and supernova remnant is expected to suppress deuterium chemistry and cooling. We find a 103 times density enhancement of the clump (maximum density ≈78 000 cm-3) within this metal-free model. This is consistent with Galactic shock-cloud models considering solar metallicity gas with equilibrium cooling functions. Despite this strong compression, the cloud does not become gravitationally unstable. We find that the small cloud modelled here is destroyed for shock velocities ≳50 km s-1, and not significantly affected by shocks with velocity ≲30 km s-1. Rather specific conditions are required to make such a cloud collapse, and substantial further compression would be required to reduce the local Jeans mass to sub-solar values.

  3. Global cloud and precipitation chemistry and wet deposition: tropospheric model simulations with ECHAM5/MESSy1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Pozzer, A.; Sander, R.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-01-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation chemistry and subsequent wet deposition of trace constituents in global atmospheric chemistry models is associated with large uncertainties. To improve the simulated trace gas distributions we apply the new submodel SCAV, which includes detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry and present results of the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1. A good agreement with observed wet deposition fluxes for species causing acid rain is obtained. The new scheme enables prognostic calculations of the pH of clouds and precipitation, and these results are also in accordance with observations. We address the influence of detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry on trace constituents based on sensitivity simulations. The results confirm previous results from regional scale and box models, and we extend the analysis to the role of aqueous phase chemistry on the global scale. Some species are directly affected through multiphase removal processes, and many also indirectly through changes in oxidant concentrations, which in turn have an impact on the species lifetime. While the overall effect on tropospheric ozone is relatively small (<10%), regional effects on O3 can reach ~20%, and several important compounds (e.g., H2O2, HCHO) are substantially depleted by clouds and precipitation.

  4. Global cloud and precipitation chemistry and wet deposition: tropospheric model simulations with ECHAM5/MESSy1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tost, H.; Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Pozzer, A.; Sander, R.; Lelieveld, J.

    2007-05-01

    The representation of cloud and precipitation chemistry and subsequent wet deposition of trace constituents in global atmospheric chemistry models is associated with large uncertainties. To improve the simulated trace gas distributions we apply the new submodel SCAV, which includes detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry and present results of the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1. A good agreement with observed wet deposition fluxes for species causing acid rain is obtained. The new scheme enables prognostic calculations of the pH of clouds and precipitation, and these results are also in accordance with observations. We address the influence of detailed cloud and precipitation chemistry on trace constituents based on sensitivity simulations. The results confirm previous results from regional scale and box models, and we extend the analysis to the role of aqueous phase chemistry on the global scale. Some species are directly affected through multiphase removal processes, and many also indirectly through changes in oxidant concentrations, which in turn have an impact on the species lifetime. While the overall effect on tropospheric ozone is relatively small (<10%), regional effects on O3 can reach ≍20%, and several important compounds (e.g., H2O2, HCHO) are substantially depleted by clouds and precipitation.

  5. Cloud optical parameters as derived from the multispectral cloud radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; King, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the liquid water content and particle size have assumed an important role in cloud physics as they help elucidate the mechanism of cloud particle formation and the mechanism of air mass-mixing in stratus clouds. Such measurements can reveal the modification of cloud air masses by anthropogenic aerosol particles (Coakley et al. 1987, Durkee 1989). Studies of the climatic impact of these modification processes on cloud microphysics seems to be urgent for understanding mechanisms of climate change. General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations can be improved by introducing a parameterization of cloud optical properties in terms of integrated liquid water content (liquid water path) and particle size (Slingo 1989). Motivated by the above mentioned circumstances, remote sensing techniques were developed for simultaneously retrieving the cloud optical thickness and effective particle radius, from which the liquid water path can be inferred. Statistical features of the cloud optical thickness (or liquid water path) and effective particle size for marine stratocumulus clouds are presented. These results were obtained during 4 days (7, 10, 13, and 16 July 1987) of observations with the Multispectral Cloud Radiometer (ER-2) and the Thematic Mapper (LANDSAT-5) during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE).

  6. Tackling poor parenting: a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Poole, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The adverse consequences associated with poor parenting persist down the generations and are a problem for society as well as individuals. The author cites evidence suggesting that in many cases poor parenting is associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including health inequalities. She argues that most parents (especially mothers, as the main child carers) are motivated to do their best for their children but that many families struggle against poverty. Poor parenting skills may be a product of poverty and social exclusion rather than the fault of individual parents. A public health approach, based on partnership with parents to meet their expressed needs in appropriate ways, could offer a constructive way forward.

  7. Energy and minorities, women, and the poor

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, H.L.; Perry, E.B.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date (1975 to 1980) bibliography of articles, books and other publications is presented dealing with the subject of energy and minorities, women and the poor. Included are academic, popular, and government publications as well as publications by private groups and organizations. It is intended for political scientists, sociologists, economists, home economists, energy planners, energy managers and others interested in the interface of minorities, women, and the poor with energy. Following a brief introduction, there is a general listing. Also included are references dealing with energy and black Americans, native Americans (Indians), the poor, and women. (MJJ)

  8. Cloud and Cloud Shadow Masking Using Multi-Temporal Cloud Masking Algorithm in Tropical Environmental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candra, D. S.; Phinn, S.; Scarth, P.

    2016-06-01

    A cloud masking approach based on multi-temporal satellite images is proposed. The basic idea of this approach is to detect cloud and cloud shadow by using the difference reflectance values between clear pixels and cloud and cloud shadow contaminated pixels. Several bands of satellite image which have big difference values are selected for developing Multi-temporal Cloud Masking (MCM) algorithm. Some experimental analyses are conducted by using Landsat-8 images. Band 3 and band 4 are selected because they can distinguish between cloud and non cloud. Afterwards, band 5 and band 6 are used to distinguish between cloud shadow and clear. The results show that the MCM algorithm can detect cloud and cloud shadow appropriately. Moreover, qualitative and quantitative assessments are conducted using visual inspections and confusion matrix, respectively, to evaluate the reliability of this algorithm. Comparison between this algorithm and QA band are conducted to prove the reliability of the approach. The results show that MCM better than QA band and the accuracy of the results are very high.

  9. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  10. Fractal trace of earthworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Hołyst, Robert; Pruski, Łukasz

    2013-05-01

    We investigate a process of random walks of a point particle on a two-dimensional square lattice of size n×n with periodic boundary conditions. A fraction p⩽20% of the lattice is occupied by holes (p represents macroporosity). A site not occupied by a hole is occupied by an obstacle. Upon a random step of the walker, a number of obstacles, M, can be pushed aside. The system approaches equilibrium in (nlnn)2 steps. We determine the distribution of M pushed in a single move at equilibrium. The distribution F(M) is given by Mγ where γ=-1.18 for p=0.1, decreasing to γ=-1.28 for p=0.01. Irrespective of the initial distribution of holes on the lattice, the final equilibrium distribution of holes forms a fractal with fractal dimension changing from a=1.56 for p=0.20 to a=1.42 for p=0.001 (for n=4,000). The trace of a random walker forms a distribution with expected fractal dimension 2.

  11. Probabilistic Communication and I/O Tracing with Deterministic Replay at Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xing; Vijayakumar, Karthik; Mueller, Frank; Ma, Xiaosong; Roth, Philip C

    2011-01-01

    With today's petascale supercomputers, applications often exhibit low efficiency, such as poor communication and I/O performance, that can be diagnosed by analysis tools. However, these tools either produce extremely large trace files that complicate performance analysis, or sacrifice accuracy to collect high-level statistical information using crude averaging. This work contributes Scala-H-Trace, which features more aggressive trace compression than any previous approach, particularly for applications that do not show strict regularity in SPMD behavior. Scala-H-Trace uses histograms expressing the probabilistic distribution of arbitrary communication and I/O parameters to capture variations. Yet, where other tools fail to scale, Scala-H-Trace guarantees trace files of near constant size, even for variable communication and I/O patterns, producing trace files orders of magnitudes smaller than using prior approaches. We demonstrate the ability to collect traces of applications running on thousands of processors with the potential to scale well beyond this level. We further present the first approach to deterministically replay such probabilistic traces (a) without deadlocks and (b) in a manner closely resembling the original applications. Our results show either near constant sized traces or only sub-linear increases in trace file sizes irrespective of the number of nodes utilized. Even with the aggressively compressed histogram-based traces, our replay times are within 12% to 15% of the runtime of original codes. Such concise traces resembling the behavior of production-style codes closely and our approach of deterministic replay of probabilistic traces are without precedence.

  12. Cloud-Vegetation Interaction: Use of Normalized Difference Cloud Index for Estimation of Cloud Optical Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, A.; Knyazikhint, Y.; Davis, A.; Wiscombe, W.; Pilewskie, P.

    1999-01-01

    A new technique to retrieve cloud optical depth for broken clouds above green vegetation using ground-based zenith radiance measurements is developed. By analogy with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI), the Normalized Difference Cloud Index (NDCI) is defined as a ratio between the difference and the sum of two zenith radiances measured for two narrow spectral bands in the visible and near-IR regions. The very different spectral behavior of cloud liquid water drops and green vegetation is the key physics behind the NDCI. It provides extra tools to remove the radiative effects of the 3D cloud structure. Numerical calculations based on fractal clouds and real measurements of NDCI and cloud liquid water path confirm the improvements.

  13. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM Mobile Facility Deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-01-01

    Capsule: A 21-month deployment to Graciosa Island in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean is providing an unprecedented record of the clouds, aerosols and meteorology in a poorly-sampled remote marine environment The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009- December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1- 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a

  14. IBM Cloud Computing Powering a Smarter Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinzy; Fang, Xing; Guo, Zhe; Niu, Meng Hua; Cao, Fan; Yue, Shuang; Liu, Qin Yu

    With increasing need for intelligent systems supporting the world's businesses, Cloud Computing has emerged as a dominant trend to provide a dynamic infrastructure to make such intelligence possible. The article introduced how to build a smarter planet with cloud computing technology. First, it introduced why we need cloud, and the evolution of cloud technology. Secondly, it analyzed the value of cloud computing and how to apply cloud technology. Finally, it predicted the future of cloud in the smarter planet.

  15. Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The smaller of two nearby companions of the Milky Way Galaxy that can be seen with the naked eye in the southern hemisphere sky and which are named after the Portuguese navigator, Ferdinand Magellan. Located in the constellation of Tucana, at a distance of about 190 000 light-years, the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) has an angular diameter of about three degrees, about half the apparent diameter o...

  16. Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The larger of two nearby companions of the Milky Way Galaxy that can be seen with the naked eye in the southern hemisphere sky and which are named after the Portuguese navigator, Ferdinand Magellan, who observed them in 1519 during his circumnavigation of the world. Located in the constellation of Dorado, at a distance of about 170 000 light-years, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has an overall ...

  17. A flattened cloud core in NGC 2024

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Paul T. P.; Peng, Yun-Lou; Torrelles, Jose M.; Gomez, Jose F.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    The (J, K) (1, 1) and (2, 2) NH3 lines were mapped toward a molecular cloud core in NGC 2024 using the VLA in its C/D-configuration. This region is associated with one of the most highly collimated molecular outflows. We find that the molecular condensations associated with the far-infrared sources FIR 5, FIR 6, and FIR 7 have kinetic temperatures of about 40 K. We also find line broadening toward FIR 6 and FIR 7. This suggests that these condensations may not be protostars heated by gravitational energy released during collapse but that they have an internal heating source. A flattened structure of ammonia emission is found extending parallel to the unipolar CO outflow structure, but displaced systematically to the east. If the NH3 emission traces the denser gas environment, there is no evidence that a dense gas structure is confining the molecular outflow. Instead, the location of the high-velocity outflow along the surface of the NH3 structure suggests that a wind is sweeping material from the surface of this elongated cloud core.

  18. Specialised emission pattern of leaf trace in a late Permian (253 million-years old) conifer

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hai-Bo; Feng, Zhuo; Yang, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Jia-Jia; He, Xiao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Leaf traces are important structures in higher plants that connect leaves and the stem vascular system. The anatomy and emission pattern of leaf traces are well studied in extant vascular plants, but remain poorly understood in fossil lineages. We quantitatively analysed the leaf traces in the late Permian conifer Ningxiaites specialis from Northwest China based on serial sections through pith, primary and secondary xylems. A complete leaf traces emission pattern of a conifer is presented for the first time from the late Palaeozoic. Three to five monarch leaf traces are grouped in clusters, arranged in a helical phyllotaxis. The leaf traces in each cluster can be divided into upper, middle and lower portions, and initiate at the pith periphery and cross the wood horizontally. The upper leaf trace increases its diameter during the first growth increment and then diminishes completely, which indicates leaf abscission at the end of the first year. The middle trace immediately bifurcates once or twice to form two or three vascular bundles. The lower trace persists as a single bundle during its entire length. The intricate leaf trace dynamics indicates this fossil plant had a novel evolutionary habit by promoting photosynthetic capability for the matured plant. PMID:26198410

  19. A cloud-based approach to medical NLP.

    PubMed

    Chard, Kyle; Russell, Michael; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A; Silverstein, Jonathan C

    2011-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) enables access to deep content embedded in medical texts. To date, NLP has not fulfilled its promise of enabling robust clinical encoding, clinical use, quality improvement, and research. We submit that this is in part due to poor accessibility, scalability, and flexibility of NLP systems. We describe here an approach and system which leverages cloud-based approaches such as virtual machines and Representational State Transfer (REST) to extract, process, synthesize, mine, compare/contrast, explore, and manage medical text data in a flexibly secure and scalable architecture. Available architectures in which our Smntx (pronounced as semantics) system can be deployed include: virtual machines in a HIPAA-protected hospital environment, brought up to run analysis over bulk data and destroyed in a local cloud; a commercial cloud for a large complex multi-institutional trial; and within other architectures such as caGrid, i2b2, or NHIN.

  20. A Cloud-based Approach to Medical NLP

    PubMed Central

    Chard, Kyle; Russell, Michael; Lussier, Yves A.; Mendonça, Eneida A; Silverstein, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) enables access to deep content embedded in medical texts. To date, NLP has not fulfilled its promise of enabling robust clinical encoding, clinical use, quality improvement, and research. We submit that this is in part due to poor accessibility, scalability, and flexibility of NLP systems. We describe here an approach and system which leverages cloud-based approaches such as virtual machines and Representational State Transfer (REST) to extract, process, synthesize, mine, compare/contrast, explore, and manage medical text data in a flexibly secure and scalable architecture. Available architectures in which our Smntx (pronounced as semantics) system can be deployed include: virtual machines in a HIPAA-protected hospital environment, brought up to run analysis over bulk data and destroyed in a local cloud; a commercial cloud for a large complex multi-institutional trial; and within other architectures such as caGrid, i2b2, or NHIN. PMID:22195072

  1. Positron clouds within thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Smith, David M.; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Kelley, Nicole A.; Lowell, Alexander W.; Schaal, Meagan M.; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2015-08-01

    We report the observation of two isolated clouds of positrons inside an active thunderstorm. These observations were made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE), an array of six gamma-ray detectors, which flew on a Gulfstream V jet aircraft through the top of an active thunderstorm in August 2009. ADELE recorded two 511 keV gamma-ray count rate enhancements, 35 s apart, each lasting approximately 0.2 s. The enhancements, which were approximately a factor of 12 above background, were both accompanied by electrical activity as measured by a flat-plate antenna on the underside of the aircraft. The energy spectra were consistent with a source mostly composed of positron annihilation gamma rays, with a prominent 511 keV line clearly visible in the data. Model fits to the data suggest that the aircraft was briefly immersed in clouds of positrons, more than a kilometre across. It is not clear how the positron clouds were created within the thunderstorm, but it is possible they were caused by the presence of the aircraft in the electrified environment.

  2. Chemistry and microphysics of polar stratospheric clouds and cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Zondlo, M A; Hudson, P K; Prenni, A J; Tolbert, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ice particles found within polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and upper tropospheric cirrus clouds can dramatically impact the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. The formation of PSCs and the subsequent chemical reactions that occur on their surfaces are key components of the massive ozone hole observed each spring over Antarctica. Cirrus clouds also provide surfaces for heterogeneous reactions and significantly modify the Earth's climate by changing the visible and infrared radiation fluxes. Although the role of ice particles in climate and chemistry is well recognized, the exact mechanisms of cloud formation are still unknown, and thus it is difficult to predict how anthropogenic activities will change cloud abundances in the future. This article focuses on the nucleation, chemistry, and microphysical properties of ice particles composing PSCs and cirrus clouds. A general overview of the current state of research is presented along with some unresolved issues facing scientists in the future.

  3. cloud supersaturations and CCN spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, James; Noble, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Multiple regression analysis predictions of low altitude cloud droplet concentrations based on measured CCN spectra compared much better with measured low altitude droplet concentrations than various CCN concentrations at single supersaturations (S) in two aircraft cumulus cloud projects, RICO and ICE-T. The addition of vertical velocity (W) to the single and multiple regressions showed small improvements. For RICO the multiple regression correlations were also superior to previous adiabatic model predictions of droplet concentrations also based on CCN spectra and mean W. More adiabatic cloud parcels showed only slightly better correlations than flight-averaged droplet concentrations. Results show the value of more extensive CCN spectra and the relative unimportance of W variations for determining droplet concentrations in these Caribbean cumuli. The fact that flight-averaged droplet concentrations of all low cloud data was almost as well correlated with CCN spectra as were droplet concentrations of more adiabatic cloud parcels indicates that entrainment did not significantly perturb CCN-droplet concentration relationships. As should be expected higher cloud S were determined for the cumulus clouds than for stratus clouds. Suppression of cloud S by higher CCN concentrations that had previously been observed in stratus was observed in ICE-T but not in RICO where the CCN range may have been too low for cloud S suppression. But ICE-T and a stratus project, POST, even showed this S suppression over the same limited maritime CCN range as RICO.

  4. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  5. Remote sensing measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio in the planetary boundary layer using cloud slicing with airborne lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand K.; Mao, Jianping; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham R.

    2015-03-01

    We have measured the CO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using cloud slicing with an airborne pulsed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar from flight altitudes of up to 13 km. During a flight over Iowa in summer 2011, simultaneous measurement of the optical range and CO2 absorption to clouds and the ground were made using time-resolved detection of pulse echoes from each scattering surface. We determined the CO2 absorption in the PBL by differencing the two lidar-measured absorption line shapes, one to a broken shallow cumulus cloud layer located at the top of the PBL and the other to the ground. Solving for the CO2 VMR in the PBL and that of the free troposphere, we measured a ≈15 ppm (4%) drawdown in the PBL. Both CO2 VMRs were within ≈3 ppm of in situ CO2 profile measurements. We have also demonstrated cloud slicing using scatter from thin, diffuse cirrus clouds and cumulus clouds, which allowed solving for the CO2 VMR for three vertical layers. The technique and retrieval algorithm are applicable to a space-based lidar instrument as well as to lidar IPDA measurements of other trace gases. Thus, lidar cloud slicing also offers promise toward space-based remote sensing of vertical trace gas profiles in the atmosphere using a variety of clouds.

  6. The cloud albedo-cloud droplet effective radius relationship for clean and polluted clouds from RACE and FIRE.ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yiran; Lohmann, Ulrike; Leaitch, Richard; Banic, Catharine; Couture, Mark

    2002-06-01

    Twenty-eight liquid water cloud cases selected from two field studies (the Canadian Radiation, Aerosol and Cloud Experiment (RACE) and the First ISCCP Regional Experiment-Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE.ACE)) are analyzed with respect to the first and second indirect aerosol effects and the relationship between cloud droplet effective radius and cloud albedo for clean and polluted clouds. For the same liquid water path the polluted clouds have more and smaller cloud droplets and thus a higher cloud albedo and less drizzle size drops. The effective radius is positively correlated with cloud albedo for polluted clouds caused by the absence of drizzle size drops. Conversely effective radius is negatively correlated with cloud albedo for clean clouds.

  7. Influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on local cloud and solar variability in Bergen, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parding, Kajsa; Olseth, Jan Asle; Liepert, Beate G.; Dagestad, Knut-Frode

    2016-08-01

    In a previous paper, we have shown that long-term cloud and solar observations (1965-2013) in Bergen, Norway (60.39°N, 5.33°E) are compatible with a largely cloud dominated radiative climate. Here, we explicitly address the relationship between the large scale circulation over Europe and local conditions in Bergen, identifying specific circulation shifts that have contributed to the observed cloud and solar variations. As a measure of synoptic weather patterns, we use the Grosswetterlagen (GWL), a daily classification of European weather for 1881-2013. Empirical models of cloud cover, cloud base, relative sunshine duration, and normalised global irradiance are constructed based on the GWL frequencies, extending the observational time series by more than 70 years. The GWL models successfully reproduce the observed increase in cloud cover and decrease in solar irradiance during the 1970s and 1980s. This cloud-induced dimming is traced to an increasing frequency of cyclonic and decreasing frequency of anticyclonic weather patterns over northern Europe. The changing circulation patterns in winter can be understood as a shift from the negative to the positive phase of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation. A recent period of increasing solar irradiance is observed but not reproduce by the GWL models, suggesting this brightening is associated with factors other than large scale atmospheric circulation, possibly decreasing aerosol loads and local cloud shifts.

  8. Military clouds: utilization of cloud computing systems at the battlefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süleyman, Sarıkürk; Volkan, Karaca; İbrahim, Kocaman; Ahmet, Şirzai

    2012-05-01

    Cloud computing is known as a novel information technology (IT) concept, which involves facilitated and rapid access to networks, servers, data saving media, applications and services via Internet with minimum hardware requirements. Use of information systems and technologies at the battlefield is not new. Information superiority is a force multiplier and is crucial to mission success. Recent advances in information systems and technologies provide new means to decision makers and users in order to gain information superiority. These developments in information technologies lead to a new term, which is known as network centric capability. Similar to network centric capable systems, cloud computing systems are operational today. In the near future extensive use of military clouds at the battlefield is predicted. Integrating cloud computing logic to network centric applications will increase the flexibility, cost-effectiveness, efficiency and accessibility of network-centric capabilities. In this paper, cloud computing and network centric capability concepts are defined. Some commercial cloud computing products and applications are mentioned. Network centric capable applications are covered. Cloud computing supported battlefield applications are analyzed. The effects of cloud computing systems on network centric capability and on the information domain in future warfare are discussed. Battlefield opportunities and novelties which might be introduced to network centric capability by cloud computing systems are researched. The role of military clouds in future warfare is proposed in this paper. It was concluded that military clouds will be indispensible components of the future battlefield. Military clouds have the potential of improving network centric capabilities, increasing situational awareness at the battlefield and facilitating the settlement of information superiority.

  9. Constraining the Evolution of Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broming, Emma J.; Fuse, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    There currently exists no method by which to quantify the evolutionary state of poor clusters (PCs). Research by Broming & Fuse (2010) demonstrated that the evolution of Hickson compact groups (HCGs) are constrained by the correlation between the X-ray luminosities of point sources and diffuse gas. The current investigation adopts an analogous approach to understanding PCs. Plionis et al. (2009) proposed a theory to define the evolution of poor clusters. The theory asserts that cannibalism of galaxies causes a cluster to become more spherical, develop increased velocity dispersion and increased X-ray temperature and gas luminosity. Data used to quantify the evolution of the poor clusters were compiled across multiple wavelengths. The sample includes 162 objects from the WBL catalogue (White et al. 1999), 30 poor clusters in the Chandra X-ray Observatory archive, and 15 Abell poor clusters observed with BAX (Sadat et al. 2004). Preliminary results indicate that the cluster velocity dispersion and X-ray gas and point source luminosities can be used to highlight a weak correlation. An evolutionary trend was observed for multiple correlations detailed herein. The current study is a continuation of the work by Broming & Fuse examining point sources and their properties to determine the evolutionary stage of compact groups, poor clusters, and their proposed remnants, isolated ellipticals and fossil groups. Preliminary data suggests that compact groups and their high-mass counterpart, poor clusters, evolve along tracks identified in the X-ray gas - X-ray point source relation. While compact groups likely evolve into isolated elliptical galaxies, fossil groups display properties that suggest they are the remains of fully coalesced poor clusters.

  10. How School Taught Me I Was Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author recounts how school taught him that he was poor. For him, third grade was the year in which he learned in school that he was poor. The author's story reminds everyone that all children do not experience school in the same way. Their social class (in the case described in this article), as well as their race, gender,…

  11. Cell Model of In-cloud Scavenging of Highly Soluble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, A.; Elperin, T.; Fominykh, A.; Krasovitov, B.

    2012-04-01

    Transport of soluble gases in clouds is an integral part of the atmospheric transport of gases and is important for understanding the global distribution pattern of soluble trace gases. In the present study we investigated mass transfer during absorption of highly soluble gases such as hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and nitric acid HNO3 by stagnant cloud droplets in the presence of inert admixtures. Diffusion interactions between droplets, caused by the overlap of depleted of soluble gas regions around the neighboring droplets, are taken into account in the approximation of a cellular model of a gas-droplet suspension whereby a suspension is viewed as a periodic structure consisting of the identical spherical cells with periodic boundary conditions at the cell boundary. Using this model we determined temporal and spatial dependencies of the concentration of the soluble trace gas in a gaseous phase and in a droplet and calculated the dependence of the scavenging coefficient on time. It is shown that scavenging of highly soluble gases by cloud droplets leads to essential decrease of soluble trace gas concentration in the interstitial air. We found that scavenging coefficient for gas absorption by cloud droplets remains constant and sharply decreases only at the final stage of absorption. This assertion implies the exponential time decay of the average concentration of the soluble trace gas in the gaseous phase and can be used for the parameterization of gas scavenging by cloud droplets in the atmospheric transport modeling. In the calculations we employed gamma size distribution of cloud droplets. It was shown that despite of the comparable values of Henry's law constants for the hydrogen peroxide and the nitric acid, the nitric acid is scavenged more effectively by cloud than the hydrogen peroxide due to a major affect of the dissociation reaction on nitric acid scavenging. We obtained also the analytical expressions for the "equilibrium values" of concentration of the

  12. Computer program for optical systems ray tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, T. J.; Konn, H.

    1967-01-01

    Program traces rays of light through optical systems consisting of up to 65 different optical surfaces and computes the aberrations. For design purposes, paraxial tracings with astigmation and third order tracings are provided.

  13. CLOUD PARAMETERIZATIONS, CLOUD PHYSICS, AND THEIR CONNECTIONS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    LIU,Y.; DAUM,P.H.; CHAI,S.K.; LIU,F.

    2002-02-12

    This paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the parameterization of cloud microphysics in climate models. We demonstrate the crucial importance of spectral dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution in determining radiative properties of clouds (e.g., effective radius), and underline the necessity of specifying spectral dispersion in the parameterization of cloud microphysics. It is argued that the inclusion of spectral dispersion makes the issue of cloud parameterization essentially equivalent to that of the droplet size distribution function, bringing cloud parameterization to the forefront of cloud physics. The second part is concerned with theoretical investigations into the spectral shape of droplet size distributions in cloud physics. After briefly reviewing the mainstream theories (including entrainment and mixing theories, and stochastic theories), we discuss their deficiencies and the need for a paradigm shift from reductionist approaches to systems approaches. A systems theory that has recently been formulated by utilizing ideas from statistical physics and information theory is discussed, along with the major results derived from it. It is shown that the systems formalism not only easily explains many puzzles that have been frustrating the mainstream theories, but also reveals such new phenomena as scale-dependence of cloud droplet size distributions. The third part is concerned with the potential applications of the systems theory to the specification of spectral dispersion in terms of predictable variables and scale-dependence under different fluctuating environments.

  14. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

  15. Development of Cyber-Infrastructure for Experimental Data and Trace Element Partitioning (traceDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, R. L.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Koppers, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    In the past few years, we have seen the development of databases that support model development, e.g. LEPR, PetDB, and EarthChem. A critical missing component is an exhaustive online database of experimental data on trace element partitioning between phases. Over the past ten years, we have developed a web-based resource for trace element partitioning data (as part of GERM at EarthRef.org). That database is a much-used, but rather undeveloped resource. It is searchable only by rock or mineral type, does not link to any other databases, nor does it provide significant guidance with respect to the selection of appropriate partition coefficients. To remedy this situation we are currently undertaking a fundamental reorganization and expansion of this database. This new “traceDs” database will (i) provide community access to a dataset that is now effectively unavailable to more than a handful of “micro-specialists” on each phase, (ii) provide a standard interface for input into any model that requires trace element partitioning information, (iii) interoperate seamlessly in the existing geochemical cyber-infrastructure and (iv) enable independent development of partitioning constraints based on phase compositions and intensive variables. The new traceDs database will include experimental partitioning data, together with major, minor and trace element compositions of phase assemblages (bulk, melt, fluids and minerals), and the physical conditions under which the experiments were carried out (e.g., temperature, pressure, volatile content, oxygen fugacity, doping methods, container material). Development of this common resource becomes increasingly important as both the experimental database and the level of expertise required to apply the numerical constraints increase in number and complexity. Trace element experimental data has significantly greater granularity/complexity than bulk rock or mineral chemistry, a primary reason why the database is such an important

  16. The ACRIDICON-CHUVA observational study of tropical convective clouds and precipitation using the new German research aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Albrecht, Rachel; Schlager, Hans; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    An extensive airborne/ground-based measurement campaign to study tropical convective clouds is introduced. It was performed in Brazil with focus on the Amazon rainforest from 1 September to 4 October 2014. The project combined the joint German-Brazilian ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems) and CHUVA (Machado et al.2014) projects. ACRIDICON aimed at the quantification of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic and radiative effects in convective cloud systems by in-situ aircraft observations and indirect measurements (aircraft, satellite, and ground-based). The ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign was conducted in cooperation with the second Intensive Operational Phase (IOP) of the GOAmazon (Green Ocean Amazon) program. The focus in this presentation is on the airborne observations within ACRIDICON-CHUVA. The German HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) was based in Manaus (Amazonas State); it carried out 14 research flights (96 flight hours in total). HALO was equipped with remote sensing and in-situ instrumentation for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation measurements. Five mission objectives were pursued: (1) cloud vertical evolution (cloud profiling), (2) aerosol processing (inflow and outflow), (3) satellite validation, (4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and (5) clouds over forested and deforested areas. The five cloud missions collected data in clean atmospheric conditions and in contrasting polluted (urban and biomass burning) environments.

  17. Simulating Roll Clouds associated with Low-Level Convergence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, A. A.; Sherwood, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Convective initiation often takes place when features such as fronts and/or rolls collide, merge or otherwise meet. Rolls indicate boundary layer convergence and may initiate thunderstorms. These are often seen in satellite and radar imagery prior to the onset of deep convection. However, links between convergence driven rolls and convection are poor in global models. The poor representation of convection is the source of many model biases, especially over the Maritime Continent in the Tropics. We simulate low-level convergence lines over north-eastern Australia using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (version 3.7). The simulations are events from September-October 2002 driven by sea breeze circulations. Cloud lines associated with bore-waves that form along the low-level convergence lines are thoroughly investigated in this study with comparisons from satellite and surface observations. Initial simulations for a series of cloud lines observed on 4th October, 2002 over the Gulf of Carpentaria showed greater agreement in the timing and propagation of the disturbance and the low-level convergence, however the cloud lines or streets of roll clouds were not properly captured by the model. Results from a number of WRF simulations with different microphysics, cumulus and planetary boundary layer schemes, resolution and boundary conditions will also be discussed.

  18. Exoplanet Clouds in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alexandria; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Seager, Sara; Charbonneau, David; Bauer, Amy J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The lack of strong spectral features of some exoplanet atmospheres may suggest the presence of a cloud layer and poses great challenges for atmospheric characterization. We aim to address these observations and the challenges by leveraging lab-based terrestrial cloud particle instrumentation as a means of investigating how particles representative of those in exoplanet atmospheres interact with incoming radiation. In the end we hope to achieve two goals - First, to better understand the observable properties of cloud particles in exoplanet atmospheres. Second, to determine how these clouds might directly limit our ability to observe and characterize the atmosphere below.In this presentation I will discuss the cloud chamber used for this work, how we leverage terrestrial based cloud knowledge, our initial investigation of the light scattered by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) across temperature and relative humidity dependent phase changes, and future work with suspected exoplanet atmospheric condensates under various atmospheric compositions, pressures, and temperatures.

  19. Study of Cloud Droplet Radius and Cloud Optical Thickness in "Warm" Clouds Using Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoras, Cristinel; Stefan, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    The present study is focused on the analysis of the cloud microphysical properties using two very important parameters which characterize the liquid water clouds: the cloud droplet radius and the cloud optical thickness. It is known that the knowledge of the variations of these parameters can provide valuable information on most microphysical processes in clouds. Therefore, the correlation between these parameters has been carefully considered. Satellite data from the MODIS 06 system has been analyzed first, for four years time span (2008-2011) and then for the summer's months of the years 2010 and 2011. The data collected from three stations was used to analyze the dependence between the two parameters: a continental station (in Magurele, Ilfov, lat 44.34, lon 26.03), a coastal station (Eforie Nord, Constanta, lat 44.07,lon 28.63) and a maritime station (Gloria, lat 44.6, lon 29.36), all from Romania. The relationship between the cloud droplet radii and the cloud optical thicknesses obtained processing satellite data for the four years between 2008 and 2011 shows a good correlation (correlation coefficient 0.54). The ensuing relationship between the two parameters could be used for cloud microphysics studies. The analysis of dependence between cloud droplet radii and cloud optical thickness from satellite data during summer confirms the presence of their positive correlation. But contrary of the expectations, the analysis shows very small differences between the results found out for the three different locations.

  20. Effects of aerosol sources and chemical compositions on cloud drop sizes and glaciation temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipori, Assaf; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tirosh, Ofir; Teutsch, Nadya; Erel, Yigal

    2015-09-01

    The effect of aerosols on cloud properties, such as its droplet sizes and its glaciation temperatures, depends on their compositions and concentrations. In order to examine these effects, we collected rain samples in northern Israel during five winters (2008-2011 and 2013) and determined their chemical composition, which was later used to identify the aerosols' sources. By combining the chemical data with satellite-retrieved cloud properties, we linked the aerosol types, sources, and concentrations with the cloud glaciation temperatures (Tg). The presence of dust increased Tg from -26°C to -12°C already at relatively low dust concentrations. This result is in agreement with the conventional wisdom that desert dust serves as good ice nuclei (INs). With higher dust concentrations, Tg saturated at -12°C, even though cloud droplet sizes decreased as a result of the cloud condensation nucleating (CCN) activity of the dust. Marine air masses also encouraged freezing, but in this case, freezing was enhanced by the larger cloud droplet sizes in the air masses (caused by low CCN concentrations) and not by IN concentrations or by aerosol type. An increased fraction of anthropogenic aerosols in marine air masses caused a decrease in Tg, indicating that these aerosols served as poor IN. Anthropogenic aerosols reduced cloud droplet sizes, which further decreased Tg. Our results could be useful in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions, as we investigated the effects of aerosols of different sources on cloud properties. Such parameterization can simplify these models substantially.

  1. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  2. Biogeography, Cloud Base Heights and Cloud Immersion in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, R. M.; Asefi, S.; Zeng, J.; Nair, U. S.; Lawton, R. O.; Ray, D. K.; Han, Q.; Manoharan, V. S.

    2007-05-01

    Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs) are ecosystems characterized by frequent and prolonged immersion within orographic clouds. TMCFs often lie at the core of the biological hotspots, areas of high biodiversity, whose conservation is necessary to ensure the preservation of a significant amount of the plant and animal species in the world. TMCFs support islands of endemism dependent on cloud water interception that are extremely susceptible to environmental and climatic changes at regional or global scales. Due to the ecological and hydrological importance of TMCFs it is important to understand the biogeographical distribution of these ecosystems. The best current list of TMCFs is a global atlas compiled by the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP). However, this list is incomplete, and it does not provide information on cloud immersion, which is the defining characteristic of TMCFs and sorely needed for ecological and hydrological studies. The present study utilizes MODIS satellite data both to determine orographic cloud base heights and then to quantify cloud immersion statistics over TMCFs. Results are validated from surface measurements over Northern Costa Rica for the month of March 2003. Cloud base heights are retrieved with approximately 80m accuracy, as determined at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Cloud immersion derived from MODIS data is also compared to an independent cloud immersion dataset created using a combination of GOES satellite data and RAMS model simulations. Comparison against known locations of cloud forests in Northern Costa Rica shows that the MODIS-derived cloud immersion maps successfully identify these cloud forest locations, including those not included in the UNEP data set. Results also will be shown for cloud immersion in Hawaii. The procedure appears to be ready for global mapping.

  3. Evaluation of Passive Multilayer Cloud Detection Using Preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO Cloud Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chang, F.; Huang, J.; Nguyen, L.; Ayers, J. K.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Yi, Y.; Trepte, C. R.

    2005-05-01

    During the last few years, several algorithms have been developed to detect and retrieve multilayered clouds using passive satellite data. Assessing these techniques has been difficult due to the need for active sensors such as cloud radars and lidars that can "see" through different layers of clouds. Such sensors have been available only at a few surface sites and on aircraft during field programs. With the launch of the CALIPSO and CloudSat satellites on April 28, 2006, it is now possible to observe multilayered systems all over the globe using collocated cloud radar and lidar data. As part of the A- Train, these new active sensors are also matched in time ad space with passive measurements from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) has been developing and testing algorithms to detect ice-over-water overlapping cloud systems and to retrieve the cloud liquid path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) for those systems. One technique uses a combination of the CERES cloud retrieval algorithm applied to MODIS data and a microwave retrieval method applied to AMSR-E data. The combination of a CO2-slicing cloud retireval technique with the CERES algorithms applied to MODIS data (Chang et al., 2005) is used to detect and analyze such overlapped systems that contain thin ice clouds. A third technique uses brightness temperature differences and the CERES algorithms to detect similar overlapped methods. This paper uses preliminary CloudSat and CALIPSO data to begin a global scale assessment of these different methods. The long-term goals are to assess and refine the algorithms to aid the development of an optimal combination of the techniques to better monitor ice 9and liquid water clouds in overlapped conditions.

  4. Testing cloud-radiation algorithms in GCMs and single-column models

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R.

    1995-09-01

    Our poor understanding of cloud processes limits our ability to make realistic climate change predictions. Part of the problem is that we have too many cloud parameterizations and too few observations. Lack of contact between observationalists and modelers exacerbates this problem. The principle behind the single column model presented here is that the horizontal convergence of heat, momentum, and moisture is specified from observations. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Cloud Occurrence Frequency at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Third Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect

    M Jensen; K Johnson; JH Mather

    2009-07-14

    Clouds represent a critical component of the Earth’s atmospheric energy balance as a result of their interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and a redistribution of heat through convective processes and latent heating. Despite their importance, clouds and the processes that control their development, evolution and lifecycle remain poorly understood. Consequently, the simulation of clouds and their associated feedbacks is a primary source of inter-model differences in equilibrium climate sensitivity. An important step in improving the representation of cloud process simulations is an improved high-resolution observational data set of the cloud systems including their time evolution. The first order quantity needed to understand the important role of clouds is the height of cloud occurrence and how it changes as a function of time. To this end, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities (ACRF) suite of instrumentation has been developed to make the observations required to improve the representation of cloud systems in atmospheric models.

  6. Particle cloud mixing in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.; Facca, L.; Tangirala, V.; Berlad, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-steady flame propagation through clouds of combustible particles requires quasi-steady transport properties and quasi-steady particle number density. Microgravity conditions may be employed to help achieve the conditions of quiescent, uniform clouds needed for such combustion studies. Joint experimental and theoretical NASA-UCSD studies were concerned with the use of acoustic, electrostatic, and other methods of dispersion of fuel particulates. Results of these studies are presented for particle clouds in long cylindrical tubes.

  7. Shape of fair weather clouds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Zocchi, Giovanni

    2010-03-19

    We introduce a model which accounts for the shape of cumulus clouds exclusively in terms of thermal plumes or thermals. The plumes are explicitly represented by a simple potential flow generated by singularities (sources and sinks) and are thus laminar, but with their motion create a field which supports the cloud. We compare this model with actual clouds by means of various shape descriptors including the fractal dimension, and find agreement.

  8. Jupiter's Clouds: Structure and Composition.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J S; Prinn, R G

    1970-07-31

    Recent infrared radiometric observations of Jupiter have disclosed local temperatures in the North Equatorial Belt far in excess of those at the level of the solid ammonia clouds, and visual observations reveal an orange-brown coloration within this belt. We suggest that, in a multilayer cloud model, solar ultraviolet photolysis of hydrogen sulfide in regions where ammonia clouds are sparse or absent should lead to the production of substantial quantities of inorganic chromophores.

  9. Cloud and aerosol classification for 2 1/2 years of MAX-DOAS observations in Wuxi (China) and comparison to independent data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Penning de Vries, M.; Xie, P. H.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Remmers, J.; Li, A.; Wagner, T.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-Axis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations of trace gases can be strongly influenced by clouds and aerosols. Thus it is important to identify clouds and characterise their properties. In a recent study Wagner et al. (2014) developed a cloud classification scheme based on the MAX-DOAS measurements themselves with which different "sky conditions" (e.g. clear sky, continuous clouds, broken clouds) can be distinguished. Here we apply this scheme to long term MAX-DOAS measurements from 2011 to 2013 in Wuxi, China (31.57° N, 120.31° E). The original algorithm has been modified, in particular in order to account for smaller solar zenith angles (SZA). Instrumental degradation is accounted for to avoid artificial trends of the cloud classification. We compared the results of the MAX-DOAS cloud classification scheme to several independent measurements: aerosol optical depth from a nearby AERONET station and from MODIS, visibility derived from a visibility meter; and various cloud parameters from different satellite instruments (MODIS, OMI, and GOME-2). The most important findings from these comparisons are: (1) most cases characterized as clear sky with low or high aerosol load were associated with the respective AOD ranges obtained by AERONET and MODIS, (2) the observed dependences of MAX-DOAS results on cloud optical thickness and effective cloud fraction from satellite indicate that the cloud classification scheme is sensitive to cloud (optical) properties, (3) separation of cloudy scenes by cloud pressure shows that the MAX-DOAS cloud classification scheme is also capable of detecting high clouds, (4) some clear sky conditions, especially with high aerosol load, classified from MAX-DOAS observations corresponding to the optically thin and low clouds derived by satellite observations probably indicate that the satellite cloud products contain valuable information on aerosols.

  10. Why so many children are poor.

    PubMed

    Betson, D M; Michael, R T

    1997-01-01

    According to the official U.S. measure of poverty, in 1995 the child poverty rate in this country was nearly 21%, compared with an adult poverty rate of 11%. This article explores why, according to the official measure, there are so many poor children. Working from the premise that children are poor because they live with poor adults, the reasons for adult poverty are reviewed. Both economic forces and demographic trends have contributed to growing inequality of earnings among workers. That inequality coupled with stagnating real earnings has increased poverty. In addition, education, age, and race affect an individual's earning capacity; the article examines the likelihood that an individual will earn enough to keep his or her family out of poverty, given the individual's educational attainment, age, and race. The reasons for the large difference between the child and adult poverty rates are explored, using a decomposition of the poverty population to show how demographic characteristics such as higher fertility rates among poor families and the higher prevalence of single-parent families among the poor lead to substantially higher poverty rates for children than for adults. Finally, the article examines the validity of the official poverty measure and reviews how an alternative measure proposed by a National Research Council panel would address the official measure's shortcomings. If the panel's proposed measure were adopted, it would change the statistical face of poor children. It would, for example, show an increase in the proportion of poor children who live in families with two parents and a corresponding decrease in the proportion in families with only one parent, and it would show an increase in the proportion of children who live in families with at least one full-time employed adult and a corresponding decrease in the proportion in families with no adult employed full time. PMID:9299835

  11. How Certain Trace Elements Behave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Ralph A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluorine, selenium, tin, and arsenic are among the trace elements occurring in the environment which are considered. Emphasis is given to developing a qualitative survey of the extent and kinds of metal transformations and their resultant effects. (CS)

  12. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  13. Polymorphisms affecting trace element bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C; Méplan, Catherine; Hesketh, John E

    2010-10-01

    This review outlines the nature of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability, focusing on genetic and epigenetic determinants. We note that pathogenic mutations responsible for dangerously high (or low) status for the micronutrient are unlikely to make large contributions to variability in bioavailability among the general population. Prospective genotyping (for variants in genes encoding selenoproteins) of participants in human studies illustrate one approach to understanding the complex interactions between genotype and trace element supply, which determine the functional bioavailability of selenium. Rapid advances in technological and bioinformatics tools; e. g., as used in Genome-Wide Association Studies, are opening new avenues for research on the genetic determinants of inter-individual variation in trace element bioavailability. This may include copy number variants in addition to the more widely studied polymorphisms. Future research on trace element bioavailability should encompass studies of epigenetic variants, including the role of non-coding (micro) RNA.

  14. Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, N.L.; Verlinde, J.; Clothiaux, E.E.

    2000-01-15

    A database of stratus cloud droplet size distribution parameters, derived from in situ data reported in the existing literature, was created, facilitating intercomparison among datasets and quantifying typical values and their variability. From the datasets, which were divided into marine and continental groups, several parameters are presented, including the total number concentration, effective diameter, mean diameter, standard deviation of the droplet diameters about the mean diameter, and liquid water content, as well as the parameters of modified gamma and lognormal distributions. In light of these results, the appropriateness of common assumptions used in remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions is discussed. For example, vertical profiles of mean diameter, effective diameter, and liquid water content agreed qualitatively with expectations based on the current paradigm of cloud formation. Whereas parcel theory predicts that the standard deviation about the mean diameter should decrease with height, the results illustrated that the standard deviation generally increases with height. A feature common to all marine clouds was their approximately constant total number concentration profiles; however, the total number concentration profiles of continental clouds were highly variable. Without cloud condensation nuclei spectra, classification of clouds into marine and continental groups is based on indirect methods. After reclassification of four sets of measurements in the database, there was a fairly clear dichotomy between marine and continental clouds, but a great deal of variability within each classification. The relevant applications of this study lie in radiative transfer and climate issues, rather than in cloud formation and dynamics. Techniques that invert remotely sensed measurements into cloud droplet size distributions frequently rely on a priori assumptions, such as constant number concentration profiles and constant spectral width. The

  15. Cloud supersaturations and Hoppel minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Stephen; Hudson, James G.

    2013-05-01

    CCN spectral measurements in four aircraft research projects often showed bimodal distributions of which the Hoppel minima can be used to infer cloud supersaturations (S)—effective S (Seff). These direct critical S (Sc) measurements are superior to differential mobility analyzer (DMA) Seff estimates because they do not need composition information and have more channel resolution. These Seff are higher than Seff obtained by matching CCN spectra with droplet concentrations (Nc). These differences can help determine whether the easier evaporation of polluted cloud droplets can increase cloud turbulence and thus reduce cloud thickness, extent, and liquid water content and thus essentially mitigate the indirect aerosol effect (IAE).

  16. Empirical data from Oort's cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desemme, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the size and origin of the Oort cloud of comets is compared with theories on the origin of the Oort cloud. Data on the binding energy of the very long period comets indicate that the Oort cloud is five times smaller than previously thought and that the mean velocity perturbation introduced by stellar passages is smaller than Oort believed. The bimodal brightness distribution of 'new' comets indicates that their formation mechanism is straightforward accretion without later fragmentation. Data on retrograde versus prograde orbits and their relevance to the rotation of the Oort cloud are examined. Models of the solar nebula are discussed in the light of the foregoing evidence.

  17. On the surface of clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, S.P.; Zawadzki, I. )

    1993-01-01

    The cloud-environment mixing process is considered in terms of fractal properties of the cloud-clear air interface. The fractal dimension of the cloud surface is estimated from high-resolution airborne data. The value obtained is D = 2.55 in a range of scales from at least 10 m to over 1,000 m with the possibility of even greater extension. This differs significantly from values obtained in shear-generated, well-developed, and homogeneous turbulence. This distribution of filament sizes of cloudy and clear air and estimates of the cloud surface and characteristic time of mixing process are given. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Cloud/climate sensitivity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roads, J. O.; Vallis, G. K.; Remer, L.

    1982-01-01

    A study of the relationships between large-scale cloud fields and large scale circulation patterns is presented. The basic tool is a multi-level numerical model comprising conservation equations for temperature, water vapor and cloud water and appropriate parameterizations for evaporation, condensation, precipitation and radiative feedbacks. Incorporating an equation for cloud water in a large-scale model is somewhat novel and allows the formation and advection of clouds to be treated explicitly. The model is run on a two-dimensional, vertical-horizontal grid with constant winds. It is shown that cloud cover increases with decreased eddy vertical velocity, decreased horizontal advection, decreased atmospheric temperature, increased surface temperature, and decreased precipitation efficiency. The cloud field is found to be well correlated with the relative humidity field except at the highest levels. When radiative feedbacks are incorporated and the temperature increased by increasing CO2 content, cloud amounts decrease at upper-levels or equivalently cloud top height falls. This reduces the temperature response, especially at upper levels, compared with an experiment in which cloud cover is fixed.

  19. Evidence for the predominance of mid-tropospheric aerosols as subtropical anvil cloud nuclei.

    PubMed

    Fridlind, Ann M; Ackerman, Andrew S; Jensen, Eric J; Heymsfield, Andrew J; Poellot, Michael R; Stevens, David E; Wang, Donghai; Miloshevich, Larry M; Baumgardner, Darrel; Lawson, R Paul; Wilson, James C; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H; Jonsson, Haflidi H; VanReken, Timothy M; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Rissman, Tracey A

    2004-04-30

    NASA's recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment focused on anvil cirrus clouds, an important but poorly understood element of our climate system. The data obtained included the first comprehensive measurements of aerosols and cloud particles throughout the atmospheric column during the evolution of multiple deep convective storm systems. Coupling these new measurements with detailed cloud simulations that resolve the size distributions of aerosols and cloud particles, we found several lines of evidence indicating that most anvil crystals form on mid-tropospheric rather than boundary-layer aerosols. This result defies conventional wisdom and suggests that distant pollution sources may have a greater effect on anvil clouds than do local sources.

  20. Molecular Clouds in the North American and Pelican Nebulae: Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaobo; Xu, Ye; Yang, Ji

    2014-03-01

    We present observations of a 4.25 deg2 area toward the North American and Pelican Nebulae in the J = 1-0 transitions of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O. Three molecules show different emission areas with their own distinct structures. These different density tracers reveal several dense clouds with a surface density of over 500 M ⊙ pc-2 and a mean H2 column density of 5.8, 3.4, and 11.9 × 1021 cm-2 for 12CO, 13CO, and C18O, respectively. We obtain a total mass of 5.4 × 104 M ⊙ (12CO), 2.0 × 104 M ⊙ (13CO), and 6.1 × 103 M ⊙ (C18O) in the complex. The distribution of excitation temperature shows two phases of gas: cold gas (~10 K) spreads across the whole cloud; warm gas (>20 K) outlines the edge of the cloud heated by the W80 H II region. The kinetic structure of the cloud indicates an expanding shell surrounding the ionized gas produced by the H II region. There are six discernible regions in the cloud: the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Islands and Sea, and Pelican's Beak, Hat, and Neck. The areas of 13CO emission range within 2-10 pc2 with mass of (1-5) × 103 M ⊙ and line width of a few km s-1. The different line properties and signs of star-forming activity indicate they are in different evolutionary stages. Four filamentary structures with complicated velocity features are detected along the dark lane in LDN 935. Furthermore, a total of 611 molecular clumps within the 13CO tracing cloud are identified using the ClumpFind algorithm. The properties of the clumps suggest that most of the clumps are gravitationally bound and at an early stage of evolution with cold and dense molecular gas.

  1. Lithium abundance in the metal-poor open cluster NGC 2243

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, P.; Pasquini, L.; Biazzo, K.; Bonifacio, P.; Palsa, R.

    2013-04-01

    Context. Lithium is a fundamental element for studying the mixing mechanisms acting in the stellar interiors, for understanding the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. The study of Li in stars of open clusters (OC) allows a detailed comparison with stellar evolutionary models and permits us to trace its galactic evolution. The OC NGC 2243 is particularly interesting because of its low metallicity ([Fe/H] = -0.54 ± 0.10 dex). Aims: We measure the iron and lithium abundance in stars of the metal-poor OC NGC 2243. The first aim is to determine whether the Li dip extends to such low metallicities, the second is to compare the results of our Li analysis in this OC with those present in 47 Tuc, a globular cluster of similar metallicity. Methods: We performed a detailed analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained with the multi-object facility FLAMES at the ESO VLT 8.2 m telescope. Lithium abundance was derived through line equivalent widths and the OSMARCS atmosphere models. Iron abundances from Fe i and Fe ii lines have also been measured and used to check the atmospheric model parameters. Results: The Li line is detected in 27 stars confirmed as likely cluster members by repeated radial velocity measurements. We determine a Li dip center of 1.06 M⊙, which is much smaller than that observed in solar metallicity and metal-rich clusters. This finding confirms and strengthens the conclusion that the mass of the stars in the Li dip strongly depends on stellar metallicity. The mean Li abundance of the cluster is log n(Li) = 2.70 dex, which is substantially higher than that observed in 47 Tuc. We estimated an iron abundance of [Fe/H] = -0.54 ± 0.10 dex for NGC 2243, which is similar (within the errors) to previous findings. The [α/Fe] content ranges from 0.00 ± 0.14 for Ca to 0.20 ± 0.22 for Ti, which is low when compared to thick disk stars and to Pop II stars, but compatible with thin disk objects. We found a mean radial velocity of 61

  2. OGLE Atlas of Classical Novae. II. Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mróz, P.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Soszyński, I.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.

    2016-01-01

    The population of classical novae in the Magellanic Clouds was poorly known because of a lack of systematic studies. There were some suggestions that nova rates per unit mass in the Magellanic Clouds were higher than in any other galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of data collected over 16 years by the OGLE survey with the aim of characterizing the nova population in the Clouds. We found 20 eruptions of novae, half of which are new discoveries. We robustly measure nova rates of 2.4 ± 0.8 yr-1 (LMC) and 0.9 ± 0.4 yr-1 (SMC) and confirm that the K-band luminosity-specific nova rates in both Clouds are 2-3 times higher than in other galaxies. This can be explained by the star formation history in the Magellanic Clouds, specifically the re-ignition of the star formation rate a few Gyr ago. We also present the discovery of the intriguing system OGLE-MBR133.25.1160, which mimics recurrent nova eruptions.

  3. Using cloud computing infrastructure with CloudBioLinux, CloudMan, and Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Afgan, Enis; Chapman, Brad; Jadan, Margita; Franke, Vedran; Taylor, James

    2012-06-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized availability and access to computing and storage resources, making it possible to provision a large computational infrastructure with only a few clicks in a Web browser. However, those resources are typically provided in the form of low-level infrastructure components that need to be procured and configured before use. In this unit, we demonstrate how to utilize cloud computing resources to perform open-ended bioinformatic analyses, with fully automated management of the underlying cloud infrastructure. By combining three projects, CloudBioLinux, CloudMan, and Galaxy, into a cohesive unit, we have enabled researchers to gain access to more than 100 preconfigured bioinformatics tools and gigabytes of reference genomes on top of the flexible cloud computing infrastructure. The protocol demonstrates how to set up the available infrastructure and how to use the tools via a graphical desktop interface, a parallel command-line interface, and the Web-based Galaxy interface.

  4. A Microphysics Guide to Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Luebke, Anna; Afchine, Armin; Spelten, Nicole; Costa, Anja; Zöger, Martin; Smith, Jessica; Herman, Robert; Buchholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker; Baumgardner, Darrel; Borrmann, Stephan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Avallone, Linnea

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds still represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of the Earth's climate (IPCC, 2013) since their microphysical and radiative properties remain poorly or only partially characterized. One major reason is that it is difficult to measure these properties on fast-flying, high altitude aircraft. Another problem is that aircraft measurements cannot capture the evolution of the cirrus clouds properties with time. The most common parameters that are measured in cirrus clouds -besides the meteorological variables- are ice water content (IWC), number of ice crystals (Nice) and relative humidity (with respect to ice, RHice), and sometimes vertical velocity. However, it is difficult to deduce on the history of ice nucleation and development of microphysical properties from these observations. Our study aims to provide a guide to cirrus microphysics, which is compiled from an extensive set of model simulations covering the broad range of atmospheric conditions for cirrus formation and evolution. The model results are portrayed in the same parameter space as the field measurements, i.e. in the temperature - IWC parameter space. From this representation of simulated cirrus, we can relate the formation mechanism and history to specific combinations of IWC, Nice and RHice inside of cirrus as a function of temperature. We validate this analysis approach by evaluating measurements of about 60h in cirrus during fifteen aircraft campaigns conducted in the last fifteen years over Europe, Australia and Southern and Northern America. It can be shown that the field observations indeed show the characteristics expected from the cirrus guide. For example, high/low IWCs are found together with high/low Nice. As a result it is now possible to track, to a certain degree, the formation mechanism and history of the observed cirrus clouds only from the measurement of IWC and RHice. Important findings from our study are that (i) a substantial part of thick cirrus

  5. Martian Clouds Data Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steven (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The major topics covered were a discussion of the structure of relational data base systems and features of the Britton Lee Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS); a discussion of the workshop's objectives, approach, and research scenarios; and an overview of the Atmospheres Node User's Guide, which details the datasets stored on the Britton Lee, the structure of the query and data analysis system, and examples of the exact menu screens encountered. Also discussed were experience with the system, review of the system performance, and a strategy to produce queries and performance data retrievals of mutual interest. The goals were defined as examining correlations between cloud occurrence, water vapor abundance, and surface properties.

  6. N2H(+) in the Orion ambient ridge - Cloud clumping versus rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, Maria; Ziurys, L. M.; Sage, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The IRAM 30-m telescope is used to obtain spectra of the J = 1 yields 0 transition of N2H(+) over a 2 x 2 arcsec area toward the Orion-KL/IRc2 star-forming region with 26-arcsec angular resolution. The N2H(+) emission, which exclusively traces the ridge gas, exhibits multiple radial velocities which appear to arise from the presence of at least four clouds of quiescent material. It is argued that the velocity structure of N2H(+) does not uniformly change across OMC-1 and, consequently, is inconsistent with the presence of large-scale differential rotation of the extended ridge along the SW-NE axis about IRc2. The coincidence of the two larger clouds with star-forming activity in Orion-KL suggests that either the quiescent gas is being pushed apart or that the star formation may have been triggered by a cloud-cloud interaction.

  7. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  8. Alterations of Cloud Microphysics Due to Cloud Processed CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Tabor, S. S.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution CCN spectra have revealed bimodality (Hudson et al. 2015) similar to aerosol size spectra (e.g., Hoppel et al. 1985). Bimodality is caused by chemical and physical cloud processes that increase mass or hygroscopicity of only CCN that produced activated cloud droplets. Bimodality is categorized by relative CCN concentrations (NCCN) within the two modes, Nu-Np; i.e., NCCN within the higher critical supersaturation, Sc, mode that did not undergo cloud processing minus NCCN within the lower Sc mode that was cloud processed. Lower, especially negative, Nu-Np designates greater processing. The table shows regressions between Nu-Np and characteristics of clouds nearest the CCN measurements. ICE-T MASE parameter R SL R SL Nc 0.17 93.24 -0.26 98.65 MD -0.31 99.69 0.33 99.78 σ -0.27 99.04 0.48 100.00 Ld -0.31 99.61 0.38 99.96 Table. Correlation coefficients, R, and one-tailed significance levels in percent, SL, for Nu-Np with microphysics of the clouds closest to each CCN measurement, 75 ICE-T and 74 MASE cases. Nc is cloud droplet concentration, MD is cloud droplet mean diameter, σ is standard deviation of cloud droplet spectra, Ldis drizzle drop LWC. Two aircraft field campaigns, Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T) and Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) show opposite R signs because coalescence dominated cloud processing in low altitude ICE-T cumuli whereas chemical transformations predominated in MASE low altitude polluted stratus. Coalescence reduces Nc and NCCN, which thus increases MD, and σ, which promote Ld. Chemical transformations, e.g., SO2 to SO4, increase CCN hygroscopicity, thus reducing Sc, but not affecting Nc or NCCN. Lower Sc CCN are capable of producing greater Nc in subsequent cloud cycles, which leads to lower MD and σ which reduce Ld (figure). These observations are consistent with cloud droplet growth models for the higher vertical wind (W) of cumuli and lower W of stratus. Coalescence thus reduces the indirect

  9. Halos in cirrus clouds: why are classic displays so rare?

    PubMed

    Sassen, Kenneth

    2005-09-20

    Upper tropospheric cirrus clouds consist of hexagonal ice crystals, which geometrical ray-tracing-theory predicts should regularly produce a variety of optical phenomena such as vivid 22 degrees and 46 degrees halos. Yet, cirrus inconsistently generate such optical displays, while a class of more exotic displays are reported, albeit rarely. I review current knowledge of the cirrus cloud microphysical factors that control ice crystal shape, and hence halo/arc formation, but also appeal to halo enthusiasts to help investigate the causes of unusually complex, brilliant, or rare optical displays. Currently, a wealth of meteorological information can be tapped from the Internet to help advance our knowledge of the basic meteorological factors leading to these rare events.

  10. A secure EHR system based on hybrid clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Lu, Jun-Chao; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    Consequently, application services rendering remote medical services and electronic health record (EHR) have become a hot topic and stimulating increased interest in studying this subject in recent years. Information and communication technologies have been applied to the medical services and healthcare area for a number of years to resolve problems in medical management. Sharing EHR information can provide professional medical programs with consultancy, evaluation, and tracing services can certainly improve accessibility to the public receiving medical services or medical information at remote sites. With the widespread use of EHR, building a secure EHR sharing environment has attracted a lot of attention in both healthcare industry and academic community. Cloud computing paradigm is one of the popular healthIT infrastructures for facilitating EHR sharing and EHR integration. In this paper, we propose an EHR sharing and integration system in healthcare clouds and analyze the arising security and privacy issues in access and management of EHRs. PMID:22351166

  11. Efficient resources provisioning based on load forecasting in cloud.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rongdong; Jiang, Jingfei; Liu, Guangming; Wang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application's actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements.

  12. Efficient Resources Provisioning Based on Load Forecasting in Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongdong; Jiang, Jingfei; Liu, Guangming; Wang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application's actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements. PMID:24701160

  13. A secure EHR system based on hybrid clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Lu, Jun-Chao; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    Consequently, application services rendering remote medical services and electronic health record (EHR) have become a hot topic and stimulating increased interest in studying this subject in recent years. Information and communication technologies have been applied to the medical services and healthcare area for a number of years to resolve problems in medical management. Sharing EHR information can provide professional medical programs with consultancy, evaluation, and tracing services can certainly improve accessibility to the public receiving medical services or medical information at remote sites. With the widespread use of EHR, building a secure EHR sharing environment has attracted a lot of attention in both healthcare industry and academic community. Cloud computing paradigm is one of the popular healthIT infrastructures for facilitating EHR sharing and EHR integration. In this paper, we propose an EHR sharing and integration system in healthcare clouds and analyze the arising security and privacy issues in access and management of EHRs.

  14. Trace-fossil assemblages with a new ichnogenus in "spotted"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimo, Vladimír; Tomašových, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Highly-bioturbated "spotted" limestones and marls (Fleckenmergel-Fleckenkalk facies) of the Early Jurassic, which were deposited in broad and recurrent deep-shelf habitats of the Northern Tethys, are characterized by rare benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates. To address this paradox, we analyse trace-fossil assemblages in a ~85 m-thick succession of Pliensbachian spotted deposits (Zliechov Basin, Western Carpathians). They are dominated by infaunal and semi-infaunal deposit-feeders, with 9 ichnogenera and pyritized tubes of the semi-infaunal foraminifer Bathysiphon, being dominated by Chondrites, Lamellaeichnus (new ichnogenus), and Teichichnus. Lamellaeichnus, represented by a horizontal basal cylindrical burrow and an upper row of stacked convex-up gutters, was produced by a mobile deposit-feeder inhabiting shallow tiers because it is crossed by most other trace fossils. We show that the spotty appearance of the deposits is generated by a mixture of (1) dark, organic-rich shallow- and deep-tier traces (TOC = 0.16-0.36), and (2) light grey, organic-poor mottled or structurless sediment (TOC = 0.09-0.22). The higher TOC in shallow-tier burrows of Lamellaeichnus demonstrates that uppermost sediment layers were affected by poor redox cycling. Such conditions imply a limited mixed-layer depth and inefficient nutrient recycling conditioned by hypoxic bottom-waters, allowed by poor circulation and high sedimentation rates in depocenters of the Zliechov Basin. Hypoxic conditions are further supported by (1) dominance of trace-fossils produced by infaunal deposit feeders, (2) high abundance of hypoxiatolerant agglutinated foraminifer Bathysiphon, and (3) high abundance of Chondrites with ~0.5 mm-sized branches. Oxygen-deficient bottom-conditions can thus simultaneously explain the rarity of benthic carbonate-producing macroinvertebrates and high standing abundance of tolerant soft-shell and agglutinated organisms in spotted deposits.

  15. Aircraft-Measured Indirect Cloud Effects from Biomass Burning Smoke in the Arctic and Subarctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300% over the next 50-100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were approx. 40- 60% smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (N(liq)/ and various biomass burning tracers (BBt/ across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) x dln(N(liq))/dln(BBt)) to be approx. 0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (0.02 gm/cu m and very high aerosol concentrations (2000- 3000/ cu cm in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W/sq m or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic.We lastly explore evidence suggesting that numerous northern

  16. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Zelenyuk, A.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200-300 % over the next 50-100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ˜ 40-60 % smaller than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol-cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ˜ 0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content ( ˜ 0.02 g m-3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000-3000 cm-3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 W m-2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. We lastly explore evidence suggesting that numerous northern

  17. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zamora, Lauren M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; et al

    2016-01-21

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300% over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ~40–60% smallermore » than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ~0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (~0.02gm–3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm–3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 Wm–2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. Furthermore, we lastly explore evidence suggesting that

  18. The Role of African Dust Particles on Cloud Chemistry and Microphysics in a Tropical Montane Cloud Forest in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Delgado, E.; Valle-Diaz, C. J.; Baumgardner, D.; McDowell, W. H.; Gonzalez, G.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Huge amounts of African dust travels thousands of kilometers from the Sahara and Sahel regions to the Caribbean, northern South America and southern North America. However, not much is understood about how the aging process that takes place during transport changes dust properties, and how it affects cloud's composition and microphysics. In order to improve our understanding of the role of long-range transported African dust (LRTAD) in cloud formation processes we had field campaigns measuring dust physical and chemical properties in summers of 2013, 2014 and 2015, as part of the Puerto Rico African Dust and Cloud Study (PRADACS), and of the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO). Measurements were performed at the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) of Pico del Este (PE, 1051 masl) and at the nature reserve of Cabezas de San Juan (CSJ, 60 masl). In both ground stations we monitored meteorological parameters (e.g., temperature, wind speed, wind direction). At CSJ, we measured light absorption and scattering at three wavelengths (467, 528 and 652 nm). At PE we collected cloud and rainwater for chemical analyses and monitored cloud microphysical properties (e.g., liquid water content, droplet size distribution, droplet number concentration, effective diameter and median volume diameter). Summer 2015 was the first attempt to characterize microphysical properties of the summer period (June to August) at PE, where dust is in its higher concentrations of the year. Samples were classified using data from models and satellites together with CSJ measurements as low or high dust influenced. Soluble ions, insoluble trace metals, pH, conductivity, total and dissolved organic carbon and total and dissolved nitrogen were measured for cloud and rainwater. Enrichment factor analysis was used to determine sea and crustal contribution of species by sample, as well as the neutralization factor and fractional acidity. Some preliminary results show cloud water conductivity for low

  19. CloudSat View of Flossie

    NASA Video Gallery

    CloudSat passed directly over Tropical Storm Flossie on July 29 and showed cumulus and stratocumulus clouds in northern Hawaii and cumulonimbus clouds over the southern part. Large amounts of liqui...

  20. MISR Level 3 Albedo and Cloud Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-07

    ... MIL3YALN MISR_AM1_CGAL Stage 2:  CLOUD - Wind Vectors, Height Histogram Stage 1:  ALBEDO - Expansive, ... Stage 2 CLOUD - Height Histogram Stage 1 CLOUD - Wind Vectors Stage 1 ALBEDO - Expansive and Restrictive Albedos ...