Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez, Antonio; Morales, Sara; Ángeles, Ulises; Jara, Luis Javier
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of adverse fetal outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) women exposed to azathioprine during pregnancy. We reviewed the medical records of SLE pregnant women followed from January 2005 to April 2013. The patients were evaluated at least once in each trimester and postpartum. Relevant fetal outcomes were extracted, such as rate of liveborns, fetal loss (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth), term delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, low birth weight, low birth weight at term, and congenital malformations. A detailed history of drug use during pregnancy was obtained. We studied 178 pregnancies (in 172 women), 87 of them were exposed to azathioprine (AZA-group) and the remaining 91 were not exposed (NO AZA-group). Exposure to other drugs was similar in both groups. The rate of live births, spontaneous abortions mean birth weight, weeks of gestation, rate of birth weight <2500 g, and low birth weight at term did not differ between groups. No infant had major congenital abnormalities. Multivariate analysis showed that preeclampsia, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), lupus flare, and anti-DNA positive were associated with an increased risk of poor fetal outcome. Our study suggests that the use of azathioprine is safe and lacks of teratogenity in patients with SLE and pregnancy. Exposure to azathioprine during pregnancy is not associated with poor fetal outcome.
Mutlu, Ilknur; Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Biri, Aydan; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet
This study investigates the effects of anticoagulant therapy on pregnancy outcomes in 204 patients with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes. Patients with poor obstetric history (pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal death, placental abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss) and having hereditary thrombophilia were included in this study. Poor obstetric outcomes were observed more frequently in patients who had not taken anticogulant therapy compared with treated group. Live birth rate, gestational age at birth and Apgar scores were significantly higher in the treated group when compared with the untreated group. There were no significant differences in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery and admission rates to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) plus acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) had higher gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, live birth rate and a lower abortion rates when compared with controls; in contrast, no significant difference was observed in terms of birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. There were no significant differences between control group and both LMWH only and ASA only groups in terms of gestational age at birth, Apgar scores, birthweight, mode of delivery, obstetric complications and admission rates to NICU. Only LMWH group had higher live birth rate as compared with control group. The use of only ASA did not seem to affect the perinatal complication rates and outcomes. In conclusion, anticoagulant therapy with both LMWH and ASA seems to provide better obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with thrombophilia and previous poor obstetric outcomes.
Jirsová, S; Mardesić, T; Hulvert, J; Müller, P; Voboril, J; Huttelová, R; Miková, M; Becvárová, V; Zvárová, J; Jirkovský, M
To compare perinatal results for multi-foetal pregnancies where the reduction was performed with pregnancies where the reduction was not performed. Sanatorium Pronatal, Na Dlouhé mezi 4/12, 147 00, Praha 4--Hodkovicky. We have analyzed results of pregnancies, after delivery, for women with twin pregnancy which originated in our sanatorium, as a result of treatment with assisted reproduction methods, in the period of time from January 1st 1996 to December 31st 1998. In the group being monitored there were 122 twin pregnancies originated as a result of reduction of triple and more-foetal pregnancies. We evaluated the percentage of miscarriages, length of pregnancies, weight of the newborns and the manner of termination of the delivery. These results were compared with our control group consisting of 180 cases of twin pregnancies which were not a result of reduction. Analysis was performed for those mothers only where complete data were available. At a 5% level of statistical significance, it was not proved that both groups differed in average term of pregnancy or average weight of the twins. Average age of the mothers differed at 5% level of significance (average age values were 30.16 for the group with reduction and 31.73 for the group without reduction). Fisher test on 5% significance level did not ascertain any significant difference in the probability of miscarriage between the group with reduction (5.26%) and the group without reduction (12.84%). At 5% level of statistical significance, no significant difference in probability of perinatal death of the foetus or delivery of a stillborn foetus was ascertained. However, it is necessary to point out a low frequency of these phenomena in our group. The percentage of cesarean sections did not differ significantly in both groups (86.24% in the group monitored vs 87.24% in the group of twins without reduction). The analysis of both groups proves that reduction of multi-foetal pregnancies does not worsen perinatal
Objective To determine predictive values of maternal serum PAPP-A (msPAPP-A) levels, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry, and fetal biometric measurements (FBMs) for poor pregnancy and poor neonatal outcomes. Material and Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies followed until delivery. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were evaluated with respect to the msPAPP-A level at the 11th–14th weeks, uterine artery Doppler velocimetry at the 15th–18th weeks, and FBMs at the 20th–24th and 28th–32nd weeks of pregnancy. Results One hundred fifty-eight women constituted the study group; 17 (10.75%) of them had at least one poor pregnancy outcome. The cut-off point of 0.72 multiple of the median (MoM) for the PAPP-A level achieved a sensitivity of 82.4% and a specificity of 29.8% for poor pregnancy outcomes. The mean birth weight was significantly lower in the subgroup with a higher mean pulsatility index of uterine arteries (UAPImean≥1.19) (p=0.025) as well as in the subgroup with a higher mean resistance index of uterine arteries (UARImean≥0.62) (p=0.013). When the subgroup of pregnant women under the risk of early-onset IUGR according to FBMs was compared to the low-risk group, statistically significant differences were seen in terms of pregnancy outcomes (p=0.045) and birth weight (p=0.011). Conclusion Maternal serum PAPP-A level and FBMs could be used for predicting pregnancy outcomes, while uterine artery Doppler velocimetry and FBMs could be used for predicting neonatal outcomes, specifically the birth weight. PMID:27651722
Eftekhar, Maryam; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Davar, Robab; Pourmasumi, Soheila
Background: Poor ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation is one of the most important interest points in assisted reproduction. Mild ovarian stimulation seems to be preferable to high dose of FSH regimens in women with a history of poor ovarian response in previous protocol. Clomiphene citrate and letrozole alone or in combination with FSH have been used in mild ovarian stimulation protocol. Objective: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate for mild ovarian stimulation on assisted reproductive technology outcomes in poor responders. Materials and Methods: In a randomized control study, 184 women aged between 20 and 45 years with the history of poor response to ovarian stimulation who were candidate for ART were randomly subdivided into two groups: group I (n= 80), women who underwent the clomiphene/gonadotropin/antagonist protocol; and group II (n= 87), patients who underwent the letrozole/gonadotropin/antagonist protocol. Groups were compared regarding implantation, chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: There was a significant difference in the mean endometrial thickness between two groups (9.16±1.2 mm vs. 8.3±0.3 mm). The implantation rate was significantly higher in letrozole group compare to clomiphene group (7.2 vs. 6.6%, p=0.024 respectively). No significant differences were found in chemical and clinical pregnancy rate between two groups. Conclusion: In mild ovarian stimulation protocol, letrozole and clomiphene have similar value for the poor responder. The optimal treatment strategy for these patients remains debated. PMID:25709627
Padhi, Bijaya K.; Baker, Kelly K.; Dutta, Ambarish; Cumming, Oliver; Freeman, Matthew C.; Satpathy, Radhanatha; Das, Bhabani S.; Panigrahi, Pinaki
Background The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as preterm birth and low birth weight in a population-based study in rural India. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort of pregnant women (n = 670) in their first trimester of pregnancy was enrolled and followed until birth. Socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors, along with access to toilets and sanitation practices, were recorded at enrolment (12th week of gestation). A trained community health volunteer conducted home visits to ensure retention in the study and learn about study outcomes during the course of pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals for APOs were estimated by logistic regression models. Of the 667 women who were retained at the end of the study, 58.2% practiced open defecation and 25.7% experienced APOs, including 130 (19.4%) preterm births, 95 (14.2%) births with low birth weight, 11 (1.7%) spontaneous abortions, and six (0.9%) stillbirths. Unadjusted ORs for APOs (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.72–3.71), preterm birth (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.54–3.62), and low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24–3.23) were found to be significantly associated with open defecation practices. After adjustment for potential confounders such as maternal socio-demographic and clinical factors, open defecation was still significantly associated with increased odds of APOs (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49–3.80) and preterm birth (AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29–3.79) but not low birth weight (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.94–2.73). The association between APOs and open defecation was independent of poverty and caste. Even though we accounted for several key
Ameh, Soter; Adeleye, Omokhoa A; Kabiru, Caroline W; Agan, Thomas; Duke, Roseline; Mkpanam, Nkese; Nwoha, Doris
Objectives Pregnancy carries a high risk for millions of women and varies by urban-rural location in Nigeria, a country with the second highest maternal deaths in the world. Addressing multilevel predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes among antenatal care (ANC) attendees in primary health care (PHC) facilities could reduce the high maternal mortality rate in Nigeria. This study utilised the "Risk Approach" strategy to (1) compare the risks of poor pregnancy outcomes among ANC attendees by urban-rural location; and (2) determine predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes among ANC attendees in urban-rural PHC facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 among 400 ANC attendees aged 15-49 years recruited through multistage sampling. Data on risk factors of poor pregnancy outcomes were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and clinic records. Respondents were categorised into low, medium or high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, based on their overall risk scores. Predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes were determined by multilevel ordinal logistic regression. Results A greater proportion of the women in the rural areas were below the middle socio-economic quintile (75 vs. 4 %, p < 0.001), had no education (12 vs. 2 %, p < 0.001), and were in the 15-24 age group (58 vs. 35 %, p < 0.001) whereas women in the urban areas were older than 35 years (10 vs. 5 %, p < 0.001). The women attending antenatal care in the urban PHC facilities had a low overall risk of poor pregnancy outcomes than those in the rural facilities (64 vs. 50 %, p = 0.034). Pregnant women in the urban areas had decreased odds of being at high risk of poor pregnancy outcomes versus the combined medium and low risks compared with those in the rural areas (OR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.09-0.65). Conclusions for Practice Pregnant women attending antenatal care in rural PHC facilities are more at risk of poor pregnancy outcomes than those
Chandran, Vinod; Aggarwal, Amita; Misra, Ramnath
There is a paucity of data regarding the outcome of pregnancy from the Indian subcontinent. Therefore, we decided to analyse the outcome of pregnancy in our cohort of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Data regarding pregnancies after onset of disease in patients with SLE was analysed in terms of number of pregnancies, effect of pregnancy on disease activity and effect of disease such as organ involvement, presence of anticardiolipin and anti-Ro antibodies, on the outcome of pregnancy. Fifty-two pregnancies occurred in 31 patients. Thirty-one and 21 pregnancies occurred when the disease was inactive and active, respectively. Excluding the 11 induced abortions, the live birth rate was 82.6% in the inactive group and 27.7% in the active group. Foetal loss was mainly due to 12 spontaneous abortions. There were three stillbirths and two neonatal deaths. Disease flare occurred only in the active group, one during pregnancy and two post-partum, one of which resulted in the death of the patient. The presence of antibodies to cardiolipin and to Ro/La was not associated with adverse outcome. Thus, the live birth rate in developing countries in SLE mothers is worse compared with developed countries. Active disease during pregnancy is significantly associated with increased foetal loss.
Chen, Kuo-Hu; Chen, Li-Ru; Lee, Yu-Hsiang
This prospective cohort study aims to clarify the role of preterm placental calcification in high-risk (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, placenta previa or severe anemia) pregnant women as a predictor of poor uteroplacental blood flow (absent or reverse end-diastolic velocity [AREDV]) and adverse pregnancy outcome. Monthly ultrasound was performed starting at 28 weeks' gestation to establish the diagnosis of Grade III placental calcification, with measurement of Doppler velocimetry in the umbilical vessels at 32 weeks' gestation. The participants were classified into three groups: Group A (n = 776), a low-risk group without antenatal complication; group B (n = 42), a high-risk group with preterm (28 to 36 weeks) placental calcification; and group C (n = 71), a high-risk control group without preterm (<36 weeks) placental calcification. Analyzed by logistic regression, the risks of AREDV (OR 4.32, 95%CI 1.25 to 14.94), adverse maternal outcome including postpartum hemorrhage (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.20 to 13.20), placental abruption (OR 4.80, 95% CI 1.19 to 19.35), maternal transfer to intensive care unit (OR 3.83, 95% CI 1.10 to 13.33) and adverse fetal outcome including preterm birth (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.32 to 11.29), low birth weight (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.11 to 8.03), low Apgar score (OR 5.14, 95% CI 1.64 to 16.08) and neonatal death (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.15 to 17.73) were greater in group B compared with group C. In contrast, the risks of AREDV and adverse pregnancy outcome were significantly lower in group A than those in group C, except postpartum hemorrhage (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.46). We conclude that in high-risk pregnant women, the presence of preterm placental calcification is a predictor of poor uteroplacental flow and adverse pregnancy outcome, requiring closer surveillance for maternal and fetal well-being. This finding helps identify the most dangerous population among high-risk pregnant women.
Mbuli, Lindisa; Mapiye, Darlington; Okpechi, Ikechi
Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system auto-immune disease common in females of child-bearing age. The effect of pregnancy on SLE and vice versa have not been well characterised in Africans. The aim of this study is to describe the pregnancy outcomes of patients with SLE presenting to the maternity department of Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. Methods This study was designed as a retrospective review of records of pregnant women known with SLE and followed-up at the maternity section of Groote Schuur Hospital. The duration of survey was from the 1st January 2003 to 31st December 2013. Results There were 61 pregnancies reviewed in 49 patients; 80.3% of the pregnancies were in patients of mixed ancestry and the rest (19.7%) in black African patients. The mean age at presentation of the current pregnancy was 27.2±5.0 years. Mean gestational age at presentation and delivery was 13.0 ± 6.0 weeks and 28.9 ± 9.8 weeks respectively and 47.5% of the pregnancies were in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Thirty nine (63.9%) pregnancies reached the third trimester and 11.5% of all pregnancies ended in the first trimester. There was a lower number of live births to mothers of African ancestry than to those of mixed ancestry (p=0.001). In 55.7% of the pregnancies, no flare was reported while a renal flare was reported in 23%. Pregnancies in patients with LN had higher frequencies of flares (58.6% vs 31.3%; p=0.032), pre-eclampsia (34.5% vs 12.5%; p=0.041), longer stay in hospital (12.0 ± 9.1 days vs 6.1 ± 5.1 days; p=0.004) and low birth weight babies (1.94 ± 1.02 kg vs 2.55±0.95 kg; p=0.046) than in patients without LN. Only 36 (59%) of the neonates were discharged home alive and of these 2 (5.6%) were to mothers of black African ancestry (p=0.001). Conclusion Increased lupus activity in pregnant SLE patients may account for the increased deaths of neonates born to SLE mothers. Patients of black African descent and those with LN tend to
Wright, Tricia E.; Schuetter, Renee; Tellei, Jacqueline; Sauvage, Lynnae
Introduction Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in pregnancy, yet studies on MA-exposed pregnancy outcomes have been limited because of retrospective measures of drug use, lack of control for confounding factors: other drug use, including tobacco; poverty; poor diet; and lack of prenatal care. This study presents prospective collected data on MA use and birth outcomes, controlling for most confounders. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of women obtaining prenatal care from a clinic treating women with substance use disorders, on whom there are prospectively obtained data on MA and other drug use, including tobacco. MA-exposed pregnancies were compared with non-MA exposed pregnancies as well as non-drug exposed pregnancies, using univariate and multivariate analysis to control for confounders. Results One hundred forty-four infants were exposed to MA during pregnancy, 50 had first trimester exposure only, 45 had continuous use until the second trimester, 29 had continuous use until the third trimester, but were negative at delivery and 20 had positive toxicology at delivery. There were 107 non MA-exposed infants and 59 infants with no drug exposure. Mean birth weights were the same for MA-exposed and non-exposed infants (3159 g vs. 3168 g p=0.9), though smaller than those without any drug exposure (3159 vs. 3321 p=0.04), Infants with positive toxicology at birth (meconium or urine) were smaller than infants with first trimester exposure only (2932 g vs. 3300 g p=0.01). Gestation was significantly shorter among the MA-exposed infants compared to non-exposed infants (38.5 vs. 39.1 weeks p=0.045) and those with no drug exposure (38.5 vs. 39.5 p=0.0011), The infants with positive toxicology at birth had a clinically relevant shortening of gestation (37.3 weeks vs. 39.1 p=0.0002). Conclusions MA use during pregnancy is associated with shorter gestational ages and lower birth weight, especially if used continuously
Carta, G; Persia, G; Falciglia, K; Iovenitti, P
Maternal infective processes sustained especially by Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria like periodontal disease, during pregnancy, have been demonstrated to perturb the physiologic course of parturition through inflammatory cytokine production, sometimes resulting in preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes and preterm low birth weight. In a matched case-control study, the hypothesis that poor oral health of pregnant women is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW) was evaluated. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of PGE2 and IL-1beta were measured in order to determine whether mediator levels were related to current pregnancy outcome. Results indicate that GCF-PGE2 and GCF-IL-1beta levels are significantly higher in preterm low birth weight (PLBW) mothers as compared with normal birth weight controls. The data confirm that there is a possible correlation between periodontal problems typical of pregnancy and the occurrence of complications such as preterm low birth weight.
Henry, David; Dormuth, Colin; Winquist, Brandace; Carney, Greg; Bugden, Shawn; Teare, Gary; Lévesque, Linda E.; Bérard, Anick; Paterson, J. Michael; Platt, Robert W.
Background: Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data, we identified 4 historical cohorts of female users of isotretinoin (aged 12–48 yr) for the period 1996 to 2011. We defined pregnancy using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and billing codes. One definition included only cases with documented pregnancy outcomes (high-specificity definition); the other definition also included individuals recorded as receiving prenatal care (high-sensitivity definition). We studied new courses of isotretinoin and detected pregnancies in 2 time windows: during isotretinoin treatment only and up to 42 weeks after treatment. Live births were followed for 1 year to identify congenital malformations. Results: A total of 59 271 female patients received 102 308 courses of isotretinoin. Between 24.3% and 32.9% of participants received prescriptions for oral contraceptives while they were taking isotretinoin, compared with 28.3% to 35.9% in the 12 months before isotretinoin was started. According to the high-specificity definition of pregnancy, there were 186 pregnancies during isotretinoin treatment (3.1/1000 isotretinoin users), compared with 367 (6.2/1000 users) according to the high-sensitivity definition. By 42 weeks after treatment, there were 1473 pregnancies (24.9/1000 users), according to the high-specificity definition. Of these, 1331 (90.4%) terminated spontaneously or were terminated by medical intervention. Among the 118 live births were 11 (9.3%) cases of congenital malformation. Pregnancy rates during isotretinoin treatment remained constant between 1996 and 2011
Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun
Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long
Yamamoto, Yuriko; Aoki, Shigeru
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a high prevalence in females of childbearing age. Thus, reproduction in SLE patients is a major concern for clinicians. In the past, SLE patients were advised to defer pregnancy because of poor pregnancy outcomes and fear of SLE flares during pregnancy. Investigations to date show that maternal and fetal risks are higher in females with SLE than in the general population. However, with appropriate management of the disease, sufferers may have a relatively uncomplicated pregnancy course. Factors such as appropriate preconception counseling and medication adjustment, strict disease control prior to pregnancy, intensive surveillance during and after pregnancy by both the obstetrician and rheumatologist, and appropriate interventions when necessary play a key role. This review describes the strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes in SLE patients at different time points in the reproduction cycle (preconception, during pregnancy, and postpartum period) and also details the neonatal concerns. PMID:27468250
Yamamoto, Yuriko; Aoki, Shigeru
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease with a high prevalence in females of childbearing age. Thus, reproduction in SLE patients is a major concern for clinicians. In the past, SLE patients were advised to defer pregnancy because of poor pregnancy outcomes and fear of SLE flares during pregnancy. Investigations to date show that maternal and fetal risks are higher in females with SLE than in the general population. However, with appropriate management of the disease, sufferers may have a relatively uncomplicated pregnancy course. Factors such as appropriate preconception counseling and medication adjustment, strict disease control prior to pregnancy, intensive surveillance during and after pregnancy by both the obstetrician and rheumatologist, and appropriate interventions when necessary play a key role. This review describes the strategies to improve pregnancy outcomes in SLE patients at different time points in the reproduction cycle (preconception, during pregnancy, and postpartum period) and also details the neonatal concerns.
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Aims To examine the relationship between personality, pregnancy and birth outcomes in adolescents Background Personality has been shown to be a strong predictor of many health outcomes. Adolescents who become pregnant have worse birth outcomes than adults. Design Cross-sectional study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (baseline, 1994-1995; follow-up, 2007-2008). Methods The study sample was 6529 girls, 820 of whom reported on pregnancy outcomes for a teenage birth. Personality data was taken from the Mini International Personality Item Pool personality tool, which measures the five-factor personality traits of neuroticism, conscientiousness, intellect/imagination, extraversion and agreeableness. Logistic regression was used to predict teen pregnancy and linear regression was used to predict birth weight and gestational age with adjustment for confounders and stratification by race. Results Agreeableness and intellect/imagination were associated with a reduced likelihood of becoming pregnant as an adolescent, while neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion were all associated with an increased likelihood of becoming pregnant. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower birth weight and gestational age among Black girls, but not non-Black. Conscientiousness was associated with lower gestational age among non-Black girls. No relationships were found with extraversion or agreeableness and birth outcomes. Receiving late or no prenatal care was associated with higher intellect/imagination. Conclusions Personality is understudied with respect to pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with other health outcomes. Such research could help professionals and clinicians design and target programs that best fit the characteristics of the population most likely to need them, such as those with high neuroticism. PMID:25040691
Butler, M M; Kenny, L C; McCarthy, F P
Coeliac disease is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy affecting up to 1% of the population. An accumulating body of evidence supports the association of coeliac disease with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including increased risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth restriction. Reports differ regarding the extent and severity of these associations, in addition to the exact pathophysiology underlying these associations. Overall, coeliac disease is believed to be a significant condition in pregnancy and reproductive medicine with some advocating the screening of coeliac disease in all pregnant women or some specific high-risk groups. PMID:27579100
Reece, E A; Gabrielli, S; Cullen, M T; Zheng, X Z; Hobbins, J C; Harris, E N
Antiphospholipid antibodies, which include lupus-like anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibody, have been linked to a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes, although their exact pathogenic mechanisms remain poorly defined. The relative risk of complications such as intrauterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortions, and stillbirth in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies also remains undetermined. Heightened attention has been focused on the association, leading to investigations into the pathogenesis. Uncontrolled studies have also explored therapeutic regimens such as aspirin, steroids, and heparin, and clinical trials have used various treatment protocols. Although knowledge into the association of antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent adverse pregnancy outcome is limited and continues to evolve, this association provides new insights into the disease and offers promise for pharmacologic prophylaxis. In this article, current concepts on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy are reviewed and recommendations are made for clinical care of these patients.
Kolte, Astrid Marie; Steffensen, Rudi; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre
Women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) after a boy have a reduced chance of live birth in the first pregnancy after referral if they carry HY-restricting HLA class II alleles, but long-term chance of live birth is unknown. Live birth was compared for 540 women with unexplained secondary RPL according to firstborn's sex and maternal carriage of HLA-DRB3*03:01, HLA-DQB1*05:01/02, HLA-DRB1*15, and HLA-DRB1*07. The groups were compared by Cox proportional hazard ratios. For women with at firstborn boy, maternal carriage of HY-restricting HLA class II alleles decreased chance of live birth: 0 vs 1: hazard ratio 0.75 (95% CI 0.55-1.02); 0 vs 2: HR 0.62 (0.40-0.94). Carriage of HY-restricting HLA class II alleles decreased chance of live birth only if the firstborn was a boy: boy vs girl: HR 0.72 (95% CI 0.55-0.98). Maternal carriage of HY-restricting HLA class II alleles decreases long-term chance of live birth in women with RPL after a boy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Palagini, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo; Banti, Susanna; Manconi, Mauro; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter
Short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and insomnia frequently characterize sleep in pregnancy during all three trimesters. We aimed: (i) to review the clinical evidence of the association between conditions of sleep loss during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) to discuss the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that may be involved. A systematic search of cross-sectional, longitudinal studies using Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO, and MeSH headings and key words for conditions of sleep loss such as 'insomnia', 'poor sleep quality', 'short sleep duration', and 'pregnancy outcome' was made for papers published between January 1, 1960 and July 2013. Twenty studies met inclusion criteria for sleep loss and pregnancy outcome: seven studies on prenatal depression, three on gestational diabetes, three on hypertension, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, six on length of labor/type of delivery, eight on preterm birth, and three on birth grow/birth weight. Two main results emerged: (i) conditions of chronic sleep loss are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes; and (ii) chronic sleep loss yields a stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and abnormal immune/inflammatory, reaction, which, in turn, influences pregnancy outcome negatively. Chronic sleep loss frequently characterizes sleep throughout the course of pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Common pathophysiological mechanisms emerged as being related to stress system activation. We propose that in accordance to the allostatic load hypothesis, chronic sleep loss during pregnancy may also be regarded as both a result of stress and a physiological stressor per se, leading to stress 'overload'. It may account for adverse pregnancy outcomes and somatic and mental disorders in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rodriguez Gonzalez, Zaskia M; Leavitt, Karla; Martin, Jose; Benabe, Erika; Romaguera, Josefina; Negrón, Ivette
Based on our population data, the teen pregnancy rate and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported during pregnancy are worrisome. STIs appear to pose a threat to pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), neonatal low birth weight (NLBW) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of STIs in pregnant teens and the association of this variable to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of STIs among pregnant teens during a 4-year period at our institution. Birth outcomes such as gestational age at delivery, PROM and NLBW were analyzed and compared with adults. In the four years of our study, teen pregnancy rate fluctuated from 21.7% in 2010 to 16.8% in 2013. The rate of STIs for adult and teen pregnancies was similar, 21% and 23%, respectively. Chlamydia was the most common STI (67.3%) for both groups. PTB was more prevalent among adults affected with STIs than teens, 13.8% and 11.5%, respectively. NLBW was similar among teens and adults with STIs. PROM complicated 9.1% of teen pregnancies with STIs, compared to 6.7% in adults. There was no significant correlation between the STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes on teen pregnancies for our population, except for PROM. This age group is associated with a high-risk sexual behavior and poor adherence to treatment. They would benefit from efforts to prevent unintended pregnancies and infectious diseases.
In developing countries, 1/3 of infants are born weighing less than 2500 grams. A study conducted in Ethiopia among women consuming about 1600 kcal/day, those who were very physically active during pregnancy bore smaller babies, and gained less weight during pregnancy, than those who were not so active. Average birth weight was 3068 grams for the 1st group, 3270 grams for the less active. The active group of women gained an average of 6.5 kilograms, and the less active 9.2 kilograms. Women who did not engage in heavy work during pregnancy, although they were undernourished, apparently did not bear growth-retarded babies. Indirect evidence for the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcome comes from studies conducted in Taiwan, and the Gambia. These studies, and others from Malawi, Burkina Faso, and Kenya have shown that women's energy expenditures vary greatly with the agricultural season. Daily housekeeping tasks, however, also consume a lot of women's energy. Technologies that allow women to reduce energy expenditure can have beneficial effects, if they do not simultaneously reduce their incomes. For instance, programs improving water or fuel availability, or reducing fuel needs, reduce women's energy expenditures. Food processing mills can help too if women have access to them, and are thus not in danger of being displaced from their jobs and losing necessary income. Examples of technology improving women's tasks are pedal drying machines for nice in Bangladesh, using a greater and pressing machine to prepare gari in Ghana; but growing thicker rice stalks in Indonesia displaced women workers and reduced income.
Regal, Jean F.; Gilbert, Jeffrey S.; Burwick, Richard M.
Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the feta allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092
Gaskins, Audrey J.; Toth, Thomas L.; Chavarro, Jorge E.
Implantation failure and pregnancy loss are estimated to affect up to 75% of fertilized ova; however as of yet there is limited empirical evidence, particularly at the population level, for understanding the environmental determinants of these losses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on prepregnancy nutrition and early pregnancy outcomes with particular focus on the outcome of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies conceived naturally and early pregnancy end points among pregnancies conceived through in vitro fertilization. To date, there is limited evidence to support associations of prepregnancy vitamin D and caffeine intake with pregnancy loss. There is suggestive data supporting a link between a healthy diet and lower risk of pregnancy loss. High folate and minimal to no alcohol intake prior to conception have the most consistent evidence supporting an association with lower risk of pregnancy loss. PMID:26457232
Sinha, Ruchi; Sachan, Shikha; Khanna, Anuradha
Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn is an uncommon type of mullerian duct malformation associated with various gynecological and obstetrical complications. Rudimentary horn pregnancy is a rare entity and the majority have rupture of gravid horn leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. A case of rudimentary horn pregnancy at 32 weeks and 6 days with pregnancy induced hypertension is reported where proper management results in successful pregnancy outcome.
Canti, Valentina; Castiglioni, Maria Teresa; Rosa, Susanna; Franchini, Stefano; Sabbadini, Maria Grazia; Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia
The impact of maternal systemic autoimmune diseases on pregnancy outcome is not unequivocally defined. We analysed the pregnancy outcome of 221 pregnancies from 181 autoimmune patients, consecutively followed in a single Italian reference centre from 2001 to 2009. All patients were prospectively followed with monthly visits. Pregnancy outcome was compared with the previous obstetrical history. The patient population comprised five groups: primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS, 39 pregnancies), antiphospholipid syndrome associated with a rheumatic disease (APS/RD, 17 pregnancies), other RD (92 pregnancies), isolated autoantibodies (autoAbs) in the absence of a definite autoimmune disease (aAbs, 38 pregnancies) and reactive arthritis or spondyloarthropathies (35 pregnancies). Of these patients, 50.6% had previous pregnancy complications with an anamnestic live-birth rate of 43.4%. In these patients, complications dropped to 28.2% (44/156). This percentage was very similar to that observed in the 221 pregnancies (29.9%, 66/221) with a live-birth rate of 87.3%. Mean neonatal weight was 3018 ± 611 g; mean gestational age at delivery was 38.17 ± 2.79 weeks. Thus, 10.4% of pregnancies resulted in preterm delivery and 10.9% newborns had low weight at delivery. APS/RD patients had the worse outcome: 17.6% resulted in miscarriage, 14.3% resulted in growth restriction and 50% resulted in preterm delivery. This result was mainly due to patients with APS/systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that had the lowest gestational age at delivery (30.8 ± 3.56 weeks) and the lowest newborn weight (1499 ± 931 g). Results confirm that a strict follow-up and targeted treatments significantly improve pregnancy outcomes in autoimmune patients with PAPS, SLE and isolated autoAbs. The pregnancy outcome in patients with APS/SLE remains unsatisfactory.
Background In pregnancy, violence can have serious health consequences that could affect both mother and child. In Ghana there are limited data on this subject. We sought to assess the relationship between physical violence during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes (early pregnancy loss, perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality) in Ghana. Method The 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey data were used. For the domestic violence module, 2563 women were approached of whom 2442 women completed the module. After excluding missing values and applying the weight factor, 1745 women remained. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between physical violence in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes with adjustments for potential confounders. Results About five percent of the women experienced violence during their pregnancy. Physical violence in pregnancy was positively associated with perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality, but not with early pregnancy loss. The differences remained largely unchanged after adjustment for age, parity, education level, wealth status, marital status and place of residence: adjusted odds ratios were 2.32; 95% CI: 1.34-4.01 for perinatal mortality, 1.86; 95% CI: 1.05-3.30 for neonatal mortality and 1.16; 95% CI: 0.60-2.24 for early pregnancy loss. Conclusion Our findings suggest that violence during pregnancy is related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Ghana. Major efforts are needed to tackle violence during pregnancy. This can be achieved through measures that are directed towards the right target groups. Measures should include education, empowerment and improving socio-economic status of women. PMID:24528555
Nnam, N M
Much has been learned during the past several decades about the role of maternal nutrition in the outcome of pregnancy. While the bulk of the data is derived from animal models, human observations are gradually accumulating. There is need to improve maternal nutrition because of the high neonatal mortality rate especially in developing countries. The author used a conceptual framework which took both primary and secondary factors into account when interpreting study findings. Nutrition plays a vital role in reducing some of the health risks associated with pregnancy such as risk of fetal and infant mortality, intra-uterine growth retardation, low birth weight and premature births, decreased birth defects, cretinism, poor brain development and risk of infection. Adequate nutrition is essential for a woman throughout her life cycle to ensure proper development and prepare the reproductive life of the woman. Pregnant women require varied diets and increased nutrient intake to cope with the extra needs during pregnancy. Use of dietary supplements and fortified foods should be encouraged for pregnant women to ensure adequate supply of nutrients for both mother and foetus. The author concludes that nutrition education should be a core component of Mother and Child Health Clinics and every opportunity should be utilised to give nutrition education on appropriate diets for pregnant women.
Clowse, Megan E. B.; Richeson, Rachel L.; Pieper, Carl; Merkel, Peter A.
Objective Pregnancy outcomes of patients with vasculitis are unknown, but are of great concern to patients and physicians. Through an online survey, this study assessed pregnancy outcomes among patients with vasculitis. Methods Participants in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Patient Contact Registry were invited to respond to an anonymous, internet-based survey that included questions about pregnancy outcomes, the timing of pregnancy relative to a diagnosis of vasculitis, and medication use. Results A total of 350 women and 113 men completed the survey. After a diagnosis of vasculitis, 74 pregnancies were reported by women and 18 conceptions were reported by men. The rate of pregnancy loss was higher among women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis compared to those who conceived prior to diagnosis (33.8% versus 22.4%; P = 0.04). Among women, the rate of preterm births increased significantly for pregnancies conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis relative to those conceived before diagnosis (23.3% versus 11.4%; P = 0.03). Only 18% of women reported worsening of vasculitis during pregnancy, but those who experienced increased vasculitis activity were more likely to deliver preterm. Exposure to cyclophosphamide or prednisone did not appear to impact pregnancy outcomes; however, the number of pregnancies among women taking these medications was small. Among the pregnancies conceived by men with vasculitis, the timing of diagnosis had no significant effect on the rate of pregnancy loss. Conclusion Women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis had a higher rate of pregnancy loss than those who conceived prior to diagnosis. Vasculitis did not worsen during the majority of pregnancies conceived after diagnosis. PMID:23401494
Strunk, Julie A.
Teenage pregnancy outcomes have become an increasing concern in the United States. Education and support of pregnant teens are critical factors that may determine good or poor pregnancy outcomes. Poor outcomes may include low birth weight, developmental delays, and poor academic performance. Although the number of teenagers experiencing pregnancy…
Strunk, Julie A.
Teenage pregnancy outcomes have become an increasing concern in the United States. Education and support of pregnant teens are critical factors that may determine good or poor pregnancy outcomes. Poor outcomes may include low birth weight, developmental delays, and poor academic performance. Although the number of teenagers experiencing pregnancy…
De Santis, M; Straface, G; Cavaliere, A F; Carducci, B; Caruso, A
Gadolinium derivatives are ionic paramagnetic contrast agents used to enhance magnetic resonance images, labeled as a pregnancy category C by the Food and Drug Administration because of a lack of epidemiological studies concerning first-trimester exposure. Prospective cohort study to determine whether gadolinium derivatives exposure in periconceptional period is a risk factor for pregnancy or fetal development. We report the outcome of 26 pregnant women exposed to gadolinium derivatives in the first trimester without adverse effect on pregnancy and neonatal outcome. Currently, this study represents the only prospective investigation of gadolinium derivatives in pregnancy, but more data are necessary to exclude a teratogenic risk.
D'Souza, Lalitha; Jayaweera, Hiranthi; Pickett, Kate E
Women in low- and middle-income countries are known to make changes to their diets during pregnancy. We set out to explore the subject of traditional pregnancy diets with a view to finding out if migrant women follow these practices, and if such information might help explain differences in birth outcomes between migrant women and destination-country-born women. This review found that traditional pregnancy diets vary from region to region, that migrant women may follow some of these practices, and that there is a dearth of studies looking into the impact of pregnancy diets on birth outcomes.
Dennis, M.; O'Rourke, S.; Lewis, S.; Sharpe, M.; Warlow, C.
OBJECTIVES—The impact of stroke on the emotional outcome of patients is large. The aim was to describe the emotional outcomes among a cohort of patients which was of sufficient size to provide a precise estimate of their frequency and help identify those factors which are associated with poor outcomes after an acute stroke. METHODS—372 surviving patients, who had been referred to a hospital and entered into a randomised trial to evaluate a stroke family care worker, were asked to complete questionnaires at a 6 month follow up. These included measures of emotional distress (general health questionnaire 30 item, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and physical functioning (modified Rankin, Barthel index). A regression analysis was used to identify factors which were independently associated with poor outcomes. RESULTS—184 (60%) surviving patients scored more than 4 on the GHQ-30, 55 (22%) more than 8 on the HAD anxiety subscale, and 49 (20%) more than 8 on the HAD depression subscale. Patients with severe strokes resulting in physical disability were more likely to be depressed whereas there was a less strong relation between disability and anxiety. Patients with posterior circulation strokes had consistently better emotional outcomes than those with anterior circulation strokes. CONCLUSIONS—These data may help identify those patients at greatest risk of poor emotional outcomes and thus help in planning trials and delivering appropriate interventions. PMID:10601401
Metzger, Boyd E; Lowe, Lynn P; Dyer, Alan R; Trimble, Elisabeth R; Chaovarindr, Udom; Coustan, Donald R; Hadden, David R; McCance, David R; Hod, Moshe; McIntyre, Harold David; Oats, Jeremy J N; Persson, Bengt; Rogers, Michael S; Sacks, David A
It is controversial whether maternal hyperglycemia less severe than that in diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A total of 25,505 pregnant women at 15 centers in nine countries underwent 75-g oral glucose-tolerance testing at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. Data remained blinded if the fasting plasma glucose level was 105 mg per deciliter (5.8 mmol per liter) or less and the 2-hour plasma glucose level was 200 mg per deciliter (11.1 mmol per liter) or less. Primary outcomes were birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, primary cesarean delivery, clinically diagnosed neonatal hypoglycemia, and cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile. Secondary outcomes were delivery before 37 weeks of gestation, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, need for intensive neonatal care, hyperbilirubinemia, and preeclampsia. For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glucose level of 1 SD (6.9 mg per deciliter [0.4 mmol per liter]), an increase in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (30.9 mg per deciliter [1.7 mmol per liter]), and an increase in the 2-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (23.5 mg per deciliter [1.3 mmol per liter]). For birth weight above the 90th percentile, the odds ratios were 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 1.44), 1.46 (1.39 to 1.53), and 1.38 (1.32 to 1.44), respectively; for cord-blood serum C-peptide level above the 90th percentile, 1.55 (95% CI, 1.47 to 1.64), 1.46 (1.38 to 1.54), and 1.37 (1.30 to 1.44); for primary cesarean delivery, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.15), 1.10 (1.06 to 1.15), and 1.08 (1.03 to 1.12); and for neonatal hypoglycemia, 1.08 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.19), 1.13 (1.03 to 1.26), and 1.10 (1.00 to 1.12). There were no obvious thresholds at which risks increased. Significant associations were also observed for secondary outcomes, although these
Chen, Xuyang; Zhao, Diqi; Mao, Xun; Xia, Yinyin; Baker, Philip N.; Zhang, Hua
Maternal nutritional status during pregnancy will affect the outcomes for the mother and the baby. Many analyses of the relationship between diet and outcome are often based on a single or a few food items or nutrients. However, foods are not consumed in isolation and dietary patterns can be used to assess the whole diet consumed. The use of dietary pattern analysis to understand nutritional intake and pregnancy outcome is becoming more and more popular. Many published studies have showed the association between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. This review examined articles about the relationship between maternal dietary patterns and pregnancy outcome. As a modifiable factor, dietary patterns may be more applicable to clinical and pregnant health interventions. PMID:27338455
Kim, M W; Hong, S-C; Choi, J S; Han, J-Y; Oh, M-J; Kim, H J; Nava-Ocampo, A; Koren, G
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal and/or cord blood folate/homocysteine concentrations and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study population included a random sample of singleton pregnant women in whom we measured total homocysteine and folic acid in maternal or cord blood at deliveries. A total of 227 pregnant women were enrolled. The concentration of folate in maternal blood tended to be significantly lower in pre-term birth than in full-term delivery group (median (95% CI), 14.4 (3.6-73) vs 25 (7.3-105.5) p < 0.01). The total homocysteine in maternal and cord blood was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia than in the normotensive group (7.9 (1.7-28.2) vs 5.9 (1.8-14.6) μmol/ml, p < 0.05; and 5.8 (2.6-14.4) vs 4.2 (0.7-7.9) ng/ml, p < 0.05, respectively). Lower maternal serum folate concentration is associated with pre-term delivery and higher maternal plasma homocysteine concentration with pre-eclampsia.
Windham, Gayle; Fenster, Laura
To review selected environmental, occupational, and other important risk factors for the following adverse pregnancy outcomes: low birth weight (LBW), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and preterm delivery (PTD). The evidence is explored in greater detail for environmental tobacco smoke, drinking water disinfection byproducts, and organochlorine (DDT) and organophosphate pesticides, partly using a weight of evidence approach. Low birth weight and IUGR are surrogate measures of fetal growth that are determined at delivery. Low birth weight is defined as <2,500 grams, and occurs in about 7% of US births. Intrauterine growth retardation is commonly defined as birth weight less than the tenth percentile for gestational week, using a standard population. Preterm delivery is birth at <37 weeks gestational age, and occurs in approximately 12% of US births. Numerous factors are associated with these endpoints that may be important to consider in studies of environmental exposures, such as young or old maternal age, race/ethnicity, multiple births, low socioeconomic status, inadequate prenatal care, low maternal weight gain, and infections and premature rupture of the membranes. Environmental contaminants found associated with increased risk of one or more of the endpoints include: tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, air pollutants, heavy metals, pesticides, chlorination byproducts, and solvents. Future research directions include measurement of exposure biomarkers during critical windows and consideration of genetic polymorphisms.
Donovan, Geoffrey H; Michael, Yvonne L; Butry, David T; Sullivan, Amy D; Chase, John M
This paper investigated whether greater tree-canopy cover is associated with reduced risk of poor birth outcomes in Portland, Oregon. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to classified-aerial imagery to calculate tree-canopy cover in 50, 100, and 200 m buffers around each home in our sample (n=5696). Detailed data on maternal characteristics and additional neighborhood variables were obtained from birth certificates and tax records. We found that a 10% increase in tree-canopy cover within 50 m of a house reduced the number of small for gestational age births by 1.42 per 1000 births (95% CI-0.11-2.72). Results suggest that the natural environment may affect pregnancy outcomes and should be evaluated in future research.
Hirsch, Dania; Levy, Sigal; Nadler, Varda; Kopel, Vered; Shainberg, Bracha; Toledano, Yoel
Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes. Most studies have focused on subjects with a mild or subclinical disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the relative rate of severe thyroid dysfunction among pregnant women with hypothyroidism, identify related factors and analyse the impact on pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective case series design was employed. The study group included 101 pregnant women (103 pregnancies) with an antenatal serum TSH level >20.0 mIU/l identified from the 2009-2010 computerised database of a health maintenance organisation. Data were collected from the medical records. Pregnancy outcomes were compared with those of a control group of 205 euthyroid pregnant women during the same period. The study group accounted for 1.04% of all insured pregnant women with recorded hypothyroidism during the study period. Most cases had an autoimmune aetiology. All women were treated with levothyroxine (L-T₄) during pregnancy. Maximum serum TSH level measured was 20.11-150 mIU/l (median 32.95 mIU/l) and median serum TSH level 0.36-75.17 mIU/l (median 7.44 mIU/l). The mean duration of hypothyroidism during pregnancy was 21.2 ± 13.2 weeks (median 18.5 weeks); in 36 cases (34.9%), all TSH levels during pregnancy were elevated. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included abortions in 7.8% of the cases, premature deliveries in 2.9% and other complications in 14.6%, with no statistically significant differences from the control group. Median serum TSH level during pregnancy was positively correlated with the rate of abortions+premature deliveries and rate of all pregnancy-related complications (P<0.05). Abortions and premature deliveries occur infrequently in women with severe hypothyroidism. Intense follow-up and L-T₄ treatment may improve pregnancy outcomes even when target TSH levels are not reached.
Pourali, Leila; Ayati, Sedigheh; Jelodar, Shahrzad; Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Sheikh Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan
Introduction: Regarding to the recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART), twin and multiple pregnancies have increased during past years. Objective: This study was performed to compare obstetrics and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy following ART with spontaneous pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was performed in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 107 dichorionic twin pregnancy were enrolled in two groups: spontaneous group (n=96) and ART group (n=31). Basic criteria and obstetrics and neonatal outcomes information including demographic data, gestational age, mode of delivery, pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), postpartum hemorrhage), neonatal outcomes (weight, first and fifth minute Apgar score, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus) were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: Preterm labor, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia were significantly higher in ART group compared to spontaneous pregnancy group. However, other factors such as anemia, IUGR, postpartum hemorrhage, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal outcomes (weight, 1st and 5th min Apgar score <7, NICU hospitalization, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus). Conclusion: With regard of significantly higher poor outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm labor in ART group, the couples should be aware of these potential risks before choosing ART. PMID:27326416
King, Janet C
About one third of all pregnant women in the United States are obese. Maternal obesity at conception alters gestational metabolic adjustments and affects placental, embryonic, and fetal growth and development. Neural tube defects and other developmental anomalies are more common in infants born to obese women; these defects have been linked to poor glycemic control. Preeclampsia, a gestational disorder occurring more frequently in obese women, appears to be due to a subclinical inflammatory state that impairs early placentation and development of its blood supply. Fetal growth and development during the last half of pregnancy depends on maternal metabolic adjustments dictated by placental hormones and the subsequent oxygen and nutrient supply. Maternal obesity affects these metabolic adjustments as well. Basal metabolic rates are significantly higher in obese women, and maternal fat gain is lower, possibly in response to altered leptin function. The usual increase in insulin resistance seen in late pregnancy is enhanced in obese mothers, causing marked postprandial increases in glucose, lipids, and amino acids and excessive fetal exposure to fuel sources, which in turn increases fetal size, fat stores, and risk for disease postnatally. Impaired glucose tolerance, gestational diabetes, and hyperlipidemia are more common among obese mothers. To date, little attention has been given to the role of diet among obese women in preventing these problems. However, studies of women with impaired glucose tolerance show that replacing refined carbohydrates and saturated fat with complex, low-glycemic carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids improves metabolic homeostasis and pregnancy outcomes. Thus, current dietary guidelines regarding the amount and type of carbohydrates and fat for nonpregnant women seem appropriate for pregnant women as well.
Parkash, Om; Ayub, Adil; Naeem, Buria; Najam, Sehrish; Ahmed, Zubair; Jafri, Wasim; Hamid, Saeed
Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor (PHCT) represents an extremely rare clinical entity with only a few cases reported to date. These tumors are rarely associated with metastasis and surgical resection is usually curative. Herein, we report two cases of PHCT associated with poor outcomes due to late diagnosis. Both cases presented late with non-specific symptoms. One patient presented after a 2-week history of symptoms and the second case had a longstanding two years symptomatic interval during which he remained undiagnosed and not properly worked up. Both these cases were diagnosed with hepatic carcinoid tumor, which originates from neuroendocrine cells. Case 1 opted for palliative care and expired in one month’s time. Surgical resection was advised to the second case, but he left against medical advice.
John, Celestine Osita; Korubo, Kaladada; Ogu, Rosemary; Mmom, Chigozirim Faith; Mba, Alpheus Gogo; Chidiadi, Ezenwa-Ahanene; Akani, Chris
Aplastic anaemia occurring in pregnancy is a rare event with life threatening challenges for both mother and child. We present a successful fetomaternal outcome despite the challenges in the management of this rare condition in a tertiary but resource poor centre. This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0(+5)managed with repeated blood transfusions from 28 weeks of gestation for bone marrow biopsy confirmed aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds. She had a cesarean section at 37 weeks for pre-eclampsia and oligohydraminous with good feto-maternal outcome. She was managed entirely with fresh whole blood and received 21 units. Aplastic Anaemia in Pregnancy is a rare event with poor feto maternal prognosis. Successful management is possible with good multi-disciplinary approach and availability of supportive comprehensive obstetric care.
John, Celestine Osita; Korubo, Kaladada; Ogu, Rosemary; Mmom, Chigozirim Faith; Mba, Alpheus Gogo; Chidiadi, Ezenwa-Ahanene; Akani, Chris
Aplastic anaemia occurring in pregnancy is a rare event with life threatening challenges for both mother and child. We present a successful fetomaternal outcome despite the challenges in the management of this rare condition in a tertiary but resource poor centre. This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0+5managed with repeated blood transfusions from 28 weeks of gestation for bone marrow biopsy confirmed aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds. She had a cesarean section at 37 weeks for pre-eclampsia and oligohydraminous with good feto-maternal outcome. She was managed entirely with fresh whole blood and received 21 units. Aplastic Anaemia in Pregnancy is a rare event with poor feto maternal prognosis. Successful management is possible with good multi-disciplinary approach and availability of supportive comprehensive obstetric care. PMID:28154632
Mattila, Mirjami; Kemppainen, Helena; Isoniemi, Helena; Polo-Kantola, Päivi
Pregnancy after liver transplantation is possible but associated with increased risk of obstetrical complications. We report here for the first time the pregnancy outcomes after liver transplantation in Finland. All of the 25 pregnancies ending in deliveries after liver transplantation in Finland in 1998-2015 were analyzed. The data were collected from the mothers' medical records. The main outcome measures included pregnancy complications and the mode of delivery. Neonatal outcome measures were birthweight, 5-min Apgar score and umbilical artery pH. Twenty-six infants were born. Of all deliveries, 76% occurred at the ≥37 weeks of gestation and the average birthweight was 3040 g. Apgar scores were ≥7 in 25/26 (96%) of the infants and cases of birth asphyxia (umbilical artery pH ≤ 7.05) were not detected. Cesarean section rate was 32%. Preeclampsia occurred in 12% of the women and the preterm delivery rate was 24%. Co-morbidities (hypertension, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Hodgkin's disease, colitis ulcerosa, epileptic attacks, cholangitis, splenic artery rupture, renal insufficiency and graft rejection) complicated 52% of pregnancies. Pregnancies after liver transplantation in Finland result in good perinatal outcome with healthy, mostly full-term, normally grown offspring; however, serious maternal complications related to underlying liver pathology, transplant surgery and immunosuppressive medication occur frequently. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Coppola, Danielle; Russo, Leo J; Kwarta, Robert F; Varughese, Ruana; Schmider, Juergen
A significant number of women of childbearing age have schizophrenia or other psychoses. This means that there is a considerable risk of in utero exposure to risperidone due to maternal use. To determine whether in utero exposure to the atypical antipsychotic risperidone is associated with poor pregnancy and fetal/neonatal outcomes. A search of the Benefit Risk Management Worldwide Safety database, using a selection of preferred terms from the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities, was performed to identify all cases of pregnancy or fetal/neonatal outcomes reported in association with risperidone treatment from its first market launch (international birth date, 1 June 1993) to 31 December 2004. The main measures were the patterns and reporting rates of pregnancy (stillbirth and spontaneous and induced abortion) and fetal/neonatal outcomes (congenital abnormalities, perinatal syndromes and withdrawal symptoms) for women administered risperidone during pregnancy. Overall, 713 pregnancies were identified in women who were receiving risperidone. Data were considered prospective in 516 of these, and retrospective in the remaining 197 cases. The majority of the known adverse pregnancy and fetal/neonatal outcomes were retrospectively reported. Of the 68 prospectively reported pregnancies with a known outcome, organ malformations and spontaneous abortions occurred 3.8% and 16.9% (when the 15 induced abortions were excluded from the denominator, as they were predominantly undertaken for nonmedical reasons), respectively, a finding consistent with background rates of the general population. There were 12 retrospectively reported pregnancies involving major organ malformations, the most frequently reported of which affected the heart, brain, lip and/or palate. There were 37 retrospectively reported pregnancies involving perinatal syndromes, of which 21 cases involved behavioural or motor disorders. In particular, there was a cluster of cases reporting tremor
Liu, Xiaohua; Landon, Mark B; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Weiwei
To describe perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies complicated by intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women delivered at a large tertiary obstetric center in Shanghai, China from January 2006 to May 2014. Delivery data were abstracted from medical records of all twin gestations delivered at the hospital. A total of 129/1922(6.7%) twin and 1190/92 273 singleton (1.3%) pregnancies were complicated by ICP. An increased risk of stillbirth among twin pregnancies was observed (3.9% and 0.8% in the ICP and non-ICP groups, respectively; aOR 5.75, 95% CI 2.00-16.6). Stillbirths with ICP and twins occurred between 33 and 35 weeks gestation compared to 36-38 weeks gestation among singletons. ICP in twins was also associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (<37 weeks) with an aOR of 4.17 (95% CI 2.47-7.04) and an aOR of 1.89 (95% CI 1.26-2.85) for delivery <35 weeks. Twin pregnancies complicated by ICP also had increased meconium staining of amniotic fluid and lower birth weight. Twin pregnancies with ICP have significantly increased risks of adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirth and preterm birth. Stillbirth occurs at an earlier gestational age in twin gestation compared to singletons, suggesting that earlier scheduled delivery should be considered in these women.
Ferriols, Elena; Rueda, Carolina; Gamero, Rocío; Vidal, Mar; Payá, Antonio; Carreras, Ramón; Flores-le Roux, Juana A; Pedro-Botet, Juan
Lipids play an important role during pregnancy, and in this period major changes occur in lipoprotein metabolism. During the third trimester plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels are substantially increased, returning to normal after delivery. Described associations between increased morbidity during pregnancy and excessive increases in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. For this reason we have reviewed the relationship between lipid alterations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. The overall metabolic control can improve pregnancy outcomes, and the assessment of supraphysiological changes in lipid profile will classify pregnancy risk at a higher level, which would entail a stricter control. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kolding, Line; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Jørn; Grzeskowiak, Luke E
Hypericum perforatum (HP; also known as St. John's Wort) is one of the most commonly used herbal therapies in the management of depressive illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential side effects of HP during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome. Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), we investigated outcomes among 38 HP exposed pregnancies compared to a group of 90,128 women. Associations between HP use and gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight, malformations and Apgar scores were investigated. Preterm birth did not differ across the groups. While the prevalence of malformations in the HP exposed group was slightly higher (8.1%) than observed in the control groups (3.3%; p=0.13), this was based on only three cases and was not of any specific pattern.
Ozturk, Zeynep; Olmez, Ercument; Gurpinar, Tugba; Vural, Kamil
Thiocolchicoside is a commonly used muscle relaxant in orthopedic, rheumatologic or musculoskeletal disorders to treat painful muscle spasms. It is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation. There is no previously published experience with thiocolchicoside exposure during pregnancy. In this observational study, we collected and evaluated 18 pregnancy outcomes of the women referred to our prenatal consultation service for thiocolchicoside exposure between 2007-2012, and offspring were followed up until 2 years of age. There were 16 live births, 1 spontaneous abortion and 1 elective termination of pregnancy. No major birth defect was observed. The mothers and their babies were free of perinatal complications. No growth or developmental abnormalities were found during follow-up period. Our findings add information on inadvertent use of thiocolchicoside in pregnancy. Further large prospective cohort studies are required to investigate this issue.
Diego, Miguel; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla; Gonzalez-Garcia, Adolfo
A sample of 750 women were interviewed during pregnancy on their depression and anxiety symptoms, substance use and demographic variables. A subsample was seen again at the neonatal stage (n = 152), and their infants were observed for sleep-wake behavior. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were related to caffeine use. Mothers who consumed more…
Diego, Miguel; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Vera, Yanexy; Gil, Karla; Gonzalez-Garcia, Adolfo
A sample of 750 women were interviewed during pregnancy on their depression and anxiety symptoms, substance use and demographic variables. A subsample was seen again at the neonatal stage (n = 152), and their infants were observed for sleep-wake behavior. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were related to caffeine use. Mothers who consumed more…
Grigoriadis, Charalampos; Tympa, Aliki; Theodoraki, Kassiani
The progress in research of in vitro fertilization and fetal-maternal medicine allows more women and men, with fertility problems due to cystic fibrosis, to have a baby. In the majority of cases, pregnancy in women with cystic fibrosis results in favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. However, the incidence of preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, caesarean section and deterioration of the maternal health are increased. Pre-pregnancy counseling is a crucial component of overall obstetric care, especially in women with poor pulmonary function. Additionally, closer monitoring during pregnancy with a multidisciplinary approach is required. The value of serial ultrasound scans and fetal Doppler assessment is important for the control of maternal and fetal wellbeing, as well as for the definition of the appropriate timing of delivery. In this article, clinical issues of pregnant women with cystic fibrosis are reviewed; counseling, obstetrical management and perinatal outcomes are being discussed.
Missumi, Larissa Sayuri; Souza, Fernando Henrique Carlos de; Andrade, Joelma Queiroz; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki
Currently, there are few studies that describe pregnancy in dermatomyositis/polymyositis patients, and they are largely limited to case reports or studies with few samples. Therefore, we describe the pregnancy in a large sample of patients with dermatomyositis/polymyositis and to analyze the outcomes in those who became pregnant during or after disease onset. The present single-center study analyzed 98 female patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (60 dermatomyositis and 38 polymyositis patients). They were interviewed to obtain obstetric antecedent and demographic data from June 2011 to June 2012. Seventy-eight (79.6%) of the 98 patients had obstetric histories. Six polymyositis and 9 dermatomyositis patients became pregnant after disease onset. The pregnancy outcomes in these cases were good, except in the following cases: 1 disease reactivation, 1 intrauterine growth retardation, 1 diabetes mellitus, 1 hypertension, 1 hypothyroidism, and 2 fetal losses (same patient). Moreover, 2 patients developed dermatomyositis during pregnancy and 4 (2 polymyositis and 2 dermatomyositis) during the postpartum period with good control after glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy. The adverse obstetric events were related to clinical intercurrences and the pregnancy does not seem to carry a worse prognosis specifically in disease (for example: disease relapsing). Moreover, dermatomyositis or polymyositis onset during pregnancy or the postpartum period had good outcome after drug therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Matsuki, Yuko; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Koushi; Hisano, Michi; Arata, Naoko; Oku, Kenji; Watanabe, Noriyoshi; Sago, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Yoshinari; Murashima, Atsuko
Abstract Objective. To clarify the clinical significance of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL) profile in patients with obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Methods. Clinical records of 13 pregnant patients (15 pregnancies) with obstetrical APS were reviewed over 10 years. Patients who met the Sapporo Criteria fully were studied, whereas those with only early pregnancy loss were excluded. In addition to classical aPL: lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibody (aCL), and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI); phosphatidylserine-dependent anti-prothrombin antibody (aPS/PT) and kininogen-dependent anti-phosphatidylethanolamine antibody (aPE) were also examined in each case. Results. Cases were divided into two groups according to patient response to standard treatment: good and poor outcome groups. All cases with poor outcome presented LA, with IgG aβ2GPI and IgG aPS/PT were also frequently observed. IgG aPE did not correlate with pregnancy outcome. Conclusion. aPL profile may predict pregnancy outcome in patients with this subset of obstetric APS.
Ayuba, Ibrahim Isa; Gani, Owoeye
Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, it occurs in all races, faiths, socioeconomic statuses, and regions. Teenage pregnancy can have serious physical consequences and teenage mothers are likely to be unmarried, poor and remain uneducated. The objective of the study was to evaluate risk factors associated with teenage pregnancy and compare the obstetric and fetal outcome to older parturient. This is a retrospective study performed over a period of 4 Years (January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010) in Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Bayelsa State, Nigeria where data was retrieved from the hospital records. All teenage mothers (aged 13-19) who had delivery within the period were compared with 180 randomly selected deliveries in the older age group (20-32 years) over the same period. Variables of interest were the demographic characteristics of the women, their obstetric complications and the outcome. There were a total of 1341 deliveries during the study period, out which 83(6.2%) were teenagers. Teenage mothers were significantly more likely to be unbooked, (p = 0.000) Unmarried, (χ=26.2; p = 0.000) had significantly more preterm labor, (P=0.000) and Caesarean sections (P= 0.014). However, there was no difference in both the perinatal and maternal mortality rates between the two groups. Teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta is concentrated among women with less formal education, who are unemployed, unmarried and with inadequate antenatal care and obstetric risks for poor pregnancy outcome. The provision an appropriate contraceptive method and to look with priority after any pregnancy occurring among this age group cannot be overemphasized.
Ness, Roberta B
Reproductive failure in a variety of forms, whether it be infertility, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, prematurity or intrauterine growth restriction, may aggregate within individuals. This observation, although rarely studied, suggests that single pathophysiologies may be associated with a variety of reproductive morbidities. In this review, hyperimmune responsiveness to pregnancy is provided as one example of a process leading to a multitude of adverse impacts on healthy childbearing. Further research on reproductive failure as a spectrum is warranted.
Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.; Palacios, Ana M.; George, Timothy M.; Finnell, Richard H.
The treatment of epilepsy in women of reproductive age remains a clinical challenge. While most women with epilepsy require anticonvulsant drugs for adequate control of their seizures, the teratogenicity associated with some antiepileptic drugs is a risk that needs to be carefully addressed. Antiepileptic medications are also used to treat an ever broadening range of medical conditions such as bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, cancer and neuropathic pain. Despite the fact that the majority of pregnancies of women with epilepsy who are receiving pharmacological treatment are normal, studies have demonstrated that the risk of having a pregnancy complicated by a major congenital malformation is doubled when comparing the risk of untreated pregnancies. Furthermore, when antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used in polytherapy regimens, the risk is tripled, especially when valproic acid (VPA) is included. However, it should be noted that the risks are specific for each anticonvulsant drug. Some investigations have suggested that the risk of teratogenicity is increased in a dose-dependent manner. More recent studies have reported that in utero exposure to AEDs can have detrimental effects on the cognitive functions and language skills in later stages of life. In fact, the FDA just issued a safety announcement on the impact of VPA on cognition (Safety Announcement 6-30-2011). The purpose of this document is to review the most commonly used compounds in the treatment of women with epilepsy, and to provide information on the latest experimental and human epidemiological studies of the effects of antiepileptic drugs in the exposed embryos. PMID:22711424
Maymunah, Adegbesan-Omilabu; Kehinde, Okunade; Abidoye, Gbadegesin; Oluwatosin, Akinsola
Prevention of viable spontaneous preterm birth and low birth weight through screening is one of the key aims of antenatal care as these have implications for the child, mother and society. If women can be identified to be at high risk of these adverse birth outcomes in early pregnancy, they can be targeted for more intensive antenatal surveillance and prophylactic interventions. This study is therefore aimed to determine the association between elevated maternal serum cholesterol level in pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome. It was a prospective observational cohort study in which eligible participants were enrolled at gestational age of 14 to 20 weeks. Blood samples were obtained to measure total serum cholesterol concentrations and the sera were then analyzed enzymatically by the cholesterol oxidase: p-aminophenazone (CHOD PAP) method. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by extraction from medical records and the labour ward register. The incidences of the two adverse pregnancy outcomes examined in the study (preterm births and low birth weight (LBW) in term neonates) were 8.0% and 14.4% respectively. Preterm birth was 6.89-times more common in mothers with high cholesterol than in control mothers with normal total cholesterol level (38.5% versus 5.4%, P=0.029) while LBW was 7.99-times more common in mothers with high total maternal cholesterol than in mothers with normal cholesterol (87.5% versus 10.5%, P=0.019). We can infer that the high maternal serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolaemia) is associated with preterm delivery/ low birth weight (LBW) in term infants. However, further validation of these findings with more robust prospective and longitudinal characterization of maternal serum cholesterol profiles is required in subsequent investigations.
Kuvacić, I; Sprem, M; Skrablin, S; Kalafatić, D; Bubić-Filipi, L; Milici D
To correlate pregnancy outcome with complications in pregnancy and transplantation-to-pregnancy interval in renal transplant recipients in Croatia. Data on 23 pregnancies after prepregnancy stabilization of blood pressure and normalization of graft function were retrospectively analyzed. The mean interval between transplantation and conception was 3.1 years. Primary renal disease was chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, chronic pyelonephritis in 7 and agenesis of right kidney and stenosis of left renal artery in 1 patient. There were 10 term and 5 preterm deliveries, 6 induced and 2 spontaneous abortions. The mean gestational age was 38.1 weeks and the mean newborn birthweight was 3015 g. The prematurity rate was 21.7%. Patients with arterial hypertension in pregnancy, elevated serum creatinine level and bacteriuria, as well as those with conception occurring less than 2 years after transplantation, had a higher rate of therapeutic and spontaneous abortions, preterm deliveries and low birth weight infants. The interval between transplantation and conception, as well as allograft function during pregnancy, seem to be of great importance for successful obstetric outcome in renal transplant patients.
Although the association of fetal growth restriction and adverse pregnancy outcomes is well known, lack of sensitivity limits its clinical value. To a large extent, this limitation is a result of traditionally used method to define growth restriction by comparing fetal or birth weight to population norms. The use of population norms, by virtue of their inability to fully consider individual variation, results in high false positive and negative rates. An alternative, calculating fetal individually optimal growth potential, based on physiological determinants of individual growth, is superior in predicting adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Impairment of fetal growth potential identifes some adverse pregnancy outcomes that are not associated with growth restrction defined by population norms. When compared with traditional population-based norms, fetal growth potential is a better predictor of several important adverse outcomes of pregnancy which include: stillbirth, neonatal mortality and morbidity, and long-term adverse neonatal outcomes like neonatal encephalopathy, cerebral palsy and cognitive abilities. Impairment of individual growth potential is also strongly associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Although definitive interventional trials have not been conducted as yet to validate the clinical value of fetal growth potential, many observational studies, conducted in various populations, indicate its significant promise in this respect.
Enomoto, Kimiko; Aoki, Shigeru; Toma, Rie; Fujiwara, Kana; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Hirahara, Fumiki
Objective To verify whether body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is valid in Japanese women. Method A study was conducted in 97,157 women with singleton pregnancies registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System between January 2013 and December 2013, to examine pregnancy outcomes in four groups stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI category according to the 2009 criteria recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The groups comprised 17,724 underweight women with BMI <18.5, 69,126 normal weight women with BMI 18.5–24.9, 7,502 overweight women with BMI 25–29.9, and 2,805 obese women with BMI ≥30. The pregnancy outcomes were also compared among subgroups stratified by a gestational weight gain below, within, and above the optimal weight gain. Results The higher the pre-pregnancy BMI, the higher the incidences of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, macrosomia, cesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, and post-term birth, but the lower the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA). In all pre-pregnancy BMI category groups, excess gestational weight gain was associated with a higher frequency of large for gestational age and macrosomia; poor weight gain correlated with a higher frequency of SGA, preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and spontaneous preterm birth; and optimal weight gain within the recommended range was associated with a better outcome. Conclusion The BMI classification by the IOM was demonstrated to be valid in Japanese women. PMID:27280958
Goodman, Michael; Mandel, Jack S; DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R
Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used agricultural herbicide that has been the subject of epidemiologic studies assessing its relation to reproductive health problems. This review evaluates both the consistency and the quality of epidemiologic evidence testing the hypothesis that ATR exposure, at usually encountered levels, is a risk factor for birth defects, small for gestational age birth weight, prematurity, miscarriages, and problems of fetal growth and development. We followed the current methodological guidelines for systematic reviews by using two independent researchers to identify, retrieve, and evaluate the relevant epidemiologic literature on the relation of ATR to various adverse outcomes of birth and pregnancy. Each eligible paper was summarized with respect to its methods and results with particular attention to study design and exposure assessment, which have been cited as the main areas of weakness in ATR research. As a quantitative meta-analysis was not feasible, the study results were categorized qualitatively as positive, null, or mixed. The literature on ATR and pregnancy-related health outcomes is growing rapidly, but the quality of the data is poor with most papers using aggregate rather than individual-level information. Without good quality data, the results are difficult to assess; however, it is worth noting that none of the outcome categories demonstrated consistent positive associations across studies. Considering the poor quality of the data and the lack of robust findings across studies, conclusions about a causal link between ATR and adverse pregnancy outcomes are not warranted. PMID:24797711
Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Beinhardt, Sandra; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Haag, Nicola; Freissmuth, Clarissa; Reuner, Ulrike; Gauss, Annika; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Schilsky, Michael L; Ferenci, Peter; Weiss, Karl Heinz
Introduction Wilson disease (WD) is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism causing toxic hepatic and neural copper accumulation. Clinical symptoms vary widely, from asymptomatic disease to acute liver failure or chronic liver disease without or with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Continuation of specific medical treatment for WD is recommended during pregnancy, but reports of pregnancy outcomes in WD patients are sparse. Patients and methods In a retrospective, multicenter study, 282 pregnancies in 136 WD patients were reviewed. Age at disease onset, age at conception and WD-specific treatments were recorded. Maternal complications during pregnancy, rate of spontaneous abortions and birth defects were analyzed with respect to medical treatment during pregnancy. Results Worsening of liver function tests was evident during 16/282 (6%) pregnancies and occurred in undiagnosed patients as well as in those under medical treatment. Liver test abnormalities resolved in all cases after delivery. Aggravation of neurological symptoms during pregnancy was rare (1%) but tended to persist after delivery. The overall spontaneous abortion rate in the study cohort was 73/282 (26%). Patients with an established diagnosis of WD receiving medical treatment experienced significantly fewer spontaneous abortions than patients with undiagnosed WD (Odds ratio: 2.853 [95% CI: 1.634-4.982]). Birth defects occurred in 7/209 (3%) live births. Conclusion Pregnancy in WD patients on anti-copper therapy is safe. The spontaneous abortion rate in treated patients was lower than that in therapy-naive patients. Although the teratogenic potential of copper chelators is a concern, the rate of birth defects in our cohort was low. Treatment for WD should be maintained during pregnancy, and patients should be monitored closely for hepatic and neurologic symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Grarup, Pernille A; Janner, Julie H; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Asthma and tobacco exposure is common among pregnant women. We investigated the effect of passive and active smoking on asthma control during pregnancy. Prospective observational design. Patients had their asthma control, based on symptoms, use of medication, spirometry, and exhaled nitric oxide [FENO], assessed every four weeks during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy; data on tobacco exposure were also collected prospectively. The primary outcome was episodes of uncontrolled and partly controlled asthma during pregnancy (defined according to GINA-guidelines). A total of 500 pregnant women with asthma (mean age 30.8 years, range 17 to 44) were consecutively included, of whom 32 (6.4%), 115 (23.0%) and 353 (70.6%), respectively, were current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers [NS]. Sixty-five NS (18.4%) reported passive tobacco exposure. NS with passive tobacco exposure had significantly lower FEV1% predicted (p<0.02) and FENO (p = 0.01) compared to NS without passive tobacco exposure. The relative risk [RR] of an episode of uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy was 4.5 (95% CI 2.7-7.5: p<0.001) in current and ex-smokers compared with never smokers, and 2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.9; p = 0.004) in NS-women with passive tobacco exposure compared with NS-women not reporting passive tobacco exposure. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, most likely as a marker of more severe asthma, was also associated with a higher risk (RR 8.1, 95% CI 5.1-13.0; p<0.001) of an episode of uncontrolled asthma. Passive tobacco exposure in never smokers is associated with an increased risk of episodes of uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy, which is likely to have adverse effects on pregnancy outcome.
Grarup, Pernille A.; Janner, Julie H.; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Background and Aim Asthma and tobacco exposure is common among pregnant women. We investigated the effect of passive and active smoking on asthma control during pregnancy. Methods Prospective observational design. Patients had their asthma control, based on symptoms, use of medication, spirometry, and exhaled nitric oxide [FENO], assessed every four weeks during 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy; data on tobacco exposure were also collected prospectively. The primary outcome was episodes of uncontrolled and partly controlled asthma during pregnancy (defined according to GINA-guidelines). Results A total of 500 pregnant women with asthma (mean age 30.8 years, range 17 to 44) were consecutively included, of whom 32 (6.4%), 115 (23.0%) and 353 (70.6%), respectively, were current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers [NS]. Sixty-five NS (18.4%) reported passive tobacco exposure. NS with passive tobacco exposure had significantly lower FEV1% predicted (p<0.02) and FENO (p = 0.01) compared to NS without passive tobacco exposure. The relative risk [RR] of an episode of uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy was 4.5 (95% CI 2.7–7.5: p<0.001) in current and ex-smokers compared with never smokers, and 2.9 (95% CI 1.4–5.9; p = 0.004) in NS-women with passive tobacco exposure compared with NS-women not reporting passive tobacco exposure. Treatment with inhaled corticosteroids, most likely as a marker of more severe asthma, was also associated with a higher risk (RR 8.1, 95% CI 5.1–13.0; p<0.001) of an episode of uncontrolled asthma. Conclusion Passive tobacco exposure in never smokers is associated with an increased risk of episodes of uncontrolled asthma during pregnancy, which is likely to have adverse effects on pregnancy outcome. PMID:25409513
Garcia, Mila Trementosa; Lin, Lawrence Hsu; Fushida, Koji; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo
The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms "gestational trophoblastic disease" and "pregnancy outcome". A total of 18 articles were included. No evidence of decreased fertility after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia was observed. The abortion rates in patients who conceived within 6 months after chemotherapy was higher compared to those who waited longer. Some studies showed increased rates of stillbirth and repeat hydatidiform moles. Only one work showed increased congenital abnormalities. The pregnancies conceived after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia should be followed with clinical surveillance due to higher rates of some pregnancy complications. However, studies in the literature provide reassuring data about reproductive outcomes of these patients.
Tedeschi, Sara K; Guan, Hongshu; Fine, Alexander; Costenbader, Karen H; Bermas, Bonnie
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of reproductive-age women, and thus questions regarding how disease influences pregnancy outcomes arise. We investigated whether five specific types of SLE activity during the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy (nephritis, cytopenias, skin disease, arthritis, serositis) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcomes among women with SLE at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lupus Center. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, elective termination due to SLE, spontaneous miscarriage at weeks 12-20, and stillbirth. SLE and obstetric history, laboratories, and medications were obtained from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify predictors of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Most pregnancies resulted in a live term delivery (76.5 %). After adjustment for Hispanic ethnicity, prior adverse pregnancy outcome and medication use 6 months before conception, nephritis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-12.8), cytopenias during pregnancy (OR 3.9, 95 % CI 1.3-11.4), and serositis during pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 1.0-34.0) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Specific types of SLE disease activity during pregnancy were related to adverse pregnancy outcome. Nephritis, cytopenias, and serositis carried a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, suggesting that these abnormalities should be carefully monitored during pregnancy.
... Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated With Cancer Chemotherapy Use During Pregnancy; Request... Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy Use during Pregnancy (available by August 14, 2012... NTP Monograph on Developmental Effects and Pregnancy Outcomes Associated with Cancer Chemotherapy...
Goodnight, William; Newman, Roger
Twin pregnancies contribute a disproportionate degree to perinatal morbidity, partly because of increased risks of low birth weight and prematurity. Although the cause of the morbidity is multifactorial, attention to twin-specific maternal nutrition may be beneficial in achieving optimal fetal growth and birth weight. Achievement of body mass index (BMI)-specific weight gain goals, micronutrient and macronutrient supplementation specific to the physiology of twin gestations, and carbohydrate-controlled diets are recommended for optimal twin growth and pregnancy outcomes. The daily recommended caloric intake for normal-BMI women with twins is 40-45 kcal/kg each day, and iron, folate, calcium, magnesium, and zinc supplementation is recommended beyond a usual prenatal vitamin. Daily supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid and vitamin D should also be considered. Multiple gestation-specific prenatal care settings with a focus on nutritional interventions improve birth weight and length of gestation and should be considered for the care of women carrying multiples. Antepartum lactation consultation can also improve the rate of postpartum breastfeeding in twin pregnancies. Twin gestation-specific nutritional interventions seem effective in improving the outcome of these pregnancies and should be emphasized in the antepartum care of multiple gestations. This review examines the available evidence and offers recommendations for twin pregnancy-specific nutritional interventions.
Weck, Rebekah L; Paulose, Tessie; Flaws, Jodi A
Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.
Eaton, Jennifer L; Milad, Magdy P
The aim of this study was to report preliminary data on pregnancy outcomes after myomectomy with placement of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene adhesion barrier membrane. In this retrospective case series, 68 women who underwent myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2009, were identified. Of these women, 15 subsequently had documented pregnancies and were included in the final dataset. Eighteen pregnancies were documented among 15 women. There were no reported cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture. In this case series, there were no documented cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture after myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement.
Milad, Magdy P.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to report preliminary data on pregnancy outcomes after myomectomy with placement of an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene adhesion barrier membrane. Methods: In this retrospective case series, 68 women who underwent myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2009, were identified. Of these women, 15 subsequently had documented pregnancies and were included in the final dataset. Results: Eighteen pregnancies were documented among 15 women. There were no reported cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture. Conclusion: In this case series, there were no documented cases of preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, or uterine rupture after myomectomy with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane placement. PMID:25392651
C Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad; Shea, Brian; Goorah, Diya
Background: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. Previously established risk factors for the development of NEC include prematurity and low birth weight. However, it is not clear to date as to whether the etiology of NEC is due to host, environmental, or yet other unknown factors. We analyzed the differences in incidence of NEC in twin pregnancies to further clarify its etio-pathogenesis. Methods: After IRB approval, a retrospective search of the medical records of the Department of Pediatric Surgery was done to identify all the neonates treated for surgical NEC from 2006-2013. Patients that had been treated for NEC elsewhere and subsequently transferred in to our facility were excluded. The medical records of the resulting 45 patients were then analyzed for demographics, antenatal screening, risk factors, treatment (medical and surgical), and outcomes. The resulting data was then analyzed using relative risk calculations and standard statistical tests. Results: Of the 45 patients who developed surgical NEC, 9 neonates (20%) were born of a twin pregnancy. There were no cases in which both twin A and twin B developed NEC. NEC in twin pregnancy neonates showed a female preponderance (p less than 0.0001) and developed universally in the first born of the twins. Birth weight, time of onset of NEC, hospital stay and mortality were similar between twin and non-twin NEC. There was an average lead-time of three weeks to development of NEC in both singletons and twin pregnancies. Conclusion: There is a remarkable higher incidence of NEC amongst twins. Abnormal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract appears to be an immediate postpartum event. NEC in twin pregnancy does not appear to have a deleterious outcome compared to NEC in singleton pregnancy. PMID:26023516
Okun, Nanette; Sierra, Sony
To review the effect of assisted human reproduction (AHR) on perinatal outcomes, to identify areas requiring further research with regard to birth outcomes and AHR, and to provide guidelines to optimize obstetrical management and counselling of prospective Canadian parents. This document compares perinatal outcomes of different types of AHR pregnancies with each other and with those of spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Clinicians will be better informed about the adverse outcomes that have been documented in association with AHR, including obstetrical complications, adverse perinatal outcomes, multiple gestations, structural congenital abnormalities, chromosomal abnormalities, and imprinting disorders. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library from January 2005 to December 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (assisted reproduction, assisted reproductive technology, ovulation induction, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo transfer, and in vitro fertilization). Results were not restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies; studies of all designs published in English from January 2005 to December 2012 were reviewed, and additional publications were identified from the bibliographies of these articles. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to August 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. There is increasing evidence that infertility or subfertility is an
Allen, Victoria M; Wilson, R Douglas; Cheung, Anthony
To review the effect of assisted reproductive technology (ART) on perinatal outcomes, to provide guidelines to optimize obstetrical management and counselling of Canadian women using ART, and to identify areas specific to birth outcomes and ART requiring further research. Perinatal outcomes of ART pregnancies in subfertile women are compared with those of spontaneously conceived pregnancies. Perinatal outcomes are compared between different types of ART. This guideline discusses the adverse outcomes that have been recorded in association with ART, including obstetrical complications, adverse perinatal outcomes, multiple gestations, structural congenital abnormalities, chromosomal abnormalities, imprinting disorders, and childhood cancer. The Cochrane Library and MEDLINE were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to February 2005, relating to assisted reproduction and perinatal outcomes. Search terms included assisted reproduction, assisted reproductive technology, ovulation induction, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), embryo transfer, and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Additional publications were identified from the bibliographies of these articles as well as the Science Citation Index. Studies assessing gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) were excluded since they are rarely used in Canada. All study types were reviewed. Randomized controlled trials were considered evidence of the highest quality, followed by cohort studies. Key studies and supporting data for each recommendation are summarized with evaluative comments and referenced. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Genetics Committee and the Reproductive Endocrinology Infertility Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the Evaluation of Evidence Guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. The type and magnitude of benefits, harms, and costs
Brameld, Kate J; Dickinson, Jan E; O'Leary, Peter; Bower, Carol; Goldblatt, Jack; Hewitt, Beverley; Murch, Ashleigh; Stock, Rosanne
To identify first trimester indicators of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data were obtained from the statewide evaluation of first trimester screening for Down syndrome in Western Australia which included 22,695 pregnancies screened between August 2001 and October 2003. Screening data were linked with pregnancy outcome information from the Hospital Morbidity Database and the Birth Defects Registry. The odds ratios (OR) of adverse outcomes were analysed for combined risk incorporating maternal age, nuchal translucency (NT) and biochemical parameters and then separately for each parameter (pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and NT). Risk assessments for first trimester combined screening are derived from maternal age, ultrasound measurement of fetal NT, maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A. Increased combined risk for Down syndrome was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with spontaneous loss at or before 24 weeks gestation (OR 13.51), birth defects (OR 6.58) and preterm birth at or before 32 weeks gestation (OR 3.2). Maternal serum PAPP-A below the 5th centile was associated with Down syndrome (OR 8.43), spontaneous loss before 24 weeks (OR 5.04) and later than 24 weeks (OR 4.50), preterm delivery before 32 weeks (OR 3.11) and before 37 weeks (OR 2.24). NT above the 95th centile was associated with Down syndrome (OR 43.91), birth defects (OR 4.02) and spontaneous loss before 24 weeks (OR 6.24). Low levels of free beta-hCG and increased NT were less consistently associated with adverse outcomes and high levels of free beta-hCG showed limited use as an indicator. The detection rates for all outcomes other than Down syndrome were less than 40%. Biochemical indicators and NT that are measured during first trimester screening for Down syndrome show a number of associations with adverse outcomes, but do not show appropriate performance characteristics for screening tests. These data are consistent with the
O'Brien, Louise M; Bullough, Alexandra S; Owusu, Jocelynn T; Tremblay, Kimberley A; Brincat, Cynthia A; Chames, Mark C; Kalbfleisch, John D; Chervin, Ronald D
This cohort study examined the impact of maternal snoring on key delivery outcomes such as mode of delivery, infant birth centile, and small-for-gestational age. Cohort study. A large tertiary medical center. Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited between March 2007 and December 2010. Women were screened for habitual snoring, as a known marker for sleep disordered breathing. Outcome data were obtained from medical records following delivery and birth centiles were calculated. Of 1,673 women, a total of 35% reported habitual snoring (26% with pregnancy-onset snoring and 9% with chronic snoring). After adjusting for confounders, chronic snoring was associated with small-forgestational age (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66, P = 0.041) and elective cesarean delivery (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.22-4.18, P = 0.008). Pregnancy-onset snoring was associated with emergency cesarean delivery (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.22-2.30, P = 0.001). Maternal snoring during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse delivery outcomes including cesarean delivery and small-for-gestational age. Screening pregnant women for symptoms of SDB may provide an early opportunity to identify women at risk of poor delivery outcomes. IDENTIFIER: NCT01030003.
Gupta, Nandini; Kiran, Usha; Bhal, Kiron
To quantify the age related risk of adverse obstetric outcome in primigravid women less than 20 years of age. The study sample was drawn from Cardiff Births Survey (a computerized maternity information database) comprising 66,271 pregnancies in the South Glamorgan region during 1990-1999. Pregnancy outcomes of primigravid women were compared in age groups less than 20 years (n=4126) and 20 to <35 years (n=17,615). SPSS version 11 was used for statistical analysis. Student's t-test was used for continuous variables, Chi square, Fishers exact test was used for categorical variables. There was a lower incidence of multiple pregnancies (OR=0.3(0.2-0.4)), spontaneous rupture of membranes >24h (OR=0.7(0.6-0.9)), and pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR=0.8(0.6-0.8)) amongst teenage primigravidae but a higher incidence of anaemia (OR=1.8(1.6-2.0)), and pyelonephritis (OR=1.5(1.1-2.0)). There was a lower incidence of induction of labour (OR=0.7(0.7-0.8)) and use of regional analgesia in the teenage group. Teenage women were more likely to have a spontaneous vaginal delivery (OR=2.1(2.0-2.3)) with a significantly lower incidence of instrumental delivery (OR=0.5(0.5-0.6)), and Caesarean section (OR=0.4(0.4-0.5)). Inspite of a higher incidence of preterm labour (corrected OR=1.4(1.1-1.7)) the perinatal outcome measures between the teenage group and the older group were not significantly different. Teenage primigravidae are more likely to have a spontaneous vaginal delivery, without compromising the maternal or neonatal outcome.
Hou, M Q; Wang, Z J; Hou, K Z
To investigate the influence of hypothyroidism on pregnancy outcome and fetus in pregnant women. A total of 4 286 pregnant women, who received prenatal examination in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2015, were selected as study subjects. The incidence of hypothyroidism and the influence on pregnancy outcomes and fetus were investigated. In 4 286 pregnant women surveyed, 209 hypothyroidism cases were detected(4.9%), including 85 clinical hypothyroidism cases and 124 subclinical hypothyroidism cases. In health group, the premature delivery rate was 1.0%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(6.5%), the differences were significant(χ(2)= 38.884, P<0.001; χ(2)=17.722, P<0.001). In healthy group, the incidence of anemia was 3.8%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(18.8%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.7%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=30.949, P<0.001; χ(2)=23.275, P<0.001). In health group, the incidence of low birth weight was 1.1%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(14.1%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(4.8%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=50.593, P<0.001; χ(2)=15.637, P<0.001). In health group, the fetal distress incidence was 1.9%, significantly lower than that in clinical hypothyroidism group(10.6%)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(5.6%), the differences were significant(χ(2)=19.257, P< 0.001; χ(2)=12.357, P<0.001). In health group, the fetal Apgar score(9.69 ± 0.32)was significantly higher than those in clinical hypothyroidism group(9.25 ± 0.45)and in subclinical hypothyroidism group(9.28 ± 0.44), the differences were significant(t=8.823, P<0.001; t=15.175, P<0.001). Hypothyroidism during pregnancy has adverse influences on pregnancy outcome and fetus, and it is necessary to strengthen the hypothyroidism detection in pregnant women for the early treatment.
Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanalı, Mahmut Kuntay; Tasdemir, Umit; Doganay, Melike; Aksakal, Orhan
To evaluate the pregnancy outcomes in women who underwent transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy with the review of the literature STUDY DESIGN: 54 women who underwent transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy due to ≥grade 2 uterine prolapse during six-year period were identified from a computer based database. 8 of these who had pregnancy resulted in live birth subsequent to transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy were enrolled in this study. They were examined in case of pelvic organ prolapse recurrence and were questioned about their current self satisfaction status and PISQ-12 questionnaire. The median age of women was 36 years (range 29-43 years). All of the women were multiparous and there were no women with a previous cesarean section. All of the subsequent conceptions following operation occured spontaneously. The median time between hysteropexy and conception was 16 months (range 10-30 months). The pregnancies continued at least 37 weeks with only one preterm delivery (due to twin pregnancy). All 8 pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section. The median follow-up period after cesarean section was 45 months (range 7-60 months). Majority of women (7/8, 87.5%) were satisfied with current outcomes of sacrospinous hysteropexy and PISQ12 questionnaire scores revealed improvement in 87.5% (7/8) of women. Transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy is an appropriate surgical treatment method for symptomatic uterovaginal descensus in women who wish to preserve their uterine and future childbearing. And cesarean section is a reliable and satisfactory delivery route for women who underwent transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peart, Erica; Clowse, Megan E B
This review synthesizes new data from the studies published between 2011 and 2013, with particular focus on the different information gleaned by various study types. Population-based cohorts have demonstrated that women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have fewer live births and more pregnancy complications, but can have successful live births after having a poor outcome. A retrospective study suggests that only 4 months, not the traditional 6 months of disease quiescent SLE prior to pregnancy improves outcomes. Prospective studies identified several novel predictors of poor pregnancy outcomes, including uterine Doppler and laboratory findings. A prospective study found great success in transitioning to azathioprine from mycophenolate mofetil prior to pregnancy in patients with quiet lupus nephritis. Two retrospective analyses suggest that hydroxychloroquine may prevent congenital heart block in pregnancies exposed to SSA/Ro antibodies. Finally, the initial pregnancy data for belimumab suggest a high degree of transplacental transfer, but thus far no definitive link between belimumab and congenital abnormalities. Recent studies suggest both novel markers of poor pregnancy outcomes and new approaches to the management of lupus during pregnancy.
Sepulveda, Waldo; Wong, Amy E; Bustos, Juan C; Flores, Ximena; Alcalde, Juan L
To report our experience with the management of triplet pregnancies complicated by an acardiac fetus. During the 5-year period from 2003 to 2008, five cases were identified. The prenatal sonographic findings, antepartum course, antenatal intervention if performed, and perinatal outcome of each case were reviewed. Four pregnancies were spontaneously conceived and one was achieved by in vitro fertilization. Three pregnancies were dichorionic and two were monochorionic, and two acardiac fetuses were part of a monoamniotic set. All cases underwent an early sonographic examination, but the diagnosis was only made in the first trimester in only two cases, as the acardiac fetus was overlooked or inaccurately identified as a dead fetus in the remaining three cases. Early fetal demise before 12 weeks occurred in a case of monochorionic-triamniotic triplets. Percutaneous laser coagulation of the main intra-abdominal vessel was attempted at 17 weeks in two cases, with subsequent delivery after 34 weeks and perinatal survival of three of the four structurally normal fetuses. In the other two pregnancies which were managed expectantly, both were complicated by severe preterm delivery with perinatal survival of three of the four structurally normal fetuses. Overall, there were no survivors in one case, one twin survived in two cases, and two twins survived in the remaining two cases. None of the survivor had neurological sequelae. The presence of an acardiac fetus in a triplet pregnancy carries a high risk for poor pregnancy outcome, including fetal death and severe preterm labor. Prenatal intervention may be indicated in some cases, but does not prevent fetal death of the pump twin.
Tangren, Jessica Sheehan; Powe, Camille E; Ankers, Elizabeth; Ecker, Jeffrey; Bramham, Kate; Hladunewich, Michelle A; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Thadhani, Ravi
The effect of clinically recovered AKI (r-AKI) on future pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We retrospectively studied all women who delivered infants between 1998 and 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital to assess whether a previous episode of r-AKI associated with subsequent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including preeclampsia. AKI was defined as rise in serum creatinine concentration to 1.5-fold above baseline. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with r-AKI without history of CKD (eGFR>90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) before conception; n=105) with outcomes in women without kidney disease (controls; n=24,640). The r-AKI and control groups had similar prepregnancy serum creatinine measurements (0.70±0.20 versus 0.69±0.10 mg/dl; P=0.36). However, women with r-AKI had increased rates of preeclampsia compared with controls (23% versus 4%; P<0.001). Infants of women with r-AKI were born earlier than infants of controls (37.6±3.6 versus 39.2±2.2 weeks; P<0.001), with increased rates of small for gestational age births (15% versus 8%; P=0.03). After multivariate adjustment, r-AKI associated with increased risk for preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.6 to 9.7) and adverse fetal outcomes (aOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.7). When women with r-AKI and controls were matched 1:2 by age, race, body mass index, diastolic BP, parity, and diabetes status, r-AKI remained associated with preeclampsia (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 2.1 to 10.1) and adverse fetal outcomes (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.7). Thus, a past episode of AKI, despite return to normal renal function before pregnancy, associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
DaVanzo, J; Hale, L; Razzaque, A; Rahman, M
To estimate the effects on pregnancy outcomes of the duration of the preceding interpregnancy interval (IPI) and type of pregnancy outcome that began the interval. Observational population-based study. The Maternal Child Health-Family Planning (MCH-FP) area of Matlab, Bangladesh. A total of 66,759 pregnancy outcomes that occurred between 1982 and 2002. Bivariate tabulations and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Pregnancy outcomes (live birth, stillbirth, miscarriage [spontaneous fetal loss prior to 28 weeks], and induced abortion). When socio-economic and demographic covariates are controlled, of the IPIs that began with a live birth, those < 6 months in duration were associated with a 7.5-fold increase in the odds of an induced abortion (95% CI 6.0-9.4), a 3.3-fold increase in the odds of a miscarriage (95% CI 2.8-3.9), and a 1.6-fold increase in the odds of a stillbirth (95% CI 1.2-2.1) compared with 27- to 50-month IPIs. IPIs of 6-14 months were associated with increased odds of induced abortion (2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.6). IPIs > or = 75 months were associated with increased odds of all three types of non-live-birth (NLB) outcomes but were not as risky as very short intervals. IPIs that began with a NLB were generally more likely to end with the same type of NLB. Women whose pregnancies are between 15 and 75 months after a preceding pregnancy outcome (regardless of its type) have a lower likelihood of fetal loss than those with shorter or longer IPIs. Those with a preceding NLB outcome deserve special attention in counselling and monitoring.
Adolescents are at higher risk during childbirth than women between 20 to 25 years. Adolescent childbearing initiates a syndrome of failure: failure to complete one's education; failure in limiting family size; failure to establish a vocation and become independent. This study was done to find out the obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy along with factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. A prospective, cross sectional study was carried out in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMSTH), Bharatpur during the period for two years from September 2008 to August 2010. Pregnant girls ≤19 years admitted to labour ward were taken for the study. Cases planned for abortion and MTP were also taken. One hundred cases of pregnant teenagers were admitted in CMSTH during a period of two years. Incidence was 6.85%. In our study, most of the teenagers were unbooked, from low socioeconomic status and with no or inadequate education. They had little knowledge about contraception and less number of teenagers used temporary means of contraception. Because of our social custom of early marriage, most of the teenage mothers were married. All these factors were correlated with teenage pregnancy in present study. This study failed to show any statistically significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, LBW babies, preterm delivery, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, mode of delivery in different ages of teenage mothers. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of perinatal death in different ages of teenage mothers indicating that perinatal deaths were more in younger teenagers.
Fischer, Michael J
Chronic kidney disease complicates an increasing number of pregnancies, and at least 4% of childbearing-aged women are afflicted by this condition. Although diabetic nephropathy is the most common type of chronic kidney disease found in pregnant women, a variety of other primary and systemic kidney diseases also commonly occur. In the setting of mild maternal primary chronic kidney disease (serum creatinine <1.3 mg/dL) without poorly controlled hypertension, most pregnancies result in live births and maternal kidney function is unaffected. In cases of more moderate and severe maternal primary chronic kidney disease, the incidence of fetal prematurity, low birth weight, and death increase substantially, and the risk of accelerated irreversible decline in maternal kidney function, proteinuria, and hypertensive complications rise dramatically. In addition to kidney function, maternal hypertension and proteinuria portend negative outcomes and are important factors to consider when risk stratifying for fetal and maternal complications. In the setting of diabetic nephropathy and lupus nephropathy, other systemic disease features such as disease activity, the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, and glycemic control play important roles in determining pregnancy outcomes. Concomitant with advances in obstetrical management and kidney disease treatments, it appears that the historically dismal maternal and fetal outcomes have greatly improved.
Savitz, David A; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Thorp, John M; Kaczor, Diane T
Few studies have considered the differing impact of socioeconomic factors on pregnancy outcomes among racial subgroups. We assessed pregnancy outcome by race, education, and income (poverty index), using data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina, using binomial regression. Poverty was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only among African Americans with 12 or more years of education (RR=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2). White participants with both a low level of education and an income below the poverty line were at increased risk of preterm birth (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). White women with 12 or more years of education had increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA, defined as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age) associated with poverty status (RR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7). Socioeconomic indicators appear to have complex joint effect patterns among racial subgroups, perhaps because the material and psychological implications of education and income status differ between groups.
Gann, P; Nghiem, L; Warner, S
This study describes the perinatal characteristics of Cambodian refugees in Massachusetts. Data were abstracted from the records of 452 consecutive pregnancies among Cambodian women and 110 low-income Whites receiving obstetrical services at the same clinic and hospital in Lowell, Massachusetts. Pregnancies of Cambodian women were marked by a higher proportion of older mothers, grand multiparas, previous adverse birth outcomes, and short interpregnancy intervals. We identified maternal anemia (29.9 percent with hemoglobin less than 110 g/L) and inadequate utilization of prenatal care (32.3 percent with first visit in the 3rd trimester) as possible risk factors for the Cambodians. The prevalence of primary cesarean birth was only 6.3 percent in the Cambodians, compared to 15.6 percent in the comparison group, largely due to the infrequent occurrence of prolonged labor among multiparas. Despite the prominence of several risk factors for adverse birth outcomes in this population, major pregnancy complications were less common and the prevalence of low birthweight (6.4 percent) was close to the state average. Logistic regression analysis of risk factors for low birthweight identified young maternal age and short stature as the strongest factors operative in this community. Many of our findings are consistent with a strong cultural emphasis on managing the size of the baby to avoid a difficult labor and delivery. PMID:2764203
Shenoi, Rohit P; Koerner, Christine E; Cruz, Andrea T; Frost, Mary H; Jones, Jennifer L; Camp, Elizabeth A; Alam, Sartaj; Fraser, John J
The aims of the study were to determine factors associated with poor outcome in childhood swimming pool submersions and to study the association of bystander resuscitation with clinical outcome. This was a retrospective study of swimming pool submersion victims younger than 18 years in a metropolitan area from 2003 to 2007. Submersion, prehospital, and victim data were obtained from hospital, Emergency Medical Services, and fatality records. Outcome based on survival at hospital discharge was favorable (baseline/mild impairment) or poor (death/severe impairment). Logistic regression determined factors associated with poor outcome. There were 260 submersions. Outcomes were available for 211 (81%). The median age was 4 years; 68% were males. Most incidents occurred at single residential pools (48%) and multiresidential pools (35%). Mortality was 23%; 75% had favorable outcomes. Favorable outcomes occurred in 8.6% (3/35) of victims with absent pulse at the scene. Descriptive analyses revealed significant differences in submersions that occurred on weekdays, during the summer, submersions lasting 5 minutes or more, with on-scene apnea or cardiac arrest needing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, rescuer type, and transfer to tertiary care. Logistic regression revealed that poor outcome was significantly associated with prolonged submersions and those that occurred on a weekday. Furthermore, hospitalization reduced the odds of a poor outcome by 81% when compared with victims who were not hospitalized. Bystander resuscitation was not significantly associated with outcome. Childhood swimming pool submersions, which occur on weekdays and with prolonged submersion times, are associated with poor outcome. Bystander resuscitation is not significantly associated with outcome.
Awatef, Kelati; Salim, Gallouj; Zahra, Mernissi Fatima
There are only few case reports in the literature documenting outcome of pregnancy in patients with DM in contrast with those of other connective tissue diseases especially when dermatomyositis is revealed during pregnancy, most of the publications reported a poor prognosis for both the mother and the fetus, yet, in our case we confirmed the results of the rare recent cases that have tended to show a good outcome, after the treatment with glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy.
Zhu, Hai Bo; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Fadlalla, Elfateh; Wang, Rui Xue; Geng, Dong Feng; Liu, Rui Zhi
Clinical reproductive centers produce large amounts of surplus poor-quality embryos annually, how to maximize the use of these embryos, and which of them have the potential to develop into blastocyst stage and influencing factors were lack of systematic research. To investigate the fate of surplus poor-quality embryos which were cultured to obtain blastocyst, determine the factors which may influence the blastulation, and discuss their application in predicting of the pregnancy outcomes. Day 3 (D3) after embryo transfer and freezing, surplus poor-quality embryos from IVF/ICSI cycles were cultured to blastocyst by the sequential method, then the blastulation outcomes were observed. Focusing on the blastulation rate of those embryos with different number cells and different embryonic grade; and last the relationship between the pregnancy outcomes of remained poor-quality embryos with successful blastulation or failed blastulation groups were studied. Of 127 patients with 569 poor-quality in vitro cultured embryos, there were formation of 248 blastocysts from 91 patients (43.59%), which lead to development of 138 high-quality blastocysts (24.25%). With the increase in cells number of D 3 blastomeres, the blastulation rate gradually increased, that, 7-cell blastomeres blastulation rate was the highest (70.59%), and 8-cell blastomeres is a little below (70.37%); while the embryonic levels and blastulation rate did not show this positive relationship. The clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate of those who had successful blastulation (67.03% and 42.39%) were higher than of those who failed to develop to blastocyst (p=0.039). Day 3 poor-quality embryos with successful blastulation or with failed blastulation had predictive value on pregnancy outcomes. For embryo transfer 7-8 cells grade III-IV embryo is better than 4-5 cells grade I-II embryo, in case of lack good-quality embryos.
Brodsky, J.B.; Cohen, E.N.; Brown, B.W.; Wu, M.L.; Whitcher, C.
Information was sought on wives of dentists or female dental assistants who underwent surgery during their pregnancies to determine the effects of anesthesia and surgery on fetal outcome. Occupational exposure to inhalation anesthetics either directly (dental assistants) or indirectly (wives of exposed male dentists) was associated with a significant increase in spontaneous abortion rate over a comparison group during both trimesters. Anesthesia for surgery was also associated with increased fetal loss when administered during the first or second trimesters. The number of congenital abormalities in children born to women who had surgery during pregnancy was not increased. For women surgically exposed to anesthetics and occupationally exposed as well, either directly or indirectly, the risk of spontaneous abortion increased almost threefold above control lvels. The authors conclude that elective surgery should be deferred during early pregnanacy to minimize potential fetal loss.
Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Weisz, Boaz; Achiron, Reuven; Dulitzky, Mordechai
Summary Background To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of term macrosomic and adequate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all term singleton macrosomic (birth weight ≥4000 g) and AGA (birth weight >10th percentile and <4000 g) pregnancies delivered at our hospital between 2004 and 2008. Data collected included maternal age, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, fetal gender, maternal and neonatal complications. Comparisons were made between macrosomic and AGA pregnancies and between different severities of macrosomia (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g). Results The study population comprised of 34,685 pregnancies. 2077 neonates had birth weight ≥4000 g. Maternal age and gestational age at delivery were significantly higher for macrosomic neonates. Significantly more macrosomic neonates were born by cesarean section, and were complicated with shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and had longer hospitalization period (both in vaginal and cesarean deliveries). Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) relative to AGA pregnancies for each macrosomic category (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g) of shoulder dystocia was 2.37, 2.24, 7.61, respectively, and for neonatal hypoglycemia 4.24, 4.41, 4.15, respectively. The risk of post partum hemorrhage was statistically increased when birth weight was >4500 g (OR=5.23) but not for birth weight between 4000–4500 g. No differences were found in the rates of extensive perineal lacerations between AGA and the different macrosomic groups. Conclusions Macrosomia is associated with increased rate of cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and longer hospitalization, but not associated with excessive perineal tears. Increased risk of PPH was found in the >4500g group. PMID:22936200
Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Weidlich, Patrícia; Fiorini, Tiago; da Rocha, José Mariano; Musskopf, Marta Liliana; Susin, Cristiano; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker
This study was conducted to compare periodontal therapy outcomes during pregnancy and after delivery. One hundred nine pregnant women up to the 20th gestational week (GW) were randomized into two groups: the test group (comprehensive periodontal therapy during pregnancy) and the control group (comprehensive periodontal therapy after delivery). Periodontal examinations comprised plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), periodontal probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume. After baseline examination, women in the test group received periodontal treatment up to the 24th GW. The final examination was performed at the 26th to the 28th GW. Women in the control group were treated 30 days after delivery and reexamined 30 days after treatment. Periodontal therapy significantly reduced periodontal inflammation in both groups. The mean percentage of sites with BOP was reduced from 49.14 % (±22.49) to 11.10 % (±7.84) and from 45.71 % (±17.86) to 8.07 % (±5.21) in the test and control groups, respectively (p = 0.95). No statistically significant differences were observed between groups concerning PI, GI, PPD, CAL, and GCF. The reduction in mean percentage of sites with BOP stratified for initial PPD ≥4 mm was higher in the control group (p < 0.01), but no differences were seen regarding GCF in these sites. Hormonal changes during pregnancy do not interfere in treatment outcomes in women with widespread gingival inflammation and limited periodontal destruction. The role of these hormonal changes in pregnant women with different disease patterns remains uncertain. Periodontal health can be reestablished irrespective of the hormonal challenge that takes place during pregnancy.
Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yifeng; Zhang, Runjv; Wu, Yiqing; Huang, Yun; Liu, Feng; Li, Meigen; Sun, Saijun; Xing, Lanfeng; Zhu, Yimin; Chen, Yiyi; Xu, Li; Zhou, Liangbi; Huang, Hefeng; Zhang, Dan
This study was carried out to explore associations between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with similar outcomes following spontaneously conceived births. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies conceived by ART (N = 2641) during 2006–2014 compared to naturally conceived pregnancies (N = 5282) after matching for maternal age and birth year. Pregnancy complications, perinatal complications and neonatal outcomes of enrolled subjects were investigated and analysed by multivariate logistic regression. We found that pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with a significantly increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, placenta previa, placental abruption, preterm premature rupture of membranes, placental adherence, postpartum haemorrhage, polyhydramnios, preterm labour, low birth weight, and small-for-date infant compared with spontaneously conceived births. Pregnancies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) showed similar elevated complications, except some of the difference narrowed or disappeared. Singleton pregnancies or nulliparous pregnancies following ART still exhibited increased maternal and neonatal complications. Therefore, we conclude that pregnancies conceived following ART are at increased risks of antenatal complications, perinatal complications and poor neonatal outcomes, which may result from not only a higher incidence of multiple pregnancy, but also the manipulation involved in ART processes. PMID:27762324
Lee, Soo-Hyun; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee-Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup
The early and accurate antenatal diagnosis of fetal musculoskeletal malfomations with a poor outcome has important implications for the management of a pregnancy. Careful ultrasonographic examination of a fetus helps detect such anomalies, and a number of characteristic features may suggest possible differential diagnoses. During the last five years, we have encountered 39 cases of such anomalies, and the typical prenatal ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of a number of those are described in this article. PMID:12087201
Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Ager, Joel W; Greenwald, Mark K; Delaney-Black, Virginia
Detecting patterns of maternal drinking that place fetuses at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is critical to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention but is challenging because information on antenatal drinking collected during pregnancy is often insufficient or lacking. Although retrospective assessments have been considered less favored by many researchers due to presumed poor reliability, this perception may be inaccurate because of reduced maternal denial and/or distortion. The present study hypothesized that fetal alcohol exposure, as assessed retrospectively during child adolescence, would be related significantly to prior measures of maternal drinking and would predict alcohol-related behavioral problems in teens better than antenatal measures of maternal alcohol consumption. Drinking was assessed during pregnancy, and retrospectively about the same pregnancy, at a 14-year follow-up in 288 African-American women using well-validated semistructured interviews. Regression analysis examined the predictive validity of both drinking assessments on pregnancy outcomes and on teacher-reported teen behavior outcomes. Retrospective maternal self-reported drinking assessed 14 years postpartum was significantly higher than antenatal reports of consumption. Retrospective report identified 10.8 times more women as risk drinkers (≥ one drink per day) than the antenatal report. Antenatal and retrospective reports were moderately correlated and both were correlated with the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test. Self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy based on retrospective report identified significantly more teens exposed prenatally to at-risk alcohol levels than antenatal, in-pregnancy reports. Retrospective report predicted more teen behavior problems (e.g., attention problems and externalizing behaviors) than the antenatal report. Antenatal report predicted younger gestational age at birth and retrospective report predicted smaller birth size
ROSENGARD, CYNTHIA; PHIPPS, MAUREEN G.; ADLER, NANCY E.; ELLEN, JONATHAN M.
Purpose (a) To examine different methods of assessing pregnancy intention; (b) to identify psychosocial differences between those who indicate pregnancy intentions and those who do not; and (c) to examine the relationship between pregnancy intentions and subsequent pregnancy at 6-month follow-up in nonpregnant (at baseline), sexually experienced adolescent females. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of 354 sexually experienced female adolescents attending either a STD clinic or HMO adolescent medicine clinic in northern California. Student’s t-tests and regressions examined psychosocial differences between females who reported “any” and “no” pregnancy intentions. ANOVAs examined differences among different combinations of pregnancy plans/likelihood. Chi-square analyses assessed associations between baseline pregnancy intentions and subsequent pregnancy. Results Adolescents’ reports of their pregnancy plans and their assessments of pregnancy likelihood differed from one another (χ2 = 50.39, df = 1, p < .001). Pregnancy attitudes and baseline contraceptive use differentiated those with inconsistent pregnancy intentions (Not Planning, but Likely) from those with clear pregnancy intentions (Planning and Likely, and Not Planning and Not Likely) (Pregnancy Attitudes: F [2,338] = 68.96, p < .0001; Contraceptive Use: F [2,308] = 14.87, p < .0001). Suspected pregnancies and positive pregnancy test results were associated with baseline pregnancy intentions (Suspected: χ2 = 19.08, df = 2, p < .01; Positive Results: χ2 = 8.84, df = 2, p = .015). Conclusions To reduce adolescent childbearing we must assess pregnancy intentions in multiple ways. Information/education might benefit those female adolescents with inconsistent reports of pregnancy intentions. PMID:15581524
Corrado, F; Cannata, M L; La Galia, T; Magliarditi, M; Imbruglia, L; D'anna, R; Carlo Stella, N
To determine the institutional pregnancy complications rate associated with genetic amniocentesis and ascertain whether procedural variables or pre-existing factors may determine an increased risk of having a procedural-related fetal loss, we retrospectively evaluated all the consecutive amniocentesis, with known pregnancy outcome (n = 2990), performed between January 2001 and December 2009 by two very experienced clinicians. The patients who had counselling in the same period but declined to undergo amniocentesis represent the control group (n = 487). A total of 30 fetal losses occurred within 24 weeks' gestation (1%), while in the control group, we had four losses (0.8%). Procedural variables (transplacental sample, multiple needle insertions and gestational age) were not found to be predictive of increased fetal loss rate. Previous vaginal bleeding increased the risk of pregnancy loss after amniocentesis with an OR 4.1 (95% CI 2.0-8.7); on the contrary, a history of two or more miscarriages is not associated with a greater fetal loss rate, while the increased percentage (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.2-9.0) in patients affected by uterine myoma appears connected, after the comparison with the control group, with the presence of fibroids rather than procedure.
Sekiwunga, Richard; Whyte, Susan Reynolds
In Uganda teenage pregnancy is considered a problem for moral and social, as well as health, reasons. This qualitative stud,y in Busia District focused on the views of teenagers themselves as expressed in 9 focus group discussions with girls and boys. Their perspectives were contrasted with those of community leaders and mothers of adolescents. The young people blamed teenage pregnancy on failures of the parental generation. They asserted that parents and guardians were both too lenient and too harsh, that they failed to provide for their daughters' needs, and that they pressured them into early marriages instead of giving priority to education. Although poverty and family breakdown were recognized as underlying structural causes of parental failure, the teenagers experienced these factors in their everyday lives as problems with their parents and guardians. The teenagers expressed the 'enlightened' view that adolescent pregnancy was undesireable, even though many girls have few alternatives to marriage and childbearing.
Arnold, Suzanne V; Afilalo, Jonathan; Spertus, John A; Tang, Yuanyuan; Baron, Suzanne J; Jones, Philip G; Reardon, Michael J; Yakubov, Steven J; Adams, David H; Cohen, David J
A series of models have been developed to identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to help guide treatment choices, offer patients realistic expectations of long-term outcomes, and support decision making. This study examined the performance of the previously developed TAVR Poor Outcome risk models in an external dataset and explored the incremental contribution of geriatric domains to model performance. Poor outcome after TAVR was defined as death, poor quality of life (QOL), or decline in QOL, as assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. We tested 4 TAVR Poor Outcome risk models: 6-month and 1-year full and clinical (reduced) models. We examined each model's discrimination and calibration in the CoreValve trial dataset, and then tested the incremental contribution of frailty and disability markers to the model's discrimination using the incremental discrimination index. Among 2,830 patients who underwent TAVR in the CoreValve US Pivotal Extreme and High Risk trials and associated continued access registries, 31.2% experienced a poor outcome at 6 months following TAVR (death, 17.6%; very poor QOL, 11.6%; QOL decline, 2.0%) and 50.8% experienced a poor outcome at 1 year (death, 30.2%; poor QOL, 19.6%; QOL, decline 1.0%). The models demonstrated similar discrimination as in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves Trial cohorts (c-indexes, 0.637 to 0.665) and excellent calibration. Adding frailty as a syndrome increased the c-indexes by 0.000 to 0.004 (incremental discrimination index, p < 0.01 for all except the 1-year clinical model), with the most important individual components being disability and unintentional weight loss. Although discrimination of the TAVR Poor Outcome risk models was generally moderate, calibration was excellent among patients with different risk profiles and treated with a different TAVR device. These findings demonstrated the value of these models for
Wallace, Harriet E; Isitt, Catherine E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Perry, Alison E; Wilson, Janet D
Syphilis infection in pregnancy is known to cause a number of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes, including second-trimester miscarriage, stillbirth, very pre-term delivery and neonatal death, in addition to congenital syphilis. A retrospective review of women with positive syphilis serology and a pregnancy outcome between 2005 and 2012 in Leeds, UK, was performed. In all, 57 cases of positive syphilis serology in pregnancy were identified: 24 with untreated syphilis treated in the current pregnancy (Group 1); seven with reported but unconfirmed prior treatment who were retreated (Group 2); and 26 adequately treated prior to pregnancy (Group 3). The rate of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes in Group 1 at 21% was significantly higher than the 0% outcome of Group 3 (p = 0.02). The severe adverse pregnancy outcomes were two second-trimester miscarriages, two pre-term births at 25 and 28 weeks and one stillbirth at 32 weeks. There were no cases of term congenital syphilis or term neonatal death, but we observed high rates of other adverse pregnancy outcomes despite treatment during pregnancy. Rapid referral for treatment is needed before 18 weeks in order to minimise adverse pregnancy outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.
Latorre, Julius Gene S.; Lodi, Yahia; El-Zammar, Ziad; Devasenapathy, Ashok
Background: Vasospasm occurs in up to 70% of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), but only half becomes symptomatic. It is unclear whether asymptomatic vasospasm (AV) detected by noninvasive testing affects outcome. Prophylactic hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic (HHH) therapy is widely used but the benefit remains unproven. We aim to determine whether AV increases the risk of poor outcome and whether HHH is safe. Methods: A total of 175 consecutive patients with aSAH without clinical vasospasm were included. Patients with sonographic (transcranial doppler) or radiologic (computed tomography [CT] Angiography) vasospasm were assigned to AV group, while those without were assigned to no vasospasm (NV) group. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between AV and HHH on poor outcome, defined as modified Rankin scale (mRS) >3 at discharge or 3 to 6 months' follow-up. Results: In all, 106 patients had NV and 25 received HHH. A total of 69 patients had AV and 54 received HHH. Asymptomatic vasospasm compared to NV was not associated with poor outcome (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75-8.9; P = .1). Hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic use in patients with AV did not improve the outcome (OR 0.16, 95%CI: 0.009-2.84; P = .2). In patients with NV, HHH use showed trend toward poor outcome after multivariable adjustment (OR 12.6, 95%CI: 1.08-146.5 P = .04). Conclusion: Asymptomatic vasospasm does not appear to be associated with poor outcome in aSAH. Hemodilutional, hypertensive, and hypervolemic therapy in AV was not associated with improved outcome and may be harmful to patients who do not have vasospasm. Further research is needed to validate this finding. PMID:23983851
Edirne, Tamer; Can, Muhammet; Kolusari, Ali; Yildizhan, Recep; Adali, Ertan; Akdag, Beyza
To determine the proportion of adolescent births in Van, Turkey, and to identify characteristics and related outcomes. Mothers who gave birth at three maternity centers in Van, Turkey, were chosen randomly and were invited to complete a face-to-face questionnaire. Participants were asked for demographic information and pregnancy history. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the birth records. Of 1872 mothers who completed the questionnaires, 211 (11.3%) were younger than 19 years. Adolescent mothers showed significantly more inappropriate education for age (82.5% vs 70.1; P<0.001) and were married to less educated partners (76.3% vs 59.4%; P<0.001) following unofficial matrimonies (25.6% vs 10.7%; P<0.001) than older mothers. There were no differences between the age groups in rates of arranged marriages with relatives, income, and household structure. Adolescent mothers reported higher rates of intimate partner violence (17.1% vs 10.8%; P=0.008) and inadequate prenatal care use (28.4% vs 17.6%; P<0.001) compared with older mothers. Adolescent births were associated with an increased risk for preterm delivery (P<0.001) and low birth weight (P<0.001). Cultural factors rather than economic factors seem to be related to early age at marriage and adolescent childbearing, which are associated with poor birth outcomes. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Newcomer, Susan; Roesel, Rosalyn
Consists of two articles on teen pregnancy. Newcomer describes why pregnancy prevention programs do not always work and tells what must be done to make them more effective. She also discusses curriculum content. Roesel describes a program to serve adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy. (CH)
Çift, Tayfur; Korkmazer, Engin; Temur, Muzaffer; Bulut, Berk; Korkmaz, Bariş; Ozdenoğlu, Onur; Akaltun, Cem; Üstünyurt, Emin
In this study we aim to evaluate antenatal, perinatal and postnatal outcomes and complications of adolescent pregnancies, as well as to discuss the social and psychological consequences of these pregnancies. We compare a total of 243 pregnant women at age 14-18 years to a vast control group at age 19-36 who all delivered at Bursa Yüksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between years 2005-2014. Antenatal care (folic acid supplementation, pre-conception counseling) was significantly higher in adolescent pregnancy group. Unplanned pregnancy rate was significantly higher in in study group (p < 0.001). Preterm delivery (before 37th week) ratio was statistically higher in pregnancy complications. Adolescent pregnancy is a social entity which should be regulated and prevented by legal measures. Planned pregnancies should be promoted and the public should be educated and informed about the Hazards of adolescent pregnancies. Press institutions, public broadcasting services support the efforts to decrease adolescent pregnancies.
Jiang, Yang; McIntosh, Jennifer J.; Reese, Jessica A.; Deford, Cassandra C.; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A.; Lämmle, Bernhard; Terrell, Deirdra R.; Vesely, Sara K.; Knudtson, Eric J.
Pregnancy may precipitate acute episodes of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), but pregnancy outcomes in women who have recovered from acquired TTP are not well documented. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes following recovery from TTP associated with acquired, severe ADAMTS13 deficiency (ADAMTS13 activity <10%) in women enrolled in the Oklahoma TTP-HUS Registry from 1995 to 2012. We also systematically searched for published reports on outcomes of pregnancies following recovery from TTP associated with acquired, severe ADAMTS13 deficiency. Ten women in the Oklahoma Registry had 16 subsequent pregnancies from 1999 to 2013. Two women had recurrent TTP, which occurred 9 and 29 days postpartum. Five of 16 pregnancies (31%, 95% confidence interval, 11%-59%) in 3 women were complicated by preeclampsia, a frequency greater than US population estimates (2.1%-3.2%). Thirteen (81%) pregnancies resulted in normal children. The literature search identified 382 articles. Only 6 articles reported pregnancies in women who had recovered from TTP associated with acquired, severe ADAMTS13 deficiency, describing 10 pregnancies in 8 women. TTP recurred in 6 pregnancies. Conclusions: With prospective complete follow-up, recurrent TTP complicating subsequent pregnancies in Oklahoma patients is uncommon, but the occurrence of preeclampsia may be increased. Most pregnancies following recovery from TTP in Oklahoma patients result in normal children. PMID:24398329
There are several reasons why metformin treatment may be considered for women in neuropsychiatric practice. These include prevention or attenuation of antipsychotic-associated weight gain, prevention or treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improvement of conception chances and pregnancy outcomes in the presence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD). This article examines the benefits and risks associated with metformin use during pregnancy. The available data suggest that metformin exposure during the first trimester is not associated with major congenital malformations; that metformin reduces the risk of early pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and GDM in women with PCOD; that metformin is associated with at least comparable benefits relative to insulin treatment in women with mild GDM; and that neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 1.5-2.5 years are comparable after gestational exposure to metformin and insulin. Whereas study designs were not always ideal and sample sizes were mostly small to modest, the study findings are more encouraging than discouraging and can guide shared decision-making in women who are receiving or may need metformin during pregnancy.
Berti, C; Cetin, I; Agostoni, C; Desoye, G; Devlieger, R; Emmett, P M; Ensenauer, R; Hauner, H; Herrera, E; Hoesli, I; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Olsen, S F; Schaefer-Graf, U; Schiessl, B; Symonds, M E; Koletzko, B
Pregnancy is a complex period of human growth, development, and imprinting. Nutrition and metabolism play a crucial role for the health and well-being of both mother and fetus, as well as for the long-term health of the offspring. Nevertheless, several biological and physiological mechanisms related to nutritive requirements together with their transfer and utilization across the placenta are still poorly understood. In February 2009, the Child Health Foundation invited leading experts of this field to a workshop to critically review and discuss current knowledge, with the aim to highlight priorities for future research. This paper summarizes our main conclusions with regards to maternal preconceptional body mass index, gestational weight gain, placental and fetal requirements in relation to adverse pregnancy and long-term outcomes of the fetus (nutritional programming). We conclude that there is an urgent need to develop further human investigations aimed at better understanding of the basis of biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological events related to maternal-fetal nutrition and offspring health. An improved knowledge would help to optimize nutritional recommendations for pregnancy.
Soroye, M; Ayanbadejo, P; Savage, K; Oluwole, A
To evaluate the association between periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes like preterm birth and low birth weight. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by the subjects who attended the antenatal clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. Information obtained included; maternal age, gestational age, marital status, educational status, occupation and expected date of delivery. After delivery, the questionnaire was completed with baby's weight at birth and the actual date of delivery. Clinical assessment of the periodontium was done using Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Participants were divided into three groups: Test, Control I and Control II groups. Scaling and polishing were done for all patients with periodontal disease before (Test group) and after delivery (Control I). All Control II participants (those without periodontal disease) were given Oral hygiene instructions. Descriptive and comparative analyses were done using Epi info version 2008. Four hundred and fifty women received the questionnaire but the response rate was 94%, giving an actual sample size of 423 participants. Maternal age range was between 18 and 34 years with mean age of 29.67 (± 3.37). Gestational age at the point of recruitment was between 10 weeks and 26 weeks with mean of 23.34 (± 4.05). The prevalence of periodontal disease among the study group was 33.38%. About 71% of the participants attained tertiary level of education; only 0.7% had no formal education. There was 9.9% use of alcohol among the participants. The mean oral hygiene score for the participants was 1.94 (± 1.31). The prevalences for preterm deliveries, low birth weight and spontaneous abortion were 12.5%, 12.1% and 1.42% respectively. This study confirms periodontal disease as a probable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery and low birth weight. Therefore, health workers should be encouraged to promote good
Magann, Everett F; Chauhan, Suneet P; Dahlke, Joshua D; McKelvey, Samantha S; Watson, Erin M; Morrison, John C
To review flight regulations and gestational complications associated with air travel in pregnant passengers, flight attendants, and aviators. A literature search was undertaken on the relationship of air travel and spontaneous pregnancy losses, intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), birth weight<10th percentile, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. The literature search identified 128 abstracts, of which 9 evaluated air travel and pregnancy outcomes. The risk of a pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortion or IUFD) was greater in flight attendants than controls (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29, 2.04). The risk of preterm birth<37 weeks was greater in passengers than controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.93). However, the risk of preeclampsia (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.27), neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.82), or birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.62, 2.48) was not increased. Flight attendants did not have an increased risk of preterm birth compared to controls (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.22) or delivering infants with birth weight<10th percentile (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.68, 3.74). The risks of spontaneous abortions and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been poorly studied in a limited number of investigations. An analysis of the available information suggests a greater risk of spontaneous abortions or IUFD in flight attendants, and a greater risk of preterm birth<37 weeks in air passengers. However, the literature on which these findings are based is generally not of high methodologic quality.
Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yue; Patel, Pruthvi
Hepatic amyloidosis is a rare disease entity that results from insoluble amyloid protein deposition in the liver. The disease often presents with vague, nonspecific clinical features. Currently, there is little literature describing treatment outcomes for biopsy-proven hepatic amyloidosis and current treatment guidelines recommend that patients enroll in a clinical trial due to insufficient evidence to suggest an optimal treatment regimen. Here, we present two cases of hepatic amyloidosis at an academic medical center and describe their presentation, treatment, and outcomes. These cases highlight the poor outcomes and difficult management of hepatic amyloidosis. Further understanding and investigation of this rare disease are warranted. PMID:27774327
Hill, Lauren E.; Jepsen, Christopher
A vast body of research finds an association between missteps taken during the teen years (such as motherhood or dropping out of high school) and poor economic and educational outcomes. However, youth who take major missteps as teens often have subsequent success in school or the labor market. This paper attempts to draw lessons from youth who…
Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; David T. Butry; Amy D. Sullivan; John M. Chase
This paper investigated whether greater tree-canopy cover is associated with reduced risk of poor birth outcomes in Portland, Oregon. Residential addresses were geocoded and linked to classified-aerial imagery to calculate tree-canopy cover in 50, 100, and 200 m buffers around each home in our sample (n=5696). Detailed data on maternal characteristics and additional...
Amer, Nuzhat; Amer, Muhammad; Kolkaila, Mohamed Abdoh; Yaqoob, Shahida
To find out the outcome of a cohort of women with pregnancy of unknown location presenting to a tertiary care hospital. The prospective study was conducted from January to December, 2011, at Early Pregnancy Assessment Unit, King Faisal Military Hospital, Khamis Mushait, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected for women with early pregnancy or with history of amenorrhoea, bleeding or pain. These women were investigated with serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels twice weekly and transvaginal ultrasonography weekly. Expectant management was done for failing pregnancy of unknown location while medical or surgical management was considered for persistent pregnancy of unknown location and ectopic pregnancy. During study period, 7215 patients were admitted, and, of them, 2212(30.6%) were patients with early pregnancy. Meeting the inclusion criteria were 183(2.53%) patients who formed the study sample. There were 131(71.6%) patients presenting with amenorrhoea, 90(49.2%) had bleeding and 93(50.8%) presented with pain. Outcome of 100(54.6%) patients was failing pregnancy of unknown location, 58(31.7%) had intrauterine pregnancy, 14(7.7%) converted to ectopic pregnancy, while 11(6%) had persistent pregnancy of unknown location. All patients with persistent pregnancy of unknown location and 5(36%) patients with ectopic pregnancy were medically treated. Five (36%) patients having ectopic pregnancy were managed surgically. Management of choice for asymptomatic patients having pregnancy of unknown location is expectant management. Most of the patients suspected to have Most of the patients with persistent pregnancy of unknown location and ectopic pregnancy can be managed medically.
Shah, Monisha K; Gee, Rebekah E; Theall, Katherine P
Despite hypothesized relationships between lack of partner support during a woman's pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, few studies have examined partner support among teens. We examined a potential proxy measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and pregnancy loss) among women who have had a teenage pregnancy in the United States. In a secondary data analysis utilizing cross-sectional data from 5609 women who experienced a teen pregnancy from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we examined an alternative measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess differences in women who were teens at time of conception who had partner support during their pregnancy and those who did not, and their birth outcomes. Even after controlling for potential confounding factors, women with a supportive partner were 63% less likely to experience LBW [aOR: 0.37, 95% CI: (0.26-0.54)] and nearly 2 times less likely to have pregnancy loss [aOR: 0.48, 95% CI: (0.32-0.72)] compared to those with no partner support. Having partner support or involvement during a teenager's pregnancy may reduce the likelihood of having a poor birth outcome. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shah, Monisha K.; Gee, Rebekah E.; Theall, Katherine P.
Purpose Despite hypothesized relationships between lack of partner support during a woman’s pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, few studies have examined partner support among teens. We examined a potential proxy measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and pregnancy loss) among women who have had a teenage pregnancy in the United States. Methods In a secondary data analysis utilizing cross-sectional data from 5609 women who experienced a teen pregnancy from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we examined an alternative measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess differences in women who were teens at time of conception who had partner support during their pregnancy and those who did not, and their birth outcomes. Results Even after controlling for potential confounding factors, women with a supportive partner were 63% less likely to experience LBW [aOR: 0.37, 95% CI: (0.26 - 0.54)] and nearly two times less likely to have pregnancy loss [aOR: 0.48, 95% CI: (0.32-0.72)] compared to those with no partner support. Conclusions Having partner support or involvement during a teenager’s pregnancy may reduce the likelihood of having a poor birth outcome. PMID:24316120
Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients’ characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy. PMID:27442513
Ku, Ming; Guo, Shuiming; Shang, Weifeng; Li, Qing; Zeng, Rui; Han, Min; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that primarily affects women during their reproductive years. The interaction between SLE and pregnancy remains debated. The objective of this study was to analyze the fetal and maternal outcomes of Chinese women with SLE. A total of 109 pregnancies in 83 SLE patients from June 2004 to June 2014 at a tertiary university hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Patients' characteristics, clinical and laboratory data during pregnancy were obtained from electronic medical records. After exclusion of elective abortions, the live birth rate was 61.5%. Significantly, APS (antiphospholipid syndrome), disease activity, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia during pregnancy were more commonly observed in fetal loss pregnancies than in live birth pregnancies. Compared to the 64 women with a history of SLE, 19 women with new-onset lupus during pregnancy had worse pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, the 64 patients with a history of SLE were divided into lupus nephritis group and SLE group (non-renal involvement). We found that the lupus nephritis group had worse maternal outcome than the SLE group. We conclude that new-onset lupus during pregnancy predicts both adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, while a history of lupus nephritis predicts adverse maternal outcomes. It is essential to provide SLE women with progestational counseling and regular multispecialty care during pregnancy.
Buhary, Badurudeen Mahmood; Almohareb, Ohoud; Aljohani, Naji; Alzahrani, Saad H.; Elkaissi, Samer; Sherbeeni, Suphia; Almaghamsi, Abdulrahman; Almalki, Mussa
Context: Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) is either pregestational or gestational. Aims: To determine the relationship between glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of DIP patients. Settings and Design: In this 12-month retrospective study, a total of 325 Saudi women with DIP who attended the outpatient clinics at a tertiary center Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included. Subjects and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups, those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤6.5% (48 mmol/mol) and those with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) above 6.5%. The two groups were compared for differences in maternal and fetal outcomes. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent Student's t-test and analysis of variance were performed for comparison of continuous variables and Chi-square test for frequencies. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression. Results: Patients with higher HbA1c were older (P = 0.0077), had significantly higher blood pressure, proteinuria (P < 0.0001), and were multiparous (P = 0.0269). They had significantly shorter gestational periods (P = 0.0002), more preterm labor (P < 0.0001), more perineal tears (P = 0.0406), more miscarriages (P < 0.0001), and more operative deliveries (P < 0.0001). Their babies were significantly of greater weight, had more Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admissions, hypoglycemia, and macrosomia. Conclusions: Poor glycemic control during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes (shortened gestational period, greater risk of miscarriage, increased likelihood of operative delivery, hypoglycemia, macrosomia, and increased NICU admission). Especially at risk are those with preexisting diabetes, who would benefit from earlier diabetes consultation and tighter glycemic control before conception. PMID:27366714
Several environmental factors affect the fetus and thereby the outcome of pregnancy. Recent studies have confirmed a relation between stress and pregnancy outcome; furthermore they have indicated that biological measures of stress may predict risk of complications. Altered sex ratio may be an interesting way of measuring the effect of stress during pregnancy. Stress and work load during pregnancy seem to be related to time until conception and to becoming pregnant through assisted reproduction. Drinking large amounts of alcohol is hazardous, but drinking one drink per day appears to be safe. The effect of passive smoking continues to be a matter of debate.
Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wang, Xing-Chen; Cao, Du; Zhu, Dan; Lv, Fa-Jin; Liu, Yang; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Gang; Xiong, Xin; Li, Rui; Hu, Yun-Xin; Qin, Xin-Yue; Xie, Peng
Blend sign has been recently described as a novel imaging marker that predicts hematoma expansion. The purpose of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of CT blend sign in patients with ICH. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent baseline CT scan within 6 hours were included. The presence of blend sign on admission nonenhanced CT was independently assessed by two readers. The functional outcome was assessed by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. Blend sign was identified in 40 of 238 (16.8%) patients on admission CT scan. The proportion of patients with a poor functional outcome was significantly higher in patients with blend sign than those without blend sign (75.0% versus 47.5%, P = 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, intraventricular hemorrhage, admission GCS score, baseline hematoma volume and presence of blend sign on baseline CT independently predict poor functional outcome at 90 days. The CT blend sign independently predicts poor outcome in patients with ICH (odds ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval [1.47-8.89];p = 0.005). Early identification of blend sign is useful in prognostic stratification and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for prospective interventional studies.
Vinturache, Angela; Moledina, Nadia; McDonald, Sheila; Slater, Donna; Tough, Suzanne
Worldwide there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Growing evidence suggests that maternal overweight and obesity is associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity on pregnancy, labour and delivery outcomes in a cohort of women with term, singleton pregnancies cared for by family physicians in community based practices. This study is a secondary analysis of the All Our Babies Cohort, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported data on height and pre-pregnancy weight from term, singleton, cephalic pregnancies (n = 1996) were linked to clinical data on pregnancy and birth events retrieved from electronic health records. Descriptive and bivariate regression analysis were used to compare pregnancy and birth outcomes between women categorized as normal weight, overweight and obese based on the pre-pregnancy BMI. Multinomial regression analysis stratified by type of labour onset examined the association between pre-pregnancy BMI and mode of delivery controlling for maternal age, pre-existent health conditions, parity, fertility treatments, history of C-section and pregnancy complications. The cohort consisted of 65.8% normal weight, 23.6% overweight and 10.6% obese women. Women with increased pre-pregnancy BMI were more likely to develop pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia (OR 3.5, CI 2.0-4.6 for overweight; OR 5.3, CI 3.3-8.5 for obese) and gestational diabetes (OR 3.0, CI 1.8-5.0 for overweight; OR 6.5, CI 3.7-11.2 for obese) than normal weight women. Spontaneous onset of labour was recorded in 71.2% of women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, whereas 39.3% of overweight and 49% of obese women had their labour induced. For women with spontaneous labour, pre-pregnancy BMI was not a significant risk factor for mode of delivery, controlling for covariates. Among
Vega, Luis E; Espinoza, Luis R
It is important to recognize factors that might predict poor outcome and prognosis in patients with AAV. The predictors reported in the literature encompass genetic, histopathological, and clinical ones. Genetic studies (genetic predictors) have found genes that are associated with prediction of poor response to treatment, deterioration of renal function, and risk of mortality. Histopathological studies (histopathological predictors) have shown that sclerotic renal lesions are associated with increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and death. Lastly, scores (clinical predictors) obtained with tool as FFS, Maldini risk score, VDI, and emerging new biomarkers could potentially be helpful in assessment of prognosis in the future.
Di Cianni, G; Torlone, E; Lencioni, C; Bonomo, M; Di Benedetto, A; Napoli, A; Vitacolonna, E; Mannino, D; Lapolla, A
Insulin glargine (IG), with its non-peaking action profile, might be useful in diabetic pregnancy. However, data on its safety are limited and its use during pregnancy is not recommended. This study focused on the effects of IG on perinatal outcome, particularly to estimate the rate of congenital anomalies and birthweight. This retrospective study included women with pre-gestational diabetes who used IG before (at least 1 month) and during pregnancy. For all women we recorded data regarding maternal glycaemic control and pregnancy outcome. We also compared women treated with IG throughout pregnancy and women who stopped taking IG at an earlier stage. From 27 centres, 107 Type 1 diabetic pregnancies were identified. IG was started 10.3 +/- 6.9 months before conception and in 57.4% of cases was stopped during the first trimester; 42.6% of women continued using it until the end of pregnancy. There were six abortions (four spontaneous and two induced) and five newborns (4.9%) with congenital anomalies. Glycaemic control, birthweight and the prevalence of macrosomia and neonatal morbidity were similar in women who used IG for the full term compared with those who stopped IG earlier during pregnancy. This study, although limited, suggests that IG is safe and effective; the rate of congenital malformations was within the range expected for diabetic pregnancies treated with more traditional forms of insulin. IG used throughout pregnancy did not seem to influence birthweight or increase adverse outcomes.
Shields, Kristine E; Wiholm, Bengt-Erik; Hostelley, Linda S; Striano, Linda F; Arena, Sam R; Sharrar, Robert G
Women who discover they are pregnant after exposure to a drug and pregnant women who have a condition that requires continued treatment during pregnancy are told to balance the benefits and risks of the exposure to justify continuation of treatment, discontinuation of treatment or, possibly, pregnancy termination. However, there are limited data available to inform decision-making. The Merck Pregnancy Registry Program is a company-run pregnancy registry whose objective is to acquire and analyse information on drug exposures and pregnancy outcomes to better describe the safety profile of Merck products used during pregnancy. Information is collected from women and healthcare providers who call to report drug exposure during pregnancy. Prospective pregnancies are followed up to outcome and data are collected via questionnaires, telephone calls and a review of medical records. Reports are classified as prospective (information received prior to knowledge of pregnancy outcome) or retrospective (received after the outcome is known). Congenital anomaly reports are assessed for timing of exposure, maternal age and medical history, biological plausibility and concomitant medication exposures. Rates of pregnancy outcomes and birth defects in the prospective cohort are computed and confidence intervals are calculated to reflect the strength of the finding based on the sample size. Rates of pregnancy outcomes in the Pregnancy Registry are compared with the rates of pregnancy outcomes in the general US population and, if available, in subpopulations with the relevant disease states. The limitations of post-marketing surveillance are well known as voluntary reporting of individuals and healthcare professionals is known to be subject to various types of bias. Small sample size is another major limitation. However, the strength of the registry lies in its ability to gather pregnancy outcome reports early in the life of a product and to recognise and analyse unusual birth defects
Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise
Examined determinants of occurrence and outcomes of premarital pregnancy. Found cohabitation, being black, poor grades and high peer activity in high school, use of illicit drugs other than marijuana and dropping out to be associated with increased risk of premarital pregnancy. Premarital births were overrepresented among blacks, as were abortions…
Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise
Examined determinants of occurrence and outcomes of premarital pregnancy. Found cohabitation, being black, poor grades and high peer activity in high school, use of illicit drugs other than marijuana and dropping out to be associated with increased risk of premarital pregnancy. Premarital births were overrepresented among blacks, as were abortions…
Saavedra, Miguel A; Cruz-Reyes, Claudia; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Romero, Griselda T; Cruz-Cruz, Polita; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Jara, Luis J
Previous reports suggest that renal involvement before pregnancy or active renal disease during pregnancy may be associated with poor fetal and maternal outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) women. We report our experience of fetal and maternal complications in pregnant lupus women with and without previous lupus nephritis. We analyzed the clinical records of pregnant SLE patients attended in a tertiary reference center during a 5-year period. Patients were allocated into two groups according to the presence or absence of previous lupus nephritis. Women were evaluated monthly during pregnancy and at least 1 month postpartum. Maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy were abstracted. We included 95 pregnancies in 92 patients. Compared with pregnant women without lupus nephritis (n = 60), pregnancies with previous lupus nephritis (n = 35) were associated with a higher risk of maternal complications (88.5% vs. 43.3%, p = 0.00001), higher rate of lupus flares (54.2% vs. 25%, p = 0.004), and renal flares (45.7% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.00001), but most of which in most instances were reversible. On the other hand, fetal outcome was similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that previous lupus nephritis and active lupus at conception were predictors of adverse maternal outcome. Pregnancies in women with previous lupus nephritis had a higher rate of maternal complications in comparison with those without. However, fetal prognosis was similar in both groups.
Iklaki, C U; Inaku, J U; Ekabua, J E; Ekanem, E I; Udo, A E
Background. Teenage pregnancy being a high risk condition requires skilled attention for good outcome. Objectives. To determine the influence of antenatal care on perinatal outcome in teenage pregnancies in Calabar. Materials and Methods. A review of patient records in Calabar was conducted between 1st January, 2006 and 31st December, 2010, to determine perinatal outcome in teenage pregnancy. Results. Teenage pregnancy accounted for 644 (6.5%) of the total deliveries with 245 (38.0%) booked while 399 (62.0%) were unbooked. Teenage mothers contributed significantly to the proportion of women who were delivered without prior antenatal care (χ(2) = 6.360; P < 0.05). The mean duration of labour in booked teenagers was 10.85 ± 4.2 hours, while unbooked teenagers was 23.31 ± 3.6 hours (t-value = 77.1039; P < 0.05). There was statistically more caesarean sections among unbooked teenage pregnancies than booked (χ(2) = 36.75; P < 0.05). Stillbirth was statistically significant (χ(2) = 27.096; P < 0.05) among unbooked teenagers than booked. However, early neonatal death was not significantly different between booked and unbooked teenage pregnancies(χ(2) = 0.512; P < 0.05). Conclusion. Unbooked teenage pregnancies were significantly associated with increased operative intervention and poor perinatal outcome.
Mcconnell, D.; Mayes, R.; Llewellyn, G.
Background: An increasing number of women with intellectual disability (ID) have children. Cross-sectional, clinical population data suggest that these women face an increased risk of delivering preterm and/or low birthweight babies. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of poor pregnancy and birth outcomes in women with ID and/or…
Mcconnell, D.; Mayes, R.; Llewellyn, G.
Background: An increasing number of women with intellectual disability (ID) have children. Cross-sectional, clinical population data suggest that these women face an increased risk of delivering preterm and/or low birthweight babies. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of poor pregnancy and birth outcomes in women with ID and/or…
Hall, Jennifer A; Benton, Lorna; Copas, Andrew; Stephenson, Judith
Introduction Previous systematic reviews concluded that rigorous research on the relationships between pregnancy intentions and pregnancy outcomes is limited. They further noted that most studies were conducted in high-income countries and had methodological limitations. We aim to assess the current evidence base for the relationship between pregnancy intention and miscarriage, stillbirth, low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal mortality. In March 2015 Embase, PubMed, Scopus and PsychInfo were searched for studies investigating the relationship between pregnancy intention and the outcomes of interest. Methods Studies published since 1975 and in English, French or Spanish were included. Two reviewers screened titles and abstracts, read the full text of identified articles and extracted data. Meta-analyses were conducted where possible. Results Thirty-seven studies assessing the relationships between pregnancy intention and LBW were identified. A meta-analysis of 17 of these studies found that unintended pregnancies are associated with 1.41 times greater odds of having a LBW baby (95%CI 1.31, 1.51). Eight studies looking at miscarriage, stillbirth or neonatal death were found. The limited data concerning pregnancy loss and neonatal mortality precluded meta-analysis but suggest these outcomes may be more common in unintended pregnancies. Discussion While there seems to be an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in unintended pregnancies, there has been little improvement in either the quantity of evidence from low-income countries or in the quality of evidence generally. Longitudinal studies of pregnancy intention and pregnancy outcome, where pregnancy intention is assessed prospectively with a validated measure and where analyses include confounding or mediating factors, are required in both high- and low-income countries.
Sharpe, T T
A sample of 34 poor Black women who exchanged sex for crack was screened to discover if sex-for-crack exchanges resulted in pregnancies. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with women who became pregnant this way. Out of the 34 women, 18 reported sex-for-crack pregnancies, and more than half of that number became pregnant this way more than once. Twenty-nine pregnancies were reported. Only 2 women chose to have abortions. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analytical procedures. The following three issues shaped the women's responses to sex-for-crack pregnancies: (a) severity of crack use, (b) religious beliefs, and (c) social organization patterns within poor Black communities. The findings have implications for drug treatment and child welfare policy.
Ideguchi, Haruko; Ohno, Shigeru; Uehara, Takeaki; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is mainly a disease of fertile women and the coexistence of pregnancy is by no means a rare event. How SLE and its treatment affect pregnancy outcomes is still a matter of debate. We performed a retrospective analysis of 41 SLE patients (55 pregnancies) who were followed at our university hospital from January 2000 to December 2009. The mean age of patients was 30.6±4.8 years and mean disease duration was 6.6±5.3 years. After exclusion of artificial abortions, live birth rate was 84%. Significantly, more women with stillbirth pregnancies were complicated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) than women with live birth pregnancies (two of eight stillbirth pregnancies (25%) versus one of 42 live birth pregnancies (2%); p=0.014) and hypocomplementemia at conception (four of eight stillbirth pregnancies (50%) versus six of 42 live birth pregnancies (14%); p=0.021). Compared with nonrenal pregnancies, renal pregnancies were younger at SLE disease onset, had a lower positivity of anti-RNP antibody, and were more complicated with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Past maximum dose of prednisolone, the dose of prednisolone at conception, and percentage of past steroid pulse therapy were higher in renal pregnancies. Outcomes of pregnancies were not significantly different both for mothers and for infants between renal and nonrenal pregnancies. We conclude that it is necessary to provide SLE mothers with the proper information before pregnancy. Women with APS or hypocomplementemia should be regarded with particular attention. Optimal management of mothers and infants requires collaborative efforts of rheumatologists and obstetricians.
Kramer, Michael S; Zhang, Xun; Platt, Robert W
Approaches for analyzing the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes have been the source of much debate and many publications. Much of the problem, in our view, is the conflation of time at risk with gestational age at birth (or birth weight, a proxy for gestational age). We consider the causal questions underlying such analyses with the help of a generic directed acyclic graph. We discuss competing risks and populations at risk in the context of appropriate numerators and denominators, respectively. We summarize 3 different approaches to quantifying risks with respect to gestational age, each of which addresses a distinct etiological or prognostic question (i.e., cumulative risk, prospective risk, or instantaneous risk (hazard)) and suggest the appropriate denominators for each. We show how the gestational age-specific risk of perinatal death (PND) can be decomposed as the product of the gestational age-specific risk of birth and the risk of PND conditional on birth at a given gestational age. Finally, we demonstrate how failure to consider the first of these 2 risks leads to selection bias. This selection bias creates the well-known crossover paradox, thus obviating the need to posit common causes of early birth and PND other than the study exposure.
Ferraro, Zachary M; Contador, Fernanda; Tawfiq, Afaf; Adamo, Kristi B
This narrative review discusses gestational weight gain (GWG) and medical outcomes of pregnancy, including metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychiatric systems. Taken as a whole, the available evidence shows that excessive GWG increases the risk of all medical complications of pregnancy, and negatively impacts the long-term health and weight of both mothers and their offspring. Briefly, interventions to encourage appropriate GWG are discussed and readers are directed to resources to facilitate discussion of pregnancy weight. PMID:27512468
Shimoda, Yoshiteru; Ohtomo, Satoru; Arai, Hiroaki; Okada, Ken; Tominaga, Teiji
The presence of high-density starry dots around the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which we termed as a satellite sign, is occasionally observed in CT. The relationship between ICH with a satellite sign and its functional outcome has not been identified. This study aimed to determine whether the presence of a satellite sign could be an independent prognostic factor for patients with ICH. Patients with acute spontaneous ICH were retrospectively identified and their initial CT scans were reviewed. A satellite sign was defined as scattered high-density lesions completely separate from the main hemorrhage in at least the single axial slice. Functional outcome was evaluated using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome was defined as mRS scores of 3-6. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to assess the presence of a satellite sign and its association with poor functional outcome. A total of 241 patients with ICH were enrolled in the study. Of these, 98 (40.7%) had a satellite sign. Patients with a satellite sign had a significantly higher rate of poor functional outcome (95.9%) than those without a satellite sign (55.9%, p < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that higher age (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.10; p = 0.00016), large hemorrhage size (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.11; p = 0.00015), and ICH with a satellite sign (OR 13.5; 95% CI 4.42-53.4; p < 0.0001) were significantly related to poor outcome. A satellite sign was significantly related with higher systolic blood pressure (p = 0.0014), higher diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0117), shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (p = 0.0427), higher rate of intraventricular bleeding (p < 0.0001), and larger main hemorrhage (p < 0.0001). The presence of a satellite sign in the initial CT scan is associated with a significantly worse functional outcome in ICH patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Prasannan, Lakha; Blitz, Matthew J.; Rabin, Jill M.
Introduction Acute myocardial infarction (MI) in pregnancy is a rare event, usually occurring late in gestation, either in the third trimester or in the puerperium. It is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although diagnosis and management of MI in pregnancy has been discussed in the literature, management of pregnancy following an early antepartum MI, which may have more consequences for the fetus, has not received as much attention. Case A 38-year-old great grand multiparous woman presented to the emergency department complaining of acute onset chest pain. The patient had a history of chronic hypertension and was an active smoker. She was incidentally found to be 5 weeks pregnant. She was diagnosed with an acute MI, which was treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Her subsequent pregnancy course was complicated by poorly controlled chronic hypertension, but she ultimately delivered a healthy newborn at 36 weeks of gestational age. Conclusion Good pregnancy outcomes are possible after early antepartum MI, especially with early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and a multidisciplinary team approach to prenatal care. Delivery should occur in a tertiary referral center with experience managing high-risk obstetric patients with cardiac disease. PMID:27551581
Sharma, S K; Nehra, A; Sinha, S; Soneja, M; Sunesh, K; Sreenivas, V; Vedita, D
Sleep disturbances such as insomnia, nocturnal awakenings, restless legs syndrome, habitual snoring, and excessive daytime sleepiness are frequent during pregnancy, and these have been linked to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A prospective observational study was performed in high-risk Indian pregnant women. We used modified Berlin questionnaire (MBQ), Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group 2011 criteria, and Epworth sleepiness scale to diagnose various sleep disorders, such as symptomatic OSA, poor sleep quality and insomnia, RLS, and excessive daytime sleepiness, respectively, in successive trimesters of pregnancy. Outcome variables of interest were development of gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and cesarean delivery (CS); the Apgar scores; and low birth weight (LBW). The relationship between sleep disorders and outcomes was explored using logistic regression analysis. Outcome data were obtained in 209 deliveries. As compared to nonsnorers, women who reported snoring once, twice, and thrice or more had odds ratios for developing GH-4.0 (95 % CI 1.3-11.9), 1.5 (95 % CI 0.5-4.5), and 2.9 (95 % CI 1.0-8.2) and for undergoing CS-5.3 (95 % CI 1.7-16.3), 4.9 (95 % CI 1.8-13.1), and 5.1 (95 % CI 1.9-14.9), respectively. Pregnant women who were persistently positive on MBQ had increased odds for GH and CS. Snoring and high-risk MBQ in pregnant women are strong risk factors for GH and CS. In view of the significant morbidity and health care costs, simple screening of pregnant women with questionnaires such as MBQ may have clinical utility.
Fonseca, Ana Glória
Thromboembolic disease and obstetric complications related to ischemia of the placenta are currently the major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Thrombophilia been implicated in their aetiology and the magnitude of the risk depends on the type of thrombophilia. As the evidence is still unclear and controversial, questions about the clinical management of pregnant women with thrombophilia are a daily issue. We aim to review, bearing in mind the consensus and controversies, the impact of inherited thrombophilia in the risk of thrombosis related to pregnancy and of obstetric complications. Moreover, the diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic approach during pregnancy and puerperium, including the role of antithrombotic pharmacopoeia available, will be discussed.
Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Attini, Rossella; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Maxia, Stefania; Lepori, Nicola; Tuveri, Milena; Massidda, Marco; Marchi, Cecilia; Mura, Silvia; Coscia, Alessandra; Biolcati, Marilisa; Gaglioti, Pietro; Nichelatti, Michele; Pibiri, Luciana; Chessa, Giuseppe; Pani, Antonello; Todros, Tullia
CKD is increasingly prevalent in pregnancy. In the Torino-Cagliari Observational Study (TOCOS), we assessed whether the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes is associated with CKD by comparing pregnancy outcomes of 504 pregnancies in women with CKD to outcomes of 836 low-risk pregnancies in women without CKD. The presence of hypertension, proteinuria (>1 g/d), systemic disease, and CKD stage (at referral) were assessed at baseline. The following outcomes were studied: cesarean section, preterm delivery, and early preterm delivery; small for gestational age (SGA); need for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); new onset of hypertension; new onset/doubling of proteinuria; CKD stage shift; "general" combined outcome (preterm delivery, NICU, SGA); and "severe" combined outcome (early preterm delivery, NICU, SGA). The risk for adverse outcomes increased across stages (for stage 1 versus stages 4-5: "general" combined outcome, 34.1% versus 90.0%; "severe" combined outcome, 21.4% versus 80.0%; P<0.001). In women with stage 1 CKD, preterm delivery was associated with baseline hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 3.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.87 to 6.21), systemic disease (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.51 to 6.50), and proteinuria (OR, 3.69; 95% CI, 1.63 to 8.36). However, stage 1 CKD remained associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes (general combined outcome) in women without baseline hypertension, proteinuria, or systemic disease (OR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.79). The risk of intrauterine death did not differ between patients and controls. Findings from this prospective study suggest a "baseline risk" for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes linked to CKD.
Heitmann, Kristine; Nordeng, Hedvig; Holst, Lone
Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes. The study is based on data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study including more than 100,000 pregnancies from 1999 to 2008. Information on use of cranberry and socio-demographic factors was retrieved from three self-administered questionnaires completed by the women in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Among the 68,522 women in the study, 919 (1.3%) women had used cranberry while pregnant. We did not detect any increased risk of congenital malformations after use of cranberry. Furthermore, the use of cranberry was also not associated with increased risk for stillbirth/neonatal death, low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, low Apgar score (<7), neonatal infections or maternal vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Although an association was found between use of cranberry in late pregnancy and vaginal bleeding after pregnancy week 17, further sub-analyses of more severe bleeding outcomes did not support a significant risk. The findings of this study, revealing no increased risk of malformations nor any of the following pregnancy outcomes; stillbirth/neonatal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age, low Apgar score and neonatal infections are reassuring. However, maternal vaginal bleeding should be investigated further before any firm conclusion can be drawn. Treatment guidelines on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy recommend antimicrobial therapy as the first line treatment
Banjari, Ines; Kenjerić, Daniela; Šolić, Krešimir; Mandić, Milena L
Considering specific physiology changes during gestation and thinking of pregnancy as a "critical window", classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy can be considered as crucial. The paper demonstrates the use of a method based on an approach from intelligent data mining, cluster analysis. Cluster analysis method is a statistical method which makes possible to group individuals based on sets of identifying variables. The method was chosen in order to determine possibility for classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy to analyze unknown correlations between different variables so that the certain outcomes could be predicted. 222 pregnant women from two general obstetric offices' were recruited. The main orient was set on characteristics of these pregnant women: their age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin value. Cluster analysis gained a 94.1% classification accuracy rate with three branch- es or groups of pregnant women showing statistically significant correlations with pregnancy outcomes. The results are showing that pregnant women both of older age and higher pre-pregnancy BMI have a significantly higher incidence of delivering baby of higher birth weight but they gain significantly less weight during pregnancy. Their babies are also longer, and these women have significantly higher probability for complications during pregnancy (gestosis) and higher probability of induced or caesarean delivery. We can conclude that the cluster analysis method can appropriately classify pregnant women at early pregnancy to predict certain outcomes.
Lobel, Marci; Cannella, Dolores Lacey; Graham, Jennifer E; DeVincent, Carla; Schneider, Jayne; Meyer, Bruce A
Stress in pregnancy predicts earlier birth and lower birth weight. The authors investigated whether pregnancy-specific stress contributes uniquely to birth outcomes compared with general stress, and whether prenatal health behaviors explain this association. Three structured prenatal interviews (N = 279) assessing state anxiety, perceived stress, life events, pregnancy-specific stress, and health behaviors. Gestational age at delivery, birth weight, preterm delivery (<37 weeks), and low birth weight (<2,500 g). A latent pregnancy-specific stress factor predicted birth outcomes better than latent factors representing state anxiety, perceived stress, or life event stress, and than a latent factor constructed from all stress measures. Controlling for obstetric risk, pregnancy-specific stress was associated with smoking, caffeine consumption, and unhealthy eating, and inversely associated with healthy eating, vitamin use, exercise, and gestational age at delivery. Cigarette smoking predicted lower birth weight. Clinically-defined birth outcomes were predicted by cigarette smoking and pregnancy-specific stress. Pregnancy-specific stress contributed directly to preterm delivery and indirectly to low birth weight through its association with smoking. Pregnancy-specific stress may be a more powerful contributor to birth outcomes than general stress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Witt, Whitney; Litzelman, Kristin; Cheng, Erika R; Wakeel, Fathima; Barker, Emily S.
Objectives Mounting evidence from clinic and convenience samples suggests that stress is an important predictor of adverse obstetric outcomes. Using a proposed theoretical framework, this review identified and synthesized the population-based literature on the measurement of stress prior to and during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes. Methods Population-based, peer-reviewed empirical articles that examined stress prior to or during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes were identified in the PubMed and PsycInfo databases. Articles were evaluated to determine the domain(s) of stress (environmental, psychological, and/or biological), period(s) of stress (preconception and/or pregnancy), and strength of the association between stress and obstetric outcomes. Results Thirteen studies were evaluated. The identified studies were all conducted in developed countries. The majority of studies examined stress only during pregnancy (n=10); three examined stress during both the preconception and pregnancy periods (n=3). Most studies examined the environmental domain (e.g., life events) only (n=9), two studies examined the psychological domain only, and two studies examined both. No study incorporated a biological measure of stress. Environmental stressors before and during pregnancy were associated with worse obstetric outcomes, although some conflicting findings exist. Conclusions Few population-based studies have examined stress before or during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes. Although considerable variation exists in the measurement of stress across studies, environmental stress increased the risk for poor obstetric outcomes. Additional work using a lifecourse approach is needed to fill the existing gaps in the literature and to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which stress impacts obstetric outcomes. PMID:23447085
Witt, Whitney P; Litzelman, Kristin; Cheng, Erika R; Wakeel, Fathima; Barker, Emily S
Mounting evidence from clinic and convenience samples suggests that stress is an important predictor of adverse obstetric outcomes. Using a proposed theoretical framework, this review identified and synthesized the population-based literature on the measurement of stress prior to and during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes. Population-based, peer-reviewed empirical articles that examined stress prior to or during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes were identified in the PubMed and PsycInfo databases. Articles were evaluated to determine the domain(s) of stress (environmental, psychological, and/or biological), period(s) of stress (preconception and/or pregnancy), and strength of the association between stress and obstetric outcomes. Thirteen studies were evaluated. The identified studies were all conducted in developed countries. The majority of studies examined stress only during pregnancy (n = 10); three examined stress during both the preconception and pregnancy periods (n = 3). Most studies examined the environmental domain (e.g. life events) only (n = 9), two studies examined the psychological domain only, and two studies examined both. No study incorporated a biological measure of stress. Environmental stressors before and during pregnancy were associated with worse obstetric outcomes, although some conflicting findings exist. Few population-based studies have examined stress before or during pregnancy in relation to obstetric outcomes. Although considerable variation exists in the measurement of stress across studies, environmental stress increased the risk for poor obstetric outcomes. Additional work using a lifecourse approach is needed to fill the existing gaps in the literature and to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which stress impacts obstetric outcomes.
Kotelchuck, Milton; And Others
Using 1978 data from the Massachusetts Birth and Death Registry, examined the effects of WIC prenatal participation. Found that increased WIC participation was associated with enhanced pregnancy outcomes, but suggested that other causal factors also should be considered. (GC)
Zhan, Z P; Yang, Y; Zhan, Y F; Chen, D Y; Liang, L Q; Yang, X Y
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with new onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of 263 pregnancies with SLE in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhongshan University from 2001 to 2015 were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of all the 263 pregnancies, 188 were diagnosed before pregnancy and 75 were newly diagnosed during pregnancy. Among the 75 new onset SLE, 27, 31, 14 and 3 cases were diagnosed during first trimester, second trimester, third trimester and puerperium, respectively. Active lupus was noted in 81.3% of the patients with new onset SLE. The main clinical manifestations of new onset SLE were lupus nephritis (57.3%) and thrombocytopenia (38.7%). SLEPDAI scores as well as the prevalence of lupus nephritis, and thrombocytopenia in patients with new onset SLE was higher than those in the previously diagnosed ones (P<0.05). Among the 75 new onset SLE pregnancies, adverse pregnancy outcomesoccurred in 53 patients, including 34 with pregnancy loss, 15with premature, 8with intrauterine growth restriction, 5with fetal distress and5 with neonatal lupus. Compared with patients withnon-newonset SLE, patients with newonset SLEhad a higher prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (56.4% vs 70.7%, P<0.05), and pregnancy loss (21.8% vs 45.3%, P<0.01) but less live birth (78.2% vs 54.7%, P<0.05). Conclusion: Most of the patients with new onset SLE occurred during the first and second trimester. The most common clinical features of new onset SLE were lupus nephritis and thrombocytopenia. Patients with new onset SLE were more prone to active lupus, lupus nephritis and thrombocytopenia, as well as more adverse pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy loss.
Mitelman, Serge A.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.
In spite of significant advances in treatment of patients with schizophrenia and continued efforts towards their deinstitutionalization, a considerable group of patients remain chronically hospitalized or otherwise dependent on others for basic necessities of life. It has been proposed that these patients belong to a distinct etiopathological subgroup, termed Kraepelinian, whose course of illness may be progressive and resistant to treatment. Indeed, longitudinal studies appear to show that elderly Kraepelinian patients follow a course of rapid cognitive and functional deterioration, commensurate with a dementing process, and that their poor functional status is closely correlated with the cognitive deterioration. Recent neuroimaging studies described a pattern of posteriorization of grey and white matter deficits with poor outcome in schizophrenia, and produced a constellation of findings implicating primary processing of visual and auditory information as central to the impaired functional status in this patient group. These studies are summarized in detail in this review and future directions for neuroimaging assessment of very poor outcome patients with schizophrenia are suggested. PMID:17671868
Scheller, Nikolai M; Pasternak, Björn; Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Svanström, Henrik; Hviid, Anders
The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for all girls and women 9 to 26 years of age. Some women will have inadvertent exposure to vaccination during early pregnancy, but few data exist regarding the safety of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in this context. We assessed a cohort that included all the women in Denmark who had a pregnancy ending between October 1, 2006, and November 30, 2013. Using nationwide registers, we linked information on vaccination, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and potential confounders among women in the cohort. Women who had vaccine exposure during the prespecified time windows were matched for propensity score in a 1:4 ratio with women who did not have vaccine exposure during the same time windows. Outcomes included spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, major birth defect, small size for gestational age, low birth weight, and preterm birth. In matched analyses, exposure to the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was not associated with significantly higher risks than no exposure for major birth defect (65 cases among 1665 exposed pregnancies and 220 cases among 6660 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.58), spontaneous abortion (20 cases among 463 exposed pregnancies and 131 cases among 1852 unexposed pregnancies; hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.14), preterm birth (116 cases among 1774 exposed pregnancies and 407 cases among 7096 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.42), low birth weight (76 cases among 1768 exposed pregnancies and 277 cases among 7072 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.43), small size for gestational age (171 cases among 1768 exposed pregnancies and 783 cases among 7072 unexposed pregnancies; prevalence odds ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.02), or stillbirth (2 cases among 501 exposed pregnancies and 4 cases among 2004 unexposed pregnancies; hazard ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 0.45 to 13
Vannuccini, Silvia; Clifton, Vicki L; Fraser, Ian S; Taylor, Hugh S; Critchley, Hilary; Giudice, Linda C; Petraglia, Felice
Reproductive disorders and infertility are associated with the risk of obstetric complications and have a negative impact on pregnancy outcome. Affected patients often require assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to conceive, and advanced maternal age is a further confounding factor. The challenge is to dissect causation, correlation and confounders in determining how infertility and reproductive disorders individually or together predispose women to poor pregnancy outcomes. The published literature, to June 2015, was searched using PubMed, summarizing all evidences concerning the perinatal outcome of women with infertility and reproductive disorders and the potential mechanisms that may influence poor pregnancy outcome. Reproductive disorders (endometriosis, adenomyosis, polycystic ovary syndrome and uterine fibroids) and unexplained infertility share inflammatory pathways, hormonal aberrations, decidual senescence and vascular abnormalities that may impair pregnancy success through common mechanisms. Either in combination or alone, these disorders results in an increased risk of preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, placental pathologies and hypertensive disorders. Systemic hormonal aberrations, and inflammatory and metabolic factors acting on endometrium, myometrium, cervix and placenta are all associated with an aberrant milieu during implantation and pregnancy, thus contributing to the genesis of obstetric complications. Some of these features have been also described in placentas from ART. Reproductive disorders are common in women of childbearing age and rarely occur in isolation. Inflammatory, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms associated with these disorders are responsible for an increased incidence of obstetric complications. These patients should be recognized as 'high risk' for poor pregnancy outcomes and monitored with specialized follow-up. There is a real need for development of evidence-based recommendations about clinical management and
Karram, T.; Rinkevitch, D.; Markiewicz, W. )
The purpose was to compare the outcome of patients with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis versus patients with constiction due to another etiology. Twenty patients with constrictive pericarditis were seen during 1975-1986 at a single medical center. Six had radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis (Group A). The etiology was idiopathic in ten subjects and secondary to carcinomatous encasement, chronic renal failure, purulent infection and tuberculosis in one patient each (Group B, N = 14). Meang age was 53.4 [+-] 15.5 years. Extensive pericardiectomy was performed in 3/6 Group A and 13/14 Group B patients. All Group A patients died, 4 weeks - 11 years post-diagnosis (median = 10 months). Two Group A patients died suddenly, one died post-operatively of respiratory failure, another of pneumonia and two of recurrent carcinoma. Thirteen Group B patients are alive (median follow-up = 72 months). The only death in this group was due to metastatic cancer. The poor outcome with radiation-induced constriction is probably multi-factorial. Poor surgical outcome is to be expected in patients with evidence of recurrent tumor, high-dose irradiation, pulmonary fibrosis or associated radiation-induced myocardinal, valvular or coronary damage.
Felder, Jennifer N; Laraia, Barbara; Coleman-Phox, Kimberly; Bush, Nicole; Suresh, Madhuvanthi; Thomas, Melanie; Adler, Nancy; Epel, Elissa; Prather, Aric A
Poor sleep quality is common in pregnancy and associated with increased psychological distress, which has adverse consequences for families. Emerging theory suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may help reduce cognitive and emotional reactivity to stressful events. The current study examines the effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on the relationship between poor sleep quality and increased depression symptom severity and perceived stress during pregnancy. Additionally, we explored the prevalence of poor sleep quality in this unique sample and the impact of intervention on sleep quality. Participants were 215 ethnically diverse, overweight and obese, predominantly low-income pregnant women drawn from a study examining the impact of an 8-week mindfulness-based program (Mindful Moms Training; MMT) to reduce excessive gestational weight gain, stress, and depression compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Participants reported global sleep quality, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress at baseline and postintervention. Most participants (63%) were categorized as poor sleepers at baseline. MMT participants did not experience significantly greater improvement in sleep quality compared to TAU participants. Baseline poor global sleep quality predicted increased depression symptom severity for all participants. Baseline poor global sleep quality predicted increased perceived stress for the TAU group only; this association was not evident in the MMT group. Poor sleep quality is prevalent in overweight and obese predominantly low-income pregnant women. Poor sleep quality was associated with worsening psychological distress, but mindfulness training significantly attenuated the influence of poor sleep on perceived stress.
A, Baxi; M, Kaushal
There is a continuous controversy regarding the obstetric perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). There is an ongoing discussion whether theses parameters may show poorer results as compared to spontaneous conception. To evaluate the outcome of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. Prospective case-control study. In this prospective case-control study of 2-year duration, obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared in 36 ART twin pregnancies (Group A) with 138 twins who conceived naturally (Group B). The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. The continuous variables were analyzed by Student's t-test and categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. Pregnancy-related complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage, were similar in both groups. Incidence of cesarean section, preterm delivery, and hospital stay was significantly more in Group A vs. Group B, P < 0.001. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, sepsis, and longer hospital stay (4.8 days vs. 1.6 days, P < 0.001). Increased rates of cesarean section and preterm delivery are the main reasons for increased obstetric risk in pregnancies conceived through ART. Preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications were the main cause for longer stay in hospital in ART-conceived twins.
Background Time-to-pregnancy (TTP) has never been studied in an African setting and there are no data on the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in South Africa. The study objectives were to measure TTP and the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes in South Africa, and to determine the reliability of the questionnaire tool. Methods The study was cross-sectional and applied systematic stratified sampling to obtain a representative sample of reproductive age women for a South African population. Data on socio-demographic, work, health and reproductive variables were collected on 1121 women using a standardized questionnaire. A small number (n = 73) of randomly selected questionnaires was repeated to determine reliability of the questionnaire. Data was described using simple summary statistics while Kappa and intra-class correlation statistics were calculated for reliability. Results Of the 1121 women, 47 (4.2%) had never been pregnant. Mean gravidity was 2.3 while mean parity was 2.0 There were a total of 2467 pregnancies; most (87%) resulted in live births, 9.5% in spontaneous abortion and 2.2% in still births. The proportion of planned pregnancies was 39% and the median TTP was 6 months. The reliability of the questionnaire for TTP data was good; 63% for all participants and 97% when censored at 14 months. Overall reliability of reporting adverse pregnancy outcomes was very high, ranging from 90 - 98% for most outcomes. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive population-based reproductive health study in South Africa, to describe the biologic fertility of the population, and provides rates for planned pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The reliability of the study questionnaire was substantial, with most outcomes within 70 - 100% reliability index. The study provides important public information for health practitioners and researchers in reproductive health. It also highlights the need for public health intervention programmes and epidemiological
Villalbí, Joan R; Salvador, Joaquin; Cano-Serral, Gemma; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica C; Borrell, Carme
Exposure to tobacco during pregnancy is an important risk factor for infant health. Recently the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy has declined in our area. The objective of this study was to analyse the association between several social variables and the fetal exposure to smoking, as well as the association between maternal smoking and some adverse gestational outcomes. Data collection was cross-sectional. The study population were women in the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) delivering a child without birth defects. The sample corresponded to the controls of the Birth Defects Registry of Barcelona, 2% of all pregnancy deliveries in the city from 1994 to 2003 (n = 2297). Information sources were hospital records and a personal interview of mothers. The analysis measured first the association between independent variables (instruction level, social class, occupation, nationality, planned pregnancy, parity, hospital funding and smoking status of the mother's partner) with two dependent variables: smoking at the initiation of pregnancy and quitting during pregnancy. Second, the persistence of smoking over pregnancy and all independent variables were studied with three variables indicating adverse outcomes of pregnancy: low gestation, low birthweight and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Finally, the joint association between the persistence of smoking over pregnancy and social class taken as independent variables was determined with the three variables indicating adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Logistic regression models were fitted, adjusting for maternal age. Results are presented as odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of smoking at the onset of gestation was 41%, and 40% of these women quit during pregnancy, so that 25% delivered as active smokers. Fewer women with higher educational levels and from families with non-manual jobs smoked, as did immigrants, those planning pregnancy and women whose partner did not smoke
Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Daar, Shahina
Objectives: Pregnancy in women with homozygous beta thalassaemia (HBT) carries a high risk to both the mother and fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes among this group at a single tertiary centre. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2012 on all women with HBT who received prenatal care and subsequently delivered at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Women who delivered elsewhere and women with the beta thalassaemia trait were excluded. Results: Ten women with HBT were studied with a total of 15 pregnancies and 14 live births. The mean maternal age ± standard deviation (SD) was 27.9 ± 3.7 years, with a range of 24–35 years. There were 14 spontaneous pregnancies and one pregnancy following hormone treatment. Eight women had been on chelation therapy before pregnancy, one of whom needed chelation during late pregnancy. Of the pregnancies, 93% had a successful outcome with a mean ± SD gestational age at delivery of 38.6 ± 0.9 weeks, with a range of 37–40 weeks. Eight babies (57%) were delivered by Caesarean section. The mean ± SD birth weight was 2.6 ± 0.2 kg, with a range of 1.9–3.0 kg. Three babies (21%) were born with low birth weights. Conclusion: Pregnancy is safe and usually has a favourable outcome in patients with HBT, provided that a multidisciplinary team is available. This is the first study of Omani patients with HBT whose pregnancies have resulted in a successful outcome. PMID:25097768
Bouthry, Elise; Picone, Olivier; Hamdi, Ghada; Grangeot-Keros, Liliane; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Vauloup-Fellous, Christelle
Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in childhood. Rubella infection during pregnancy causes congenital rubella syndrome, including the classic triad of cataracts, cardiac abnormalities and sensorineural deafness. Highly effective vaccines have been developed since 1969, and vaccination campaigns have been established in many countries. Although there has been progress, the prevention and diagnosis of rubella remain problematic. This article reviews the implications and management of rubella during pregnancy.
Mola, G D L; Kombuk, B; Amoa, A B
In many parts of the world weighing women in antenatal clinics is no longer thought to be important. At Port Moresby General Hospital we noticed that failure to gain weight in the third trimester (or weight loss) was associated with poor perinatal outcomes. To investigate this issue we designed a prospective case-control study to determine whether poor weight gain in the third trimester is a useful clinical indicator of poor placental function by being associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or inadequate placental function in labour by being significantly associated with suspected intrapartum fetal compromise, birth asphyxia, meconium aspiration syndrome and neonatal intensive care unit admission. We found that a failure to gain weight for more than three weeks preceding the onset of labour was significantly associated with intrapartum fetal compromise (OR 2.24), IUGR (OR 2.88), meconium aspiration syndrome (OR 4.19), the presence of thick meconium or the passage of meconium during labour (OR 2.26) and the need for admission to the neonatal intensive care unit for more than 24 hours (OR 2.22). Weighing women in the antenatal clinic setting is a useful way of screening for deteriorating or inadequate placental function, and is particularly relevant in settings where more sophisticated modalities of screening and diagnosis of placental function are not available.
Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda
Abstract The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased prevalence of depression), as well as adverse neonatal outcomes (e.g., low birth weight [LBW]), preterm birth [PTB], and small for gestational age [SGA]) and maternal and neonatal death. Discussion of the mechanisms of action are explored and include: maternal engagement in health behaviors that are considered “risky,” including smoking and alcohol and substance use, and new evidence regarding the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and resulting changes in hormones that may affect LBW and SGA infants and PTB. Clinical recommendations include a commitment for routine screening of IPV in all pregnant women who present for care using validated screening instruments. In addition, the provision of readily accessible prenatal care and the development of a trusting patient–provider relationship are first steps in addressing the problem of IPV in pregnancy. Early trials of targeted interventions such as a nurse-led home visitation program and the Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation Program show promising results. Brief psychobehavioral interventions are also being explored. The approach of universal screening, patient engagement in prenatal care, and targeted individualized interventions has the ability to reduce the adverse effects of IPV and highlight the importance of this complex social disorder as a top priority in maternal and neonatal health. PMID:25265285
Nishimura, Naoko; Higuchi, Yoshihisa; Kimura, Nobusuke; Nozaki, Fumihito; Kumada, Tomohiro; Hoshino, Ai; Saitoh, Makiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi
Most childhood cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) involve neither family history nor recurrence. ANE occasionally occurs, however, as a familial disorder or recurs in Caucasian patients. A mutation of RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2) has been discovered in more than one half of familial or recurrent ANE patients. In contrast, there has been no report of this mutation in East Asia. Here, we report the first sibling cases of typical ANE in Japan, with poor outcome. DNA analysis of genes associated with ANE or other encephalopathies, including RANBP2 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPT2), indicated neither mutations nor disease-related polymorphisms. On literature review, recurrent or familial ANE without the RANBP2 mutation has a more severe outcome and greater predilection for male sex than that with the RANBP2 mutation. This suggests that there are unknown gene mutations linked to ANE. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.
Rook, Michelle; Vargas, Juan; Caughey, Aaron; Bacchetti, Peter; Rosenthal, Philip; Bull, Laura
Background Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has important fetal implications. There is increased risk for poor fetal outcomes, including preterm delivery, meconium staining of amniotic fluid, respiratory distress, fetal distress and demise. Methods One hundred and one women diagnosed with ICP between January 2005 and March 2009 at San Francisco General Hospital were included in this study. Single predictor logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of maternal clinical and biochemical predictors with fetal complications. Clinical predictors analyzed included age, race/ethnicity, gravidity, parity, history of liver or biliary disease, history of ICP in previous pregnancies, and induction. Biochemical predictors analyzed included serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein, and total bile acids (TBA). Results The prevalence of ICP was 1.9%. Most were Latina (90%). Labor was induced in the majority (87%) and most were delivered by normal spontaneous vaginal delivery (84%). Fetal complications occurred in 33% of the deliveries, with respiratory distress accounting for the majority of complications. There were no statistically significant clinical or biochemical predictors associated with an increased risk of fetal complications. Elevated TBA had little association with fetal complications until reaching greater than 100 µmoL/L, with 3 out of 5 having reported complications. ICP in previous pregnancies was associated with decreased risk of fetal complications (OR 0.21, p = 0.046). There were no cases of late term fetal demise. Conclusions Maternal clinical and laboratory features, including elevated TBA, did not appear to be substantial predictors of fetal complications in ICP. PMID:22403605
Stang, Jamie; Huffman, Laurel G
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all women of reproductive age receive education about maternal and fetal risks associated with prepregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain, and significant postpartum weight retention, including potential benefits of lifestyle changes. Behavioral counseling to improve dietary intake and physical activity should be provided to overweight and obese women, beginning in the preconception period and continuing throughout pregnancy, for at least 12 to 18 months postpartum. Weight loss before pregnancy may improve fertility and reduce the risk of poor maternal-fetal outcomes, such as preterm birth, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, assisted delivery, and select congenital anomalies. Lifestyle interventions that moderate gestational weight gain may reduce the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, large for gestational age, and macrosomia, as well as lower the risk for significant postpartum retention. Postpartum interventions that promote healthy diet and physical activity behaviors may reduce postpartum weight retention and decrease obesity-related risks in subsequent pregnancies. Analysis of the evidence suggests that there is good evidence to support the role of diet, physical activity, and behavior changes in promoting optimal weight gain during pregnancy; however, there is currently a relative lack of evidence in other areas related to reproductive outcomes.
Klingensmith, Georgeanna J; Pyle, Laura; Nadeau, Kristen J; Barbour, Linda A; Goland, Robin S; Willi, Steven M; Linder, Barbara; White, Neil H
We evaluated pregnancy outcomes, maternal and fetal/neonatal, during the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study. The TODAY study was a randomized controlled trial comparing three treatment options for youth with type 2 diabetes. Informed consent included the requirement for contraception, including abstinence; this was reinforced at each visit. Following informed consent, self-reported data related to the mother's prenatal care and delivery and the infant's health were retrospectively collected. When permitted, maternal medical records and infant birth records were reviewed. Of the 452 enrolled female participants, 46 (10.2%) had 63 pregnancies. Despite continued emphasis on adequate contraception, only 4.8% of the pregnant participants reported using contraception prior to pregnancy. The mean age at first pregnancy was 18.4 years; the mean diabetes duration was 3.17 years. Seven pregnancies were electively terminated; three pregnancies had no data reported. Of the remaining 53 pregnancies, 5 (9.4%) resulted in early pregnancy loss, and 7 (13%) resulted in loss with inadequate pregnancy duration data. Two pregnancies ended in stillbirth, at 27 and 37 weeks, and 39 ended with a live-born infant. Of the live-born infants, six (15.4%) were preterm and eight (20.5%) had a major congenital anomaly. Despite diabetes-specific information recommending birth control and the avoidance of pregnancy, 10% of the study participants became pregnant. Pregnancies in youth with type 2 diabetes may be especially prone to result in congenital anomalies. Reasons for the high rate of congenital anomalies are uncertain, but may include poor metabolic control and extreme obesity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Nadeau, Kristen J.; Barbour, Linda A.; Goland, Robin S.; Willi, Steven M.; Linder, Barbara; White, Neil H.
OBJECTIVE We evaluated pregnancy outcomes, maternal and fetal/neonatal, during the Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The TODAY study was a randomized controlled trial comparing three treatment options for youth with type 2 diabetes. Informed consent included the requirement for contraception, including abstinence; this was reinforced at each visit. Following informed consent, self-reported data related to the mother’s prenatal care and delivery and the infant’s health were retrospectively collected. When permitted, maternal medical records and infant birth records were reviewed. RESULTS Of the 452 enrolled female participants, 46 (10.2%) had 63 pregnancies. Despite continued emphasis on adequate contraception, only 4.8% of the pregnant participants reported using contraception prior to pregnancy. The mean age at first pregnancy was 18.4 years; the mean diabetes duration was 3.17 years. Seven pregnancies were electively terminated; three pregnancies had no data reported. Of the remaining 53 pregnancies, 5 (9.4%) resulted in early pregnancy loss, and 7 (13%) resulted in loss with inadequate pregnancy duration data. Two pregnancies ended in stillbirth, at 27 and 37 weeks, and 39 ended with a live-born infant. Of the live-born infants, six (15.4%) were preterm and eight (20.5%) had a major congenital anomaly. CONCLUSIONS Despite diabetes-specific information recommending birth control and the avoidance of pregnancy, 10% of the study participants became pregnant. Pregnancies in youth with type 2 diabetes may be especially prone to result in congenital anomalies. Reasons for the high rate of congenital anomalies are uncertain, but may include poor metabolic control and extreme obesity. PMID:26628417
Doğan, Selen; Özyüncü, Özgür; Atak, Zeliha
To determine the effects of fibroids on pregnancy and neonatal parameters. A total of 12,855 consecutive pregnant women admitted to a tertiary care university hospital between January 2002 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 267 patients with fibroids and 267 age- and parity-matched controls were included. The Clavien-Dindo classification was used to grade postoperative complications. Mean gestational age at delivery (p<0.001) and mean neonatal birthweight (p=0.034) were significantly different between the 2 groups. We recorded a higher rate of pain-related hospitalization in the large fibroid group (38.2% and 7.8%, p <0.001). Myomectomy was performed in 124 of 267 patients during cesarean section (C/S). The myomectomy group was associated with lower postoperative hemoglobin levels (p=0.01) and higher need for transfusion (p=0.009). When postpartum hemoglobin levels of the control group and fibroid group without myomectomy were compared, hemoglobin levels were higher in favor of the control group (p = 0.009). Beyond lower gestational age and mean birthweight, perinatal complications did not increase with fibroids during pregnancy. Performing myomectomy increases the need for transfusion (Grade 2) without an increase in the risk of hysterectomy (Grade 3) and other life-threatening complications (Grade 4-5). Leaving fibroids in situ during C/S did not prevent a fall in post-partum hemoglobin levels.
Al Arfaj, A S; Khalil, N
The aim of this study was to examine the pregnancy outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the effect of SLE flare and treatment on pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective evaluation of all pregnancies occurring in patients with SLE during the 27-year period from 1980 to 2006. Of the 319 women with SLE planning pregnancy after SLE onset, 176 (55.2%) conceived resulting in 396 pregnancies. Live births were significantly lower in proportion (70.2% vs. 85.7%) and more likely to end in fetal deaths (29.7% vs. 14.2%) and preterm births (26.7% vs. 5.8 %) in pregnancies occurring after SLE onset than in pregnancies occurring before SLE onset (p < 0.0001). With respect to different disease manifestations, we found that fetal loss was significantly higher in patients with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies than without (p < 0.001). Preterm deliveries were significantly more frequent in patients with lupus nephritis, anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, hypertension, history of intravenous cyclophosphamide treatment and aPL than those without these features (p < 0.05). Neonates with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) neonates were more common in hypertensive and Raynaud's-positive pregnancies (p < 0.05). SLE flares occurred in 30.8% pregnancies. There was increased risk of fetal loss, preterm births and IUGR in pregnancies with SLE exacerbations than without (p < 0.05). Prednisolone was found to improve the rate of live births, although it was also a predictor of prematurity. The predictors of pregnancy loss were lupus nephritis (odds ratio (OR) 7.3), aPL (OR 3.9), and SLE flares in pregnancy (OR 1.9). There was higher risk of preterm deliveries in patients with lupus nephritis (OR 18.9), anti-Ro antibodies (OR 13.9), hypertension (OR 15.7) and SLE flares (OR 2.5). IUGR was found to be associated with hypertension (OR 37.7), Raynaud's (OR 12.3), and SLE flares (OR 4.2). In conclusion, pregnancies in SLE patients with active lupus nephritis, anti
Cassina, Matteo; De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; van Eijkeren, Marion; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Eleftheriou, Giorgio; Raffagnato, Francesco; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Clementi, Maurizio
To assess the safety of diclofenac during pregnancy. A prospective observational cohort study, evaluating follow-up data of women who contacted Teratology Information Services to get counseling. The exposed group included 145 pregnant women who were exposed to diclofenac between the 5th and the 14th gestational week. A contemporary control group (501 women) was randomly selected from among patients who contacted Teratology Information Services with regard to exposures to agents known not to be teratogenic during a similar period of pregnancy. Major birth malformations were not more common in the study group than in the control group (p=0.07). Our study suggests that the use of diclofenac is relatively safe during the first trimester of pregnancy and the studied sample size makes it possible to exclude a risk of congenital malformation higher than 3.3, with a power of 80%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D'Cruz, Rebecca F.; Ng, Sher M.; Dassan, Pooja
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection with the larvae of Taenia solium from contaminated pork. It is a leading cause of seizures in the developing world. Symptoms may be secondary to live or degenerating cysts, or previous infection causing calcification or gliosis. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, radiological confirmation of intracranial lesions and immunological testing. Management involves symptom control with antiepileptics and antiparasitic agents. Few cases have been described of maternal NCC during pregnancy. We describe a 25-year-old female presenting to a London hospital with secondary generalized seizures. MRI of the brain confirmed a calcified lesion in the right parietal lobe, and she gave a corroborative history of NCC during her childhood in India. She was stabilized initially on antiepileptics, but during her pregnancy presented with breakthrough seizures and radiological evidence of NCC reactivation. She was managed symptomatically with antiepileptics and completed the pregnancy to term with no fetal complications. PMID:27471595
Hilmert, Clayton J; Kvasnicka-Gates, Lexi; Teoh, Ai Ni; Bresin, Konrad; Fiebiger, Siri
To assess the impact of experiencing a major flood during pregnancy on fetal growth and length of gestation, and to consider how flood-related strains might contribute to these effects. The Red River Pregnancy Project was a prospective study carried out for 3 months immediately after the historic 2009 crest of the Red River in Fargo, North Dakota. Pregnant community residents who were at least 18 years old with a singleton, intrauterine pregnancy participated in the study (N = 169). Analyses examined if birth weight and length of gestation were associated with residential distance from flooding and gestational age at time of the flood crest. For pregnancies earlier in gestation during the crest (-1 SD = 12 weeks), birth weight decreased as distance from flooding decreased (-42.29 g/mi, p < .01). For pregnancies later in gestation at crest (+1 SD = 26 weeks), distance was not associated with birth weight (p > .10). Biparietal growth trajectories showed a decrease in growth after the crest of the flood but only for women early in pregnancy. However, various measures of flood related and general stress or strain did not explain these effects. Length of gestation was not associated with distance from or the timing of the flood. Pregnant women in the first trimester who experience a major flood near their homes are at risk of having lower birth weight neonates due to a reduction in fetal growth. The mechanisms of this effect deserve further attention in rapidly mounted investigations after disaster. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Arrowsmith, Sarah; Quenby, Siobhan; Weeks, Andrew; Burdyga, Theodor; Wray, Susan
Prolongation of pregnancy i.e. going more than 10 days over the estimated due date, complicates up to 10% of all pregnancies and is associated with increased risk to both mother and fetus. Despite the obvious need for contractions of the uterus to end pregnancy, there have been no studies directly examining the role of uterine smooth muscle, myometrium, in the aetiology of prolonged pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that the intrinsic contractile characteristics of myometrium taken from women with prolonged pregnancy (>41 weeks and 3 days) was reduced compared to those delivering at term (39–41 weeks). We recruited women undergoing Caesarean Section (CS) delivery either pre-labour (n = 27) or in labour (n = 66) at term or postdates. The contractile ability of the postdates myometrium, whether spontaneous or elicited by oxytocin or high-K solution, was significantly reduced compared to term myometrium. These differences remained when adjusted for parity and other maternal characteristics. The findings remained significant when expressed per cross sectional area. Histological examination revealed no differences between the two groups. The contractile differences were however related to intracellular Ca transients suggesting an effect of [Ca] on reduced force production in the postdates group. In summary, myometrium from prolonged pregnancies contracts poorly in vitro even when stimulated with oxytocin and in active labour. Responses to high K+ and measurements of Ca suggest that alterations in excitation contraction coupling, rather than any histological changes of the myometrium, may underlie the differences between term and postdates myometrium. We show that postdates pregnancy is associated with poor myometrial activity and suggest that this may contribute to increased myometrial quiescence and hence, prolonged gestation. PMID:22590608
Nasrin, S; Islam, S; Shahida, S M; Begum, R A; Haque, N
This was a hospital based prospective clinical study conducted among women having prolonged pregnancy to assess the outcome of induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy cases. One hundred and thirty nine women having uncomplicated prolonged pregnancy were studied. The study was carried out in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka from 01 July 2010 to 30 March 2011. In this study 66% of the respondents had vaginal delivery on routine induction of labour and in 34% cases induction failed. Ninety three percent (93%) of the multigravida had vaginal delivery and in primigravida their vaginal delivery rate was 47.5%. Regarding cervical condition for delivery, 75% of the respondents having favourable cervix had vaginal delivery and in case of unfavourable cervix respondents, they had 55% cases of vaginal delivery. About the foetal outcome it was evidenced from this study that the perinatal adverse outcome increases with the increasing age of gestation beyond 40 completed weeks of gestation. This study showed that the use of prostaglandins for cervical ripening and by confirming the diagnosis of prolonged pregnancy, the delivery outcome in prolonged pregnancy can be improved. The study also showed that induction of labour is not associated with any major complications and the routine induction of labour in prolonged pregnancy is beneficial for both mother and the baby.
Naveiro-Fuentes, Mariña; Puertas Prieto, Alberto; Ruíz, Rocío Sánchez; Carrillo Badillo, María Paz; Ventoso, Francisco Montoya; Gallo Vallejo, José Luis
To compare the outcomes of term gestations with oligohydramnios in the absence of other underlying disorders and term gestations with normal amniotic fluid. A retrospective analysis of obstetric outcomes in 27,708 term pregnancies. We compared three groups: labor induced because of oligohydramnios, spontaneous onset of labor with normal amniotic fluid, and labor induced because of late term pregnancy with normal amniotic fluid. We excluded pregnancies with maternal or fetal diseases or disorders potentially related with amniotic fluid alterations. The main outcome measures were mode of delivery, neonatal birth weight, umbilical artery blood pH, Apgar scores and neonatal discharge status. Compared to spontaneous labor, induction of labor because of oligohydramnios was associated with a higher risk of cesarean delivery and small size of the fetus for gestational age (SGA). Compared to induction because of late term pregnancy there were no significant differences in neonatal, although neonates had a higher risk of being SGA. The only perinatal outcome for which the risk was higher in term pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios was SGA. The systematic induction of labor in these pregnancies should be questioned.
Little, Bertis B; Snell, Laura M; Van Beveren, Toosje T; Crowell, R Becca; Trayler, Stacey; Johnston, Walter L
The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of residential substance abuse treatment on pregnancy outcome among gravidas in a gender-specific program. All clients (cases) who entered a residential substance abuse program for pregnant and postpartum women were eligible for inclusion in the study (n=95). Only those who were in treatment at the time of delivery were included in the present analysis (n=57). Two comparison groups were used: (1) substance abusers who received no treatment during pregnancy (positive control group) and (2) pregnant women who were not substance abusers (negative control group). Cases were matched to controls on ethnicity (negative and positive controls) and drug of choice (positive controls only). Medical records were reviewed and abstracted for cases and controls. The primary drug of choice was cocaine for 56% of clients in the study, heroin 15.8%, and alcohol 10.8%. Average length of time in treatment before delivery was 11.7 weeks. The frequency of pregnancy complications allowing treatment and position controls was significantly higher than the negative control group (p<0.0001). The frequency of perinatal infant complications was increased among treatment group infants (p<0.0001). Two infants in the treatment group were positive for a substance of abuse at birth. In the treatment versus positive control group, mean birth weight (BW) was 3227 versus 2800 g (p<0.01), estimated gestational age (EGA) was 38.9 versus 39 weeks, average head circumference (FOC) was 33.8 versus 32.5 cm (p<0.05), and mean birth length (BLT) was 48.7 cm versus 46.9 (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between treatment and negative control groups. Maternal syphilis was increased in frequency in the positive control group compared with the negative control group (p<0.07). Thirty-percent of mothers had sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) for which infants were at risk and treated prophylactically; no infant in the treatment group contracted a
Liu, Li-Ling; Pang, Li-Hong; Deng, Bi-Ye
The aim of the study was to investigate the etiology and pregnancy outcomes in mothers with polyhydramnios through prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy outcome analysis of pregnant women with polyhydramnios. One hundred and thirty women were enrolled. Fifty pregnant women with polyhydramnios were categorized as the case group, and 80 pregnant women with normal amniotic fluid were categorized as the control group. The causes of polyhydramnios and the pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. Two cases had chromosomal abnormalities, seven had severe α-thalassemia, 15 had fetal anomalies, four had maternal-fetal diseases and 22 had unexplained idiopathic polyhydramnios. Significantly, higher occurrences of cesarean section, preterm birth, fetal anomaly, fetal distress, fetal macrosomia and female fetuses occurred in patients with polyhydramnios than in patients without polyhydramnios. Polyhydramnios is associated with a higher occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes. Intensive monitoring of the maternal-fetal condition and prenatal diagnosis is important in patients with polyhydramnios.
Nuchpramool, Prachratana; Hanprasertpong, Tharangrut
Small local hospitals with inexperiencedpersonnel often have adverse incidence that could be prevented. A good referral system could reduce this unnecessary death rate. The present study was conducted to determine the pregnancy outcomes of cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) cases that were referred for cesarean section at a tertiary center and presented the predictivefactorsfor adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective study that descriptively presented the adverse pregnancy outcome in referred CPD pregnancies and analyzed for predictive factor of overall adverse pregnancy outcome. One hundred ninety five referred CPD pregnancies were included in this study. The mean duration ± SD from CPD diagnosis to childbirth was 232.32±103.75 minutes. Pregnancy additional complication was found in 42/195 (21.5%) cases, but there were no maternal or neonatal mortalities. The NICU admission and postpartum hemorrhage rates were 21.5% and 12.3%, respectively. Obesity BMI was associated with an increased risk of overall adverse maternal outcomes (OR 3.12). Previously complicated pregnancy and cervical dilatation at CPD diagnosis were significant predictors for overall neonatal adverse outcomes. The highest risk wasforpregnant women who were cesarean delivered at 10 cm cervical dilatation (OR 2.84 vs. cervical dilatation ≤5 cm, p-value 0.002). A referral system is one of the modalities to avoid maternal and neonatal mortality for CPD pregnant women in a resource-limited setting. We suggest that early referral before advanced progression of cervical dilatation, especially in obese pregnant women and in complicated pregnancies, may improve the pregnancy outcomes.
Leach, J P; Smith, P E; Craig, J; Bagary, M; Cavanagh, D; Duncan, S; Kelso, A R C; Marson, A G; McCorry, D; Nashef, L; Nelson-Piercy, C; Northridge, R; Sieradzan, K; Thangaratinam, S; Walker, M; Winterbottom, J; Reuber, M
Between 2009 and 2012 there were 26 epilepsy-related deaths in the UK of women who were pregnant or in the first post-partum year. The number of pregnancy-related deaths in women with epilepsy (WWE) has been increasing. Expert assessment suggests that most epilepsy-related deaths in pregnancy were preventable and attributable to poor seizure control. While prevention of seizures during pregnancy is important, a balance must be struck between seizure control and the teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A range of professional guidance on the management of epilepsy in pregnancy has previously been issued, but little attention has been paid to how optimal care can be delivered to WWE by a range of healthcare professionals. We summarise the findings of a multidisciplinary meeting with representation from a wide group of professional bodies. This focussed on the implementation of optimal pregnancy epilepsy care aiming to reduce mortality of epilepsy in mothers and reduce morbidity in babies exposed to AEDs in utero. We identify in particular -What stage to intervene - Golden Moments of opportunities for improving outcomes -Which Key Groups have a role in making change -When - 2020 vision of what these improvements aim to achieve. -How to monitor the success in this field We believe that the service improvement ideas developed for the UK may provide a template for similar initiatives in other countries. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. All rights reserved.
Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Wanapirak, Chanane; Piyamongkol, Wirawit; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Tongsong, Theera
To compare the outcomes after mid-pregnancy cordocentesis between singleton and twin pregnancies. We compared immediate complications and pregnancy outcomes between a cohort of twin pregnancies undergoing mid-pregnancy diagnostic cordocentesis between the years 1989 and 2010, and a control group of singleton pregnancies matched based on maternal age and years of the procedure with a ratio of 1:3. Among 6147 pregnancies undergoing cordocentesis during the study period, 122 twin fetuses met the study criteria and were matched with 336 singleton controls. Success rate of sampling was slightly higher in singleton than in twin gestations (98.8% vs 97.3%), and time required for the procedure was significantly longer in the twin group (8.1 vs 6.3 min, p = 0.02). Immediate complications, such as fetal bradycardia and transient bleeding from the puncture site, were significantly higher in twins (13% vs 6.0%, p = 0.001; and 34.8% vs 26.1%, p = 0.03, respectively). However, fetal loss rate within 2 weeks of cordocentesis was not different (1.4% and 1.1%, p = 0.42). Immediate complications following cordocentesis are significantly higher in twin pregnancies, but fetal loss rate within 2 weeks of the procedure is comparable. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hovdenak, Nils; Haram, Kjell
The literature was searched for publications on minerals and vitamins during pregnancy and the possible influence of supplements on pregnancy outcome. Maternal iron (Fe) deficiency has a direct impact on neonatal Fe stores and birth weight, and may cause cognitive and behavioural problems in childhood. Fe supplementation is recommended to low-income pregnant women, to pregnant women in developing countries, and in documented deficiency, but overtreatment should be avoided. Calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction. Supplementation may reduce both the risk of low birth weight and the severity of pre-eclampsia. Gestational magnesium (Mg) deficiency may cause hematological and teratogenic damage. A Cochrane review showed a significant low birth weight risk reduction in Mg supplemented individuals. Intake of cereal-based diets rich in phytate, high intakes of supplemental Fe, or any gastrointestinal disease, may interfere with zinc (Zn) absorption. Zn deficiency in pregnant animals may limit fetal growth. Supplemental Zn may be prudent for women with poor gastrointestinal function, and in Zn deficient women, increasing birth weight and head circumference, but no evidence was found for beneficial effects of general Zn supplementation during pregnancy. Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant supporting humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Low Se status is associated with recurrent abortion, pre-eclampsia and IUGR, and although beneficial effects are suggested there is no evidence-based recommendation for supplementation. An average of 20-30% of pregnant women suffer from any vitamin deficiency, and without prophylaxis, about 75% of these would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with pre-eclampsia, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, hyperemesis gravidarum, and neurologic disease of infants. About 25% of pregnant women in India are folate deficient. Folate deficiency may lead to
Hillman, R Tyler; Garabedian, Matthew James; Wallerstein, Robert J
Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome that primarily affects male fetuses. Affected men are universally infertile; however, there is a paucity of information published on the reproductive potential of affected women. Pregnancy outcomes in affected women have not been described in the literature. We describe the case of pregnancy in an affected woman. Her pregnancy progressed without complication. Her fetus had no stigmata of the syndrome. Her labour and delivery were, however, complicated by a prolonged second stage of labour and need for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery.
Giudici, Valentina; Pogliani, Laura; Cattaneo, Dario; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo
Lots has been written on use of SSRI during pregnancy and possible short and long term negative outcomes on neonates. the literature so far has described a various field of peripartum illness related to SSRI exposure during foetal life, such as increased incidence of low birth weight, respiratory distress, persistent pulmonary hypertension, poor feeding, and neurobehavioural disease. We know that different degrees of outcomes are possible, and not all the newborns exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy definitely will develop a negative outcome. So far, still little is known about the possible etiologic mechanism that could not only explain the adverse neonatal effects but also the degree of clinical involvement and presentation in the early period after birth. Pharmacogenetics and moreover pharmacogenomics, the study of specific genetic variations and their effect on drug response, are not widespread. This review describes possible relationship between SSRIs pharmacogenetics and different neonatal outcomes and summarizes the current pharmacogenetic inquiries in relation to maternal-foetal environment. PMID:24524073
Byrne, Laura; Sconza, Rebecca; Foster, Caroline; Tookey, Pat A; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire
To estimate the incidence of first pregnancy in women living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) in the United Kingdom and to compare pregnancy management and outcomes with age-matched women with behaviourally acquired HIV (BHIV). The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood is a comprehensive, population-based surveillance study that collects demographic and clinical data on all pregnant women living with HIV, their children, and all HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was calculated for all women of reproductive age who had been reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood as vertically infected children. These women and their pregnancies were compared to age-matched pregnant women with BHIV. Of the 630 women with PHIV reported in the United Kingdom as children, 7% (45) went on to have at least one pregnancy, with 70 pregnancies reported. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was 13/1000 woman-years. The BHIV comparison group comprised 118 women (184 pregnancies). Women with PHIV were more likely to be on combined antiretroviral therapy at conception and have a lower baseline CD4 cell count (P < 0.01 for both). In adjusted analysis, PHIV and a low baseline CD4 cell count were risk factors for detectable viral load near delivery; older age at conception and being on combined antiretroviral therapy at conception reduced this risk. Women with PHIV in the United Kingdom have a low pregnancy incidence, but those who become pregnant are at risk of detectable viral load near delivery, reflecting their often complex clinical history, adherence, and drug resistance issues.
Nour, Matthew M; Nakashima, Ichiro; Coutinho, Ester; Woodhall, Mark; Sousa, Filipa; Revis, Jon; Takai, Yoshiki; George, Jithin; Kitley, Joanna; Santos, Maria Ernestina; Nour, Joseph M; Cheng, Fan; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Misu, Tatsuro; Martins-da-Silva, Ana; DeLuca, Gabriele C; Vincent, Angela; Palace, Jacqueline; Waters, Patrick; Fujihara, Kazuo; Leite, Maria Isabel
To investigate the association between neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and pregnancy outcome. An international cohort of women with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMOSD and ≥1 pregnancy was studied retrospectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate whether pregnancy after NMOSD onset was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage (cohort of 40 women) or preeclampsia (cohort of 57 women). Miscarriage rate was higher in pregnancies after NMOSD onset (42.9% [95% confidence interval 17.7%-71.1%] vs. 7.04% [2.33%-15.7%]). Pregnancies conceived after, or up to 3 years before, NMOSD onset had an increased odds ratio of miscarriage (7.28 [1.03-51.6] and 11.6 [1.05-128], respectively), independent of maternal age or history of miscarriage. Pregnancies after, or up to 1 year before, NMOSD onset ending in miscarriage were associated with increased disease activity from 9 months before conception to the end of pregnancy, compared to viable pregnancies (mean annualized relapse rate 0.707 vs. 0.100). The preeclampsia rate (11.5% [6.27%-18.9%]) was significantly higher than reported in population studies. The odds of preeclampsia were greater in women with multiple other autoimmune disorders or miscarriage in the most recent previous pregnancy, but NMOSD onset was not a risk factor. Pregnancy after NMOSD onset is an independent risk factor for miscarriage, and pregnancies conceived at times of high disease activity may be at increased risk of miscarriage. Women who develop NMOSD and have multiple other autoimmune disorders have greater odds of preeclampsia, independent of NMOSD onset timing. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Background Diabetes in pregnancy carries an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and foetus, but it also provides an excellent early opportunity for intervention in the life course for both mother and baby. In the context of the escalating epidemic of chronic diseases among Indigenous Australians, it is vital that this risk is reduced as early as possible in the life course of the individual. The aims of the PANDORA Study are to: (i) accurately assess rates of diabetes in pregnancy in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia, where 38% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers; (ii) assess demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, socioeconomic and early life development factors that may contribute to key maternal and neonatal birth outcomes associated with diabetes in pregnancy; and (iii) monitor relevant post-partum clinical outcomes for both the mothers and their babies. Methods/Design Eligible participants are all NT women with diabetes in pregnancy aged 16 years and over. Information collected includes: standard antenatal clinical information, diagnosis and management of diabetes in pregnancy, socio-economic status, standard clinical birth information (delivery, gestational age, birth weight, adverse antenatal and birth outcomes). Cord blood is collected at the time of delivery and detailed neonatal anthropometric measurements performed within 72 hours of birth. Information will also be collected regarding maternal post-partum glucose tolerance and cardio-metabolic risk factor status, breastfeeding and growth of the baby up to 2 years post-partum in the first instance. Discussion This study will accurately document rates and outcomes of diabetes in pregnancy in the NT of Australia, including the high-risk Indigenous Australian population. The results of this study should contribute to policy and clinical guidelines with the goal of reducing the future risk of obesity and diabetes in both mothers and their offspring. PMID
Maple-Brown, Louise J; Brown, Alex; Lee, I-Lynn; Connors, Christine; Oats, Jeremy; McIntyre, Harold D; Whitbread, Cherie; Moore, Elizabeth; Longmore, Danielle; Dent, Glynis; Corpus, Sumaria; Kirkwood, Marie; Svenson, Stacey; van Dokkum, Paula; Chitturi, Sridhar; Thomas, Sujatha; Eades, Sandra; Stone, Monique; Harris, Mark; Inglis, Chrissie; Dempsey, Karen; Dowden, Michelle; Lynch, Michael; Boyle, Jacqueline; Sayers, Sue; Shaw, Jonathan; Zimmet, Paul; O'Dea, Kerin
Diabetes in pregnancy carries an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and foetus, but it also provides an excellent early opportunity for intervention in the life course for both mother and baby. In the context of the escalating epidemic of chronic diseases among Indigenous Australians, it is vital that this risk is reduced as early as possible in the life course of the individual. The aims of the PANDORA Study are to: (i) accurately assess rates of diabetes in pregnancy in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia, where 38% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers; (ii) assess demographic, clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, socioeconomic and early life development factors that may contribute to key maternal and neonatal birth outcomes associated with diabetes in pregnancy; and (iii) monitor relevant post-partum clinical outcomes for both the mothers and their babies. Eligible participants are all NT women with diabetes in pregnancy aged 16 years and over. Information collected includes: standard antenatal clinical information, diagnosis and management of diabetes in pregnancy, socio-economic status, standard clinical birth information (delivery, gestational age, birth weight, adverse antenatal and birth outcomes). Cord blood is collected at the time of delivery and detailed neonatal anthropometric measurements performed within 72 hours of birth. Information will also be collected regarding maternal post-partum glucose tolerance and cardio-metabolic risk factor status, breastfeeding and growth of the baby up to 2 years post-partum in the first instance. This study will accurately document rates and outcomes of diabetes in pregnancy in the NT of Australia, including the high-risk Indigenous Australian population. The results of this study should contribute to policy and clinical guidelines with the goal of reducing the future risk of obesity and diabetes in both mothers and their offspring.
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) conducted an evaluation of the developmental effects and pregnancy outcomes associated with cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy in humans. The final NTP monograph was completed in May 2013 (available at http:// ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/36495). The incidence of cancer during pregnancy has been reported to occur from 17 to 100 per 100,000 pregnant women. Chemotherapy is a common treatment for cancer; however, most chemotherapy agents are classified as known or suspected human teratogens. Cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy was selected for evaluation by the NTP because of the: (1) paucity of comprehensive reviews on the pregnancy outcomes following cancer chemotherapy use during pregnancy in humans, including the integration of the developmental animal toxicology literature with the observational studies in humans, and (2) growing public interest in the developmental effects of chemotherapy on offspring exposed to cancer chemotherapy during gestation due to the expected incidence of cancer diagnosed during pregnancy as women delay pregnancy to later ages. Of the approximately 110 cancer chemotherapeutic agents currently in use, the NTP monograph includes data on 56 agents used during 1,261 pregnancies for which pregnancy outcomes were documented. Overall, the NTP evaluation found that treatment with chemotherapy for cancer appeared to be associated with: (1) a higher rate of major malformations following exposure during the first trimester compared to exposure in the second and/or third trimester; (2) an increase the rate of stillbirth following exposure in the second and/ or third trimester; abnormally low levels of amniotic fluid (primarily attributable to Trastuzumab); and (3), also data are insufficient, impaired fetal growth and myelosuppression. Treatment with chemotherapy for cancer during pregnancy did not appear to increase spontaneous preterm birth, or impair
Background Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes. Methods The study is based on data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study including more than 100,000 pregnancies from 1999 to 2008. Information on use of cranberry and socio-demographic factors was retrieved from three self-administered questionnaires completed by the women in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Results Among the 68,522 women in the study, 919 (1.3%) women had used cranberry while pregnant. We did not detect any increased risk of congenital malformations after use of cranberry. Furthermore, the use of cranberry was also not associated with increased risk for stillbirth/neonatal death, low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, low Apgar score (<7), neonatal infections or maternal vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. Although an association was found between use of cranberry in late pregnancy and vaginal bleeding after pregnancy week 17, further sub-analyses of more severe bleeding outcomes did not support a significant risk. Conclusions The findings of this study, revealing no increased risk of malformations nor any of the following pregnancy outcomes; stillbirth/neonatal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age, low Apgar score and neonatal infections are reassuring. However, maternal vaginal bleeding should be investigated further before any firm conclusion can be drawn. Treatment guidelines on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy recommend antimicrobial
Shek, Noel Wan Man; Hillman, Sarah C; Kilby, Mark D
Single-twin demise can pose substantial risks for the surviving co-twin, including increased risk of fetal loss, preterm delivery, neurovascular injury, and end-organ damage. In this chapter, we summarise recently published research on the causes of single twin demise, the pathophysiology of injury to the surviving co-twin, and the evidence for current management strategies. The gestation at which single intrauterine fetal demise occurs, and the chorionicity of the multiple pregnancies, are the two most important factors when considering the risks to the surviving twin. Management should include fortnightly ultrasound scans for growth, umbilical artery Doppler studies, and liquor volume. In monochorionic twins, more complex Doppler assessment with middle cerebral artery Doppler velocimetry and a magnetic resonance imaging of the survivor's brain at least 3 weeks after single intrauterine fetal demise occurs should be carried out to look for evidence of neurological morbidity. With no other obstetric complications, dichorionic pregnancies can be delivered at term. Monochorionic pregnancies are more difficult to manage, and are often delivered between 34 and 36 weeks.
Nakanishi, Sayuri; Aoki, Shigeru; Nagashima, Ami; Seki, Kazuo
To investigate the incidence and pregnancy outcomes of superimposed preeclampsia (PE) with or without proteinuria among women with chronic hypertension. This retrospective study included 142 women with essential hypertension diagnosed at ⩽20weeks of gestation, managed at a tertiary center. They were divided into three groups (non-PE, PE with proteinuria, and PE without proteinuria) to compare pregnancy outcomes. The non-PE group was further divided into two subgroups (controlled and uncontrolled hypertension). There were 87 women in the non-PE group, 47 in the PE with proteinuria group, and 8 in the PE without proteinuria group. Median gestational age at delivery was 38.7weeks in the non-PE group, 30.4 in the PE with proteinuria group, and 28.4 in the PE without proteinuria group. In three of the women in the PE without proteinuria group, the diagnostic criteria were fulfilled by liver involvement (complicated by thrombocytopenia in one woman). The remaining five women had uteroplacental dysfunction. The 87 women in the non-PE group were divided into a controlled hypertension subgroup of 75 women and uncontrolled hypertension subgroup of 12. The median gestational age at delivery was 39.1weeks in the controlled HT subgroup and 34.1weeks in the uncontrolled hypertension subgroup. The pregnancy outcomes were significantly poorer in the latter group. Pregnancy outcomes were unfavorable in both the PE without proteinuria and PE with proteinuria groups. Women with non-PE uncontrolled hypertension also had poor pregnancy outcomes, although their outcomes were better than those of women with PE. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen
Introduction: Non-Pseudomonas gram-negative bacteria are responsible for an increasing proportion of cases of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. The role of Citrobacter species in the etiology of PD-related peritonitis is often underestimated. In the present study, we aimed to describe the clinical features, laboratory findings, and short- and long-term outcomes in PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter. Methods: A retrospective review of all episodes of PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter from a single center between 1990 and 2010 was performed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes of these episodes were analyzed. Results: Citrobacter species was responsible for 11 PD-related episodes (1.8% of all peritonitis episodes) in 8 patients. Citrobacter freundii was the most common etiologic species (73%), and mixed growth was found in the other 3 episodes (27%). Approximately half (46%) of the episodes were associated with constipation and/or diarrhea. Of the Citrobacter isolates from all episodes, 54% were resistant to cefazolin, and only 18% were susceptible to cefmetazole. All isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, cefepime, carbapenem, and aminoglycosides. More than half of the patients (54%) were hospitalized for index peritonitis, and 27% of the episodes involved a change in antibiotic medication. One patient had relapsing peritonitis caused by C. koseri (9%). The mortality rate of PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter was 18%, and 89% of surviving patients developed technique failure requiring a modality switch after an average of 12 months of follow-up (range 1.2-31.2 months). Conclusion: PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter is associated with poor outcomes, including high rates of antibiotic resistance, a high mortality rate, and a high rate of technique failure among survivors during the follow-up period. PMID:23869184
Brennan, P A; Grekin, E R; Mednick, S A
Perinatal risk factors are related to persistent and violent criminal outcomes. Prenatal maternal smoking may represent an additional perinatal risk factor for adult criminal outcomes. Our study examines maternal smoking during pregnancy as a predictor of offspring crime in the context of a prospective, longitudinal design. Subjects were a birth cohort of 4169 males born between September 1959 and December 1961 in Copenhagen, Denmark. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers self-reported the number of cigarettes smoked daily. When the male offspring were 34 years of age, their arrest histories were checked in the Danish National Criminal Register. Additional data were collected concerning maternal rejection, socioeconomic status, maternal age, pregnancy and delivery complications, use of drugs during pregnancy, paternal criminal history, and parental psychiatric hospitalization. Results indicate a dose-response relationship between amount of maternal prenatal smoking and arrests for nonviolent and violent crimes. Maternal prenatal smoking was particularly related to persistent criminal behavior rather than to arrests confined to adolescence. These relationships remained significant after potential demographic, parental, and perinatal risk confounds were controlled for. Maternal prenatal smoking predicts persistent criminal outcome in male offspring. This relationship has not been accounted for by related parental characteristics or perinatal problems. Potential physiologic or central nervous system mediators between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring criminal outcomes need further study.
Li, F.P.; Gimbrere, K.; Gelber, R.D.; Sallan, S.E.; Flamant, F.; Green, D.M.; Heyn, R.M.; Meadows, A.T.
Outcome of pregnancy was reported by 99 patients who were cured of childhood Wilms' tumor at seven pediatric cancer centers during 1931 to 1979. These patients carried or sired 191 singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks in duration. Among the 114 pregnancies in women who had received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor, an adverse outcome occurred in 34 (30%). There were 17 perinatal deaths (five in premature low-birth-weight infants) and 17 other low-birth-weight infants. Compared with white women in the United States, the irradiated women had an increased perinatal mortality rate (relative risk, 7.9) and an excess of low-birth-weight infants (relative risk, 4.0). In contrast, an adverse outcome was found in two (3%) of the 77 pregnancies in nonirradiated female patients with Wilms' tumor and wives of male patients. The high risk of adverse pregnancy outcome should be considered in the counseling and prenatal care of women who have received abdominal radiotherapy for Wilms' tumor.
Sirotkina, Meeli; Douroudis, Konstantinos; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Westgren, Magnus
Introduction Chorangiomas (CAs) are the most common non-trophoblastic tumor-like-lesions of the placenta. Although the clinical significance of small CAs is unknown, the large lesions are often associated with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of our study was to assess the maternal clinical characteristics and neonatal outcome in singleton and multiple pregnancies with placental CA. Materials and Methods Among 15742 selected placentas 170 CAs were diagnosed. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were analyzed in singleton (n = 121) and multiple (n = 49) pregnancy groups including 121 and 100 neonates, respectively. Results The frequency of APGAR score <7 at 5 minutes (p = 0,012), abnormal pulsatility index (p = 0,034), and abnormal blood flow class (p = 0,011) were significantly higher in neonates from singleton compared to multiple pregnancies. Significantly smaller CAs in singleton pregnancies were related to small for gestational age neonates (p = 0,00040) and neonates admitted to the neonatal care unit (p = 0,028). In singleton pregnancies, significantly smaller CAs were associated to maternal preeclampsia (p = 0,039) and larger CAs to multiparity (p = 0,005) and smoking (p = 0,001) groups. The frequency of preeclampsia was high in both singleton and multiple pregnancy groups (41,32% vs 26,53%, respectively), however, the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Discussion A high incidence of preeclampsia in cohort of placental CA might lead to a possible recognition of CAs as potential morphologic indicator of placental hypoxia. Conclusion A more favorable pregnancy outcome in multiple gestations compared to the singleton gestations with CAs might reflect an adaptive mechanism for increased demand of oxygen and associated placental tissue hypoxia in this group. PMID:27835686
A, Baxi; M, Kaushal
CONTEXT: There is a continuous controversy regarding the obstetric perinatal outcome of twin pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). There is an ongoing discussion whether theses parameters may show poorer results as compared to spontaneous conception. AIMS: To evaluate the outcome of multifetal pregnancies and to compare maternal and neonatal complications between spontaneously conceived and assisted reproductive therapy. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective case-control study of 2-year duration, obstetric and perinatal outcomes were compared in 36 ART twin pregnancies (Group A) with 138 twins who conceived naturally (Group B). The outcomes were analyzed and used for a comparison between spontaneous and assisted multifetal pregnancies. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The continuous variables were analyzed by Student's t-test and categorical variables were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Pregnancy-related complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage, were similar in both groups. Incidence of cesarean section, preterm delivery, and hospital stay was significantly more in Group A vs. Group B, P < 0.001. The newborns in the assisted group had more complications than the spontaneous group; most notable were respiratory distress syndrome, newborn intensive care admission, sepsis, and longer hospital stay (4.8 days vs. 1.6 days, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Increased rates of cesarean section and preterm delivery are the main reasons for increased obstetric risk in pregnancies conceived through ART. Preterm birth and neonatal prematurity-related complications were the main cause for longer stay in hospital in ART-conceived twins. PMID:19562060
Kinugasa-Taniguchi, Yukiko; Ueda, Yutaka; Hara-Ohyagi, Chifumi; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kanagawa, Takeshi; Kimura, Tadashi
To compare obstetric and delivery outcomes between myoma-complicated pregnancies and pregnancies that follow myomectomy. Among the 7,589 deliveries performed in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Osaka University Hospital, Osaka, Japan, from 1994 to 2007, women with a past history of myomectomy and those with myoma during their pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Their clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. The frequency of myomas detected during pregnancy significantly increased by 1.8-fold during the first 7-year period as compared with the latter 7-year period of the study (p < 0.001). The obstetric and delivery outcomes, including the rate of cesarean section, the rate of preterm delivery and the amount of blood loss at delivery, were better in pregnancies complicated with current myoma than those in pregnancies which had undergone previous myomectomy (p < 0.001, p = 0.002 and p = 0.005, respectively), with the exception of an increased need for analgesic medication. Myomectomy of large asymptomatic myomas does not improve future obstetric and delivery outcomes, indicating that most asymptomatic myomas should be managed conservatively in women still considering childbearing.
Bérard, Anick; Sheehy, Odile
Purpose We evaluated the potential and the validity of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (QPC) as a research tool in perinatal pharmacoepidemiology. Methods The QPC was built by linking four administrative databases: RAMQ (medical and pharmaceutical data), Med-Echo (hospitalizations), ISQ (births/deaths), and MELS (Ministry of Education data). A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a random sample of women to collect lifestyle information. The QPC includes data on all pregnancies of women covered by the Quebec provincial prescription drug insurance between 1998 and 2008. Date of entry in the QPC is the first day of pregnancy, and women are followed during and after pregnancy; children are followed after birth up until 2009. The prevalence of prescribed medications before, during and after pregnancy was compared between time-window. Pregnancy outcomes were also estimated among pregnancies ending with a live born infant. Results The QPC included 289,688 pregnancies of 186,165 women. Among them, 167,398 ended with a delivery representing 19.4% of all deliveries occurring in the Province of Quebec between 1998–2009. The total frequency of abortions was 35.9% in the QPC comparable to the 36.4% observed in the Province of Quebec. The prevalence of prescribed medication use was 74.6%, 59.0%, and 79.6% before, during and after pregnancy, respectively. Although there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of use once the pregnancy was diagnosed (p<.01), post-pregnancy prescribed medication use returned above the pre-pregnancy level. The prevalence of pregnancy outcomes found in the QPC were similar to those observed in the Province of Quebec. Conclusion The QPC is an excellent tool for the study of the risk and benefit of drug use during the perinatal period. This cohort has the advantage of including a validated date of beginning of pregnancy giving the possibility of assigning the exact gestational age at the time of maternal exposure. PMID:24705674
Akoï, Koïvogui; Francoise, Julien-Pena; Aurel, Carbunar; Laure-Manuella, Imounga; Christelle, Laruade; Venise, Nebor; Sabrina, Covis
Describe the part that teenage pregnancy plays in overall pregnancies in French Guiana. Descriptive and retrospective study of the medical records of 25,343 women who delivered in French Guiana from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. The study displays and compares several indicators of follow-up visits, pregnancy-linked disorders, delivery and birth outcomes between the years and between minors and adult women. The proportion of teenage pregnancies was 6.8%; it decreased significantly from 7.2% in 2009 to 6.1% in 2012 (p=0.01). The number of antenatal visits was <7 and the visits were mainly provided by the Mother and Child Health ("Protection Maternelle et Infantile", PMI) services (38.6%). The mean (±SD) gestational age at first antenatal visit was 14.1±6.5 weeks. In comparison with adult pregnancies, teenage pregnancies were more frequently concerned with preterm labour (4.6% vs. 2%; p<0.01) but less concerned with gestational diabetes (0% vs. 2.2%; p<0.05) or pregnancy-induced hypertension (2.2% vs. 4.2%; p<0.05). Teenage pregnancies are still frequent in French Guiana, especially in the Eastern and Western communes, where first visits are often delayed by mothers who are minors and take place in PMI services, which offer less clinical, and paraclinical examinations than other settings.
SANT’ANA, Adriana Campos Passanezi; de CAMPOS, Marinele R.; PASSANEZI, Selma Campos; de REZENDE, Maria Lúcia Rubo; GREGHI, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; PASSANEZI, Euloir
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical treatment of periodontal disease during the second trimester of gestation on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods Pregnant patients during the 1st and 2nd trimesters at antenatal care in a Public Health Center were divided into 2 groups: NIG – "no intervention" (n=17) or IG- "intervention" (n=16). IG patients were submitted to a non-surgical periodontal treatment performed by a single periodontist consisting of scaling and root planning (SRP), professional prophylaxis (PROPH) and oral hygiene instruction (OHI). NIG received PROPH and OHI during pregnancy and were referred for treatment after delivery. Periodontal evaluation was performed by a single trained examiner, blinded to periodontal treatment, according to probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index (PI) and sulcular bleeding index (SBI) at baseline and 35 gestational weeks-28 days post-partum. Primary adverse pregnancy outcomes were preterm birth (<37 weeks), low birth weight (<2.5 kg), late abortion (14-24 weeks) or abortion (<14 weeks). The results obtained were statistically evaluated according to OR, unpaired t test and paired t test at 5% significance level. Results No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline examination. Periodontal treatment resulted in stabilization of CAL and PI (p>0.05) at IG and worsening of all periodontal parameters at NIG (p<0.0001), except for PI. Significant differences in periodontal conditions of IG and NIG were observed at 2nd examination (p<0.001). The rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes was 47.05% in NIG and 6.25% in IG. Periodontal treatment during pregnancy was associated to a decreased risk of developing adverse pregnancy outcomes [OR=13.50; CI: 1.47-123.45; p=0.02]. Conclusions Periodontal treatment during the second trimester of gestation contributes to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:21552714
Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Nielsen, Tine; Vedal, Sissel; Olofsson, May
Substance exposure in utero has been associated with physical birth defects and increased risk of regulatory and neuropsychological difficulties. The aims of this study were to describe women who use substances and are in treatment with respect to the type and number of substances used during pregnancy, as well as their background, and to examine the effect substance use has on gestational age, birth weight, and the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth. A sample of 161 pregnant women and their 163 newborn children were included. The results indicate that the children whose mothers continued to use substances throughout their pregnancies were born at a lower gestational age (Chi-Square = 15.1(2), P < .01); children exposed to poly-substances in utero were more affected than those exposed to only alcohol and those with no substance exposure. The same children were more vulnerable to the development of neonatal abstinence syndrome at birth (Chi-Square = 51.7(2), P < .001). Newborns who were exposed primarily to alcohol in utero were at a significant risk of being born with low birth weight (Chi-Square = 8.8(2), P < .05) compared with those exposed to other types of substances. More than 50% of the mothers ceased using any substances (with the exception of tobacco) by birth, indicating that the treatment program did have an interventional effect on the mothers. The mothers' ability to either cease or decrease the use of substances during pregnancy appears to have direct positive effect on their newborns.
Clapp, James F
Experimental evidence indicates that the primary maternal environmental factor that regulates feto-placental growth is substrate delivery to the placental site, which is the product of maternal substrate levels and the rate of placental-bed blood flow. Thus, maternal factors which change either substrate level or flow alter feto-placental growth rate. The best-studied substrate in human pregnancy is glucose, and there is a direct relationship between maternal blood glucose levels and size at birth. Altering the type of carbohydrate eaten (high- v. low-glycaemic sources) changes postprandial glucose and insulin responses in both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and a consistent change in the type of carbohydrate eaten during pregnancy influences both the rate of feto-placental growth and maternal weight gain. Eating primarily high-glycaemic carbohydrate results in feto-placental overgrowth and excessive maternal weight gain, while intake of low-glycaemic carbohydrate produces infants with birth weights between the 25th and the 50th percentile and normal maternal weight gain. The calculated difference in energy retention with similar total energy intakes is of the order of 80,000 kJ. Preliminary information from subsequent metabolic studies indicates that the mechanisms involved include changes in: daily digestible energy requirements (i.e. metabolic efficiency), substrate utilization (glucose oxidation v. lipid oxidation), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Thus, altering the source of maternal dietary carbohydrate may prove to be a valuable tool in the management of pregnancies at risk for anomalous feto-placental growth and for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in the non-pregnant state.
Barta, Valerie; Thakkar, Jyotsana; Sakhiya, Vipulbhai; Miller, Ilene
Abstract Background. Pregnancy occurs among 1–7% of women on chronic dialysis. Experience regarding pregnancy and dialysis originates from anecdotal reports, case series and surveys. This survey updates the US nephrologists’ experience with pregnancy on hemodialysis (HD) over the past 5 years. We evaluated maternal and fetal outcomes, certain practice patterns such as dialysis regimens utilized and nephrologist knowledge and comfort level when caring for a pregnant patient on HD. Methods. An anonymous Internet-based 23-question survey was e-mailed to end-stage renal disease Networks of America program directors for forwarding to practicing nephrologists. Results. A total of 196 nephrologists responded to the survey, reporting >187 pregnancies. Of the respondents, 45% had cared for pregnant females on HD and 78% of pregnancies resulted in live births. In 44% of the pregnancies a diagnosis of preeclampsia was made. There were no maternal deaths. Nephrologists most commonly prescribe 4–4.5 h of HD 6 days/week for pregnant women on dialysis. Women dialyzed cumulatively for >20 h/week were 2.2 times more likely to develop preeclampsia than those who received ≤20 h of HD per week. Conclusion. Providing intensive HD is a common treatment approach when dialyzing pregnant women. Maternal and fetal outcomes can be improved. There is a trend toward better live birthrates with more intense HD. Whether more cumulative hours of dialysis per week increases the risk of preeclampsia needs to be further investigated. PMID:28396746
Wouldes, Trecia A; Woodward, Lianne J
In recent decades there has been an increase in the methadone dosages prescribed for opioid dependent women during pregnancy. Using prospective longitudinal data from a cohort of 32 methadone exposed and 42 non-methadone exposed infants, this study examined the relationship between maternal methadone dose during pregnancy and a range of infant clinical outcomes. Of particular interest was the extent to which any observed associations might reflect the direct causal effects of maternal methadone dose and/or the confounding effects of adverse maternal lifestyle factors correlated with methadone use during pregnancy. Findings revealed the presence of clear linear relationships between the mean methadone dose prescribed for mothers during pregnancy and a range of adverse infant clinical outcomes. With increasing maternal methadone dose there was a corresponding increase in infants' risk of being born preterm, being symmetrically smaller, spending longer periods in hospital and the need for treatment for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. After due allowance for potentially confounding maternal health and lifestyle factors, maternal methadone dose during pregnancy remained a significant predictor of preterm birth, growth, and the duration of infant hospitalization post delivery. These findings suggest a need to examine more closely the potential impacts of recent trends towards the use of higher methadone dose levels during pregnancy.
Sterling, Lynn; Keunen, Johannes; Wigdor, Emilie; Sermer, Mathew; Maxwell, Cynthia
Women with spinal cord lesions present special challenges during pregnancy. We studied their pregnancy outcomes with regard to medical, obstetrical, and social concerns. We reviewed the records of pregnant women with spinal cord injury who attended our institution between 1999 and 2009. Thirty-two women with a total of 37 pregnancies were identified. Most were nulliparous (65%) with either thoracic or lumbar spinal cord lesions due to neural tube defects (69%), trauma (19%), tumours (9%), or iatrogenic injury (3%). Most had undergone orthopedic surgery (63%) or neurosurgery (53%). The most common medical conditions were neurogenic bladder (53%), anemia (16%), autonomic hyperreflexia (9%), and elevated BMI > 30 (6%). Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 32%. Antibiotic suppression against bacteriuria was used in 35%. Antenatal hospitalization occurred in 46%, most often because of threatened preterm labour (19%). There were 33 live births and two stillbirths (6%). Preterm birth < 37 weeks occurred in 24%. Vaginal birth occurred in 33%. Pregnant women with spinal cord lesions generally have successful pregnancy outcomes. However, their pregnancies are at significant risk for preterm birth, infection, and Caesarean section. Coordinated multidisciplinary care is recommended for optimal management of these pregnancies.
Opel, Daniela; Poremba, Christopher; Simon, Thorsten; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fulda, Simone
Whereas aberrant activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, a key survival cascade, has previously been linked to poor prognosis in several human malignancies, its prognostic effect in neuroblastoma has not yet been explored. We therefore investigated the phosphorylation status of Akt, S6 ribosomal protein as target of mammalian target of rapamycin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in 116 primary neuroblastoma samples by tissue microarray and its correlation with established prognostic markers and survival outcome. Here, we provide for the first time evidence that phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473 (S473) and/or threonine 308 (T308), S6 ribosomal protein, and ERK frequently occurs in primary neuroblastoma. Importantly, we identified Akt activation as a novel prognostic indicator of decreased event-free or overall survival in neuroblastoma, whereas phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein or ERK had no prognostic effect. In addition, Akt activation correlated with variables of aggressive disease, including MYCN amplification, 1p36 aberrations, advanced disease stage, age at diagnosis, and unfavorable histology. Monitoring Akt at T308 or both phosphorylation sites improved the prognostic significance of Akt activation in neuroblastoma specimens compared with S473 phosphorylation. Parallel experiments in neuroblastoma cell lines revealed that activation of Akt by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- or chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent manner because the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 completely reversed the IGF-I-mediated protection of neuroblastoma cells from apoptosis. By showing that activation of Akt correlates with poor prognosis in primary neuroblastoma in vivo and with apoptosis resistance in vitro, our findings indicate that Akt presents a clinically relevant target in neuroblastoma that warrants further investigation.
Haidar, Ziad A; Malshe, Amol; McKenna, David
Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Female carriers of the X-linked form of the disorder usually are unaffected and rarely have serious infections. A 22-year-old pregnant patient known to be a carrier of the X-linked form of chronic granulomatous disease had a history of chorioamnionitis during her two previous pregnancies. During her third pregnancy, she presented again with the same diagnosis, which resulted in delivery at 25 weeks of gestation. Carriers of chronic granulomatous disease should be monitored closely during pregnancy, as if they have the disease. To decrease the risk of infectious morbidity and mortality, obstetricians should have a low threshold for starting prophylactic antibiotics early during pregnancy, even if the patient is asymptomatic.
Moore, Vivienne M; Davies, Michael J
Renewed interest in nutrition during pregnancy has been generated by the hypothesis that adult disease has origins in early life. Animal experiments clearly show that altering maternal diet before and during pregnancy can induce permanent changes in the offspring's birth size, adult health and lifespan. Among women living in Western societies, cigarette smoking is the most important factor known to reduce fetal growth, followed by low pre-pregnancy weight and low gestational weight gain. Obesity is also associated with pregnancy complications and adverse neonatal outcomes, so inadequate or excessive energy intake is not optimal for the developing fetus. Against a history of inconsistent results, several recent studies suggest that in Western settings the balance of macronutrients in a woman's diet can influence newborn size. Effects appear to be modest, but this relationship may not encapsulate the full significance for health of the child, as there is emerging evidence of associations with long-term metabolic functioning that are independent of birth size. Consequences of inadequate maternal nutrition, for the offspring, may depend on timing during gestation, reflecting critical windows for fetal development. Where women are not malnourished, changing a woman's nutritional plane during pregnancy may be detrimental to the unborn baby, and systematic reviews of the literature on dietary supplementation during pregnancy indicate few benefits and possible risks. In view of this, improved diet before pregnancy deserves greater attention.
Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.
Killoren, Sarah E.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers’ lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents’ cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes. PMID:26573862
Aktürk, S; Çelebi, Z K; Erdoğmuş, Ş; Kanmaz, A G; Yüce, T; Şengül, Ş; Keven, K
Although pregnancy after kidney transplantation has been considered as high risk for maternal and fetal complications, it can be successful in properly selected patients. It is well known that pregnancy can induce changes in the plasma concentrations of some drugs; however, there has been very limited information about tacrolimus pharmacokinetics during pregnancy. In this study, we evaluated the tacrolimus doses, blood levels, and the outcomes of pregnancies in kidney allograft recipients. From 2004 to 2014, we found 16 pregnancies in 12 kidney allograft recipients at our center. We reviewed the files and data reports including fetal outcomes, graft function, complications, tacrolimus trough levels, and doses. We analyzed the tacrolimus trough levels and doses before pregnancy, during pregnancy (monthly), and in the postpartum period. Throughout the pregnancy, we aimed to achieve tacrolimus trough levels between 4 and 7 ng/mL. All patients were on triple immunosuppression, including tacrolimus, azathioprine, and prednisolone. In total, 11 of 16 (68.7%) pregnancies were successful, with a mean weight gain of 12.5 ± 1.66 kg. One patient developed gestational diabetes mellitus and 2 had preeclampsia. Although 5 of 11 babies were found to have low birth weight, 4 of these were premature. Two patients lost their grafts, 1 due to acute rejection and the second due to progression of chronic allograft dysfunction. We have shown that tacrolimus doses need to be significantly increased to keep appropriate trough levels during pregnancy (the doses: before, 3.20 ± 0.9 mg/day; first trimester, 5.03 ± 1.5; second trimester, 6.50 ± 1.8; third trimester, 7.30 ± 2.3; post-partum, 3.5 ± 0.9). In conclusion, the dose of tacrolimus needs to be increased to provide safe and stable tacrolimus trough levels during pregnancy. Although pregnancy can be successful in most cases, it should be kept in mind that there is an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications, including
Megaw, Lauren; Clemens, Tom; Dibben, Chris; Weller, Richard; Stock, Sarah
Season and vitamin D are indirect and direct correlates of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are associated with pregnancy outcomes. Further to producing vitamin D, UV has positive effects on cardiovascular and immune health that may support a role for UV directly benefitting pregnancy. To investigate the effects of UV exposure on pregnancy; specifically fetal growth, preterm birth and hypertensive complications. We conducted a systematic review of Medline, EMBASE, DoPHER, Global Health, ProQuest Public Health, AustHealth Informit, SCOPUS and Google Scholar to identify 537 citations, 8 of which are included in this review. This review was registered on PROSPERO and a. narrative synthesis is presented following PRISMA guidance. All studies were observational and assessed at high risk of bias. Higher first trimester UV was associated with and improved fetal growth and increased hypertension in pregnancy. Interpretation is limited by study design and quality. Meta-analysis was precluded by the variety of outcomes and methods. The low number of studies and risk of bias limit the validity of any conclusions. Environmental health methodological issues are discussed with consideration given to design and analytical improvements to further address this reproductive environmental health question. The evidence for UV having benefits for pregnancy hypertension and fetal growth is limited by the methodological approaches utilized. Future epidemiological efforts should focus on improving the methods of modeling and linking widely available environmental data to reproductive health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Capoccia, Romina; Greub, Gilbert; Baud, David
Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may colonize the human genital tract and have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chorioamnionitis, spontaneous preterm labour and preterm premature rupture of membranes are significant contributors to neonatal morbidity and mortality. However, as these bacteria can reside in the normal vaginal flora, there are controversies regarding their true role during pregnancy and thus the need to treat these organisms. We review here the recent data on the epidemiology of mycoplasmas and their clinical role during pregnancy. The association of these organisms with preterm labour has been suggested by many observational studies, but proof of causality remains limited. PCR is an excellent alternative to culture to detect the presence of these organisms, but culture allows antibiotic susceptibility testing. Whether antimicrobial treatment of mycoplasma-colonized pregnant patients can effectively reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes warrants further investigations. The role of Mycoplasma spp. and U. urealyticum in adverse pregnancy outcomes is increasingly accepted. However, sole presence of these microorganisms in the vaginal flora might be insufficient to cause pathological issues, but their combination with other factors such as bacterial vaginosis or cervical incompetence may be additionally needed to induce preterm birth.
Schwartzenburg, Christopher J; Gilmandyar, Dzhamala; Thornburg, Loralei L; Hackney, David N
We sought to explore the clinical variables associated with the loss of rubella immunity during pregnancy and to determine if these changes are linked to obstetrical complications. This is a case-control study in which women were identified whose rubella antibody titers were equivocal or non-immune and compared to those who had retained immunity. Two hundred and eighty-five cases were identified and compared to the same number of controls using Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U-test or Fisher's exact test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were employed. Subjects with diminished immunity were more likely to have public insurance and higher gravidity with a trend toward increased tobacco use. Diminished rubella immunity was not associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes, including preterm birth and pre-eclampsia and is likely not a risk factor for these pregnancy outcomes. While no adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with a loss of rubella immunity, women with greater number of pregnancies appear to lose their immunity to rubella. This relationship needs to be explored further and if proven, revaccination prior to pregnancy may need to be addressed.
Weiner, Menachem M; Lin, Hung-Mo; Danforth, Dennis; Rao, Srikar; Hosseinian, Leila; Fischer, Gregory W
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients who received methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass had decreased morbidity and mortality. Retrospective analysis. Single tertiary care university hospital. Adult patients who suffered from vasoplegia and underwent all types of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at this institution between 2007 and 2008. With IRB approval, the authors reviewed the charts of the identified patients and divided them into 2 groups based on whether they had received methylene blue. Two hundred twenty-six patients were identified who met the inclusion criteria for the study. Fifty-seven of these patients had received methylene blue for vasoplegia. The authors collected data on preoperative and intraoperative variables as well as outcomes. The patients who received methylene blue had higher rates of in-hospital mortality, a compilation of morbidities, as well as renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that receiving methylene blue was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (p value: 0.007, OR 4.26, 95% CI: 1.49-12.12), compilation of morbidities (p value: 0.001, OR 4.80, 95% CI: 1.85-12.43), and hyperbilirubinemia (p value:<0.001, OR 6.58, 95% CI: 2.91-14.89). Using propensity score matching, the association with morbidity was again seen but the association with mortality was not found. The current study identified the use of methylene blue as treatment for vasoplegia to be independently associated with poor outcomes. While further studies are required, a thorough risk-benefit analysis should be applied before using methylene blue and, perhaps, it should be relegated to rescue use and not as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dutton, Philip J; Warrander, Lynne K; Roberts, Stephen A; Bernatavicius, Giovanna; Byrd, Louise M; Gaze, David; Kroll, Josh; Jones, Rebecca L; Sibley, Colin P; Frøen, J Frederik; Heazell, Alexander E P
Maternal perception of reduced fetal movement (RFM) is associated with increased risk of stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). RFM is thought to represent fetal compensation to conserve energy due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient transfer resulting from placental insufficiency. To identify predictors of poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM). Prospective cohort study. 305 women presenting with RFM after 28 weeks of gestation were recruited. Demographic factors and clinical history were recorded and ultrasound performed to assess fetal biometry, liquor volume and umbilical artery Doppler. A maternal serum sample was obtained for measurement of placentally-derived or modified proteins including: alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and progesterone. Factors related to poor perinatal outcome were determined by logistic regression. 22.1% of pregnancies ended in a poor perinatal outcome after RFM. The most common complication was small-for-gestational age infants. Pregnancy outcome after maternal perception of RFM was related to amount of fetal activity while being monitored, abnormal fetal heart rate trace, diastolic blood pressure, estimated fetal weight, liquor volume, serum hCG and hPL. Following multiple logistic regression abnormal fetal heart rate trace (Odds ratio 7.08, 95% Confidence Interval 1.31-38.18), (OR) diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.09), estimated fetal weight centile (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94-0.97) and log maternal serum hPL (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02-0.99) were independently related to pregnancy outcome. hPL was related to placental mass. Poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of RFM is closely related to factors which are connected to placental dysfunction. Novel tests of placental function and associated fetal response may provide improved
Dutton, Philip J.; Warrander, Lynne K.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Bernatavicius, Giovanna; Byrd, Louise M.; Gaze, David; Kroll, Josh; Jones, Rebecca L.; Sibley, Colin P.; Frøen, J. Frederik; Heazell, Alexander E. P.
Background Maternal perception of reduced fetal movement (RFM) is associated with increased risk of stillbirth and fetal growth restriction (FGR). RFM is thought to represent fetal compensation to conserve energy due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient transfer resulting from placental insufficiency. Objective To identify predictors of poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM). Design Prospective cohort study. Methods 305 women presenting with RFM after 28 weeks of gestation were recruited. Demographic factors and clinical history were recorded and ultrasound performed to assess fetal biometry, liquor volume and umbilical artery Doppler. A maternal serum sample was obtained for measurement of placentally-derived or modified proteins including: alpha fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA), pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and progesterone. Factors related to poor perinatal outcome were determined by logistic regression. Results 22.1% of pregnancies ended in a poor perinatal outcome after RFM. The most common complication was small-for-gestational age infants. Pregnancy outcome after maternal perception of RFM was related to amount of fetal activity while being monitored, abnormal fetal heart rate trace, diastolic blood pressure, estimated fetal weight, liquor volume, serum hCG and hPL. Following multiple logistic regression abnormal fetal heart rate trace (Odds ratio 7.08, 95% Confidence Interval 1.31–38.18), (OR) diastolic blood pressure (OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.09), estimated fetal weight centile (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.97) and log maternal serum hPL (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.02–0.99) were independently related to pregnancy outcome. hPL was related to placental mass. Conclusion Poor perinatal outcome after maternal perception of RFM is closely related to factors which are connected to placental dysfunction. Novel tests of
Koubovec, D; Geerts, L; Odendaal, H J; Stein, Dan J; Vythilingum, B
Data from animal studies show that maternal stress is associated with disturbances in pregnancy outcomes and offspring development and behavior, possibly as a result of permanent structural and functional changes termed "early-life programming." There is growing interest in whether similar relationships are present in humans. Here we review recent significant findings from the literature on the impact of prenatal psychologic stressors on pregnancy outcome and offspring development, with a particular focus on the developing brain. Relevant papers were searched using PubMed, and reference lists from obtained articles were checked. In humans, prenatal stress is associated with pregnancy complications, developmental, cognitive, and behavioral disorders, and possible onset of psychopathology in later life. In contrast to the available research done in animals, virtually nothing is known about the effects of prenatal stress on morphologic fetal brain development, and the mechanisms underlying subsequent associated behavioral changes.
Bateman, B T; Schumacher, H C; Bushnell, C D; Pile-Spellman, J; Simpson, L L; Sacco, R L; Berman, M F
To describe the frequency, risk factors, and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in pregnancy and the postpartum period using a large database of US inpatient hospitalizations. The authors obtained data from an administrative dataset, the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, which includes approximately 20% of all discharges from non-Federal hospitals, for the years 1993 through 2002. Women aged 15 to 44 years with a diagnosis of ICH were selected from the database for analysis, and within this group patients coded as pregnant or postpartum were identified. Using US Census data, estimates were made of the rates of ICH in pregnant/postpartum and non-pregnant women. Rates of various comorbidities in patients with pregnancy-related ICH were compared to the rates found in the general population of delivering patients using multivariate logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for pregnancy-related ICH. The authors identified 423 patients with pregnancy-related ICH, which corresponded to 6.1 pregnancy-related ICH per 100,000 deliveries and 7.1 pregnancy-related ICH per 100,000 at-risk person-years (compared to 5.0 per 100,000 person-years for non-pregnant women in the age range considered). The increased risk of ICH associated with pregnancy was largely attributable to ICH occurring in the postpartum period. The in-hospital mortality rate for pregnancy-related ICH was 20.3%. ICH accounted for 7.1% of all pregnancy-related mortality recorded in this database. Significant independent risk factors for pregnancy-related ICH included advanced maternal age (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.69 to 2.64), African American race (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.41), preexisting hypertension (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.34 to 5.07), gestational hypertension (OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.59), preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR 10.39, 95% CI 8.32 to 12.98), preexisting hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia/eclampsia (OR 9.23, 95% CI 5.26 to 16.19), coagulopathy (OR 20.66, 95% CI 13.67 to 31.23), and
Hanprasertpong, T; Hanprasertpong, J
This retrospective study was conducted to determine the pregnancy outcomes and identify predictive factors of adverse outcomes in pregnant migrant workers who delivered at Songklanagarind Hospital from January 2002 to December 2012. Two hundred and forty migrant worker pregnancies were enrolled. Pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-term birth and foetal intrauterine growth restriction found were 15, 7.9, 13.7 and 3.7%, respectively. No stillbirth was found. Apgar score was = 7 at 1 and 5 min and neonatal intensive care unit admission was found to be 12.1, 4.2 and 11.3%, respectively. Antenatal care place, low haemoglobin level and the presence of maternal underlying disease were significantly related to increased risk of overall adverse maternal outcomes. Only pre-term birth was significantly related to overall adverse neonatal outcomes.
Rebarber, Andrei; Bender, Samuel; Silverstein, Michael; Saltzman, Daniel H; Klauser, Chad K; Fox, Nathan S
To report the obstetrical outcomes in patients with twin pregnancies who underwent an emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage and to compare them to patients with singleton pregnancies undergoing the same procedure. Patients who underwent emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage in the second trimester in one maternal-fetal medicine practice from July 1997 to March 2012 were reviewed. We defined an emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage as any cerclage placed in a patient with a dilated cervix on examination or membranes visible at the external cervical os on speculum examination. We compared outcomes between patients with singleton and twin pregnancies using non-parametric testing. There were 43 patients (12 twin and 31 singleton pregnancies) who underwent emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage placement. The median gestational age at cerclage placement, cervical dilation, maternal age, and cerclage type were similar between the groups. Comparing twins to singletons, the median time from cerclage placement to delivery was similar (92 vs. 106 days, p=0.330), as was the median gestational age at delivery (33.5 vs. 35.0 weeks, p=0.244). The likelihood of delivery at >32 weeks (75.0% vs. 71.0%, p>0.999) and the likelihood of neonatal survival to discharge (83.3% vs. 83.9%, p>0.999) were also similar. Emergency/physical exam-indicated cerclage in twin pregnancies can be associated with favorable outcomes, including a high likelihood of delivery at >32 weeks and a high likelihood of survival. Their outcomes appear similar to singleton pregnancies. Cerclage should be considered an option for patients with twin pregnancies and a dilated cervix in the second trimester. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Jaiprom, Jedsada; Luewan, Suchaya; Tongsong, Theera
The aim of this study was to determine pregnancy outcomes among early adolescent women (aged ≤ 15 years) compared with those in late adolescence (16-19 years) and adults aged 20-30 years. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies with maternal age ≤15 years (early adolescent), 16-19 years (late adolescent), and 20-30 years (adult). The primary outcomes for comparison were the rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, growth restriction and cesarean section. A total of 33 777 pregnancies, 298 early adolescent, 4456 late adolescent, and 29 023 adults, were enrolled. Most baseline characteristics were comparable but rates of pregnancy complicated by medical diseases were significantly higher in the adults, especially diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension. When compared to the adult group, the early adolescent group had significantly higher rates of preterm birth (31.9% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001), growth restriction (11.7% vs 7.1%, P = 0.002), low birthweight (28.9% vs 14.7%, P < 0.001), while maternal morbidity, such as pre-eclampsia and placenta previa, was similar. Likewise, most of the main outcomes in early adolescents were also significantly higher than those in late adolescents, but with lesser degrees. Interestingly, the primary cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent women (6.7% vs 12.3%, P = 0.005). Early adolescent pregnancy was associated with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular preterm birth and growth restriction, though most maternal morbidity was comparable with that in the control groups. Cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent mothers. This information should be provided to women and their families. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Neihardt, Joanne E.
To explore the relationship between prenatal parental stress and pregnancy outcome, this study investigated the hypothesis that parents of infants with defects would report greater amounts of stress in the year prior to their infant's birth than would parents of normally developing infants. Data on levels of parental stress were obtained from 37…
Introduction Neurological disorders in pregnancy can be pregnancy related or can be caused by exacerbation of a pre-existing neurological condition or sometimes may even be detected for the first time during pregnancy in which it might be an incidental finding. The diagnosis and management of the neurological disorders in pregnancy is always a challenging task due to varied symptomatology and risks to the fetus. The evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and requires multidisciplinary approach. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to study the influence of neurological disorders on outcome of pregnancy. Material and Methods This was a prospective observational study conduted over a period of 1 year (2013-2014) including 54 pregnant women with neurological manifestations. The spectrum of neurological manifestations was divided into-pregnancy specific, incidental and pre-existing neurological disorders for analysis. Five unusual cases with varied manifestations were studied in detail. Any pregnant woman presenting with neurological manifestation, irrespective of gestational age were included in the present study. The neurological manifestation and the obstetric outcome were analysed in the present study. Results There were 54 women with varied neurological manifestations, majority (74%) of them being primigravida. Seizure was the most common (63%) manifestation. The incidence of pregnancy specific disorder (eclampsia), pre-existing disease (epilepsy) and incidental causes were 40.8%, 37% and 22.2% respectively. Of the 22 women with eclampsia, 15(68%) had seizure during antepartum period and 7(32%) in the postpartum period. Three patients out of 22 who had eclampsia had intrauterine fetal demise on arrival itself, whereas the perinatal outcome was good in the other 19 patients who had live born babies. The most common incidental cause in the present study was tubercular meningitis (44%). There was however a maternal and
Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Masin, Michela; Bonsembiante, Barbara; Cosma, Chiara; Barison, Antonella; Toniato, Rosanna; Fedele, Domenico; Lapolla, Annunziata
Recent studies show adverse outcomes of pregnancy among immigrant women from countries with high diabetes rates. We compared maternal and fetal outcomes in immigrant and Italian women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) followed up at our center. Maternal characteristics considered were age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, frequency of insulin treatment, timing and mode of delivery, and hypertensive disorders; and, for fetal outcome, infants large or small for gestational age, and fetal complications. Pre-pregnancy BMI and HbA1c were higher in immigrant GDM women than in Italians, and more of them were on insulin. No differences in maternal outcome emerged between the two groups. More large for gestational age (LGA) babies were born to immigrant women than to Italians, but no other differences emerged. Apart from newborn LGA, maternal and fetal outcomes were comparable in our immigrant and Italian GDM women. Immigrant GDM women have favourable outcomes if given access to health care and language and cultural barriers are removed.
Bili, E; Tsolakidis, D; Stangou, S; Tarlatzis, B
An increasing number of pregnancies occur in the presence of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), mainly including chronic glomerulonephritis (GN), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and lupus nephritis (LN). The most important factor affecting fetal and maternal prognosis is the degree of renal function at conception. In the majority of patients with mild renal function impairment, and well-controlled blood pressure, pregnancy is usually successful and does not alter the natural course of maternal renal disease. Conversely, fetal outcome and long-term maternal renal function might be seriously threatened by pregnancy in women with moderate or severe renal function impairment. The last few years, advances in our knowledge about the interaction of pregnancy and renal function resulted in the improvement of fetal outcome in patients with chronic renal failure and also in the management of pregnant women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) maintained on dialysis. However, women with impaired renal function and those on dialysis should be carefully counseled about the risks of pregnancy.
Douglas, Alison J
Stress and adverse environmental surroundings result in suboptimal conditions in a pregnant mother such that she may experience poor pregnancy outcome including complete pregnancy failure and preterm labor. Furthermore her developing baby is at risk of adverse programming, which confers susceptibility to long term ill health. While some mechanisms at the feto-maternal interface underlying these conditions are understood, the underlying cause for their adverse adaptation is often not clear. Progesterone plays a key role at many levels, including control of neuroendocrine responses to stress, procuring the required immune balance and controlling placental and decidual function, and lack of progesterone can explain many of the unwanted consequences of stress. How stress that is perceived by the mother inhibits progesterone secretion and action is beginning to be investigated. This overview of maternal neuroendocrine responses to stress throughout pregnancy analyses how they interact to compromise progesterone secretion and precipitate undesirable effects in mother and offspring.
Clements, Karen M.; Zhang, Jianying; Iezzoni, Lisa I.; Smeltzer, Suzanne C.; Long-Bellil, Linda M.
Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the maternal characteristics, pregnancy complications, and birth outcomes among a representative sample of Rhode Island women with disabilities who recently gave birth. Methods Data from the 2002–2011 Rhode Island Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey were analyzed. Results Approximately 7% of women in Rhode Island reported a disability. Women with disabilities reported significant disparities in their health care utilization, health behaviors and health status before and during pregnancy and during the postpartum period. Compared to nondisabled women, they were significantly more likely to report stressful life events and medical complications during their most recent pregnancy, were less likely to receive prenatal care in the first trimester, and more likely to have preterm births (13.4%; 95% CI, 11.6–15.6 compared to 8.9%; 95% CI, 8.5–9.3 for women without disabilities) and low birth weight babies (10.3%; 95% CI, 9.4–11.2 compared to 6.8%; 95% CI, 6.8–6.9). There was no difference in the rates of cesarean section between women with and without disabilities. Conclusion These findings support the need for clinicians providing care to pregnant women with disabilities to be aware of the increased risk for medical problems during pregnancy and factors that increase the risk for poor infant outcomes. PMID:26492209
Rizwan, Naushaba; Abbasi, Razia Mustafa; Mughal, Razia
Multiple pregnancy still warrants special attention as it is associated with increasing risk for mother and foetus. Preterm delivery increases the risk for baby. This study was conducted to evaluate the risks of pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcome in women with twin pregnancy. It was 2 years observational study from July 2007 to July 2009 at Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro. All women admitted to the labour ward with multiple pregnancy after 28 weeks gestation were included in the study. Main outcome measures were maternal complications (i.e., anaemia, preterm labour, pregnancy induced hypertension, postpartum haemorrhage etc.), perinatal morbidity and mortality. All data collected was analysed using SPSS-16. Incidence of multiple pregnancy in this study was 1.44%. Majority of women 52 (81%) were un-booked and only 12 (18%) were booked; 54 (84%) women presented with preterm labour, 10 (15.6%) were at > or = 36 weeks of gestation. Fifty-four (84%) patients presented with preterm labour. Anaemia was found in 42 (65.6%), and hypertension was noted in 31.2% cases. Abruptio placentae occurred in 6.2% of cases, prematurity was the major problem (54, 84.3%). Majority presented between 28-35 weeks gestation, 10 (15.6%) delivered at 36 weeks or above. The most common cause of neonatal death was very low birth weight (in 32.8% cases), followed by sepsis and jaundice. Multiple pregnancy is associated with increasing risk for mother and foetus. Preterm delivery increases the risk for baby.
Harmsen, Marissa J; Browne, Joyce L; Venter, Francois; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Rijken, Marcus J
Observed adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the lipid profile could be of significance in pregnancy. This systematic review aims to summarize studies that investigated the association between HIV, ART and serum lipids during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic search was conducted in five electronic databases to obtain articles that measured serum lipid concentrations or the incidence of dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women. Included articles were assessed for quality according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The extracted data was analysed through descriptive analysis. Of the 1264 articles screened, 17 articles were included in this review; eleven reported the incidence of dyslipidaemia, and twelve on maternal serum lipid concentrations under the influence of HIV-infection and ART. No articles reported pregnancy outcomes in relation to serum lipids. Articles were of acceptable quality, but heterogenic in methods and study design. Lipid levels in HIV-infected women increased 1.5-3 fold over the trimesters of pregnancy, and remained within the physiological reference range. The percentage of women with dyslipidaemia was variable between the studies [0-88.9%] and highest in the groups on first generation protease inhibitors and for women on ART at conception. This systematic review observed physiologic concentrations of serum lipids for HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy. Serum lipids were increased in users of first generation protease inhibitors and for those on treatment at conception. There was no information available about pregnancy outcomes. Future studies are needed which include HIV-uninfected control groups, control for potential confounders, and overcome limitations associated with included studies.
Brin, Mitchell F; Kirby, Russell S; Slavotinek, Anne; Miller-Messana, Mary Ann; Parker, Lori; Yushmanova, Irina; Yang, Huiying
To evaluate pregnancy outcomes following onabotulinumtoxinA (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy category C product) exposure using the Allergan safety database. The Allergan Global Safety Database contains reports of onabotulinumtoxinA administration before/during pregnancy, including both prospective (reported before outcome) and retrospective (outcome already known) cases. The database was searched from 1/1/90 to 12/31/13 for eligible cases where treatment occurred during pregnancy or ≤3 months before conception. To minimize reporting bias, prevalence rates were focused on prospective cases. Of 574 pregnancies with maternal onabotulinumtoxinA exposure, 232 were eligible with known outcomes. Patients received onabotulinumtoxinA most frequently for cosmetic indications (50.5%), movement disorders (16.8%), and pain disorders (14.2%). Of the 137 with dose information, 40.1% received <50U, 14.6% 50U to <100U, 27.7% 100U to <200U, and 17.5% ≥200U. Among 146 cases with known maternal age, 47.9% were ≥35 years. Most (96.0%) fetal exposures occurred during/before the first trimester. Of the 137 prospective cases (139 fetuses), 110 (79.1%) were live births; 29 (20.9%; 95% CI, 14.0-30.0%) ended in fetal loss (21 spontaneous, 8 induced abortions). Among live births, 106 (96.4%) were normal, with four abnormal birth outcomes (1 major fetal defect, 2 minor fetal malformations, 1 birth complication), giving a 2.7% (3/110; 95% CI, 0.6-8.0%) prevalence rate for overall fetal defects. A 24-year retrospective review of the Allergan safety database shows that the prevalence of fetal defects in onabotulinumtoxinA-exposed mothers before/during pregnancy (2.7%) is comparable with background rates in the general population. Pregnancy outcome monitoring in onabotulinumtoxinA-exposed women continues. © 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baroncelli, Silvia; Tamburrini, Enrica; Ravizza, Marina; Pinnetti, Carmela; Dalzero, Serena; Scatà, Manuela; Crepaldi, Alessandra; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Molinari, Atim; Vimercati, Antonella; Maccabruni, Anna; Francisci, Daniela; Rubino, Elena; Floridia, Marco
Pregnancy has been associated with a low risk of HIV disease progression. Most pregnancies with HIV currently involve women who have not experienced AIDS-defining events, and are clinically classified as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) groups A or B. We evaluated the main maternal outcomes among pregnant women with more advanced HIV disease, defined by CDC-C disease stage. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. A total of 566 HIV-infected mothers, 515 in stage A or B (CDC-AB group) and 51 in stage C (CDC-C group) were evaluated. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. No differences were found in the main maternal and neonatal outcomes. Most of the women achieved viral suppression at end of pregnancy (>1000 copies per milliliter: CDC-C: 17.2%; CDC-AB: 13.7%). One year after delivery, HIV replication (HIV-RNA >1000 copies per milliliter) was present in 11.5% of CDC-AB women and 30.0% CDC-C women. Despite lower initial CD4 counts (300 versus 481 cells per microliter), CDC-C women maintained stable CD4 levels during pregnancy, and 1 year after delivery, a significant increase in CD4 count from preconception values was observed in both groups (CDC-C: +72 cells per microliter, p=0.031; CDC-AB: +43 cells per microliter, p<0.001). Only one AIDS event occurred in a woman with a previous diagnosis of AIDS. In CDC-C women, pregnancy is not associated with an increased rate of adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes, and a good immunovirologic response can be expected. During postpartum care, women with more advanced HIV infection should receive particular care to prevent loss of virologic suppression.
Salam, Rehana A; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies, remains one of the major public health challenges, particularly in low-to-middle-income countries. Micronutrient deficiencies affect people of all ages, but its effects appear more devastating in pregnant women and children. Poor maternal nutrition contributes to at least 20% of maternal deaths and increases the probability of poor pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in low birth weight, stunting, wasting and mortality. Key Messages: Several strategies have been employed to provide pregnant women with micronutrients. These strategies include education, dietary modification, food provision, agricultural interventions, supplementation and fortification either alone or in combination. Micronutrient supplementation is the most widely practiced intervention to prevent and manage single or multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Micronutrient supplementation either alone or in combination has shown to be effective in improving maternal, birth and child outcomes. There is a need to focus on maternal micronutrient status as a continuum from the periconceptional period throughout pregnancy to lactation. Given the wide prevalence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies in low-to-middle-income countries, the challenge is to implement intervention strategies that combine appropriate maternal and child health interventions with micronutrient interventions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
van Veen, Teelkien R; Haeri, Sina; Baker, Arthur M
The authors sought to determine whether pregnancies in adolescents following an abortion of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. In a cohort study of all adolescent (younger than 18 years) deliveries over a 4-year period at 1 institution, we compared nulliparous women with a history of a prior abortion (cases) to those without a spontaneous loss or abortion of pregnancy (referent) for adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. Of the 654 included nulliparous adolescent deliveries, 102 (16%) had an abortion before the index pregnancy. Compared with the referent group, adolescents with a history of a abortion were older (17.8 ± 0.8 vs 16.7 ± 1.2 years, P = .0001), enrolled earlier for prenatal care (14.4 ± 5.6 vs 17.2 ± 7.6 weeks, P = .0004), along with a higher incidence of African American race (95% vs 88%, P = .05). The groups did not differ with respect to other maternal demographics. Perinatal outcomes, including spontaneous preterm birth, abnormal placentation, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery, did not differ between the 2 groups. Compared with adolescent women who had just delivered and did not have a prior abortion, women who had just delivered and had a previous abortion were more likely to be older at the age of their first pregnancy and more likely to initiate early prenatal care. Thus, having a prior abortion may improve the health of a pregnancy though adverse outcomes do not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scholten, Brenda L; Page-Christiaens, Godelieve C M L; Franx, Arie; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W P M; Koster, Maria P H
Objective To compare the incidences of preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placental implantation or retention problems (ie, placenta praevia, placental abruption and retained placenta) and postpartum haemorrhage between women with and without a history of pregnancy termination. Design A retrospective cohort study using aggregated data from a national perinatal registry. Setting All midwifery practices and hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants All pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy without congenital malformations and a gestational age of ≥20 weeks who delivered between January 2000 and December 2007. Main outcome measures Preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placenta praevia, placental abruption, retained placenta and postpartum haemorrhage. Results A previous pregnancy termination was reported in 16 000 (1.2%) deliveries. The vast majority of these (90–95%) were performed by surgical methods. The incidence of all outcome measures was significantly higher in women with a history of pregnancy termination. Adjusted ORs (95% CI) for cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, preterm delivery, placental implantation or retention problems and postpartum haemorrhage were 4.6 (2.9 to 7.2), 1.11 (1.02 to 1.20), 1.42 (1.29 to 1.55) and 1.16 (1.08 to 1.25), respectively. Associated numbers needed to harm were 1000, 167, 111 and 111, respectively. For any listed adverse outcome, the number needed to harm was 63. Conclusions In this large nationwide cohort study, we found a positive association between surgical termination of pregnancy and subsequent preterm delivery, cervical incompetence treated by cerclage, placental implantation or retention problems and postpartum haemorrhage in a subsequent pregnancy. Absolute risks for these outcomes, however, remain small. Medicinal termination might be considered first whenever there is a choice between both methods. PMID:23793655
Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Weirong; Li, Xiaotian
To evaluate the natural history and outcome of pregnancies in patients with placental chorioangioma. A total of 16 placentas with a histologic diagnosis of chorioangioma were identified, and the natural history and outcome of pregnancy were evaluated. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committees of our unit, and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. Thirteen of the 16 cases were associated with a wide variety of fetal complications. Two-thirds of the cases developed complications that either required elective delivery because of fetal distress (n = 4), fetal heart failure (n = 1), oligohydramnion (n = 1), and premature labor of dichorionic twins (n = 1) or resulted in intrauterine fetal death and termination of pregnancy (n = 2). Placental chorioangioma was associated with the development of polyhydramnios, fetal growth restriction, and fetal distress in a significant number of cases. The size, vascularity, and location of the chorioangioma may be three independent factors of maternal and fetal complications. Any of these three factors can influence the outcome of pregnancy. Close antenatal examination should be routinely practiced to allow the timely diagnosis of early fetal heart failure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Khalil, Mounir M; Alzahra, Esgair
The relationship between pregnancy outcomes and fetal gender is well reported from different areas in the world, but not from Africa. In this study, we try to understand whether the recorded phenomenon of association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with a male fetus applies to our population. A total of 29,140 patient records from 2009 and 2010 were retrieved from Aljalaa Maternity Hospital, Tripoli, Libya. Analysis was carried out to find the correlation between fetal gender and different pregnancy outcomes. A male fetus was associated with an increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds risk 1.4), preterm delivery (6.7% for males, 5.5% for females, odds risk 1.24), cesarean section (23.9% for males, 20% for females, odds risk 1.25), and instrumental vaginal delivery (4.4% for males, 3.1% for females, odds risk 1.48), p<0.005. Preeclampsia was more frequent among preterm females and postterm males, p<0.005. It was also more frequent in male-bearing primigravids, p<0.01. We confirm the existence of an adverse effect of a male fetus on pregnancy and labor in our population. We recommend further research to understand the mechanisms and clinical implications of this phenomenon.
Khalil, Mounir M.; Alzahra, Esgair
Objective The relationship between pregnancy outcomes and fetal gender is well reported from different areas in the world, but not from Africa. In this study, we try to understand whether the recorded phenomenon of association of adverse pregnancy outcomes with a male fetus applies to our population. Materials and methods A total of 29,140 patient records from 2009 and 2010 were retrieved from Aljalaa Maternity Hospital, Tripoli, Libya. Analysis was carried out to find the correlation between fetal gender and different pregnancy outcomes. Results A male fetus was associated with an increased incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (odds risk 1.4), preterm delivery (6.7% for males, 5.5% for females, odds risk 1.24), cesarean section (23.9% for males, 20% for females, odds risk 1.25), and instrumental vaginal delivery (4.4% for males, 3.1% for females, odds risk 1.48), p<0.005. Preeclampsia was more frequent among preterm females and postterm males, p<0.005. It was also more frequent in male-bearing primigravids, p<0.01. Conclusion We confirm the existence of an adverse effect of a male fetus on pregnancy and labor in our population. We recommend further research to understand the mechanisms and clinical implications of this phenomenon. PMID:23308081
Uneke, Chigozie J.
Placental malaria is recognized as a common complication of malaria in pregnancy in areas of stable transmission, and, as a consequence, serious health problems arise for the mother and especially her baby . Although malaria in pregnancy is a major factor associated with adverse perinatal outcome, the link between malaria and perinatal morbidity/mortality is less clear in areas with stable endemic malaria where pregnant women have acquired immunity . Histological examination of the placenta is a predictor of fetal morbidity, as well as being the most sensitive detector of maternal infection . Adverse perinatal outcome has been described as an important indicator of poor quality of obstetric care and social development . A variety of adverse perinatal outcomes associated with placental malaria have been described, including low birth weight, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, fetal anemia, congenital malaria, and fetal mortality. The most common clinical features in 80 percent of perinatal cases are fever, anemia, and splenomegaly . Other signs and symptoms include hepatomegaly, jaundice, regurgitation, loose stools, poor feeding, and, occasionally, drowsiness, restlessness, and cyanosis also can be seen [5,6]. A review of studies that investigated these poor fetal outcomes associated with placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is presented here. PMID:18299721
Koetsawang, S; Rachawat, D; Piya-Anant, M
The outcome of 196 pregnancies with Lippes Loop in situ was studied. In 102 cases with inaccessible thread, the IUD was left in place. Ninety-four women had the IUD removed when the thread was still visible. The incidence of spontaneous abortion and premature delivery was 56.8% in the group of 102, and was significantly higher than in those women whose loop was removed. No serious complications occurred in any of the cases. The results suggested that the IUD should be removed early in pregnancy when the string is still accessible.
Vivatkusol, Yada; Thavaramara, Thaovalai; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn
To study the prevalence and pregnancy outcomes of inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG) among teenage pregnant women. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted on 2,165 teenage pregnant women who attended our antenatal clinic between January 2007 and August 2015. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with inappropriate GWG, including underweight and overweight, were studied and compared with those of women with appropriate GWG. Complete data of 1,943 women were obtained. Among these women, the mean age was 17.4±1.4 years and mean body mass index at first visit was 19.1±3.0 kg/m(2). The prevalence of inappropriate GWG was 61.7%. Underweight women were more likely to experience anemia and preterm delivery, whereas overweight women required more cesarean sections because of cephalopelvic disproportion and preeclampsia, compared to women with appropriate weight gain (all P<0.001). The rates of gestational diabetes mellitus among women who were underweight, overweight, or appropriate weight were not significantly different. More than 60% of teenage pregnancies showed inappropriate GWG. GWG had a significant impact on pregnancy outcomes.
Gelaye, Bizu; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Borba, Christina P.C.; Rondon, Marta B.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Henderson, David C.; Williams, Michelle A.
Objectives Childhood abuse is associated with increased risks of adult psychiatric disorders and physical health conditions. Accumulating evidence documents associations of childhood abuse with sleep disturbances in adulthood. However, to date, no study has evaluated associations of childhood abuse and sleep disturbances among pregnant women. Methods This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. In-person interviews were conducted in early pregnancy to collect information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, history of childhood abuse, and complaints of sleep disturbances. Spanish language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST-S) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-S) were used to assess stress-related sleep disturbance and sleep quality, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Women who experienced any childhood abuse had a 1.65-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.15–2.38) and 2.11-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality during early pregnancy (aOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.35–3.30) as compared with women who reported no abuse. Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both physical and sexual abuse during childhood were more than twice as likely to suffer from stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR=2.26; 95% CI:1.44–3.53) and poor sleep quality (aOR=2.43; 95% CI:1.45–4.09). Conclusions A history of childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. These findings, if replicated, should be used to inform the development of trauma-informed care for such sleep disturbances induced by childhood trauma. PMID:26429757
Gelaye, Bizu; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Borba, Christina P C; Rondon, Marta B; Sánchez, Sixto E; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A
Childhood abuse is associated with increased risks of adult psychiatric disorders and physical health conditions. Mounting evidence documents associations of childhood abuse with sleep disturbances in adulthood. However, to date, no study has evaluated associations of childhood abuse and sleep disturbances among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 634 pregnant Peruvian women. To collect information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, history of childhood abuse, and complaints of sleep disturbances, face-to-face interviews were conducted with women in early pregnancy. Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST-S) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-S), translated from English to Spanish, were used to assess stress-related sleep disturbance and sleep quality, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Women who experienced any childhood abuse had a 1.65-fold increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.15-2.38) and 2.11-fold increased odds of poor sleep quality during early pregnancy (aOR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.35-3.30) as compared with women who reported no abuse. Women who reported both physical and sexual abuse during childhood were more than twice as likely to suffer from stress-related sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.26; 95% CI: 1.44-3.53) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.45-4.09) in comparison to women who reported no childhood abuse. A history of childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of stress-related sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality during pregnancy. These findings, if replicated, should be used to inform the development of trauma-informed care for such sleep disturbances induced by childhood trauma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cleghorn de Rohrmoser, D.C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of selected characteristics of the paternal work environment and occupational history to the incidence of complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and anomalies in birth outcomes. The literature suggested that male exposure to teratogenic hazards in the form of radiation and chemical compounds, primarily in the form of solvents, has been implicated in reproductive disorders and malformed offspring in animals. Similarly, some recent research suggests that the exposure of male workers to such hazards on their job may have consequences for their spouses and children. Based on these experimental research studies and analyses of persons working in high risk occupations, a broader study of the potential contribution of paternal work environment variables to the success of pregnancy and birth outcomes seemed warranted. Based upon the literature review, a model was proposed for predicting complications in pregnancy, complications in labor and birth outcome (normal birth, low birth weight, congenital malformations and fetal death). From the 1980 National Natality Survey and the 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey, four sub-samples of married couples, with both husband and wife employed, were selected on the basis of one of the four birth outcomes. The model called for controlling a range of maternal intrinsic and extrinsic health and behavioral variables known to be related to birth outcomes. Multiple logistic regression procedures were used to analyze the effects of father's exposure to radiation and solvents on the job, to complications in pregnancy and labor, and to birth outcome, while controlling for maternal variables. The results indicated that none of the paternal variables were predictors of complications in labor. Further, there was no clear pattern of results, though father's degree of exposure to solvents, and exposures to radiation did reach significance in some analyses.
Larroca, Santiago Garcia-Tizon; Arevalo-Serrano, Juan; Abad, Virginia Ortega; Recarte, Pilar Pintado; Carreras, Alejandro Garcia; Pastor, Gonzalo Nozaleda; Hernandez, Cesar Rodriguez; Pacheco, Ricardo Perez Fernandez; Luis, Juan De Leon
AIM: To rule out maternal and pregnancy factors that may contribute to platelet count (PLT) changes in the first trimester of gestation and examine if there is any association between its levels and adverse perinatal outcome. METHODS: The study population included all patients from the first-trimester visit between 2013-2015 with pregnancy results. Linear multiple regression was constructed to rule out variables that may have a significant contribution to PLT. For each adverse outcome at birth, multiple logistic regression analysis was implemented to estimate the PLT effect. RESULTS: PLT was measured in 6092 patients. There was the significant contribution on PLT in the first trimester from maternal weight, the presence of rheumatologic disease, BHCG levels and MPV. There was a significant association between PLT and abnormal cardiotocography at delivery (OR 1.004; IC95% 1.001 to 1.007) and C-Section due to abnormal CTG (OR 1.005; IC95% 1.002 to 1.008). When adjusted for factors that interact with PLT there was also a significant association with pH at birth < 7.10 and gestational diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal and pregnancy factors can poorly predict relevant changes in PLT at the first trimester of gestation. PLT at first trimester of pregnancy might predict adverse perinatal outcome in combination with other markers. PMID:28293312
Ferraro, Zachary M; Gaudet, Laura; Adamo, Kristi B
Pregnancy is a critical period of body weight regulation. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain have become increasingly common and contribute to poor obstetrical outcomes for mother and baby. Regular participation in physical activity may improve risk profiles in pregnant women. Our objectives were to provide an overview of maternal-fetal exercise physiology, summarize current evidence on the effects of physical activity during pregnancy on maternal-fetal outcomes, and review the most recent clinical practice guidelines. In addition, we summarize the findings in the context of the current obesity epidemic and discuss implications for clinical practice. A literature review was completed in which we queried OVID (Medline), EMBASE, and PSYCHINFO databases with title words "exercise or physical activity" and "pregnancy or gestation" from 1950 to March 1, 2010. A total of 212 articles were selected for review. Care providers should recommend physical activity to most pregnant women (i.e., those without contraindications) and view participation as a safe and beneficial component of a healthy pregnancy. Obstetricians & Gynecologists and Family Physicians. After participating in this CME activity, physicians should be better able to classify the potential impact of physical activity on maternal glycemic control and fetal growth outcomes. Assess maternal lifestyle and provide recommendations on appropriate gestational weight gain, evaluate pregnant women for contraindications to physical activity participation, make individualized recommendations for exercise participation, and educate patients on the merits of physical activity for health benefit.
Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Su, Yi; Qian, Xu
Poor oral health, such as periodontal (gum) disease, has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality, especially in low-and middle-income countries. However, there is little or no access to preventive dental care in most low-and middle-income countries. We propose to develop and test a "Mouth Rinse Intervention" among pregnant women to prevent the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy and reduce adverse birth and neonatal outcomes in a rural county of China. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. A sample of 468 (234 in each arm of the study) women in early pregnancy with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through the methods of Periodontal Screening and Recording. All women diagnosed with periodontal disease will be randomly allocated into the intervention or control group. Women assigned in the intervention group will be provided with non-alcohol antimicrobial mouth rinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride throughout the pregnancy and oral health education. Women in the control group will receive a package of tooth brush and paste, plus oral hygiene education. Women will be followed-up to childbirth until the 42nd day postpartum. The main outcomes include mean birthweight (gram) and mean gestational age (week). Compared with conventional mechanical 'scaling and root planning' periodontal treatment during pregnancy, our proposed mouth rinse intervention could be a simple, cost-effective, and sustainable solution to improve both mother's oral health and neonate outcomes. If the mouth rinse is confirmed to be effective, it would demonstrate great potential for the application in other low- or middle-income countries to prevent adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight and to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. This trial was registered with Chinese
Isaranurug, Sirikul; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Choprapawon, Chanpen
Teenage pregnancies put mothers at high-risks to many health-related complications and newborn infants to poor birth-outcomes. The present study aimed to explore the relationship of socio-economic status, service utilization, and pregnancy outcomes between teenage and adult mothers. The study design was a population-based prospective cohort study conducted in four districts located in different geographical areas of Thailand All pregnancies occurring within one year, in each of the selected districts as of October 2000, were identified and recruited as the study's cohorts. Data was collected by interviewing cohort-respondents and through reviewing medical records. The present study showed that teenage pregnancies accounted for 13.3% of all pregnancies in the study area. Approximately two thirds of the teenage cohort (i.e. 68.8%) were 18-19 years of age, while the remaining cohort members were 14-17 years of age (i.e. 26.1% aged 16-17 years, and 5.1% aged 14-15 years). The percentage of low-birth weights for teenage and adult mothers were 15.1% and 8.8% respectively. A higher percentage of teenage mothers enrolled in or completed secondary or higher levels of education has had more abnormal deliveries in comparison with adult mothers. In comparison with the non-teenage mothers, a greater proportion of teenage mothers had insufficient income, did not own their homes/houses, were single parents, had fewer consultations with health personnel, did not plan their pregnancy, were pregnant for the first time, and delivered infants with low-birth weights. The prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Thailand remains high. Most teenage mothers and their newborn infants are vulnerable to a variety of potentially serious health problems, and accordingly need appropriate help and support.
Nilsson, Emma; Lichtenstein, Paul; Cnattingius, Sven; Murray, Robin M; Hultman, Christina M
Schizophrenia in the mother may imply an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, inconclusive findings, unknown pathological mechanisms and possible confounding by social factors and smoking requests further explorations. The aim of this study were to (1) examine non-optimal pregnancy outcome using data from a population-based cohort, controlling for covariates known to influence fetal growth; and (2) perform separate analyses of women diagnosed before childbirth and women hospitalized for schizophrenia during pregnancy. The study sample comprised 2096 births by 1438 mothers diagnosed with schizophrenia (of whom 696 mothers were antenatal diagnosed and 188 admitted during pregnancy) and 1,555,975 births in the general population. We found significantly increased risks for stillbirth, infant death, preterm delivery, low birth weight, and small-for-gestational-age among the offspring of women with schizophrenia. Women with an episode of schizophrenia during pregnancy had the highest risks (e.g., low birth weight; OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.9-6.6 and stillbirth; OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4-13.8). Controlling for a high incidence of smoking during pregnancy among schizophrenic women (51% vs. 24% in the normal population) and other maternal factors (single motherhood, maternal age, parity, maternal education, mothers' country of birth and pregnancy-induced hypertensive diseases) in a multiple regression model, reduced the risk estimates markedly. However, the risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes were even after adjustments generally doubled for women with an episode of schizophrenia during pregnancy compared to women in the control group (e.g., low birth weight; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5, preterm delivery; OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.8 and stillbirth; OR 2.5, 95% CI 0.8-7.9). The risks for preterm delivery and low birth weight were significantly elevated throughout the analyses. We conclude that schizophrenia in the mother implies an increased risk for poor perinatal outcome, not
Patil, Mithil; Panchanadikar, T M; Wagh, Girija
-13 weeks) is an important predictor of future obstetric outcome, it has poor positive predictive value. Patients having a Papp-A level less than 0.5 MOM have a high risk for preterm delivery, fetal growth restriction, and stillbirths along with increased incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. A low Papp-A level is a useful indicator of risk of preterm delivery and future chance of development of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
Lazer, Tal; Dar, Shir; Shlush, Ekaterina; Al Kudmani, Basheer S; Quach, Kevin; Sojecki, Agata; Glass, Karen; Sharma, Prati; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L
We examined whether treatment with minimum-dose stimulation (MS) protocol enhances clinical pregnancy rates compared to high-dose stimulation (HS) protocol. A retrospective cohort study was performed comparing IVF and pregnancy outcomes between MS and HS gonadotropin-antagonist protocol for patients with poor ovarian reserve (POR). Inclusion criteria included patients with an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ≤8 pmol/L and/or antral follicle count (AFC) ≤5 on days 2-3 of the cycle. Patients from 2008 exclusively had a HS protocol treatment, while patients in 2010 had treatment with a MS protocol exclusively. The MS protocol involved letrozole at 2.5 mg over 5 days, starting from day 2, overlapping with gonadotropins, starting from the third day of letrozole at 150 units daily. GnRH antagonist was introduced once one or more follicles reached 14 mm or larger. The HS group received gonadotropins (≥300 IU/day) throughout their antagonist cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MS protocol compared to the HS protocol (P = 0.007). Furthermore, the live birth rate was significantly higher in the MS group compare to the HS group (P = 0.034). In conclusion, the MS IVF protocol is less expensive (lower gonadotropin dosage) and resulted in a higher clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate than a HS protocol for poor responders.
Lazer, Tal; Al Kudmani, Basheer S.; Glass, Karen; Sharma, Prati; Librach, Clifford L.
We examined whether treatment with minimum-dose stimulation (MS) protocol enhances clinical pregnancy rates compared to high-dose stimulation (HS) protocol. A retrospective cohort study was performed comparing IVF and pregnancy outcomes between MS and HS gonadotropin-antagonist protocol for patients with poor ovarian reserve (POR). Inclusion criteria included patients with an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ≤8 pmol/L and/or antral follicle count (AFC) ≤5 on days 2-3 of the cycle. Patients from 2008 exclusively had a HS protocol treatment, while patients in 2010 had treatment with a MS protocol exclusively. The MS protocol involved letrozole at 2.5 mg over 5 days, starting from day 2, overlapping with gonadotropins, starting from the third day of letrozole at 150 units daily. GnRH antagonist was introduced once one or more follicles reached 14 mm or larger. The HS group received gonadotropins (≥300 IU/day) throughout their antagonist cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MS protocol compared to the HS protocol (P = 0.007). Furthermore, the live birth rate was significantly higher in the MS group compare to the HS group (P = 0.034). In conclusion, the MS IVF protocol is less expensive (lower gonadotropin dosage) and resulted in a higher clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate than a HS protocol for poor responders. PMID:25763403
Hinds, T S; West, W L; Knight, E M; Harland, B F
The American public consumes a wide array of caffeinated products as coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and caffeine-containing medication. Therefore, it seems of value to inform both the scientific community and the consumer about the potential effects of excessive caffeine consumption, particularly by pregnant women. The results of this literature review suggest that heavy caffeine use (> or = 300 mg per day) during pregnancy is associated with small reductions in infant birth weight that may be especially detrimental to premature or low-birth-weight infants. Some researchers also document an increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with caffeine consumption prior to and during pregnancy. However, overwhelming evidence indicates that caffeine is not a human teratogen, and that caffeine appears to have no effect on preterm labor and delivery. More research is needed before unambiguous statements about the effects of caffeine on pregnancy outcome variables can be made.
Kozer, E.; Moretti, M. E.; Koren, G.
QUESTION: I am treating a 34-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis. She began taking the new drug leflunomide (Arava) 6 months ago and had good clinical response. She is now planning her first pregnancy. What should she do? ANSWER: Leflunomide is a new and effective disease-modifying antirheumatic drug. Animal studies have shown an increased rate of malformations and fetal death in various species, but there are no data on pregnancy outcomes in humans treated with leflunomide. Since the drug has a prolonged and unpredictable elimination half-life, it should be stopped during pregnancy. The manufacturer recommends that patients who wish to become pregnant be treated with cholestyramine, which enhances elimination. PMID:11340750
Boyd, Heather A.; Basit, Saima; Harpsøe, Maria C.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Jess, Tine
Background and Objectives Existing data on pregnancy complications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are inconsistent. To address these inconsistencies, we investigated potential associations between IBD, IBD-related medication use during pregnancy, and pregnancy loss, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, Apgar score, and congenital abnormalities. Methods We conducted a cohort study in >85,000 Danish National Birth Cohort women who were pregnant in the period 1996-2002 and had information on IBD, IBD-related medication use (systemic or local corticosteroids, 5-aminosalicylates), pregnancy outcomes and potential confounders. We evaluated associations between IBD and adverse pregnancy/birth outcomes using Cox regression and log-linear binomial regression. Results IBD was strongly and significantly associated with severe pre-eclampsia, preterm premature rupture of membranes and medically indicated preterm delivery in women using systemic corticosteroids during pregnancy (hazard ratios [HRs] >7). IBD was also associated with premature preterm rupture of membranes in women using local corticosteroid medications (HR 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-8.20) and with medically indicated preterm delivery (HR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99-3.68) in non-medicated women. Furthermore, IBD was associated with low 5-minute Apgar score in term infants (risk ratio [RR] 2.19, 95% CI 1.03-4.66). Finally, Crohn’s disease (but not ulcerative colitis) was associated with major congenital abnormalities in the offspring (RR 1.85, 95% CI 1.06-3.21). No child with a congenital abnormality born to a woman with IBD was exposed to systemic corticosteroids in utero. Conclusion Women with IBD are at increased risk of severe pre-eclampsia, medically indicated preterm delivery, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and delivering infants with low Apgar score and major congenital malformations. These associations are only partly explained by severe disease as reflected by systemic corticosteroid use
Chambers, Christina D.; Johnson, Diana L.; Robinson, Luther K.; Braddock, Stephen R.; Xu, Ronghui; Lopez-Jimenez, Janina; Mirrasoul, Nicole; Salas, Elizabeth; Luo, Yunjun J.; Jin, Shelia; Jones, Kenneth Lyons
Objective In preclinical reproductive studies, leflunomide was found to be embryotoxic and teratogenic. Women treated with leflunomide are advised to avoid pregnancy; those who become pregnant are advised to reduce fetal exposure through a cholestyramine drug elimination procedure. The present study was undertaken to investigate pregnancy outcomes in women who received leflunomide and were treated with cholestyramine during pregnancy. Methods Sixty-four pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were treated with leflunomide during pregnancy (95.3% of whom received cholestyramine), 108 pregnant women with RA not treated with leflunomide, and 78 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 1999 and 2009. Information was collected via interview of the mothers, review of medical records, and specialized physical examination of infants. Results There were no significant differences in the overall rate of major structural defects in the exposed group (3 of 56 live births [5.4%]) relative to either comparison group (each 4.2%)(P = 0.13). The rate was similar to the 3–4% expected in the general population. There was no specific pattern of major or minor anomalies. Infants in both the leflunomide-exposed and non–leflunomide-exposed RA groups were born smaller and earlier relative to infants of healthy mothers; however, after adjustment for confounding factors, there were no significant differences between the leflunomide-exposed and non–leflunomide-exposed RA groups. Conclusion Although the sample size is small, these data do not support the notion that there is a substantial increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes due to leflunomide exposure among women who undergo cholestyramine elimination procedure early in pregnancy. These findings can provide some reassurance to women who inadvertently become pregnant while taking leflunomide and undergo the washout procedure. PMID:20131283
Chambers, Christina D; Johnson, Diana L; Robinson, Luther K; Braddock, Stephen R; Xu, Ronghui; Lopez-Jimenez, Janina; Mirrasoul, Nicole; Salas, Elizabeth; Luo, Yunjun J; Jin, Shelia; Jones, Kenneth Lyons
In preclinical reproductive studies, leflunomide was found to be embryotoxic and teratogenic. Women treated with leflunomide are advised to avoid pregnancy; those who become pregnant are advised to reduce fetal exposure through a cholestyramine drug elimination procedure. The present study was undertaken to investigate pregnancy outcomes in women who received leflunomide and were treated with cholestyramine during pregnancy. Sixty-four pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were treated with leflunomide during pregnancy (95.3% of whom received cholestyramine), 108 pregnant women with RA not treated with leflunomide, and 78 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 1999 and 2009. Information was collected via interview of the mothers, review of medical records, and specialized physical examination of infants. There were no significant differences in the overall rate of major structural defects in the exposed group (3 of 56 live births [5.4%]) relative to either comparison group (each 4.2%)(P = 0.13). The rate was similar to the 3-4% expected in the general population. There was no specific pattern of major or minor anomalies. Infants in both the leflunomide-exposed and non-leflunomide-exposed RA groups were born smaller and earlier relative to infants of healthy mothers; however, after adjustment for confounding factors, there were no significant differences between the leflunomide-exposed and non-leflunomide-exposed RA groups. Although the sample size is small, these data do not support the notion that there is a substantial increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes due to leflunomide exposure among women who undergo cholestyramine elimination procedure early in pregnancy. These findings can provide some reassurance to women who inadvertently become pregnant while taking leflunomide and undergo the washout procedure.
Ratanajamit, Chaveewan; Vinther Skriver, Mette; Jepsen, Peter; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
This study aimed to examine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in children born to mothers who redeemed a prescription for systemic or topical acyclovir during pregnancy. Data on prescriptions of acyclovir were obtained from the Danish North Jutland Prescription Database and data on pregnancy outcomes from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and the County Hospital Discharge Registry. The risk of malformations, low birth weight, preterm birth and stillbirth in users of acyclovir were compared with non-exposed women using a follow-up design, while the risk of spontaneous abortion was examined using a case-control design. 90 pregnant women had redeemed a prescription for systemic acyclovir, and 995 women for topical acyclovir, during 30 d before conception, or during their pregnancies from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2001. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the exposed relative to the non-exposed for the systemic and topical acyclovir were: malformations, 0.69 (0.17-2.82) and 0.84 (0.51, 1.39); low birth weight, 2.03 (0.50-8.35) and 0.48 (0.21-1.07); preterm birth, 1.04 (0.38-2.85) and 0.95 (0.70-1.28); stillbirth (for topical acyclovir), 1.70 (0.80-3.60); and spontaneous abortion, 2.16 (0.60-7.80) and 1.29 (0.80-3.60). There is increasing evidence that the use of systemic acyclovir is not associated with an increased prevalence of malformations at birth and preterm delivery. The data for low birth weight and spontaneous abortion are still inconclusive, although the risk of spontaneous abortion is increased in women exposed to acyclovir during the first month of pregnancy. The use of topical acyclovir does not seem to be associated with any adverse pregnancy outcome, although data on stillbirth are inconclusive.
Ovayolu, Ali; Özdamar, Özkan; Gün, İsmet; Arslanbuğa, Cansev Y; Kutlu, Tayfun; Tunalı, Gülden; Uluhan, Ramazan
A considerable proportion of all women undergoing IVFrespond poorly to gonadotropin stimulation. These women are reported to be associated with increased cancellation rates and lower pregnancy rates. It has been hypothesized that poor response to ovarian stimulation is a first sign of ovarian ageing or premature ovarian failure, which might be related to altered inflammatory response in the body. We aimed to compare follicular fluid presepsin levels between poor- and normo-responder patients to ovarian stimulation, to assess its relationship with reproductive outcomes. This study included infertility patients who underwent ovulation induction with either long GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist protocols and who subsequently underwent IVF/ICSI. Included patients were assigned to two groups according to the Bologna criteria for poor ovarian response. Group 1 and 2 consisted of normo- and poor-responder patients, respectively.The 2 groups were compared in terms of FF presepsin levels. Also, any relationship between the FF presepsin levels and fertility outcomes was assessed within the groups. The groups were compared by using student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test and X2 test, where appropriate. Pregnancy rates were not significantly different between the groups (22.6% and 17.6%; P=0.650, respectively). FF presepsin levels were higher in Group 1, however, the difference was not statistically significant (298.0±797.4 and 149.2±422.3; P=0.190, respectively). FF presepsin levels did not significantly differ between pregnancy positive and the pregnancy negative patients in both Group 1 (243.6±531.1 and 314.3±866.5; P=0.055, respectively) and Group 2 (112.2±79.8 and 157.1±464.3; P=0.394, respectively). Consequently, FF presepsin seems not to be a reliable marker in predicting pregnancy in both normo-responder and poor-responder infertility groups. PMID:26309683
Siegmund, Anne S; Kampman, Marlies A M; Bilardo, Caterina M; Balci, Ali; van Dijk, Arie P J; Oudijk, Martijn A; Mulder, Barbara J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Sieswerda, Gertjan Tj; Koenen, Steven V; Sollie-Szarynska, Krystyna M; Ebels, Tjark; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Pieper, Petronella G
Women with repaired coarctation of the aorta (rCoA) are at risk of hypertensive disorders and other complications during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders in pregnant women are associated with inadequate uteroplacental flow, which is related to adverse offspring outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of maternal cardiac function, placental function and pregnancy complications in women with rCoA. We included 49 pregnant women with rCoA and 69 controls from the prospective ZAHARA-studies (Zwangerschap bij Aangeboren HARtAfwijkingen, pregnancy in congenital heart disease). Clinical evaluation, echocardiography and uteroplacental Doppler flow (UDF) measurements were performed at 20 and 32weeks gestation. Univariable regression analysis was performed. Comparison of rCoA and healthy women. In women with rCoA, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) decreased during pregnancy (25.7mm to 22.8mm, P=0.006). UDF indices and pregnancy complication rates were similar in both groups. Offspring of rCoA women had lower birth weight (3233g versus 3578g, P=0.001), which was associated with β-blocker use during pregnancy (β=-418.0, P=0.01). Association of cardiac function and UDF. Right ventricular (RV) function before pregnancy (TAPSE) and at 20weeks gestation (TAPSE and RV fractional area change) were associated with impaired UDF indices (umbilical artery pulsatility index at 20weeks β=-0.02, P=0.01, resistance index at 20 and 32weeks β=-0.01, P=0.02 and β=-0.02, P=0.01 and uterine artery pulsatility and resistance index at 20weeks gestation β=-0.02, P=0.05 and β=-0.01, P=0.02). Women with rCoA tolerate pregnancy well. However, RV function is altered and is associated with impaired placentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Afolabi, Bosede B.; Moses, Olusanjo E.; Oduyebo, Oyinlola O.
Background. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora and a malodorous discharge when symptomatic. In pregnancy, BV has been associated with adverse outcomes such as miscarriage, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and low birth weight. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associations of BV and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study with high vaginal swabs obtained from consecutive newly registered antenatal women between 14 and 36 weeks gestation. The women were monitored until delivery, and their pregnancy outcome and demographic data were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed by Nugent score in 64 of 246 women, giving a prevalence rate of 26%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with preterm delivery (risk ratio [RR], 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44–4.98), low birth weight (RR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.29–7.94), and premature rupture of membranes (RR, 6.75; 95% CI, 3.11–14.67). The association between BV and miscarriage (<28 weeks gestation) and neonatal admission for various morbidities was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The prevalence rate of BV among pregnant women in LUTH is high and is significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Routine screening and treatment of women preconceptually may enable interventions to prevent these adverse outcomes. PMID:26989754
Moscovici, Samuel; Fraifeld, Shifra; Cohen, José E; Dotan, Shlomo; Elchalal, Uriel; Shoshan, Yigal; Spektor, Sergey
Rapid visual deterioration may occur as the result of the quick growth of parasellar meningiomas in the high-hormone/increased fluid retention milieu of pregnancy; however, surgery before delivery entails increased maternal-fetal risk. We present our experience in the management of parasellar meningiomas that compress the optic apparatus during pregnancy, with a focus on decisions regarding the timing of surgery. Serial visual examinations and other clinical data for 11 women presenting from 2002 to 2012 with visual deterioration during pregnancy or delivery as the result of parasellar meningiomas involving the optic apparatus were reviewed. Indications for surgery during pregnancy included severely compromised vision, rapid visual deterioration, and early-to-midstage pregnancy with the potential for significant tumor growth and visual decrease before delivery. All patients underwent surgery with the use of skull base techniques via pterional craniotomy. An advanced extradural-intradural (i.e., Dolenc) approach, with modifications, was used in seven. All women achieved a Glasgow Outcome Score of 5 at discharge with no new neurologic deficits; all children are developing normally at a mean 4.5 years of age (range, 1-9.5 years). Surgery during pregnancy was recommended for six women: four operated at gestational weeks 20-23 had excellent postoperative visual recovery; two who delayed surgery until after delivery have permanent unilateral blindness. Among five others operated after delivery, four had good visual recovery and one has pronounced but correctable deficits. Three of five women diagnosed at gestational weeks 32-35 experienced spontaneous visual improvement after delivery, before surgery. We recommend that surgery be offered to patients during pregnancy when a delay may result in severe permanent visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breborowicz, Grzegorz H; Dera, Anna; Szymankiewicz, Marta; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Markwitz, Wiesław
The incidence of multiple pregnancies has increased dramatically over the last few years in developed countries, largely attributed to delayed childbearing and the increasing use of assisted reproduction technologies and ovulation inducing hormones. Relatively few countries have population-based statistics covering birth statistics. Of those that do, the numbers of quintuplet pregnancies rose sharply in the nineties while, at the same time, their delivery rates decreased greatly because of the use of fetal reduction. Fetal reduction is not possible or legal in some countries, Poland being one of them, and therefore obstetricians are faced with the challenges of quintuplet deliveries. Conservative treatment and management is difficult, and outcomes often vary greatly. Despite this, expert care provided at tertiary care centers can positively influence outcomes. The objective of this article is to present different care options and their consequences in two illustrative cases, as well as to establish a set of obstetric care and management goals that would allow prolongation of the gestation time. Quintuplet pregnancy is rare but poses relevant clinical problems to both the obstetrician and the neonatologist. It should be managed with close cooperation between all concerned. Due to the extreme and invariable risk of premature delivery associated with quintuplet pregnancies, we recommend early diagnosis, adequate prenatal care at one tertiary medical center, routine hospitalization and bed rest, repeated ante partum ultrasound surveillance with tests of fetal well-being, tocolytic therapy at first signs of the risk of premature labor, and specialized neonatology care after delivery.
The nutritional status of a woman before and during pregnancy is critical to both her infant's and her own health and survival. It determines her well-being and that of the fetus and child, and in turn the health and reproductive capacity of the next generation's mothers. Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status during the reproductive cycle, particularly during pregnancy, is a widely used, low-technology procedure that has seldom been rigorously evaluated. The need to provide sound technical advice on the utility and feasibility of selected anthropometric indicators for routine application in primary health care, especially in circumstances where resources are limited, led to a meta-analysis of 25 data sets on maternal anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes from 20 different countries, providing information on more than 111,000 births and quantifying to what degree anthropometric measurements are useful and efficient in predicting maternal and child outcomes of pregnancy in the community and at home in different country settings. The next stage will be the demonstration of the operational value of the findings of this study through their successful application in service settings on a large scale. PMID:8529277
The nutritional status of a woman before and during pregnancy is critical to both her infant's and her own health and survival. It determines her well-being and that of the fetus and child, and in turn the health and reproductive capacity of the next generation's mothers. Anthropometric assessment of nutritional status during the reproductive cycle, particularly during pregnancy, is a widely used, low-technology procedure that has seldom been rigorously evaluated. The need to provide sound technical advice on the utility and feasibility of selected anthropometric indicators for routine application in primary health care, especially in circumstances where resources are limited, led to a meta-analysis of 25 data sets on maternal anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes from 20 different countries, providing information on more than 111,000 births and quantifying to what degree anthropometric measurements are useful and efficient in predicting maternal and child outcomes of pregnancy in the community and at home in different country settings. The next stage will be the demonstration of the operational value of the findings of this study through their successful application in service settings on a large scale.
Fang, Cong; Yue, Chao-Min; Huang, Rui; Wei, Li-Na; Jia, Lei
To compare embryo quality and outcomes of blastocysts thawed and transferred the same day with those thawed and cultured overnight before transfer. In this retrospective study, patients with infertility who underwent thawed embryo transfer (TET) the same day as thawing (0TET group) and those that received TET after embryos were thawed and cultured overnight before transfer (1TET group) were enrolled. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to detect the factors associated with the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), implantation rate, miscarriage rate, and multiple pregnancy rate. A total of 489 patients (489 cycles) were included with 234 in the 0TET group and 255 in the 1TET group. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, body mass index (BMI), basal FSH and estradiol (E2) level, and causes of infertility (all, p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the CPR, implantation rate, miscarriage rate, or multiple pregnancy rate between the two groups (all, p > 0.05), and this finding was irrespective of the endometrial preparation method. Pregnancy outcomes are the same for blastocysts thawed and cultured overnight 1 day before transfer and those thawed and transferred on the same day.
Kovo, Michal; Schreiber, Letizia; Elyashiv, Osnat; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Abraham, Golan; Bar, Jacob
To compare pregnancy outcome and placental pathology in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) with and without preeclampsia. Labor, fetal/neonatal outcome, and placental pathology parameters from neonates with a birth weight below the 10 th percentile (FGR), born between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation, were reviewed. Results were compared between pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia (hypertensive FGR [H-FGR]) to those without preeclampsia (normotensive FGR [N-FGR]). Composite neonatal outcome, defined as 1 or more of early complication (respiratory distress, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, transfusion, ventilation, seizure, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, phototherapy, or death), Apgar score ≤ 7 at 5 minutes, and days of hospitalization, were compared between the groups. Placental lesions, classified as lesions related to maternal vascular supply, lesions consistent with fetal thrombo-occlusive disease and inflammatory lesions, maternal inflammatory response, and fetal inflammatory response, were also compared. Women in the H-FGR group (n = 72) were older, with higher body mass index (BMI) and higher rate of preterm labor (<34 weeks) than in the N-FGR group (n = 270), P < .001 for all. Composite neonatal outcome was worse in the H-FGR than in the N-FGR group, 50% versus 15.5%, P < .001. Higher rate of maternal placental vascular lesions was detected in H-FGR compared with N-FGR, 82% versus 57.7%, P < .001. Using a stepwise logistic regression model, maternal BMI (1.13 odds ratio [OR], confidence interval [CI] 1.035-1.227, P = .006) and neonatal birth weight (0.996 OR, CI 0.995-0.998, P < .001) were independently associated with worse neonatal outcome. Worse neonatal outcome and more maternal placental vascular lesions in pregnancy complicated by FGR with preeclampsia versus FGR without preeclampsia suggest different pathophysiology in these entities. © The Author(s) 2014.
NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEGE STRATEGIC LOGIC ESSAY US INTERVENTION IN FAILED STATES: BAD ASSUMPTIONS = POOR ...2002 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2002 to 00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE US Intervention in Failed States: Bad Assumptions= Poor ...country remains in the grip of poverty , natural disasters, and stagnation. Rwanda Rwanda, another small African country, is populated principally
Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Adams, Kate; Bell, Michelle L; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Ha, Eun-Hee; Jalaludin, Bin; Slama, Rémy
Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies.
Woodruff, Tracey J.; Parker, Jennifer D.; Adams, Kate; Bell, Michelle L.; Gehring, Ulrike; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Ha, Eun-Hee; Jalaludin, Bin; Slama, Rémy
Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide. Strong enthusiasm for participating and a geographically-diverse range of participants should lead to understanding uncertainties about the role of air pollution in perinatal outcomes and provide decision-makers with better tools to account for pregnancy outcomes in air pollution policies. PMID:20644693
Little, Bertis B.; Snell, Laura M.; Trimmer, Kenneth J.; Ramin, Susan M.; Ghali, Fred; Blakely, Craig A.; Garret, Andrea
The objective of the study was to analyze possible adverse effects of peripartum cocaine use on maternal and fetal outcomes. Informed consent was given by 720 (97%) of 740 women who delivered consecutively at a large urban public hospital to test an umbilical cord blood sample for the presence of non-medically administered drugs of abuse and alcohol and to be interviewed for the study. Samples were tested for the presence of a cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine-BZE) by radioimmunoassay. The presence of other substances of abuse (alcohol, methamphetamine, opiates) resulted in exclusion from the sample of 143 subjects. Thus, in this cohort analysis, drug-free controls (N = 469) were compared to those positive for cocaine only (N = 108). Peripartum exposure to cocaine only, and no other substances of abuse, was associated with an increased frequency of abruptio placentae (1.9% vs 0% for control, P < 0.004), thick meconium stained amniotic fluid (3.9% vs 0.7% for controls, P < 0.006), premature rupture of membranes (P < 0.02), genitourinary anomalies (OR = 3.6, P < 0.05), abdominal wall defects (OR = 4.4, P < 0.01) and increased frequency of low birth weight (OR = 2.0, P < 0.02). These are important findings because previous studies have been complicated by the confounding effects of other substances of abuse. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 11:598-602, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
De Santis, Marco; Cavaliere, A F; Straface, G; Di Gianantonio, E; Caruso, A
Maternal thrombophilias increases the risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. An extensive literature review highlights the role of inherited and acquired thrombophilic disorders in spontaneous abortion, both early and late, recurrent or isolate, in intrauterine growth retardation, in placenta abruption, in pre-eclampsia and in venous thromboembolism. We have particularly focused attention on the following factors: antithrombin III (ATIII), proteins C (PC) and S (PS) deficiencies, genetic mutations particularly factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin gene G20210A (PTM) and the thermolabile variant of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR) gene, lupus anticoagulant (LAC) and anticardiolipin antibodies, VIIIc factor, hyperhomocysteinemia and acquired activated protein C resistance. Appropriate treatment can improve pregnancy outcome without teratogenic effects.
Meloni, Alessandra; Floridia, Marco; Alberico, Salvatore; Tamburrini, Enrica; Pinnetti, Carmela; Bucceri, Anna; Masuelli, Giulia; Viganò, Alessandra; Liuzzi, Giuseppina; Antoni, Anna Degli; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Spinillo, Arsenio; Marocco, Raffaella; Dalzero, Serena; Ravizza, Marina
There is limited information on the relation between glucose levels in pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women. To evaluate the potential impact of fasting glucose levels on pregnancy outcomes in a large sample of pregnant women with HIV from a national study, adjusting for potential confounders. Data from the Italian National Program on Surveillance on Antiretroviral Treatment in Pregnancy were used. The main outcomes evaluated in univariate and multivariable analyses were birthweight for gestational age>90th percentile (large for gestational age [LGA]), nonelective cesarean delivery, and preterm delivery. Glucose measurements were considered both as continuous and as categorical variables, following the HAPO study definition. Overall, 1,032 cases were eligible for the analysis. In multivariable analyses, a birthweight>90th percentile was associated with increasing fasting plasma glucose levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per unitary (mg/dL) increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P=.005), a higher body mass index, and parity of 1 or higher. A lower risk of LGA was associated with smoking and African ethnicity. A higher fasting plasma glucose category was significantly associated with LGA occurrence, and AORs for the glucose categories of 90-94 mg/ dL and 95-99 mg/dL were 3.34 (95% CI, 1.09-10.22) and 6.26 (95% CI, 1.82-21.58), respectively. Fasting plasma glucose showed no association with nonelective cesarean section [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02] or preterm delivery [OR per unitary increase, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.02]. In pregnant women with HIV, glucose values below the threshold usually defining hyperglycemia are associated with an increased risk of delivering LGA infants. Other conditions may independently contribute to adverse perinatal outcomes in women with HIV and should be considered to identify pregnancies at risk.
Stampalija, Tamara; Gyte, Gillian ML; Alfirevic, Zarko
Background Impaired placentation can cause some of the most important obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction and has been linked to increased fetal morbidity and mortality. The failure to undergo physiological trophoblastic vascular changes is reflected by the high impedance to the blood flow at the level of the uterine arteries. Doppler ultrasound study of utero-placental blood vessels, using waveform indices or notching, may help to identify the ‘at-risk’ women in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, such that interventions might be used to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and/or mortality. Objectives To assess the effects on pregnancy outcome, and obstetric practice, of routine utero-placental Doppler ultrasound in first and second trimester of pregnancy in pregnant women at high and low risk of hypertensive complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (June 2010) and the reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of Doppler ultrasound for the investigation of utero-placental vessel waveforms in first and second trimester compared with no Doppler ultrasound. We have excluded studies where uterine vessels have been assessed together with fetal and umbilical vessels. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We checked data entry. Main results We found two studies involving 4993 participants. The methodological quality of the trials was good. Both studies included women at low risk for hypertensive disorders, with Doppler ultrasound of the uterine arteries performed in the second trimester of pregnancy. In both studies, pathological finding of uterine arteries was followed by low-dose aspirin administration. We identified no difference in short-term maternal and fetal clinical
Bildircin, Fatma Devran; Kurtoglu, Emel; Kokcu, Arif; Işik, Yuksel; Ozkarci, Murat; Kuruoglu, Serkan
The aim of this study was to compare perinatal outcomes between adolescent and adult pregnancies. In 527 adolescent and 1334 adult pregnant women who delivered at Ondokuz Mayis University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department between 2006 and 2013, perinatal outcomes were retrospectively compared in terms of including spontaneous abortion, induced abortion rate, dilatation and curettage (D&C), pregnancy-induced hypertension, premature prelabor and prelabor rupture of membranes, polihydramnios, oligohydramnios, maternal anemia, delivery modes and also neonatal outcomes including 5th minute Apgar score and fetal birth weight. The ratio of pregnancy induced hypertension and postpartum hemorrhage was higher in adults, but, anemia was more common in adolescents. There was statistically significant difference in the mode of delivery; the ratio of cesarean section was higher in adults whereas the rate of induced abortions and D&C significantly increased in adolescents. Low birth weight (LBW) and extremely LBW rates were significantly higher in adolescents, however, 5th minute Apgar scores were found to be higher than adult group. These results show that the perinatal care is fairly improved in Turkey.
Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Chien
To assess the risks that maternal panic disorder (PD) during pregnancy contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, with the effects further specifically differentiated into mothers who experienced a panic attack during pregnancy and those who did not. This study linked two nationwide population-based datasets: the birth certificate registry and the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset. We identified a total of 371 women who gave birth from 2001 to 2003, who had been diagnosed with PD within 2 years prior to the index delivery, together with 1585 matched women without this chronic disease as a comparison cohort. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios. Results indicated that compared to women without chronic disease, PD mothers who experienced panic manifestations during pregnancy and those who did not were independently associated with respective 2.29- (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.14-4.60) and 1.45-fold (95% CI=1.03-2.04) increased risks of having small-for-gestational-age infants. Further, for PD mothers who experienced a panic attack during gestation, the adjusted odds ratio for having a preterm delivery was 2.54 (95% CI=1.09-5.93), whereas no significant difference was identified between PD women who did not have a panic attack during pregnancy and women without PD. Our study was unable to investigate the effects of such risk factors as dietary habits, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use in the regression model. We conclude that prenatal PD, particularly the occurrence of panic attacks during pregnancy, was associated with adverse birth outcomes.
Bro, Søren Pauli; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens
To determine if prenatal exposure to methylphenidate (MPH) or atomoxetine (ATX) increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was a population-based cohort study of all pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. Information on use of ADHD medication, ADHD diagnosis, and pregnancy outcomes was obtained from nationwide registers. We identified 989,932 pregnancies, in which 186 (0.02%) women used MPH/ATX and 275 (0.03%) women had been diagnosed with ADHD but who did not take MPH/ATX. Our reference pregnancies had no exposure to MPH/ATX and no ADHD diagnosis. Exposure to MPH/ATX was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA; ie, death of an embryo or fetus in the first 22 weeks of gestation) (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.36). The risk of SA was also increased in pregnancies where the mother had ADHD but did not use MPH/ATX (aRR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.20). The aRR of Apgar scores <10 was increased among exposed women (aRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.11-3.82) but not among unexposed women with ADHD (aRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.48-2.05). MPH/ATX was associated with a higher risk of SA, but our study indicated that it may at least partly be explained by confounding by indication. Treatment with MPH/ATX was however associated with low Apgar scores <10, an association not found among women with ADHD who did not use MPH/ATX.
Bro, Søren Pauli; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens
Objective To determine if prenatal exposure to methylphenidate (MPH) or atomoxetine (ATX) increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Materials and methods This was a population-based cohort study of all pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. Information on use of ADHD medication, ADHD diagnosis, and pregnancy outcomes was obtained from nationwide registers. Results We identified 989,932 pregnancies, in which 186 (0.02%) women used MPH/ATX and 275 (0.03%) women had been diagnosed with ADHD but who did not take MPH/ATX. Our reference pregnancies had no exposure to MPH/ATX and no ADHD diagnosis. Exposure to MPH/ATX was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA; ie, death of an embryo or fetus in the first 22 weeks of gestation) (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.36). The risk of SA was also increased in pregnancies where the mother had ADHD but did not use MPH/ATX (aRR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.20). The aRR of Apgar scores <10 was increased among exposed women (aRR 2.06, 95% CI 1.11–3.82) but not among unexposed women with ADHD (aRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.48–2.05). Conclusion MPH/ATX was associated with a higher risk of SA, but our study indicated that it may at least partly be explained by confounding by indication. Treatment with MPH/ATX was however associated with low Apgar scores <10, an association not found among women with ADHD who did not use MPH/ATX. PMID:25657597
Reynaud, Quitterie; Poupon-Bourdy, Stéphanie; Rabilloud, Muriel; Al Mufti, Lina; Rousset Jablonski, Christine; Lemonnier, Lydie; Nove-Josserand, Raphaële; Touzet, Sandrine; Durieu, Isabelle
With increasing life expectancy, more women with cystic fibrosis and diabetes mellitus become pregnant. We investigated how pre-gestational diabetes (cystic fibrosis-related diabetes) influenced pregnancy outcome and the clinical status of these women. We analyzed all pregnancies reported to the French cystic fibrosis registry between 2001 and 2012, and compared forced expiratory volume (FEV1 ) and body mass index before and after pregnancy in women with and without pre-gestational diabetes having a first delivery. A total 249 women delivered 314 infants. Among these, 189 women had a first delivery and 29 of these had pre-gestational diabetes. There was a trend towards a higher rate of assisted conception among diabetic women (53.8%) than non-diabetic women (34.5%, p = 0.06), and the rate of cesarean section was significantly higher in diabetic women (48% vs. 21.4%, p = 0.005). The rate of preterm birth and mean infant birthweight did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic women. Forced expiratory volume before pregnancy was significantly lower in the diabetic group. The decline in forced expiratory volume and body mass index following pregnancy did not differ between the women with and those without pre-gestational diabetes. Pre-gestational diabetes in women with cystic fibrosis is associated with a higher rate of cesarean section but does not seem to have a clinically significant impact on fetal growth or preterm delivery. The changes in maternal pulmonary and nutritional status following pregnancy in women with cystic fibrosis were not influenced by pre-gestational diabetes. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Namdar Ahmadabad, Hasan; Kayvan Jafari, Sabah; Nezafat Firizi, Maryam; Abbaspour, Ali Reza; Ghafoori Gharib, Fahime; Ghobadi, Yusef; Gholizadeh, Samira
In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high-dose DEX in the experimental group or saline in the control group on gestational days (GDs) 0.5 to 4.5. Pregnant mice were sacrificed on GDs 7.5, 13.5, or 18.5 and their peripheral blood, placentas, fetuses, and uterine tissue were collected. Decidual and placenta cell supernatants were examined to evaluate the effect of DEX on the proliferation of mononuclear cells, the quantity of uterine macrophages and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also were measured fetal and placental growth parameters on GD 18.5. We found that high doses of DEX were associated with an increased abortion rate, enhancement of the immunosuppressive effect of the decidua, alterations in placental growth parameters, decreased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and a reduced frequency of macrophages and uNK cells. Our data suggest that the high-dose administration of DEX during early pregnancy negatively affected pregnancy outcomes.
Kayvan Jafari, Sabah; Nezafat Firizi, Maryam; Abbaspour, Ali Reza; Ghafoori Gharib, Fahime; Ghobadi, Yusef; Gholizadeh, Samira
Objective In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of high doses of dexamethasone (DEX) in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. Methods Pregnant BALB/c mice were treated with high-dose DEX in the experimental group or saline in the control group on gestational days (GDs) 0.5 to 4.5. Pregnant mice were sacrificed on GDs 7.5, 13.5, or 18.5 and their peripheral blood, placentas, fetuses, and uterine tissue were collected. Decidual and placenta cell supernatants were examined to evaluate the effect of DEX on the proliferation of mononuclear cells, the quantity of uterine macrophages and uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and levels of progesterone and 17β-estradiol, as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, immunohistochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. We also were measured fetal and placental growth parameters on GD 18.5. Results We found that high doses of DEX were associated with an increased abortion rate, enhancement of the immunosuppressive effect of the decidua, alterations in placental growth parameters, decreased progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels, and a reduced frequency of macrophages and uNK cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that the high-dose administration of DEX during early pregnancy negatively affected pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27104153
Previous studies suggest that undernourished patients with acute stroke do badly. The data, however, are not robust. We aimed to reliably assess the importance of baseline nutritional status as an independent predictor of long-term outcome after stroke in a large prospective cohort enrolled in the Feed Or Ordinary Diet (FOOD) trial, a multicenter randomized trial evaluating various feeding policies. Patients admitted to hospital with a recent stroke were enrolled in the FOOD trial. Data on nutritional status and other clinical predictors of outcome were collected at trial entry. At 6 months, the coordinating center collected data on survival and functional status (modified Rankin Scale). Outcome assessment was done by researchers blinded to baseline assessments and treatment allocation. Between November 1996 and November 2001, 3012 patients were enrolled, and 2955 (98%) were followed up. Of the 275 undernourished patients, 102 (37%) were dead by final follow-up compared with only 445 (20%) of 2194 patients of normal nutritional status (odds ratio [OR], 2.32; 95% CI, 1.78 to 3.02). After adjustment for age, prestroke functional state, and stroke severity, this relationship, although weakened, still held (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.47). Undernourished patients were more likely to develop pneumonia, other infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding during their hospital admission than other patients. These data provide reliable evidence that nutritional status early after stroke is independently associated with long-term outcome. It supports the rationale for the FOOD trial, which continues to recruit and aims to estimate the effect of different feeding regimes on outcome after stroke and thus determine whether the association observed in this study is likely to be causal.
Yang, Ting; Gu, Yan; Wei, Xiaoping; Liang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tingyu
Maternal folate and vitamin B12 deficiency predict poor pregnancy outcome. To improve pregnancy outcomes in rural area of China, we investigate rural women’s folic acid supplementation (FAS) status and the associations between maternal vitamin B status during the first trimester and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. We collected the questionnaire information and drew 5 ml of blood from 309 early pregnant rural women. The birth outcomes were retrieved from medical records after delivery. Out of the total, 257 had taken FAS, including 50 before conception (group A) and 207 during the first trimester (group B). The concentration of plasma folate and the RBC folate supplementation groups were obviously higher than that of no-supplementation group (group N, p<0.01). The mean vitamin B12 levels in FAS group were significantly higher than those in groups N and B (p<0.05). Women who delivered SGA or premature infants had reduced plasma folate levels (p<0.05) compared with controls. The multiple linear regression models revealed that RBC folate levels affected the infant birth weight (p<0.01) and birth length (p<0.05). In conclusion, FAS can significantly improve plasma folate and RBC folate levels in childbearing-age women and reduce the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:28366994
DeJoy, Sharon Bernecki; Bittner, Krystle
Obesity stigma has been linked to poor health outcomes on an individual and population basis. However, little research has been conducted on the role of chronic or recent obesity stigma in the health disparities experienced by pregnant women with high body mass index. The purpose of this article is to discuss poor birth outcomes in this population from an integrated perinatal health framework perspective, incorporating obesity stigma as a social determinant. In studies of non-pregnant populations, obesity stigma has been associated with stress, unhealthy coping strategies, psychological disorders, and exacerbations of physical illness. This article examines the mechanisms by which obesity stigma influences health outcomes and suggests how they might apply to selected complications of pregnancy, including macrosomia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery. Given the rates of obesity and associated pregnancy complications in the United States, it is critical to examine the determinants of those problems from a life course and multiple determinants perspective. This paper offers a conceptual framework to guide exploratory research in this area, incorporating the construct of obesity stigma.
Widen, EM; Gallagher, D
Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754
Omar, Khairani; Hasim, Suriati; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Hashim, Syahnaz Mohd; Siraj, Harlina Halizah
To assess the outcomes and risk factors of adolescent pregnancies in 2 major hospitals in Malaysia. We conducted a case-control study of pregnant girls aged 10 through 19 years. The controls were women aged 20 through 35 years who did not become pregnant in their adolescence. Cases and controls were matched for parity and place of delivery. Data were collected from questionnaires and the hospitals' medical records. The study included 102 cases and 102 controls. There were significant associations between adolescent pregnancy and low education level, low socioeconomic status, being raised by a single parent, not engaging in extracurricular school activities, engaging in unsupervised activities with peers after school, and substance abuse (P<0.05 for all); being anemic, being unsure of the expected delivery date, and having few antenatal visits and a late delivery booking; and low Apgar scores and perinatal complications. Adolescent pregnancies are high-risk pregnancies. Better sexual health strategies are required to address the associated complications. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vogel, Joshua P.; Torloni, Maria Regina; Seuc, Armando; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Widmer, Mariana; Souza, João Paulo; Merialdi, Mario
Background Twin pregnancies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) pose a high risk to mothers and newborns due to inherent biological risks and scarcity of health resources. We conducted a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey dataset to analyze maternal and perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies and factors associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality in twins. Methods We examined maternal and neonatal characteristics in twin deliveries in 23 LMICs and conducted multi-level logistic regression to determine the association between twins and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results 279,425 mothers gave birth to 276,187 (98.8%) singletons and 6,476 (1.2%) twins. Odds of severe adverse maternal outcomes (death, blood transfusion, ICU admission or hysterectomy) (AOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.60–2.14) and perinatal mortality (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.40–4.35) in twin pregnancies were higher, however early neonatal death (AOR 2.50, 95% CI 0.95–6.62) and stillbirth (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 0.58–2.57) did not reach significance. Amongst twins alone, maternal age <18, poor education and antenatal care, nulliparity, vaginal bleeding, non-cephalic presentations, birth weight discordance >15%, born second, preterm birth and low birthweight were associated with perinatal mortality. Marriage and caesarean section were protective. Conclusions Twin pregnancy is a significant risk factor for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low-resource settings; maternal risk and access to safe caesarean section may determine safest mode of delivery in LMICs. Improving obstetric care in twin pregnancies, particularly timely access to safe caesarean section, is required to reduce risk to mother and baby. PMID:23936446
Tita, Alan Thevenet N.; Lai, Yinglei; Bloom, Steven L.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Ramin, Susan M.; Caritis, Steve N.; Grobman, William A; Sorokin, Yoram; Sciscione, Anthony; Carpenter, Marshall W.; Mercer, Brian M.; Thorp, John M.; Malone, Fergal D.; Harper, Margaret; Iams, Jay D.
OBJECTIVE To compare pregnancy outcomes by completed week of gestation after 39 weeks with outcomes at 39 weeks. STUDY DESIGN Secondary analysis of a multicenter trial of fetal pulse oximetry in spontaneously laboring or induced nulliparous women ≥36 weeks’ gestation. Maternal outcomes included a composite (treated uterine atony, blood transfusion and peripartum infections) and cesarean delivery. Neonatal outcomes included a composite of death, neonatal respiratory and other morbidities and neonatal ICU admission. RESULTS Among the 4086 women studied, the risks of the composite maternal outcome (p-value for trend<0.001), cesarean delivery (p<0.001) and composite neonatal outcome (p=0.047) increased with increasing gestational age from 39 to ≥41 completed weeks. Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for 40 and ≥41 weeks respectively compared with 39 weeks were 1.29 (1.03–1.64) and 2.05 (1.60–2.64) for composite maternal outcome, 1.28 (1.05–1.57) and 1.75 (1.41–2.16) for cesarean delivery and 1.25 (0.86–1.83) and 1.37 (0.90–2.09) for composite neonatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS Risks of maternal morbidity and cesarean delivery but not neonatal morbidity increased significantly beyond 39 weeks. PMID:22244471
Jia, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Ming; Zou, Ya-Fen; Tang, Jiang Wei; Chen, Dan; Yang, Gung-Ming; Lu, Cheng-Hsien
Stroke is the third most common cause of mortality worldwide and is a major cause of permanent disability. The purposed of the study was to better understand the risk factors for poor outcomes following ischemic stroke requiring treatment. Three hundred seventy patients with first-event ischemic stroke were enrolled. Good outcomes was defined as a using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) score ≤3 without any cardiovascular event, while poor outcomes were any of the following end points: MRS >3 at 3 months, recurrent stroke or death. Prognostic variables for poor outcomes were analyzed based on a stepwise logistic regression model. Seventy-eight patients had poor outcomes (21%, 78/370), assessed at a minimum of six-month follow-up. Higher mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at presentation, presence of early neurologic deterioration (END) and higher mean high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were associated with poor outcomes at discharge. Furthermore, both NIHSS at presentation and the presence of END were associated with poor outcomes, assessed at a minimum of six-month follow-up. A higher mean initial NIHSS score implies not only severe neurologic deficits but also an increased risk of poor outcomes. Since END following ischemic stroke is frequently associated with poor outcomes, more attention should be directed to providing adequate treatment to patients in the acute stage, especially for high risk patients.
Lenhart, Patricia M.; Wise, Alison; Herring, Amy H.; Nguyen, Thutrang; Caron, Kathleen M.; Stuebe, Alison M.
Objective Reduced maternal plasma levels of the peptide vasodilator adrenomedullin have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We measured the extent to which genetic polymorphisms in the adrenomedullin signaling pathway are associated with birth weight, glycemic regulation, and preeclampsia risk. Study Design We genotyped 1353 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study for 37 ancestry-informative markers and for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adrenomedullin (ADM), complement factor H variant (CFH), and calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL). We used linear and logistic regression to model the association between genotype and birth weight, glucose loading test (GLT) results, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes (GDM). All models were adjusted for pregravid BMI, maternal age, and probability of Yoruban ancestry. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Among Caucasian women, ADM rs57153895, a proxy for rs11042725, was associated with reduced birth weight z-score. Among African-American women, ADM rs57153895 was associated with increased birth weight z-score. Two CALCRL variants were associated with GDM risk. CFH rs1061170 was associated with higher GLT results and increased preeclampsia risk. Conclusion Consistent with studies of plasma adrenomedullin and adverse pregnancy outcomes, we found associations between variants in the adrenomedullin signaling pathway and birth weight, glycemic regulation, and preeclampsia. PMID:23797962
Linn, S; Schoenbaum, S C; Monson, R R; Rosner, B; Stubblefield, P G; Ryan, K J
We analyzed interview and record review data from 9,823 deliveries to evaluate the relationship between prior history of induced abortion and subsequent late pregnancy outcomes. Complications such as bleeding in the first and third trimesters, abnormal presentations and premature rupture of the membranes, abruptio placentae, fetal distress, low birth weight, short gestation, and major malformations occurred more often among women with a history of two or more induced abortions. A logistic regression analysis to control for multiple confounding factors showed that a history of one induced abortion was statistically significantly associated with first-trimester bleeding but with no other untoward pregnancy events, and a history of two or more induced abortions was statistically associated with first-trimester bleeding, abnormal presentations, and premature rupture of the membranes. While these relationships merit further research, the results of this study are largely reassuring. A history of one or more prior induced abortions does not appear to increase substantially the risk of adverse late outcomes of subsequent pregnancies.
González, Irene; Lecube, Albert; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo
The significant increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increase in the number of obese women who become pregnant. In this setting, in recent years, there has been an exponential rise in the number of bariatric procedures, with approximately half of them performed in women of childbearing age, and a remarkable surge in the number of women who become pregnant after having undergone bariatric surgery (BS). These procedures entail the risk of nutritional deficiencies, and nutrition is a crucial aspect during pregnancy. Therefore, knowledge and awareness of the consequences of these techniques on maternal and fetal outcomes is essential. Current evidence suggests a better overall obstetric outcome after BS, in comparison to morbid obese women managed conservatively, with a reduction in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-associated hypertensive disorders, macrosomia, and congenital defects. However, the risk of potential maternal nutritional deficiencies and newborns small for gestational age cannot be overlooked. Results concerning the incidence of preterm delivery and the number of C-sections are less consistent. In this paper, we review the updated evidence regarding the impact of BS on pregnancy. PMID:28008286
Kharb, S; Sardana, D; Nanda, S
Background: During normal pregnancy, changes in thyroid function are well documented; however, information regarding thyroid function in preeclampsia is scanty. Aim: The present study was planned to study thyroid hormones in mild and severe preeclamptic women and normotensive women and correlate them with outcome of pregnancy. Subject and Methods: Thyroid hormones were analyzed in mild (n = 50) and severe (n = 50) cases of preeclamptic women and normotensive women (n = 100). Results: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and TT4 levels were higher in mild preeclampsia as compared with severe preeclampsia (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). TT3 levels were lower in preeclampsia (more so in severe preeclamptics as compared with normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant women). Preeclamptic with raised TSH levels had significantly higher mean arterial blood pressure and low birth weight (BW). A negative correlation was observed between BW and TSH levels (r = 0.296, P < 0.001) and BW and TT4 levels. A positive correlation was observed between BW and TT3 levels. Conclusion: These findings indicate that there is a state of biochemical hypothyroidism that correlates with severity of preeclampsia and influences obstetric outcome in these women. Identification of thyroid hormone in pregnancy might be of help in predicting occurrence of preeclampsia. PMID:23634328
Li, Min; Huang, S Joseph
Maternal immunity undergoes subtle adjustment in order to tolerate the semi-allogeneic embryo and maintain the host defense against potential pathogens. Concomitantly, coagulation systems change from an anti-coagulant state to a pro-coagulant state to meet the hemostatic challenge of placentation and delivery. Innate immunity and blood coagulation systems are the first line of defense to protect a host against exogenous challenges, including alloantigens and mechanical insults, and preserve the integrity of an organism. The interactions between coagulation and immune systems have been extensively studied. Immune cells play a pivotal role in the initiation of the coagulation cascade, whereas coagulation proteases display substantial immuno-modulatory effects. Upon exogenous challenges, the immune and coagulation systems are capable of potentiating each other leading to a vicious cycle. Natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages (Mphis) and dendritic cells (DCs) are three major innate immune cells that have been demonstrated to play essential roles in early pregnancy. However, immune maladaptation and hemostatic imbalance have been suggested to be responsible for adverse pregnant outcomes, such as preeclampsia (PE), miscarriage, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this review, we will summarize the mutual regulation between blood coagulation and innate immune systems as well as their roles in the maintenance of normal pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Meador, K J; Pennell, P B; Harden, C L; Gordon, J C; Tomson, T; Kaplan, P W; Holmes, G L; French, J A; Hauser, W A; Wells, P G; Cramer, J A
Most pregnant women with epilepsy require antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. Present guidelines recommend optimizing treatment prior to conception, choosing the most effective AED for seizure type and syndrome, using monotherapy and lowest effective dose, and supplementing with folate. The Epilepsy Therapy Project established the international Health Outcomes in Pregnancy and Epilepsy (HOPE) forum to learn more about the impact of AEDs on the developing fetus, particularly the role of pregnancy registries in studying AED teratogenicity. The primary outcome of interest in these registries is the occurrence of major congenital malformations, with some data collected on minor malformations. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes are often beyond the timeframe for follow-up of these registries and require independent study. The HOPE consensus report describes the current state of knowledge and the limitations to interpretations of information from the various sources. Data regarding specific risks for both older and newer AEDs need to be analyzed carefully, considering study designs and confounding factors. There is a critical need for investigations to delineate the underlying mechanisms and explain the variance seen in outcomes across AEDs and within a single AED.
Seyam, Emaduldin Mostafa; Hassan, Momen Mohamed; Mohamed Sayed Gad, Mohamed Tawfeek; Mahmoud, Hazem Salah; Ibrahim, Mostafa Gamal
Hysteroscopy offers diagnostic accuracy and the ability to treat uterine pathology. The current study aimed to review the findings and feasibility of the proposed office-based diagnostic and operative microhysteroscopy in previously diagnosed wom- en with unexplained infertility and to evaluate the post-microhysteroscopic pregnancy outcome in a-year follow-up period. This prospective controlled study was conducted between 2006 and 2013. Two hundreds women with unexplained infertility were randomized into two groups: A. study group including 100 women recruited for office micohysteroscopic session and B. control group including 100 without the proposed microhysteroscopic intervention. A malleable fiberoptic 2-mm, 0 and 30 degrees angled hysteroscopy along with an operative channel for grasping forceps, scissors, or coaxial bipolar electrode were used for both diagnostic and operative indications. The findings, complications, and patient tolerance were recorded. A-year follow-up of pregnancy outcome for both groups was also performed. Seventy cases (70%) of patients had a normal uterine cavity. Twenty wom- en (20%) had endometrial polyps. Other pathology included submucous myomas in 3 cases (3%), intrauterine adhesions in 3 cases (3%), polypoid endometrium in 3 cases (3%), and bicornuate uterus in one case (1%). The pathological findings were treated in all patients without complication. Also a-year follow-up of the to- tal developing cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) was evaluated in groups A and B (control). Group A revealed the total CPR of 28.5%, among which 25% in women without pathology, 40% in women with endometrial polyps, 23% in women with adhesions, 33% in women with polypoid endometrium, and 21% in those with bi- cornuate uterus. However, A-year follow-up of spontaneous pregnancy outcome in group B showed a total CPR of 15%. Women tolerance, safety, and feasibility of simultaneous operative correc- tion make the proposed office microhysteroscopy an ideal and
The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that are associated with heterotopic pregnancy (HP) following in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) and to demonstrate the outcomes of HP after the surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancies. Forty-eight patients from a single center, who were diagnosed with HP between 1998 and 2012 were included. All of the patients had received infertility treatments, such as Clomid with timed coitus (n = 1, 2.1%), superovulation with intrauterine insemination (n = 7, 14.6%), fresh non-donor IVF-ET (n = 33, 68.8%), and frozen-thawed cycles (n = 7, 14.6%). Eighty-four additional patients were randomly selected as controls from the IVF registry database. HP was diagnosed at 7.5 ± 1.2 weeks (range 5.4-10.3) gestational age. In six cases (12.5%), the diagnosis was made three weeks after the patients underwent treatment for abortion. There were significant differences in the history of ectopic pregnancy (22.5% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in either group between the rates of first trimester intrauterine fetal loss (15.0% vs. 13.1%) or live birth (80.0% vs. 84.1%) after the surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy. The risk factors for HP include a history of ectopic pregnancy (OR 7.191 [1.591-32.513], P = 0.010), abortion (OR 3.948 [1.574-9.902], P = 0.003), and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) (OR 10.773 [2.415-48.060], P = 0.002). In patients undergoing IVF-ET, history of ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and OHSS may be risk factors for HP as compared to the control group of other IVF patients. The surgical treatment of HP does not appear to affect the rates of first trimester fetal loss or live birth. PMID:27366008
Siefert, K; Pimlott, S
The female prison population has increased dramatically in recent years. Most women prisoners are involved with drugs, and as many as 25 percent are pregnant or have delivered within the past year. Reproductive health and drug treatment services for women in prison are inadequate, if they are available at all, and although illicit drugs are readily available in prison, drug-involved pregnant women often are incarcerated to protect fetal health. Studies of pregnancy outcome among women prisoners have demonstrated high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. This article examines issues related to pregnancy among women prisoners and describes an innovative residential program designed for pregnant, drug-dependent women in a state adult corrections system. Social workers can play an important role in promoting policy reform and improved services for this underserved population.
Abe, Kanako; Hamada, Hiromi; Yamada, Takahiro; Obata-Yasuoka, Mana; Minakami, Hisanori; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki
To investigate whether planning of pregnancy in women with epilepsy affects seizure control during pregnancy and to compare the maternal and neonatal outcomes in planned and unplanned pregnancies. This was a retrospective cohort study of 153 pregnant women with epilepsy who were treated at the University of Tsukuba Hospital and Hokkaido University Hospital between 2003 and 2011. Twenty-one pregnancies were excluded due to insufficient data. Data of patients followed by neurologists during their planned pregnancies (planned-pregnancy group, n=51) were compared to those of patients referred to neurologists after conception for managing epilepsy during pregnancy (unplanned-pregnancy group, n=81). The treatment profile for epilepsy, seizure control, and maternal and neonatal outcomes in both groups were compared using Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test. Compared to the unplanned-pregnancy group, the planned-pregnancy group showed a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (80% vs. 61%: planned vs. unplanned, P=0.049) and those not requiring valproic acid (77% vs. 56%, P=0.031). Furthermore, the frequency of epileptic seizures (16% vs. 35%, P=0.018) and changes in antiepileptic drugs (24% vs. 41%, P=0.042) were significantly lower in the planned-pregnancy group than in the unplanned-pregnancy group. No significant intergroup differences were noted in the obstetric complications and neonatal outcomes, including congenital malformations. For women with epilepsy, planning of pregnancy is associated with good seizure control during pregnancy and less fetal exposure to antiepileptic drugs. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanhal, C.Y.; Mendilcioglu, I.; Ozekinci, M.; Yakut, S.; Merdun, Z.; Simsek, M.; Luleci, G.
It has been reported that, compared with simple increased nuchal translucency, fetal cases with septated cystic hygroma (CH) are more likely to face perinatal handicaps. However, pediatric outcomes and proper prenatal counseling for this anomaly have not yet been truly defined. We performed this study to determine pregnancy and pediatric outcomes of fetuses with septated CH. We searched records for cases with septated CH and collected data for structural abnormalities, karyotype analysis, and pregnancy outcomes. Fetuses born with septated CH were also evaluated for their pediatric outcomes. Sixty-nine fetuses with septated CH were enrolled in the study. Results showed that chromosomal abnormalities were present in 28 fetuses (40.6%), and the most common aneuploidy was Turner syndrome (n=14, 20.3%); 16 (23.2%) of the remaining cases, in which aneuploidy was not found, had coexistent structural malformations; 25 (36.2%) cases had normal karyotype and morphology. The total number of live births and infants with unfavorable neurologic follow-up were 13 (18.8%) and 2 (2.9%), respectively. Septated CH is associated with poor perinatal outcomes; therefore, karyotype analysis and ultrasonographic anomaly screening should be performed as initial steps, and expectant management should be offered to couples with euploid fetuses that have normal morphology. PMID:25075572
Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Azizi, Maryam; Darvish, Leili
Nuchal Translucency (NT) is the sonographic form of subcutaneous gathering of liquid behind the foetal neck in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is association of increased NT with chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities. The purpose of this systemic review was to review the pregnancy outcome of abnormal nuchal translucency. The present systematic review was conducted by searching English language articles from sources such as International Medical Sciences, Medline, Web of science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL. Persian articles were searched from Iranmedex and SID sources. Related key words were "outcome", "pregnancy", "abnormal", and "Nuchal Translucency" (NT). All, randomized, descriptive, analytic-descriptive, case control study conducted during 1997-2015 were included. Including duplicate articles, 95 related articles were found. After reviewing article titles, 30 unrelated article and abstracts were removed, and 65 articles were evaluated of which 30 articles were duplicate. Finally 22 articles were selected for final analysis. Exclusion criteria were, case studies and reports and quasi experimental designs. This evaluation has optioned negative relationship between nuchal translucency and pregnancy result. Rate of cardiac, chromosomal and other defects are correlated with increased NT≥2.5mm. Cardiac disease which were associated to the increased NT are heart murmur, systolic organic murmur, Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary valve insufficiency, Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) and Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). The most common problems that related with increased NT were allergic symptoms. According to this systematic review, increased NT is associated with various foetal defects. To verify the presence of malformations, birth defect consultations with a perinatologist and additional tests are required.
Moschovis, Peter P; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O D; Banajeh, Salem; Chisaka, Noel; Christiani, David C; Hayden, Douglas; Jeena, Prakash; MacLeod, William B; Mino, Greta; Patel, Archana; Qazi, Shamim; Santosham, Mathuram; Thea, Donald M; Hibberd, Patricia L
Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials. We analysed data from two WHO and USAID-sponsored inpatient treatment trials, the Severe Pneumonia Evaluation Antimicrobial Research study (n = 958) and the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (n = 1702), which enrolled children aged 2-59 months across 16 sites in LMICs. We assessed the effect of stunting (height-for-age Z score < -2) on treatment outcome and time to resolution of hypoxaemic pneumonia. Among 2542 (96%) children with valid data for height, 28% were stunted and 12.8% failed treatment by 5 days. The failure rate among stunted patients was 16.0% vs. 11.5% among non-stunted patients [unadjusted RR = 1.24 (95% CI 1.08, 1.41); adjusted RR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.10, 1.48)]. An inverse relationship was observed between height and failure rates, even among non-stunted children. Among 845 patients with hypoxaemic pneumonia, stunting was associated with a lower probability of normalisation of respiratory rate [HR = 0.63 (95% CI 0.52, 0.75)] and oxygen saturation [HR = 0.74 (95% CI 0.61, 0.89)]. Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moschovis, Peter P.; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel O. D.; Banajeh, Salem; Chisaka, Noel; Christiani, David C.; Hayden, Douglas; Jeena, Prakash; MacLeod, William B.; Mino, Greta; Patel, Archana; Qazi, Shamim; Santosham, Mathuram; Thea, Donald M.; Hibberd, Patricia L.
Objective Stunting affects 26.7% of children worldwide, and little is known about its effects on the outcomes of childhood pneumonia. We evaluated the effect of stunting on the outcomes of pneumonia among children enrolled in two large clinical trials. Methods We analyzed data from two WHO and USAID-sponsored inpatient treatment trials, the Severe Pneumonia Evaluation Antimicrobial Research study (n=958) and the Amoxicillin Penicillin Pneumonia International Study (n=1702), which enrolled children aged 2–59 months across 16 sites in LMICs. We assessed the effect of stunting (height-for-age Z score < −2) on treatment outcome and time to resolution of hypoxemic pneumonia. Results Among 2542 (96%) children with valid data for height, 28% were stunted and 12.8% failed treatment by 5 days. The failure rate among stunted patients was 16.0% vs. 11.5% among non-stunted patients (unadjusted RR = 1.24 [95% CI 1.08, 1.41]; adjusted RR = 1.28 [95% CI 1.10, 1.48]). An inverse relationship was observed between height and failure rates, even among non-stunted children. Among 845 patients with hypoxemic pneumonia, stunting was associated with a lower probability of normalization of respiratory rate (HR = 0.63 [95% CI 0.52, 0.75]) and oxygen saturation (HR = 0.74 [95% CI 0.61, 0.89]). Conclusions Stunting increases the risk of treatment failure and is associated with a longer course of recovery in children with pneumonia. Strategies to decrease stunting may decrease the burden of adverse outcomes in childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings. PMID:26083963
Ding, Ding; Gebel, Klaus; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian E.; Merom, Dafna
Background Driving is a common part of modern society, but its potential effects on health are not well understood. Purpose The present cross-sectional study (n = 37,570) examined the associations of driving time with a series of health behaviors and outcomes in a large population sample of middle-aged and older adults using data from the Social, Economic, and Environmental Factor Study conducted in New South Wales, Australia, in 2010. Methods Multiple logistic regression was used in 2013 to examine the associations of usual daily driving time with health-related behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep) and outcomes (obesity, general health, quality of life, psychological distress, time stress, social functioning), adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. Results Findings suggested that longer driving time was associated with higher odds for smoking, insufficient physical activity, short sleep, obesity, and worse physical and mental health. The associations consistently showed a dose-response pattern and more than 120 minutes of driving per day had the strongest and most consistent associations with the majority of outcomes. Conclusion This study highlights driving as a potential lifestyle risk factor for public health. More population-level multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the mechanism of how driving affects health. PMID:24911017
Veiby, Gyri; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Gilhus, Nils Erik
To investigate possible effects on pregnancy, delivery and perinatal outcome in female survivors of polio. In a cohort design, data from the national population based Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) were used to compare all 2495 births recorded 1967-1998 by female survivors of polio with all 1.9 mill non-polio deliveries. The results were adjusted for time period, maternal age, and birth order by unconditional logistic regression, with effects presented as adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) with a corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and p values. Female polio survivors had a higher occurrence of pre-eclampsia (3.4% vs. 2.8%, p=0.003, OR=1.4, CI=1.1-1.7), gestational proteinuria (1.3% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001, OR=2.0, CI=1.4-2.8), renal disease prior to pregnancy (1.4% vs. 0.9%, p=0.001, OR=1.8, CI=1.2-2.5), vaginal bleeding (3.8% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1), and urinary tract infection during pregnancy (3.5% vs. 2.4%, p<0.001, OR=1.7, CI=1.4-2.1). Deliveries complicated by obstruction of the birth process were more common in the polio group (6.1% vs. 2.0%, p<0.001, OR=4.8, CI=4.0-5.6), and cesarean section was performed at a higher rate throughout the time period (13.2% vs. 8.3%, p<0.001, OR=2.7, CI=2.4-3.1). Infants of polio mothers had a lower mean birth weight (3383 g vs. 3483 g, p<0.001), and more often had a birth weight below 2500 g (6.9% vs. 5.2%, p=0.001, OR=1.3, CI=1.1-1.5). There was no difference regarding pregnancy length. The risk of perinatal death was increased (2.1% vs. 1.1%, p=0.05, OR=1.3, CI=1.0-1.7). Pregnancy in female survivors of polio is associated with an increased risk for complications during pregnancy and delivery, as well as an adverse perinatal outcome. Awareness towards risk factors should improve pre-natal care and possibly prevent complications.
Coughlin, Catherine G.; Blackwell, Katherine A.; Bartley, Christine; Hay, Madeleine; Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Bloch, Michael H.
Objective Antipsychotic medications are used by increasing numbers of women of reproductive age. The safety of these medications during pregnancy has not been well-described. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of the adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes associated with exposure to antipsychotics during pregnancy. Data Sources PubMed, Reprotox, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched to identify potential studies for inclusion. Methods of Study Selection Case-control or cohort studies estimating adverse birth outcomes associated with antipsychotic exposure during pregnancy were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) were used for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences (WMD) were used for infant birth weight and gestational age. Thirteen cohort studies, including 6,289 antipsychotic-exposed and 1,618,039 unexposed pregnancies were included. Tabulation, Integration, and Results Antipsychotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of major malformations (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00 – 0.05, p=0.04, Z = 2.06), heart defects (Absolute Risk Difference =0.01, 95% CI 0.00 – 0.01, p<0.001, Z = 3.44), preterm delivery (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.05, 95% CI 0.03 – 0.08, p<0.001, Z = 4.10), small-for-gestational-age births (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02 – 0.09, p = 0.006, Z = 2.74), elective termination (Absolute Risk Difference = 0.09, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.13, p<0.001, Z = 4.69) and decreased birth weight (WMD=−57.89g, 95%CI −103.69g – −12.10g, p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the risk of major malformations (test for subgroup differences: χ2 = 0.07, df = 1, p = 0.79) between typical (OR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.21 – 1.99, p = 0.006) and atypical (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 0.66 – 2.93, p = 0.38) antipsychotic medications. Antipsychotic exposure was not associated with risk of large for gestational age births, stillbirth, and spontaneous abortion. Although antipsychotic
Wakeel, Fathima; Wisk, Lauren E.; Gee, Rebekah; Chao, Shin M.; Witt, Whitney P.
Purpose Stress during pregnancy is a salient risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes. Personal capital during pregnancy, defined as internal and social resources that help women cope with or decrease their exposure to stress, may reduce the risk of poor obstetric outcomes. Methods Using data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) survey (N=3,353), we examined the relationships between the balance of stress and personal capital during pregnancy, or the Stress-to-Capital Ratio (SCR), and adverse obstetric outcomes ((i.e., pregnancy complications, preterm birth (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA)). Results Women with a higher SCR (i.e. greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy) were significantly more likely to experience at least one pregnancy complication, PTB, and lower gestational age, but not LBW or SGA. Accounting for pregnancy complications completely mediated the association between the SCR and PTB. Conclusions Our findings indicate that experiencing greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications, PTB, and lower gestational age and that pregnancy complications may be a mechanism by which the SCR is related to adverse obstetric outcomes. PMID:23812738
Wakeel, Fathima; Wisk, Lauren E; Gee, Rebekah; Chao, Shin M; Witt, Whitney P
Stress during pregnancy is a salient risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes. Personal capital during pregnancy, defined as internal and social resources that help women cope with or decrease their exposure to stress, may reduce the risk of poor obstetric outcomes. Using data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby study (N = 3,353), we examined the relationships between the balance of stress and personal capital during pregnancy, or the stress-to-capital ratio (SCR), and adverse obstetric outcomes (i.e., pregnancy complications, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA)). Women with a higher SCR (i.e., greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy) were significantly more likely to experience at least one pregnancy complication, PTB, and lower gestational age, but not LBW or SGA. Accounting for pregnancy complications completely mediated the association between the SCR and PTB. Our findings indicate that experiencing greater stress relative to personal capital during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for pregnancy complications, PTB, and lower gestational age and that pregnancy complications may be a mechanism by which the SCR is related to adverse obstetric outcomes.
Mehta, Saurabh; Manji, Karim P; Young, Alicia M; Brown, Elizabeth R; Chasela, Charles; Taha, Taha E; Read, Jennifer S; Goldenberg, Robert L; Fawzi, Wafaie W
Background Poor nutrition may be associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective The objective was to examine the relation of nutritional indicators with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Tanzania, Zambia, and Malawi. Design Body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and hemoglobin concentrations at enrollment and weight change during pregnancy were prospectively related to fetal loss, neonatal death, low birth weight, preterm birth, and MTCT of HIV. Results In a multivariate analysis, having a BMI < 21.8 was significantly associated with preterm birth [odds ratio (OR): 1.82; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.46] and low birth weight (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.08). A U-shaped relation between weight change during pregnancy and preterm birth was observed. Severe anemia was significantly associated with fetal loss or stillbirth (OR: 3.67; 95% CI: 1.16, 11.66), preterm birth (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.39, 3.10), low birth weight (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.90), and MTCT of HIV by the time of birth (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.34) and by 4−6 wk among those negative at birth (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.73). Conclusions Anemia, poor weight gain during pregnancy, and low BMI in HIV-infected pregnant women are associated with increased risks of adverse infant outcomes and MTCT of HIV. Interventions that reduce the risk of wasting or anemia during pregnancy should be evaluated to determine their possible effect on the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and MTCT of HIV. PMID:18541551
Berger, Brian M; Phillips, James A
Compare outcomes with vaginal gel versus intramuscular progesterone replacement in donor oocyte recipients. A single-center retrospective analysis (January 2004-December 2006) evaluated pregnancy outcomes (serum human chorionic gonadotropin, implantation, clinical pregnancy, delivery, total pregnancy loss rates) for 225 recipients of embryos from donor (aged <32 years) oocytes. Vaginal progesterone gel (Crinone® 8%; 90 mg twice daily; n = 105) or intramuscular progesterone (50 mg once daily; n = 120) was started the afternoon of oocyte retrieval and continued until a negative pregnancy test or 10 weeks' gestation. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the five pregnancy outcomes; numerical results favored vaginal progesterone in all cases. Confidence intervals showed vaginal gel was within, or <1% from, a noninferiority limit of 10% versus intramuscular progesterone for four of five pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes were comparable for progesterone replacement with vaginal gel and intramuscular progesterone in an oocyte donation program.
Singla, Navneet; Kapoor, Ankur; Savardekar, Amey; Radotra, B. D.; Chatterjee, Debjyoti; Gupta, Sunil K.
Background: Tumors arising from cerebellar peduncle are extremely rare and behave aggressively. The inclusion of these into either cerebellar or brainstem gliomas is contentious. Case Description: We performed clinicopathological review of three patients treated at our institute and surveyed the literature for previous such reported cases. Mean duration of symptoms in our patients was 2 weeks. Subtotal tumor resection was performed in two patients while the third underwent stereotactic biopsy followed by chemoradiotherapy. Histopathology revealed glioblastoma in initial two patients and medulloblastoma Grade IV in the third. The two patients who underwent surgical excision succumbed to the illness within 2 days and a month, respectively. Conclusion: Malignant cerebellar peduncular lesions have poor overall survival despite surgical debulking. It is not confirmed whether these tumors should be considered as cerebellar lesions or brainstem gliomas due to aggressive clinical behavior, and so the ideal line of management is not yet known. PMID:27057396
Leve, Leslie D.; Kerr, David C. R.; Harold, Gordon T.
Teen pregnancy is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for girls such as drug use and poor parenting. Thus, reducing teen pregnancy rates could improve long-term developmental outcomes for girls, improving adjustment during young adulthood. Based on the positive effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to group care (GC) in a study of adolescent girls—significantly fewer pregnancies reported in the 2-year follow-up for MTFC girls—the present study followed this sample into young adulthood (approximately 7 years postbaseline) to examine the effects of adolescent pregnancy on young adult substance use and pregnancy-related outcomes. All participants were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as adolescents as part of two RCTs. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that becoming pregnant during the 2-year follow-up was significantly related to illicit drug use, miscarriage from a new pregnancy, and child welfare involvement at 7 years postbaseline. In addition, baseline marijuana use predicted marijuana use at 7 years postbaseline. PMID:24453470
Leve, Leslie D; Kerr, David C R; Harold, Gordon T
Teen pregnancy is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for girls such as drug use and poor parenting. Thus, reducing teen pregnancy rates could improve long-term developmental outcomes for girls, improving adjustment during young adulthood. Based on the positive effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to group care (GC) in a study of adolescent girls-significantly fewer pregnancies reported in the 2-year follow-up for MTFC girls-the present study followed this sample into young adulthood (approximately 7 years postbaseline) to examine the effects of adolescent pregnancy on young adult substance use and pregnancy-related outcomes. All participants were randomly assigned to MTFC (n = 81) or GC (n = 85) as adolescents as part of two RCTs. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that becoming pregnant during the 2-year follow-up was significantly related to illicit drug use, miscarriage from a new pregnancy, and child welfare involvement at 7 years postbaseline. In addition, baseline marijuana use predicted marijuana use at 7 years postbaseline.
Lee, Richard H; Kwok, Kay May; Ingles, Sue; Wilson, Melissa L; Mullin, Patrick; Incerpi, Marc; Pathak, Bhuvan; Goodwin, T Murphy
Our objective was to examine whether delivery at 37 weeks of gestation alters adverse pregnancy outcomes in Latina patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). We conducted a retrospective chart review of Latina patients who delivered at our institution coded with ICP between 2000 and 2007. During this time period it was our practice to offer delivery to patients with ICP at 37 weeks of gestation. Subjects were classified into three groups according to total bile acid (TBA) concentration: < 20 micromol/L (mild ICP), > or = 20 micromol/L and < 40 micromol/L (moderate ICP), and > or = 40 micromol/L (severe ICP). Meconium passage was observed in no births in patients with mild IC, but was found in 18% of deliveries with moderate/severe ICP. The risk of meconium passage increased linearly, with a 19.7% increased risk for each 10 mumol/L increase in TBA concentration ( P = 0.001). There was no association with higher TBA concentration and other adverse outcomes. There was no difference in adverse outcomes between moderate and severe ICP. We concluded that in our Latina population with ICP, an association existed between meconium passage and moderate/severe ICP. Delivering at 37 weeks was associated with a low risk of adverse outcomes due to ICP among all patients, including those with higher TBA concentrations.
Chen, Jian S; Roberts, Christine L; Simpson, Judy M; March, Lyn M
To examine pregnancy outcomes and pregnancy-related health service utilization among women with rare autoimmune diseases. This population-based cohort study of an Australian obstetric population (2001-2011) used birth records linked to hospital records for identification of rare autoimmune diseases including systemic vasculitis, vasculitis limited to the skin, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, Behçet's disease, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and other systemic involvement of connective tissue. We excluded births in women with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis as well as births occurring ≥6 months before the diagnosis of the rare autoimmune disease. Modified Poisson regression was used to compare study outcomes between women with autoimmune diseases and the general obstetric population. There were 991,701 births, including 409 births (0.04%) in 293 women with rare autoimmune diseases. Of the 409 births, 202 (49%) were delivered by cesarean section and 72 (18%) were preterm; these rates were significantly higher than those in the general obstetric population (28% and 7%, respectively). Compared to the general population, women with autoimmune diseases had higher rates of hypertensive disorders, antepartum hemorrhage, and severe maternal morbidity and required longer hospitalization at delivery, more hospital admissions, and tertiary obstetric care. Compared to other infants, those whose mothers had a rare autoimmune disease were at increased risk of admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, severe neonatal morbidity, and perinatal death. While the majority of women with rare autoimmune diseases delivered healthy infants, they were at increased risk of having both maternal complications and adverse neonatal outcomes, suggesting that their pregnancies should be closely monitored. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.
Sahin, Erdem; Madendag, Yusuf; Tayyar, Ahter Tanay; Sahin, Mefkure Eraslan; Col Madendag, Ilknur; Acmaz, Gokhan; Unsal, Deniz; Senol, Vesile
The purpose of this study is to determine the adverse perinatal outcomes in uncomplicated late preterm pregnancies with borderline oligohydramnios. A total of 430 pregnant women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy at a gestational age of 34 + 0-36 + 6 weeks were included. Borderline oligohydramnios was defined as an amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 5.1-8 cm, which was measured using the four-quadrant technique. Adverse perinatal outcomes were compared between the borderline and normal AFI groups. Approximately 107 of the 430 pregnant women were borderline AFI, and 323 were normal AFI. The demographic and obstetric characteristics were similar in both groups. Delivery <37 weeks, cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal heart-rate testing, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar 5 min <7, transient tachypnea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal intensive care unit, and hyperbilirubinemia were not statistically different between the groups (p = .054, p = .134, p = .749, p = 0.858, p = .703, p = .320, p = .185, and p = .996, respectively). Although gestational age was full-term, induction of labor rates were significantly higher in the borderline AFI group (p = .040). In addition, fetal renal artery pulsatility index pulsatility index (PI) was significantly lower in the borderline AFI group than in the normal AFI group (p = .014). Our results indicated that borderline AFI was not a risk for adverse perinatal outcomes in uncomplicated, late preterm pregnancies.
Li, Da; Yang, Da-Lei; An, Jing; Jiao, Jiao; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Wu, Qi-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Xia
Emerging evidence suggests that assisted hatching (AH) techniques may improve clinical pregnancy rates, particularly in poor prognosis patients; however, there still remains considerable uncertainty. We conducted a meta-analysis to verify the effect of AH on pregnancy outcomes. We searched for related studies published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane library databases from start dates to October 10, 2015. Totally, 36 randomized controlled trials with 6459 participants were included. Summary odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for whether by AH or not were estimated. We found a significant increase in clinical pregnancy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.00–1.36, I2 = 48.3%) and multiple pregnancy rates (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11–2.01, I2 = 44.0%) with AH when compared to the control. Numerous subgroup analyses stratified by hatching method, conception mode, extent of AH, embryos transfer status, and previous failure history were also carried out. Interestingly, significant results of clinical pregnancy as well as multiple pregnancy rates were observed among women who received intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and who received AH which the zona were completely removed. In summary, this meta-analysis supports that AH was associated with an increased chance of achieving clinical pregnancy and multiple pregnancy. Whether AH significantly changes live birth and miscarriage rates needs further investigations. PMID:27503701
Wu, Meifen; Li, Xiaoyi; Feng, Bin; Wu, Hao; Qiu, Chunbo; Zhang, Weifeng
The aim of this study was to investigate whether poor sleep quality of third-trimester pregnancy is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Third-trimester pregnant women (T0, n=293) were tested using the first socio-demographic, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessments, and received a diagnosis of depression. Three months (T1, n=223) after delivery, scale filling was finished and the structured interview was performed again. We found that 73 persons (32.7%) were low income, 84 persons (37.7%) were middle-income, and 66 persons (29.6%) were higher income. The overall prevalence of postpartum depression was 9.4% (21 persons). After controlling for other factors, age, household income, marital satisfaction, and sleep quality were significantly related to postpartum depression, in which age and sleep quality scores (a higher score was associated with poorer sleep quality) were positively related to postpartum depression, and household income and marital satisfaction were negatively related to postpartum depression. Moreover, third-trimester sleep quality score was positively related to postpartum depressive symptoms. Poor third-trimester subjective sleep quality is a risk factor for postpartum depression.
Ayräs, Outi; Tikkanen, Minna; Eronen, Marianne; Paavonen, Jorma; Stefanovic, Vedran
The goals of this study are to assess pregnancy outcome with increased nuchal translucency (NT) and to determine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to the degree of increased NT. All singleton pregnancies with increased NT at the first screening ultrasound examination referred to the Department of Fetal Medicine at the Helsinki University Central Hospital during 2002 to 2007 were included. Pregnancy outcomes and short-term outcomes of the newborns were recorded and analyzed. Of the 1063 pregnancies, karyotype was normal in 834 (78%). The majority, 611 (73%), of euploid fetuses was in the lowest NT group (95th percentile--3.4 mm). Percentage of favorable outcome decreased from 92% in the lowest NT group (95th percentile--3.4 mm) to 18% in the highest NT group (≥6.5 mm). Structural defects or genetic disorders were observed in 74 (9%) of cases with normal karyotype, of which 43 (58%) resulted in live birth, 25 (34%) in termination of pregnancy, and 6 (8%) in miscarriage or perinatal death. Even minimal (95th percentile--3.4 mm) increase in NT thickness is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome also in euploid fetuses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vilchez, Gustavo; Espinoza, Miguel; D'Onadio, Guery; Saona, Pedro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Brucellosis is a zoonosis with high morbidity in humans. This disease has gained interest recently due to its re-emergence and potential for weaponization. Pregnant women with this disease can develop severe complications. Its association with adverse obstetric outcomes is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to describe the obstetric outcomes of brucellosis in pregnancy. Cases of pregnant women with active brucellosis seen at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 1970 to 2012 were reviewed. Diagnostic criteria were a positive agglutination test and/or positive blood/bone marrow culture. Presentation and outcomes data were collected. The Chi-square test was used for nominal variables. A p-value of <0.05 indicated significance. One hundred and one cases were included; 27.7% had a threatened abortion/preterm labor, 12.8% experienced spontaneous abortion, 13.9% preterm delivery, 8.1% fetal death, and 1.1% congenital malformations. There was one maternal death secondary to severe sepsis. After delivery, neonatal death occurred in 8.1%, low birth weight in 14.5%, and congenital brucellosis in 6.4%. The most common treatment was aminoglycosides plus rifampicin (42.2% of cases). Complication rates decreased if treatment was started within 2 weeks of presentation (p < 0.001). This is the largest series of brucellosis in pregnancy reported in the literature. Brucella presents adverse obstetric outcomes including fetal and maternal/neonatal death. Cases with unexplained spontaneous abortion should be investigated for brucellosis. Prompt treatment is paramount to decrease the devastating outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
McLennan, Amelia S; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Ananth, Cande V; Wright, Jason D; Siddiq, Zainab; D'Alton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M
There are limited data on how maternal age is related to twin pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between maternal age and risk for preterm birth, fetal death, and neonatal death in the setting of twin pregnancy. This population-based study of US birth, fetal death, and period-linked birth-infant death files from 2007-2013 evaluated neonatal outcomes for twin pregnancies. Maternal age was categorized as 15-17, 18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years of age. Twin live births and fetal death delivered at 20-42 weeks were included. Primary outcomes included preterm birth (<34 weeks and <37 weeks), fetal death, and neonatal death at <28 days of life. Analyses of preterm birth at <34 and <37 weeks were adjusted for demographic and medical factors, with maternal age modeled with the use of restricted spline transformations. A total of 955,882 twin live births from 2007-2013 were included in the analysis. Preterm birth rates at <34 and <37 weeks gestation were highest for women 15-17 years of age, decreased across subsequent maternal age categories, nadired for women 35-39 years old, and then increased slightly for women ≥40 years old. Risk for fetal death generally decreased across maternal age categories. Risk for fetal death was 39.9 per 1000 live births for women 15-17 years old, 24.2 for women 18-24 years old, 17.8 for women 25-29 years old, 16.4 for women 30-34 years old, 17.2 for women 35-39 years old, and 15.8 for women ≥40 years old. Risk for neonatal death at <28 days was highest for neonates born to women 15-17 years old (10.0 per 1,000 live births), decreased to 7.3 for women 18-24 years old and 5.5 for women 25-29 years old and ranged from 4.3-4.6 for all subsequent maternal age categories. In adjusted models, risk for preterm birth at <34-<37 weeks gestation was not elevated for women in their mid-to-late 30s; however, risk was elevated for women <20 years old and increased progressively with age for women
Moodley, P; Sturm, A W
Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the sexually active population are the main steps to prevent perinatal infection. However, the spread of STIs continues at an astronomical pace despite various attempts at controlling the epidemic. An important reason for this lack of STI control is that a large percentage of infected people go untreated because they have asymptomatic or unrecognized infections. The microbial differential diagnosis of STIs implicated in adverse pregnancy outcome is broad and includes viral, bacterial and protozoal infections. Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth and puerperal sepsis are some of complications seen in women as a result of infection with sexually transmitted pathogens. In addition, STIs may facilitate the acquisition and transmission of HIV. In the fetus or neonate, complications include abnormalities of the major organ systems. Infections in the form of pneumonia or conjunctivitis may also occur. Due to the lack of simple, inexpensive and sensitive point-of-care tests, screening for STIs in pregnancy is not performed routinely.
Ostaszewska-Puchalska, Iwona; Wilkowska-Trojniel, Marta; Zdrodowska-Stefanow, Bozena; Knapp, Pawel
The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection in women with adverse pregnancy outcomes. 258 patients aged 18-43 yrs were enrolled into the study. Among them, 162 women have had spontaneous abortions in the past (group A), 81 had history of intrauterine death of the foetus (group B) and 15 women had experienced preterm deliveries (group C). The control group (group D) included 131 women who were in the second or third trimester of uncomplicated pregnancy. C. trachomatis was investigated in cervical and urethral smears using direct immunofluorescence or Ligase chain reaction (LCR) for direct testing and immunoenzymatic assay (EIA) for serological testing and detection of specific IgG antibodies. C. trachomatis was detected in 25.9% patients in group A, 35.8% in group B and 20% in group C and only in 12.7% in group D. IgG specific antibodies were present in 31.5%, 41.9%, 26.6% and 14.5% of patients in these groups respectively. The highest prevalence of chlamydial infections, regardless the diagnostic method used, was registered in the group of women with a history of 3 abortions (42.3% when direct testing and 45.5% when serological testing) while the lowest prevalence was in women who experienced only l abortion (23.2% and 28%). C. trachomatis infection in pregnancy affects its duration as it can lead to miscarriage, death of the foetus and preterm delivery.
Demirdag, E; Guler, I; Abay, S; Oguz, Y; Erdem, M; Erdem, A
The most common treatment modalities of ectopic pregnancy may influence long-term subsequent fertility outcomes in women who previously treated for ectopic pregnancy. Our objective was to compare long-term subsequent fertility outcomes after treatment with expectant management, systemic methotrexate (MTX) and surgery in tubal ectopic pregnancy. We searched our database for all women diagnosed with tubal ectopic pregnancy between January 2007 and January 2011 who were managed expectantly, with systemic MTX and with surgery. Treatment success and spontaneous pregnancy rates were compared in patients who desire to conceive following a tubal pregnancy. One hundred twelve of 151 women desired to conceive following tubal ectopic pregnancy. Twenty-seven of 112 (24.1 %) patients were managed expectantly. Fifty-three (47.3 %) and 32 (28.5 %) patients were managed with systemic MTX or surgery, respectively. All patients in expectant and surgery groups were managed successfully. Two (3.7 %) patients had surgery after failed treatment with systemic MTX. Spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rates were 62.9 % in expectantly managed women, 58.4 % in women with systemic MTX and 68.7 % in women with surgery (p > 0.05). Treatment of ectopic pregnancy with either expectant management or systemic MTX is equally effective as compared to surgery. Spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rates were comparable in expectant management, systemic methotrexate and surgery.
Li, Xue-Li; Wang, Li; Lv, Fang; Huang, Xia-Man; Wang, Li-Ping; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei
Abstract Background: Growth hormone (GH) is used as an adjuvant therapy in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) for poor ovarian responders, but findings for its effects on outcomes of IVF have been conflicting. The aim of the study was to compare IVF-ET outcomes among women with poor ovarian responders, and find which subgroup can benefit from the GH addition. Methods: We searched the databases, using the terms “growth hormone,” “GH,” “IVF,” “in vitro fertilization.” Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included if they assessed pregnancy rate, live birth rate, collected oocytes, fertilization rate, and implantation rate. Extracted the data from the corresponding articles, Mantel–Haenszel random-effects model, or fixed-effects model was used. Eleven studies were included. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.23–2.22), live birth rate (RR1.73, 1.25–2.40), collected oocytes number (SMD 1.09, 95% CI 0.54–1.64), MII oocytes number (SMD 1.48, 0.84–2.13), and E2 on human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) day (SMD 1.03, 0.18–1.89) were significantly increased in the GH group. The cancelled cycles rate (RR 0.65, 0.45–0.94) and the dose of gonadotropin (Gn) (SMD –0.83, –1.47, –0.19) were significantly lower in patients who received GH. Subgroup analysis indicated that the GH addition with Gn significantly increased the clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.76, 1.25–2.48) and the live birth rate (RR 1.91, 1.29–2.83). Conclusion: The GH addition can significantly improve the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Furthermore, the GH addition time and collocation of medications may affect the pregnancy outcome. PMID:28328856
Niyibizi, Joseph; Zanré, Nadège; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Trottier, Helen
effect of HPV on pregnancy outcomes might be an additional motivation for HPV vaccination. Absence of such relationship could dispel anxiety and reassure HPV-infected pregnant women and clinicians. Findings of a poor level of confidence will allow identification of current knowledge gaps on HPV-pregnancy outcome relationship that need further research. PROSPERO CRD42016033425.
Khojasteh, Farnoush; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Boryri, Tahere; Safarzadeh, Amneh; Pourkahkhaei, Mohammad
Women comprise a large percentage of the workforce in industrial countries. In Europe and many other places in the world, women of reproductive age comprise a significant proportion of the workforce at the workplaces, and the rules and regulations require employers to evaluate and minimize health risks to pregnant women. In U.K, 70%, and in the United States 59% of women are employed. In Iran, 13% of women are employed, which comes down to less than 5% at Sistan& Baluchestan Province. Various studies have reported contradictory results about the effects of maternal employment tasks such as standing, repetitive bending, climbing stairs, and lifting heavy objects during pregnancy on fetal growth, preterm birth and other obstetric complications. Given the growing number of working women, and potential complications for mothers, the present study has conducted to investigate the relationship between maternal employment status and pregnancy outcomes in Zahedan city, Iran. This cross-sectional study was based on survey conducted on 227 women (121 housewives, and 106 employed women) attending health centers in 2014. Using purposive convenient sampling method, eligible pregnant mothers (with no chronic diseases, singleton pregnancy, gravida 1-3, and no addiction) were selected as study subjects. Data were collected and recorded through a researcher-made questionnaire and also from mothers' medical records, including personal details, prenatal and labor complications, and infant's details. Collected data were fed into the SPSS version 21(IBM Corp, USA). Frequency of placental abruption was greater among housewives (P=0.02), and a significant relationship was found between employment status and lifting heavy objects, which was more frequent among housewives (P=0.01). Lifting heavy objects during pregnancy was only significantly related to reduced amniotic fluid (P=0.001) and low birth weight (P=0.01). Frequency of preterm labor was higher among housewives compared to
Kabbali, Nadia; Tachfouti, Nabil; Arrayhani, Mohammed; Harandou, Mustapha; Tagnaouti, Mounia; Bentata, Yassamine; Laouad, Inass; Ramdani, Benyounes; Bayahia, Rabia; Oualim, Zouhair; Houssaini, Tarik Sqalli
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rare but life-threatening complication of pregnancy. The aim of this paper is to study the characteristics of acute AKI in pregnancy and to emphasize on its management modalities in Moroccan hospitals. This is a national prospective study performed over six months from July 1 to December 31 2010 on AKI developing in pregnant patients, both preand post-partum period. Patients with pre-existing kidney disease were excluded from the study. Outcome was considered unfavorable when complete recovery of renal function was not achieved and/or maternal death occurred. Forty-four patients were included in this study. They were 29.6 ± 6 years old and mostly illiterate (70.6%). Most AKI occurred in the post-partum period, with 66% of the cases occurring in those who did not receive antenatal care. The main etiologies were pre-eclampsia (28 cases), hemorrhagic shock (six cases) and septic events (five cases). We noted three cases of acute fatty liver, one case of obstructive kidney injury and one case of lupus nephritis. Hemodialysis was necessary in 17 (38.6%) cases. The outcome was favorable in 29 patients. The maternal mortality rate was 11.4%. Two poor prognostic factors were identified: Age over 38 years and sepsis. AKI is a severe complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Its prevention necessitates the improvement of the sanitary infrastructure and the establishment of the obligatory antenatal care.
Slama, R; Cordier, S
We review the epidemiological literature on the possible impact of chemical and physical factors on pregnancy outcome. Effects of in-utero exposures on child health are not considered here. The highest levels of evidence concern the effects of passive smoking (on fetal growth), of lead (pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal growth), of some Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB; on fetal growth) and, to a lesser extent, of atmospheric pollutants (on fetal growth and preterm delivery). For the other compounds, in particular non-persistent chemicals, the literature, which is generally based on poor exposure assessment, is less informative. In conclusion, the last decades have witnessed the development of mother-child cohorts in which exposure biomarkers have been assayed, allowing a large number of publications. For some persistent compounds, for which efficient exposure assessment approaches have been used, the literature indicates a likely impact on pregnancy outcomes. With the exception of air pollutants, the literature on non-persistent compounds is little conclusive; the assay of exposure biomarkers in repeated biological samples collected at relevant time points could help further increase knowledge regarding any health impact.
Bhandari, Shilpa; Ganguly, Ishita; Agarwal, Pallavi; Munaganuru, Niharika; Gupta, Nitika; Singh, Aparna
Background: Singleton pregnancy with a live birth beyond 37 weeks of gestation is the ultimate goal of any assisted reproductive technology. However, singletons conceived after ART are found to have a poor perinatal outcome in comparison to naturally conceived singletons. It was hypothesized that the outcome of singleton conceived after transfer of two or more embryos may be dependent on the sharing of uterine space with other embryos. Methods: Patients who had single gestational sac visualized at 6 weeks after transfer of 4, 3 or 2 embryos were considered for the study. 195 singleton pregnancies were selected for final evaluation such that as per implantation rates of 25%, 33%, and 50%, they were divided into 3 groups of 50, 82 and 63 cases, respectively. The basic characteristics of pregnancy (gestational age, birth weight) were compared using analysis of variance (continuous variables), and categorical variables were evaluated with chi-squared test. The p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the various variables including maternal age, conception, type of infertility, type of abortion, total live birth, gestational age in live birth, birth weight, kind of embryo transfer and gestational age, there was not significant statistical differences between groups except gestational age that it was higher in group with 50% (p<0.04) implantation rate. Therefore, higher number of initial embryos may affect the perinatal outcome of singleton conceived subsequently. Conclusion: There is higher chance of missed abortion in patients with singleton pregnancies conceived after multiple embryo transfer. Gestational age at delivery and birth weight were correlated with number of embryo transfered. PMID:28377897
Alemu, Fekadu Mazengia; Yalew, Alemayehu Worku; Fantahun, Mesganaw; Ashu, Eta Ebasi
Background: Despite significant efforts to understand adverse pregnancy outcome in women receiving Antiretroviral Therapy (ART), ART-related adverse birth outcomes are still poorly understood. We systematically review ART-related adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant women; we also review the covariates associated with adverse birth outcomes in the aforementioned group. Methods: The main source for our systematic review was electronic bibliographic databases. Databases such as MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and AIDSLINE were searched. Furthermore, search engines such as Google and Google Scholar were specifically searched for gray literature. Methodological quality of available literature was assessed using the Newcastle - Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale & M. Hewitt guideline. We examined a total of 1,124 papers and reviewed the studies using the PICOT criteria which stands for Patient (population), Intervention (or “Exposure”), Comparison, Outcome and Type of study. Finally, 32 methodologically fit studies were retained and included in our review. Results: Frequently observed adverse birth outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), Preterm Birth (PB), Small for Gestational Age (SGA), while still birth and congenital anomalies were infrequent. Type of regimen such as Protease Inhibitor (PI) based regimens and timing of initiation of ART are some of the factors associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Covariates principally included malnutrition and other co-morbidities such as malaria and HIV. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: There is growing evidence in published literature suggesting that ART might be causing adverse birth outcomes among pregnant women in developing countries. There is a need to consider regimen types for HIV-infected pregnant women. There is need to design large cohort studies. PMID:27621984
Kadobera, Daniel; Waiswa, Peter; Peterson, Stefan; Blencowe, Hannah; Lawn, Joy; Kerber, Kate; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona
In most low and middle-income countries vital events registration for births and child deaths is poor, with reporting of pregnancy outcomes highly inadequate or non-existent. Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites and periodic population-based household-level surveys can be used to identify pregnancies and retrospectively capture pregnancy outcomes to provide data for decision making. However, little is known about the performance of different methods in identifying pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, yet this is critical in assessing improvements in reducing maternal and newborn mortality and stillbirths. To explore differences between a population-based household pregnancy survey and prospective health demographic surveillance system in identifying pregnancies and their outcomes in rural eastern Uganda. The study was done within the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS site, a member centre of the INDEPTH Network. Prospective data about pregnancies and their outcomes was collected in the routine biannual census rounds from 2006 to 2010 in the HDSS. In 2011 a cross-sectional survey using the pregnancy history survey (PHS) tool was conducted among women aged 15 to 49 years in the HDSS area. We compared differences between the HDSS biannual census updates and the PHS capture of pregnancies identified as well as neonatal and child deaths, stillbirths and abortions. A total of 10,540 women aged 15 to 49 years were interviewed during the PHS. The PHS captured 12.8% more pregnancies than the HDSS in the most recent year (2010-2011), though between 2006 and 2010 (earlier periods) the PHS captured only 137 (0.8%) more pregnancies overall. The PHS also consistently identified more stillbirths (18.2%), spontaneous abortions (94.5%) and induced abortions (185.8%) than the prospective HDSS update rounds. Surveillance sites are designed to prospectively track population-level outcomes. However, the PHS identified more pregnancy-related outcomes than the HDSS in this study
Ibrahim, Mahmoud H; Moustafa, Asmaa N; Saedii, Ahmed A Fadil; Hassan, Ebtesam E
To determine the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and we measure cord blood erythropoietin and NRBC count as indices of hypoxia and predictors of neonatal outcome. This prospective cohort study was done in Minia University Hospital, carried out from May 2015 to April 2016. Two hundred and seventy full-term neonates born to mothers of various body mass indices were included. Excluded were neonates with major factors known to be associated with a potential increase in fetal erythropoiesis. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI was calculated from maternally reported weight and height. Cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells were measured. There is a significant increase of various adverse pregnancy outcomes as cesarean section. Postpartum hemorrhage and macrosomia with the increase of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Significant positive correlations between cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells with maternal BMI. The increase in the maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells can predict the poor neonatal outcome.
Sadowski, Alexander; Todorow, Michelle; Yazdani Brojeni, Parvaneh; Koren, Gideon; Nulman, Irena
Objectives Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), in conjunction with other psychotropic medications, are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders in pregnancy. The few available studies investigating the reproductive safety of SGAs did not reach conclusive results, and none have compared monotherapy with polytherapy involving other psychotropic medications. Design Descriptive cohort study using a prospectively collected database. Setting Motherisk Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Participants 133 women exposed to SGAs and other psychotropic drugs and 133 matched healthy controls were assessed and analysed. Outcomes of mother–child pairs exposed to SGAs in monotherapy (N=37) were compared with those exposed to SGAs with other psychotropic medications (in polytherapy; N=96). Main outcome measures Maternal, pregnancy, delivery and neonatal outcomes. Results 72% of exposed women received SGAs in polytherapy, and 101 women took their medications throughout pregnancy. These women had significantly higher pre-pregnancy weight, experienced more associated comorbidities and instrumental deliveries, and delivered a greater proportion of large for gestational age neonates. There were no differences in maternal weight gain in pregnancy between the exposed and comparison groups and between the monotherapy-exposed and polytherapy-exposed subgroups. The exposed neonates were more likely to be born premature, were admitted more often to the neonatal intensive care unit, presented with poor neonatal adaptation signs and had higher rates of congenital malformations. All the aforementioned neonatal outcomes were found mainly in the polytherapy subgroup. Conclusions The use of SGAs in polytherapy was prevalent in the assessed cohort and was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and the child. In utero exposure to SGA monotherapy appears to be associated with less risk to the fetus. Future research should focus on
Ezechi, O C; Gab-Okafor, C V; Oladele, D A; Kalejaiye, O O; Oke, B O; Ohwodo, H O; Adu, R A; Ekama, S O; Musa, Z; Onwujekwe, D I; David, A N; Ujah, I A O
While the effect of HIV infection on some maternal outcomes is well established, for some others there is conflicting information on possible association with HIV. In this study we investigated pregnancy and neonatal outcome of HIV positive women in large HIV treatment centre over a period of 84 months. They were managed according to the Nigerian PMTCT protocol. Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome were observed in 48.3% HIV positives compared 30.3% to the negatives (OR: 2.08; CI: 1.84-2.34). Low birth weight ( OR:2.95; CI:1.95-3.1), preterm delivery (OR:2.05; CI:1.3-3.1), perinatal death (OR:1.9;CI:1.3-3.2), and spontaneous abortion (OR:1.37; CI:1.1-2.3) were factors found to be independently associated with HIV. Low CD4 count (OR: 2.45; CI: 1.34- 4.56) and opportunistic infections (OR: 2.11; CI: 1.56-3.45) were to be associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. This study confirms the association of HIV, severe immunosuppression and opportunistic infection and adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome.
Cheng, Tuck Seng; Loy, See Ling; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cai, Shirong; Colega, Marjorelee T; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Yung Seng; Lek, Ngee; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Yap, Fabian
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian eating patterns during pregnancy. Data on pregnant women (n = 890) from a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) were analyzed. Plasma 25OHD concentration was measured, while the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and 24-h dietary recall were administered to women at 26-28 weeks' gestation. Plasma 25OHD status was defined as sufficient (>75 nmol/L), insufficient (50-75 nmol/L), or deficient (<50 nmol/L). Poor sleep quality was defined by a total global PSQI score >5. Predominantly day-time (pDT) and predominantly night-time (pNT) were defined according to consumption of greater proportion of calories (i.e., >50%) from 07:00-18:59 and from 19:00-06:59, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, women with plasma 25OHD deficiency had higher odds of poor sleep quality (odds ratio (OR) 3.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-6.63) and pNT eating (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.00-3.41) than those who were 25OHD sufficient. Our findings show the association of maternal plasma 25OHD deficiency with poor sleep quality and pNT eating at mid-pregnancy.
Cheng, Tuck Seng; Loy, See Ling; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cai, Shirong; Colega, Marjorelee T.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Yung Seng; Lek, Ngee; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Yap, Fabian
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian eating patterns during pregnancy. Data on pregnant women (n = 890) from a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) were analyzed. Plasma 25OHD concentration was measured, while the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and 24-h dietary recall were administered to women at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. Plasma 25OHD status was defined as sufficient (>75 nmol/L), insufficient (50–75 nmol/L), or deficient (<50 nmol/L). Poor sleep quality was defined by a total global PSQI score >5. Predominantly day-time (pDT) and predominantly night-time (pNT) were defined according to consumption of greater proportion of calories (i.e., >50%) from 07:00–18:59 and from 19:00–06:59, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, women with plasma 25OHD deficiency had higher odds of poor sleep quality (odds ratio (OR) 3.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84–6.63) and pNT eating (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.00–3.41) than those who were 25OHD sufficient. Our findings show the association of maternal plasma 25OHD deficiency with poor sleep quality and pNT eating at mid-pregnancy. PMID:28353643
Etzel, Taylor M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Savitz, David A; Yolton, Kimberly; Braun, Joseph M
Triclosan is an antimicrobial chemical used in consumer products, and exposure is ubiquitous among pregnant women in the United States. Triclosan may reduce the levels of thyroid hormones that are important for fetal growth and development. We investigated the relationship of prenatal triclosan exposure with birth anthropometry and gestational duration. We used data from 378 mother-child pairs participating in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort from Cincinnati, OH. We measured triclosan concentrations in maternal urine samples collected at 16 and 26 weeks of pregnancy. We abstracted information on neonatal anthropometry and gestational duration from medical records. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate the covariate-adjusted association between the average of the two urinary triclosan concentrations and gestational age standardized weight z-score, length, head circumference, and gestational age at birth. Median urinary triclosan concentrations were 16ng/mL (range: <2.4 to 1501ng/mL). Each 10-fold increase in triclosan was associated with a predicted 0.15 standard deviation decrease (95% CI: -0.30, 0.00) in birth weight z-score, 0.4-cm decrease (95% CI: -0.8, 0.1) in birth length, 0.3-cm decrease (95% CI: -0.5, 0.0) in head circumference, and 0.3-week decrease (95% CI: -0.6, -0.1) in gestational age. Child sex did not modify the associations between triclosan and birth outcomes. In this cohort, maternal urinary triclosan concentrations during pregnancy were inversely associated with infants' birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oztas, Efser; Erkenekli, Kudret; Ozler, Sibel; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Kurt, Mevlut; Oztas, Erkin; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri
Our aim was to investigate whether any hematological changes readily detectable by simple complete blood count (CBC), as well as fasting and postprandial total serum bile acid (SBA) levels, have diagnostic values for the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). A prospective, case control study was carried out including 217 pregnant women (117 women with ICP and 100 healthy controls). The main outcome measures investigated were preterm delivery, APGAR scores, and neonatal unit admission. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the independent risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with controls, women with ICP had significantly higher mean platelet volume (MPV) (mean 10.2±1.0 vs. 11.0±1.3; P<0.001) and platelet distribution width (PDW) (mean 13.1±2.3 vs. 14.7±2.8; P<0.001) values. Analysis with logistic regression revealed that the probability of preterm delivery did not increase until MPV levels exceeded 11.2 fL [odds ratio (OR)=2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.13-6.32, P=0.025], and total bilirubin levels exceeded 0.6 mg/dL (OR=3.13, 95% CI=1.21-8.09, P=0.019). Considering the low APGAR scores, only increased postprandial total SBA levels of ≥51 μmol/L were found to be predictive significantly (OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.07-8.53, P=0.037). Our study suggests that increased MPV and total bilirubin levels are associated with preterm delivery, and increased postprandial total SBA levels are predictive for low APGAR in ICP patients.
Yang, M S; Chang, F T; Chen, S S; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C
It is known that substance use is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy, outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of alcohol, cigarette, betel quid and drug use during pregnancy and to assess the risk of adverse effects of betel quid chewing on pregnancy outcomes in aboriginal women in southern Taiwan. The study population included 62 women with adverse pregnancy outcomes and 124 age-matched women. Subjects were interviewed at their homes by trained interviewers using a structure questionnaire. Prevalences of various substance use in aborigines with adverse pregnancy outcomes were estimated as follows: alcohol, 43.6%; smoking, 14.5%; betel quid chewing, 43.6% and over-the-counter drug use, 8.1%; whereas in the comparison group it was alcohol, 38.7%; smoking, 8.1%; betel quid chewing, 28.2% and none used drugs. Univariate analysis revealed that adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with maternal betel quid chewing, maternal illness during pregnancy, and the number of pregnancies (gravidity) experienced. After adjusting for maternal illness and number of previous pregnancies covariates, the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcome was computed to be 2.8-fold higher among betel quid chewing women as compared to non-chewers (AOR=2.8, 95% CI=1.2-6.8). Among the aboriginal women, prenatal care is essential not only for routine care, but also to focus health education on the harmful effects of substance use, especially betel quid use during pregnancy.
Hall, Eric S.; Greenberg, James M.; Kelly, Elizabeth A.
Abstract Background: Despite prior efforts to develop pregnancy risk prediction models, there remains a lack of evidence to guide implementation in clinical practice. The current aim was to develop and validate a risk tool grounded in social determinants theory for use among at-risk Medicaid patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of 409 women across 17 Cincinnati health centers between September 2013 and April 2014. The primary outcomes included preterm birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal demise, and neonatal death. After random allocation into derivation and validation samples, a multivariable model was developed, and a risk scoring system was assessed and validated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values. Results: The derived multivariable model (n=263) included: prior preterm birth, interpregnancy interval, late prenatal care, comorbid conditions, history of childhood abuse, substance use, tobacco use, body mass index, race, twin gestation, and short cervical length. Using a weighted risk score, each additional point was associated with an odds ratio of 1.57 for adverse outcomes, p<0.001, AUROC=0.79. In the validation sample (n=146), each additional point conferred an odds ratio of 1.20, p=0.03, AUROC=0.63. Using a cutoff of 20% probability for the outcome, sensitivity was 29%, with specificity 82%. Positive and negative predictive values were 22% and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Risk scoring based on social determinants can discriminate pregnancy risk within a Medicaid population; however, performance is modest and consistent with prior prediction models. Future research is needed to evaluate whether implementation of risk scoring in Medicaid prenatal care programs improves clinical outcomes. PMID:26102375
Kelly, A; Kevany, J; de Onis, M; Shah, P M
To evaluate to what degree anthropometric measurements are useful and efficient in predicting maternal and fetal outcomes in different country settings and to develop appropriate reference curves for maternal weight gain. A meta-analysis of 25 data sets providing information on over 111,000 births worldwide. Attained weight indicators from pre-pregnancy (Pp) through 9 lunar months demonstrated high odds ratios (O.R.) for both low birth weight (LBW) and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). The strongest effect size (O.R. = 4.0) was provided by attained weight at 7 lunar months for IUGR, when applied to women of below average pre-pregnancy weight. The study indicators showed only minor and inconsistent O.R. for preterm birth (PTB). The ability of study indicators to predict the three maternal outcomes was much weaker. Maternal height as a predictor of assisted delivery showed the highest positive O.R. (1.6), but did not meet the screening criteria. A single measurement of attained weight at 5 or 7 lunar months (16-20 or 24-28 weeks) is the most practical screening instrument for LBW and IUGR in most primary health care settings and provides warning of the need for intervention. The operational value of these findings should be demonstrated through their successful large-scale application in service settings.
Tehraninejad, Ensieh; Davari Tanha, Fateme; Asadi, Ebrahim; Kamali, Koorosh; Aziminikoo, Elham; Rezayof, Elahe
Objective: To evaluate effects of G-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium. Materials and methods: In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient. Results: The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from 3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120 ± 0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years, 3, 1 and 32.78 ± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM. Conclusion: G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy. PMID:26622308
Shibata, S; Sasaki, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Seino, J; Okamura, K; Yoshinaga, K; Morito, N; Kasukawa, R; Aotuka, S; Yokohari, R
Fetal wastage is still high in the pregnancies of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We examined retrospectively the cases of 38 patients with inactive SLE in whom pregnancy was either desired or had already been obtained. The prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the group with fetal loss was high. The antibodies were, however, also detected in five of 14 patients who had had a live birth. It was noted that low levels of serum complement activity (CH50 less than 25 U/ml) occurred in five of six patients with fetal loss, but in only two of 22 with a live birth. Serial studies also confirmed a close association between decreased serum complement activity and poor fetal prognosis in lupus pregnancy. Treatment with increased doses of prednisolone may help to achieve successful live births. Thus hypocomplementaemia may be associated with a worse prognosis for the fetus in the pregnancies of some patients with SLE in remission. Images PMID:1616326
Reynolds, Kasey A.; Omurtag, Kenan R.; Jimenez, Patricia T.; Rhee, Julie S.; Tuuli, Method G.; Jungheim, Emily S.
STUDY QUESTION Does a luteal estradiol (LE) stimulation protocol improve outcomes in poor responders to IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER LE priming is associated with decreased cycle cancellation and increased chance of clinical pregnancy in poor responders WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Poor responders to IVF are one of the most challenging patient populations to treat. Many standard protocols currently exist for stimulating these patients but all have failed to improve outcomes. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Systematic review and meta-analysis including eight published studies comparing assisted reproduction technology (ART) outcomes in poor responders exposed to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with and without LE priming. A search of the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and PUBMED was carried out for studies in the English language published up to January 2012. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Studies evaluating women defined as poor responders to ART were evaluated. These studies were identified following a systematic review of the literature and data were analyzed using the DerSimonian–Laird random effects model. The main outcomes of interest were cycle cancellation rate and clinical pregnancy. Although the definition of clinical pregnancy varied between studies, the principal definition included fetal cardiac activity as assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography after 5 weeks of gestation. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE A total of 2249 publications were identified from the initial search, and the bibliographies, abstracts and other sources yielded 11 more. After excluding duplications, 1227 studies remained and 8 ultimately met the inclusion criteria. Compared with women undergoing non-LE primed protocols (n = 621), women exposed to LE priming (n = 468) had a lower risk of cycle cancellation [relative risk (RR): 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45–0.78] and an improved chance of clinical pregnancy (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02–1.72). There was no significant
Okun, Michele L.; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Wisner, Katherine L.
Objective Disturbed sleep and depression are potential risk factors for pregnancy complications. Both conditions are noted to dysregulate biological pathways responsible for maintaining homeostatic balance and pregnancy health. Depression during pregnancy is associated with poor sleep. Thus, we explored whether disturbed sleep was associated with inflammatory cytokines and risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, as well as whether depression augmented the sleep-cytokine relationship thereby additively contributing to risk for adverse outcomes. Methods Interview-assessed sleep and plasma cytokine concentrations were evaluated in a cohort of depressed and non-depressed pregnant women (N= 168) at 20 and 30 weeks gestation. Outcomes evaluated included preterm birth, birth weight, and peripartum events. Results Among depressed women, short sleep duration (< 7 hours) was associated with higher IL-8 across time (β=.506, p = .001), poor sleep efficiency (< 85%) was associated with higher IL-6 (β=.205, p = .006), and daytime naps were associated with higher TNF-α (β=.105, p =.024). Aspects of poor sleep were associated with having a lower weight baby (ps < 053). Among depressed women, IFN-γ increased risk for preterm birth (OR = 1.175, p = .032). Trends for IL-6 and higher birth weight (β = 105.2, p = .085); IFN-γ and lower birth weight (β = −19.92, p < .069); and increased IL-8 and babies weighing < 4000g, (OR =.72, p < .083) were observed. Conclusions Although speculative, disturbed sleep may disrupt normal immune processes and contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exploratory analyses indicate depression modifies these relationships. PMID:23864582
Young, Melissa F; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Addo, O Yaw; Hao, Wei; Nguyen, Hieu; Pham, Hoa; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha
This study aimed to: (1) examine the role of multiple measures of prepregnancy nutritional status (weight, height, body composition) on birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), preterm, birth weight, birth length, infant head circumference and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)); (2) assess relative influence of maternal nutritional status before and during (gestational weight gain) pregnancy on birth outcomes. We used prospective data on maternal body size and composition collected from women who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of preconceptional micronutrient supplements (PRECONCEPT) on birth outcomes in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam (n=1436). Anthropometric measurements were obtained before conception through delivery by trained health workers. The relationship between prepregnancy nutritional status indicators, gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth outcomes were examined using generalized linear models, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Maternal prepregnancy weight (PPW) was the strongest anthropometric indicator predicting infant birth size. A 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PPW (5.4kg) was associated with a 283g (95%CI: 279-286) increase in birthweight. A similar and independent association was observed with birthweight for an increase of 1 SD in gestational weight gain (4kg) (250g; 95% CI: 245-255). Women with a PPW <43kg or who gained <8kg during their pregnancy were more likely to give birth to a SGA (OR 2.9: 95%CI 1.9-4.5, OR 3.3: 95%CI 2.2-5.1) or LBW infant (OR 3.1: 95%CI 1.5-6.2, OR 3.4: 95%CI 1.6-7.2), respectively. These findings indicate that clinical care and programs aimed at improving birth outcomes will have the greatest impact if they address maternal nutrition both before and during pregnancy. Women with a PPW <43kg or a GWG <8kg are at greatest risk for poor birth outcomes in this setting. Preconception counseling and clinical care to obtain a healthy
Zeino, S; Carbillon, L; Pharisien, I; Tigaizin, A; Benchimol, M; Murtada, R; Boujenah, J
Polyhydramnios is associated with an increased risk of cesarean section. The aetiology of polyhydramnios and the characteristics of the labour may be confounding factors. The objective was to study the characteristics and mode of delivery in case of pregnancy complicated with idiopathic polyhydramnios. This retrospective matched and controlled study included all pregnant women with idiopathic polyhydramnios (amniotic index>25cm or single deepest pocket>8cm) diagnosed at the 2nd or 3rd trimester and persistent at term delivery (>37weeks of pregnancy) in our institution. We excluded pregnancies in which the polyhydramnios could be explained by infection, gestational diabetes, congenital malformation, abnormal karyotype, placental anomalies, alloimmunization as well as pregnancies in which an amniocentesis for the purpose of diagnosis had not been performed. Data were gathered from a tertiary care university hospital register from 1998-2015. Cases of polyhydramnios were matched with the following two women who presented for labour management with spontaneous cephalic presentation, matching for delivery date, maternal age, parity, body mass index. The main outcome measure was the risk of cesarean section. Univariate and multivariate adjusted analysis were performed. We identified 108 women with idiopathic polyhydramnios and compared them with 216 matched women. Among them, 94 and 188 attempted a trial of labour. Maternal age, mean term delivery and birthweight were 31 years, 39+5weeks gestation and 3550 g. We did not observe differences in maternal characteristics, epidural analgesia and rate of abnormal fetal heart tracing. Induced labour and non-vertex presentations (forehead, bregma, face) were more frequent in the polyhydramnios group (respectively 57.9% versus 27.8%, P<0.05 and 7.8% versus 1%, P<0.05). Cesarean section rate was higher in the case of polyhydramnios in the overall population (45.4% versus 8%, P<0.05) and remained higher after exclusion of cases of
Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L
The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion.
Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after complete and partial molar pregnancy, recurrent molar pregnancy, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center.
Vargas, Roberto; Barroilhet, Lisa M; Esselen, Katharine; Diver, Elisabeth; Bernstein, Marilyn; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S
To review and update the subsequent reproductive outcomes in patients with complete, partial, and recurrent hydatidiform moles, as well as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) at the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center. Patients with complete and partial hydatidiform mole, recurrent hydatidiform mole, and GTN were identified from the Donald P. Goldstein, M.D., Trophoblastic Tumor Registry. Questionnaires regarding subsequent pregnancies were mailed to patients with current mailing addresses available. Additional patient data was obtained from electronic medical records. A total of 2,432 subsequent pregnancies have been reported since 1965. Of those, 1,388 pregnancies were after complete mole, 357 after partial mole, and 667 after GTN. The subsequent reproductive outcomes in patients with complete and partial molar pregnancies and persistent GTN remain similar to those in the general population. However, approximately 1.7% of patients with a prior molar pregnancy had a molar pregnancy in a later gestation. Furthermore, after successful chemotherapy for GTN the incidence of stillbirth was slightly increased to 1.3% in later pregnancies. Patients with molar pregnancies and GTN should expect similar reproductive outcomes as compared to the general population. However, patients receiving chemotherapy for GTN have a slightly increased risk stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies.
Männistö, Tuija; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Xie, Yunlong; Chen, Zhen; Laughon, S. Katherine
, these nationwide data suggest either that there is a need for better thyroid disease management during pregnancy or that there may be an intrinsic aspect of thyroid disease that causes poor pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23744409
Yang, Yajuan; Sun, Xiuhua; Cui, Linlin; Sheng, Yan; Tang, Rong; Wei, Daimin; Qin, Yingying; Li, Weiping; Chen, Zi-Jiang
This retrospective cohort study observed the live birth rates as well as cumulative live birth rates in women with poor ovarian response (POR) undergoing IVF-embryo transfer treatment, stratified for age and cycle number. Four hundred and one patients with POR diagnosed according to the Bologna criteria were enrolled and 700 IVF-ET cycles were analysed. The overall live-birth rate per cycle was 18.3%. From cycle 1 up to cycle 3, the live-birth rates decreased significantly from 22.2% to 11.1%. The live-birth rate fell to 2.4% in cycles 4 and over. When age advanced, the live birth rates decreased obviously (P < 0.01): 30.0% for women < 35 years old, 17.0% for those 35-40 years old, and 9.0% for women older than 40 years. Similarly, the cumulative live birth rates dropped from 48.0% (< 35 years) to 16.9% (≥ 40 years) accordingly. Younger patients (< 35 years old) with POR achieved better pregnancy results compared with patients of advanced age. Extremely low live-birth rates could be anticipated after three unsuccessful cycles; therefore it may not be appropriate to suggest more IVF cycles in POR women.
Gumbo, Felicity Zvanyadza; Kandawasvika, Gwendoline Quintoline; Duri, Kerina; Mapingure, Munyaradzi Paul; Kurewa, Nyaradzai Edith; Nathoo, Kusum; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Chirenje, Mike Zvavahera; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Several studies indicate that HIV-infected women continue to have children. We set out to determine the trend in HIV transmission at subsequent pregnancies. From 2002-2003, pregnant women were enrolled in a single dose nevirapine-based Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Six years later, women with subsequent children in this cohort were identified and their children's HIV status determined. From 330 identified HIV-infected mothers, 73 had second/subsequent children with HIV results. Of these, nine (12.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.6-20.1%) children were HIV-infected. Of the 73 second children, 51 had older siblings who had been initially enrolled in the study with definitive HIV results with an infection rate of 17/51 (33.3%, 95% CI: 19.9-46.7). About 35% of the women had been on antiretroviral drugs. These results demonstrate lower subsequent HIV transmission rates in women on a national PMTCT programme in a resource-poor setting with the advent of antiretroviral therapy.
Van, Toan Ngo; Gammeltoft, Tine; W. Meyrowitsch, Dan; Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Rasch, Vibeke
Background Violence against pregnant women is an increasing public health concern particularly in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to measure the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy and the risk of adverse birth outcomes. Methods Prospective cohort study of 1276 pregnant women in Dong Anh district, Vietnam. Women with gestational age less than 24 weeks were enrolled and interviewed. Repeated interviews were performed at 30–34 weeks gestation to assess experience of IPV during pregnancy and again 48 hours post-delivery to assess the birth outcome including birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Results There was a statistically significant association between exposure to physical violence during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB) or low birth weight (LBW). After adjustment for age, education, occupation, body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin level, previous adverse pregnancy outcomes, the pregnant women who were exposed to physical violence during pregnancy were five times more likely to have PTB (AOR = 5.5; 95%CI: 2.1–14.1) and were nearly six times more likely to give birth to a child of LBW (AOR = 5.7; 95%CI: 2.2–14.9) as compared to those who were not exposed to physical violence. Conclusion Exposure to IPV during pregnancy increases the risk of PTB and LBW. Case-finding for violence in relation to antenatal care may help protect pregnant women and improve pregnancy outcomes. PMID:27631968
Thaithae, Suparp; Thato, Ratsiri
To determine whether, when controlling for confounding factors, there was still an association of adolescence with adverse outcomes. Retrospective case control study. Seven Bangkok Metropolitan Administration General Hospitals. Charts of all women aged 19 and younger (n = 1,354) having singleton live births in 2004, 2005, and 2006 were retrieved. For the adult group, 1,389 charts of mothers between the ages of 20 and 34 delivering singleton babies were selected using proportionate systematic random sampling. Maternal age was divided into 3 groups: 11-15, 16-19, and 20-34. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes. After statistically controlling for known confounding factors, teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risks of anemia (11-15: AOR = 1.81, P < 0.001; 16-19: AOR = 1.48, P < 0.01), very preterm deliveries (11-15: AOR = 2.18, P < 0.05), very low birth weight babies (11-15: AOR = 6.98, P < 0.05; 16-19: AOR = 9.86, P < 0.01), newborn admission to Intensive Care Unit (11-15: AOR = 1.93, P < 0.01; 16-19: AOR = 2.10, P < 0.01), and postpartum complications (11-15: AOR = 3.33, P < 0.01). The rates of cesarean delivery (11-15: AOR 0.58, P < 0.01; 16-19: AOR = 0.57, P < 0.01), operative delivery (11-15: AOR = 0.49, P < 0.01), and oxytocin augmentation (16-19: AOR = 0.66, P < 0.01) were less frequent in younger mothers. Independent of known confounding factors, teenage pregnancy was associated with increased risks of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes requiring clinical and outreach interventions from health care providers. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aydin, Cetin; Baloglu, Ali; Yavuzcan, Ali; Inci, Aysegul
We investigated the relation between body mass index (BMI) value during labor and pregnancy outcomes in a group of Turkish population. The data on 9,112 singleton pregnancies were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were classified into three groups according to their BMI values: normal (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2), n = 5,685, 62.4%), overweight (BMI 20-25 kg/m(2), n = 2,214, 24.3%) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2), n = 1,213, 33.3%). Gestational diabetes mellitus (P = 0.000), risk of delivering a baby >90th percentile (P = 0.000) and preeclampsia (P = 0.000) were increased in parallel with increased BMI. A statically significant difference was observed between the normal and obese groups in terms of the abdominal cesarean rates (P = 0.020). However, a significant difference was not observed in terms of preterm delivery (P = 0.846), birthweight <10th percentile (P = 0.484), placenta previa (P = 0.880), ablatio placenta (P = 0.499) and intrauterine death (P = 0.175) between the groups. Regardless of the gestation, BMI is a factor that affects the fetal and maternal outcomes. The obese and overweight women should be followed up carefully during the labor and delivery.
Hanley, Gillian E; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Kinniburgh, Brooke A; Lee, Lily
To examine the association between interpregnancy interval and maternal-neonate health when matching women to their successive pregnancies to control for differences in maternal risk factors and compare these results with traditional unmatched designs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 38,178 women with three or more deliveries (two or greater interpregnancy intervals) between 2000 and 2015 in British Columbia, Canada. We examined interpregnancy interval (0-5, 6-11, 12-17, 18-23 [reference], 24-59, and 60 months or greater) in relation to neonatal outcomes (preterm birth [less than 37 weeks of gestation], small-for-gestational-age birth [less than the 10th centile], use of neonatal intensive care, low birth weight [less than 2,500 g]) and maternal outcomes (gestational diabetes, beginning the subsequent pregnancy obese [body mass index 30 or greater], and preeclampsia-eclampsia). We used conditional logistic regression to compare interpregnancy intervals within the same mother and unconditional (unmatched) logistic regression to enable comparison with prior research. Analyses using the traditional unmatched design showed significantly increased risks associated with short interpregnancy intervals (eg, there were 232 preterm births [12.8%] in 0-5 months compared with 501 [8.2%] in the 18-23 months reference group; adjusted odds ratio [OR] for preterm birth 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-1.73). However, these risks were eliminated in within-woman matched analyses (adjusted OR for preterm birth 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.02). Matched results indicated that short interpregnancy intervals were significantly associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80 for 0-5 months) and beginning the subsequent pregnancy obese (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.05-2.45 for 0-5 months and adjusted OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.10-1.87 for 6-11 months). Previously reported associations between short interpregnancy intervals and adverse neonatal
Metz, Torri D; Allshouse, Amanda A; Hogue, Carol J; Goldenberg, Robert L; Dudley, Donald J; Varner, Michael W; Conway, Deborah L; Saade, George R; Silver, Robert M
The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network previously demonstrated an association between stillbirth and maternal marijuana use as defined by the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in the umbilical cord homogenate. However, the relationship between marijuana use and perinatal complications in live births is uncertain. Our aim was to examine if maternal marijuana use is associated with increased odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal morbidity among live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network cohort. We conducted a secondary analysis of singleton, live-born controls in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network data set. Marijuana use was measured by self-report and/or the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in umbilical cord homogenate. Tobacco use was measured by self-report and/or presence of any cotinine in maternal serum. Adverse pregnancy outcome was a composite of small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth resulting from preterm labor with or without intact membranes, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Neonatal morbidity included neonatal intensive care unit admission and composite neonatal morbidity (pulmonary morbidity, necrotizing enterocolitis, seizures, retinopathy of prematurity, infection morbidity, anemia requiring blood transfusion, neonatal surgery, hyperbilirubinemia, neurological morbidity, or death prior to hospital discharge). Effect of maternal marijuana use on the probability of an adverse outcome was estimated using weighted methodology to account for oversampling in the original study. 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid cord homogenate analysis was performed in the subset of women for whom biospecimens were available. Comparisons using logistic modeling, χ(2), and t tests were weighted to account for oversampling of preterm
Girard, Amy Webb; Olude, Oluwafunke
Nutrition education and counselling (NEC) is a commonly applied strategy to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy. However, with the exception special populations and specific diets, the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. Using a modified Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group method we systematically reviewed the literature and identified and abstracted 37 articles. We conducted meta-analyses for the effect of NEC on maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes including gestational weight gain, maternal anaemia, birthweight, low birthweight and preterm delivery. NEC significantly improved gestational weight gain by 0.45 kg, reduced the risk of anaemia in late pregnancy by 30%, increased birthweight by 105 g and lowered the risk of preterm delivery by 19%. The effect of NEC on risk of low birthweight was not significant. The effect of NEC was greater when provided with nutrition support, for example, food or micronutrient supplements or nutrition safety nets. The overall quality of the body of evidence was deemed low for all outcomes due to high heterogeneity, poor study designs and other biases. Additional well-designed research that is grounded in appropriate theories of behaviour change is needed to improve confidence in the effect of NEC. Further, cost-effectiveness research is needed to clarify the added benefit and sustainability of providing NEC with nutritional support and/or safety nets, especially in areas where food insecurity and gender bias may limit women's capacity to adhere to NEC messages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Clements, Karen M.; Mitra, Monika; Zhang, Jianying; Iezzoni, Lisa I.
Background Women with disabilities are at risk for poor birth outcomes. Little is known about specific potentially disabling health conditions and their effects on pregnancies. Using hospital claims, we identified women at risk for disability and evaluated the relationship between disability risk and demographic characteristics, pregnancy risks, and infant and maternal outcomes. Methods 2006–2009 Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal data system linked birth certificate and hospital claims one year pre-pregnancy through delivery. Access Risk Classification System categorized ICD-9-CM/CPT codes into disability risk groups (no/limited vs. medium/high). Generalized estimating equations evaluated the association between disability risk and infant and maternal outcomes. Results Of 221,867 women, 14,701 (6.6%) were at medium/high risk of disability. Health conditions were classified as: circulatory (23%), musculoskeletal (10%), nervous system/sensory (13%), other physical (19%), two or more physical (5%), mental illness (24%), and comorbid mental/physical (6%). Women at risk of disability were more likely than others to have socioeconomic and pregnancy risks, and adverse infant and maternal outcomes. Socioeconomic and risk profile varied by health condition category. Adjusted risk ratios for preterm birth ranged from 1.2 (95% CI 1.0–1.4) for women with nervous system/sensory diagnoses to 1.6 (95% CI 188.8.131.52) for women with two or more physical diagnoses; risk ratios for maternal delivery hospitalization > 5 days ranged from 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.9) for women with musculoskeletal diagnoses to 3.0 (95% CI 2.5–3.6) for women with comorbid mental/physical diagnoses. Conclusion Disability risk identified through claims is associated with poor infant and maternal outcomes. Risk profiles vary by underlying health condition. PMID:27477954
Clements, Karen M; Mitra, Monika; Zhang, Jianying; Iezzoni, Lisa I
Women with disabilities are at risk for poor birth outcomes. Little is known about specific potentially disabling health conditions and their effects on pregnancies. Using hospital claims, we identified women at risk for disability and evaluated the relationship between disability risk and demographic characteristics, pregnancy risks, and infant and maternal outcomes. The 2006 through 2009 Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal data system linked birth certificate and hospital claims one year pre-pregnancy through delivery. Access Risk Classification System categorized International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification/Current Procedural Terminology codes into disability risk groups (no/limited vs. medium/high). Generalized estimating equations evaluated the association between disability risk and infant and maternal outcomes. Of 221,867 women, 14,701 (6.6%) were at medium or high risk of disability. Health conditions were classified as circulatory (23%), musculoskeletal (10%), nervous system/sensory (13%), other physical (19%), two or more physical (5%), mental illness (24%), and comorbid mental/physical (6%). Women at risk of disability were more likely than others to have socioeconomic and pregnancy risks, and adverse infant and maternal outcomes. Socioeconomic and risk profile varied by health condition category. Adjusted risk ratios for preterm birth ranged from 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) for women with nervous system/sensory diagnoses to 1.6 (95% CI, 1.4-1.9) for women with two or more physical diagnoses; risk ratios for maternal delivery hospitalization for more than 5 days ranged from 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) for women with musculoskeletal diagnoses to 3.0 (95% CI, 2.5-3.6) for women with comorbid mental/physical diagnoses. Disability risk identified through claims is associated with poor infant and maternal outcomes. Risk profiles vary by underlying health condition. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs
Ibanez, G; Blondel, B; Prunet, C; Kaminski, M; Saurel-Cubizolles, M-J
Self-rated mental health is a useful indicator to examine the positive dimension of mental health and psychological well-being. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated mental health during pregnancy in a nationally representative population in France. The second objective was to assess the sociodemographic and medical characteristics associated with this condition and with a health professional's consultation for psychological problems. The study was based on the 2010 French National Perinatal Survey, which included all singleton live births in French maternity units during a 1-week period (n=14,326 women). Self-rated mental health was assessed using the following single-item question: "During your pregnancy, how did you feel from a psychological point of view: good - fairly good - rather poor - poor?" Women were also asked if they had visited a healthcare professional for psychological problems. They were interviewed between delivery and discharge to collect information on mental health, sociodemographic and medical characteristics, the context of their pregnancy, and their prenatal care. Of the women interviewed, 8.9% [95% CI, 8.5-9.5%] reported poor self-rated mental health during pregnancy. Among them, 18.7% consulted a healthcare professional for psychological problems. Sociodemographic characteristics indicative of social disadvantage were associated with a higher-risk of poor self-rated mental health, and a social gradient was observed. However, more favorable social characteristics were associated with consultation with a healthcare professional for these psychological difficulties. The reaction to the discovery of pregnancy and prenatal care differed significantly depending on self-rated mental health. Women with poor mental health had more complicated pregnancies. This study showed strong associations between many socially disadvantaged characteristics and a positive dimension of mental health. The findings
Proietti, Elena; Röösli, Martin; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp
There is increasing evidence of the adverse impact of prenatal exposure to air pollution. This is of particular interest, as exposure during pregnancy--a crucial time span of important biological development--may have long-term implications. The aims of this review are to show current epidemiological evidence of known effects of prenatal exposure to air pollution and present possible mechanisms behind this process. Harmful effects of exposure to air pollution during pregnancy have been shown for different birth outcomes: higher infant mortality, lower birth weight, impaired lung development, increased later respiratory morbidity, and early alterations in immune development. Although results on lower birth weight are somewhat controversial, evidence for higher infant mortality is consistent in studies published worldwide. Possible mechanisms include direct toxicity of particles due to particle translocation across tissue barriers or particle penetration across cellular membranes. The induction of specific processes or interaction with immune cells in either the pregnant mother or the fetus may be possible consequences. Indirect effects could be oxidative stress and inflammation with consequent hemodynamic alterations resulting in decreased placental blood flow and reduced transfer of nutrients to the fetus. The early developmental phase of pregnancy is thought to be very important in determining long-term growth and overall health. So-called "tracking" of somatic growth and lung function is believed to have a huge impact on long-term morbidity, especially from a public health perspective. This is particularly important in areas with high levels of outdoor pollution, where it is practically impossible for an individual to avoid exposure. Especially in these areas, good evidence for the association between prenatal exposure to air pollution and infant mortality exists, clearly indicating the need for more stringent measures to reduce exposure to air pollution.
Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Azizi, Maryam
Introduction Nuchal Translucency (NT) is the sonographic form of subcutaneous gathering of liquid behind the foetal neck in the first trimester of pregnancy. There is association of increased NT with chromosomal and non-chromosomal abnormalities. Aim The purpose of this systemic review was to review the pregnancy outcome of abnormal nuchal translucency. Materials and Methods The present systematic review was conducted by searching English language articles from sources such as International Medical Sciences, Medline, Web of science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL. Persian articles were searched from Iranmedex and SID sources. Related key words were “outcome”, “pregnancy”, “abnormal”, and “Nuchal Translucency” (NT). All, randomized, descriptive, analytic-descriptive, case control study conducted during 1997-2015 were included. Results Including duplicate articles, 95 related articles were found. After reviewing article titles, 30 unrelated article and abstracts were removed, and 65 articles were evaluated of which 30 articles were duplicate. Finally 22 articles were selected for final analysis. Exclusion criteria were, case studies and reports and quasi experimental designs. This evaluation has optioned negative relationship between nuchal translucency and pregnancy result. Rate of cardiac, chromosomal and other defects are correlated with increased NT≥2.5mm. Cardiac disease which were associated to the increased NT are heart murmur, systolic organic murmur, Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), tricuspid valve insufficiency and pulmonary valve insufficiency, Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) and Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). The most common problems that related with increased NT were allergic symptoms. Conclusion According to this systematic review, increased NT is associated with various foetal defects. To verify the presence of malformations, birth defect consultations with a perinatologist
Wariyar, U; Richmond, S; Hey, E
A study of all the mothers in the Northern region in 1983 whose pregnancies ended at between 24 and 31 weeks' gestation was undertaken. These pregnancies accounted for 1.3% of all the births and 44% of all the fetal and neonatal deaths in pregnancies that lasted more than 23 weeks. Most of the 389 singleton deliveries without malformations between 24 and 31 weeks were caused by spontaneous premature labour (n = 119, 31%), placental abruption (n = 79, 20%), pre-eclampsia (n = 56, 14%), and premature rupture of membranes (n = 48, 12%). The percentages of babies alive at the onset of delivery who survived the neonatal period were 66, 84, 78, and 73, respectively and the percentages of neonatal survivors with severe disabilities were 19, 13, 3, and 6, respectively. A further 65 (17%) of these babies died before the onset of labour for no obvious reason. The mode of delivery did not correlate with the outcome once the period of gestation at delivery was taken into account. The results highlight the inadequacy of the perinatal mortality index currently used in the United Kingdom, which identified 10.7 deaths/1000 registered births in 1983; 20% of the babies delivered at 24-31 weeks were excluded by this index because the birth went unregistered, as were 21% of all the babies born alive who died before discharge. An index that accounted for all babies weighing 500 g or more at birth irrespective of the period of gestation, and all neonatal (0-27 days) deaths, would be more appropriate and would bring reporting more into line with recommended international practice. PMID:2730121
Greig, Emma; Ash, Alok; Douiri, Abdel
To assess the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women enrolled on a Methadone Substitution Programme (MSP). Retrospective cohort study. Maternity unit of a London teaching hospital and tertiary referral centre. Pregnant women on a MSP whose antenatal care and delivery was at St Thomas' Hospital (STH) between January 2005 and March 2008. Controls were non-MSP mothers closely matched for age, parity and delivery date during the same period. Maternal data was collected from the Liaison Antenatal Drugs and Alcohol Service clinic records and the STH Maternity Unit's computerised database. Neonatal data was extracted from the STH Neonatal database (part of the UK National Neonatal database). Maternal profiles (age, gravidity, parity, ethnicity, BMI, smoking and alcohol history, relationship and employment history), pregnancy details and mode of delivery. Neonatal outcome measures to include gestation age at delivery, birth weight, head circumference, admission rates and length of stay on Special Care Baby Unit plus Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) rates, scoring and treatment. Compared to the non-MSP mothers (n = 88) the MSP group (n = 44) booked later and had a higher incidence of smoking (6.8 vs. 84.1 %), alcohol consumption (10.2 vs. 34.1 %). As a group, they had adverse social background. The MSP group had a higher relative risk (RR) of premature delivery [RR = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66-3.88] and had lower birth weight babies (adjusted RR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.31-3.71) with smaller head circumferences (adjusted RR 1.9; 95% CI 1.06-3.38). NAS occurred in 27 % (95% CI 15.0-42.8) of the MSP group. There was no difference in congenital abnormality between the two groups, but caesarean section rate was higher in the control group. Opiate-addicted mothers have adverse perinatal outcomes even on MSPs. In addition to the drug effect associated social, relationship and accommodation problems should also be addressed as they may affect the outcome. Pregnancy
Tadmor, O P; Shaia, M; Rosenman, H; Livshin, Y; Choukroun, C; Barr, I; Diamant, Y Z
A serological test for chlamydial infection was administered to 281 Jerusalem women in order to determine the rate and influence of Chlamydia on pregnancy outcome. Serological indication of active infection was present in 7.8% of the tested women, while 15.3% were shown to be positive for Chlamydia. Among the ultraorthodox subpopulation of Mea Shearim, serological indication of active infection was present among 5.9% of the women, and 12.3% of this population tested positive. In comparison, women from the secular subpopulation had 12.7% serological indication of active infection and 22.95% tested positive (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between pregnancy duration, birthweight, incidence of premature uterine contractions, premature rupture of membranes, and postpartum febrile morbidity in the infected and noninfected groups. Women with a previous history of induced abortions showed a significantly higher evidence of past Chlamydia infection (9.3%) when compared with the women who did not have an infection (1.4%) (P < 0.006). Among the ultraorthodox women with positive or active infection, 41% had suffered at least one spontaneous abortion, as compared with 25% of the religious women who had no serological evidence of infection.
Background Studies from the United States and the United Kingdom have found that imprisoned women are less likely to experience poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes than other disadvantaged women. This population-based study used both community controls and women with a history of incarceration as a control group, to investigate whether imprisoned pregnant women in New South Wales, Australia, have improved maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods Retrospective cohort study using probabilistic record linkage of routinely collected data from health and corrective services in New South Wales, Australia. Comparison of the maternal and perinatal outcomes of imprisoned pregnant women aged 18–44 years who gave birth between 2000–2006 with women who were (i) imprisoned at a time other than pregnancy, and (ii) community controls. Outcomes of interest: onset of labour, method of birth, pre-term birth, low birthweight, Apgar score, resuscitation, neonatal hospital admission, perinatal death. Results Babies born to women who were imprisoned during pregnancy were significantly more likely to be born pre-term, have low birthweight, and be admitted to hospital, compared with community controls. Pregnant prisoners did not have significantly better outcomes than other similarly disadvantaged women (those with a history of imprisonment who were not imprisoned during pregnancy). Conclusions In contrast to the published literature, we found no evidence that contact with prison health services during pregnancy was a “therapunitive” intervention. We found no association between imprisonment during pregnancy and improved perinatal outcomes for imprisoned women or their neonates. A history of imprisonment remained the strongest predictor of poor perinatal outcomes, reflecting the relative health disadvantage experienced by this population of women. PMID:24968895
Lohan, Maria; Cruise, Sharon; O'Halloran, Peter; Alderdice, Fiona; Hyde, Abbey
This review article reveals a long-standing gender bias in academic and policy research on adolescent pregnancy, which has led to the neglect of adolescent men's perspectives. The review summarizes the available literature on adolescent men's attitudes in relation to pregnancy occurrence and pregnancy outcomes in the context of addressing three questions: (1) What are adolescent men's attitudes to an adolescent pregnancy? (2) What are adolescent men's attitudes in relation to pregnancy outcomes? (3) What explanations are offered for the identified attitudes to adolescent pregnancy and resolution? The review establishes a foundation for future quantitative and qualitative research on adolescent men's perspectives. It emphasizes that a greater understanding of adolescent men's perspectives could lead to a re-framing of adolescent pregnancy away from being seen solely as a woman's issue. Furthermore, it is argued that the inclusion of adolescent men would lead to more effective adolescent pregnancy prevention and counseling programmes. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lightman, A; Kol, S; Wayner, V; Vertman, D; Manor, D; Itskovitz-Eldor, J
To evaluate quantitatively the effect of one good-quality (sponsoring) embryo in a batch of low-quality thawed embryos on the implantation and pregnancy rates (PR). Retrospective analysis of data. Tertiary care center IVF clinic affiliated with a university medical school. Between March 1988 and April 1995, 392 IVF patients underwent a total of 440 thawing and ET cycles of 1,436 multicellular embryos. Implantation, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates. In the absence of sponsoring embryos in the thawed batch of embryos, a PR of 9.8% with an implantation rate of 3.1% was achieved. In the presence of a single sponsoring embryo, the PR nearly doubled (18.2%), with a significantly higher implantation rate of 7.0%. Only singleton pregnancies were achieved in the absence of sponsoring embryos compared with 21.7% multiple pregnancies in the single sponsoring embryo group. The presence of a sponsoring embryo in a batch of poor quality thawed embryos is an important factor that significantly increased pregnancy and implantation rates. The optimal strategy for planning batches of multicellular frozen embryos is to include at least one sponsoring embryo in each batch when possible. We speculate that the sponsoring embryo may favorably influence the chances of low-quality embryos to undergo successful implantation.
Nand, N; Deshmukh, A R; Mathur, R; Chauhan, V; Brijlal
Gitelman syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive salt-losing tubulopathy. The incidence of Gitelman syndrome is 25 cases in 1 million among western population. This patient presented with loose stool, vomiting and sudden onset quadriparesis. Investigations revealed hypokalaemia, metabolic acidosis, hypomagnesaemia, hypocalciuria, hypermagnesuria. Symptoms and hypokalemia improved after starting oral magnesium and potassium supplements. But the patient again presented with symptomatic hypokalemia and delivered a still born foetus with hydrocephalus. Patient was put on potassium sparing diuretics along with supplements and thereafter, has been asymptomatic. There have been very few case reports on Gitelman syndrome in pregnancy and most of them show favourable outcomes. This is a rare case report of a pregnant female with Gitelman syndrome with foetal loss. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.
Márton, Virág; Zádori, János; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Keresztúri, Attila
To evaluate whether vanishing twin (VT) pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) had a more adverse perinatal outcome than those after natural conception. Longitudinal, retrospective cohort study. Tertiary university hospital. Three hundred and six (78 after IVF-ICSI and 228 after natural conception) VT pregnancies over a 22-year period, with VT cases matched to primarily singleton controls. None. Obstetric and neonatal outcome data. The incidence of VT was statistically significantly higher after natural conception (18.2% of twins) than after IVF-ICSI (12.6% of twins). The odds of VT in pregnancies complicated with pregestational or gestational diabetes were disproportionally higher in IVF-ICSI cases than in spontaneously conceived VT pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.80 vs. 3.10 and 1.00 vs. 1.07, respectively). Previous induced abortion (AOR 1.34) or second-trimester fetal loss (AOR 3.3) increased the risk of VT pregnancies after spontaneous conception. Gestational diabetes mellitus in both the previous (AOR 5.41) and the present (AOR 2.3) pregnancy as well as chronic maternal diseases (AOR 3.5) and placentation anomalies all represented independent risk factors for VT after IVF-ICSI. Vanishing twin pregnancies had a lower prevalence and a worse perinatal outcome after IVF-ICSI as compared with those of their spontaneously conceived counterparts. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Biron-Andréani, Christine; Bauters, Anne; Le Cam-Duchez, Véronique; Delahousse, Bénédicte; Lequerrec, Agnès; Dutrillaux, Fabienne; Boinot, Catherine; Saladin-Thiron, Catherine; Polack, Benoit; Gruel, Yves; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel
To assess the rate of early (first trimester) and late (second and third trimester) fetal loss in women who are factor V Leiden homozygous. Between December 1995 and February 2007, consecutive, unrelated white women who were factor V Leiden homozygous and who had been pregnant at least once were recruited from 10 French hemostasis units. For reasons of comparison, we included women who were factor V Leiden heterozygous and a group of noncarriers. The frequency of early and late fetal loss was assessed retrospectively and compared among the three groups. The effect of concomitant thrombophilic abnormalities was evaluated. The overall pregnancy outcome was reported. We analyzed 240 thromboprophylaxis-free pregnancies in 95 women who were factor V Leiden homozygous, 425 in 195 women who were factor V Leiden heterozygous, and 182 in 73 women who were noncarriers. The risk of late fetal loss was higher in women who were homozygous (13/95, 13.7%) compared with those who were noncarriers (1/73, 1.4%, odds ratio 11.41, 95% confidence interval 1.46-89.46, P=.002), whereas it was similar in women who were heterozygous and in noncarriers (6/195, 3.1% compared with 1/73, 1.4%, P=.68). The percentage of women with early fetal loss was similar in the three groups (P=.81). The live-birth rate was 80%, 84%, and 85%, respectively, for women who where homozygous, heterozygous, and noncarriers (P=.88). The factor V Leiden homozygous genotype increases the risk of late fetal loss. However, the overall likelihood of a positive outcome is high in our series of women who were homozygous. III.
are quite typical of weapon systems . Such outcomes persist despite acquisition reforms the Department of Defense and Congress have put forward-such...create a culture in weapon system acquisition that encourages undue optimism about program risks and costs. To the extent Congress funds such programs...FORD CLASS AIRCRAFT CARRIER Poor Outcomes Are the Predictable Consequences of the Prevalent Acquisition Culture
Zhong, Chongke; Lv, Liying; Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun
To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19-1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85-1.53), 1.37 (1.03-1.84) and 1.70 (1.29-2.34), respectively. The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility to poor outcome among acute ischemic stroke
Barnado, April; Wheless, Lee; Meyer, Anna K; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L
In a study of Gullah African-Americans, we compared pregnancy outcomes before and after systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis to controls to test whether there is a predisease state that negativelyaffects pregnancy outcomes. Cases and controls reporting at least one pregnancy were included. Controls were all Gullah African-American females. We collected demographic, socioeconomic and pregnancy data. We modelled pregnancy outcome associations with case status using multiple logistic regression to calculate ORs. After adjustment for age, years of education, medical coverage and pregnancy number, compared with controls, cases were more likely to have any adverse outcome (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.78 to 3.10), including stillbirth (OR 4.55, 95% CI 1.53 to 13.50), spontaneous abortion (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.00), preterm birth (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.58 to 4.20), low birth weight (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.61 to 4.34) and preeclampsia (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.01). The odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes all increased after SLE diagnosis compared with before diagnosis, even after adjustment for age, years of education, pregnancy number and medical coverage. From a large cohort of African-American women, our findings suggest there may be a predisease state that predisposes to adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Raatikainen, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Nonna; Heinonen, Seppo
Background The influence of unemployment in the family on pregnancy outcome is controversial. Only a few studies have involved investigation of the effect of unemployment of the father on pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of unemployment of one or both parents on obstetric outcome in conditions of free antenatal care attended by the entire pregnant population. Methods The data of 24 939 pregnancies included maternal risk factors, pregnancy characteristics and outcome, and was based on a self administered questionnaire at 20 weeks of pregnancy and on clinical records. Results Unemployment was associated with adolescent maternal age, unmarried status and overweight, anemia, smoking, alcohol consumption and prior pregnancy terminations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that after controlling for these maternal risk factors small differences only were found in pregnancy outcomes between unemployed and employed families. Unemployed women had significantly more often small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, at an OR of 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12 – 1.42) whereas, in families where both parents were unemployed, the risk of SGA was even higher at an OR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.18 – 1.73). Otherwise, pregnancy outcome was comparable in the groups studied. Conclusion Free antenatal care was unable to fully overcome the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with unemployment, SGA risk being highest when both parents are unemployed. PMID:16504118
Louden, Erica D.; Luzzo, Kerri M.; Jimenez, Patricia T.; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H.
Objective Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes compared to normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay. The objective of this study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity in order to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. Methods New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morulae or blastocysts stage embryos which were cultured in human tubal fluid media. Deoxyglucose uptake was performed on insulin-stimulated individual blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using TUNEL assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for %TUNEL positive/total nuclei. AMPK activation, TNFα expression, and adiponectin expression were analyzed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by Bodipy. Finally all measured parameters were compared between TallyHO mice in morulaes cultured to blastocyst embryos in either human tubal fluid (HTF) media or HTF with 25ug/ml metformin added. Results TallyHo mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, decreased litter number and increased NEFA. Blastocysts demonstrated increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity, and decreased activation of AMP activated protein-kinase (AMPK). As a possible cause of the insulin resistance/abnormal P-AMPK, we found that Tumor necrosis Factor (TNFα) expression and lipid accumulation as detected by BODIPY were increased in TallyHO blastocysts and adiponectin was decreased. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator, metformin lead to a reversal of all abnormal findings, including increased p-AMPK, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalization of lipid accumulation. Conclusions Women with obesity and insulin resistance experience poor pregnancy outcomes. Previously we have shown in mouse
Lattes, Karinna; Brassesco, Mario; Gomez, Manuel; Checa, Miguel A
Poor ovarian response (POR) often means low success rates after in vitro fertilisation (IVF). We aim to study the impact of a low-dose growth hormone (GH) supplementation in pregnancy rates in poor responders in a prospective, self-controlled study of 64 poor responders to previous IVF cycles, who failed to achieve pregnancy and were supplemented with low-doses of GH in a subsequent cycle using the same gonadotropin dose and protocol. Our primary endpoint was the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), considering secondary endpoints, the number of retrieved oocytes, embryos, embryo quality and the proportion of cycles with embryo transfer. CPR in the GH group was 34.4%. Significant differences were observed for the GH group both in the number of top quality embryos (0.64 ± 0.88 versus 1.03 ± 1.17, p < 0.05) and cryopreserved embryos (0.3 ± 0.81 versus 0.85 ± 1.49, p < 0.05). This is, to our knowledge, the first clinical trial to use a low dose of GH as a supplement for IVF in POR patients. Despite this low dose, we achieved excellent success rates in patients with a very poor prognosis, at a reasonable cost and without side effects, which makes this a safe and cost-effective alternative.
Lee, Gi Su; Rhee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jong In
Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and clinical outcomes of Korean recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients. And also, we investigated the differences between primary and secondary RPL patients, between two and three or more pregnancy losses. Methods One hundred seventy eight women diagnosed as RPL were enrolled. We performed chromosomal analysis, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, natural killer cell proportion, anticardiolipin antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2glycoprotein-1 antibodies, antinuclear antibody, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, homocysteine, MTFHR gene, factor V Leiden mutation, and hysterosalphingography/hysteroscopic evaluation. Results The mean age was 34.03±4.30 years, and mean number of miscarriages was 2.69±1.11 (range, 2 to 11). Anatomical cause (13.5%), chromosomal abnormalities (5.6%), and endocrine disorders (34.3%) were observed in RPL women. Elevated natural killer cell and antiphospholipid antibodies were observed in 43.3% and 7.3% each. Among of 178 women, 77 women were pregnant. After management of those women, live birth rate was 84.4% and mean gestational weeks was 37.63±5.12. Women with three or more RPL compared with women with two RPL had more common anatomical cause such as intrauterine adhesions and lower rates of spontaneous pregnancy. Compare with secondary RPL women, immunological abnormalities were more common in primary RPL. However, miscarriage rates were not different. Conclusion Immunological factor including autoimmune and alloimmune disorders was most common etiology of RPL. Inherited thrombophilia showed different patterns with other ethnic countries. Miscarriage rates were not different between primary and secondary RPL, or between two and three or more miscarriages group. PMID:27668201
Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka
This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure.
Madazli, R; Yuksel, M A; Oncul, M; Tuten, A; Guralp, O; Aydin, B
The aim of this study was to describe maternal and fetal characteristics associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and to determine clinical and biochemical predictors of fetal complications. A total of 89 singleton pregnancies with ICP were analysed, retrospectively. All data concerning laboratory results, symptom onset time, treatment response, delivery time and infant information were recorded in the study protocol. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 32.6 ± 3.4 weeks; mean time of delivery was 36.8 ± 1.9 weeks. Binary logistic regression revealed that gestational age at diagnosis was predictive of preterm delivery (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.3, p = 0.001). The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), fetal growth restriction, fetal distress and preterm delivery were significantly higher in patients who were diagnosed before 30 weeks than after 34 weeks' gestation (p < 0.01). Gestational age at diagnosis is an important independent factor predicting adverse perinatal outcomes in patients with ICP.
Minnes, Sonia; Min, Meeyoung O; Singer, Lynn T; Edguer, Marjorie; Wu, Miaoping; Thi, Pyone
Women who used cocaine during pregnancy may become at risk for increased physical and mental health problems. Three hundred and twenty-one (158 cocaine use during pregnancy (PC), 163 no cocaine (NC)) women were assessed using the Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36V2) 10 years after infant birth. Factors related to mental and physical health, and co-occurring with PC, were evaluated using multiple regression. Controlling for age and education, PC women reported poorer total perceived mental health (PMH) (46.3±.9 vs. 50.7±.9, p<.001), more bodily pain (48.1±1.0 vs. 51.5±1.0, p<.02) and poorer health perceptions (46.8±.9 vs. 49.7±.9, p<.03) than NC women. PC women had lower BMI (29% vs. 32%, p<.006), higher current alcoholic drinks per/week (4.05±15.5 vs. 1.29±3.51, p<.005) and number of cigarettes per day (9±10.6 vs. 4±6.5, p<.0001) and greater total life strain (Family Inventory of Life Events and Changes (FILE)) (4.6±4.9 vs. 3.2±3.2, p<.004) than NC women. Regression analyses indicated that body mass index (BMI) mediated the effect of prior cocaine use on perceived physical health (PPH) and total life strain had additive effects. Current cigarette use and total life stress partially mediated the effects of cocaine use on PMH and also had additive independent effects. PC use is a marker for poor health after 10 years. Mediators of these relationships (BMI, stressful life events and current tobacco use) should be considered when designing interventions to promote health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Luming; Zou, Gang; Wei, Xing; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jun; Okun, Nanette; Duan, Tao
The chorionicity–based evaluation of the perinatal risk in twin pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART) is lacking. A retrospective review was performed of all twin pregnancies monitored prenatally and delivered at our hospital between 2010 and 2014. Chorionicity was diagnosed by ultrasound examination at first trimester and confirmed by postnatal pathology. Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes were prospectively recorded. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in a logistic regression model. A total of 1153 twin pregnancies were analyzed. The occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was 3 times as frequent in monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies after ART as in those spontaneous counterparts (aOR 3.0; 95%CI 1.1–3.2). The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancies (ICP) was significantly higher in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) twin pregnancies following ART compared to spontaneous DCDA pregnancies (aOR 3.3; 95%CI 1.3–5.6). Perinatal outcomes did not differ between two conception methods, either in MCDA or DCDA twin pregnancies. Based on differentiation of chorionicity, ART is associated with the increased risk of PPROM in MCDA twin pregnancies and with a higher rate of ICP in DCDA twin gestations. ART does not increase adversity of perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies. PMID:27243373
Dungy-Poythress, L J
While cocaine abuse in pregnancy is associated with a number of negative outcomes for both mothers and infants, it is unclear to what extent cocaine is specifically responsible for these negative outcomes and how its effects are distinct from those associated with substance abuse in general. Use of other drugs commonly associated with cocaine abuse, such as alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco, has also been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Untoward pregnancy effects often ascribed to cocaine abuse in pregnancy may be more appropriately attributed to these or other drugs or to the unhealthy life-style associated with the long-term abuser rather than to cocaine itself. Epidemiologic data concerning cocaine use in pregnancy describe only associations of drug use and do not prove causality. Future research and longitudinal studies are needed to examine the roles of maternal and environmental factors in predicting differences in cocaine-exposed and nonexposed pregnancies.
De Sancho, Maria T; Khalid, Sana; Christos, Paul J
To assess the rate and type of maternal and infant complications among pregnant women receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Retrospective study of pregnant women on LMWH referred to two university hematology clinics from January 2001 to December 2010. We recorded the number of pregnancies, indication, dose and dose adjustments for LMWH, pregnancy outcomes (live births, maternal and infant complications) and side effects of LMWH. There were 89 pregnancies in 76 women. The most common indication for LMWH was a history of adverse outcome of pregnancy associated with thrombophilia. LMWH was adjusted in 75 and 45% of pregnancies in women on therapeutic and prophylactic doses, respectively. Live birth rate was 97%. There were 25 maternal and 11 infant complications. Side effects were minimal and included decreased bone mineral density and bleeding. LMWH use among pregnant women is associated with successful pregnancy outcomes. Although side effects were minimal, maternal and infant complications occurred in 28 and 12% of cases, respectively.
Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Inan, Cihan; Altintas, Ahmet Salih; Okten, Sabri Berkem; Sayin, Niyazi Cenk
Objective: To document the neonatal outcomes of preterm birth in twin pregnancies and to investigate whether perinatal and obstetric parameters are associated with clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective trial was conducted on data gathered from 176 preterm twins delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of our tertiary care center. Data extracted from medical files of 88 pregnant women who gave preterm birth (at 260/7 to 366/7 gestational weeks) to twins were analyzed. Maternal/fetal descriptive and obstetric parameters, sonographic data, route of delivery, indication for cesarean section, birth weight, Apgar scores, head circumference, umbilical cord length and placental weight were noted. Results: The average age of the pregnant women was 28.8±6.4 years and ultrasonographic gestational age was 31.9±2.6 weeks. Apgar scores at 1st minute were affected significantly by fetal body weight (p=0.001), gestational age (p=0.001), height (p=0.004) and head circumference (p=0.011). None of these variables exhibited a noteworthy effect on Apgar scores at 5th minute. Conclusion: Efforts must be made to achieve advancement of gestational age until delivery in the follow-up preterm of twins. A well-established algorithm with special emphasis to risk factors is necessary to standardize and popularize the appropriate management strategy. PMID:27648040
Djibuti, Mamuka; Mirvelashvili, Eka; Makharashvili, Nutsa; Magee, Matthew J
Poverty is associated with increased risk of active tuberculosis (TB) disease onset, but the relation between household income and TB treatment outcomes is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine household income characteristics associated with poor TB treatment outcome among newly diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB in the country of Georgia. A prospective cohort study was conducted among newly diagnosed smear positive pulmonary TB patients. Clinical and household data were collected from all consecutive patients seeking care at TB facilities in two major cities and one rural region in Georgia. Patients were followed prospectively during anti-TB regimens to determine treatment outcome. Bivariate analyses were used to determine the association of individual patient and household level characteristics with poor TB treatment outcome. A multivariable logistic model was used to estimate the adjusted association between patient household characteristics and poor TB treatment outcome. After six months TB therapy, treatment outcome was available for 193 of 202 enrolled patients, of these 155 (80.3%) had a favorable TB treatment outcome. Compared to TB patients with poor treatment outcome, those with favorable treatment outcomes were younger (median 33.0 vs. 42.5 years), reported higher household monthly income (median $137 USD vs. $85 USD), were less likely to be unemployed (38.7 vs. 47.4%), and had higher level of education (38.7% vs. 31.6% with college education or greater). In multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socio-economic indicators, only low household income was remained statistically significantly associated with poor TB treatment outcome. Compared with patients from households with the highest tertile of monthly income, those in the middle tertile (aOR 4.28 95% CI 1.36, 13.53) and those in the lowest category of income (aOR 6.18 95% CI 1.83, 20.94) were significantly more likely to have poor treatment outcomes. We
Juhl, Bente; Lauszus, Finn Friis; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
Vitamin C (vitC) is essential for normal pregnancy and fetal development and poor vitC status has been related to complications of pregnancy. We have previously shown lower vitC status in diabetic women throughout pregnancy compared to that of non-diabetic controls. Here, we evaluate the relationship between vitC status late in diabetic pregnancy in relation to fetal outcome, complications of pregnancy, diabetic characteristics, and glycemic control based on data of 47 women from the same cohort. We found a significant relationship between the maternal vitC level > or ≤ the 50% percentile of 26.6 μmol/L, respectively, and the umbilical cord blood vitC level (mean (SD)): 101.0 μmol/L (16.6) versus 78.5 μmol/L (27.8), p = 0.02; n = 12/16), while no relation to birth weight or Apgar score was observed. Diabetic women with complications of pregnancy had significantly lower vitC levels compared to the women without complications (mean (SD): 24.2 μmol/L (10.6) vs. 34.6 μmol/L (14.4), p = 0.01; n = 19 and 28, respectively) and the subgroup of women (about 28%) characterized by hypovitaminosis C (<23 μmol/L) had an increased relative risk of complications of pregnancy that was 2.4 fold higher than the one found in the group of women with a vitC status above this level (p = 0.02, 95% confidence interval 1.2–4.4). No correlation between diabetic characteristics of the pregnant women and vitC status was observed, while a negative association of maternal vitC with HbA1c at delivery was found at regression analysis (r = −0.39, p < 0.01, n = 46). In conclusion, our results may suggest that hypovitaminosis C in diabetic women is associated with increased risk of complications of pregnancy. PMID:28241487
Mascarenhas, Mariano; Kamath, Mohan S.; Muthukumar, K; Mangalaraj, Ann M.; Chandy, Achamma; Aleyamma, TK
OBJECTIVES: The overwhelming numbers of twins following assisted reproductive technology (ART) are dichorionic twins, but monochorionic twins account for around 0.9% of post ART pregnancies. The data for post ART-monochorionic pregnancy outcomes are scarce due to the rarity of this condition. Hence, we evaluated the obstetric outcomes of monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies conceived on ART. SETTINGS: University teaching hospital. STUDY DESIGN: A case–control study of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) and dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) pregnancies conceived following ART treatment. Charts of all women who conceived following ART from 2008 to 2013 were screened. Among them, the monochorionic twins diagnosed in the first trimester were included and their obstetric outcome was followed-up. For comparison, an equal number of dichorionic twin pregnancies from age and body mass index matched mothers was selected. RESULTS: The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. MCDA group had a higher miscarriage rate (50%) than the DCDA group (10%), with three seconds trimester miscarriages in the MCDA group. The live birth rates were lower in the MCDA versus DCDA group (40% vs. 90%). Among triplet pregnancies with a monochorionic component, the live birth rate was only 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Monochorionic pregnancies following ART have poorer obstetric outcomes when compared to dichorionic pregnancies. For monochorionic pregnancies following ART, intensive antenatal surveillance at a tertiary level obstetric and neonatal center may help optimize the outcome. PMID:25191025
Pessonnier, A; Ko-Kivok-Yun, P; Fournie, A
A monochorial monoamniotic twin pregnancy was conducted to term with the delivery of two live infants. The diagnostic problems are due to the rarity of this type of twin pregnancy. The main complications are recalled, essentially related to funicular and dystocic problems at delivery. Such pregnancies require careful management. A caesarean section should always be entertained.
Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J.; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A.; Serra-Majem, Luis
Objectives To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. Methods A cohort of pregnant women (n = 6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Results Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 2.13 (95% CI: 1.52–2.98) and (RR = 2.85 (95% CI: 2.01–4.04), gestational hypertension (RR = 2.01 (95% CI: 1.27–3.19) and (RR = 4.79 (95% CI: 3.13–7.32) and preeclampsia (RR = 3.16 (95% CI: 1.12–8.91) and (RR = 8.80 (95% CI: 3.46–22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR = 2.02 (95% CI: 1.25–3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR = 1.76 (95% CI: 1.03–2.99), tearing (RR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05–1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.14–1.63) and (RR = 1.84 (95% CI: 1.53–2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.28–2.11) and (RR = 1.77 (95% CI: 1.35–2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR = 2.00 (95% CI: 1.56–2.56) and (RR = 2.74 (95% CI: 2.12–3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR = 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01–1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62–8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50–8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41–8.54). Conclusion Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote
Bose, Carl L; Bauserman, Melissa; Goldenberg, Robert L; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; McClure, Elizabeth M; Pasha, Omrana; Carlo, Waldemar A; Garces, Ana; Moore, Janet L; Miodovnik, Menachem; Koso-Thomas, Marion
The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) supports and conducts clinical trials in resource-limited countries by pairing foreign and U.S. investigators, with the goal of evaluating low-cost, sustainable interventions to improve the health of women and children. Accurate reporting of births, stillbirths, neonatal deaths, maternal mortality, and measures of obstetric and neonatal care is critical to efforts to discover strategies for improving pregnancy outcomes in resource-limited settings. Because most of the sites in the Global Network have weak registration within their health care systems, the Global Network developed the Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), a prospective, population-based registry of pregnancies at the Global Network sites to provide precise data on health outcomes and measures of care. Pregnant women are enrolled in the MNHR if they reside in or receive healthcare in designated groups of communities within sites in the Global Network. For each woman, demographic, health characteristics and major outcomes of pregnancy are recorded. Data are recorded at enrollment, the time of delivery and at 42 days postpartum. From 2010 through 2013 Global Network sites were located in Argentina, Guatemala, Belgaum and Nagpur, India, Pakistan, Kenya, and Zambia. During this period, 283,496 pregnant women were enrolled in the MNHR; this number represented 98.8% of all eligible women. Delivery data were collected for 98.8% of women and 42-day follow-up data for 98.4% of those enrolled. In this supplement, there are a series of manuscripts that use data gathered through the MNHR to report outcomes of these pregnancies. Developing public policy and improving public health in countries with poor perinatal outcomes is, in part, dependent upon understanding the outcome of every pregnancy. Because the worst pregnancy outcomes typically occur in countries with limited health registration systems and vital records, alternative
Background The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network) supports and conducts clinical trials in resource-limited countries by pairing foreign and U.S. investigators, with the goal of evaluating low-cost, sustainable interventions to improve the health of women and children. Accurate reporting of births, stillbirths, neonatal deaths, maternal mortality, and measures of obstetric and neonatal care is critical to efforts to discover strategies for improving pregnancy outcomes in resource-limited settings. Because most of the sites in the Global Network have weak registration within their health care systems, the Global Network developed the Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), a prospective, population-based registry of pregnancies at the Global Network sites to provide precise data on health outcomes and measures of care. Methods Pregnant women are enrolled in the MNHR if they reside in or receive healthcare in designated groups of communities within sites in the Global Network. For each woman, demographic, health characteristics and major outcomes of pregnancy are recorded. Data are recorded at enrollment, the time of delivery and at 42 days postpartum. Results From 2010 through 2013 Global Network sites were located in Argentina, Guatemala, Belgaum and Nagpur, India, Pakistan, Kenya, and Zambia. During this period, 283,496 pregnant women were enrolled in the MNHR; this number represented 98.8% of all eligible women. Delivery data were collected for 98.8% of women and 42-day follow-up data for 98.4% of those enrolled. In this supplement, there are a series of manuscripts that use data gathered through the MNHR to report outcomes of these pregnancies. Conclusions Developing public policy and improving public health in countries with poor perinatal outcomes is, in part, dependent upon understanding the outcome of every pregnancy. Because the worst pregnancy outcomes typically occur in countries with limited health registration
He, Song; Allen, John Carson; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Tan, Thiam Chye
To investigate the association of serum progesterone in first trimester with low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes at term, and preterm premature rupture of membranes in a general population. We conducted a cohort study of 263 women with low-risk singleton intrauterine pregnancies who had a spot serum progesterone measurement in the first trimester in a Singapore tertiary maternity hospital. Study outcomes were retrieved from clinical records. Follow-up data were available for 131 women. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of low serum progesterone (<35 nmol/L) with LBW and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Low serum progesterone was associated with a significantly increased risk of LBW (adjusted odds ratio: 5.28 [1.02, 27.3]; p=0.047). Low serum progesterone was associated with a significantly increased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in univariate analysis (unadjusted odds ratio: 8.43 [1.31, 54.2]; p=0.025). Low serum progesterone in the first trimester is a significant risk factor for LBW and possibly other placental dysfunction disorders such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the associations.
Mitelman, Serge A.; Canfield, Emily L.; Chu, King-Wai; Brickman, Adam M.; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A.; Buchsbaum, Monte S.
Background We have previously demonstrated that putaminal but not caudate volumes are associated with poor outcome in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Present longitudinal study was designed to investigate progressive differences in striatal volumes among chronic schizophrenia patients with different outcomes and healthy subjects. Method Structural MRI scans were acquired at baseline and at follow-up four years later to evaluate volumetric changes in 26 poor-outcome schizophrenia patients, 23 good-outcome patients and 16 healthy subjects. Results Schizophrenia patients with different outcomes entered the study with similar volumes of the caudate nucleus and putamen. The rate of decline in volumes of the putamen was greater in patients with poor outcome than in the good-outcome group, so that their putaminal but not caudate volumes were significantly smaller at the time of follow-up. There were no differences in baseline and follow-up volumes of the putamen or in the rate of their progression among patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects. The caudate volumes were lower in schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects at baseline and follow-up, but showed no differential patterns of progression between the groups. Conclusions Volumes of the putamen may represent a longitudinal marker of treatment responsiveness and outcome in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:19616411
Cheng, Yi-Kan; Zhang, Fan; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Jia, Wei-Hua; Shao, Jian-Yong; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Ying; Ma, Jun
Pregnancy-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (PANPC) has been associated with poor survival. Recent advances in radiation technology and imaging techniques, and the introduction of chemotherapy have improved survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); however, it is not clear whether these changes have improved survival in PANPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare five-year maternal survival in patients with PANPC and non-pregnant patients with NPC. After adjusting for age, stage and chemotherapy mode, we conducted a retrospective case-control study among 36 non-metastatic PANPC patients and 36 non-pregnant NPC patients (control group) who were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2010. The median age of both groups was 30years (range, 23-35years); median follow-up for all patients was 70months. Locoregionally-advanced disease accounted for 83.3% of all patients with PANPC and 92.9% of patients who developed NPC during pregnancy. In both the PANPC and control groups, 31 patients (86.1%) received chemotherapy and all patients received definitive radiotherapy. The five-year rates for overall survival (70% vs. 78%, p=0.72), distant metastasis-free survival (79% vs. 76%, p=0.77), loco-regional relapse-free survival (97% vs. 91%, p=0.69) and disease-free survival (69% vs. 74%, p=0.98) were not significantly different between the PANPC and control groups. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model revealed that only N-classification was significantly associated with five-year OS. This study demonstrates that, in the modern treatment era, pregnancy itself may not negatively influence survival outcomes in patients with NPC; however, pregnancy may delay the diagnosis of NPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mecacci, Federico; Pieralli, Annalisa; Bianchi, Barbara; Paidas, Michael J
Autoimmune diseases are a group of heterogeneous disorders equally characterized by the same pathogenetic mechanism: an immunological reaction against self antigens promoted by antibodies, immuno-complex formation, and self-reactive T lymphocytes. Autoimmune diseases may be separated into organ-restricted diseases and systemic ones. The damage of single organs produced by antibodies focused against specific cellular antigens characterizes the first group of diseases, whereas the latter are produced by a systemic inflammatory process initiated by inappropriate and excess immune activation that leads to immuno-complex formation and deposition onto sensitive tissues. Since connective and vascular tissue are principally damaged in these disorders, systemic autoimmune diseases are more commonly known as "connective tissue diseases" (CTD) and include: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, Sjogren syndrome, and others. Although they are considered as different from a pathogenetic point of view, they overlap in many aspects, such as general symptoms as fever and fatigue, chronical ongoing, steroid therapy. As patients suffering from CTD are predominantly young women between the ages of 20 and 40 years, which is the period of the highest childbearing potential, particular interest must be regarded to the impact that these diseases and their therapies have on pregnancy and, conversely, the effect of pregnancy on these disorders, which may have long-lasting implications for mothers and neonates. Adverse fetal outcomes, maternal disease flares, and drug potential teratogenic risk are the main reasons why women suffering from CTD and who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant are considered a high-risk population. These patients require integrated, interdisciplinary care, addressing every aspect of rheumatology, obstetrics, and neonatology to reduce maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications.
Laughon, S.K.; Catov, J.; Powers, R.W.; Roberts, J.M.; Gandley, R.E.
BACKGROUND The association of elevated serum uric acid with the development of hypertension is established outside of pregnancy. We investigated whether first trimester uric acid was associated with the development of the following: gestational hypertension or preeclampsia, these outcomes stratified by presence of hyperuricemia at delivery since this denotes more severe disease, preterm birth or small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS Uric acid was measured in 1541 banked maternal plasma samples from a prior prospective cohort study that were collected at a mean gestational age of 9.0 (± 2.5) weeks. Polytomous regressions were performed and adjusted for parity and pre-pregnancy body mass index. RESULTS First trimester uric acid in the highest quartile (>3.56 mg/dL) compared to lowest three quartiles was associated with an increased risk of developing preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.03–3.21) but not gestational hypertension. In women with hypertensive disease complicated by hyperuricemia at delivery, high first trimester uric acid was associated with a 3.22-fold increased risk of hyperuricemic gestational hypertension and a 3.65-fold increased risk of hyperuricemic preeclampsia. High first trimester uric acid was not associated with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia without hyperuricemia at delivery, preterm birth, or SGA. In women who developed hypertensive disease, elevated uric acid at delivery was only partly explained by elevated uric acid in the first trimester (r2 = .23). CONCLUSIONS First trimester elevated uric acid was associated with later preeclampsia and more strongly with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension with hyperuricemia. PMID:21252861
Plessinger, M A
Based on findings in humans and the confirmation of prenatal exposures in animals, amphetamines and methamphetamines increase the risk of an adverse outcome when abused during pregnancy. Clefting, cardiac anomalies, and fetal growth reduction deficits that have been seen in infants exposed to amphetamines during pregnancy have all been reproduced in animal studies involving prenatal exposures to amphetamines. The differential effects of amphetamines between genetic strains of mice and between species demonstrate that pharmacokinetics and the genetic disposition of the mother and developing embryo can have an enormous influence on enhancing or reducing these potential risks. The effects of prenatal exposure to amphetamines in producing altered behavior in humans appear less compelling when one considers other confounding variables of human environment, genetics, and polydrug abuse. In view of the animal data concerning altered behavior and learning tasks in comparison with learning deficits observed in humans, the influence of the confounding variables in humans may serve to increase the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to prenatal exposure to amphetamines. These factors and others may predispose the developing conceptus to the damaging effects of amphetamines by actually lowering the threshold of susceptibility at the sites where damage occurs. Knowledge of the effects of prenatal exposure of the fetus and the mother to designer amphetamines is lacking. Based on the few studies in which designer drugs have been examined in animal models, more questions are raised than answered. Possible reasons why no malformations or significant fetal effects were found in the study by St. Omer include the genetic strain of rat used, the conservative exposure profile, or the fact that the placenta metabolized MDMA before reaching the embryo. These questions underscore the need for further investigations concerning the prenatal exposure effects of designer compounds and
Zhu, Jun-Ming; Ma, Wei-Guo; Peterss, Sven; Wang, Long-Fei; Qiao, Zhi-Yu; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Zheng, Jun; Liu, Yong-Min; Elefteriades, John A; Sun, Li-Zhong
Aortic dissection in pregnancy is a rare but lethal catastrophe. Clinical experiences are limited. We report our experience in 25 patients focusing on etiology, management strategies, and outcomes. Between June 1998 and February 2015, we treated 25 pregnant women (mean age, 31.6 ± 4.7 years) in whom aortic dissection developed at a mean of 28 ± 10 gestational weeks (GWs). Type A aortic dissection (TAAD) was present in 20 (80%) and type B (TBAD) in 5 (20%). Marfan syndrome was seen in 17 (68%). Management strategy was based on dissection type and GWs. TAADs were managed surgically in 19 (95.0%) and medically in 1 (5.0%). Maternal and fetal mortalities were, respectively, 14.3% (1 of 7) and 0 (0 of 7) in the "delivery first" group (7 of 20), 16.7% (1 of 6) and 33.3% (2 of 6) in "single-stage delivery and aortic repair" group (6 of 20), 16.7% (1 of 6) and 66.7% (4 of 6) in "aortic repair first" group (6 of 20), and 100% (1 of 1) and 100% (1 of 1) in the "medical management" group (1 of 20). TBADs were managed surgically in 60% (3 of 5) and endovascularly and medically in 20% each (1 of 5). No maternal deaths occurred. Fetal mortality was 100% in the surgical group and 0% in the other groups. During late follow-up, which was complete in 95.2% (20 of 21), 3 maternal and 2 fetal deaths occurred in the TAAD group. Overall maternal survival was 68.6% at 5 years. Marfan syndrome predominates among women with aortic dissection in pregnancy. For TAADs, after 28 GWs, delivery followed by surgical repair can achieve maternal and fetal survival adequately; before 28 GWs, maternal survival should be prioritized given the high risk of fetal death. For TBADs in pregnancy, nonsurgical management is preferred. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C
Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.
Rubin, Rainbow; Pearl, Michelle; Kharrazi, Martin; Blount, Benjamin C; Miller, Mark D; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; DeLorenze, Gerald; Liaw, Jane; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Steinmaus, Craig
At high medicinal doses perchlorate is known to decrease the production of thyroid hormone, a critical factor for fetal development. In a large and uniquely exposed cohort of pregnant women, we recently identified associations between environmental perchlorate exposures and decreased maternal thyroid hormone during pregnancy. Here, we investigate whether perchlorate might be associated with birthweight or preterm birth in the offspring of these women. Maternal urinary perchlorate, serum thyroid hormone concentrations, birthweight, gestational age, and urinary nitrate, thiocyanate, and iodide were collected in 1957 mother-infant pairs from San Diego County during 2000-2003, a period when the county's water supply was contaminated with perchlorate. Associations between perchlorate exposure and birth outcomes were examined using linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, weight, race/ethnicity, and other factors. Perchlorate was not associated with birth outcomes in the overall population. However, in analyses confined to male infants, log10 maternal perchlorate concentrations were associated with increasing birthweight (β=143.1gm, p=0.01), especially among preterm births (β=829.1g, p<0.001). Perchlorate was associated with male preterm births ≥2500g (odds ratio=3.03, 95% confidence interval=1.09-8.40, p-trend=0.03). Similar associations were not seen in females. This is the first study to identify associations between perchlorate and increasing birthweight. Further research is needed to explore the differences we identified related to infant sex, preterm birth, and other factors. Given that perchlorate exposure is ubiquitous, and that long-term impacts can follow altered birth outcomes, future research on perchlorate could have widespread public health importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Santis, Marco; Carducci, Brigida; De Santis, Lidia; Lucchese, Angela; Straface, Gianluca
To assess pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in a woman accidentally exposed to Verteporfin photodynamic therapy in the third week of pregnancy. Post-conception counselling and prospective follow-up by telephone interview at Telefono Rosso (Teratology Information Service) were carried out. The baby was examined at birth and at 26 months. The outcome of the pregnancy was normal and a healthy female child with a normal birthweight was born. The baby's follow-up was normal at 26 months. This is the first reported case of a childbearing woman being accidentally exposed to Verteporfin during pregnancy. No fetal or neonatal adverse effects were documented.
Luitse, Merel Ja; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kappelle, L Jaap; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Biessels, Geert Jan
Background Acute hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome after ischemic stroke, but the association between chronic antecedent hyperglycemia and outcome is unclear. Aim We assessed the association between chronic hyperglycemia, measured by hemoglobin A1c, and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods We included 812 patients with acute ischemic stroke (mean age 66 ± 14 years; 61.5% male). Patients were categorized per hemoglobin A1c level: no (<39 mmol/mol), moderate (39-42 mmol/mol), or severe chronic hyperglycemia (>42 mmol/mol). Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score > 2 after 3 months. The relation between chronic hyperglycemia and functional outcome was assessed with a Poisson regression analysis and expressed as risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals with no chronic hyperglycemia as the reference. Results Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was present in 234 (28.8%) patients and severe chronic hyperglycemia in 183 (22.5%) patients. Acute hyperglycemia on admission was present in 338 (41.6%) patients. Severe chronic hyperglycemia was associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.40; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.79). After adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity, vascular risk factors, and acute hyperglycemia on admission the risk ratios was 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.76). Moderate chronic hyperglycemia was not associated with poor outcome (risk ratios 1.12; 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.44). Conclusion Severe chronic hyperglycemia is associated with poor functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This association is independent of hyperglycemia in the acute stage of stroke and of an unfavorable vascular risk factor profile.
Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Hernández, Dafhne; Sánchez, Antonio; Morales, Sara; Cruz-Domínguez, Pilar; Medina, Gabriela; Jara, Luis Javier
To compare the maternal and fetal outcomes between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we reviewed the medical records of SLE pregnant women treated from January 2005 to August 2013. For comparison, patients were allocated to one of the two groups, those pregnant patients with SLE onset before 18 years of age (childhood-onset) and ≥18 years (adult-onset). The patients were evaluated at least once in each trimester and postpartum. Relevant maternal and fetal outcomes were extracted, such as lupus flare, preeclampsia/eclampsia, rate of liveborns, fetal loss (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth), term delivery, preterm birth, neonatal death, low birth weight, low birth weight at term, and congenital malformations. We studied 186 pregnancies (in 180 women), 58 of them had childhood-onset SLE, and the remaining 128 had adult-onset SLE. The rate of maternal and fetal complications was similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis showed that active SLE before pregnancy, primigravida, renal flare, preeclampsia, lupus flare, anticardiolipin antibodies, and low serum complement were associated with an increased risk of poor maternal and fetal outcomes. The diagnosis of childhood-onset had no impact on maternal-fetal outcome. The maternal and fetal outcome in women with childhood-onset SLE is similar to that reported in women with adult-onset SLE. Pregnancy in women with childhood-onset SLE should not be contraindicated if the disease is well controlled.
D'Antonio, F; Khalil, A; Pagani, G; Papageorghiou, A T; Bhide, A; Thilaganathan, B
The aim of this systematic review was to explore the relationship between crown-rump length (CRL) discordance detected at 11-14 weeks of gestation and adverse outcome in twin pregnancy and to assess its predictive accuracy. A protocol designed a priori following MOOSE guidelines and recommended for systematic review and meta-analysis was used. The outcomes observed were: total fetal and perinatal loss, fetal loss at <24 weeks, fetal loss at ≥ 24 weeks, birth-weight (BW) discordance, preterm delivery (PTD) at < 34 weeks and fetal anomalies. The analysis was performed for all twins and for dichorionic (DC) and monochorionic (MC) twins separately. A total of 2008 articles were identified and 17 studies were included in the systematic review. Twin pregnancies with CRL discordance ≥ 10% were at significantly higher risk of perinatal loss (RR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.25-6.27; P = 0.012), fetal loss at ≥ 24 weeks (RR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.47-11.23; P = 0.006), BW discordance (RR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.89-2.64; P < 0.001) and PTD at < 34 weeks (RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.23-1.80; P < 0.001) but not of fetal loss at < 24 weeks (P = 0.130). A meta-analysis of fetal anomalies was not possible because fewer than two studies explored this outcome. However, when used alone to screen for adverse pregnancy outcome, the predictive accuracy of CRL discordance was low for each of the outcomes explored. CRL discordance is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the accuracy of CRL discordance in predicting adverse outcome is poor and thus limits its routine use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Uchida, Sayaka; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Kagami, Maki; Miki, Fumie; Hihara, Hanako; Katakura, Satomi; Yoshimasa, Yushi; Masuda, Hirotaka; Uchida, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Mamoru
Because subclinical hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] > 4.5 IU/mL) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, including early pregnancy loss, TSH is recommended to be titrated to ≤2.5 mIU/L in levothyroxine-treated women before pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether borderline-subclinical hypothyroidism (borderline-SCH; 2.5 < TSH ≤ 4.5 IU/mL) affects the outcome of subsequent pregnancies in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (uRPL). After workup for antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-phospholipid syndrome, thrombophilia, uterine abnormalities, hormone disorders, and/or chromosomal abnormalities, 317 women with a history of uRPL were enrolled. The women were classified into two groups: borderline-SCH, and euthyroidism (0.3 ≤ TSH ≤ 2.5 IU/mL). All women had normal serum free thyroxine (T4) and did not receive levothyroxine before or during the subsequent pregnancy. There were no significant differences in age, number of previous pregnancy losses, number of live births, or body mass index between the borderline-SCH (n = 56) and the euthyroid (n = 261) groups, but the rate of ANA positivity differed significantly (53.6% vs 33.7%, respectively; P = 0.005). The subsequent pregnancy rate did not differ between the two groups (55.4%, 31/56 vs 51.3%, 134/261, respectively). The pregnancy loss rate (<22 weeks of gestation) tended to be higher in the borderline-SCH than the euthyroid group (29.0%, 9/31 vs 17.9%, 24/134), although not significantly so (P = 0.16). Although some subset of uRPL is though to be due to as-yet-unidentified cause(s), borderline-SCH is unlikely to be involved in uRPL. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Kansu-Celik, Hatice; Kisa Karakaya, Burcu; Guzel, Ali Irfan; Tasci, Yasemin; Erkaya, Salim
To evaluate the effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on maternal and perinatal outcomes among adolescent pregnant women. We conducted this prospective cross-sectional study on 365 singleton adolescent pregnancies (aged between 16 and 20 years) at a Maternity Hospital, between December 2014 and March 2015. We divided participants into two groups based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI): overweight and obese adolescent (BMI at or above 25.0 kg/m) and normal weight (BMI between 18.5 and 24.99 kg/m) adolescent. We used multivariate analysis to evaluate the association of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and pre-pregnancy BMI. The prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity and normal weight was 34.6% (n = 80) and 65.4% (n = 261) in the study population, respectively. Compared with normal-weight teens (n = 234), overweight/obese teens (n = 71) were at higher risk for cesarean delivery (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4-1.4), preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.9) and small of gestational age (odds ratio [OR] 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.9). BMI increased during pre-pregnancy could be an important preventable risk factor for poor obstetric complications in adolescent pregnancies, and for these patients prevention strategies (e.g., nutritional counseling, weight-loss, regular physical activity) for obesity are recommended before getting pregnant.
Dostal, M; Weber-Schoendorfer, C; Sobesky, J; Schaefer, C
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is related to parity, and its symptoms may worsen during pregnancy. Treatment with levodopa or dopamine agonists is the first-line therapy for RLS; however, there are limited data on treatment in pregnancy. We therefore assessed the safety of levodopa, pramipexole, rotigotine, and ropinirole in pregnancy. Prospective documentation of pregnancies exposed to levodopa, pramipexole, rotigotine, and ropinirole between 1998 and 2011 was evaluated as to their outcome (teratogenicity or fetotoxicity) by the Berlin Institute for Clinical Teratology and Drug Risk Assessment in Pregnancy. We were able to complete 59 pregnancy outcomes exposed to RLS pharmacotherapy. For specific treatments, the numbers of exposed pregnancies/live born children/spontaneous abortions/induced abortions/malformations were as follows: levodopa only: 38/29 (one pair of twins)/3/7/3; pramipexole only: 12/9/3/0/0; rotigotine only: 2/2/0/0/0; ropinirole only: 3/2/0/1/0; levodopa combined with pramipexole: 3/3/0/0/0; levodopa combined with ropinirole: 1/1/0/0/0. No major birth defects were found with any RLS treatment, and three infants exposed to levodopa had minor anomalies. In our small prospective case series, there was no increased risk above baseline for major malformations or other adverse outcomes for levodopa and pramipexole. If necessary, levodopa treatment may be considered as an alternative to cabergoline, for which safety has been well documented in pregnancy. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.
Thomson, Benjamin; Joseph, Geena; Clark, William F.; Hladunewich, Michelle; Patel, Amit; Blake, Peter; Eastabrook, Genevieve; Matsui, Doreen; Sharma, Ajay; House, Andrew
Background Outside of pregnancy, anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, there is limited knowledge regarding de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes in de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy. Studies were selected from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases and conference proceedings, without language restriction. Results Data from eight patients were derived from seven case reports and one unpublished case. Most (6/8) patients presented after the first trimester. During pregnancy, acute kidney injury (5/8), anemia (5/8), hematuria (8/8) and proteinuria (8/8) were common. When hemodialysis was required antepartum (5/8), renal function recovery to independence of renal replacement was unlikely (2/5). While pulmonary involvement was common (5/8), no permanent damage was reported (0/8). The majority of cases ended in live births (6/8) although prematurity (6/6), intrauterine growth restriction (2/6), small for gestational age (4/6) and complications of prematurity (1/6) were common. When anti-GBM levels were tested in the living newborn, they were detectable (2/5), but no newborn renal or lung disease was reported (0/6). Complications in pregnancy included gestational diabetes (3/8), hyperemesis gravidarum (2/8) and preeclampsia (2/8). Conclusions Live births can be achieved in de novo anti-GBM disease in pregnancy, but are commonly associated with adverse maternal, pregnancy and fetal outcomes. Only with awareness of common presentations, and management strategies can outcomes be optimized. PMID:25878776
Gerard, Elizabeth E; Meador, Kimford J
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are prescribed commonly to women of childbearing age. In utero exposure to some AEDs can have significant cognitive and behavioral consequences for the unborn child. Recently, prospective studies of women taking AEDs during pregnancy have added significantly to our understanding of cognitive and behavioral teratogenic risks posed by fetal AED exposure. Valproate is clearly associated with impaired cognitive development as well as an increased risk of disorders such as autism and autism spectrum disorder. Exposure to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, or phenytoin monotherapy is associated with more favorable cognitive and behavioral outcomes than valproate, but more data are required to clarify if these AEDs have more subtle effects on cognition and behavior. There are insufficient data on the developmental effects of other AEDs in humans. Further, the underlying mechanisms of cognitive teratogenesis are poorly understood, including the genetic factors that affect susceptibility to AEDs.
Gerard, Elizabeth E.; Meador, Kimford J.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are prescribed commonly to women of childbearing age. In utero exposure to some AEDs can have significant cognitive and behavioral consequences for the unborn child. Recently, prospective studies of women taking AEDs during pregnancy have added significantly to our understanding of cognitive and behavioral teratogenic risks posed by fetal AED exposure. Valproate is clearly associated with impaired cognitive development as well as an increased risk of disorders such as autism and autism spectrum disorder. Exposure to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, or phenytoin monotherapy is associated with more favorable cognitive and behavioral outcomes than valproate, but more data are required to clarify if these AEDs have more subtle effects on cognition and behavior. There are insufficient data on the developmental effects of other AEDs in humans. Further, the underlying mechanisms of cognitive teratogenesis are poorly understood, including the genetic factors that affect susceptibility to AEDs. PMID:27617120
Polańska, Kinga; Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech
Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children's psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children's intelligence quotient (IQ), mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children's development.
Gormack, Alice A; Peek, John C; Derraik, José G B; Gluckman, Peter D; Young, Natalie L; Cutfield, Wayne S
What are the lifestyle choices and dietary aspects of women about to undergo fertility treatment in New Zealand? A considerable proportion of women about to undergo fertility treatment make poor lifestyle choices, including the consumption of alcohol and caffeine. Women undergoing fertility treatment are highly motivated to achieve pregnancy, but there are relatively few published data on their lifestyle, lifestyle changes or dietary aspects. This was a cross-sectional study of 250 women aged 20-43 years, taking place between March 2010 and August 2011. Women about to undergo IVF or ICSI treatment in two large fertility clinics in Auckland and Hamilton, New Zealand. Lifestyle and dietary intake questionnaires were individually administered once to each participant 35 days (SD = 22) prior to fertility treatment initiation. Outcome measures included incidence of smoking, consumption of alcohol and caffeinated beverages, BMI, detailed intake of dietary supplements and fertility treatment success. Consumption of certain nutrient supplements was compared with the general female New Zealand population. There were high rates of alcohol (50.8%) and caffeine (86.8%) consumption. Most women (82.8%) reported at least one lifestyle change in preparation for fertility treatment, but less than half of women who consumed alcohol regularly reduced their intake and 60% did not change consumption of caffeinated beverages. Similarly, the majority of women did not change their exercise levels (64.4%) or BMI (83.6%) ahead of fertility treatment. Coffee intake appeared unrelated to treatment outcome, but women who consumed caffeinated herbal tea (36.4% of the study population consumed green tea) had lower odds of becoming pregnant (odds ratio, OR 0.52; P = 0.041 ver