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Sample records for poor prognosis non-aml

  1. Predictive factors for poor prognosis febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Yoon-Seon

    2012-07-01

    Most patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia recover rapidly without serious complications. However, it still remains a life-threatening treatment-related toxicity, and is associated with dose reductions and delays of chemotherapeutic agents that may compromise treatment outcomes. Recent developments of risk stratification enabled early discharge with oral antibiotics for low-risk patients. However, even in low-risk patients, medical complications including bacteremia could happen. The authors reviewed recent literature to provide an update on research regarding predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with febrile neutropenia. Various prognostic factors have been suggested with controversies. Hematological parameters, prophylactic measurements and patient-specific risk factors showed inconsistent results. MASCC risk-index score, which was originally developed to identify low-risk patients, in turn showed that the lower the MASCC score, the poorer the prognosis of febrile neutropenia, with very low levels (<15), the rate of complications was high. Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock commonly had procalcitonin concentration above 2.0 ng/ml, and this level should be considered at high risk of poor prognosis. Lower MASCC score and higher procalcitonin concentration can predict poor outcomes in febrile neutropenia. More research is required with regard to the other factors showing controversies.

  2. Factors predicting poor prognosis in ischemic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Añón, Ramón; Boscá, Marta Maia; Sanchiz, Vicente; Tosca, Joan; Almela, Pedro; Amorós, Cirilo; Benages, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    ). Stenosis was the only endoscopic finding that appeared more frequently in seriously ill patients than in slightly ill patients (66.6% vs 17.3%, P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: The factors that can predict poor prognosis of IC are the absence of hematochezia, tachycardia and peritonism, anemia and hyponatremia and stenosis. PMID:16937472

  3. Azacitidine. Poor-prognosis myelodysplasia: promising, but more data needed.

    PubMed

    2011-02-01

    Some myelodysplastic syndromes carry a poor prognosis. This is also the case for chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (related to myelodysplastic syndromes), and acute myeloblastic leukaemia, a frequent complication of myelodysplasia. The only treatment capable of providing long-term remission (in about 1 in 2 patients on average) is haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but this burdensome treatment can only be used in a minority of cases. Azacitidine (Vidaza, Celgene), an agent that blocks DNA synthesis, is the first drug to receive EU marketing authorisation in these settings. Its clinical evaluation is based on an unblinded trial that included 358 patients comparable to those discussed in the marketing authorisation. In addition to individually tailored symptomatic care, they were randomised to receive either azacitidine or conventional care regimens chosen by their physician (no treatment, low-dose cytarabine, or an anthracycline plus cytarabine). The median overall survival time was significantly longer with azacitidine (24.5 versus 15 months), and transfusion requirements were also reduced. Another comparative trial versus symptomatic treatment alone in 191 patients with various prognoses also showed an increase in survival time with azacitidine, but this study suffered from methodological flaws. The main adverse effects of azacitidine are potentially severe toxicity for various blood cells, gastrointestinal disorders, and reactions at the injection site. In practice, when haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is not feasible for poor-prognosis patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or related disorders, azacitidine can be used instead of disappointing standard treatments, even though more clinical evaluation is needed.

  4. Arpin downregulation in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Lomakina, Maria E; Lallemand, François; Vacher, Sophie; Molinie, Nicolas; Dang, Irene; Cacheux, Wulfran; Chipysheva, Tamara A; Ermilova, Valeria D; de Koning, Leanne; Dubois, Thierry; Bièche, Ivan; Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Gautreau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Arp2/3 complex is required for cell migration and invasion. The Arp2/3 complex and its activators, such as the WAVE complex, are deregulated in diverse cancers. Here we investigate the expression of Arpin, the Arp2/3 inhibitory protein that antagonises the WAVE complex. Methods: We used qRT–PCR and reverse phase protein arrays in a patient cohort with known clinical parameters and outcome, immunofluorescence in breast biopsy cryosections and breast cancer cell lines. Results: Arpin was downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels in mammary carcinoma cells. Arpin mRNA downregulation was associated with poor metastasis-free survival (MFS) on univariate analysis (P=0.022). High expression of the NCKAP1 gene that encodes a WAVE complex subunit was also associated with poor MFS on univariate analysis (P=0.0037) and was mutually exclusive with Arpin low. Arpin low or NCKAP1 high was an independent prognosis factor on multivariate analysis (P=0.0012) and was strongly associated with poor MFS (P=0.000064). Conclusions: Loss of the Arp2/3 inhibitory protein Arpin produces a similar poor outcome in breast cancer as high expression of the NCKAP1 subunit of the Arp2/3 activatory WAVE complex. PMID:26867158

  5. The challenge of poor-prognosis germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Toner, Guy C

    2007-05-01

    Patients who have a poor prognosis can be identified at presentation by well-defined prognostic factors. Prognostic groups as defined by the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification should be used in the clinic, in clinical trials, and when reporting results. No systemic treatment has been shown to improve outcome compared with four cycles of chemotherapy composed of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, which remains the standard of care. Surgery to resect residual masses after chemotherapy and in the salvage setting is a vital component of optimal care. The best outcomes occur with treatment at a center with experience and expertise in their management. Further major improvements are likely to require novel systemic therapies rather than modifications of existing approaches.

  6. The poor prognosis factors in G2 neuroendocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Poiană, Cătălina; Neamţu, M C; Avramescu, Elena Taina; Carşote, Mara; Trifănescu, Raluca; Terzea, Dana; Neamţu, Oana Maria; Ferechide, D; Dănciulescu Miulescu, Rucsandra

    2013-01-01

    The G2 neuroendocrine tumors (NET) or well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (2010 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Digestive System) embrace different types of evolution despite the fact that they actually are included in the same group of prognosis based on mitotic count and the Ki-67 proliferation index. We studied the pathological and clinical aspects in patients with G2 NET. This is a retrospective pilot observational study in patients admitted between January 2008 and January 2013 in "Constantin I. Parhon" National Institute of Endocrinology, Bucharest, Romania. They were evaluated based on the pathological report, imagistic scan, and neuroendocrine markers. Nine patients (female/male ratio: 5/4) with G2 NET were included (mean age at diagnosis 54.11 years). Surgery was performed in 66.66% of cases. 44.44% of tumors had unknown origin. 22.22% of patients had negative immunostain for chromogranin A. Synaptophysin was positive in all cases. Neuronal specific enolase (NSE) was performed in 44.44% of cases and it was positive in all these situations. 88.88% of patients had high neuroendocrine markers. Multiple tumors were found in two cases (follicular thyroid adenoma, and a carcinoma of the port vein, respective bilaterally pheochromocytomas). The youngest patient (39-year-old) had atypical onset with bilateral adrenal tumors (positive for CHROMO, EMA, CK-19, CK-20, negative for SOMATO, CK-7, S-100, glucagon, CD57, and a Ki-67 of 15%). Death was registered in two cases, both with bone metastases. Some poor prognosis factors may be taken into account as lack of CHROMO immunostain, young age at diagnosis, genetic background, and lack of therapy options as surgery. Larger databases will provide more information. It is possible that the G2 NET group of tumors actually includes some different subtypes or in fact, a late diagnosis of the tumor might be associated with a poor diagnosis.

  7. Management of poor-prognosis testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Kiranpreet; Gilligan, Timothy D.; Stephenson, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the outcome of patients with intermediate-and poor-risk germ cell tumors at diagnosis is optimized by the use of risk-appropriate chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy surgical resection of residual masses. Currently, there is no role for high-dose chemotherapy in the first-line setting. Patients who progress on first-line chemotherapy or who relapse after an initial complete response also have a poor prognosis. In the setting of early relapse, the standard approach at most centers is conventional-dose, ifosfamide-based regimens and post-chemotherapy resection of residual masses. The treatment of patients with late relapse is complete surgical resection whenever feasible. Salvage chemotherapy for late relapse may be used prior to surgery in patients where a complete resection is not feasible. A complete surgical resection of all residual sites of disease after chemotherapy is critical for the prevention of relapse and the long-term survival of patients with advanced germ cell tumors. PMID:20535296

  8. [Congenital anomalies of poor prognosis. Genetics Consensus Committee].

    PubMed

    Pardo Vargas, Rosa A; Aracena, Mariana; Aravena, Teresa; Cares, Carolina; Cortés, Fanny; Faundes, Víctor; Mellado, Cecilia; Passalacqua, Cristóbal; Sanz, Patricia; Castillo Taucher, Silvia

    The Genetic Branch of the Chilean Society of Paediatrics, given the draft Law governing the decriminalisation of abortion on three grounds, focusing on the second ground, which considers the "embryo or foetus suffering from a congenital structural anomaly or a genetic disorder incompatible with life outside the womb", met to discuss the scientific evidence according to which congenital anomalies (CA) may be included in this draft law. Experts in clinical genetics focused on 10 CA, reviewed the literature evidence, and met to discuss it. It was agreed not to use the term "incompatible with life outside the womb", as there are exceptions and longer survivals, and change to "congenital anomaly of poor prognosis (CAPP)". Ten CA were evaluated: serious defects of neural tube closure: anencephaly, iniencephaly and craniorachischisis, pulmonary hypoplasia, acardiac foetus, ectopia cordis, non-mosaic triploidy, "limb body wall" complex, "body stalk" anomaly, trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and bilateral renal agenesis. Findings on the prevalence, natural history, prenatal diagnostic methods, survival, and reported cases of prolonged survival were analysed. Post-natal survival, existence of treatments, and outcomes, as well as natural history without intervention, were taken into account in classifying a CA as a CAPP. A CAPP would be: anencephaly, severe pulmonary hypoplasia, acardiac foetus, cervical ectopia cordis, non-mosaic triploidy, limb body wall complex, body stalk anomaly, non-mosaic trisomy 13, non-mosaic trisomy 18, and bilateral renal agenesis. For their diagnosis, it is required that all pregnant women have access to assessments by foetal anatomy ultrasound and occasionally MRI, and cytogenetic and molecular testing. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Coping with Poor Prognosis in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The intensive care pediatrician who prophesies to parents that their child's illness is irreversible may encounter denial and hostility. Four cases are reported in which parents rejected their child's hopeless prognosis, counterprophesied miraculous cures, resolved to obtain exorcism, criticized the care, or accused nurses of neglect. Journal…

  10. Retrospective study of teeth with a poor prognosis following non-surgical periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Takeuchi, Noriko

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess teeth with a poor prognosis and the proximal periodontium of adjacent teeth, and to identify the risk factors associated with the loss of teeth with a poor prognosis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Teeth with a poor prognosis (n=113), teeth adjacent to those of poor prognosis (n=105) and non-adjacent teeth (n=51) were evaluated in 25 non-smoking patients who had received supportive periodontal treatment for 5-16 years following non-surgical periodontal treatment at a university hospital. Probing pocket depth (PPD), percentage of alveolar bone loss, presence of tooth mobility and bleeding on probing in all teeth improved significantly after treatment. Logistic regression analysis showed that loss of teeth with a poor prognosis depended on the initial deepest PPD, tooth mobility and multi-rooted tooth. Teeth with a poor prognosis did not affect the proximal periodontium of the adjacent teeth, and progression of periodontal disease in these teeth and adjacent teeth can be prevented by non-surgical periodontal treatment in non-smokers. The risk factors for loss of teeth with a poor prognosis were the initial deepest PPD, tooth mobility and multi-rooted tooth.

  11. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Is an Independent Risk Factor for Poor Prognosis in GIST Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Li, Yuji; Dong, Ming; Kong, Fanmin

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of prognosis of GIST was used to assess the prognostic effects of hemorrhage of digestive tract induced by mucosal invasion of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors and related mechanisms. The conclusion is that GISTs with gastrointestinal hemorrhage are more likely to recur, which indicates poor prognosis. Therefore, gastrointestinal hemorrhage may be used as a significant indicator to assess the prognosis of patients. PMID:28589146

  12. Claudin-1 correlates with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bing-Sheng; Yao, Yi-Qun; Pei, Bao-Xiang; Zhang, Zhen-Fa; Wang, Chang-Li

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of claudin-1 (CLDN1) expression in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We examined CLDN1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray from 258 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. We investigated messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression in H358 (formerly bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (A549) by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate analysis showed that prognostic factors for lung adenocarcinoma were histologic type, CLDN1, T stage and N stage. Patients with positive CLDN1 expression had a poorer prognosis than patients with negative CLDN1 expression. CLDN1 expression was correlated with Ras and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Patients with positive expressions of both CLDN1 and Ras/EGFR had a poorer prognosis than patients with CLDN1 (+) Ras/EGFR(-) or CLDN1 (-) Ras/EGFR(+) and patients with negative expressions of both CLDN1 and Ras/EGFR. CLDN1 mRNA expression was lower in the H358 compared with the lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549). The combination of CLDN1 and Ras/EGFR is a valuable independent prognostic predictor for lung adenocarcinoma. © 2016 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. High Hepsin expression predicts poor prognosis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Wenyi; Wang, Yanru; Peng, Peike; Li, Lili; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Li, Can; Yang, Caiting; Wang, Xuefei; Zhang, Chunyi; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Hepsin, a membrane-associated serine protease, is frequently upregulated in epithelial cancers and involved in cancer progression. Our study aims to describe the expression pattern and evaluate the clinical implication of hepsin in gastric cancer patients. The mRNA expression of hepsin was analyzed in 50 gastric cancer and matched non-tumor tissues, which was downregulated in 78% (39/50) of gastric cancer. By searching and analyzing four independent datasets from Oncomine, we obtained the similar results. Furthermore, we evaluated the hepsin expression by IHC in tissue microarray (TMA) containing 220 Gastric Cancer specimens. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were taken to access the prognosis of gastric cancer and predicted that hepsin protein expression was one of the significant and independent prognostic factors for overall survival of Gastric Cancer. PMID:27841306

  14. LINC00978 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lin-lin; Chi, Ya-yun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Nai-si; Wang, Lin; Wu, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs in the human genome that involves in breast cancer development and progression. Here, we identify a lncRNA, LINC00978, which is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues compared with corresponding controls. Furthermore, LINC00978 expression is negatively associated with hormone receptor (HR) status in 195 breast cancer patients studied (p = 0.033). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis shows that patients with high LINC00978 expression have poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with low LINC00978 expression (p = 0.012), and multivariate analysis identifies LINC00978 as an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer (p = 0.008, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.270, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.237–4.165). Our study indicates that LINC00978 may be an oncogene in breast cancer, and can serve as a potential biomarker to predict prognosis in breast cancer patients. PMID:27897214

  15. Intestinal obstruction: predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Suan, Mohd Azri; Tan, Wei Leong; Soelar, Shahrul Aiman; Ismail, Ibtisam; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8) for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593) and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6) for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908). The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8), which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7). After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25868638

  16. SDF-1 Expression is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dangen; Lv, Fei; Zhang, Jianhe; Li, Hongjie

    2016-09-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) expression has been reported to be a predictor of poor clinical symptoms in certain types of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well-known factor that mediates the micro-angiogenesis of solid tumors, and SDF-1 mediated expression of VEGF may promote tumor growth and metastasis, resulting in poor clinical outcome. Therefore, we explored the expression levels of SDF-1 and VEGF in patients with osteosarcoma in order to determine the association between their expression levels and unfavorable outcomes. A total of 54 patients with osteosarcoma were included in the current study. The protein expression levels of SDF-1 and VEGF were evaluated on immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining. The correlation between the expression levels of SDF-1 and VEGF and their association with clinical parameters were analyzed using the Pearson chi-square test and the Spearman-rho test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify potential prognostic factors. The Kaplan-Meier method was employed to analyze overall survival. Low SDF-1 and VEGF expression levels were detected in 20.4% (11 of 54) and 22.2% (12 of 54) of the patients with osteosarcoma, respectively; moderate expression was detected in 35.2% (19 of 54) and 37.0% (20 of 54) of the patients, respectively; and high expression was detected in 44.4% (24 of 54) and 40.7% (22 of 54) of the patients, respectively. Protein levels of both SDF-1 and VEGF were significantly associated with the histologic grade (p=0.004 and p=0.042 respectively), the presence of metastasis (p=0.009 and p=0.028 respectively), and Enneking staging (p<0.001 and p=0.003 respectively). The association between expression levels of SDF-1and VEGF had a significantly positive correlation (p<0.001and r=0.618). The expression levels of both SDF-1 and VEGF were significantly associated with shorter overall survival on univariate analysis; however, the association was

  17. CD73 is associated with poor prognosis in HNSCC

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wei; Yang, Rong; Lu, Wei; Liu, Zhe-Qi; Chen, Yi-Ming; Yang, Xi; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Li-Zhen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Xu; Chen, Wan-Tao; Ji, Tong; Zhang, Chen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    CD73 is a cell surface immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor progression and metastasis. While patients whose cancer cells express elevated CD73 are typically associated with an unfavorable outcome, the clinical impact of CD73 expression in patients with Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic significance of CD73 in HNSCC using gene and protein expression analyses. Our results demonstrate that high levels of CD73 are significantly associated with reduced overall survival in patients with HNSCC. We also investigated the functional role of CD73 in vitro and demonstrated that CD73 promotes HNSCC migration and invasion through adenosine A3R stimulation and the activation of EGF/EGFR signaling. Moreover, in vivo xenograft studies demonstrated that CD73 promotes tumorigenesis. In conclusion, our study highlights a role for CD73 as a poor prognostic marker of patient survival and also as a candidate therapeutic target in HNSCCs. PMID:27557512

  18. B7-H4 is Predictive of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, YongHui; Li, ZhiHan

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, some studies were performed to evaluate the relevance of B7-H4 and gastric cancer (GC) prognosis. However, the results remained controversial. Therefore, we performed the present meta-analysis. Material/Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science databases. All data were extracted and reviewed from each eligible study independently by 2 investigators. The strength of association between B7-H4 and GC prognosis was assessed by computing odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Six studies that evaluated the association between B7-H4 and GC prognosis were included. The results showed a statistically significant association of B7-H4 and GC prognosis (OR=1.63, 95%CI=1.30–2.03). Furthermore, we conducted subgroup analysis based on source of B7-H4; the results from blood (OR=1.71; 95%CI, 1.09–2.68) and tissue (OR=1.60; 95%CI, 1.03–2.07) indicated B7-H4 was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that GC patients with high B7-H4 have poor prognosis. PMID:27820598

  19. Risk factors for poor renal prognosis in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gianviti, Alessandra; Tozzi, Alberto E; De Petris, Laura; Caprioli, Alfredo; Ravà, Lucilla; Edefonti, Alberto; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Montini, Giovanni; Zacchello, Graziella; Ferretti, Alfonso; Pecoraro, Carmine; De Palo, Tommaso; Caringella, Angela; Gaido, Maurizio; Coppo, Rosanna; Perfumo, Francesco; Miglietti, Nunzia; Ratsche, Ilse; Penza, Rosa; Capasso, Giovambattista; Maringhini, Silvio; Li Volti, Salvatore; Setzu, Carmen; Pennesi, Marco; Bettinelli, Alberto; Peratoner, Leopoldo; Pela, Ivana; Salvaggio, Elio; Lama, Giuliana; Maffei, Salvatore; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2003-12-01

    Many factors have been proposed as predictors of poor renal prognosis in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), but their role is still controversial. Our aim was to detect the most reliable early predictors of poor renal prognosis to promptly identify children at major risk of bad outcome who could eventually benefit from early specific treatments, such as plasmapheresis. Prognostic factors identifiable at onset of HUS were evaluated by survival analysis and a proportional hazard model. These included age at onset, prodromal diarrhea (D), leukocyte count, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and evidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection. Three hundred and eighty-seven HUS cases were reported; 276 were investigated for STEC infection and 189 (68%) proved positive. Age at onset, leukocyte count, and CNS involvement were not associated with the time to recovery. Absence of prodromal D and lack of evidence of STEC infection were independently associated with a poor renal prognosis; only 34% of patients D(-)STEC(- )recovered normal renal function compared with 65%-76% of D(+)STEC(+), D(+)STEC(-) and D(-)STEC(+ )patients. In conclusion, absence of both D and evidence of STEC infection are needed to identify patients with HUS and worst prognosis, while D(-) but STEC(+) patients have a significantly better prognosis.

  20. Maternal response to high-risk obstetric telemedicine consults when perinatal prognosis is poor.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Stephanie N; Rhoads, Sarah J; Green, Angela L; Ott, Rachel E; Sandlin, Adam T; Magann, Everett F

    2013-10-01

    This is a qualitative descriptive study evaluating the maternal response after the woman has learned her pregnancy has a poor prognosis via telemedicine rather than in a traditional, face-to-face, consultation method. In general, telemedicine was positively viewed by the participants; however, the experience may be markedly improved by implementing several simple changes in the overall consultative process.

  1. Sixteen-kinase gene expression identifies luminal breast cancers with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Chabannon, Christian; Charpin, Colette; Chaffanet, Max; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, François

    2008-02-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease made of various molecular subtypes with different prognosis. However, evolution remains difficult to predict within some subtypes, such as luminal A, and treatment is not as adapted as it should be. Refinement of prognostic classification and identification of new therapeutic targets are needed. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we profiled 227 breast cancers. We focused our analysis on two major breast cancer subtypes with opposite prognosis, luminal A (n = 80) and basal (n = 58), and on genes encoding protein kinases. Whole-kinome expression separated luminal A and basal tumors. The expression (measured by a kinase score) of 16 genes encoding serine/threonine kinases involved in mitosis distinguished two subgroups of luminal A tumors: Aa, of good prognosis and Ab, of poor prognosis. This classification and its prognostic effect were validated in 276 luminal A cases from three independent series profiled across different microarray platforms. The classification outperformed the current prognostic factors in univariate and multivariate analyses in both training and validation sets. The luminal Ab subgroup, characterized by high mitotic activity compared with luminal Aa tumors, displayed clinical characteristics and a kinase score intermediate between the luminal Aa subgroup and the luminal B subtype, suggesting a continuum in luminal tumors. Some of the mitotic kinases of the signature represent therapeutic targets under investigation. The identification of luminal A cases of poor prognosis should help select appropriate treatment, whereas the identification of a relevant kinase set provides potential targets.

  2. Underexpression of Specific Interferon Genes Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Because the prognosis of melanoma is challenging and inaccurate when using current clinical approaches, clinicians are seeking more accurate molecular markers to improve risk models. Accordingly, we performed a survival analysis on 404 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort of skin cutaneous melanoma. Using our recently developed gene network model, we identified biological signatures that confidently predict the prognosis of melanoma (p-value < 10−5). Our model predicted 38 cases as low–risk and 54 cases as high–risk. The probability of surviving at least 5 years was 64% for low–risk and 14% for high–risk cases. In particular, we found that the overexpression of specific genes in the mitotic cell cycle pathway and the underexpression of specific genes in the interferon pathway are both associated with poor prognosis. We show that our predictive model assesses the risk more accurately than the traditional Clark staging method. Therefore, our model can help clinicians design treatment strategies more effectively. Furthermore, our findings shed light on the biology of melanoma and its prognosis. This is the first in vivo study that demonstrates the association between the interferon pathway and the prognosis of melanoma. PMID:28114321

  3. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS): do concomitant esophageal malformations indicate a poor prognosis?

    PubMed

    Küker, W; Friese, S; Riethmüller, J; Krägeloh-Mann, I

    2000-12-01

    Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS) is a syndrome of cortical malformation characterized by faciopharyngoglossomasticatory diplegia. We report on two cases of CBPS with associated esophageal malformations and a poor mental and motor development. The association of CBPS and esophageal malformations may indicate a subgroup of patients with a very early prenatal injury, characterised by a bad prognosis due to severe cortical disorganization. However, it can not be excluded that the association of CBPS and esophageal malformation is purely coincidental.

  4. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Involving Multiple Organs: An Unusual Case with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranaivo, Irina Mamisoa; Andrianarison, Malalaniaina; Razanakoto, Naina Harinjara; Ramarozatovo, Lala Soavina

    2016-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferative disorder that usually affects the lymph nodes. Although extranodal involvement has been reported in diverse sites, manifestation in the cardiovascular system is extremely rare. Specifically, cardiac involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease is an extraordinarily infrequent event. We describe a case of a 36-year-old female who presented Rosai-Dorfman disease of multiple organs including the heart, with poor prognosis. PMID:27872644

  5. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  6. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A.; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments. PMID:27833611

  7. Overexpression of DLX2 is associated with poor prognosis and sorafenib resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cui, Xiaopeng; Qu, Lishuai; Hua, Lu; Wu, Miaomiao; Shen, Zhongyi; Lu, Cuihua; Ni, Runzhou

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism underlying poor prognosis and sorafenib resistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown and, to date, no useful predictive biomarkers of sorafenib resistance have been identified. Distal-less homeobox 2 (DLX2) is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation that is closely correlated with cancer prognosis. In this study, we showed that DLX2 is overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines and that the level of DLX2 overexpression is positively correlated with histological grade, metastasis and Ki67 expression, which are indicators of poor prognosis. We also found that DLX2 accumulates in proliferating HCC cells, where it is associated with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin D1 and Cyclin A. Flow cytometry and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays indicated that DLX2 depletion causes cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and hinders cell proliferation. Moreover, the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib is restored when the DLX2 gene is knocked down using a short interfering RNA. We demonstrated that DLX2 facilitates sorafenib resistance by promoting the expression of markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and by activating the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway. Our findings reveal that DLX2 plays a regulatory role in HCC cell proliferation and suggests that targeting DLX2 represents a novel strategy to increase sorafenib efficacy in the management of HCC. In conclusion, DLX2 is a novel marker of poor prognosis and sorafenib resistance in patients with HCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Circulating Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 Associates with Weight Loss and Poor Prognosis in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Peter; Henjes, Frauke; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Darmanis, Spyros; Dahlman, Ingrid; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Naredi, Peter; Agustsson, Thorhallur; Lundholm, Kent; Nilsson, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/Subjects Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC. PMID:25898255

  9. [Fetal supraventricular tachycardia associated with anasarca: poor prognosis despite treatment. Apropos of two cases].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, C; de Geeter, B; Zimmermann, A; Gottwalles, Y; Boulenc, J M

    1998-05-01

    Two cases of foetal supraventricular tachycardia with hydrops with fatal outcomes illustrate the poor general prognosis of this condition. The absence of therapeutic consensus, of large series in the existing literature, does not prevent logical and reasonable management based on rhythmological, pharmacological and prognostic criteria. A combined approach associating antiarrhythmic therapy by the transplacental and intrafunicular approaches seems acceptable now that funicular puncture can be undertaken easily, and certain antiarrhythmic molecules suggest encouraging results. It is important to try to assess the haemodynamic tolerance by foetal Doppler echocardiography because the foetal prognosis depends on ischaemic cerebral lesions induced by anoxia, difficult to diagnose in utero: when observed, aggressive and occasionally dangerous therapies to foetus and mother may be justified in these extreme situations of foetoplacental hydrops.

  10. Glycogen Rich Clear Cell Carcinoma (GRCC) of the breast may not have a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Baslaim, Muna M; Junainah, Enaam M; Ahmad, Hadeel H; Semilan, Anmar F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed O; Rahimuddin, Noora O; Salman, Budoor A

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen Rich Clear Cell Carcinoma (GRCC) is a rare variant of breast carcinomas and believed to be linked with a poor prognosis. We are presenting a 60-year-old Saudi lady with a 2cm GRCC carcinoma associated with clear cell ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and no axillary lymph node involvement. The tumor was Estrogen and Progesterone receptors (ER & PR) positive and HER 2-neu negative. She underwent mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by hormonal therapy. She is alive and free of disease for 35 months. The prognosis of GRCC may not be different from other types of invasive breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. MACC1 upregulation promotes gastric cancer tumor cell metastasis and predicts a poor prognosis*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiu-ping; Xiang, Cheng; Wang, Gang; Lei, Ke-feng; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In various studies, metastasis associated with colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been frequently reported to be abnormally highly expressed in human lung cancer, colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study focuses on the association of MACC1 expression with gastric cancer (GC). During our experiment, the MACC1 expression was tested in 105 GC samples using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients were summarized. During analysis, MACC1 distribution in GC samples with distant metastasis was higher than that in normal samples and in tumors with no dissemination. Subsequently, a lower 5-year survival rate had a strong correlation with high MACC1 expression. As a consequence, the present results suggest that MACC1 is more frequently expressed in a poor prognosis phenotype of GC and acts as a promising prognostic prediction parameter for GC. PMID:27143263

  12. MACC1 upregulation promotes gastric cancer tumor cell metastasis and predicts a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiu-Ping; Xiang, Cheng; Wang, Gang; Lei, Ke-Feng; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    In various studies, metastasis associated with colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been frequently reported to be abnormally highly expressed in human lung cancer, colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study focuses on the association of MACC1 expression with gastric cancer (GC). During our experiment, the MACC1 expression was tested in 105 GC samples using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients were summarized. During analysis, MACC1 distribution in GC samples with distant metastasis was higher than that in normal samples and in tumors with no dissemination. Subsequently, a lower 5-year survival rate had a strong correlation with high MACC1 expression. As a consequence, the present results suggest that MACC1 is more frequently expressed in a poor prognosis phenotype of GC and acts as a promising prognostic prediction parameter for GC.

  13. MET4 Expression Predicts Poor Prognosis of Gastric Cancers with Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Naoko; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Takahata, Risa; Brian, Cao; Ping, Zhao; Ito, Nozomi; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Ichikura, Takashi; Hase, Kazuo; Vande Woude, George F; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-12-23

    Role of HGF/SF-MET signaling is important in cancer progression, but its relation with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric cancers remains to be elucidated. In total, 201 patients with primary gastric carcinoma who underwent curative or debulking resection without preoperative chemotherapy were studied. MET4 and anti-HGF/SF mAbs were used for immunohistochemical analysis. Survival of gastric cancer patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of MET-staining status with outcome. The effect of live H. pylori bacteria on cell signaling and biological behaviors was evaluated using gastric cancer cell lines. MET4-positive gastric cancers showed poorer prognosis than MET4-negative cases (overall survival, P = 0.02; relapse-free survival, P = 0.06). Positive staining for MET4 was also a statistically significant factor to predict poor prognosis in H. pylori-positive cases (overall survival, P < 0.01; relapse-free survival, P = 0.01) but not in H. pylori-negative cases. Gastric cancers positively stained with both HGF/SF and MET4 showed a tendency of worst prognosis. Stimulation of MET-positive gastric cancer cells with live H. pylori bacteria directly up-regulated MET phosphorylation and activated MET downstream signals such as p44/42MAPK and Akt, conferring cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activity. In conclusion, positive staining for MET4 was useful for predicting poor prognosis of gastric cancers with H. pylori infection. H. pylori stimulated MET-positive gastric cancers and activated downstream signaling, thereby promoting cancer proliferation and anti-apoptotic activity. These results support the importance of H. pylori elimination from gastric epithelial surface in clinical therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N; Christie, Michael; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Li, Shan; Love, Christopher; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter L; Jones, Ian T; McLaughlin, Stephen; Ward, Robyn L; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Moore, James; Burgess, Antony W; Busam, Dana; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Lipton, Lara; Desai, Jayesh; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver M

    2015-01-01

    Background: APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. Methods: APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I–IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. Results: Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). Conclusions: APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer. PMID:26305864

  15. LDHB may be a significant predictor of poor prognosis in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Chen, Yu; Bai, Pingping; Wang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Zhenhui; Wang, Tao; Cai, Qiqing

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is considered as the key glycolytic enzyme and involved in tumor initiation and metabolism. Here, we firstly found that LDHB was highly expressed in osteosarcoma cell lines. Expression profiling indicated that LDHB mRNA was elevated in osteosarcoma tissues with metastasis versus without metastasis, and LDHB high expression predicted a poor prognosis in patients. After LDHB knockdown by siRNA transfection, cell growth and proliferation were inhibited and presented a dose-dependent cell death via MTT assay. Meanwhile, wound healing and matrigel invasion assay revealed that LDHB knockdown inhibited migration and invasion activities in osteosarcoma cells. We further constructed tissue microarray in 40 osteosarcoma tissues. Correlation between LDHB and clinicopathological features indicated that LDHB expressions were associated with tumor TNM stage, recurrence and survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curve revealed that overall survival was significantly decreased in patients with high expression of LDHB. Patients with recurrence or advanced stage showed an increased LDHB, suggesting that increased LDHB was closely associated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. Thus, LDHB can be considered as a prognostic marker for tumor recurrence and poor overall survival in osteosarcoma. PMID:27904684

  16. Long noncoding RNA SNHG1 predicts a poor prognosis and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Wei; Li, Tianyue; Yu, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yufeng; Ding, Feng; Li, Dongsheng; Yang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Its poor prognosis is mainly ascribed to high recurrence rate. Identifying novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets would be vital for HCC management. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a class of RNA with various roles in tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and functions of lncRNA-small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) in HCC. In this study, we found SNHG1 was upregulated in HCC tissues in comparison with adjacent liver tissues in both publicly available microarray data and our own cohort. High SNHG1 expression was correlated with large tumor size, poor differentiation, and aggressive BCLC stage. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that high SNHG1 expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC patients. Gain-of-function and loss-of function experiments showed that SNHG1 promotes HCC cells proliferation, cell cycle progression, and inhibits HCC cells apoptosis. Further experiments revealed that SNHG1 promotes HCC cells proliferation through inhibiting p53 and p53-target genes expression. Collectively, our results demonstrated the clinical prognostic significance and roles of SNHG1 in HCC, and suggested that SNHG1 may be considered as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Aberrant expression of laminin γ2 correlates with poor prognosis and promotes invasion in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Tian, Feng; Jiang, Peng; Zhao, Xin; Guo, Fei; Li, Xiaowu; Wang, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of laminin γ2 and its correlation with prognosis in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Laminin γ2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 72 extrahepatic CCA patients after surgical resection. Knockdown of laminin γ2 was achieved via small interfering RNA transfection in the extrahepatic CCA cell line QBC939. Thirty-six of 72 extrahepatic CCAs (50%) stained positive for laminin γ2 in two types of patterns: stromal staining (28/72, 39%) and cytoplasmic staining (24/72, 33%). All 16 paracancerous tissue samples showed negative staining. Both stromal and cytoplasmic laminin γ2 expressions correlated with lymph node metastasis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that aberrant expression of laminin γ2 correlated with poor overall survival and early recurrence. Cox regression analysis further demonstrated that laminin γ2 expression was a significant independent predictor of poor overall survival and early recurrence. Immunofluorescence staining revealed cytoplasmic expression of laminin γ2 in QBC939 cells. Knockdown of laminin γ2 significantly reduced QBC939 cell invasion and migration. Aberrant expression of laminin γ2 correlates with poor prognosis and promotes invasion in extrahepatic CCA. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cystic brain metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing; Huang, Zhou; Wu, Shikai; Ding, Lijuan; Shen, Ge; Cha, Lei; Wang, Junliang; Song, Santai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastasis (BM) with a cystic component from breast cancer is rare and largely uncharacterized. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of cystic BM in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. Results A total of 35 eligible patients with cystic BM and 255 patients with solid BM were analyzed. Three factors were significantly associated with an increased probability of developing cystic lesions: age at diagnosis ≤ 40 years, age at BM ≤ 45 years, and poor histological grade (p < 0.05). Patients with cystic metastasis were also characterized by a larger metastasis volume, a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) following their first treatment for BM, and poor overall survival after BM (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that local control of cystic BM was only potentially achieved for HER2-negative primary tumors (p = 0.084). Methods Breast cancer patients with parenchymal BM were reviewed from consecutive cases treated at our institution. Cystic BM was defined when the volume of a cystic lesion was greater than 50% of the aggregated volume of all lesions present. Clinicopathologic and radiographic variables were correlated with development of cystic lesions and with prognosis of cystic BM. Conclusions This study shows that cystic BM from breast cancer, a special morphological type of BM, had worse prognosis than the more commonly observed solid BM. Younger age and low tumor grade were associated with the development of cystic lesions. Further comprehensive research and management of cystic BM are warranted to improve its poor prognosis. PMID:27659537

  19. Overexpression of NDRG1 is an indicator of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Mei-Sze; Sun, Hongbo; Cheung, Siu T; Mason, Veronica; Higgins, John; Ross, Douglas T; Fan, Sheung T; So, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly lethal cancer that typically has poor prognosis. Prognostic markers can help in its clinical management and in understanding the biology of poor prognosis. Through an earlier gene expression study, we identified N-Myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) to be significantly highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma compared to nontumor liver. As NDRG1 is a differentiation-related gene with putative metastasis suppressor activity, we investigated the clinical significance of its overexpression. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using an independent set of patient samples confirmed the significant overexpression of NDRG1 in hepatocellular carcinoma compared to nontumor liver samples (P<0.001). Additionally, high levels of NDRG1 transcript correlated with shorter overall survival (P<0.001), late tumor stage (P=0.001), vascular invasion (P=0.003), large tumor size (P=0.011), and high Edmondson-Steiner histological grade (P=0.005). Using immunohistochemistry, NDRG1 protein was found to be significantly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma samples compared to nontumor liver or cirrhotic and benign liver lesions (P<0.001). Among the hepatocellular carcinoma samples, those which are moderately and poorly differentiated express higher levels of NDRG1 protein than those which are well-differentiated (P<0.005). Additionally, hepatocellular carcinomas with vascular invasion also express elevated levels of NDRG1 protein compared to those without vascular invasion (significant at P<0.005). Our results suggest NDRG1 to be a likely tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, the overexpression of which is correlated with tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, and overall survival. Its significantly elevated expression in hepatocellular carcinoma could be a useful indicator of tumor aggressiveness and therefore patient prognosis.

  20. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P < 0.05). Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P < 0.05). Overall survival time was also drastically shortened for Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provided clinical evidence that loss of Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  1. High expression of FOXR2 in breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Haiping; He, Wenshan; Huang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Huiqiong; Huang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Forkhead box protein R2 (FOXR2) is associated with human central nervous system neoplasms. However, the expression level of FOXR2 in breast cancer specimens remains largely unknown. To identify whether FOXR2 can serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining were utilized to detect the expression of FOXR2. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of FOXR2 in breast cancer samples were novelty higher compared to non-tumorous breast tissues. IHC results revealed FOXR2 expression was significantly correlated to classifications tumor size (p = 0.007) and Ki-67 (p = 0.019). The patients with high expression of FOXR2 had a significantly poor prognosis compared to those of low expression (p = 0.003), especially in the patients with tumor size ≥2 cm (p = 0.006) and lymph node metastasis status (p = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that FOXR2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer patients (p = 0.035). This study first identifies that FOXR2 may be an important molecular marker for diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.

  2. Identification of a subgroup with worse prognosis among patients with poor-risk testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takahiro; Kawai, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Abe, Takashige; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Masumori, Naoya; Yamada, Shigeyuki; Arai, Yoichi; Narita, Shintaro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Habuchi, Tomonori; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the significance of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification in the 2000s, especially in intermediate- and poor-prognosis testicular germ cell tumor in Japan. We retrospectively analyzed 117 patients with intermediate- and poor-prognosis testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumor treated at five university hospitals in Japan between 2000 and 2010. Data collected included age, levels of tumor markers, spread to non-pulmonary visceral metastases, treatment details and survival. The median follow-up period of all patients was 57 months. A total of 50 patients (43%) were classified as having intermediate prognosis, and 67 patients (57%) as poor prognosis according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. As first-line chemotherapy, 92 patients (79%) received bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Of all patients, 74 patients (63%) received second-line chemotherapy. The most commonly used second-line chemotherapy regimens were a combination of taxanes, ifosfamide and platinum in 49 cases (66%). Overall, 33 patients (28%) received third-line chemotherapy. A total of 88 patients (75%) underwent post-chemotherapy surgery. The 5-year overall survival for intermediate (n = 50) and poor prognosis (n = 67) was 89% and 83% (P = 0.21), respectively. In poor prognosis patients, patients with two or more risk factors (any of high lactic dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and presence of non-pulmonary visceral metastases) had significantly worse survival than those with only one risk factor (71% and 91%, respectively, P = 0.01). The 5-year overall survivals of poor-prognosis testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumor patients reached 83%. Further stratification of poor-prognosis patients based on a number of risk factors has the potential to further identify those with poorer prognosis. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Platelet-lymphocyte ratio acts as an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiong; Qin, Boyu; Zhao, Weihong; Yang, Junlan

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a hematological parameter which is investigated as a biomarker for prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Due to the controversial results from previous studies, we performed a meta-analysis. Databases of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched to identify eligible studies. STATA version 12.0 was used for statistical analysis. Seven studies with 3,741 patients were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. High PLR was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.07–2.25, p = 0.022) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.3-2.3, p < 0.001) in breast cancer patients. Subgroup analyses disclosed that elevated PLR could predict worse OS in Asian populations and poor DFS in both Asian and non-Asian patients. In addition, PLR remains a significant prognostic marker for OS in patients receiving systemic treatment (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.06–2.99, p = 0.03) and patients receiving chemotherapy (HR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.09–7.26, p = 0.032). High PLR also indicates poor DFS in patients who receive chemotherapy (HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.47–4.61, p = 0.001), surgery (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.12–2.89, p = 0.016) and systemic treatment (HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.03–4.01, p = 0.042). Moreover, PLR was also in association with HER-2 positivity (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.2–1.83, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis revealed that PLR could serve as an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. PMID:27906679

  4. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype related to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shushan; Wang, Zengfang; Wang, Zengyan; Duan, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Jun; Sun, Beicheng

    2016-08-01

    Published studies showed controversial findings about the relationship between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype and clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between GSTM1 null genotype and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify prospective or retrospective cohort studies assessing the association of GSTM1 null genotype with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) in colorectal cancer. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to assess the association of GSTM1 null genotype with OS or DFS. Finally, 15 studies from 14 publications with 4326 colorectal cancer patients were included into the meta-analysis. There was no heterogeneity in the meta-analysis relating OS (I (2) = 0 %) and DFS (I (2) = 0 %). Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.07-1.30, P = 0.001). In addition, GSTM1 null genotype was also significantly associated with poor DFS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.03-1.28, P = 0.015). No obvious risk of publication bias was observed. GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with poor OS and DFS in patients with colorectal cancer, which suggests that GSTM1 null genotype confers poor effect on the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  5. High PARP-1 expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ying; Gao, Dongna; Xing, Jing; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was previously demonstrated to be overexpressed in numerous malignant tumors and associated with invasiveness and poor prognosis. However, the expression of the PARP-1 protein in gastric cancer and its association with clinical outcomes requires further investigation. In the present study, the expression of PARP-1 in 564 gastric cancer tissues and 335 tumor-adjacent control tissues is investigated, using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. PARP-1 expression levels were demonstrated to be significantly higher in gastric cancer tissue samples, as compared with control tissue samples. In gastric cancer, high PARP-1 expression levels were significantly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection (P=0.032), decreased differentiation (P<0.001), increased depth of invasion (P=0.037), presence of lymphatic invasion (P<0.001), presence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P=0.015). High PARP-1 expression levels were associated with a significantly shorter overall survival rate (P<0.001) and disease-free survival rate (P=0.001) in patients with gastric cancer, particularly a subset of patients with H. pylori infection or an advanced TNM stage. In addition, univariate analysis indicated that PARP-1 high expression levels were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer. These results suggest that PARP-1 expression may be involved in the progression and prognosis of gastric cancer, particularly H. pylori-positive or advanced-stage gastric cancer. PMID:27895737

  6. Cell division cycle 20 overexpression predicts poor prognosis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Sun, Qi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xin; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Wang, Anpeng; Jiang, Feng; Xu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The cell division cycle 20, a key component of spindle assembly checkpoint, is an essential activator of the anaphase-promoting complex. Aberrant expression of cell division cycle 20 has been detected in various human cancers. However, its clinical significance has never been deeply investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas database and using some certain online databases, we validated overexpression of cell division cycle 20 in both messenger RNA and protein levels, explored its clinical significance, and evaluated the prognostic role of cell division cycle 20 in non-small-cell lung cancer. Cell division cycle 20 expression was significantly correlated with sex (p = 0.003), histological classification (p < 0.0001), and tumor size (p = 0.0116) in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. In lung adenocarcinoma patients, overexpression of cell division cycle 20 was significantly associated with bigger primary tumor size (p = 0.0023), higher MKI67 level (r = 0.7618, p < 0.0001), higher DNA ploidy level (p < 0.0001), and poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 2.39, confidence interval: 1.87-3.05, p < 0.0001). However, in lung squamous cell carcinoma patients, no significant association of cell division cycle 20 expression was observed with any clinical parameter or prognosis. Overexpression of cell division cycle 20 is associated with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and its overexpression can also be used to identify high-risk groups. In conclusion, cell division cycle 20 might serve as a potential biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  7. High promoter methylation levels of APC predict poor prognosis in sextant biopsies from prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Henrique, Rui; Ribeiro, Franclim R; Fonseca, Daniel; Hoque, Mohammad O; Carvalho, André L; Costa, Vera L; Pinto, Mafalda; Oliveira, Jorge; Teixeira, Manuel R; Sidransky, David; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2007-10-15

    Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent malignancy and constitutes a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Owing to the limitations of current clinical, serologic, and pathologic parameters in predicting disease progression, we sought to investigate the prognostic value of promoter methylation of a small panel of genes by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) in prostate biopsies. Promoter methylation levels of APC, CCND2, GSTP1, RARB2, and RASSF1A were determined by QMSP in a prospective series of 83 prostate cancer patients submitted to sextant biopsy. Clinicopathologic data [age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), stage, and Gleason score] and time to progression and/or death from prostate cancer were correlated with methylation findings. Log-rank test and Cox regression model were used to identify which epigenetic markers were independent predictors of prognosis. At a median follow-up time of 45 months, 15 (18%) patients died from prostate cancer, and 37 (45%) patients had recurrent disease. In univariate analysis, stage and hypermethylation of APC were significantly associated with worse disease-specific survival, whereas stage, Gleason score, high diagnostic serum PSA levels, and hypermethylation of APC, GSTP1, and RASSF1A were significantly associated with poor disease-free survival. However, in the final multivariate analysis, only clinical stage and high methylation of APC were significantly and independently associated with unfavorable prognosis, i.e., decreased disease-free and disease-specific survival. High-level APC promoter methylation is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in prostate biopsy samples and might provide relevant prognostic information for patient management.

  8. APOBEC3G expression is correlated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lan, Huanrong; Jin, Ketao; Gan, Meifu; Wen, Shouxiang; Bi, Tienan; Zhou, Shenkang; Zhu, Naibiao; Teng, Lisong; Yu, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    Increased expression of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) in human primary colorectal tumors and hepatic metastasis has been detected. However, the clinical relevance of APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection. APOBEC3G expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded primary colon carcinoma and paired hepatic metastasis tissues from 136 patients with liver metastasis from colon carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection. The relation between APOBEC3G expression and clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in these 136 patients was retrospectively examined. The prognostic significance of negative or positive APOBEC3G expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Positive expression of APOBEC3G was correlated with liver metastasis of colon cancer. Univariate analysis indicated significantly worse overall survival (OS) for patients with a positive APOBEC3G expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis than for patients with a negative APOBEC3G expression. Multivariate analysis showed positive-APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis to be an independent prognostic factor for OS after hepatic resection (P = 0.000). Positive expression of APOBEC3G was statistically significantly associated with poor prognosis of colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis. APOBEC3G could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection.

  9. Nestin expression as an independent indicator of poor prognosis for patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    KURATA, KENTO; ONODA, NAOYOSHI; NODA, SATORU; KASHIWAGI, SHINICHIRO; ASANO, YUKA; KAWAJIRI, HIDEMI; TAKASHIMA, TSUTOMU; TANAKA, SAYAKA; OHSAWA, MASAHIKO; HIRAKAWA, KOSEI

    2015-01-01

    The protein nestin, a neuronal stem cell marker, has been reported to indicate a poor prognosis in various tumours. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans, and its molecular background has not been identified. The present study evaluated the expression of nestin and its significance in ATC. Tissue samples from 23 patients with ATC were subjected to immunohistochemical staining and the staining intensity of nestin in the cytoplasm was evaluated. The expression of nestin in the tumour cytoplasm was confirmed in 6 of the 23 tissue samples (26.1%). Between the nestin-positive group (n=6) and the nestin-negative group (n=17), there were no significant differences in the clinicopathological factors of the patients. However, the nestin-positive group exhibited significantly worse prognoses than the nestin-negative group (median survival time, 86.5 vs. 306 days; P<0.01, log-rank test). The multivariate analysis indicated that nestin expression was a prognostic indicator for the ATC patients (hazard ratio, 5.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.63–19.50; P<0.01), which is independent of the known clinical indicators. Nestin expression has the potential to be an independent indicator of a poor prognosis for patients with ATC. PMID:26622582

  10. Deregulation of COMMD1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Taskinen, Minna; Louhimo, Riku; Koivula, Satu; Chen, Ping; Rantanen, Ville; Holte, Harald; Delabie, Jan; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Björkholm, Magnus; Fluge, Øystein; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Fjordén, Karin; Jerkeman, Mats; Eriksson, Mikael; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Leppä, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite improved survival for the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the prognosis after relapse is poor. The aim was to identify molecular events that contribute to relapse and treatment resistance in DLBCL. Methods We analysed 51 prospectively collected pretreatment tumour samples from clinically high risk patients treated in a Nordic phase II study with dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis with high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression microarrays. Major finding was validated at the protein level immunohistochemically in a trial specific tissue microarray series of 70, and in an independent validation series of 146 patients. Results We identified 31 genes whose expression changes were strongly associated with copy number aberrations. In addition, gains of chromosomes 2p15 and 18q12.2 were associated with unfavourable survival. The 2p15 aberration harboured COMMD1 gene, whose expression had a significant adverse prognostic impact on survival. Immunohistochemical analysis of COMMD1 expression in two series confirmed the association of COMMD1 expression with poor prognosis. Conclusion COMMD1 is a potential novel prognostic factor in DLBCLs. The results highlight the value of integrated comprehensive analysis to identify prognostic markers and genetic driver events not previously implicated in DLBCL. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01502982 PMID:24625556

  11. Elevated Aurora B expression contributes to chemoresistance and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqian; Jiang, Chunling; Li, Huilan; Lv, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Xiaolong; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Aurora-B is a major kinase responsible for appropriate mitotic progression. Elevated expression of Aurora-B has been frequently associated with several types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, it is not clear whether the alteration contributes to tumor responses to therapies and prognosis. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Aurora-B, S1981p-ATM, Ki67, and p53 in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 312 invasive breast cancer patients. The correlation between disease-free-survival (DFS) and Aurora-B expression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine whether Aurora-B was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. We found that Aurora-B expression was correlated with the proliferation index (P < 0.001) and p53 expression (P = 0.014) in breast cancer tissues. Further we found that Aurora-B expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated Aurora-B expression predicted a poor survival. In a subgroup of patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we found that elevated Aurora-B contributed to chemoresistance (P = 0.011). In conclusion, elevated Aurora-B expression in breast cancer patients contributes to chemoresistance and predicts poor prognosis.

  12. Prognosis and cost-effectiveness of IVF in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, Andrea; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2017-09-12

    Poor ovarian response (POR) to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for in vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the most challenging issue in the field of reproductive medicine. However, even if improving IVF outcome in poor responders (PORs) represents a main priority, the lack of a unique definition of POR has hampered research in this area. In order to overcome this impediment, an ESHRE Campus Workshop was organized in Bologna in 2010 and reached a consensus on the criteria for the diagnosis of POR ('Bologna criteria'). In this review we aimed to estimate the prognostic potential of the ESHRE definition, to elucidate its possible weaknesses and to analyze the economic aspects of IVF in a population of poor responders (PORs). Available evidence confirmed that the Bologna criteria are able to select a population with a poor IVF prognosis thus supporting their validity. Nonetheless, different aspects of the definition have been criticized. The main points of debate concern the homogeneity of the population identified, the cut-off values chosen for the ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) and the risks factors other than age associated with POR. Data concerning the economic profile of IVF in PORs are scanty. The only published study on the argument showed that IVF in these cases is not cost-effective. However, considering the potential substantial impact of cost-effectiveness analyses on public health policies, there is the need for further and independent validations.

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Metastatic Poor Prognosis Germ Cell Tumors: Current Perspective From a Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Necchi, Andrea; Farè, Elena; Vullo, Salvatore Lo; Giannatempo, Patrizia; Raggi, Daniele; Nicolai, Nicola; Piva, Luigi; Biasoni, Davide; Catanzaro, Mario; Torelli, Tullio; Stagni, Silvia; Maffezzini, Massimo; Verzoni, Elena; Grassi, Paolo; Procopio, Giuseppe; Pizzocaro, Giorgio; Mariani, Luigi; Salvioni, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Survival estimates with first-line treatment for patients with metastatic poor prognosis germ cell tumors (GCT) are still suboptimal in the literature. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of patients referred to our tertiary cancer center. A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who received at least first-line chemotherapy at our center. Distribution of clinical characteristics was evaluated in the periods < 1997, 1997 to 2001, 2001 to 2006, and 2007 to 2013. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariable and multivariable Cox models with prespecified clinical variables were undertaken for PFS and OS. All tests and confidence intervals were 2-sided and set at a P = .05 level of significance. Between 1982 and 2013, 168 patients were identified. The median age was 27 years (interquartile range [IQR], 22-34). The presence of liver, bone, or brain metastases trended to greater incidence from 1997 onward (27.5% < 1997 to 55.6% in 2007-2013; χ(2)P = .054). Median follow-up was 102 (IQR, 63-166) months. Global 5-year PFS was 48.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41.5-56.8) and OS was 63.2% (95% CI, 56.0-71.2). In multivariable analysis, treatment period was not significantly associated with either PFS (overall P = .229) or OS (overall P = .216). In this single-center series of consecutive poor prognosis GCT we could observe greater PFS and OS than the historical estimates. This observation was independent from the period of treatment. Based on the present results, studies focused on improving the outcome in the sole poor-risk cohort should be discouraged. Results were biased by their retrospective quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cancer stem cell markers predict a poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Yang, Guosheng; Jiang, Rui; Cheng, Yong; Yang, Haifan; Pei, Lijun; Qiu, Xiaofu

    2016-01-01

    Background Relevant markers of CSCs may serve as prognostic biomarkers of RCC. However, their actual prognostic significance remains inconclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to reevaluate the association of CSCs-relevant markers (CXCR4, CD133, CD44, CD105) expression with RCC prognosis more precisely. Methods PubMed and Embase were searched to look for eligible studies. The pooled hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to reassess the association of CSCs markers expression and RCC prognosis of overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Results There were 25 relevant articles, encompassing 2673 RCC patients, eligible for meta-analysis. Overall pooled analysis suggested that high CSCs markers expression predicted poor OS (HR, 2.10, 95% CI: 1.73–2.55) and DFS (HR, 3.77, 95% CI: 2.30–6.19). High CXCR4 expression predicted worse OS (HR, 2.57, 95% CI: 1.95–3.40), CSS (HR,1.97, 95% CI: 1.50–2.59), and DFS (HR, 5.82, 95% CI: 3.01–11.25). CD44 over-expression correlated with a poor OS(HR,1.58, 95% CI: 1.14–2.18), CSS (HR, 2.58, 95% CI: 1.27–5.23), and DFS (HR, 4.49, 95% CI: 2.12–9.53) in RCC patients. CD133 was an independent favorable prognostic factor for CSS (HR, 0.4, 95% CI: 0.29–0.54). Conclusions The presence of CSCs markers correlates with poor RCC outcome. CSCs may be potentially utilized as prognostic markers to stratify RCC patients, probably representing also a novel potential therapeutic target. PMID:27588469

  15. Invasive micropapillary mucinous carcinoma of the breast is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Mu; Li, Zhenhua; Guo, Xiaojing; Lin, Yang; Lang, Ronggang; Shen, Beibei; Pringle, Gordon; Zhang, Xinmin; Fu, Li

    2015-06-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of breast (IMpC) is a special type of breast cancer with frequent lymph node metastasis (LNM) and poor prognosis, while pure mucinous carcinoma of breast (PMC) is generally associated with infrequent LNM and better prognosis. A similar micropapillary epithelial growth pattern has been described in PMC that was named as invasive micropapillary mucinous carcinoma (IMpMC), but its prognostic significance is as yet not known. A retrospective review of 531 cases of PMC in 43,685 cases of breast cancer diagnosed over a 10-year period was conducted to assess the frequency of IMpMC and its prognostic implications. IMpMC was identified in 134 (25.2 %) of the 531 PMC cases. Compared to conventional PMC (cPMC), IMpMC was found more frequently in younger patients and in tumors with increased frequency of LNM and lymphovascular invasion, and higher HER2 expression. In stage-matched Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with stage II-III IMpMC suffered a decreased overall survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) than matched cPMC patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed the presence of IMpMC morphology was an independent unfavorable predictor for LNM and RFS of PMC. However, decreased LNM, lower nuclear grade, higher expression of ER and PR, less expression of HER2, and better prognosis were identified in IMpMC when compared with IMpC (n = 281). This is the first study to show the prognostic significance of IMpMC in a large cohort. IMpMC pursues a more aggressive clinical course than cPMC and should be managed differently; therefore, recognition of IMpMC and its accurate diagnosis are clinically important.

  16. Elevated RABEX-5 protein expression predicts poor prognosis in combined small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuliang; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Guohua; Cai, Qiling; Xu, Tongbai

    2015-11-01

    RABEX-5 has been studied in various solid tumors, but its role in combined small cell lung cancer (C-SCLC) remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the expression, the potential relevance to clinicopathological characters and prognostic significance of RABEX-5 in patients with C-SCLC. Fifty-two C-SCLC patients who received radical surgery were enrolled in our study. The clinicalpathological data and survival time were reviewed. The mRNA and protein expression of RABEX-5 from the paired tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues were determined, and its relationship with clinicalpathological variables and prognosis was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic significance of RABEX-5 for C-SCLC. The mRNA and protein expression level of RABEX-5 was significantly elevated in C-SCLC tissues. The increased RABEX-5 protein expression was correlated with clinical stage (p = 0.011) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.006). The median OS and DFS was significantly shorter in the high RABEX-5 expression group compared to low RABEX-5 expression group (OS: 12.0 vs. 21.7 months, p = 0.014; DFS: 6.7 vs. 11.8 months, p = 0.005). Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that high RABEX-5 protein expression was an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS (p < 0.001). RABEX-5 is a potential useful indicator and predicts a poor long-term prognosis for C-SCLC, which should be considered in defining the prognosis with other well-known prognosticators in C-SCLC patients.

  17. Upregulation of B23 promotes tumor cell proliferation and predicts poor prognosis in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jianguo; Sun, Jie; Yang, Liu; Yan, Yaohua; Shi, Wei; Shi, Jinlong; Huang, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian; Lan, Qing

    2015-10-09

    B23 (also known as Nucleophosmin, NPM, numatrin or NO38) is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein belonging to the nucleoplasmin family of chaperones. In this study we intended to investigate the clinical significance of B23 expression in human glioma and its biological function in glioma cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that B23 was overexpressed in glioma tissues and glioma cell lines. In addition, the expression level of B23 was positively correlated with glioma pathological grade and Ki-67 expression. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that a higher B23 expression in patients with glioma was associated with a poorer prognosis. In vitro, after the release of glioma cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of B23 was upregulated, as well as PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) and cyclin A. In addition, knockdown of B23 by small interfering RNA transfection diminished the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and arrested cell growth at G1 phase. Taken together, our results implied that B23 could be a candidate prognostic biomarker as well as a potential therapeutical target of glioma. - Highlights: • B23 expression increased as the malignant degree of glioma increased, which was consistent with Ki-67 expression. • High expression of B23 could be a strong determinant of poor prognosis in glioma. • B23 may be involved in the proliferation of glioma in a cell-cycle-dependent pathway. • Knockdown of B23 expression by siRNA could affect the progression of glioma. • B23 may be a potential prognosis biomarker and a possible therapeutic target for glioma.

  18. Pleural effusions as a predictive parameter for poor prognosis for patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Zhang, Zhu; Zhai, Zhenguo; Zhang, Yunxia; Miao, Ran; Yang, Yuanhua; Xie, Wanmu; Wan, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2016-10-01

    The incidence, characteristics of pleural effusions due to pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) have been reported previously. However, the impact of pleural effusions on the prognosis of acute PTE patients and the involved influencing factors remain unclear. A total of 518 consecutive PTE patients were enrolled in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from January 2009 to April 2014. The diagnosis was confirmed with Spiral computer tomography pulmonary angiography or/and high-probability ventilation and perfusion scans. All patients finished one-year clinical follow-up. Among 518 patients with acute PTE, pleural effusions were found in 120 patients (23.2 %). No strictly tight association between side of pleural effusions and location of thrombus was observed. The diagnosis time between patients of PTE with pleural effusions and without pleural effusions had no statistically significant difference. During the 3-month follow-up, the all-cause mortality of PTE patients with pleural effusions was significantly higher than those without pleural effusions [10/120 (8.3 %) vs. 8/398 (2.0 %)]. During the 1-year follow-up, analysis of survival also showed that all-cause mortality was significantly higher in PTE patients with pleural effusions than those without pleural effusions. In both univariate Cox-regression analysis [P < 0.001, HR 3.044, 95 % CI (1.647, 5.625)] and multivariate Cox-regression analysis [P < 0.05, HR 2.040, 95 % CI (1.038, 4.009)] pleural effusions showed to be risk factor of poor prognosis. Pleural effusions in patients with acute PTE were significantly correlated with higher mortality. Pleural effusions in acute PTE patients might be used as a predictive parameter for prognosis.

  19. Increased FLI-1 Expression is Associated With Poor Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiou-Fu; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Friend leukemia integration-1 (FLI-1) antibody, a commercially available antibody directed against the C-terminus of FLI-1 protein-binding domain, has been used as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of small blue round cell tumors and vascular neoplasms, but shows inconsistent expression in lung cancers. The aims of this study were to evaluate FLI-1 immunohistochemical expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its relationships between the clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis. We investigated the FLI-1 expression in 108 cases of NSCLC by using multiple tumor microarrays. Correlations between the FLI-1 expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognostic significance were analyzed. The effect of FLI-1 expression on survival is estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Our results revealed that patients with high FLI-1 expression had shorter overall survival (P=0.014) than those with low FLI-1 expression. In multivariate analysis, FLI-1 was confirmed as an independent poor prognostic factor in NSCLC (overall survival: hazard ratio, 7.292; 95% confidence interval, 0.294-0.823; P=0.007). In conclusion, this study shows that FLI-1 is expressed variably in different subtypes of NSCLC, and its expression is related to clinicopathologic parameters and poorer prognosis. However, further studies are required to elucidate its function in tumorigenesis of NSCLC.

  20. TRIP13 impairs mitotic checkpoint surveillance and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Yang, Guang; Yang, Hongxing; Song, Dongliang; Hu, Liangning; Xie, Bingqian; Wang, Houcai; Gao, Lu; Gao, Minjie; Xu, Hongwei; Xu, Zhijian; Wu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yiwen; Zhu, Weiliang; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2017-02-01

    AAA-ATPase TRIP13 is one of the chromosome instability gene recently established in multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common and incurable hematological malignancy. However, the specific function of TRIP13 in MM is largely unknown. Using sequential gene expression profiling, we demonstrated that high TRIP13 expression levels were positively correlated with progression, disease relapse, and poor prognosis in MM patients. Overexpressing human TRIP13 in myeloma cells prompted cell growth and drug resistance, and overexpressing murine TRIP13, which shares 93% sequence identity with human TRIP13, led to colony formation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Meanwhile, the knockdown of TRIP13 inhibited myeloma cell growth, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced tumor burden in xenograft MM mice. Mechanistically, we observed that the overexpression of TRIP13 abrogated the spindle checkpoint and induced proteasome-mediated degradation of MAD2 primarily through the Akt pathway. Thus, our results demonstrate that TRIP13 may serve as a biomarker for MM disease development and prognosis, making it a potential target for future therapies.

  1. Chronic Activation of Innate Immunity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Cancer Patients Treated With Oncolytic Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Kristian; Liikanen, Ilkka; Juhila, Juuso; Turkki, Riku; Tähtinen, Siri; Kankainen, Matti; Vassilev, Lotta; Ristimäki, Ari; Koski, Anniina; Kanerva, Anna; Diaconu, Iulia; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Oksanen, Minna; Linder, Nina; Joensuu, Timo; Lundin, Johan; Hemminki, Akseli

    2016-02-01

    Despite many clinical trials conducted with oncolytic viruses, the exact tumor-level mechanisms affecting therapeutic efficacy have not been established. Currently there are no biomarkers available that would predict the clinical outcome to any oncolytic virus. To assess the baseline immunological phenotype and find potential prognostic biomarkers, we monitored mRNA expression levels in 31 tumor biopsy or fluid samples from 27 patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Additionally, protein expression was studied from 19 biopsies using immunohistochemical staining. We found highly significant changes in several signaling pathways and genes associated with immune responses, such as B-cell receptor signaling (P < 0.001), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling (P < 0.001), and leukocyte extravasation signaling (P < 0.001), in patients surviving a shorter time than their controls. In immunohistochemical analysis, markers CD4 and CD163 were significantly elevated (P = 0.020 and P = 0.016 respectively), in patients with shorter than expected survival. Interestingly, T-cell exhaustion marker TIM-3 was also found to be significantly upregulated (P = 0.006) in patients with poor prognosis. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of several functions of the innate immunity before treatment is associated with inferior survival in patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Conversely, lack of chronic innate inflammation at baseline may predict improved treatment outcome, as suggested by good overall prognosis.

  2. Overexpression of CHKA contributes to tumor progression and metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang-Zhen; Xu, Qing-Guo; Zhai, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Cai, Qing-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of choline kinase alpha (CHKA) has been reported in a variety of human malignancies including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the role of CHKA in the progression and prognosis of CRC remains unknown. In this study, we found that CHKA was frequently upregulated in CRC clinical samples and CRC-derived cell lines and was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.028), TNM stage (p = 0.009), disease recurrence (p = 0.004) and death (p < 0.001). Survival analyses indicated that patients with higher CHKA expression had a significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than those with lower CHKA expression. Multivariate analyses confirmed that increased CHKA expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC patients. In addition, combination of CHKA with TNM stage was a more powerful predictor of poor prognosis than either parameter alone. Functional study demonstrated that knockdown of CHKA expression profoundly suppressed the growth and metastasis of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigation revealed that EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway was essential for mediating CHKA function. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that CHKA contributes to tumor progression and metastasis and may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:27556502

  3. Hyperdiploidy in CLL/SLL: A Rare Cytogenetic Event Associated with Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Matthew; Pullarkat, Sheeja; Yea, Steven; Rao, Nagesh; Yang, Lynn; Tirado, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    Hyperdiploidy has been described in a variety of malignancies including acute lymphoblastic leukemia and plasma cell myeloma, in which the abnormality is associated with a very good prognosis. Herein, we describe a 61-year-old female that was diagnosed with atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Initial chromosome analysis of a lymph node specimen showed an abnormal karyotype described as 46-48,XX,add(3)(q12),+16,+mar[cp3]/46,XX[1]. Chromosome analysis of the bone marrow a week later showed a pseudodiploid and normal diploid clone described as: 46,X,-X,-3,-6,+7,+9,-14,-15,+16,+17,+17,+20,-22[1]/46,XX[19]. Concurrent FISH studies of peripheral blood samples using the CLL FISH panel showed nuclei with an extra copy of chromosome 13 and an extra copy of the short arm of chromosome 17. FISH for t(11;14) was negative. These results suggest the presence of an underlying complex hyperdiploid karyotype. Hyperdiploidy is a rare event in SLL/CLL and is usually associated with a poor prognosis.

  4. CHKA mediates the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma and acts as a prognostic indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ping; Yang, Shen; Li, Guodong; Bao, Wentao; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase α (CHKA), the enzyme that converts choline to phosphocholine, has been studied in human carcinogenesis widely. However, the expression and underlying clinicopathological characteristics of CHKA in lung adenocarcinoma remains elusive. In the present study, a tissue microarray of 119 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma samples and corresponding adjacent normal mucosae was used to analysis CHKA expression by immunohistochemistry, and CHKA was observed to exhibit enhanced expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Elevated CHKA expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues at the gene and protein level was observed. The levels of CHKA expression were closely associated with the poor prognosis status of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, certain clinicopathological characteristics such as tumor diameter and differentiation were observed to be significant in those lung adenocarcinoma patients who displayed enhanced CHKA expression. The analysis of CHKA expression could provide a more precise way to predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Collectively, the present study revealed a novel biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma, and indicated that CHKA may be a promising prognostic marker and therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27588131

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 is associated with poor prognosis in oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Murray, G I; Duncan, M E; O'Neil, P; McKay, J A; Melvin, W T; Fothergill, J E

    1998-07-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of closely related proteolytic enzymes which are involved in the degradation of different components of the extracellular matrix. There is increasing evidence to indicate that individual MMPs have an important role in tumour invasion and tumour spread. Monoclonal antibodies specific for MMP-1, MMP-2, or MMP-9 have been produced, using as immunogens peptides selected from the amino acid sequences of individual MMPs. The presence of MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in oesophageal cancer was investigated by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, wax-embedded sections of oesophageal cancers. The relationship of individual MMPs to prognosis and survival was determined. MMP-1 was present in 24 per cent of oesophageal cancers, while MMP-2 and MMP-9 were present in 78 and 70 per cent of tumours, respectively. The presence of MMP-1 was associated with a particularly poor prognosis (log rank test 8.46, P < 0.004) and was an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.02). The identification of individual MMPs in oesophageal cancer provides a rational basis for use in the treatment of oesophageal cancer of MMP inhibitors which are currently undergoing clinical trial.

  6. Disseminated tumour cells with highly aberrant genomes are linked to poor prognosis in operable oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sarah; Bartenhagen, Christoph; Hoffmann, Martin; Will, Daniel; Fischer, Johannes C; Baldus, Stephan E; Vay, Christian; Fluegen, Georg; Dizdar, Levent; Vallböhmer, Daniel; Klein, Christoph A; Knoefel, Wolfram T; Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Möhlendick, Birte

    2017-08-22

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) has repeatedly been identified as a prognostic marker. Here we evaluated the percentage of aberrant genome per cell (PAG) as a measure of CIN in single disseminated tumour cells (DTC) isolated from patients with operable oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), to assess the impact of CIN(high) DTCs on prognosis. We isolated CK18(positive) DTCs from bone marrow (BM) or lymph node (LN) preparations of operable EAC patients. After whole-genome amplification, single DTCs were analysed for chromosomal gains and losses using metaphase-based comparative genomic hybridisation (mCGH). We calculated the PAG for each DTC and determined the critical threshold value that identifies high-risk patients by STEPP (Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot) analysis in two independent EAC patient cohorts (cohort #1, n=44; cohort #2; n=29). The most common chromosomal alterations observed among the DTCs were typical for EAC, but the DTCs showed a varying PAG between individual patients. Generally, LNDTCs displayed a significantly higher PAG than BMDTCs. STEPP analysis revealed an increasing PAG of DTCs to be correlated with an increased risk for short survival in two independent EAC cohorts as well as in the corresponding pooled analysis. In all three data sets (cohort #1, cohort #2 and pooled cohort), PAG(high) DTCs conferred an independent risk for a significantly decreased survival. The analysis of PAG/CIN in solitary marker-positive DTCs identifies operable EAC patients with poor prognosis, indicating a more aggressive minimal residual disease.

  7. Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, O; Pineda-Olvera, B; Guevara-Salazar, P; Hernández-Pedro, N; Morales-Espinosa, D; Cerón-Lizarraga, T L; González-De la Rosa, C H; Rembao, D; Segura-Pacheco, B; Sotelo, J

    2008-01-01

    Astrocytomas develop intense vascular proliferation, essential for tumour growth and invasiveness. Angiotensin II (ANGII) was initially described as a vasoconstrictor; recent studies have shown its participation in cellular proliferation, vascularisation, and apoptosis. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the expression of ANGII receptors – AT1 and AT2 – and their relationship with prognosis. We studied 133 tumours from patients with diagnosis of astrocytoma who underwent surgery from 1997 to 2002. AT1 and AT2 were expressed in 52 and 44% of the tumours, respectively, when determined by both reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Ten per cent of low-grade astrocytomas were positive for AT1, whereas grade III and IV astrocytomas were positive in 67% (P<0.001). AT2 receptors were positive in 17% of low-grade astrocytomas and in 53% of high-grade astrocytomas (P=0.01). AT1-positive tumours showed higher cellular proliferation and vascular density. Patients with AT1-positive tumours had a lower survival rate than those with AT1-negative (P<0.001). No association to survival was found for AT2 in the multivariate analysis. Expression of AT1 and AT2 is associated with high grade of malignancy, increased cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis, and is thus related to poor prognosis. These findings suggest that ANGII receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for high-grade astrocytomas. PMID:18594540

  8. Cytokeratin 17 Expression is Associated With Poor Prognosis in Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungeun; Lee, Hyoun Wook; Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Do, In Gu; Lee, Hyun Joo; Do, Sung-Im; Min, Kyueng-Whan; Pyo, Jung-Soo; Shin, Jun-Ho; Sohn, Jin Hee

    Cytokeratin 17 (CK17), a basal/myoepithelial cell keratin, is a poor prognostic marker for cancers of organs such as the stomach, ovary, and breast as well as a useful diagnostic marker for pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma. However, its expression pattern and prognostic significance have not been studied in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We constructed a tissue microarray from samples from 82 consecutive patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma treated by cholecystectomy at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from 2000 to 2011. CK17 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathologic prognostic factors. CK17 stained the cytoplasm of tumor cells and immunohistochemical interpretation was possible in 77 cases. Among these, 41 (53.2%) were considered positive using a 5% cutoff determined by a receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve=0.656, P=0.021). CK17 expression was associated with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.001), high pT stage (P<0.001), presence of distant metastasis (P=0.036), and low disease-specific survival rate (P<0.001). These results indicate that CK17 can be used as a marker for poor prognosis for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

  9. Genetic Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Portuguese Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Data from Reuma.pt

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Ana Filipa; Santos, Maria José; Mendonça, Sílvia; Oliveira-Ramos, Filipa; Salgado, Manuel; Estanqueiro, Paula; Melo-Gomes, José; Martins, Fernando; Lopes, Ana; Bettencourt, Bruno Filipe; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Costa, José; Furtado, Carolina; Figueira, Ricardo; Brito, Iva; Branco, Jaime; Fonseca, João Eurico; Canhão, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to assess the genetic determinants of poor outcome in Portuguese patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods. Our study was conducted in Reuma.pt, the Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register, which includes patients with JIA. We collected prospectively patient and disease characteristics and a blood sample for DNA analysis. Poor prognosis was defined as CHAQ/HAQ >0.75 at the last visit and/or the treatment with biological therapy. A selected panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with susceptibility was studied to verify if there was association with poor prognosis. Results. Of the 812 patients with JIA registered in Reuma.pt, 267 had a blood sample and registered information used to define “poor prognosis.” In univariate analysis, we found significant associations with poor prognosis for allele A of TNFA1P3/20 rs6920220, allele G of TRAF1/C5 rs3761847, and allele G of PTPN2 rs7234029. In multivariate models, the associations with TRAF1/C5 (1.96 [1.17–3.3]) remained significant at the 5% level, while TNFA1P3/20 and PTPN2 were no longer significant. Nevertheless, none of associations found was significant after the Bonferroni correction was applied. Conclusion. Our study does not confirm the association between a panel of selected SNP and poor prognosis in Portuguese patients with JIA. PMID:26504858

  10. Identification and targeting of a TACE-dependent autocrine loopwhich predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2005-06-15

    The ability to proliferate independently of signals from other cell types is a fundamental characteristic of tumor cells. Using a 3D culture model of human breast cancer progression, we have delineated a protease-dependent autocrine loop which provides an oncogenic stimulus in the absence of proto-oncogene mutation. Inhibition of this protease, TACE/ADAM17, reverts the malignant phenotype by preventing mobilization of two crucial growth factors, Amphiregulin and TGF{alpha}. We show further that the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors is overcome by physiological levels of growth factors and that successful EGFR inhibition is dependent on reducing ligand bioavailability. Using existing patient outcome data, we demonstrate a strong correlation between TACE and TGF{alpha} expression in human breast cancers that is predictive of poor prognosis.

  11. CYB5R1 links epithelial-mesenchymal transition and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lamprecht, Sebastian; Engel, Jutta; Hermeking, Heiko; Kirchner, Thomas; Horst, David

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancers show significant tumor cell heterogeneity within the same core genetic background. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important functional aspect of this heterogeneity and hallmark of colorectal cancer progression. Here, we identify CYB5R1, an enzyme involved in oxidative stress protection and drug metabolism, as an indicator of EMT in colon cancer. We demonstrate high CYB5R1 expression in colorectal cancer cells undergoing EMT at the infiltrative tumor edge and reveal an extraordinarily strong association of CYB5R1 expression with two core EMT gene expression signatures in a large independent colon cancer data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Furthermore, we demonstrate that CYB5R1 is required for an infiltrative tumor cell phenotype, and robustly linked with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. Our findings have important implications for colon cancer cells undergoing EMT and may be exploited for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:27120783

  12. Subclonal mutations in SETBP1 confer a poor prognosis in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Troup, Camille B.; Gelston, Laura C.; Haliburton, John; Chow, Eric D.; Yu, Kristie B.; Akutagawa, Jon; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro N.; Liu, Y. Lucy; Wang, Yong-Dong; Beckman, Kyle; Emanuel, Peter D.; Braun, Benjamin S.; Abate, Adam; Gerbing, Robert B.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Loh, Mignon L.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm of childhood associated with a poor prognosis. Recently, massively parallel sequencing has identified recurrent mutations in the SKI domain of SETBP1 in a variety of myeloid disorders. These lesions were detected in nearly 10% of patients with JMML and have been characterized as secondary events. We hypothesized that rare subclones with SETBP1 mutations are present at diagnosis in a large portion of patients who relapse, but are below the limits of detection for conventional deep sequencing platforms. Using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, we identified SETBP1 mutations in 17/56 (30%) of patients who were treated in the Children’s Oncology Group sponsored clinical trial, AAML0122. Five-year event-free survival in patients with SETBP1 mutations was 18% ± 9% compared with 51% ± 8% for those without mutations (P = .006). PMID:25395418

  13. Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

  14. High copy number of mitochondrial DNA predicts poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; He, Shuixiang; Zhu, Xingmei; Qiao, Wei; Zhang, Juan

    2016-12-23

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in colon cancer were associated with clinicopathological parameters and postsurgical outcome. By quantitative real-time PCR assay, the mtDNA copy number was detected in a cohort of colon cancer and matched adjacent colon tissues (n = 162). The majority of patients had higher mtDNA content in colon cancer tissues than matched adjacent colon tissues. Moreover, high mtDNA content in tumor tissues was associated with larger tumor size, higher serum CEA level, advanced TNM stage, vascular emboli, and liver metastases. Further survival curve analysis showed that high mtDNA content was related to the worst survival in patients with colon cancer at advanced TNM stage. High mtDNA content is a potential effective factor of poor prognosis in patients with advanced stage colon cancer.

  15. JAM-A expression positively correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    McSherry, Elaine A; McGee, Sharon F; Jirstrom, Karin; Doyle, Emma M; Brennan, Donal J; Landberg, Goran; Dervan, Peter A; Hopkins, Ann M; Gallagher, William M

    2009-09-15

    The cell-cell adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) influences epithelial cell morphology and migration. As migration is required for tumor cell invasion and metastasis, we sought to elucidate the role of JAM-A in invasive breast cancer. A breast cancer tissue microarray was analyzed for JAM-A protein expression, in parallel with analysis of JAM-A gene expression data from a breast cancer clinical dataset. Our data demonstrate a novel association between JAM-A gene and protein upregulation and poor prognosis in breast cancer. To mechanistically dissect this process, we used lentiviral technology to stably knock down JAM-A gene expression by shRNA in MCF7 breast cancer cells, which express high-endogenous levels of JAM-A. We also antagonized JAM-A function in wild-type MCF7 cells using an inhibitory antibody that blocks JAM-A dimerization. Knockdown or functional antagonism of JAM-A decreased breast cancer cell migration in scratch-wound assays. Reductions in beta1-integrin protein levels were observed after JAM-A-knockdown in MCF7 cells, suggesting a mechanism for reduced motility after loss of JAM-A. Consistent with this hypothesis, tissue microarray analysis of beta1-integrin protein expression in invasive breast cancer tissues revealed a trend toward high beta1-integrin protein levels being indicative of poor prognosis. Twenty-two percent of patients were observed to coexpress high levels of JAM-A and beta1-integrin protein, and MDA-MB-231 breast cells stably overexpressing JAM-A showed an increase in beta1-integrin protein expression. Our results are consistent with a previously unreported role for JAM-A overexpression as a possible mechanism contributing to progression in primary breast cancer; and a potential therapeutic target.

  16. Tbx2 confers poor prognosis in glioblastoma and promotes temozolomide resistance with change of mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Fuxin; Du, Jianzhou; Ni, Weimin; Liu, Weixian

    2017-01-01

    Tbx2 is a cancer-related protein that was found to be overexpressed in several human malignancies. The present study aims to investigate the clinical significance and biological role of Tbx2 in human astrocytoma. We examined its protein expression in 102 cases of astrocytoma tissues using immunohistochemical staining. Negative Tbx2 staining was observed in normal astrocytes, and positive nuclear staining was found in 41 out of 102 astrocytoma specimens. The rate of Tbx2 overexpression in pylocytic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, and glioblastoma multiform (GBM) were 0%, 26.1%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. Tbx2 overexpression correlated with poor prognosis in patients with astrocytoma or GBM. Tbx2 plasmid transfection was performed in A172 cells, and Tbx2 siRNA knockdown was carried out in U251 cells. Cell Counting Kit-8, cell cycle analysis, and matrigel invasion assay showed that Tbx2 overexpression upregulated cell proliferation, G1-S transition, and invasion, with corresponding change of cyclin D1, p21, and MMP 2 and 9. Importantly, we demonstrated that Tbx2 reduced apoptosis and conferred resistance to temozolomide in GBM cell lines. Further experiments showed that Tbx2 could regulate mitochondrial fission/fusion balance. Western blot showed that Tbx2 overexpression reduced caspase 3 cleavage, while it induced Bcl-2 and p-Drp1 upregulation. In conclusion, our results indicated that Tbx2 might serve as an indicator for poor prognosis and also be useful as an important therapeutic in human GBM, which inhibits apoptosis through regulation of mitochondrial function. PMID:28260920

  17. Curcumin induces cell death of the main molecular myeloma subtypes, particularly the poor prognosis subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Bougie, Patricia; Halliez, Maxime; Maïga, Sophie; Godon, Catherine; Kervoëlen, Charlotte; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Moreau, Philippe; Amiot, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy, remains incurable despite the development of new therapies. Curcumin anti-tumor effects were previously characterized in multiple myeloma, however only few MM cell lines were included in these studies. Since myeloma is a heterogeneous disease it is important to address the impact of myeloma molecular heterogeneity in curcumin cell death induction. In the present study, a large panel of human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) (n = 29), representing the main molecular MM subgroups, was screened for curcumin sensitivity. We observed that curcumin cell death induction was heterogeneous, of note 16 HMCLs were highly sensitive to curcumin (LD50 < 20.5 μM), 6 HMCLs exhibited intermediate LD50 values (20.5 μM ≤ LD50 < 32.2 μM) and only 7 HMCLs were weakly sensitive (35 < LD50 < 56 μM). Cell lines harboring the t(11;14) translocation were less sensitive (median LD50 32.9 μM) than non-t(11;14) (median LD50 17.9 μM), which included poor prognosis t(4;14) and t(14;16) cells. Interestingly, curcumin sensitivity was not dependent on TP53 status. For the first time we showed that primary myeloma cells were also sensitive, even those displaying del(17p), another poor prognosis factor. We also unravel the contribution of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family molecules in curcumin response. We found that down-regulation of Mcl-1, an essential MM survival factor, was associated with curcumin-induced cell death and its knockdown sensitized myeloma cells to curcumin, highlighting Mcl-1 as an important target for curcumin-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results support clinical trials including curcumin in association with standard therapy. PMID:25517601

  18. Overexpression of the PSAT1 Gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Is an Indicator of Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kuang-Ming; Chao, Tung-Bo; Tian, Yu-Feng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Lee, Sung-Wei; Chuang, Hua-Ying; Chan, Ti-Chun; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in southern China and Southeast Asia, but risk stratification and treatment outcome in NPC patients remain suboptimal. Our study identified and validated metabolic drivers that are relevant to the pathogenesis of NPC using a published transcriptome. Phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) is an enzyme that is involved in serine biosynthesis, and its overexpression is associated with colon cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. However, its expression has not been systemically evaluated in patients with NPC. Materials and Methods: We evaluated two public transcriptomes of NPC tissues and benign nasopharyngeal mucosal epithelial tissues that deposited in the NIH Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE34574 and GSE12452. We also performed immunohistochemical staining and assessment of PSAT1 in a total of 124 NPC patients received radiotherapy and were regularly followed-up until death or loss. The endpoints analyzed were local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: We retrospectively evaluated 124 patients with NPC and found that high PSAT1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of NPC and indicator of advanced tumor stage. High PSAT1 expression also correlated with an aggressive clinical course, with significantly shorter DSS (HR= 2.856, 95% CI 1.599 to 5.101), DMFS (HR= 3.305, 95% CI 1.720 to 6.347), LRFS (HR= 2.834, 95% CI 1.376 to 5.835), and OS HR= 2.935, 95% CI 1.646-5.234) in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Our study showed that PSAT1 is a potential prognostic biomarker and higher expression of PSAT1 is associated with a poor prognosis in NPC. PMID:27326252

  19. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yun-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui; Suo, Ning; Chen, Yu-Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  20. Downregulation of serum DKK-1 predicts poor prognosis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y P; Wang, W; Wang, X H; Xu, Y; Wang, Y; Dong, Z F; Zhang, J J

    2015-12-29

    The Wnt inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) has been shown to be closely correlated with tumor initiation and progression in various types of cancers. However, the serum level of DKK-1 in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its potential clinical significance is poorly understood. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to evaluate the level of serum DKK-1 in patients with PTC (N = 132) and healthy controls (N = 40). The association between serum DKK-1 level and clinicopathological parameters of PTC was examined and independent prognostic markers for PTC were identified. The mean serum DKK-1 level was significantly lower in patients with PTC than healthy controls (44.64 ± 15.13 and 85.51 ± 9.94 ng/mL, respectively; P < 0.01). Following treatment, the mean serum DKK-1 level in PTC patients significantly increased (67.03 ± 17.09 ng/mL; P < 0.01). Serum DKK-1 level was associated with various PTC clinical features including tumor size (P = 0.003), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P = 0.004). Survival analysis revealed that PTC patients who had lower serum DKK-1 levels suffered both poorer overall survival (P = 0.036) and relapse-free survival (P = 0.015). Moreover, serum DKK-1 levels were an independent risk factor for predicting the prognosis of PTC (P = 0.031). In conclusion, low DKK-1 serum levels are associated with poor prognosis in PTC patients and DKK-1 could potentially be used as a biomarker leading to earlier diagnosis of PTC.

  1. Long noncoding RNA CCAT2 can predict metastasis and poor prognosis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Hua; Fang, Hua; Ji, Chen-Xing; Xie, Huan; Xiao, Bing; Zhu, Xin-Gen

    2017-03-01

    It has been reported that Colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) is dysregulated in various cancers. We performed this meta-analysis to clarify its promising functions as a prognosis marker in malignant tumors. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, were searched from inception to October 20, 2016. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to explore the relationship between CCAT2 expression and survival, which were extracted from the eligible studies. The odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the association between CCAT2 expression and pathological parameters using RevMan5.3 software. Six original studies were included in this meta-analysis including 725 cancer patients. The pooled HR suggested that high CCAT2 expression was significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) (HR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.62-3.25, p<0.00001) in cancer patients. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between CCAT2 and OS in urogenital system (HR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.27-2.26, p<0.003) and non-urogenital system cancer patients (HR=3.18, 95% CI: 2.09-4.83, p<0.0001). A significant association was observed between high CCAT2 expression and poor progression-free survival (PFS) in cancer patients (pooled HR=2.76, 95% CI: 1.74-4.37). CCAT2 expression was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (LNM) (OR=4.33, 95% CI 2.03-9.22), distant metastasis (DM) (OR=11.66, 95% CI: 5.36-25.37) and tumor stage (OR=2.58, 95% CI 1.86-3.57). This meta-analysis demonstrated that high CCAT2 expression significantly predicts poor OS, poor PFS, LNM, DM and tumor stage, suggesting that high CCAT2 expression may serve as a novel biomarker for poor prognosis and metastasis in cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. IVF outcomes in average- and poor-prognosis infertile women according to the number of embryos transferred.

    PubMed

    Vega, Mario G; Gleicher, Norbert; Darmon, Sarah K; Weghofer, Andrea; Wu, Yan-Guang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lin; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Kushnir, Vitaly A

    2016-09-01

    Outcome measures of IVF success, which account for effectiveness of IVF and perinatal outcome risks, have recently been described. The association between number of embryos transferred in average and poor-prognosis IVF patients, and the chances of having good or poor IVF and perinatal outcomes, was investigated. Good IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as the birth of a live, term, normal-weight infant (≥2500 g). Poor IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as no live birth or birth of a very low weight neonate (<1500 g) or severe prematurity (birth at <32 weeks gestation). Each neonate was analysed as a separate outcome. A total of 713 IVF cycles in 504 average and poor-prognosis patients from January 2010 to December 2013 were identified. The odds of having good IVF and perinatal outcomes increased by 28% for each additional embryo transferred. The odds of poor IVF and perinatal outcome decreased by 32% with an additional embryo transferred. The likelihood of live birth with good perinatal outcome in average- and poor-prognosis patients after IVF increases with additional embryos being transferred. These data add to recently reported evidence in favour of multiple embryo transfer in older women and those with average or poor IVF prognosis.

  3. Splicing factor mutations predict poor prognosis in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hsin-An; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Chou, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Chien-Chin; Lin, Liang-In; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Chiang, Ying-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Tang, Jih-Luh; Yao, Ming; Li, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shang-Yi; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Chien-Ting; Wu, Shang-Ju; Tsay, Woei; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in splicing factor (SF) genes are frequently detected in myelodysplastic syndrome, but the prognostic relevance of these genes mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated mutations of three SF genes, SF3B1, U2AF1 and SRSF2, by Sanger sequencing in 500 patients with de novo AML and analysed their clinical relevance. SF mutations were identified in 10.8% of total cohort and 13.2% of those with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. SF mutations were closely associated with RUNX1, ASXL1, IDH2 and TET2 mutations. SF-mutated AML patients had a significantly lower complete remission rate and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) than those without the mutation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SFmutation was an independent poor prognostic factor for DFS and OS. A scoring system incorporating SF mutation and ten other prognostic factors was proved very useful to risk-stratify AML patients. Sequential study of paired samples showed that SF mutations were stable during AML evolution. In conclusion, SF mutations are associated with distinct clinic-biological features and poor prognosis in de novo AML patients and are rather stable during disease progression. These mutations may be potential targets for novel treatment and biomarkers for disease monitoring in AML. PMID:26812887

  4. MMP16 is a marker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer promoting proliferation and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li; Chen, Chaowu; Zhu, Haihang; Gu, Xuewen; Deng, Denghao; Tian, Xiuchun; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are closely associated with tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis. In this study, we determined the MMPs expression and their clinical significances in gastric cancer (GC). We first extensive studied MMPs expression in GC in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequence database and found MMP16 was candidate biomarker in GC. Then we validated clinical significance of MMP16 mRNA expression in 167 GC by RT-PCR. Survival analysis showed that high expression of MMP16 indicated poor overall and disease free survival (P<0.001). The proliferation and invasion potential of GC cells were determined by CCK8, colony formation and Transwell assays. Silencing of MMP16 expression significantly decreased the invasion and proliferation capacity of GC cells (P<0.05). In conclusion, MMP16 was highly expressed and correlated with poor prognosis in GC patients by promoting proliferation and invasion of GC cells. MMP16 could be a novel molecular target and prognostic marker for GC. PMID:27340864

  5. Rsf-1 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and cell proliferation in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Dong, Qianze; Wang, Enhua

    2012-10-01

    Rsf-1 (HBXAP) was recently reported to be overexpressed in various cancers and associated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the expression of Rsf-1 and its biological roles in colon cancer have not been reported. The molecular mechanism of Rsf-1 in cancer aggressiveness remains ambiguous. In the present study, we analyzed the expression pattern of Rsf-1 in colon cancer tissues and found that Rsf-1 was overexpressed in 50.4 % of colon cancer specimens. There was a significant association between Rsf-1 overexpression and TNM stage (p = 0.0205), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0025), and poor differentiation (p = 0.0235). Furthermore, Rsf-1 overexpression correlated with a poor prognosis in colon cancer patients (p = 0.0011). In addition, knockdown of Rsf-1 expression in HT29 and HCT116 cells with high endogenous Rsf-1 expression decrease cell proliferation and colony formation ability. Further analysis showed that Rsf-1 knockdown decreased cyclin E expression and phospho-Rb level. In conclusion, Rsf-1 is overexpressed in colon cancers and contributes to malignant cell growth by cyclin E and phospho-Rb modulation, which makes Rsf-1 a candidate therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  6. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 correlate with poor prognosis in colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pang, Li; Wang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Da-Hai; Meng, Xiang-Wei

    2016-03-11

    Matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11) has been shown to play a key role in human tumor progression and indicates poor clinical outcome in cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum levels of MMP-11 and prognosis in colon cancer patients. Serum levels of MMP-11 were determined in 92 colon cancer patients and 92 healthy individuals using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations between serum MMP-11 levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients and their outcomes were investigated. Survival analyses were performed to measure the 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Serum MMP-11 levels were substantially higher in colon cancer patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, serum MMP-11 levels were significantly higher in patients with advanced T status, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and a higher TNM stage. Elevated serum levels of MMP-11 were identified as an independent prognostic factor for 5-year mortality and adverse events associated with colon cancer. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the serum MMP-11 level as an independent predictor of OS and DFS. Our study established that high serum levels of MMP-11 are associated with poor clinical outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker in colon cancer patients.

  7. Overexpression of Rad51 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer: Our Experience with 54 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Liao, Dian-ying; Xie, Li; Wang, Jin; Luo, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background Aberrant Rad51 expression is implicated in the progression of human malignancies. However, the role of Rad51 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains undefined. This study aimed to establish a relationship between Rad51 and clinicopathologic features of CRC. Methods We retrospectively examined the paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from 54 patients with CRC who had received surgical therapies at our institution during 2006–2008. Rad51 expression in adenocarcinoma, paracancerous tissue, and normal colonic tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between Rad51 immunoreactivity and clinicopathologic features of these patients was evaluated. Results Rad51 immunoreactivity was detected in 67% of adenocarcinoma, 48% of paracancerous tissue, and 27% of normal colonic mucosa. Rad51 expression in adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than normal colonic tissue (p < 0.05). Rad51 was also overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumors and tumor samples from patients with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Patients with Rad51 overexpression had a 69% two-year survival, 49% three-year survival, and 16% five-year survival, considerably worse than patients with negative Rad51 expression (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our data suggest that Rad51 overexpression is correlated with malignant phenotypes of CRC and may predict poor prognosis for these patients. PMID:28099437

  8. Expression of USP7 and MARCH7 Is Correlated with Poor Prognosis in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Hua; Tian, Lin; Li, Haixia

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the worst malignancies in females with poor overall survival due to the rapid metastasis and the absence of ideal biomarkers. Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7), an important deubiquitinating enzyme, was reported to be upregulated in several cancers, including liver, prostate and colon cancers. Membrane associated RING-CH protein 7 (MARCH7) belongs to the member of the E3 ubiquitin ligases. In addition, MARCH7 regulates T cell proliferation and the neuronal development and participates in the membrane trafficking and protein degradation. Importantly, MARCH7 itself is ubiquitinated and acts as a potential substrate of USP7. However, the roles of USP7 and MARCH7 in EOC remain to be investigated. We collected 121 EOC patients and analyzed the expression levels of USP7 and MARCH7 in tumor tissues with immunohistochemical staining. We found that the high expression of the two proteins was correlated with lymph node metastasis in EOC patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the patients with high expression of the two proteins showed poorer prognosis compared with other patients. Subsequently, using SKOV3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells, we showed that either USP7 or MARCH7 enhanced the proliferation and invasion abilities. Moreover, USP7 could regulate the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin through the MARCH7 signaling pathway. Our findings indicate that USP7 and MARCH7 are involved in the progression of EOC. In conclusion, analyzing the expression of USP7 and MARCH7 has high prognostic value in predicting EOC prognosis.

  9. High leukocyte mitochondrial DNA content contributes to poor prognosis in glioma patients through its immunosuppressive effect

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, X; Zhang, J; Zhou, X; Hu, J; Li, G; He, S; Xing, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have indicated significant associations of leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number with risk of several malignancies, including glioma. However, whether mtDNA content can predict the clinical outcome of glioma patients has not been investigated. Methods: The mtDNA content of peripheral blood leukocytes from 336 glioma patients was examined using a real-time PCR-based method. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to examine the association of mtDNA content with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients. To explore the potential mechanism, the immune phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma concentrations of several cytokines from another 20 glioma patients were detected by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Results: Patients with high mtDNA content showed both poorer OS and PFS than those with low mtDNA content. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that mtDNA content was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and PFS. Stratified analyses showed that high mtDNA content was significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with younger age, high-grade glioma or adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Immunological analysis indicated that patients with high mtDNA content had significantly lower frequency of natural killer cells in PBMCs and higher plasma concentrations of interleukin-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α, suggesting an immunosuppression-related mechanism involved in mtDNA-mediated prognosis. Conclusions: Our study for the first time demonstrated that leukocyte mtDNA content could serve as an independent prognostic marker and an indicator of immune functions in glioma patients. PMID:26022928

  10. HIF1A overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in a cohort of 731 colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Shima, Kaori; Irahara, Natsumi; Chan, Andrew T; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chung, Daniel C; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2010-05-01

    Tissue hypoxia commonly occurs in tumors. Hypoxia- inducible factor (HIF)-1 and HIF-2, which are essential mediators of cellular response to hypoxia, regulate gene expression for tumor angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, and resistance to oxidative stress. Their key regulatory subunits, HIF1A (HIF-1alpha) and endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1; HIF-2alpha), are overexpressed and associated with patient prognosis in a variety of cancers. However, prognostic or molecular features of colon cancer with HIF expression remain uncertain. Among 731 colorectal cancers in two prospective cohort studies, 142 (19%) tumors showed HIF1A overexpression, and 322 (46%) showed EPAS1 overexpression by immunohistochemistry. HIF1A overexpression was significantly associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality in Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test, P < 0.0001), univariate Cox regression (hazard ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.37 to 2.47; P < 0.0001) and multivariate analysis (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 2.36; P = 0.0007) that adjusted for clinical and tumoral features, including microsatellite instability, TP53 (p53), PTGS2 (cyclooxygenase-2), CpG island methylator phenotype, and KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and LINE-1 methylation. In contrast, EPAS1 expression was not significantly associated with patient survival. In addition, HIF1A expression was independently associated with PTGS2 expression (P = 0.0035), CpG island methylator phenotype-high (P = 0.013), and LINE-1 hypomethylation (P = 0.017). EPAS1 expression was inversely associated with high tumor grade (P = 0.0017) and obesity (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2) (P = 0.039). In conclusion, HIF1A expression is independently associated with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer, suggesting HIF1A as a biomarker with potentially important therapeutic implications.

  11. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer.

  12. HBV is a risk factor for poor patient prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghu; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Peng; Xiao, Senlin; Wu, Guo; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Hui; Han, Xiuguo; Wang, Shuguang; Li, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists regarding pathological factors affecting the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-HCC). Their postoperative clinical behaviors and the exact HBV Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) thresholds that distinguish good and poor prognoses are unknown. This study aimed to compare clinicopathological, pre- and postoperative clinical factors and overall and recurrence-free survival (RFS) between HBV-HCC patients and nonhepatitis B and nonhepatitis C HCC (NBC-HCC) patients to determine the optimal prognostic HBV DNA threshold. Data from 1440 patients with HBV-HCC and NBC-HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Liver function in the HBV-HCC group was significantly worse than in the NBC-HCC group. Compared with NBC-HCC patients, HBV-HCC patients had significantly more vascular invasion and advanced HCC. The HBV-HCC patients also had significantly worse liver function and more complications. Further survival analysis showed significantly lower overall and RFS rates and a higher early recurrence rate in the HBV-HCC group. Univariate analysis indicated that HBV was a risk factor for overall and RFS. Finally, X-tile analysis revealed that the optimal HBV DNA cutoff points for predicting RFS and overall survival in HCC patients were 10,100 and 12,800 IU/mL, respectively. After hepatectomy for HCC, HBV-HCC patients had more complications and a worse prognosis than NBC-HCC patients. Antiviral therapy should be considered before hepatectomy in patients with high (more than approximately 104 IU/mL) HBV DNA levels. PMID:27495026

  13. High expression of REGγ is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis of patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Bi, Jiong; Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Youhong; Bian, Xiuwu; Jiang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    REGgamma (REGγ) has been recently found in several types of human cancer, however, its clinical significance in metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer remains unknown. In this study, immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate REGγ expression in both mouse and human breast cancer specimens. We found that in MMTV-PyMT mice, 14 out of 20 (70%) mouse mammary carcinomas were REGγ positive, which was significantly higher than control (0/20, 0%, P < 0.001) and lower than metastatic lung tumour (20/20, 100%, P = 0.027). Further investigation for REGγ expression in 136 human breast cancer tissues with the paired peritumoural normal breast tissues and 140 breast benign disease tissue samples showed that REGγ was undetectable in normal breast tissues and nonmetastatic axillary lymph nodes (ALNs), whereas 111 out of 136 (81.6%) breast cancer tissue samples were REGγ positive, which was significantly higher than breast benign disease tissues (9/140, 6.4%, P < 0.001) and lower than metastatic ALNs (116/116, 100%, P < 0.001). The 5-year disease-free and overall survivals of patients with negative/low level of REGγ were significantly higher than those of patients with high level of REGγ (P < 0.05). Cox regression analyses further indicated that REGγ could serve as a novel independent prognostic factor for breast cancer (OR = 4.369, P = 0.008). Our results suggest that the high expression of REGγ might predict metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

  14. DHX32 expression is an indicator of poor breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Yajie; Ma, Ruimin; Zhang, Limin; Lv, Hong; Fang, Fang; Kang, Xixiong

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that DEAH-box polypeptide 32 (DHX32) serves an important role in the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, the role of DHX32 in breast cancer remains to be completely elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and clinical significance of DHX32 in breast cancer. The reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze DHX32 messenger (m)RNA expression, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine DHX32 protein expression in breast cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The association in breast cancer between DHX32 expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed using 193 breast cancer tissue samples. The results of the present study demonstrated that breast cancer tissues exhibited increased DHX32 mRNA and protein expression compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001). In addition, DHX32 expression was significantly associated with breast cancer clinical stage (P=0.006), histological grade (P=0.029), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P=0.004). Kaplan-Meier estimator analysis indicated that increased DHX32 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that DHX32 expression is an independent prognostic factor for decreased overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that DHX32 overexpression is an unfavorable prognostic biomarker in breast cancer and a potential therapeutic target of future breast cancer treatments. PMID:28356982

  15. DHX32 expression is an indicator of poor breast cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Yajie; Ma, Ruimin; Zhang, Limin; Lv, Hong; Fang, Fang; Kang, Xixiong

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that DEAH-box polypeptide 32 (DHX32) serves an important role in the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, the role of DHX32 in breast cancer remains to be completely elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and clinical significance of DHX32 in breast cancer. The reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze DHX32 messenger (m)RNA expression, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine DHX32 protein expression in breast cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The association in breast cancer between DHX32 expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed using 193 breast cancer tissue samples. The results of the present study demonstrated that breast cancer tissues exhibited increased DHX32 mRNA and protein expression compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001). In addition, DHX32 expression was significantly associated with breast cancer clinical stage (P=0.006), histological grade (P=0.029), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P=0.004). Kaplan-Meier estimator analysis indicated that increased DHX32 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that DHX32 expression is an independent prognostic factor for decreased overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that DHX32 overexpression is an unfavorable prognostic biomarker in breast cancer and a potential therapeutic target of future breast cancer treatments.

  16. Natural progression of renal function in the elderly: analysis of poor prognosis factors associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Heras, Manuel; García-Cosmes, Pedro; Fernández-Reyes, María J; Sánchez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years a debate has emerged on the range of normal renal function and the rate at which renal disease progresses in the elderly. In this review we analysed, on the basis of the results of the study Ancianos con enfermedad renal crónica del Hospital General de Segovia (Elderly people with chronic kidney disease of the Hospital General de Segovia), the poor prognosis factors associated with this disease: proteinuria, episodes of acute renal failure and heart failure, and the role of uric acid. Elderly people with chronic kidney disease who present these poor prognosis factors may benefit from follow-up by Nephrology.

  17. Surgical Rehabilitation Techniques in Children with Poor Prognosis Short Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mariela; Junco, Paloma Triana; Andres, Ane M; Sánchez-Galán, Alba; Amesty, Maria Virginia; Ramos, Esther; Prieto, Gerardo; Hernandez, Francisco; Lopez Santamaria, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) requires a multidisciplinary management based on nutritional support, surgical and medical rehabilitation, and transplantation. The aim of this study is to review our experience with surgical rehabilitation techniques (SRTs: enteroplasty, Bianchi, Serial Transverse Enteroplasty Procedure [STEP]) in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and poor prognosis due to complex abdominal pathology. We performed a single-center retrospective study of patients with IF evaluated for intestinal transplantation in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Unit who underwent an SRT. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis.A total of 205 patients (107 males/98 females) with mean age of 25 ± 7 months were assessed for IF. A total of 433 laparotomies were performed on 130 patients including intestinal resection, enteroplasties, adhesiolysis, and transit reconstruction. SRT were performed in 22 patients: 12 enteroplasties, 8 STEPs, and 4 Bianchi procedures. All patients were parenteral nutrition (PN) dependent with different stages of liver disease: mild (13), moderate (5), and severe (4). The adaptation rate for patients who underwent enteroplasty, STEP, and Bianchi were 70, 63, and 25%, respectively, although the techniques are not comparable. Overall, intestinal adaptation was achieved in nine (41%) patients, and four (18%) patients showed significant reduction of PN needs. One child did not respond to SRT and did not meet transplantation criteria. The remaining eight (36%) patients were included on the waiting list for transplant: four were transplanted, two are still on the waiting list, and two died. Better outcomes were observed in milder cases of liver disease (mild 77%, moderate 40%, severe 25%) (p < 0.05). Conversely, a trend toward a poorer outcome was observed in cases with ultrashort bowel (p > 0.05). One patient required reoperation after a Bianchi procedure due to intestinal ischemia and six needed further re-STEP or adhesiolysis

  18. Deregulated HOXB7 expression predicts poor prognosis of patients with malignancies of digestive system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Teng; Chen, Han-Min; Xiong, Ying; Zhu, Zheng-Ming

    2017-07-26

    Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between deregulated HOXB7 expression with the clinical outcome in patients with digestive stem cancers, HOXB7 has showed negative impacts but with varying levels. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the prediction and prognostic value of HOXB7 in digestive stem cancers. Electronic databases updated to December 1, 2016 were retrieved to collect relevant eligible studies to quantitatively explore the potential roles of HOXB7 as a prognostic indicator in digestive system cancers. A total of 9 studies (n = 1298 patients) was included in this synthetical meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratios suggested that high expression of HOXB7 protein was associated with poor prognosis of OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.65-2.28, p= 0.000), and HOXB7 protein could act as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.69-2.36, p = 0.000). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis based on the cancer type, histology type, country, sample size and publication date. Furthermore, we examined the correlations between HOXB7 protein and clinicopathological features. It showed that altered expression of HOXB7 protein was correlated with tumor invasion (p = 0.000), lymph node status (p = 0.000), distant metastasis (p = 0.001) and TNM stage (p = 0.000). However, the expression of HOXB7 protein was not associated with age (p = 0.64), gender (p = 0.40) or levels of differentiation (p = 0.19). High expression of HOXB7 protein was associated with poor prognosis of patients with digestive system cancers, as well as clinicopathologic characteristics, including the tumor invasion, lymph node status, distant metastasis and TNM stage. The expression of HOXB7 protein was not associated with age, gender or levels of differentiation. HOXB7 protein expression level in tumor tissue might serve as a novel prognostic marker for

  19. PLA2G16 Expression in Human Osteosarcoma Is Associated with Pulmonary Metastasis and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shoulei; Ren, Zhiwu; Han, Xiuxin; Yang, Jilong; Shan, Luling; Li, Lin; Wang, Binying; Zhang, Qianyi; Mu, Tianyang; Chen, Kexin; Xiong, Shunbin; Wang, Guowen

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteosarcoma is the most frequent type of malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents and is associated with a high propensity for lung metastasis. Recent experiments have indicated that PLA2G16 contributes to osteosarcoma progression and metastasis in both mouse and human osteosarcoma cell lines. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of PLA2G16 in non-metastatic and metastatic osteosarcomas to determine whether PLA2G16 expression can serve as a biomarker of osteosarcoma prognosis and metastasis. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine PLA2G16 mRNA in primary osteosarcoma patients (18 patients without metastases and 17 patients with metastases), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of PLA2G16 was performed on tissue microarrays from 119 osteosarcoma patients. Tumor metastatic behavior and survival of the patients were followed up for a minimum of 36 months and a maximum of 171 months. The prognostic value of PLA2G16 expression was evaluated by the Kaplan–Meier method and a log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify significant independent prognostic factors. Results Osteosarcoma patients with metastasis showed a higher expression of PLA2G16 at both the mRNA and protein levels (both at P values< 0.05) than did patients without metastasis. Osteosarcoma patients with positive IHC staining of PLA2G16 expression at primary sites had shorter overall survival and metastasis-free survival (both at P values <0.02). Moreover, multivariate Cox analysis identified PLA2G16 expression as an independent prognostic factor to predict poor overall survival and metastasis-free survival (both P values < 0.03). Conclusions This study indicated that PLA2G16 expression is a significant prognostic factor in primary osteosarcoma patients for predicting the development of metastases and poor survival. PMID:25993412

  20. PLA2G16 Expression in Human Osteosarcoma Is Associated with Pulmonary Metastasis and Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shoulei; Ren, Zhiwu; Han, Xiuxin; Yang, Jilong; Shan, Luling; Li, Lin; Wang, Binying; Zhang, Qianyi; Mu, Tianyang; Chen, Kexin; Xiong, Shunbin; Wang, Guowen

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent type of malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents and is associated with a high propensity for lung metastasis. Recent experiments have indicated that PLA2G16 contributes to osteosarcoma progression and metastasis in both mouse and human osteosarcoma cell lines. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of PLA2G16 in non-metastatic and metastatic osteosarcomas to determine whether PLA2G16 expression can serve as a biomarker of osteosarcoma prognosis and metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine PLA2G16 mRNA in primary osteosarcoma patients (18 patients without metastases and 17 patients with metastases), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of PLA2G16 was performed on tissue microarrays from 119 osteosarcoma patients. Tumor metastatic behavior and survival of the patients were followed up for a minimum of 36 months and a maximum of 171 months. The prognostic value of PLA2G16 expression was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify significant independent prognostic factors. Osteosarcoma patients with metastasis showed a higher expression of PLA2G16 at both the mRNA and protein levels (both at P values< 0.05) than did patients without metastasis. Osteosarcoma patients with positive IHC staining of PLA2G16 expression at primary sites had shorter overall survival and metastasis-free survival (both at P values <0.02). Moreover, multivariate Cox analysis identified PLA2G16 expression as an independent prognostic factor to predict poor overall survival and metastasis-free survival (both P values < 0.03). This study indicated that PLA2G16 expression is a significant prognostic factor in primary osteosarcoma patients for predicting the development of metastases and poor survival.

  1. Matrix-Gla protein promotes osteosarcoma lung metastasis and associates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zandueta, Carolina; Ormazábal, Cristina; Perurena, Naiara; Martínez-Canarias, Susana; Zalacaín, Marta; Julián, Mikel San; Grigoriadis, Agamemnon E; Valencia, Karmele; Campos-Laborie, Francisco J; Rivas, Javier De Las; Vicent, Silvestre; Patiño-García, Ana; Lecanda, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most prevalent osseous tumour in children and adolescents and, within this, lung metastases remain one of the factors associated with a dismal prognosis. At present, the genetic determinants driving pulmonary metastasis are poorly understood. We adopted a novel strategy using robust filtering analysis of transcriptomic profiling in tumour osteoblastic cell populations derived from human chemo-naive primary tumours displaying extreme phenotypes (indolent versus metastatic) to uncover predictors associated with metastasis and poor survival. We identified MGP, encoding matrix-Gla protein (MGP), a non-collagenous matrix protein previously associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification. Using different orthotopic models, we found that ectopic expression of Mgp in murine and human OS cells led to a marked increase in lung metastasis. This effect was independent of the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues required for its physiological role. Abrogation of Mgp prevented lung metastatic activity, an effect that was rescued by forced expression. Mgp levels dramatically altered endothelial adhesion, trans-endothelial migration in vitro and tumour cell extravasation ability in vivo. Furthermore, Mgp modulated metalloproteinase activities and TGFβ-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In the clinical setting, OS patients who developed lung metastases had high serum levels of MGP at diagnosis. Thus, MGP represents a novel adverse prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in OS. Microarray datasets may be found at: http://bioinfow.dep.usal.es/osteosarcoma/ Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-05-01

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC.All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02).This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC.

  3. PRL-3, an emerging marker of carcinogenesis, is strongly associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Pryczynicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    PRL-3 protein belongs to the family of protein tyrosine phosphatases with unique COOH-terminal prenylation motif, which determines the functions of this protein and its location in the cell. Numerous research studies revealed that apart from performing the poorly investigated physiological role, PRL-3 takes part in the process of carcinogenesis. Specifically, it is involved in reconstructing of the cytoskeleton, regulating adhesion and cell cycle of the cancer cells, and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Through these mechanisms PRL-3 protein participates in invasion, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis. Numerous studies indicate that PRL-3 expression is particularly important in colorectal, as well as in gastric, ovarian and breast carcinomas. Recently, several studies on PRL-3 protein in other types of cancer have been published. They reveal a significant role of this protein in the process of angiogenesis and metastasis. It has been proven that a higher expression of PRL-3 correlates with tumor progression and its severity. While the degree of overexpression of PRL-3 varies in different types of tumors, most research shows that in the metastases of these tumors, whether to the lymph nodes or to other organs, the level of expression is extremely high. Overexpression of PRL-3 protein was repeatedly confirmed in metastases, but not with primary tumors. PRL-3 seems to be an adequate marker in diagnosing the stage of tumor advancement for various types of carcinomas, especially for colorectal carcinoma investigated thoroughly in this study. PRL-3 overexpression predicts poor prognosis in patients with various carcinomas and is a promising target in the cancer treatment.

  4. Poor prognosis of hexokinase 2 overexpression in solid tumors of digestive system: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fenping; Zou, Lei; He, Taiping

    2017-01-01

    Several previous studies have reported the prognostic value of hexokinase 2 (HK2) in digestive system tumors. However, these studies were limited by the small sample sizes and the results were inconsistent among them. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis based on 15 studies with 1932 patients to assess the relationship between HK2 overexpression and overall survival (OS) of digestive system malignancies. The relationship of HK2 and clinicopathological features was also evaluated. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate the effect size. Positive HK2 expression showed poor OS in all tumor types (HR = 1.75 [1.41-2.18], P < 0.001). When stratified by tumor type, the impact of HK2 overexpression on poor prognosis was observed in gastric cancer (HR = 1.77 [1.25-2.50], P < 0.001), hepatocellular carcinoma (HR = 1.87 [1.58-2.21], P < 0.001), and colorectal cancer (HR = 2.89 [1.62-5.15], P < 0.001), but not in pancreatic ductal adencarcinoma (HR = 1.11 [0.58-2.11], P = 0.763). Furthermore, high HK2 expression was significantly associated with some phenotypes of tumor aggressiveness, such as large tumor size (OR = 2.03 [1.10-3.74], P = 0.024), positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.05 [1.39-3.02], P < 0.001), advanced clinical stage (OR = 2.17 [1.21-3.89], P = 0.009) and high alpha fetoprotein level (OR = 1.47 [1.09-2.02] P = 0.013). In summary, HK2 might act as a prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target of these digestive system cancers. PMID:28415659

  5. Poor prognosis of hexokinase 2 overexpression in solid tumors of digestive system: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayuan; Hu, Liren; Wu, Fenping; Zou, Lei; He, Taiping

    2017-05-09

    Several previous studies have reported the prognostic value of hexokinase 2 (HK2) in digestive system tumors. However, these studies were limited by the small sample sizes and the results were inconsistent among them. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis based on 15 studies with 1932 patients to assess the relationship between HK2 overexpression and overall survival (OS) of digestive system malignancies. The relationship of HK2 and clinicopathological features was also evaluated. Hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate the effect size. Positive HK2 expression showed poor OS in all tumor types (HR = 1.75 [1.41-2.18], P < 0.001). When stratified by tumor type, the impact of HK2 overexpression on poor prognosis was observed in gastric cancer (HR = 1.77 [1.25-2.50], P < 0.001), hepatocellular carcinoma (HR = 1.87 [1.58-2.21], P < 0.001), and colorectal cancer (HR = 2.89 [1.62-5.15], P < 0.001), but not in pancreatic ductal adencarcinoma (HR = 1.11 [0.58-2.11], P = 0.763). Furthermore, high HK2 expression was significantly associated with some phenotypes of tumor aggressiveness, such as large tumor size (OR = 2.03 [1.10-3.74], P = 0.024), positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.05 [1.39-3.02], P < 0.001), advanced clinical stage (OR = 2.17 [1.21-3.89], P = 0.009) and high alpha fetoprotein level (OR = 1.47 [1.09-2.02] P = 0.013). In summary, HK2 might act as a prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target of these digestive system cancers.

  6. Th17 cells and interleukin-17 increase with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Han, Yixiang; Ye, Aifang; Bi, Laixi; Wu, Jianbo; Yu, Kang; Zhang, Shenghui

    2014-08-01

    Although Th17 cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, their roles in malignancies are currently under debate. The role and mechanism of Th17 cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that the frequency of Th17 cells was significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells from AML patients compared with healthy donors. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were significantly increased in blood and bone marrow in AML patients compared with healthy donors. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, but not TGF-β1 promoted the generation and differentiation of Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) T cells in humans. IL-17A, a signature cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, induced the proliferation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R)-positive AML cells via IL-17R, in which activation of PI3K/Akt and Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway may play important roles. In addition, combination of IL-17A and IL-22 significantly reduced the generation of Th1 cells and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ from healthy donor or AML patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patients with high Th17 cell frequency had poor prognosis, whereas patients with high Th1 cell frequency had prolonged survival. Combined analysis of Th1 and Th17 cell frequencies improved the ability to predict patient outcomes. In conclusion, Th17 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AML and may be an important therapeutic target and prognostic predictor.

  7. CREPT expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    She, Yaoguang; Liang, Jiao; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Ying; Liu, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Chang, Zhijie; Li, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are rare gynecological malignancies that display poor prognosis and high mortality. Cell cycle-related and expression-elevated protein in tumor (CREPT) is an oncogene that is involved in the regulation of many cell cycle-related proteins. However, its distribution and clinical significance in retroperitoneal LMS remains poorly understood. This study assessed the histological classifications of postoperative tumor samples from 71 cases of retroperitoneal LMS that were collected at The General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army from January 1998 to December 2012. We found that more than half of the patients displayed positive expressions of CREPT, Ki-67 and PCNA via immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of CREPT correlated with histological grade (P = 0.044), and the PCNA expression level correlated with the differentiation of tumor cells and histological grade (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that survival was associated with histological grade and the expression level of CREPT (P = 0.011 and P = 0.012, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the patients lacking CREPT expression exhibited significantly longer overall postoperative survival (median, 60.0 months) than the patients displaying CREPT expression (median, 33.0 months), and CREPT expression correlated with distant recurrence within 5 years after surgery (P = 0.004). Western blot analyses showed that CREPT was more strongly expressed in the retroperitoneal LMS tumor tissue than in paired control tissue. Based on the above data, we concluded that CREPT displays unique immunostaining for retroperitoneal LMS tissue and can be used to supplement other currently available retroperitoneal LMS markers. PMID:25400738

  8. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC. All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02). This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC. PMID:27258499

  9. Increased expression of argininosuccinate synthetase protein predicts poor prognosis in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Luo, Yi-Pey; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, also known as ASS) has been found in cancer cells and is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of ASS expression in human gastric cancer and to determine the possible correlations between ASS expression and clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin‑embedded tissues to determine whether ASS was expressed in 11 of 11 specimens from patients with gastric cancer. The protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and normal epithelium. In the Oncomine cancer microarray database, expression of the ASS gene was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues. To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ASS expression, we performed western blot analysis of 35 matched specimens of gastric adenocarcinomas and normal tissue obtained from patients treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ratio of relative ASS expression (expressed as the ASS/β-actin ratio) in tumor tissues to that in normal tissues was correlated with large tumor size (P=0.007) and with the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (P=0.031). Patients whose cancer had increased the relative expression of ASS were positive for perineural invasion and had poor recurrence-free survival. In summary, ASS expression in gastric cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. Further study of mechanisms to silence the ASS gene or decrease the enzymatic activity of ASS protein has the potential to provide new treatments for patients with gastric cancer.

  10. WDR62 overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shinmura, Kazuya; Kato, Hisami; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Igarashi, Hisaki; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Satoki; Fujita, Hidehiko; Funai, Kazuhito; Tanahashi, Masayuki; Niwa, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2017-08-01

    Human WDR62, which is localized in the cytoplasm including the centrosome, is known to be responsible for primary microcephaly; however, the role of WDR62 abnormality in cancers remains largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to reveal the pathological role of WDR62 abnormality in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). We first examined the WDR62 mRNA expression level of LAC (n = 64) using a QRT-PCR analysis and found that WDR62 mRNA transcripts were significantly overexpressed in LAC (P = 0.0432, Wilcoxon matched pairs test). An immunohistochemical analysis for LAC (n = 237) showed that WDR62 proteins were also significantly overexpressed in LAC (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). A Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with LAC who exhibit WDR62 overexpression have a short overall survival (P = 0.0378, log-rank test), and a multivariate analysis revealed that WDR62 overexpression was an independent predictor of a poor survival outcome among LAC patients (hazard ratio, 2.032; 95% confidence interval, 1.071-3.777; P = 0.0305). Next, we examined the functional effect of WDR62 overexpression on the lung cancer cell line H1299. WDR62-overexpressing lung cancer cells exhibited an increase in cell growth. Moreover, the concurrent overexpression of WDR62 and TPX2, a WDR62-interacting protein that is also overexpressed in LAC, induced centrosome amplification in the lung cells. Finally, we disclosed that the concurrent overexpression of WDR62 and TPX2 is common in diverse human cancers, using data from the Cancer Genome Atlas. These results suggested that WDR62 overexpression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with LAC and leads to an increase in the malignant potential of lung cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  12. Decreased expression of SERPINB1 correlates with tumor invasion and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaopeng; Liu, Yanhua; Wan, Chunhua; Lu, Cuihua; Cai, Jing; He, Song; Ni, Tingting; Zhu, Junya; Wei, Lixian; Zhang, Yixin; Qian, Haixin

    2014-02-01

    SERPINB1 (serine protease inhibitor, clade B, member1) is a member of the SERPINB family. Recent studies suggested that SERPINB1 may suppress the migration and invasion of lung and breast cancers. In this study, we investigated a possible involvement of SERPINB1 in the regulation of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis (HCC). The expression of SERPINB1 was evaluated using western blot analysis in 8 paired fresh HCC specimens and immunohistochemistrical assay on 67 paraffin-embedded HCC slices. SERPINB1 was downregulated in HCC specimens and correlatively related with two clinicopathologic features of HCC, metastasis (P = 0.000) and vein invasion (P = 0.006). Univariate and multivariate survival analyses showed a lower level of SERPINB1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and clinical outcome (P = 0.001). In addition, small interfering RNA targeting SERPINB1 was used to knock down the expression of SERPINB1 in Huh7 and BEL-7404 cells. We showed that interference of SERPINB1 promoted migration and invasion of HCC cells, while cell proliferation was not affected. Finally, we observed an apparent increase in the level of active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) after SERPINB1 knockdown, implying that SERPINB1 might participate in the regulation of HCC metastasis through modulating the activation of matrix metalloproteinases. Overall, our results suggested an inhibitory role of SERPINB1 in the migration and invasion of HCC, implying that SERPINB1 might be a potential prognostic indicator of HCC metastasis.

  13. Protein Z efficiently depletes thrombin generation in disseminated intravascular coagulation with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nuri; Kim, Ji-Eun; Gu, Ja-Yoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Kim, Inho; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is characterized by consumption of coagulation factors and anticoagulants. Thrombin generation assay (TGA) gives useful information about global hemostatic status. We developed a new TGA system that anticoagulant addition can deplete thrombin generation in plasma, which may reflect defective anticoagulant system in DIC. TGAs were measured on the calibrated automated thrombogram with and without thrombomodulin or protein Z in 152 patients who were suspected of having DIC, yielding four parameters including lag time, endogenous thrombin potential, peak thrombin and time-to-peak in each experiment. Nonsurvivors showed significantly prolonged lag time and time-to-peak in TGA-protein Z system, which was performed with added protein Z. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, lag time and time-to-peak in TGA system were significant independent prognostic factors. In TGA-protein Z system, lag time and time-to-peak were revealed as independent prognostic factors of DIC. Protein Z addition could potentiate its anticoagulant effect in DIC with poor prognosis, suggesting the presence of defective protein Z system. The prolonged lag time and time-to-peak in both TGA and TGA-protein Z systems are expected to be used as independent prognostic factors of DIC.

  14. c-Fos over-expression promotes radioresistance and predicts poor prognosis in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guokai; Chen, Furong; Tu, Ziwei; Liu, Guiyun; Zhao, Yu; Peng, Ming-Jing; He, Zheng-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Lindsay, Holly; Xia, Yun-Fei; Li, Xiao-Nan

    2016-01-01

    c-Fos is a major component of activator protein (AP)-1 complex. It has been implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. To investigate the role of c-Fos in glioma radiosensitivity and to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we downregulated c-Fos gene expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA in glioma cell lines and subsequently analyzed the radiosensitivity, DNA damage repair capacity, and cell cycle distribution. Finally, we explored its prognostic value in 41 malignant glioma patients by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that silencing c-Fos sensitized glioma cells to radiation by increasing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), disturbing the DNA damage repair process, promoting G2/M cell cycle arrest, and enhancing apoptosis. c-Fos protein overexpression correlated with poor prognosis in malignant glioma patients treated with standard therapy. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of radioresistance in malignant glioma and identify c-Fos as a potentially novel therapeutic target for malignant glioma patients. PMID:27602752

  15. Long non-coding RNA CCAT1 promotes metastasis and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Shi, Huirong; Ren, Fang; Jia, Yanyan; Zhang, Ruitao

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we reported that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) CCAT1 was upregulated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues, and was associated with FIGO stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis and poor survival of EOC patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CCAT1 was an independent prognostic indicator. While CCAT1 downregulation inhibited EOC cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion, CCAT1 upregulation promoted EOC cell EMT, migration and invasion. We further identified and confirmed that miR-152 and miR-130b were the targets of CCAT1, and CCAT1 functioned by targeting miR-152 and miR-130b. Subsequently, ADAM17 and WNT1, and STAT3 and ZEB1 were confirmed to be the targets of miR-152 and miR-130b, respectively, and could be regulated by CCAT1 in EOC cells. Knockdown of anyone of these four proteins inhibited EOC cell EMT, migration and invasion. Taken together, our study first revealed a critical role of CCAT1-miR-152/miR-130b-ADAM17/WNT1/STAT3/ZEB1 regulatory network in EOC cell metastasis. These findings provide great insights into EOC initiation and progression, and novel potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis for EOC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Elevated expression of Thoc1 is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chenchen; Yue, Ben; Yuan, Chenwei; Zhao, Senlin; Fang, Changyi; Yu, Yang; Yan, Dongwang

    2015-12-04

    The THO complex 1 (Thoc1) is a nuclear matrix protein playing vital roles in transcription elongation and mRNA export. Recently, aberrant expression of Thoc1 has been reported in an increasing array of tumor types. However, the clinical significance of Thoc1 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unknown. The present study aimed to characterize the expression of Thoc1 in human CRC and evaluate its clinical significance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses showed that the mRNA and protein expression of Thoc1 in CRC specimens was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal colon mucosae. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to characterize the expression pattern of Thoc1 in 185 archived paraffin-embedded CRC specimens. Statistical analyses revealed that high levels of Thoc1 expression were associated with the clinical stages and tumor differentiation. CRC patients with high levels of Thoc1 expression had poorer overall-survival and disease-free survival, whereas those with lower levels of Thoc1 expression survived longer. Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that Thoc1 expression remained an independent prognostic factor for increased disease recurrence and decreased survival. Our results suggest for the first time that Thoc1 is involved in the development and progression of CRC, and elevated expression of Thoc1 is associated with aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in CRC. These findings may prove to be clinically useful for developing a new therapeutic target of CRC treatment.

  17. Reduction of AZGP1 predicts poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong; Wu, Yufeng; Qin, Yanru; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Lili; Guan, Xinyuan; Luo, Suxia; Wang, Qiming

    2017-01-01

    Background As a key regulator in lipid mobilization, AZGP1 has been reported to play a significant role in various cancers. This study was carried out to investigate the role of AZGP1 in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients in Northern China. Materials and methods Through the application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, AZGP1 expression in ESCC tissues from Northern China was examined. Results Decreased expression of AZGP1 was observed in ~60% ESCC patients. AZGP1 downregulation was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.035), advanced clinical stage (P=0.018), poor prognosis for 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS; P<0.001), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS; P=0.016), and metastasis-free survival (MeFS; P=0.014). In addition, Cox multivariate analysis revealed that AZGP1 downregulation remained to be an independent prognosticator for shorter DSS (P=0.001), LRFS (P=0.011), and MeFS (P=0.004). Conclusion AZGP1 might be a candidate tumor suppressor and a potential novel prognostic biomarker for ESCC patients in Northern China. PMID:28053542

  18. Underweight status predicts a poor prognosis in elderly patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Manabu; Sasaki, Shin; Ozaki, Kosuke; Ishimaru, Kazuhiro; Terai, Emi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of underweight status on the survival of elderly patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 113 patients aged ≥75 years who underwent curative surgery for CRC were included. In addition to standard perioperative variables, body mass index (BMI) was assessed. The patients were categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) or non-underweight (BMI≥18.5 kg/m2). The 3-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Of the 113 patients, 24 (21%) were underweight. The two groups were well-balanced regarding all factors evaluated. In the multivariate analysis, underweight status was an independent indicator of lower 3-year OS [hazard ratio (HR)=2.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.50; P=0.033] and CSS (HR=3.51, 95% CI: 1.16–10.60; P=0.025) rates. Compared with the non-underweight group, the underweight group had significantly worse 3-year OS (66.7 vs. 86.5%, respectively; P=0.017) and CSS (74.1 vs. 90.9%, respectively; P=0.025) rates. Therefore, underweight status was a significant risk factor for poor survival in elderly CRC patients. The development of effective nutritional interventions may improve the prognosis of such patients. PMID:27602223

  19. Methylation of MGMT Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Stage III Duodenal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharmab, Anup; Xie, Fei; Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kai; Wan, Weiwei; Baylin, Stephen B.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Ahuja, Nita

    2016-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status has not been extensively investigated in duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the MGMT methylation status and examine its possible prognostic value in patients with stage III DA. Methods Demographics, tumor characteristics and survival were available for 64 patients with stage III DA. MGMT methylation was detected by using MethyLight. A Cox proportional hazard model was built to predict survival, adjusted for clinicopathological characteristics and tumor molecular features, including the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability (MSI), and KRAS mutations. Results MGMT methylation was detected in 17 of 64 (26.6%) patients, and was not correlated with sex, age, tumor differentiation, CIMP, MSI, or KRAS mutations. MGMT methylation was the only one factor associated with both overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) on both univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients treated with surgery alone, MGMT-methylated group had worse OS and DFS when compared with MGMT-unmethylated group. However, in patients treated with chemotherapy/radiotherapy, outcomes became comparable between the two groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrate MGMT methylation is a reliable and independent prognostic factor in DAs. Methylation of MGMT is associated with poor prognosis in patients with stage III DAs. PMID:27643594

  20. Positive expression of KIF20A indicates poor prognosis of glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jia; Huang, Wei; Shi, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Glioma patients have a poor overall survival; however, patients can show distinct clinical outcomes due to the high heterogeneity of the tumor, which may be indicated by certain clinicobiological parameters. Kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A), which participates in cytokinesis and intracellular transportation, has been recently reported to be upregulated in pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. In the current study, we investigated the expression of KIF20A in gliomas and its significance in predicting the prognosis after surgery. We found that KIF20A positive expression in glioma tissues correlated significantly with Ki67 protein expression and advanced World Health Organization grade. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that KIF20A can act as an independent prognostic factor for predicting the overall survival of glioma patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that KIF20A can positively regulate the expression of Ki67 in glioma cell lines. Correspondingly, overexpression of KIF20A can promote cell proliferation and invasion, whereas knockdown of KIF20A can inhibit cell viability and invasion capacity. In vitro study also showed that under the treatment of plumbagin, an anticancer drug, KIF20A expression decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the overexpression of KIF20A can also increase the drug resistance toward plumbagin, which provided the possibility that KIF20A may contribute to the chemotherapy resistance of gliomas. PMID:27843327

  1. Association of Vasculogenic Mimicry Formation and CD133 Expression with Poor Prognosis in Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun; Yang, Bo; Cao, Qinying; Wu, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the association of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation and CD133 expression with the clinical outcomes of patients with ovarian cancer. This retrospective study was performed in 120 ovarian carcinoma samples. VM formation and CD133 expression was identified with CD31/periodic acid-Schiff double-staining and CD133 immunohistochemical staining. Collected clinical and pathological data included age at diagnosis, histologic type, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastases and response to chemotherapy. The overall survival time was calculated. VM was identified in 52 (43%) of 120 ovarian carcinoma tissues and CD133 expression was found in 56 (47%) cases. Both VM formation and CD133 expression were associated with advanced tumor stage, high-grade carcinoma and non-response to chemotherapy (p < 0.05). They were also associated with shorter overall survival time (p < 0.05) by log-rank test. Combined marker of VM formation and CD133 expression was associated with high-grade ovarian carcinoma, late-stage disease, non-response to chemotherapy and shorter overall survival time (p < 0.05). VM formation and CD133 expression can provide additional prognostic information for patients with ovarian cancer. Combined marker of VM formation and CD133 expression may be a potent predictor for poor prognosis for patients with ovarian cancer. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  3. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S.; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W.; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J.; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5′ terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted. PMID:25595892

  4. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kämpjärvi, Kati; Järvinen, Tiina M; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5'terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted.

  5. NDRG1 as a biomarker for metastasis, recurrence and of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Xie, Hai-Yang; Xu, Xiao; Wu, Jian; Wei, Xuyong; Su, Rong; Zhang, Wu; Lv, Zhen; Zheng, Shusen; Zhou, Lin

    2011-11-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been reported to be a multifunctional protein associated with carcinogenesis, however, the cellular function of NDRG1 remains elusive in human cancers. Here, our proteomics profile analysis of HCC tissues with different metastatic capabilities revealed that NDRG1 was correlated with metastasis and recurrence in HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT). Immunohistochemical staining of 143 HCC patients after LT showed that NDRG1-positive expression had poor prognosis, either for shorter disease-free survival or overall survival (P < 0.001), compared with NDRG1-negative expression. Multivariate analysis confirmed NDRG1 as an independent prognostic value (P < 0.001). In addition, in vitro experiments HCC cells with small interfering RNA against NDRG1 significantly suppressed its proliferation, colony formation, invasion and migration ability. Microarray analysis revealed that NDRG1 modulated the expression of genes associated with transmembrane transporter activity, chemoattractant activity, immune response, cell adhesion and cell proliferation process. Taken together, these results suggested that NDRG1 was an important molecule in controlling HCC metastasis and thus suggested as a novel biomarker for predicting HCC recurrence after LT.

  6. High lymphatic vessel density and presence of lymphovascular invasion both predict poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Zhang, Dong; Gong, Mingfu; Wen, Li; Liao, Cuiwei; Zou, Liguang

    2017-05-17

    Lymphatic vessel density and lymphovascular invasion are commonly assessed to identify the clinicopathological outcomes in breast cancer. However, the prognostic values of them on patients' survival are still uncertain. Databases of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched from inception up to 30 June 2016. The hazard ratio with its 95% confidence interval was used to determine the prognostic effects of lymphatic vessel density and lymphovascular invasion on disease-free survival and overall survival in breast cancer. Nineteen studies, involving 4215 participants, were included in this study. With the combination of the results of lymphatic vessel density, the pooled hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 2.02 (1.69-2.40) for disease-free survival and 2.88 (2.07-4.01) for overall survival, respectively. For lymphovascular invasion study, the pooled hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.81 (1.57-2.08) for disease-free survival and 1.64 (1.43-1.87) for overall survival, respectively. In addition, 29.56% (827/2798) of participants presented with lymphovascular invasion in total. Our study demonstrates that lymphatic vessel density and lymphovascular invasion can predict poor prognosis in breast cancer. Standardized assessments of lymphatic vessel density and lymphovascular invasion are needed.

  7. High expression of GNA13 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Rong, Jian; Duan, Shiyu; Chen, Cui; Li, Yin; Peng, Baogang; Yi, Bin; Zheng, Zhousan; Gao, Ying; Wang, Kebing; Yun, Miao; Weng, Huiwen; Zhang, Jiaxing; Ye, Sheng

    2016-11-24

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha 13 (GNA13) has been found to play critical roles in the development of several human cancers. However, little is known about GNA13 expression and its clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our study, GNA13 was reported to be significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues, and this was correlated with several clinicopathological parameters, including tumor multiplicity (P = 0.004), TNM stage (P = 0.002), and BCLC stage (P = 0.010). Further Cox regression analysis suggested that GNA13 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.014) and disease-free survival (P = 0.005). Moreover, we found that overexpression of GNA13 couldn't promote cell proliferation in vitro, but could significantly increase the invasion ability of HCC cells. Together, our study demonstrates GNA13 may be served as a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients after curative hepatectomy, in which high expression of GNA13 suggests poor prognosis of HCC patients.

  8. Downregulation of ACSM3 promotes metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hao-Yu; Yang, Chen; Tao, Xue-Mei; He, Jia; Wang, Ting; Wang, Hui; Wang, Cun; Jin, Guang-Zhi; Jin, Hao-Jie; Qin, Wen-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of cancer metastasis is crucial for reduction of cancer mortality. Acyl-CoA medium-chain synthetase 3 (ACSM3) is an acyl-CoA synthetase which takes part in the first step of fatty acid metabolism. However, the expression, clinical significance and biological function of ACSM3 remain unknown in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, the expression and prognostic relevance of ACSM3 were investigated by tissue microarray and HCC clinical samples. Migration and invasion assays were carried out for functional analysis in vitro and a xenograft model was used to analyze the effects of ACSM3 on cancer metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, human phospho-kinase array assays were performed to explore molecular mechanisms of ACSM3 in HCC. The results showed ACSM3 was downregulated in HCC tissues. HCC patients with low expression of ACSM3 exhibited poor prognosis. Overexpression of ACSM3 attenuated migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo and downregulated the phosphorylation of WNK1 and AKT. Our findings indicate ACSM3 is a novel prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:28401010

  9. Low Stromal Area and High Stromal Microvessel Density Predict Poor Prognosis in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Takahiro; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Takano, Shigetsugu; Kagawa, Shingo; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Kato, Atsushi; Furukawa, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Excessive stroma is a unique property of cancer tissue of the pancreas. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of cancer stromal area (SA) and tumor microvessel density (MVD) with prognostic and clinicopathological findings. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues obtained from 104 patients were subjected to cytokeratin 19 and CD31 double immunostaining to identify cancer cells and endothelial cells simultaneously. Stromal area and MVD were assessed in the same sections. Patients were divided into 2 groups for each analysis by the median value of the respective measure. Stromal area negatively correlated with MVD. The low SA group harbored more poorly differentiated carcinoma than the high SA group. Patients of the low SA group showed a higher incidence of hematogenous recurrence. As a consequence, patients in the low SA and the high MVD groups had poorer prognosis in terms of both disease-free survival and overall survival than their respective groups. Multivariate analysis showed that a low SA was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. Our data indicate that the stroma of pancreatic cancer may play an auxiliary role as a barrier to cancer cell invasion. The depletion of tumor stroma alone does not suppress pancreatic cancer progression.

  10. Increased BTLA and HVEM in gastric cancer are associated with progression and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiuwen; Li, Sen; Gao, Hongyu; Nanding, Abiyasi; Quan, Lina; Yang, Chunyan; Ding, Shaohua; Xue, Yingwei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Deregulation of immune checkpoint molecules by tumor cells is related to immune escape. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the appearance of B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and its ligand herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) with the prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Patients and methods A total of 136 patients with curative gastrectomy were included. The expression of BTLA and HVEM was detected by immunohistochemistry, and its correlation with the clinical significance of gastric cancer was further analyzed. Results The positivity of BTLA and HVEM was detected in 74.3% (101/136) and 89.0% (121/136) of the gastric cancer specimens, respectively. A high expression of BTLA and HVEM was detected, respectively, in 28.7% (39/136) and 44.9% (61/136) of the specimens. Characteristics analysis showed that the high expression of BTLA was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.030). Similarly, the high expression of HVEM was also significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.007) and depth of invasion (P=0.011). In addition, there was a positive correlation between the expression of BTLA and HVEM in gastric cancer specimens (r=0.245, P=0.004). Univariate analysis revealed that the high expression of BTLA and HVEM was associated with overall survival of patients along with tumor size, Borrmann type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and histological grade (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis established that the high expression of HVEM (P=0.010), depth of invasion (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), and histological grade (P=0.027) were independent prognostic factors associated with overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. Conclusion The increased BTLA and HVEM levels correlate with the development and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. HVEM is an important prognostic indicator, and BTLA/HVEM pathway is considered to be a promising candidate for immunotherapy of gastric cancer. PMID

  11. Up-regulation of Tiam1 and Rac1 correlates with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanyong; Lv, Shemin; Liu, Xingyan; Liu, Hong; Yang, Wen; Hu, Fu

    2010-11-01

    T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) specifically activates Rho-like GTPases (e.g. Rac1) and Tiam1-Rac1 pathway affects the migration and invasion of many tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, breast cancer and retinoblastoma. However, no studies have yet comprehensively examined the involvement of Tiam1-Rac1 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we examined the relationship of the up-regulation of Tiam1 and Rac1 with clinicopathological features in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Expression of Tiam1 and Rac1 was assessed in 242 hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and their adjacent normal hepatic tissues by performing immunohistochemistry and was gauged regarding stage, grade and survival. Immunohistochemistry showed that patients with a high clinical stage hepatocellular carcinoma (III-IV) and α-fetoprotein levels had a higher tendency to express Tiam1 and Rac1 on tumor cells than the patients with low pathologic grade hepatocellular carcinoma (I-II) (P = 0.008 and 0.01, respectively) and low α-fetoprotein levels (P = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). In addition, Tiam1 and Rac1 up-regulation was also significantly associated with vascular invasion status (both P = 0.02), intrahepatic metastasis status (P = 0.009 and 0.01, respectively) and histological differentiation (P = 0.008 and 0.009, respectively) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Moreover, post-operative survival analysis indicated that hepatocellular carcinoma patients with strong Tiam1 (P = 0.01) and Rac1 (P = 0.02) expression had shorter disease-specific survival than those with weak expression. Multivariate analysis also showed that Tiam1 and Rac1 overexpression could be two predictors of poor prognosis (P = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). The current study demonstrated for the first time that the Tiam1-Rac1 pathway may play a critical role in tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. The expression of Tiam1 and Rac1 can be considered as the two useful

  12. Overexpression of CPEB4 in glioma indicates a poor prognosis by promoting cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhijun, Liu; Dapeng, Wu; Hong, Jing; Guicong, Wang; Bingjian, Yuan; Honglin, Liu

    2017-04-01

    Glioma is an aggressive malignancy with limited effective treatment and poor prognosis. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 is a regulator of gene transcription and has been reported to be associated with biological malignancy in cancers. However, the mechanisms that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 contributes to tumor migration and invasion remain unknown. Here, cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry, and the results were compared with clinicopathological parameters, including survival. Using glioma cell lines (SKMG-4 and T98G), we measured cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 messenger RNA and protein expression and studied the effects of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression on cell migration and invasion. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression was significantly higher in tumor tissues than that in normal brain tissues. Clinicopathological analysis showed that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression was significantly correlated with advanced World Health Organization grade ( p < 0.001) and lower Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score ( p = 0.001). Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 positive as opposed to the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 negative patients had lower overall survival ( p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression might be an independent prognostic indicator (hazard ratio = 2.091, 95% confidence interval: 1.093-3.999, p = 0.026) for glioma patients. Moreover, upregulated cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression could promote T98G cell migration and invasion, and downregulated cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 expression could inhibit SKMG-4 cell migration and invasion

  13. Minor Nonintracranial Hemorrhage and Poor Prognosis among Stroke Patients Undergoing Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoming; Zhao, Songyao; Yin, Liujie; Dou, Hailing; Chen, Jie; Wang, Yifan; Li, Mingzhe; Chen, Ruifang; Yang, Gaiqing; Liu, Xin; Wang, Runqing; Jia, Xinzhou; Bu, Shufang; Ma, Dongpu; Wang, Baoyu; Li, Shize

    2017-10-01

    Whether nonintracranial hemorrhage (NICH) associated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is a predictor of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and poor prognosis is ambiguous. We sought to analyze the rate of NICH and the relationship between NICH and poor outcome in the ischemic stroke population undergoing IVT. This is a single-center, hospital-based prospective study. All ischemic stroke patients undergoing IVT between December 2015 and November 2016 were included. NICH was defined according to the criteria of the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC). ICH associated with IVT was defined based on the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II definition. On the basis of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), 90-day outcome was divided into favorable outcome (mRS score 0-1) versus unfavorable outcome (mRS score 2-6) and independency (mRS score 0-2) versus dependency and death (mRS score 3-6). A total of 212 patients undergoing IVT were included in the analysis. Forty-five NICH events were reported in 42 patients (19.8%). Older age was independently associated with NICH (P = .049, odds ratio [OR] = .97, 95% confidence interval [CI] .94-1.0). Neither NICH with BARC class 1 or higher (P = .56, OR = .61, 95% CI .11-3.24) nor NICH with BARC class 2 or higher (P = .87, OR = 1.19, 95% CI .14-10.23) was associated with ICH. NICH with BARC class 1 or higher was not associated with unfavorable outcome (P = .67, OR = 1.17, 95% CI .56-2.45) and dependence and death (P = .47, OR = .72, 95% CI .30-1.75), neither was NICH with BARC class  2 or higher (P = .97, OR = 1.02, 95% CI .46-2.27 and P = .30, OR = .59, 95% CI .22-1.62). NICH was common among ischemic stroke populations receiving IVT. NICH with BARC class 2 or lower was not associated with ICH and poor outcome. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Reactivity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yihuan; Zhang, Xin; Mo, Meile; Tan, Zhong; Huang, Lanshan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Chunqin; Wei, Fanglin; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Rongquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ki-67 is considered as one of prime biomarkers to reflect cell proliferation and immunohistochemical Ki-67 staining has been widely applied in clinical pathology. To solve the widespread controversy whether Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicts clinical prognosis of bladder carcinoma (BC), we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis by combining results from different literature. A comprehensive search was conducted in the Chinese databases of WanFang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP as well as English databases of PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Wiley online library. Independent studies linking Ki-67 to cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were included in our meta-analysis. With the cut-off values literature provided, hazard ratio (HR) values between the survival distributions were extracted and later combined with STATA 12.0. In total, 76 studies (n = 13,053 patients) were eligible for the meta-analysis. It was indicated in either univariate or multivariate analysis for survival that high Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicted poor prognosis. In the univariate analysis, the combined HR for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 2.588 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.623–4.127, P < 0.001), 2.697 (95%CI: 1.874–3.883, P < 0.001), 2.649 (95%CI: 1.632–4.300, P < 0.001), 3.506 (95%CI: 2.231–5.508, P < 0.001), and 1.792 (95%CI: 1.409–2.279, P < 0.001), respectively. The pooled HR of multivariate analysis for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 1.868 (95%CI: 1.343–2.597, P < 0.001), 2.626 (95%CI: 2.089–3.301, P < 0.001), 1.104 (95%CI: 1.008–1.209, P = 0.032), 1.518 (95%CI: 1.299–1.773, P < 0.001), and 1.294 (95%CI: 1.203–1.392, P < 0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis of univariate analysis by origin showed that Ki-67 reactivity significantly

  15. USP7 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guang-Yin; Lin, Zong-Wu; Lu, Chun-Lai; Gu, Jie; Yuan, Yun-Feng; Xu, Feng-Kai; Liu, Rong-Hua; Ge, Di; Ding, Jian-Yong

    2015-03-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), both USP7 expression and p53 gene status were reported to be an indicator of poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma patients; however, its roles and mechanisms in lung squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma need to be clarified. The USP7 expression was examined in NSCLC tumors (excluding adenocarcinoma), their corresponding non-tumorous tissues, and NSCLC cells. Then, the prognostic role of USP7 was analyzed in 110 NSCLC samples (excluding the adenocarcinoma). Finally, the roles and mechanisms of USP7 in the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of a NSCLC cell were assessed using a specific vshRNA. The USP7 expression was higher in NSCLC tissues compared to non-tumorous samples, accordingly, the high level of USP7 was detected in NSCLC cell lines compared with HBE cell. After the USP7 downregulation, the H460 cells exhibited decreased metastasis/invasion in vitro and in vivo. The preliminary mechanism study indicated overexpression of USP7 might regulate the p53-MDM2 pathway by inducing the MDM2 de-ubiquitination and subsequent stabilization, which resulted in the upregulation of the Bad phosphorylation. Additionally, we also found that USP7 might induce cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition to enhance the cell invasive ability. Clinically, USP7 overexpression significantly correlated with malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the 5-year overall survival in patients with USP7(low) was higher than that of USP7(high). Multivariate analysis showed USP7 overexpression was an independent prognostic marker for these cancers. USP7 overexpression may regulate the survival and invasive properties of squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma cells, and may serve as a molecular target.

  16. Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 associates with the malignant status and poor prognosis in glioma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kang-xiao; Wang, Hong-jie; Li, Xiao-rong; Li, Tao; Su, Gang; Yang, Pan; Wu, Jian-wen

    2015-05-01

    The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a bona fide long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). LncRNA MALAT1 was discovered as a prognostic factor for lung cancer metastasis but also has been linked to several other human tumor entities. However, little is known about the role of lncRNA MALAT1 in glioma patients. The aim of this study was to identify the role of lncRNA MALAT1 in the pathogenesis of glioma; we analyzed the relationship of lncRNA MALAT1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics in glioma patients. In our results, lncRNA MALAT1 expression was increased in glioma tissues compared with paired adjacent brain normal tissues (P < 0.001). Furthermore, lncRNA MALAT1 was associated significantly with WHO grade (I-II vs. III-IV; P = 0.007) and tumor size (< 3 cm vs. T ≥ 3 cm; P = 0.008). However, lncRNA MALAT1 expression was not associated significantly with age (<45 vs. ≥ 45, P = 0.343), gender (female vs. male, P = 0.196), family history of cancer (yes vs. no, P = 0.665), and tumor location (supratentorial vs. infratentorial, P = 0.170). Moreover, the level of lncRNA MALAT1 expression was markedly correlated with the glioma patients' overall survival (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis suggested that increased lncRNA MALAT1 expression was a poor independent prognostic predictor for glioma patients (P = 0.002). In conclusion, lncRNA MALAT1 plays an important role on glioma progression and prognosis and may serve as a convictive prognostic biomarker for glioma patients.

  17. Th22 cells increase in poor prognosis multiple myeloma and promote tumor cell growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Di Lullo, Giulia; Marcatti, Magda; Heltai, Silvia; Brunetto, Emanuela; Tresoldi, Cristina; Bondanza, Attilio; Bonini, Chiara; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Tonon, Giovanni; Ciceri, Fabio; Bordignon, Claudio; Protti, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    There is increased production of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in the bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) patients and these favor Th22 cell differentiation. Here, we found that the frequency of interleukin (IL)-22+IL-17−IL-13+ T cells is significantly increased in peripheral blood (PB) and BM of stage III and relapsed/refractory MM patients compared with healthy donors and patients with asymptomatic or stage I/II disease. Th22 cells cloned from the BM of MM patients were CCR6+CXCR4+CCR4+CCR10− and produced IL-22 and IL-13 but not IL-17. Furthermore, polyfunctional Th22-Th2 and Th22-Th1 clones were identified based on the co-expression of additional chemokine receptors and cytokines (CRTh2 or CXCR3 and IL-5 or interferon gamma [IFNγ], respectively). A fraction of MM cell lines and primary tumors aberrantly expressed the IL-22RA1 and IL-22 induced STAT-3 phosphorylation, cell growth, and resistance to drug-induced cell death in MM cells. IL-13 treatment of normal BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) induced STAT-6 phosphorylation, adhesion molecule upregulation, and increased IL-6 production and significantly favored MM cell growth compared with untreated BM MSCs. Collectively, our data show that increased frequency of IL-22+IL-17−IL-13+ T cells correlates with poor prognosis in MM through IL-22 and IL-13 protumor activity and suggest that interference with IL-22 and IL-13 signaling pathways could be exploited for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26155400

  18. Th22 cells increase in poor prognosis multiple myeloma and promote tumor cell growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Di Lullo, Giulia; Marcatti, Magda; Heltai, Silvia; Brunetto, Emanuela; Tresoldi, Cristina; Bondanza, Attilio; Bonini, Chiara; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Tonon, Giovanni; Ciceri, Fabio; Bordignon, Claudio; Protti, Maria Pia

    2015-05-01

    There is increased production of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in the bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) patients and these favor Th22 cell differentiation. Here, we found that the frequency of interleukin (IL)-22(+)IL-17(-)IL-13(+) T cells is significantly increased in peripheral blood (PB) and BM of stage III and relapsed/refractory MM patients compared with healthy donors and patients with asymptomatic or stage I/II disease. Th22 cells cloned from the BM of MM patients were CCR6(+)CXCR4(+)CCR4(+)CCR10(-) and produced IL-22 and IL-13 but not IL-17. Furthermore, polyfunctional Th22-Th2 and Th22-Th1 clones were identified based on the co-expression of additional chemokine receptors and cytokines (CRTh2 or CXCR3 and IL-5 or interferon gamma [IFNγ], respectively). A fraction of MM cell lines and primary tumors aberrantly expressed the IL-22RA1 and IL-22 induced STAT-3 phosphorylation, cell growth, and resistance to drug-induced cell death in MM cells. IL-13 treatment of normal BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) induced STAT-6 phosphorylation, adhesion molecule upregulation, and increased IL-6 production and significantly favored MM cell growth compared with untreated BM MSCs. Collectively, our data show that increased frequency of IL-22(+)IL-17(-)IL-13(+) T cells correlates with poor prognosis in MM through IL-22 and IL-13 protumor activity and suggest that interference with IL-22 and IL-13 signaling pathways could be exploited for therapeutic intervention.

  19. CEP55 overexpression predicts poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhou; Jia, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) involves alterations in multiple genes with corresponding proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) shares certain features with oncogenes, and CEP55 overexpression is associated with the development and progression of malignant tumors. The present study aimed to analyze, for the first time, whether CEP55 expression is related to clinicopothalogic features in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as patient survival. A total of 110 patients with mid-thoracic ESCC who suffered from Ivor-Lewis were enrolled. The CEP55 expression profile of these patients in tumour tissues and corresponding healthy esophageal mucosa (CHEM) was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Correlations between CEP55 expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed using χ2 test. The log-rank test was employed to calculate survival rate. A Cox regression multivariate analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. The results demonstrated that CEP55 expression in ESCC was significantly higher than that of CHEM (P<0.001). Overexpression of CEP55 was significantly associated with differentiation degree (P=0.022), T stage (P=0.019), lymph node metastasis (P=0.033), clinicopathological staging (P=0.002) and tumor recurrence (P=0.021) in locally advanced ESCC patients. In addition, CEP55 overexpression was significantly associated with reduced overall survival of patients after surgery (P=0.012). The 5-year survival rate of patients without CEP55 overexpression was significantly higher than that of patients with CEP55 overexpression (P=0.012). Therefore, these findings suggest that CEP55 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in locally advanced ESCC patients. PMID:28123547

  20. Metallothionein isoform 3 overexpression is associated with breast cancers having a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sens, M A; Somji, S; Garrett, S H; Beall, C L; Sens, D A

    2001-07-01

    The third isoform (MT-3) of the metallothionein gene family is unique in that it has a limited tissue distribution, is not induced by metals, has a neuronal growth inhibitory activity, and sequesters zinc more effectively under zinc-depleted conditions. The goal of the present study was to determine whether MT-3 was absent in normal breast tissue, was overexpressed in breast cancers, and if MT-3 overexpression would be associated with disease outcome. A combination of immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate that the normal breast had no detectable expression of MT-3 mRNA or protein. Using immunohistochemistry, it was shown that MT-3 was overexpressed in 25 of 34 cases of breast cancer. In all cases of positive staining, MT-3 was diffusely localized to the cytoplasm. The tumors from these 34 cases were divided as to outcome based on known 5-year survival, with 20 patients being disease free at 5 years (good outcome) and the other 14 having recurring disease within 5 years (bad outcome). When analyzed for MT-3 staining, it was shown that there was a trend for increased MT-3 immunoreactivity in the group having bad outcomes. However, when the tumor subgrouping was further defined on the basis of carcinoma in situ (CIS), there was a marked significant difference in MT-3 staining between patients with good and bad outcomes. Limited to DCIS, MT-3 staining was significantly increased in patients with bad outcomes compared to those with good outcomes. Thus, these studies demonstrate that MT-3 is overexpressed in selected breast cancers and that overexpression is associated with tumors having a poor prognosis.

  1. Progression of urinary protein excretion after kidney transplantation: A marker for poor long-term prognosis.

    PubMed

    Borrego Hinojosa, Josefa; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Angel; Cabello Díaz, Mercedes; Rodriguez Benot, Alberto; Mazuecos Blanca, Auxiliadora; Osuna Ortega, Antonio; Bedoya Pérez, Rafael; Castro De La Nuez, Pablo; Alonso Gil, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Post-transplantation proteinuria is a risk factor for graft failure. A progressive decline in renal graft function is a predictor for mortality in kidney transplant patients. To assess the development and the progression of urinary protein excretion (UPE) in the first year post-transplant in recipients of kidney transplants and its effect on patient and graft outcomes. We analysed 1815 patients with 24-h UPE measurements available at 3 and 12 months post-transplant. Patients were divided based on their UPE level: below 300 mg, 300-1000 mg and over 1000 mg (at 3 and 12 months), and changes over time were analysed. At 3 months, 65.7% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 29.6% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.7% over 1000 mg/24h. At one year, 71.6% had UPE below 300 mg/24 h, 24.1% 300-1000 mg/24 h and 4.4% over 1000 mg/24 h. In 208 patients (12%), the UPE progressed, in 1233 (70.5%) it remained stable and in 306 (17.5%) an improvement was observed. We found that the level of UPE influenced graft survival, particularly if a progression occurred. Recipient's age and renal function at one year were found to be predictive factors for mortality, while proteinuria and renal function were predictive factors for graft survival. Proteinuria after transplantation, essentially when it progresses, is a marker of a poor prognosis and a predictor for graft survival. Progression of proteinuria is associated with poorer renal function and lower graft survival rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. High expression of WISP1 in colon cancer is associated with apoptosis, invasion and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hong; Du, Chunyan; Liu, Xiaowen; Yu, Shengjia; Wang, Yanong

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer (CC) likes many epithelial-derived cancers, resulting from a complex tumorigenic process. However, the exactly mechanisms of development and progression of CC are still unknown. In this study, integrated analysis in the GSE33113 and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center Hospital datasets revealed that WISP1 expression was significantly increased in CC cases, positivity correlated with the advanced pathologic stage and a poor prognosis was more likely in CC patients with higher levels of WISP1. Downregulation of WISP1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion through increasing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle at G1 phase in CC LOVO and RKO cells. Besides, Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that relative genes involved in the Cell adhesion molecules and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways were enriched in WISP1-higher expression patients. Western blot analysis showed that Cell adhesion molecules pathway associated genes (ICAM- 1, VCAM-1, SDC2 and CDH2) and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway associated genes (VEGFC, CCL18, CXCR4 and TGFBR1) were also modulated by WISP1 downregulation. Then, we found that the protein β-catenin was identified as a binding partner of WISP1 and mediated the functions of WISP1 through promoting cell proliferation and invasion in LOVO and RKO cells. Further in vivo tumor formation study in nude mice indicated that inhibition of WISP1 delayed the progress of tumor formation and inhibited PCNA expression. These results indicate that WISP1 could act as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer. PMID:27409174

  3. High expression of cellular retinol binding protein-1 in lung adenocarcinoma is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Doldo, Elena; Costanza, Gaetana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Pompeo, Eugenio; Agostinelli, Sara; Bellezza, Guido; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Giunta, Alessandro; Sidoni, Angelo; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adenocarcinoma, the most common non-small cell lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with a low overall survival (OS) despite increasing attempts to achieve an early diagnosis and accomplish surgical and multimodality treatment strategies. Cellular retinol binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) regulates retinol bioavailability and cell differentiation, but its role in lung cancerogenesis remains uncertain. Experimental design CRBP-1 expression, clinical outcome and other prognostic factors were investigated in 167 lung adenocarcinoma patients. CRBP-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray sections, gene copy number analysis and tumor methylation specific PCR. Effects of CRBP-1 expression on proliferation/apoptosis gene array, protein and transcripts were investigated in transfected A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Results CRBP-1High expression was observed in 62.3% of adenocarcinomas and correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS as an independent prognostic factor. CRBP-1 gene copy gain also associated with tumor CRBP-1High status and dedifferentiation. CRBP-1-transfected (CRBP-1+) A549 grew more than CRBP-1− A549 cells. At >1μM concentrations, all trans-retinoic acid and retinol reduced viability more in CRBP-1+ than in CRBP-1− A549 cells. CRBP-1+ A549 cells showed up-regulated RARα/ RXRα and proliferative and transcriptional genes including pAkt, pEGFR, pErk1/2, creb1 and c-jun, whereas RARβ and p53 were strongly down-regulated; pAkt/pErk/ pEGFR inhibitors counteracted proliferative advantage and increased RARα/RXRα, c-jun and CD44 expression in CRBP-1+ A549 cells. Conclusion CRBP-1High expression in lung adenocarcinoma correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS, likely through increased Akt/Erk/EGFR-mediated cell proliferation and differentiation. CRBP-1High expression can be considered an additional marker of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26807202

  4. Serum cell death biomarkers for prediction of liver fibrosis and poor prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Umemura, Takeji; Fujimori, Naoyuki; Shibata, Soichiro; Ichikawa, Yuki; Kimura, Takefumi; Joshita, Satoru; Komatsu, Michiharu; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Eiji; Ota, Masao

    2015-01-01

    The development of simple, noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis is urgently needed for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This study examined the ability of several serum biomarkers of cell death to estimate fibrosis and prognosis in PBC. A cohort of 130 patients with biopsy-proven PBC and 90 healthy subjects were enrolled. We assessed the utility of the M30 ELISA, which detects caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) fragments and is representative of apoptotic cell death, as well as the M65 and newly developed M65 Epideath (M65ED) ELISAs, which detect total CK-18 as indicators of overall cell death, in predicting clinically relevant fibrosis stage. All 3 cell death biomarkers were significantly higher in patients with PBC than in healthy controls and were significantly correlated with fibrosis stage. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the M65 and M65ED assays for differentiation among significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis were 0.66 and 0.76, 0.66 and 0.73, and 0.74 and 0.82, respectively. In multivariate analysis, high M65ED (hazard ratio 6.13; 95% confidence interval 1.18-31.69; P = 0.031) and severe fibrosis (hazard ratio 7.45; 95% confidence interval 1.82-30.51; P = 0.005) were independently associated with liver-related death, transplantation, or decompensation. High serum M65ED was also significantly associated with poor outcome in PBC (log-rank test; P = 0.001). Noninvasive cell death biomarkers appear to be clinically useful in predicting fibrosis in PBC. Moreover, the M65ED assay may represent a new surrogate marker of adverse disease outcome.

  5. Nuclear CD24 Drives Tumor Growth and Is Predictive of Poor Patient Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Duex, Jason E; Owens, Charles; Chauca-Diaz, Ana; Dancik, Garrett M; Vanderlinden, Lauren A; Ghosh, Debashis; Leivo, Mariah Z; Hansel, Donna E; Theodorescu, Dan

    2017-09-15

    Elevated tumor expression of the cell surface GPI-linked CD24 protein signals poor patient prognosis in many tumor types. However, some cancer cells selected to be negative for surface CD24 (surCD24(-)) still retain aggressive phenotypes in vitro and in vivo Here, we resolve this apparent paradox with the discovery of biologically active, nuclear CD24 (nucCD24) and finding that its levels are unchanged in surCD24(-) cells. Using the complementary techniques of biochemical cellular fractionation and immunofluorescence, we demonstrate a signal for CD24 in the nucleus in cells from various histologic types of cancer. Nuclear-specific expression of CD24 (NLS-CD24) increased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo Immunohistochemistry of patient tumor samples revealed the presence of nucCD24, whose signal intensity correlated positively with the presence of metastatic disease. Analysis of gene expression between cells expressing CD24 and NLS-CD24 revealed a unique nucCD24 transcriptional signature. The median score derived from this signature was able to stratify overall survival in four patient datasets from bladder cancer and five patient datasets from colorectal cancer. Patients with high scores (more nucCD24-like) had reduced survival. These findings define a novel and functionally important intracellular location of CD24; they explain why surCD24(-) cells can remain aggressive, and they highlight the need to consider nucCD24 in both fundamental research and therapeutic development. Cancer Res; 77(18); 4858-67. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Elevated expression of microRNA-19a predicts a poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zou, Pingzhou; Ding, Jian; Fu, Shiping

    2017-03-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-19a, a member of the miR-17-92 cluster, functions as an oncomiRNA in multiple kinds of cancers. However, its involvement in human osteosarcomas remains unclear. In this study, to analyze the expression pattern of miR-19a and to investigate its clinical implication in human osteosarcomas, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect expression levels of miR-19a in 166 self-pairs of osteosarcoma and noncancerous bone tissues. Associations between miR-19a expression and various clinicopathological parameters and patients' prognosis of osteosarcomas were further evaluated. As a results, miR-19a expression in osteosarcoma tissues was significantly higher than that in corresponding noncancerous bone tissues (P<0.001). Osteosarcoma patients with high miR-19a expression more frequently had large tumor size (P=0.03), advanced clinical stage (P=0.01), positive distant metastasis (P=0.008) and poor response to chemotherapy (P=0.01) than those with low miR-19a expression. Additionally, kaplan-Meier analysis showed that both overall and disease-free survivals of osteosarcoma patients with high miR-19a expression were shorter than those with low miR-19a expression (both P<0.001). Further multivariate analysis identified miR-19a expression as an independent prognostic factor for both overall (P=0.001) and disease-free (P=0.006) survivals. In conclusion, the aberrant expression of miR-19a may play a crucial role in development and progression of human osteosarcomas. MiR-19a may act as a novel prognostic marker for patients with this malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Up-Regulated Expression of SPRY4-IT1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenlong; Song, Zi-zheng; Xu, Qunfang; Qu, Xinyan; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yu; Yu, Qun; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNA SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (lncRNA SPRY4-IT1) has been reported to be associated with the progression of several cancers, but its expression level in colorectal cancer (CRC) has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical significance of SPRY4-IT1 in CRC. Material/Methods The relative expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in diseased tissues and the adjacent normal tissues of 106 CRC patients. Chi-square method was used to evaluate the association between SPRY4-IT1 expression and the clinical features. Additionally, we assessed the overall survival at different expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 using Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of SPRY4-IT1 was estimated by Cox regression analysis. Results Up-regulated level of SPRY4-IT1 was detected in pathologic tissues of CRC patients compared with adjacent normal tissues (P=0.000). The relative expression of SPRY4-IT1 was associated with the tumor size, the depth of invasion, lymph node invasion, distant invasion, and tumor stage (P<0.05). Patients with high expression of SPRY4-IT1 had poor overall survival compared with those with high level (39.3 vs. 49.3 months, log-rank test, P=0.016). Cox regression analysis showed that SPRY4-IT1 could act as an independent prognostic factor in CRC (HR=2.341, 95% CI=1.136–4.826, P=0.021). Conclusions SPRY4-IT1 might be associated with tumorigenesis and progression of CRC, and it may be a promising biomarker for prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:28099409

  8. Bone metastases in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: are they always associated with poor prognosis?

    PubMed

    Santoni, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Procopio, Giuseppe; Porta, Camillo; Ibrahim, Toni; Barni, Sandro; Guida, Francesco Maria; Fontana, Andrea; Berruti, Alfredo; Berardi, Rossana; Massari, Francesco; Vincenzi, Bruno; Ortega, Cinzia; Ottaviani, Davide; Carteni, Giacomo; Lanzetta, Gaetano; De Lisi, Delia; Silvestris, Nicola; Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Collovà, Elena; Russo, Antonio; Badalamenti, Giuseppe; Luzi Fedeli, Stefano; Tanca, Francesca Maria; Adamo, Vincenzo; Maiello, Evaristo; Sabbatini, Roberto; Felici, Alessandra; Cinieri, Saverio; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bracarda, Sergio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Cascinu, Stefano; Santini, Daniele

    2015-02-05

    Aim of this study was to investigate for the presence of existing prognostic factors in patients with bone metastases (BMs) from RCC since bone represents an unfavorable site of metastasis for renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Data of patients with BMs from RCC were retrospectively collected. Age, sex, ECOG-Performance Status (PS), MSKCC group, tumor histology, presence of concomitant metastases to other sites, time from nephrectomy to bone metastases (TTBM, classified into three groups: <1 year, between 1 and 5 years and >5 years) and time from BMs to skeletal-related event (SRE) were included in the Cox analysis to investigate their prognostic relevance. 470 patients were enrolled in this analysis. In 19 patients (4%),bone was the only metastatic site; 277 patients had concomitant metastases in other sites. Median time to BMs was 16 months (range 0 - 44y) with Median OS of 17 months. Number of metastatic sites (including bone, p = 0.01), concomitant metastases, high Fuhrman grade (p < 0.001) and non-clear cell histology (p = 0.013) were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Patients with TTBM >5 years had longer OS (22 months) compared to patients with TTBM <1 year (13 months) or between 1 and 5 years (19 months) from nephrectomy (p < 0.001), no difference was found between these two last groups (p = 0.18). At multivariate analysis, ECOG-PS, MSKCC group and concomitant lung or lymph node metastases were independent predictors of OS in patients with BMs. Our study suggest that age, ECOG-PS, histology, MSKCC score, TTBM and the presence of concomitant metastases should be considered in order to optimize the management of RCC patients with BMs.

  9. Expression of fibroblast growth factor 19 is associated with recurrence and poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hyeon, Jiyeon; Ahn, Soomin; Lee, Jae Jun; Song, Dae Hyun; Park, Cheol-Keun

    2013-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19)-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the β-catenin pathway may be involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aimed to elucidate the prognostic significance of FGF19 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. By immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of FGF19 protein in tumor tissue from 281 hepatocellular carcinoma patients who underwent curative hepatectomy. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate its predictive value for tumor recurrence and survival of patients. The median follow-up period was 75.6 months. FGF19 protein expression was observed in 135 (48.0 %) of the 281 hepatocellular carcinomas. FGF19 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size (P < 0.001), and higher BCLC stage (P = 0.001). FGF19 expression was correlated with the early recurrence (P < 0.001), but not with the late recurrence (P = 0.582). FGF19 expression (P = 0.002), viral etiology (P = 0.028), and intrahepatic metastasis (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of early recurrence. Multivariate analyses of survival revealed that FGF19 expression (P < 0.001), intrahepatic metastasis (P < 0.001), and liver cirrhosis (P = 0.019) were independent predictors of shorter disease-free survival. FGF19 expression (P = 0.005), larger tumor size (P = 0.038), major portal vein invasion (P = 0.048), intrahepatic metastasis (P < 0.001), lower albumin level (P = 0.024), and liver cirrhosis (P = 0.031) were independent predictors of shorter disease-specific survival. FGF19 protein expression might be an effective predictor of early recurrence and a marker for poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy, indicating that FGF19 might be a potential preventive target in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

  10. Decreased expression of GST pi is correlated with a poor prognosis in human esophageal squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; He, Wei; Yang, Guanrui; Wang, Junsheng; Wang, Zhong; Nesland, Jahn M; Holm, Ruth; Suo, Zhenhe

    2010-07-05

    Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST pi) is a subgroup of GST family, which provides cellular protection against free radical and carcinogenic compounds due to its detoxifying function. Expression patterns of GST pi have been studied in several carcinomas and its down-regulation was implicated to be involved in malignant transformation in patients with Barrett's esophagus. However, neither the exact role of GST pi in the pathogenesis nor its prognostic impact in squamous esophageal carcinoma is fully characterized. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate GST pi expression on 153 archival squamous esophageal carcinoma specimens with a GST pi monoclonal antibody. Statistic analyses were performed to explore its association with clinicopathological factors and clinical outcome. The GST pi expression was greatly reduced in tissues of esophageal carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues and residual benign tissues. Absent of GST pi protein expression in cytoplasm, nuclear and cytoplasm/nucleus was found in 51%, 64.7% and 48% of all the carcinoma cases, respectively. GST pi deficiency in cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoplasm/nucleus was significantly correlated to poor differentiation (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). UICC stage and T stage were found significantly correlated to negative expression of GST pi in cytoplasm (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively) and cytoplasm/nucleus (p = 0.017 and p = 0.031, respectively). In univariate analysis, absent of GST pi protein expression in cytoplasm, nucleus and cytoplasm/nucleus was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively), whereas only GST pi cytoplasmic staining retained an independent prognostic significance (p < 0.001) in multivariate analysis. Our results show that GST pi expression is down regulated in the squamous esophageal carcinoma, and that the lack of GST pi expression is associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, deficiency of

  11. Decreased expression of SEMA3A is associated with poor prognosis in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chong; Gao, Xuesong; Liu, Hongbin; Jiang, Tian; Zhai, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that SEMA3A expression was an independent prognostic factor of the overall survival rate of patients with gastric cancer. Conclusion: SEMA3A expression decreased significantly as gastric cancer progressed and metastasized, suggesting that SEMA3A might serve as a candidate tumor suppressor and a potential prognostic biomarker in gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:25197349

  12. Convergence of Mutation and Epigenetic Alterations Identifies Common Genes in Cancer That Predict for Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Timothy A; Glockner, Sabine; Yi, Joo Mi; Chen, Wei; Van Neste, Leander; Cope, Leslie; Herman, James G; Velculescu, Victor; Schuebel, Kornel E; Ahuja, Nita; Baylin, Stephen B

    2008-01-01

    enabled the discovery of a number of clinically significant genes targeted by multiple modes of inactivation in breast and colon cancer. Importantly, we demonstrate that a subset of these genes predict strongly for poor clinical outcome. Our data define a set of genes that are targeted by both genetic and epigenetic events, predict for clinical prognosis, and are likely fundamentally important for cancer initiation or progression. PMID:18507500

  13. Dysregulated expression of Fau and MELK is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Mark R; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Caldas, Carlos; Hedge, Vanessa L; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Williams, Gwyn T

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Programmed cell death through apoptosis plays an essential role in the hormone-regulated physiological turnover of mammary tissue. Failure of this active gene-dependent process is central both to the development of breast cancer and to the appearance of the therapy-resistant cancer cells that produce clinical relapse. Functional expression cloning in two independent laboratories has identified Finkel–Biskis–Reilly murine sarcoma virus-associated ubiquitously expressed gene (Fau) as a novel apoptosis regulator and candidate tumour suppressor. Fau modifies apoptosis-controller Bcl-G, which is also a key target for candidate oncoprotein maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). Methods We have used RNA interference to downregulate Fau and Bcl-G expression, both simultaneously and independently, in breast cancer cells in vitro to determine the importance of their roles in apoptosis. Expression of Fau, Bcl-G and MELK was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in breast cancer tissue and in matched breast epithelial tissue from the same patients. Expression data of these genes obtained using microarrays from a separate group of patients were related to patient survival in Kaplan–Meier analyses. Results siRNA-mediated downregulation of either Fau or Bcl-G expression inhibited apoptosis, and the inhibition produced by combining the two siRNAs was consistent with control of Bcl-G by Fau. Fau expression is significantly reduced in breast cancer tissue and this reduction is associated with poor patient survival, as predicted for a candidate breast cancer tumour suppressor. In addition, MELK expression is increased in breast cancer tissue and this increase is also associated with poor patient survival, as predicted for a candidate oncogene. Bcl-G expression is reduced in breast cancer tissue but decreased Bcl-G expression showed no correlation with survival, indicating that the most important factors controlling Bcl-G activity are post

  14. Dysregulated expression of Fau and MELK is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Mark R; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Caldas, Carlos; Hedge, Vanessa L; Mourtada-Maarabouni, Mirna; Williams, Gwyn T

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death through apoptosis plays an essential role in the hormone-regulated physiological turnover of mammary tissue. Failure of this active gene-dependent process is central both to the development of breast cancer and to the appearance of the therapy-resistant cancer cells that produce clinical relapse. Functional expression cloning in two independent laboratories has identified Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus-associated ubiquitously expressed gene (Fau) as a novel apoptosis regulator and candidate tumour suppressor. Fau modifies apoptosis-controller Bcl-G, which is also a key target for candidate oncoprotein maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). We have used RNA interference to downregulate Fau and Bcl-G expression, both simultaneously and independently, in breast cancer cells in vitro to determine the importance of their roles in apoptosis. Expression of Fau, Bcl-G and MELK was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in breast cancer tissue and in matched breast epithelial tissue from the same patients. Expression data of these genes obtained using microarrays from a separate group of patients were related to patient survival in Kaplan-Meier analyses. siRNA-mediated downregulation of either Fau or Bcl-G expression inhibited apoptosis, and the inhibition produced by combining the two siRNAs was consistent with control of Bcl-G by Fau. Fau expression is significantly reduced in breast cancer tissue and this reduction is associated with poor patient survival, as predicted for a candidate breast cancer tumour suppressor. In addition, MELK expression is increased in breast cancer tissue and this increase is also associated with poor patient survival, as predicted for a candidate oncogene. Bcl-G expression is reduced in breast cancer tissue but decreased Bcl-G expression showed no correlation with survival, indicating that the most important factors controlling Bcl-G activity are post-translational modification (by Fau and MELK) rather than

  15. Low PLCE1 levels are correlated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ya; Xing, Song-Ge; Jia, Wei-Dong; Huang, Mei; Bian, Na-Na

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous reports show that phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1) expression is positively correlated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas; however, the expression of PLCE1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with clinical outcome still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of PLCE1 in HCC tissue and to determine whether PLCE1 was a prognostic factor for HCC patients. Materials and methods PLCE1 levels in 20 paired HCC tissues and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. In addition, protein levels of PLCE1 in one normal liver epithelial cell and four HCC cell lines were examined using Western blot assay. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the expression of PLCE1 in HCC and corresponding surrounding tissues from 90 patients. Statistical analyses were used to examine the association between PLCE1 levels and clinicopathological features. Results We found that the expression of PLCE1 in tumor tissues was significantly lower than those in paracarcinomatous tissues at both mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). We also determined that PLCE1 protein expression levels were lower in HCC cell lines than normal liver epithelial cells (P<0.05). Notably, immunohistochemical assay showed that PLCE1 expression was significantly low in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent normal liver tissues (40% vs 18.9%; P<0.05). Besides, PLCE1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor capsulae, vascular invasion, Edmondson grade, alpha-fetoprotein, and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P<0.05). Univariate analysis revealed that lower level expression of PLCE1 was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) rate (P<0.001) and disease-free survival rate (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that low PLCE1 level was an independent poor prognostic factor of OS and recurrence

  16. Expression of the Stem Cell Factor Nestin in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Svenja; Friess, Martina; Frischknecht, Lukas; Korol, Dimitri; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf; Vrugt, Bart; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Soltermann, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background The epithelioid and sarcomatoid histologic variants of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can be considered as E- and M-parts of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) axis; the biphasic being an intermediate. EMT is associated with an increase of stem cell (SC) traits. We correlated the neural crest SC marker nestin and the EMT marker periostin with histology, type of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and overall survival (OS) of MPM patients. Patients and Methods Tumor tissues of a historic cohort 1 (320 patients) and an intended induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) cohort 2 (145 patients) were immunohistochemically H-scored (intensity of immunoreactivity multiplied by frequency of stained cells). Paired chemo-naïve biopsies and -treated surgical specimens were available for 105/145 patients. CT included platinum/gemcitabine (Pla/Gem) or platinum/pemetrexed (Pla/Pem). Results Expression of any cytosolic nestin progressively increased from epithelioid to biphasic to sarcomatoid MPM in cohort 1, whereas the diagnostic markers calretinin and podoplanin decreased. In cohort 2, Pla/Pem CT increased the expression level of nestin in comparison to Pla/Gem, whereas the opposite was found for periostin. In Pla/Pem treated patients, nestin was higher in biphasic MPM compared to epithelioid. In addition to non-epithelioid histology, any expression of nestin in chemo-naïve biopsies (median overall survival: 22 vs. 17 months) and chemo-treated surgical specimens (18 vs. 12 months) as well as high periostin in biopsies (23 vs. 15 months) were associated with poor prognosis. In the multivariate survival analysis, any nestin expression in chemo-naïve biopsies proved to be an independent prognosticator against histology. In both pre- and post-CT situations, the combination of nestin or periostin expression with non-epithelioid histology was particularly/ dismal (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The SC marker nestin and the EMT

  17. CMS proposal for interventional pain management by nurse anesthetists: evidence by proclamation with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Falco, Frank J E; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hansen, Hans; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    and training qualifications for CRNAs to offer interventional techniques, the FTC issued their opinion and CMS proposed to expand these practice patterns with a policy of improved access and reduced cost. However, in reality, the opposite will happen and will increase fraud, reduce access due to inappropriate procedures, and increase complications, all as a result of privileges by legislation without education. The CMS proposal for interventional pain management by nurse anesthetists is a proclamation with a poor prognosis.

  18. Efficacy of vincristine and etoposide with escalating cyclophosphamide in poor-prognosis pediatric brain tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, David S.; Cohn, Richard J.; McCowage, Geoffrey; Alvaro, Frank; Oswald, Cecilia; Mrongovius, Robert; White, Les

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the VETOPEC regimen, a regimen of vincristine and etoposide with escalating doses of cyclophosphamide (CPA), in pediatric patients with high-risk brain tumors. Three consecutive studies by the Australia and New Zealand Children’s Cancer Study Group—VETOPEC I, Baby Brain 91, and VETOPEC II—have used a specific chemotherapy regimen of vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP-16) and escalating CPA in patients with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk solid tumors. Patients in the VETOPEC II cohort were treated with very high dose CPA with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue. We analyzed the subset of patients with high-risk brain tumors treated with these intensive VETOPEC-based protocols to assess the response, toxicity, and survival. We also assessed whether the use of very high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue improved the response rate or affected toxicity. Seventy-one brain tumor patients were treated with VETOPEC-based protocols. Of the 54 patients evaluable for tumor response, 17 had a complete response (CR) and 20 a partial response (PR) to treatment, which yielded an overall response rate of 69%. The CR + PR was 83% (19/23) for medulloblastomas, 56% (5/9) for primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 55% (6/11) for grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas, and 80% (6/8) for ependymomas. At a median follow-up of 36 months, overall survival for the entire cohort of 71 patients was 32%, with event-free survival of 13%. There were no toxic deaths within the PBSC-supported VETOPEC II cohort, despite higher CPA doses, compared with 7% among the non-PBSC patients. This regimen produces high response rates in a variety of very poor prognosis pediatric brain tumors. The maximum tolerated dose of CPA was not reached. Higher escalation in doses of CPA did not deliver a further improvement in response. With PBSC rescue in the VETOPEC II study, hematologic toxicity was no longer a limiting factor. The response rates observed

  19. Efficacy of vincristine and etoposide with escalating cyclophosphamide in poor-prognosis pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, David S; Cohn, Richard J; McCowage, Geoffrey; Alvaro, Frank; Oswald, Cecilia; Mrongovius, Robert; White, Les

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the VETOPEC regimen, a regimen of vincristine and etoposide with escalating doses of cyclophosphamide (CPA), in pediatric patients with high-risk brain tumors. Three consecutive studies by the Australia and New Zealand Children's Cancer Study Group--VETOPEC I, Baby Brain 91, and VETOPEC II--have used a specific chemotherapy regimen of vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP-16) and escalating CPA in patients with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk solid tumors. Patients in the VETOPEC II cohort were treated with very high dose CPA with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue. We analyzed the subset of patients with high-risk brain tumors treated with these intensive VETOPEC-based protocols to assess the response, toxicity, and survival. We also assessed whether the use of very high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue improved the response rate or affected toxicity. Seventy-one brain tumor patients were treated with VETOPEC-based protocols. Of the 54 patients evaluable for tumor response, 17 had a complete response (CR) and 20 a partial response (PR) to treatment, which yielded an overall response rate of 69%. The CR + PR was 83% (19/23) for medulloblastomas, 56% (5/9) for primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 55% (6/11) for grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas, and 80% (6/8) for ependymomas. At a median follow-up of 36 months, overall survival for the entire cohort of 71 patients was 32%, with event-free survival of 13%. There were no toxic deaths within the PBSC-supported VETOPEC II cohort, despite higher CPA doses, compared with 7% among the non-PBSC patients. This regimen produces high response rates in a variety of very poor prognosis pediatric brain tumors. The maximum tolerated dose of CPA was not reached. Higher escalation in doses of CPA did not deliver a further improvement in response. With PBSC rescue in the VETOPEC II study, hematologic toxicity was no longer a limiting factor. The response rates observed

  20. Association of RAB5 overexpression in pancreatic cancer with cancer progression and poor prognosis via E-cadherin suppression.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takamichi; Araki, Kenichiro; Yokobori, Takehiko; Altan, Bolag; Yamanaka, Takahiro; Ishii, Norihiro; Tsukagoshi, Mariko; Watanabe, Akira; Kubo, Norio; Handa, Tadashi; Hosouchi, Yasuo; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Oyama, Tetsunari; Shirabe, Ken; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-14

    Pancreatic cancer is a common type of cancer with poor prognosis worldwide. Postoperative survival depends on the existence of metastasis. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying cancer progression is important to improve prognosis. The RAS-associated protein RAB5 activates intracellular membrane trafficking, and RAB5 expression is correlated to progression and epithelial mesenchymal transition in various cancers.The expression of RAB5 and E-cadherin in 111 pancreatic cancer samples was investigated by immunohistochemical staining, and the relationship among RAB5 expression, clinicopathological factors, and E-cadherin expression was assessed. Furthermore, RAB5 suppression analysis by siRNA was performed to determine the roles of RAB5 in morphological change, proliferation potency, cell migration ability, and invasiveness of the pancreatic cancer cell line.High RAB5 expression correlated with the presence of lymphatic invasion and venous invasion and low E-cadherin expression. Patients with high RAB5 expression had a poorer prognosis than those with low RAB5 expression. RAB5 suppression in pancreatic cancer cells enhanced E-cadherin expression; changed cell morphology from spindle to round; and inhibited proliferation, invasion, and cell migration.RAB5 contributes to poor prognosis and progression in pancreatic cancer patients. It may be a promising candidate for individualized therapy in refractory pancreatic cancer.

  1. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production

    PubMed Central

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T.; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Plant, Nick J.

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  2. High-dose therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation in first complete or partial remission for poor prognosis Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Fleury, J; Legros, M; Colombat, P; Cure, H; Travade, P; Tortochaux, J; Dionet, C; Chollet, P; Linassier, C; Lamagnere, J P; Blaise, D; Viens, P; Maraninchi, D; Plagne, R

    1996-01-01

    We report the experience of three French centres which evaluated high-dose therapy (HDT) as consolidation therapy for poor prognosis Hodgkin's disease (HD). From March 1986 to April 1990, 23 consecutive patients with poor prognosis stage IV HD underwent HDT followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) after achieving either complete remission (CR1) or good partial response (GPR1) (reduction mass> 75%). The median age was 31 years (range 18 to 55 years), 14 were male. All patients except one initially had at least 2 poor prognosis factors such as: systemic symptoms (n = 19), bulky tumor (n = 16), more than one extranodal site (n = 9), bone marrow involvement (n = 5), lymphocyte count < or = 1.10(9)/1 (n = 8) and biological stage B (n = 21). All patients had previously been treated with alternating MOPP/ABVD. Ten patients were in GPR1 and 13 in CR1 before transplant. The conditioning regimens were: CBV (n = 17), BEAM (n = 5), BEAC (n = 1) followed by bone marrow rescue. Radiotherapy was introduced just before the conditioning regimen for 6 patients or after ABMT for 5 patients. Nine of 10 patients in GPR1 achieved CR after ABMT but one died early of treatment-related toxicity. Five of 22 patients who were in CR posttransplant, relapsed (3, 4, 4, 18, 36 months). Seventeen patients remain alive in continuous CR with a median follow-up of 60 months (range: 30-100 months). The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) projected at 5 years are 92% and 77% respectively. Consolidation by HDT and ABMT proved to be well tolerated. An international trial is currently underway to attempt to demonstrate a clear benefit on survival for this subset of poor prognosis HD patients.

  3. High Vimentin Expression Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Predicated a Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuli; Liu, Liu; Ye, Weimin; Ye, Dongxia; Wang, Tong; Guo, Wenzheng; Liao, Yueling; Xu, Dongliang; Song, Hongyong; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Hanguang; Deng, Jiong; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common public health problem worldwide with poor prognosis, which is largely due to lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Identification of specific molecular markers of OSCC with lymph node metastasis would be very important for early and specific diagnosis. In this study, we screened for the potential prognosis markers via unbiased transcriptomic microarray analysis in paired two OSCC cell lines, a lymph node metastatic HN12 cell line and a low metastatic parental HN4 cell line. The results showed that vimentin, with 87-fold increase of expression, was on the top of all upregulated genes in metastatic HN12 cells compared to non-metastatic HN4 cells. Treatment of non-metastatic HN4 cells with TGF-β1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), with increased vimentin expression as well as enhanced migration activity. Consistently, knockdown of vimentin via siRNA resulted in suppressed invasion and migration activities of HN12 cells, suggesting an essential role of vimentin in EMT-related functions of OSCC cells. Finally, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining analysis showed that high vimentin expression was strongly associated with high lymph node metastases (p < 0.05), and poor overall survival (p < 0.05) in OSCC patients. Thus, high vimentin expression is strongly associated with increased metastatic potential, and may serve as a prediction marker for poor prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:27966589

  4. Decreased expression of CDH1 or CTNNB1 affects poor prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Terashita, Yukio; Sakamoto, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Mizoguchi, Koji; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Okubo, Tomotaka; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-09-06

    E-cadherin/CDH1 is one of the proteins involved in cell adhesion, and it is known that decreased expression of E-cadherin induces lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer. Beta catenin/CTNNB1, which is an important component of the Wnt signaling pathway, binds to E-cadherin at the cell membrane, where the complex of these two proteins functions in the stabilization of cell adhesion. However, its role in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer is still unknown. This study included 86 patients with esophageal cancer who underwent surgery between 1998 and 2007. The expression of the E-cadherin/CDH1 gene product (E-cadherin/CDH1) and that of the beta catenin/CTNNB1 protein in the cell membrane were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. We examined the correlations among CDH1 or CTNNB1 expression, clinicopathological factors, and the prognosis of patients with ESCC. CDH1 and CTNNB1 were expressed in 52.3 % (45/86) and 36.0 % (31/86) of tumor samples, respectively. Both CDH1 and CTNNB1 were co-expressed in 22.1 % (19/86) of esophageal cancer tissues. CDH1 expression correlated with the p-stage (stages I-II vs stages III-IV, p = 0.032), T factor (T1-2 vs T3-4, p = 0.0088), and lymphatic invasion (p = 0.019). However, CDH1 expression did not correlate with the N factor or the blood vessel invasion. CTNNB1 expression correlated with the T factor (T1-2 vs T3-4, p = 0.0015), p-stage (stages I-II vs stages III-IV, p = 0.030), and lymphatic invasion (p = 0.007). The CDH1(+)/CTNNB1(+) phenotype was inversely correlated with the T factor, N factor, p-stage, lymphatic invasion, and blood vessel invasion. Furthermore, patients whose tumors were double-positive for CDH1 and CTNNB1 had a significantly higher survival rate than those whose tumors were negative for CDH1 or CTNNB1 (log-rank test, p = 0.0192). The T factor and N factor had a strong negative correlation with double-positive tumors. These were both independent prognostic factors, as was the

  5. CDH1 promoter methylation correlates with decreased gene expression and poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Xin; Qin, Sida; Wang, Huangzhen; DU, Ning; Li, Yanbo; Pang, Yamei; Wang, Cuicui; Xu, Chongwen; Ren, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis in patients with breast cancer, and methylation of its promoter is correlated with decreased gene expression. However, there is currently no direct evidence that CDH1 promoter methylation indicates poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. In the present study, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the methylation status of the CDH1 promoter in 137 primary breast cancer, 85 matched normal breast tissue and 13 lung metastasis specimens. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to assess the relative expression levels of CDH1 mRNA, and correlation analysis between CDH1 methylation status, and gene expression, clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival was performed. Methylation of CDH1 was identified in 40.9% (56/137) of primary breast cancer specimens, 61.5% (8/13) of lung metastasis specimens and none of the matched normal breast specimens. The downregulation of CDH1 mRNA and E-cadherin protein expression were identified to be significantly correlated with CDH1 methylation (P<0.05). In addition, CDH1 methylation was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and estrogen receptor status of patients (P<0.05). In univariate analyses, patients with CDH1 methylation exhibited poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS; P<0.05). Furthermore, multivariate analyses revealed that CDH1 methylation was an independent prognostic factor predicting poor OS (HR, 1.737; 95% CI, 0.957-3.766; P=0.041) and DFS (HR, 2.018; 95% CI, 2.057-3.845; P=0.033) in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, the present study suggests that CDH1 promoter methylation may be correlated with breast carcinogenesis and indicates poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer.

  6. Prognosis of ultra-early microsurgery combined with extraventricular drainage in patients with poor-grade aneurysms.

    PubMed

    He, Jian-Qing; Chen, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Yang, Li-Kun; Wang, Yu-Hai; Zou, Jun; Hu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the clinical effects of ultra-early microsurgery (< 24 hours) combined with extraventricular drainage for the treatment of poor-grade aneurysms. A total of 60 patients with poor-grade aneurysms were randomly divided into a microsurgery combined with extraventricular drainage (MED) group and conventional microsurgery (M) group. The prognosis was comparatively studied for these 2 groups. All patients underwent a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) assessment during a 6-month to 2-year follow-up. The excellent recovery (GOS, 4-5 points) rate for the MED group was 30% higher than that of the M group, while the poor recovery (GOS, 1-2 points) rate was 26.7% lower than that of the M group (P = 0.016). The incidence of acute brain swelling (26.7% vs 53.3%; P = 0.035), cerebral infarction (20% vs 46.7%; P = 0.025), and vasospasm (16.7% vs 40%; P = 0.045) for the MED group was significantly lower than that of the M group. For microsurgery combined with extraventricular drainage, the risk of cerebral infarction and vasospasm were significantly reduced for patients with poor-grade aneurysms, and the prognosis was better.

  7. Expression of carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) indicates poor prognosis in human gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhe Long; Kim, Meeran; Huang, Song Mei; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Jin-Man

    2013-03-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a lethal neoplasm, and new prognostic markers are required. Deregulation of E3 ligases contributes to cancer development and is associated with poor prognosis. Carboxyl terminus of heat shock protein 70-interacting protein (CHIP) is a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, the role of which has not been evaluated in GBC. Therefore, the present study investigated CHIP expression in GBC and its prognostic significance. In the present study, CHIP expression was measured in 78 tumor specimens of GBC by immunohistochemistry and the correlation between CHIP expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed. Of the tumor specimens, 26.9% showed high staining intensity [the CHIP high expression group (HEG)]. The CHIP-HEG was not associated with other common clinicopathological parameters, including T stage, and lymph node and distant metastases. CHIP-HEG patients had a significantly worse prognosis than patients with low CHIP expression with median cancer-specific survival times of 8.0 months (range, 1-34 months) and 13.0 months (range, 1-110 months), respectively (P=0.023). Multivariate analyses showed that CHIP expression was close to being an independent risk factor for predicting patient survival. CHIP expression may be associated with a poor prognosis in GBC. Since CHIP is not associated with other clinicopathological prognostic factors, it may serve as an ideal molecular marker for predicting patient outcomes.

  8. miR-135b, a key regulator of malignancy, is linked to poor prognosis in human myxoid liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Y; Hagiwara, K; Yamamoto, Y; Fujiwara, T; Matsuo, K; Yoshida, A; Kawai, A; Saito, T; Ochiya, T

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid/round cell (RC) liposarcomas (MLS) were originally classified into two distinct populations based on histological differences; a myxoid component and a RC component. It is notable that, depending on an increase of the RC component, the prognosis significantly differs. Hence, the RC component is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the malignancy of the RC component still remain largely unknown. Here, we report microRNA-135b (miR-135b), a key regulator of the malignancy, highly expressed in the RC component and promoting MLS cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through the direct suppression of thrombospondin 2 (THBS2). Decreased THBS2 expression by miR-135b increases the total amount of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and influences cellular density and an extracellular matrix structure, thereby resulting in morphological change in tumor. The expression levels of miR-135b and THBS2 significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in MLS patients. Overall, our study reveals that the miR-135b/THBS2/MMP2 axis is tightly related to MLS pathophysiology and has an important clinical implication. This work provides noteworthy evidence for overcoming metastasis and improving patient outcomes, and sheds light on miR-135b and THBS2 as novel molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy in MLS. PMID:27157622

  9. FRZB up-regulation is correlated with hepatic metastasis and poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanping; Zhang, Fang; Lan, Huanrong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Guoming; Teng, Lisong; Jin, Ketao

    2015-01-01

    Frizzled-related protein (FRZB) was up-regulated in hepatic metastasis samples compared with primary colon cancer samples in our previous work. However, the clinical relevance of FRZB in colon cancer hepatic metastasis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of FRZB in patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection. FRZB expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) primary colon carcinoma and paired hepatic metastasis tissues from 136 patients with liver metastasis from colon carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection. The relation between FRZB expression and clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in these 136 patients was retrospectively examined. The prognostic significance of negative or positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Positive expression of FRZB was correlated with liver metastasis of colon cancer. Univariate analysis indicated significantly worse overall survival (OS) for patients with a positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis than for patients with a negative FRZB expression. Multivariate analysis showed positive-FRZB in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis to be an independent prognostic factor for OS after hepatic resection (P = 0.001). Positive expression of FRZB was statistically significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis. FRZB could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection.

  10. Low expression of BMPRIB indicates poor prognosis of breast cancer and is insensitive to taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Kun; Qin, Fengxia; Zhang, Huikun; Liu, Xiaoli; Guo, Caixia; Zhang, Ming; Gu, Feng; Fu, Li; Ma, Yongjie

    2016-01-26

    Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB (BMPRIB) is one osteogenesis factor, which function in breast cancer has been rarely explored until recently. In the clinical study presented here, involving a cohort of 368 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients, we identified that patients with low expression of BMPRIB exhibited poor prognosis, especially in the luminal B subtype. We also provided the first piece of evidence that low level of BMPRIB was a promoting factor for breast cancer patients to develop bone metastasis, but not lung, liver or brain. The first of its kind, we reported that patients with high expression of BMPRIB exhibited favorable prognosis by a retrospective analysis consisting of 168 patients treated with TE (taxane and anthracycline) regimens. And the patients with high expression of BMPRIB were more sensitive to TE regimens in the detection of 32 paired pre-neoadjuvant and post-neoadjuvant specimens. Overall, our study concluded that low expression of BMPRIB indicated poor prognosis of breast cancer and was insensitive to taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy. Our findings also lay a foundation to help clinicians improve identification of patients for TE regimens by BMPRIB in the era of precision medicine.

  11. Overexpression of Tiam1 predicts poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaimin; Shi, Guirong; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Hui; Fan, Qinxia; Wang, Xin

    2011-03-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) plays an important role in the occurrence and development of several different tumors; however, to date, little research has been done to verify the potential role of Tiam1 as a prognostic marker for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the present study, we examined the expression of Tiam1 in ESCC tissues by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting methods and investigated the correlation between Tiam1 levels and prognosis of patients with ESCC. Tiam1 exhibited high expression in ESCC tissues, whereas the normal esophageal tissues showed negative or weak Tiam1 expression. Additionally, Tiam1 mRNA and protein expression levels were both significantly correlated with histology grade, clinical staging and lymph node metastasis (all P<0.05), but not related to age and gender (both P>0.05). Further, ESCC patients with strong Tiam1 mRNA (P=0.000) and protein (P=0.000) expression had a poorer prognosis than those with weak expression. These findings demonstrate that Tiam1 may be used as molecular marker for predicting the prognosis of patients with ESCC.

  12. MTDH Activation by 8q22 Genomic Gain Promotes Chemoresistance and Metastasis of Poor-Prognosis Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guohong; Chong, Robert A.; Yang, Qifeng; Wei, Yong; Blanco, Mario A.; Li, Feng; Reiss, Michael; Au, Jessie L. –S.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Kang, Yibin

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Targeted therapy for metastatic diseases relies on the identification of functionally important metastasis genes from a large number of random genetic alterations. Here we use a computational algorithm to map minimal recurrent genomic alterations associated with poor-prognosis breast cancer. 8q22 genomic gain was identified by this approach and validated in an extensive collection of breast tumor samples. Regional gain of 8q22 elevates the expression of metastasis gene Metadherin (MTDH), which is overexpressed in more than 40% of breast cancers and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Functional characterization of MTDH revealed its dual role in promoting metastatic seeding and enhancing chemoresistance. These findings establish MTDH as an important therapeutic target for simultaneously enhancing chemotherapy efficacy and reducing metastasis risk. SIGNIFICANCE Genomic profiling of breast cancer has established several clinically applicable poor-prognosis gene signatures. However, the lack of overlap between independent signatures prevents the identification of functionally important genes in the signatures. Here we report an integrative strategy to identify recurrent genomic alterations that are both clinically relevant and functionally important for breast cancer progression. Successful application of this approach lead to the identification of MTDH at the recurrent 8q22 poor-prognosis genomic gain with important functions in both metastasis and chemoresistance. The dual-functionality of MTDH further provides an explanation for the long standing conceptual dilemma regarding the selection of metastasis genes in the primary tumor. Overall, our data illustrate the synergistic value of integrating bioinformatics with clinical and experimental metastasis research. PMID:19111877

  13. Promoter CpG island methylation of RET predicts poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Draht, Muriel X G; Smits, Kim M; Tournier, Benjamin; Jooste, Valerie; Chapusot, Caroline; Carvalho, Beatriz; Cleven, Arjen H G; Derks, Sarah; Wouters, Kim A D; Belt, Eric J T; Stockmann, Hein B A C; Bril, Herman; Weijenberg, Matty P; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Herman, James G; Meijer, Gerrit A; Piard, Françoise; Melotte, Veerle; van Engeland, Manon

    2014-05-01

    Improved prognostic stratification of patients with TNM stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is desired, since 20-30% of high-risk stage II patients may die within five years of diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene promoter CpG island methylation as a possible prognostic marker for TNM stage II CRC patients. The utility of RET promoter CpG island methylation in tumors of stage II CRC patients as a prognostic biomarker for CRC related death was studied in three independent series (including 233, 231, and 294 TNM stage II patients, respectively) by using MSP and pyrosequencing. The prognostic value of RET promoter CpG island methylation was analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. In the first series, analyzed by MSP, CRC stage II patients (n = 233) with RET methylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival as compared to those with unmethylated tumors (HRmultivariable = 2.51, 95%-CI: 1.42-4.43). Despite a significant prognostic effect of RET methylation in stage III patients of a second series, analyzed by MSP, the prognostic effect in stage II patients (n = 231) was not statistically significant (HRmultivariable = 1.16, 95%-CI 0.71-1.92). The third series (n = 294), analyzed by pyrosequencing, confirmed a statistically significant association between RET methylation and poor overall survival in stage II patients (HRmultivariable = 1.91, 95%-CI: 1.04-3.53). Our results show that RET promoter CpG island methylation, analyzed by two different techniques, is associated with a poor prognosis in stage II CRC in two independent series and a poor prognosis in stage III CRC in one series. RET methylation may serve as a useful and robust tool for clinical practice to identify high-risk stage II CRC patients with a poor prognosis. This merits further investigation.

  14. Risk factors in the pregnancy of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: association of hypocomplementaemia with poor prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, S; Sasaki, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Seino, J; Okamura, K; Yoshinaga, K; Morito, N; Kasukawa, R; Aotuka, S; Yokohari, R

    1992-01-01

    Fetal wastage is still high in the pregnancies of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We examined retrospectively the cases of 38 patients with inactive SLE in whom pregnancy was either desired or had already been obtained. The prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the group with fetal loss was high. The antibodies were, however, also detected in five of 14 patients who had had a live birth. It was noted that low levels of serum complement activity (CH50 less than 25 U/ml) occurred in five of six patients with fetal loss, but in only two of 22 with a live birth. Serial studies also confirmed a close association between decreased serum complement activity and poor fetal prognosis in lupus pregnancy. Treatment with increased doses of prednisolone may help to achieve successful live births. Thus hypocomplementaemia may be associated with a worse prognosis for the fetus in the pregnancies of some patients with SLE in remission. Images PMID:1616326

  15. High pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio predicts recurrence and poor prognosis for combined small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, N; Cai, Q

    2015-10-01

    Compared to pure small cell lung cancer (SCLC), combined small cell lung cancer (C-SCLC) has its own characteristics. High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been shown to be related to poor prognosis in several types of tumors. The aim of this study was to explore the prognosis value of NLR and PLR in patients with C-SCLC. A total of 112 patients diagnosed with C-SCLC between January 2000 and March 2009 were enrolled in the study. The clinicopathological parameters, laboratory analyses, and survival time were collected and analyzed. The correlation between NLR, PLR, and clinicopathological characters was analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic significance of these parameters for C-SCLC. The pretreatment NLR was elevated in 37.5 % patients (NLR ≥ 4.15; n = 42; H-NLR). NLR was significantly related to disease stage (p = 0.033) and tumor recurrence (p = 0.014). The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were significantly worse in the H-NLR group (OS: 22.0 months vs 11.7 months, p = 0.001; PFS: 11.1 vs 6.0 months, p < 0.001). However, PLR at diagnosis was not associated with OS or PFS. Multivariate analyses indicated elevated NLR (HR = 1.6; p = 0.001), disease stage (HR = 1.6; p = 0.001), and performance status (HR = 1.8; p = 0.015) as independent prognostic factors. High pretreatment NLR (≥4.15) is a potential useful indicator for C-SCLC recurrence and predicts a poor long-term prognosis for C-SCLC, which should be considered in defining the prognosis with other well-known prognosticators in C-SCLC patients.

  16. Overestimation of the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease in the poor prognosis' group according to the 2002 Japanese histological classification for immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yoichi; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Joh, Kensuke; Okonogi, Hideo; Koike, Kentaro; Utsunomiya, Yasunori; Ogura, Makoto; Matsushima, Masato; Yoshimura, Mitsuhiro; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Furusu, Akira; Yasuda, Takashi; Shirai, Sayuri; Shibata, Takanori; Endoh, Masayuki; Hattori, Motoshi; Akioka, Yuko; Katafuti, Ritsuko; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Kimura, Kenjiro; Matsuo, Seiichi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-06-01

    The current (2012) histological classification of immunoglobulin A nephropathy was established using a case-control study of 287 patients. However, the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been validated for the previous (2002) classification. This study aimed to determine whether the previous classification could identify the risk of long-term renal outcome through re-analysis of the 2012 cohort. On the basis of the 2002 classification, namely 'good prognosis', 'relatively good prognosis', 'relatively poor prognosis', and 'poor prognosis', we examined the clinical data at the time of biopsy, the correlation between the 2002 classification and long-term renal outcomes, and a patient-by-patient correlation between the 2002 and 2012 classification systems. This was performed by analyzing samples from the 287 patients used to establish the 2012 classification. The rate of decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater and the odds ratio of progression to ESRD was higher in the 'poor prognosis' group. In contrast, the odds ratio for renal death was comparable between the groups described as 'relatively poor prognosis' and 'relatively good prognosis' in the 2002 classification. Many patients in the 2002 classification were classified with a lower histological grade in the current classification, but none were classified with a higher grade. The 2002 classification could also identify the risk of progression to ESRD. However, it was overestimated for patients in the 'poor prognosis' group in the 2002 classification, as that group included patients with milder histological damage.

  17. p16 upregulation is linked to poor prognosis in ERG negative prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Burdelski, Christoph; Dieckmann, Tatsiana; Heumann, Asmus; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Kluth, Martina; Beyer, Burkhard; Steuber, Thomas; Pompe, Raisa; Graefen, Markus; Simon, Ronald; Minner, Sarah; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Koop, Christina; Izbicki, Jakob; Sauter, Guido; Krech, Till; Schlomm, Thorsten; Wilczak, Waldemar; Lebok, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Altered expression of the p16 tumor suppressor is frequently found in prostate cancer, but its role for tumor development and patient prognosis is disputed. In order to clarify the prognostic role of p16 and to draw conclusions on interactions with key molecular features of prostate cancer, we studied p16 expression in a tissue microarray (TMA) with more than 12,400 prostate cancers and attached clinical, pathological, and molecular data such as ERG status and deletions of 3p13, 5q21, 6q15, and PTEN. p16 immunostaining was absent in non-neoplastic prostate cells but was found in 37 % of 9627 interpretable prostate cancers. Finding p16 expression in 58 % of ERG positive but in only 22 % of ERG negative cancers (p < 0.0001), highlights the known androgen-dependence of both genes. Significant associations between p16 upregulation and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis were strictly limited to the subset of ERG negative cancers. For example, p16 positivity increased from 15 % in Gleason ≤3 + 3 to 38 % in Gleason ≥4 + 4 cancers (p < 0.0001) and was associated with early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001). p16 upregulation was strongly linked to deletions of PTEN (p < 0.0001), highlighting the interaction of both genes in growth control. In conclusion, p16 upregulation is a strong prognostic factor in ERG negative cancers. The strict limitation of its prognostic impact to a molecularly defined subgroup challenges the concept of molecular prognosis testing without considering molecular subtypes.

  18. Prognosis of acute idiopathic neck pain is poor: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hush, Julia M; Lin, C Christine; Michaleff, Zoe A; Verhagen, Arianne; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2011-05-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prognosis of acute idiopathic neck pain and disability. EMBASE, CINAHL, Medline, AMED, PEDro, and CENTRAL were searched from inception to July 2009, limited to human studies. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews were searched by hand. Search terms included: neck pain, prognosis, inception, cohort, longitudinal, observational, or prospective study and randomized controlled trial. Eligible studies were longitudinal cohort studies and randomized controlled trials with a no treatment or minimal treatment arm that recruited an inception cohort of acute idiopathic neck pain and reported pain or disability outcomes. Eligibility was determined by 2 authors independently. Seven of 20,085 references were included. Pain and disability data were extracted independently by 2 authors. Risk of bias was assessed independently by 2 authors. Statistical pooling showed a weighted mean pain score (0-100) of 64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 61-67) at onset and 35 (95% CI, 32-38) at 6.5 weeks. At 12 months, neck pain severity remained high at 42 (95% CI, 39-45). Disability reduced from a pooled weighted mean score (0-100) at onset of 30 (95% CI, 28-32) to 17 (95% CI, 15-19) by 6.5 weeks, without further improvement at 12 months. Studies varied in length of follow-up, design, and sample size. This review provides Level I evidence that the prognosis of acute idiopathic neck pain is worse than currently recognized. This evidence can guide primary care clinicians when providing prognostic information to patients. Further research to identify prognostic factors and long-term outcomes from inception cohorts would be valuable. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. p53 exon 7 mutations as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, P; Vega, F J; Caldés, T; Massa, M; de Juan, C; Cerdán, F J; Sánchez, A; López, J A; Torres, A J; Balibrea, J L; Benito, M

    1998-08-14

    We have studied 61 resected colorectal adenocarcinomas in order to investigate p53 mutations as a prognostic factor for this pathology. Mutations in exons 5-9 of the p53 gene were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique followed by sequencing. Our data indicate that p53 exon 7 mutations were prevalent in the latest stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and patients bearing this alteration had the worst prognosis. Therefore, according to our results, mutations affecting exon 7 of the p53 gene could be considered as a useful marker of biological aggressiveness for colorectal cancer.

  20. Mast Cells Comprise the Major of Interleukin 17-Producing Cells and Predict a Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jian-Fei; Pan, Hong-Ying; Ying, Xi-Hui; Lou, Jian; Ji, Jian-Song; Zou, Hai

    2016-03-01

    IL-17 and IL-17-producing cells have been found in many types of human cancers and murine models. However, the source of tumor-infiltrating IL-17 and IL-17-producing cells in HCC and the prognostic values remain poorly understood. A total of 57 HCC patients were enrolled in this study, and immunofluorescence double stain was used to evaluate the colocalization of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, CD56 NK cells, CD20 B cells, CD68 Macrophages, and MCT mast cells with IL-17. The prognostic value of IL-17-producing cells was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model. MCT mast cells, but not other cells, were the predominant IL-17-producing cell type. Overall survival analysis revealed that the increasing intratumoral-infiltrated MCT mast cells were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence double stain showed a positive correlation between the number of MCT mast cells and MCVs. These findings indicated the major IL-17-producing cells in HCC were MCT mast cells and these cells infiltration may promote tumor progression by angiogenesis. Increased MCT mast cells was associated with a poor prognosis, indicating therapy targeting MCT mast cells might be an effective strategy in controlling intratumor IL-17 infiltration and MCVs.

  1. GATA3 expression correlates with poor prognosis and tumor-associated macrophage infiltration in peripheral T cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunping; Zhong, Dingrong; Luo, Yufeng; Zhou, Daobin

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined the prognostic value of two T-cell-specific transcription factors, GATA3 and T-bet, in PTCL, uncovered the pathogenesis of PTCL, and investigated new PTCL therapeutic targets. Samples from 109 PTCL patients were examined for expression of GATA3, T-bet and CD68. High GATA3 expression correlated with poor survival in PTCL patients and with tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration, as indicated by the presence of CD68-positive cells. Multivariate analysis further confirmed that high GATA3 expression and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores higher than 2 were independent predictors of patient survival. Using lentiviral transfection to induce stable GATA3 knockdown in a PTCL cell line, we observed that GATA-3 knockdown in Hut78 cells decreased levels of IL4, IL5, IL13 and VEGF mRNA and reduced the number of co-cultured U937 cells that differentiated towards the M2 phenotype. These results suggest that high GATA3 expression is a predictor of a poor prognosis in PTCL, and that T lymphoma cells promote M2-type macrophage differentiation through a GATA3-dependent mechanism. PMID:27589565

  2. How FSH and AMH reflect probabilities of oocyte numbers in poor prognosis patients with small oocyte yields.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Darmon, Sarah K; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Weghofer, Andrea; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lin; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-11-01

    In poor prognosis patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, advance determinations of likely oocyte yields are especially important since oocyte numbers to large degree determine in vitro fertilization cycle outcomes. Based on baseline follicle stimulating hormone and anti-müllerian hormone levels at time of initial presentation, we here, therefore, determined at all ages the probabilities of obtaining 1-≥5 oocytes in a retrospective analysis of 1554 consecutive patients undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles at an academically affiliated private fertility center. At lowest levels (≤2.5 mIU/mL), Follicle stimulating hormone at all ages was highly predictable for ≥1 oocyte (88-96 %). Probabilities declined and diverged between ages with increasing follicle stimulating hormone, though narrowed again at high follicle stimulating hormone. Anti-Müllerian hormone demonstrated at higher levels (2.5-≥5 ng/ml) at all ages almost perfect probabilities (99-100 %). With declining anti-Müllerian hormone, age categories, however, increasingly diverged, though to lesser degree than follicle stimulating hormone. In poor prognosis patients, follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone, thus, offer at different ages very specific probabilities for retrieval of 1-≥5 oocytes. Since oocyte numbers are associated with embryo numbers, and numbers of transferable embryos with live birth rates, here presented probability tables should facilitate improved prognostication of poor prognosis patients. Discrepancies in here reported probabilities between follicle stimulating hormone and anti-müllerian hormone also further define follicle stimulating hormone and anti-müllerian hormone in their respective abilities to represent functional ovarian reserve at different ages.

  3. In situ hybridisation and S1 mapping show that the presence of infiltrating plasma cells is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, H.; Collis, P.; Baildam, A.; Ralphs, D.; Lyons, B.; Howell, A.; Craig, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to identify potential markers of prognosis in breast cancer, representative cDNA libraries were constructed using RNA isolated from primary breast tumour tissue associated with good and poor prognosis. Cross-screening of these libraries repeatedly identified cloned mRNA species associated with the immune system, in particular B-cells, in libraries derived from tumours of poor prognosis. We have used one of these a kappa IV light chain cDNA probe, in two complementary studies to investigate the relationship between immunoglobin gene expression and prognosis. The results obtained using a combination of S1 mapping, RNA blotting and in situ hybridisation demonstrate that the presence of plasma cells, as defined by infiltrating cells which express high levels of immunoglobulin kappa-chain mRNA, is associated with a poor prognosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3224077

  4. Sperm-associated antigen 9 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and insensitive to Taxol treatment in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuang; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Qifan

    2016-01-01

    Sperm-associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) has been reported to express in several cancers and have clinical significance. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that there was a strong association among SPAG9 expression and tumor size, TNM stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis, and recurrence. It suggested that SPAG9-elevated expression was an independently prognostic indicator for both OS and DFS. Furthermore, the selected treatment of chemotherapy with Taxol/non-Taxol significantly affects OS and DFS. To sum up, SPAG9-elevated expression contributes to malignant behavior and poor prognosis of breast cancer and may support a potential indicator in treatment selection.

  5. Aurora-A identifies early recurrence and poor prognosis and promises a potential therapeutic target in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Wu, Xing; Zhou, Wei-hua; Liu, An-wen; Wu, Jian-bing; Deng, Jin-yun; Yue, Cai-feng; Yang, Shao-bing; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhong-yu; Liu, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) acquires an unfavorable prognosis, emerging as a major challenge for the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, 122 TNBC patients were subjected to analysis of Aurora-A (Aur-A) expression and survival prognosis. We found that Aur-A high expression was positively associated with initial clinical stage (P = 0.025), the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P = 0.001), and the recurrence rate of TNBC patients (P<0.001). In TNBC patients with Aur-A high expression, the risk of distant recurrence peaked at the first 3 years and declined rapidly thereafter, whereas patients with Aur-A low expression showed a relatively constant risk of recurrence during the entire follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that overexpression of Aur-A predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.002) and progression-free survival (P = 0.012) in TNBC. Furthermore, overexpression of Aur-A, associated with high Ki-67, predicted an inferior prognosis compared with low expression of both Aur-A and Ki-67. Importantly, we further found that Aur-A was overexpressed in TNBC cells, and inhibition of this kinase inhibited cell proliferation and prevented cell migration in TNBC. Our findings demonstrated that Aur-A was a potential therapeutic target for TNBC and inhibition of Aur-A kinase was a promising regimen for TNBC cancer therapy.

  6. Downregulation of the long noncoding RNA EGOT correlates with malignant status and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shou-Ping; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Sui, Shi-Yao; Bai, Nan-Xia; Gao, Song; Zhang, Guang-Wen; Shi, Qing-Yu; You, Zi-Long; Zhan, Chao; Pang, Da

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophil granule ontogeny transcript (EGOT) is a long noncoding RNA involved in the regulation of eosinophil granule protein transcript expression. However, little is known about the role of EGOT in malignant disease. This study aimed to assess the potential role of EGOT in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of EGOT in 250 breast cancerous tissues and 50 adjacent noncancerous tissues. The correlation of EGOT expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis was also analyzed. EGOT expression was lower in breast cancer compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001), and low levels of EGOT expression were significantly correlated with larger tumor size (P = 0.022), more lymph node metastasis (P = 0.020), and higher Ki-67 expression (P = 0.017). Moreover, patients with low levels of EGOT expression showed significantly worse prognosis for overall survival (P = 0.040), and this result was further validated in a larger cohort from a public database. Multivariate analysis suggested that low levels of EGOT were a poor independent prognostic predictor for breast cancer patients (HR = 1.857, 95 % CI = 1.032-3.340, P = 0.039). In conclusion, EGOT may play an important role in breast cancer progression and prognosis and may serve as a new potential prognostic target in breast cancer patients.

  7. Increased Serum Level of MicroRNA-663 Is Correlated with Poor Prognosis of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shaoqiang; Deng, Yanming; Chen, Lusi; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Zhenhe; Luo, Weijun; Lv, Zhiqian; Li, Shaoen; Xun, Tao

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) play crucial roles in the carcinogenesis and malignant progression of human cancers including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum miR-663 levels with the clinical factors and prognosis of NPC patients. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the amount of miR-663 in serum in NPC patients and healthy controls. Our data showed that the amount of miR-663 in serum was significantly higher in NPC patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, the serum levels of miR-663 were significantly correlated with the grade, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage of NPC. Furthermore, higher serum miR-663 levels were closely associated with worse 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) of patients with NPC, and the serum level of miR-663 was found to be an independent predicator for the prognosis of NPC. In addition, after receiving chemoradiotherapy, the serum levels of miR-663 were significantly reduced in NPC patients. In summary, miR-663 was upregulated in the serum of NPC patients, which was downregulated after chemoradiotherapy, and its increased levels were closely associated with malignant progression and poor prognosis in NPC patients. Therefore, the amount of miR-663 in serum may become a potential predicator for the clinical outcome of NPC patients. PMID:27667893

  8. Developing thyroid disorders is associated with poor prognosis factors in patient with stable chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Silva-Tinoco, Rubén; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Orozco-Gutiérrez, Juan José; Vázquez-Díaz, Oscar; Montaño-Hernández, Patricia; Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Reza-Albarrán, Alfredo

    2011-03-03

    We sought to assess the developing of thyroid disorders in forty eight patients with chronic stable heart failure and without thyroid abnormalities during six months follow-up. Thyroid function disorders were observed in 27.1% of the subjects: sick euthyroid syndrome (12.5%), subclinical hypothyroidism (10.4%) and overt hypothyroidism (6.2%). Subjects with higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels at the end of the study had more hospitalizations. The developing of altered thyroid profile was related to lower hemoglobin levels, smaller phase angle with bioelectrical impedance method and more fatigue perception by the patients. This abnormal thyroid function behavior on stable chronic heart failure and was observed as part of the disease progress and was associated to worse prognosis factors as lower phase angle and anemia.

  9. Overexpression of Tiam1 in hepatocellular carcinomas predicts poor prognosis of HCC patients.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Chen, Bin; Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Juanzhi; Ding, Yanqing; Chen, Longhua; Luo, Rongcheng

    2009-02-01

    Little research has been done to test the usefulness of T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) as a prognostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated Tiam1 expression and its prognostic value for HCC. HCC surgical tissue samples were taken from 152 HCC patients who had been followed up for 5 years. Overexpression of Tiam1 (Tiam1 2+ to 3+) was shown in 63.8% of the cases. The Tiam1 expression level did not correlate with any clinicopathological parameters. However, survival analysis showed that the Tiam1 overexpression group had a significantly shorter overall survival time than the Tiam1 downexpression group (p=0.008). Multivariate analysis showed that Tiam1 expression was a significant and independent prognostic parameter (p=0.042) for HCC patients. Tiam1 expression may be a novel and independent predictor for the prognosis of HCC patients. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Upregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 is associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Yi; Li, Qing; Ren, Tao; Xia, Wei; Peng, Yu; Liu, Gao-Lei; Luo, Hao; Yang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer is a fatal malignancy with a rising incidence rate. Effective methods for early diagnosis, monitoring metastasis, and prognosis are currently unavailable for gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the association of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression with the prognosis of gastric cancer. Methods The expressions of PD-L1 and APE1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 107 cases of human gastric carcinoma. The correlation of PD-L1 and APE1 expression with the clinicopathologic features of gastric carcinoma was analyzed by SPSS version 19.0. Results The positive expression rates of PD-L1 and APE1 in gastric cancer tissues were 50.5% (54/107) and 86.9% (93/107), respectively. PD-L1 and APE1 positive expressions were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, pathological type, overall survival, and higher T stage. Furthermore, the expression of PD-L1 in highly differentiated gastric cancers was higher than that in poorly differentiated cancers (P=0.008). Moreover, the expression of APE1 and PD-L1 in gastric cancers was positively correlated (r=0.336, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the depth of invasion was a significant prognostic factor (risk ratio 19.91; P=0.000), but there was no significant relationship with PD-L1, APE1, prognosis, and other characteristics. Conclusion The deregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 might contribute to the development and the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Our findings suggest that high expression of PD-L1 and APE1 is a risk factor of gastric cancer and a new biomarker to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, our findings suggest that targeting the PD-L1 and APE1 signaling pathways may be a new strategy for cancer immune therapy and targeted therapy for gastric cancer, especially in patients with deep invasion and lymph node metastasis. PMID:25733810

  11. Low expression of long non-coding RNA GAS5 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling-Ji; Zhang, Shu; Gao, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Tian, Wu-Guo; Hao, Shuai; Zhao, Jian-Jie; Zhang, Gang; Hu, Chun-Yan; Yan, Jie; Luo, Dong-Lin

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to investigate the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients suffering from thyroid cancer (TC). A total of 212 patients with TC and 61 patients with benign thyroid tumor were enrolled in the study. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied to detect the lncRNA GAS5 expression in TC and benign tumor tissues. All TC patients were categorized into high-risk and low-risk groups according to the MACIS, AGES and AMES prognostic scoring system. A 5-year follow-up was conducted in order to determine the disease free survival (DFS) rates and overall survival (OS) rates. The associations between lncRNA GAS5 expression and prognosis of TC patients were analyzed by The Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox regression models. There was a decrease in the lncRNA GAS5 expression in TC tissues in comparison to benign tumor tissues. Expression of lncRNA GAS5 showed significant association with tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging, lymph node metastasis and the multiple cancer foci of TC. AMES high-risk patients showed a decreased expression of lncRNA GAS5 expression than the AMES low-risk patients. The AGES and MACIS high-risk patients showed lower lncRNA GAS5 expression than low-risk patients. The survival rate of TC patients with high lncRNA GAS5 expression was higher than that of TC patients with low lncRNA GAS5 expression during the DFS and OS periods. Cox regression analysis indicated that lncRNA GAS5 expression, TNM staging, lymph node metastasis and multiple cancer foci were independent risk factors for poor prognosis in TC patients. LncRNA GAS5 may be closely related to the diagnosis and prognosis of TC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased expression of PDIA3 and its association with cancer cell proliferation and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Hideyuki; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Ueda, Junji; Ishino, Kousuke; Peng, Wei-Xia; Wada, Ryuichi; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Uchida, Eiji; Naito, Zenya

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unfavorable following complete tumor resection. The aim of the present study was to identify a molecule able to predict HCC prognosis through comprehensive protein profiling and to elucidate its clinicopathological significance. Comprehensive protein profiling of HCC was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Through the bioinformatic analysis of proteins expressed differentially in HCC and non-HCC tissues, protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) was identified as a candidate for the prediction of prognosis. PDIA3 expression was subsequently examined in 86 cases of HCC by immunostaining and associations between PDIA3 expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. The Ki-67 index and apoptotic cell death of carcinoma cells were examined by immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay in 24 cases. The results demonstrated that PDIA3 was expressed in all 86 HCC cases; 56 HCC cases (65%) exhibited high expression of PDIA3 and 30 (35%) exhibited low expression. The disease-free and overall survival times of HCC patients with high PDIA3 expression were significantly shorter than in HCC patients with low expression. Furthermore, increased expression of PDIA3 was associated with an elevated Ki-67 index, indicating increased cancer cell proliferation and a reduction in apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that PDIA3 expression is associated with tumor proliferation and decreased apoptosis in HCC, and that increased expression of PDIA3 predicts poor prognosis. PDIA3 may therefore be a key molecule in the development of novel targeting therapies for patients with HCC. PMID:28101228

  13. Elevated expression of USP9X correlates with poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Liu, Yu; Yang, Bo; Cao, Hong; Yang, Chun-Xu; Ouyang, Wen; Zhang, Shi-Min; Yang, Gui-Fang; Zhou, Fu-Xiang; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9, X-linked (USP9X) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to evaluate the relevance of USP9X expression to tumor prognosis. Methods Ninety-five patients who underwent surgical resection for clinical stage I-IIIA NSCLC between July 2008 and July 2011 were included in this study. Immunohistochemical analysis of USP9X expression was performed on 95 NSCLC tissues and 32 adjacent normal lung parenchymal tissues from these patients. The Chi-squared test was used to compare the clinicopathological characteristics between different groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox regression model were used to determine the independent prognostic factors. A P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The expression of USP9X was found to be significantly higher in NSCLC tissue (44.2%) than in adjacent normal lung parenchymal tissue (6.3%) (P<0.001). High USP9X expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), clinical stage (P<0.001) and a reduced overall survival rate (P=0.001) in patients with NSCLC. Based on the multivariate analysis, the elevated expression of the USP9X protein was a significant predictor of poor prognosis for NSCLC patients (HR =2.244, P=0.028). Conclusions The current study demonstrated that the expression of USP9X in NSCLC tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue and that this elevated expression level of USP9X was associated with poor prognosis among NSCLC patients, suggesting that USP9X might serve as a prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. PMID:25973233

  14. HERV-K hypomethylation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis and platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Iramaneerat, Kanokwan; Rattanatunyong, Prakasit; Khemapech, Nipon; Triratanachat, Surang; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2011-01-01

    In general, ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) has a history of poor response to standard platinum-based chemotherapy regimens, and advanced cases have short survival periods. Therefore, the discovery of a biomarker for the pretreatment prediction of OCCC is crucial. Loss of methylation of a retrotransposable sequence, such as long interspersed repetitive sequence 1 (LINE-1), frequently occurs in cancers, including ovarian cancer, and it has been proven to be associated with poor survival. The expressions of human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K and E were found to be increased in tissues from patients with OCCC. Here, we propose that methylation levels of HERV are associated with treatment response and prognosis of OCCC. Twenty-nine patients with OCCC were enrolled. Methylation levels of HERV-K, HERV-E, and LINE-1 were measured from microdissected cancer and normal ovarian tissues. The methylation levels were correlated with stage, treatment response, and prognosis. Methylation levels of HERV-K, HERV-E, and LINE-1 were decreased in tissues from patients with advanced stage cancer (P = 0.0179, P = 0.0021, and P = 0.0307, respectively). Human endogenous retrovirus K demonstrated significantly lower methylation levels in the platinum-resistant group (P = 0.0004). Patients with lower levels of methylated (hypomethylated) HERV-K had a shorter mean overall survival (P = 0.006). In advanced OCCC cases, patients with hypomethylated HERV-K had shorter mean progression-free survival (P = 0.018) and mean overall survival (P = 0.018) than did patients with higher methylation levels of HERV-K. Methylation levels of HERV-K, HERV-E, and LINE-1 are decreased during OCCC multistep carcinogenesis. Moreover, HERV-K hypomethylation is a promising biomarker for predicting OCCC treatment response and prognosis.

  15. “Frequent exacerbator” is a phenotype of poor prognosis in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Ryusuke; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Suetomo, Masashi; Kinoshita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Yoshihisa; Imaoka, Haruki; Matsunaga, Kazuko; Okamoto, Masaki; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognosis of Japanese patients with COPD who suffer repeated exacerbations is unclear, although Westerners with such episodes have a poor prognosis. Materials and methods We conducted a 1-year prospective observational trial involving 90 Japanese patients with COPD: 58 nonexacerbators, 12 infrequent exacerbators, and 20 frequent exacerbators classified on the basis of exacerbation frequency (zero, one, and two or more exacerbations/year), respectively, during the previous year were observed prospectively for 1 year. The characteristics of frequent exacerbators, the frequency of exacerbation, and the period until the first event were then compared among the groups. Results A total of 78 patients completed the study. Frequent exacerbators had a significantly higher risk of frequent exacerbation in the following year than the case for nonexacerbators (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.94 [1.21–7.17], P=0.0340), but not in comparison with infrequent exacerbators (1.51 [0.49–4.63], P>0.05). The mean annual frequency of exacerbations in the following year was significantly (P=0.0020) higher in the frequent exacerbators (1.4 exacerbations/year) than in the nonexacerbators (0.4), but not in the infrequent exacerbators (0.9, P>0.05). The mean period until the first exacerbation was significantly shorter in the frequent exacerbators than in the infrequent or nonexacerbators (P=0.0012). Independent risk factors for future frequent exacerbation included the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, more severe airflow obstruction, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusion Our present results indicate that Japanese COPD patients suffering frequent exacerbation have a poor prognosis. The characteristics of Japanese and Western COPD patients suffering frequent exacerbation are similar. PMID:26893552

  16. Overexpression of FoxO3a is associated with glioblastoma progression and predicts poor patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhongrun; Ren, Li; Wu, Dingchang; Yang, Xi; Zhou, Zhiyi; Nie, Quanmin; Jiang, Gan; Xue, Shuanglin; Weng, Weiji; Qiu, Yongming; Lin, Yingying

    2017-06-15

    Forkhead transcription factor FoxO3a has been reported to have ambiguous functions and distinct mechanisms in various solid tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM). Although a preliminary analysis of a small sample of patients indicated that FoxO3a aberrations in glioma might be related to aggressive clinical behavior, the clinical significance of FoxO3a in glioblastoma remains unclear. We investigated the expression of FoxO3a in a cohort of 91 glioblastoma specimens and analyzed the correlations of protein expression with patient prognosis. Furthermore, the functional impact of FoxO3a on GBM progression and the underlying mechanisms of FoxO3a regulation were explored in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. FoxO3a expression was elevated in glioblastoma tissues, and high nuclear FoxO3a expression in human GBM tissues was associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, knockdown of FoxO3a significantly reduced the colony formation and invasion ability of GBM cells, whereas overexpression of FoxO3a promoted the colony formation and invasion ability. The results of in vivo GBM models further confirmed that FoxO3a knockdown inhibited GBM progression. More, the pro-oncogenic effects of FoxO3a in GBM were mediated by the activation of c-Myc, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (LC3B) and Beclin1 in a mixed-lineage leukemia 2 (MLL2)-dependent manner. These findings suggest that high FoxO3a expression is associated with glioblastoma progression and that FoxO3a independently indicates poor prognosis in patients. FoxO3a might be a novel prognostic biomarker or a potential therapeutic target in glioblastoma. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic detection of lactate is predictive of a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru; Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Takayasu, Takeshi; Akiyama, Yuji; Saito, Taiichi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse brainstem glioma has a poor prognosis, and there are few long-term survivors. We looked for clinical, conventional magnetic resonance (MR), and MR spectroscopic (MRS) findings predictive of the prognosis of patients with brainstem glioma. Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study of 23 patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine or diffuse medullary brainstem glioma treated during the period 2000–2009. To evaluate prognostic values, we performed a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (log-rank test) that incorporated the patients’ age and sex, symptom duration, the presence or absence of cranial nerve palsy, long tract sign, ataxia, and cysts, the chemotherapeutic regimen, Gd enhancement, longitudinal and cerebellar extension, basilar artery encasement, and MRS parameters. Of the 23 diffuse brainstem gliomas, 19 were located at the pons (ratio of male to female patients, 1.1:1). The mean age of the 23 patients was 15.9 years (range, 4–50 years); 16 were aged <20 years. The duration of overall survival was 19.7 months; in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, it was 16.6 months, and in patients aged <20 years, it was 11.8 months. Clinical and conventional MR findings at presentation were not predictive of the prognosis in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. In addition, a patient age <20 years and the detection of lactate by MRS were poor prognostic factors. The MRS detection of lactate is a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Additional studies of larger patient populations using other imaging modalities are needed. PMID:21653595

  18. High expression of Lin28 is associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor prognosis of patients in oesophagus cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamano, R; Miyata, H; Yamasaki, M; Sugimura, K; Tanaka, K; Kurokawa, Y; Nakajima, K; Takiguchi, S; Fujiwara, Y; Mori, M; Doki, Y

    2012-04-10

    Lin28 is a negative regulator of the tumour suppressor microRNA, let-7, suggesting its role in tumourigenesis. However, the clinical significance of Lin28 expression in oesophageal cancer has not been elucidated. Lin28 and Lin28B expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 161 tissues from patients with oesophageal cancer who had undergone curative surgery. The relationship between the expressions of Lin28 and Lin28B and various clinicopathological factors was examined. In vitro assays were conducted to determine the role of Lin28 in aggressiveness of oesophageal cancers using oesophageal cancer cell line. Lin28 and Lin28B were overexpressed in oesophageal cancer cells compared with non-cancerous epithelial cells, especially in the invasive front. High expression of Lin28 and Lin28B correlated significantly with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. High expression of Lin28B expression correlated significantly with low expression of let-7. Multivariate analysis also identified Lin28B expression as an independent prognostic factor. In vitro assays showed that the proliferative and invasive activities were significantly reduced in Lin28B-knockdown cells, compared with control cells. High expression of Lin28 is associated with poor prognosis and high tumour aggressiveness in oesophageal cancer and these effects are mediated through increased proliferation and invasiveness of oesophageal cancer cells.

  19. Decreased apolipoprotein A-I level indicates poor prognosis in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qi; Chen, Qi; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Li; Li, Tingwei; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an invasive lymphoid malignancy with unfavorable survival, for which a prognostic model has not yet been validated. We hypothesized that serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ENKTL. A total of 236 newly diagnosed cases of ENKTL were analyzed retrospectively. The optimal cutoff value for the serum ApoA-I level was determined to be 0.95 g/L. A total of 154 and 82 cases were assigned to the high and low ApoA-I groups, respectively. Patients in the low ApoA-I group tended to present with poorer clinical features, a lower complete remission rate (P=0.001), and poor median progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis using Cox model showed that the serum ApoA-I level was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival (P<0.001) and progression-free survival (P<0.001) for ENKTL patients. For cases in the low-risk group, as assessed by International Prognostic Index, Prognosis Index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, and Korean Prognostic Index, the serum ApoA-I level was able to differentiate cases with poor outcomes from cases with good outcomes. Our results showed that the baseline serum ApoA-I level was helpful for predicting ENKTL prognosis.

  20. Decreased TCL6 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guohai; Zhang, Hailiang; Sun, Fukang; Ye, Dingwei

    2017-01-01

    One-third of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients present with metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The prognosis of these patients is poor. To identify potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ccRCC, we re-evaluated published long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiling data from the Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress database. We found that five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in ccRCC and adjacent tissues. These lncRNAs were assessed in an independent cohort of 71 paired patient samples using real-time PCR. Differences in expression of three of the lncRNAs (ENSG00000177133, TCL6, and ENSG00000244020) were validated in this analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that low expression of ENSG00000177133 and TCL6 was associated with a poor prognosis. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that TCL6 but not ENSG00000177133 expression was an independent predictor of ccRCC aggressiveness and had hazard ratios predictive of clinical outcome. TCL6 expression was negatively correlated with pTNM stage. Overexpression of TCL6 in 786-O and Caki-1 ccRCC cells decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to controls. Our results indicate that lncRNA expression is altered in ccRCC and that decreased TCL6 expression may be an independent adverse prognostic factor in ccRCC patients. PMID:27494890

  1. Abnormalities in Chromosomes 1q and 13 Independently Correlate With Factors of Poor Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyoung; Ju, Young Su; Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Cho, Hyoun Chan; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jung Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Lee, Young Kyung

    2016-11-01

    We comprehensively profiled cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) and analyzed the relationship between cytogenetic abnormalities of undetermined prognostic significance and established prognostic factors. The karyotype of 333 newly diagnosed MM cases was analyzed in association with established prognostic factors. Survival analysis was also performed. MM with abnormal karyotypes (41.1%) exhibited high international scoring system (ISS) stage, frequent IgA type, elevated IgG or IgA levels, elevated calcium levels, elevated creatine (Cr) levels, elevated β2-microglobulin levels, and decreased Hb levels. Structural abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 were independently associated with elevated levels of IgG or IgA, calcium, and Cr, respectively. Chromosome 13 abnormalities were associated with poor prognosis and decreased overall survival. This is the first study to demonstrate that abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 are associated with established factors for poor prognosis, irrespective of the presence of other concurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 13 abnormalities have a prognostic impact on overall survival in association with elevated Cr levels. Frequent centromeric breakpoints appear to be related to MM pathogenesis.

  2. Abnormalities in Chromosomes 1q and 13 Independently Correlate With Factors of Poor Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyoung; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Hyoun Chan; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Background We comprehensively profiled cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) and analyzed the relationship between cytogenetic abnormalities of undetermined prognostic significance and established prognostic factors. Methods The karyotype of 333 newly diagnosed MM cases was analyzed in association with established prognostic factors. Survival analysis was also performed. Results MM with abnormal karyotypes (41.1%) exhibited high international scoring system (ISS) stage, frequent IgA type, elevated IgG or IgA levels, elevated calcium levels, elevated creatine (Cr) levels, elevated β2-microglobulin levels, and decreased Hb levels. Structural abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 were independently associated with elevated levels of IgG or IgA, calcium, and Cr, respectively. Chromosome 13 abnormalities were associated with poor prognosis and decreased overall survival. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 are associated with established factors for poor prognosis, irrespective of the presence of other concurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 13 abnormalities have a prognostic impact on overall survival in association with elevated Cr levels. Frequent centromeric breakpoints appear to be related to MM pathogenesis. PMID:27578511

  3. Suppression of ABHD2, identified through a functional genomics screen, causes anoikis resistance, chemoresistance and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamanoi, Koji; Matsumura, Noriomi; Murphy, Susan K.; Baba, Tsukasa; Abiko, Kaoru; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Konishi, Ikuo; Mandai, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Anoikis resistance is a hallmark of cancer, and relates to malignant phenotypes, including chemoresistance, cancer stem like phenotypes and dissemination. The aim of this study was to identify key factors contributing to anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer using a functional genomics screen. A library of 81 000 shRNAs targeting 15 000 genes was transduced into OVCA420 cells, followed by incubation in soft agar and colony selection. We found shRNAs directed to ABHD2, ELAC2 and CYB5R3 caused reproducible anoikis resistance. These three genes are deleted in many serous ovarian cancers according to The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Suppression of ABHD2 in OVCA420 cells increased phosphorylated p38 and ERK, platinum resistance, and side population cells (p<0.01, respectively). Conversely, overexpression of ABHD2 decreased resistance to anoikis (p<0.05) and the amount of phosphorylated p38 and ERK in OVCA420 and SKOV3 cells. In clinical serous ovarian cancer specimens, low expression of ABHD2 was associated with platinum resistance and poor prognosis (p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, we found three novel genes relevant to anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer using a functional genomics screen. Suppression of ABHD2 may promote a malignant phenotype and poor prognosis for women with serous ovarian cancer. PMID:27323405

  4. Integrated analysis of expression profiling data identifies three genes in correlation with poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Han, Yong; Huang, Hao; Min, Li; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao

    2014-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) shows more aggressive clinical behavior and poorer outcome than non-triple-negative breast cancer (NTNBC), and cannot be treated either via endocrine therapy or by Trastuzumab. For TNBC, chemotherapy is currently the mainstay of systemic medical treatment, the lack of more efficient options of treatment has been a problem in breast cancer prevention. In this study, we aimed to find genes related to prognosis in TNBC by bioinformatic analysis and to provide therapeutic candidates for TNBC treatment. We compared the differences in gene expression levels between cancer patients and healthy individuals across five breast cancer microarray databases to generate a gene cohort specifically upregulated in the NTNBC subtype, whose expression levels are ≥2-fold higher in TNBC compared to NTNBC and healthy individuals. Another two databases with clinical information were applied for following Kaplan-Meier analysis, and high expression of BIRC5, CENPA and FAM64A in this cohort were found to be related to poor survival (OS, DMFS, DFS and RFS). This correlation was also seen in patients at early stages and grades. On the other hand, the outcome of patients with synchronous upregulation of these three genes was the worst, while those with synchronous low gene level was the best. In conclusion, BIRC5, CENPA and FAM64A are specifically upregulated in TNBC, and the high expression of these three genes is associated with poor breast cancer prognosis, suggesting their clinical implication as therapeutic targets in TNBC.

  5. Up-Regulation of RFC3 Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Associated With Poor Prognosis Via EMT.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Ying; Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC) since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3) significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  6. Poor prognosis of patients presenting with symptomatic myocardial infarction but without chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, M; Lawrance, R; Sapsford, R; Durham, N; Oldham, J; Greenwood, D; Jackson, B; Morrell, C; Robinson, M; Hall, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment of patients presenting with atypical forms of acute myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Consecutive cases of possible acute myocardial infarction were sought from coronary care registers, biochemistry records, and hospital management systems. Case notes were reviewed and predefined epidemiological and clinical variables were abstracted.
SETTING—20 adjacent hospitals in the former Yorkshire region.
PATIENTS—3684 consecutive cases of possible acute myocardial infarction admitted in a three month period were identified, of whom 2096 had a first episode of confirmed acute myocardial infarction.
RESULTS—20.2% of all patients admitted with an eventual diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction presented with symptoms other than chest pain. Compared with the group presenting with chest pain, these patients were older (76.6 v 69.1 years, p < 0.001), were more often women (54.6% v 35.3%, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have a history of heart failure (18.6% v 6.9%, p < 0.001). They had a higher 30 and 365 day mortality (49.2% and 61.0%, respectively) compared with patients presenting with chest pain (17.9% and 26.2%). In a Cox regression analysis the hazard ratio for presentation without chest pain was 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.97) (p < 0.001) adjusted for age, heart rate, blood pressure, left ventricular impairment, and infarction with ST segment elevation as covariates. Importantly, they were also less likely to receive treatments with a proven ability to improve prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS—Atypical presentation of myocardial infarction without chest pain is common and associated with increased mortality. This may result in part from a failure to use beneficial treatment strategies.


Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; atypical presentation PMID:11602537

  7. Dub3 expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Shu, Bin; Xi, Tao; Su, Ning; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Dub3 is a deubiquitinating enzyme. It is highly expressed in tumor-derived cell lines and has an established role in tumor proliferation. However, the role of Dub3 in human ovarian cancer remains unclear. Expression of Dub3 was evaluated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The relationship between Dub3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. Using RNA interference, the effects of Dub3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were investigated in ovarian cancer cell line. All normal ovary tissues exhibited very little or no Dub3 immunoreactivity. High levels of Dub3 expression were examined by immunohistochemical analysis in 13.3% of cystadenomas, in 30.0% of borderline tumors, and in 58.9% of ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Dub3 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and clinical staging (P<0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated that Dub3 expression was an independent prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the expression of Cdc25A was closely correlated with that of Dub3 in cancer cells and tissues. Knockdown of Dub3 could inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and increase cell apoptosis. These data indicate that the Dub3 might be a valuable biomarker for the prediction of ovarian cancer prognosis and Dub3 inhibition might be a potential strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.

  8. Overexpression of long noncoding RNA HOTTIP promotes tumor invasion and predicts poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Heng; Liu, Kun; Qian, Keqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Long noncoding RNAs have been proved to play important roles in the tumorigenesis and development of human gastric cancer (GC). Our study aims to investigate the expression and function of Homeobox A transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) in GC. Methods HOTTIP expression was detected in GC tissues and cell lines by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Association between HOTTIP levels and clinicopathological factors and patient prognosis was also analyzed. MTT, flow cytometry, and transwell invasion and migration assays were used to investigate the role of HOTTIP in the regulation of biological behaviors of GC cells. Results HOTTIP expression was remarkably increased in GC tissues and cell lines compared with that in the normal control. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that high HOTTIP expression correlated with larger tumor size, deeper invasion depth, positive lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage, and shorter overall survival. Multivariate regression analysis identified HOTTIP overexpression as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in GC patients. Moreover, HOTTIP downregulation by si-HOTTIP transfection impaired GC cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced cell invasion and migration. Conclusion These findings suggested that HOTTIP may contribute to GC initiation and progression, and would be not only a novel prognostic marker but also a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:27103834

  9. Low Level of Microsatellite Instability Correlates with Poor Clinical Prognosis in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Mirtalebi, Hanieh; Taleghani, Mohammad Yaghoob; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Savabkar, Sanaz; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microsatellite instability (MSI) on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) requires more investigation. We assessed the role of MSI status in survival of individuals diagnosed with primary colorectal cancer. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the MSI status was determined in 158 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors and their matched normal tissues from patients who underwent curative surgery. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to assess the clinical prognostic significance. In this study we found that MSI-H tumors were predominantly located in the colon versus rectum (p = 0.03), associated with poorer differentiation (p = 0.003) and TNM stage II/III of tumors (p = 0.02). In CRC patients with stage II, MSI-L cases showed significantly poorer survival compared with patients who had MSI-H or MSS tumors (p = 0.04). This study indicates that MSI-L tumors correlate with poorer clinical outcome in patients with stage II tumors (p = 0.04) or in tumors located in the colon (p = 0.02). MSI-L characterizes a distinct subgroup of CRC patients who have a poorer outcome. This study suggests that MSI status in CRC, as a clinical prognostic marker, is dependent on other factors, such as tumor stage and location. PMID:27429617

  10. Axl Expression Stratifies Patients with Poor Prognosis after Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong; Li, Jun; Shi, Lehua; Zou, Qifei; Wan, Xuying; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Hongyang; Wu, Mengchao; Zhang, Yongjie; Shen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase which plays an important role in multiple human malignancies. Design The Axl expression was examined in several hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cell lines, paired tumor and nontumorous samples. Then, we examined cell growth curve, cell apoptosis and cell migration in SMMC-7721 cells over-expressed with Axl or siRNA against Axl, respectively. Finally, the prognostic value of Axl was investigated in a prospective cohort of 246 consecutive HCC patients undergoing curative hepatoectomy. Results We found Axl was positive in 22% of examined tumor tissues and all four cell lines. Over-expressing Axl in SMMC-7721 cells accelerated cell growth, cell migration and inhibited cell apoptosis, while knock-down of Axl exerted opposite effect. Axl expression was closely associated with serum AFP, multiple tumors, absence of encapsulation, microvascular invasion, and advanced BCLC or TNM stage. Patients with positive Axl staining had a higher 5-year recurrence rate (92% vs. 71%, P<0.001) and a lower 5-year survival rate (9% vs. 48%, P<0.001) than those with negative staining. The multivariate analyses showed that Axl expression was an independent factor for both tumor recurrence (HR: 1.725; 95% CI: 1.219–2.441) and survival (1.847; 1.291–2.642). Conclusion Axl expression suggests more aggressive tumor invasiveness and predicts worse prognosis for HCC patients undergoing resection. PMID:27182739

  11. Decreased Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 Predicts Poor Prognosis of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinshuang; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Fengjun; Liang, Ning; Wang, Yao; Meng, Xiangjiao; Du, Juan

    2016-01-01

    TUSC3 was recently identified as a potential tumor suppressor gene in a variety of human malignancies. However, no data are currently available regarding the expressions of TUSC3 in esophageal cancer (ESCC).The purposes of this study was to investigated the expressions of TUSC3 in ESCC tissues and assess the relationship between TUSC3 levels and clinico-pathological characteristics of ESCC patients. TUSC3 protein expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarray slides in esophageal cancer, which included 95 esophageal squamous carcinoma specimens (ESCC), and 75 normal esophageal mucosa (NEM). We found that TUSC3 in ESCC was significant lower than that in NEM (P=0.000). According to multi-clinical classifications, TUSC3 level varied significantly with TNM stage, T stage, and N stage (p<0.001, p=0.0368, p<0.0001, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that gender, TNM stage, T stage, N stage, TUSC3 expression were prognostic factors for survival. Multivariate analysis showed that in our study, only TUSC3 expression was independent prognostic factors for ESCC. Our results indicated for the first time, a combined analysis of TUSC3 expressions as well as the clinical variables will help predict the prognosis of ESCC patients. Further large-sample validation and functional analysis should be performed to evaluate its potential prognostic and therapeutic values for ESCC patients.

  12. Nuclear expression of N-cadherin correlates with poor prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei-Ren; Wu, Ai-Bing; Fang, Wei-Yi; Li, Si-Yi; Yao, Kai-Tai

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the aberrant expression of N-cadherin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and its prognostic significance. Immunohistochemical staining for N-cadherin protein was performed on tissue microarray (TMA) from 122 NPC patients. Cytoplasmic N-cadherin was observed in 42.6% and nuclear N-cadherin in 45.1% of NPC tissues. High expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear N-cadherin was associated with a majority of the clinicopathological variables, including lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage. Cytoplasmic N-cadherin was associated positively with nuclear N-cadherin expression (P = 0.000). In univariate analysis, cytoplasmic N-cadherin showed no significant impact on patient prognosis. In contrast, the overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with high nuclear N-cadherin than those with low levels of staining (P = 0.002). A high expression of nuclear N-cadherin predicted poorer survival in patients with late stage disease (P = 0.033), but not those with early tumour stage. In addition, multivariate analysis showed nuclear N-cadherin to bean independent prognostic marker for NPC patients (P = 0.024). Nuclear N-cadherin expression may represent a valuable prognostic marker in NPC patients, especially those with late stage disease. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Downregulation of ALDOB is associated with poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Jin, Yi; Chen, Yuan; Yao, Hai-Bo; Xia, Ying-Jie; Ma, Ying-Yu; Wang, Wei; Shao, Qin-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the expression of ALDOB in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and to reveal its potential clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Materials and methods We screened for genes that were differentially expressed between GC and nontumor tissues using a microarray, specifically the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Array platform. We then verified the transcriptional and translational levels of ALDOB by performing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, a merged data set based on the Gene Expression Omnibus was generated and a survival analysis performed. Results The microarray analysis revealed that ALDOB was downregulated (more than sevenfold) in GC compared with nontumor tissue. Both qRT-PCR and IHC validated the decrease of ALDOB in GC tissue. Moreover, we found that the expression of ALDOB was significantly related to tumor-invasion depth, lymph-node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. The survival analysis, based on the IHC and merged data set, indicated that the overall survival was better in patients with high ALDOB expression. The Cox regression analysis showed that ALDOB expression was an independent prognostic factor for GC. Conclusion The expression of ALDOB in GC tissue was significantly related to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of the disease, thus suggesting that ALDOB could act as a novel molecular marker for GC. PMID:27785057

  14. Musashi2 as a novel predictive biomarker for liver metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhen; Zhou, Taicheng; Rao, Liangjun; Jiang, Zhipeng; Li, Yingru; Hou, Zehui; Yang, Bin; Han, Fanghai; Chen, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Aberrant expression of musashi2 (MSI-2) has been detected in several malignancies. However, its role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. Our study was designed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of MSI-2 protein in patients with colorectal cancer. The expression of MSI-2 was detected in 164 patients' colorectal cancer and control specimens by the tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemical staining. The correlations between MSI-2 expression and clinicopathological variables including overall survival were analyzed. The prognostic value of liver metastasis is evaluated by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MSI-2 was highly expressed in 32.9% (54/164) of the colorectal cancer. Overexpression of MSI-2 was associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, liver metastasis, Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) clinical stage, and Carcinoembryonicantigen (CEA) level (P = 0.040, 0.014, <0.001, <0.001, 0.003, and 0.002, respectively). In the Cox multivariate test, MSI-2 overexpression, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were found to be the independent prognostic factors (P = 0.027, 0.010, and 0.001, respectively). Further logistic regression suggested that TNM stage and MSI-2 high expression were related to liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Conclusively, our study indicates that MSI-2 overexpression is associated with an unfavorable prognosis and may be a potential biomarker for liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients.

  15. Biliary metastasis in colorectal cancer confers a poor prognosis: case study of 5 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Frederick Hong-Xiang; Shi, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The biliary duct is an extremely rare site for colon cancer metastasis. It often leads to a diagnostic dilemma, since primary cholangiocarcinoma (potentially treatable with surgery) has a similar presentation. This paper highlights our experience with 5 consecutive patients who had colon malignancy with biliary metastasis, and prognosis of their disease. Five patients, with a history of primary colon cancer since 2010, were identified to have biliary metastasis. Of these, 4 (80.0%) patients were male. The median time to diagnosis of biliary metastasis from diagnosis of colon cancer was 59.2 months (0-70.1 months), and all exhibited symptoms of biliary obstruction or its associated complications. Evaluation of the tumour samples revealed all specimens to be negative for CK7 but positive for CK20, suggestive of a colorectal primary. The median survival of the 5 patients was 23.5 months (1.8-44.5 months) from the diagnosis of biliary metastasis. However, none of their death was related to the direct complication of biliary obstruction. Biliary metastasis is a rare entity for metastatic colon malignancy. Diagnosis may be difficult radiologically, and immunohistochemical staining may help in identification. The overall survival for these patients is dismal. PMID:28317047

  16. Expression of Par3 polarity protein correlates with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroe; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Kawana, Kei; Taguchi, Ayumi; Uehara, Yuriko; Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Sato, Masakazu; Nishida, Haruka; Fujimoto, Asaha; Inoue, Tomoko; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Arimoto, Takahide; Oda, Katsutoshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-17

    Previous studies have shown that the cell polarity protein partitioning defective 3 (Par3) plays an essential role in the formation of tight junctions and definition of apical-basal polarity. Aberrant function of this protein has been reported to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer invasion. The aim of this study was to examine the functional mechanism of Par3 in ovarian cancer. First, we investigated the association between Par3 expression level and survival of 50 ovarian cancer patients. Next, we conducted an in vitro analysis of ovarian cancer cell lines, focusing on the cell line JHOC5, to investigate Par3 function. To investigate the function of Par3 in invasion, the IL-6/STAT3 pathway was analyzed upon Par3 knockdown with siRNA. The effect of siRNA treatment was assessed by qPCR, ELISA, and western blotting. Invasiveness and cell proliferation following treatment with siRNA against Par3 were investigated using Matrigel chamber, wound healing, and cell proliferation assays. Expression array data for ovarian cancer patient samples revealed low Par3 expression was significantly associated with good prognosis. Univariate analysis of clinicopathological factors revealed significant association between high Par3 levels and peritoneal dissemination at the time of diagnosis. Knockdown of Par3 in JHOC5 cells suppressed cell invasiveness, migration, and cell proliferation with deregulation of IL-6/STAT3 activity. Taken together, these results suggest that Par3 expression is likely involved in ovarian cancer progression, especially in peritoneal metastasis. The underlying mechanism may be that Par3 modulates IL-6 /STAT3 signaling. Here, we propose that the expression of Par3 in ovarian cancer may control disease outcome.

  17. Overexpression of HOXB7 is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    TU, WEIWEI; ZHU, XINGWU; HAN, YANG; WEN, YUGANG; QIU, GUOQIANG; ZHOU, CHONGZHI

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the homeobox gene HOXB7 is overexpressed in certain cancers, which promotes tumorigenesis. However, less is known about the association between the HOXB7 gene and gastric cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the expression level of HOXB7 and gastric cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of the homeobox B7 (HOXB7) RNA and protein, respectively. In addition, the association between the expression of HOXB7 and the clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rates, and the COX proportional hazards model was used to investigate univariate and multivariate analyses. The expression level of HOXB7 RNA and protein was significantly elevated in cancerous tissues compared with the corresponding normal mucosa. Increased expression of HOXB7 was significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.01), T stage (P<0.001) and advanced Union for International Cancer Control stage (P=0.003). In addition, patients with positive HOXB7 expression possessed an evident lower overall survival and disease-free survival rate compared with patients with tumors that did not express HOXB7. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that HOXB7 served as a significant independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS in patients with gastric cancer. The present data indicate that the HOXB7 gene may play an important role in the process of gastric tumorigenesis, and also indicate that HOXB7 may be an important determinant of patient prognosis in gastric cancer. PMID:26722273

  18. Decreased expression of SOX17 is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, De-Yuan; Tan, Hao-Sheng; Wei, Jin-Li; Zhu, Chang-Ren; Jiang, Ji-Xin; Zhu, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Feng-Lin; Chong, Mei-Hong; Ren, Chuan-Li

    2015-09-01

    The SOX17 (SRY-related HMG-box) transcription factor is involved in a variety of biological processes and is related to the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple tumors. However, the clinical application of SOX17 for breast cancer prognosis is currently limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of SOX17 expression in human breast cancer. qPCR and western blot assays were performed to measure the expression of SOX17 in breast cancer cell lines and 30 matched pairs of breast cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues. A SOX17 overexpression cell model was used to examine changes in cell growth in vitro. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to retrospectively examine the prognostic impact of SOX17 expression in 187 additional breast cancer patients. Our results showed that SOX17 expression was decreased at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the breast cancer cell lines and tissues, and that SOX17 overexpression could strongly suppress cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, the lack of SOX17 protein expression was strongly correlated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001) and had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to normal SOX17 expression (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that lower SOX17 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.007; HR = 2.854; 95 % CI 1.326-6.147) and OS (P = 0.005; HR = 5.035; 95 % CI 1.648-15.385) for breast cancer. Our findings indicate that SOX17 expression is a useful prognostic biomarker for breast cancer.

  19. Decreased xanthine oxidoreductase is a predictor of poor prognosis in early‐stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linder, N; Haglund, C; Lundin, M; Nordling, S; Ristimäki, A; Kokkola, A; Mrena, J; Wiksten, J‐P; Lundin, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a key enzyme in the degradation of DNA, RNA and high‐energy phosphates. About half of the patients with breast cancer have a decrease in XOR expression. Patients with breast cancer with unfavourable prognosis are independently identified by the loss of XOR. Aim To assess the clinical relevance of XOR expression in gastric cancer. Methods XOR levels were studied by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray specimens of 337 patients with gastric cancer and the relation between XOR expression and a series of clinicopathological variables, as well as disease‐specific survival, was assessed. Results XOR was moderately decreased in 41% and was undetectable in another 14% of the tumours compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Decreased XOR was associated with advanced stage, deep tumour penetration, diffusely spread tumour location, positive lymph node status, large tumour size, non‐curative disease, cellular aneuploidy, high S‐phase fraction and high cyclooxygenase‐2 expression, but not with p53 expression or Borrmann classification. Down regulation of XOR was associated with unfavourable outcome, and the cumulative 5‐year gastric cancer‐specific survival in patients with strong XOR expression was 47%, compared with 22% in those with moderate to negative expression (p<0.001). This was also true in patients with stage I–II (p = 0.01) and lymph node‐negative (p = 0.02) disease, as well as in patients with smaller (⩽5 cm) tumours (p = 0.02). Conclusion XOR expression in gastric cancer may be a new marker for a more aggressive gastric cancer biology, similar to that previously reported for breast cancer. PMID:16935971

  20. Downregulation of ARNT2 promotes tumor growth and predicts poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Liang, Ying; Yang, Biwei; Sun, Huichuan; Wu, Weizhong

    2015-06-01

    Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) is a transcriptional regulator and member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-SIM (bHLH/PAS) superfamily. Recently, evidence of that ARNT is involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression has emerged. The aim of current study was to investigate the role of ARNT2, a homolog of ARNT, in tumor growth, invasion, and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical staining were used to examine the expression of ARNT2 in 195 HCC tissues. Factors associated with ARNT2 levels were assessed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Cell proliferation, migration, and invasion assays were performed by using ARNT2 silencing and overexpressing HCCLM6 cell line. Orthotopic xenograft HCC model was used to elucidate the effects of ARNT2 on HCC progression in vivo. High intratumoral of ARNT2 level was well correlated with longer overall survival (OS) and lower tumor to recurrence (TTR) of HCC patients after resection. Multivariate analysis revealed that intratumoral ARNT2 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and TTR. Knockdown of ARNT2 in HCCLM6 cells was significantly enhanced while overexpression of ARNT2 significantly inhibited the ability of cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. In animal studies, downregulation of ARNT2 in HCCLM6 cells promoted, whereas upregulation of ARNT2 in HCCLM6 cells reduced HCCLM6 growth in vivo. Our data demonstrate that ARNT2 plays an inhibitory role in HCC progression and suggest that ARNT2 may be a potential prognostic predictor and therapeutic target for HCC. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. High expression of interleukin-22 and its receptor predicts poor prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhang; Liao, Quan; Zhao, Jianguo; Hu, Ya; You, Lei; Lu, Zhaohui; Jia, Congwei; Wei, Yingxin; Zhao, Yupei

    2014-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) and its receptor are present in the tumor microenvironment. Their function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to measure the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R in PDAC and assess their relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis. The expression of IL-22 and IL-22R was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in PDAC tissues from 57 patients and by Western blotting in six tumors and adjacent nontumor tissues. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between levels of expression, clinicopathological factors, and overall survival. In addition, the relationship between the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R and invasion was assessed by Western blotting and transwell assay with the PDAC cell lines PANC1 and BxPC3. Positive IL-22 staining was detected in PDAC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues. Positive IL-22R staining was detected in PDAC cells. High expression of IL-22 and IL-22R correlated significantly with lymph node involvement. IL-22 increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription3, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9, and the invasion in PANC1 and BxPC3 cells in vitro while silencing of IL-22R RNA caused opposite effects. Most importantly, overall survival was significantly poorer in patients with high expression of IL-22 and IL-22R than in those with low expression. These findings reveal the positive role of IL-22 and IL-22R in invasion and metastasis in human PDAC. IL-22 and IL-22R may be suitable independent prognostic markers in PDAC.

  2. Persistent poor long-term prognosis of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients surviving invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, Géraldine; Porcher, Raphaël; Bergeron, Anne; Robin, Marie; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Ferry, Christèle; Rocha, Vanderson; Petropoulou, Anna; Xhaard, Aliénor; Lacroix, Claire; Sulahian, Annie; Socié, Gérard; Ribaud, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background Voriconazole treatment increases early survival of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis. We investigated whether this survival advantage translates into an increased long-term survival. Design and Methods This retrospective study involved all patients with an invasive aspergillosis diagnosis transplanted between September 1997 and December 2008, at the Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France. The primary end point was survival up to 36 months. Survival analysis before and after 12 weeks, as well as cumulative incidence analysis in a competing risk framework, were used to assess the effect of voriconazole treatment and other factors on mortality. Results Among 87 patients, 42 received first-line voriconazole and 45 received another antifungal agent. Median survival time was 2.6 months and survival rate at 36 months was 18%. Overall, there was a significant difference in the survival rates of the two groups. Specifically, there was a dramatic difference in survival rates up to ten months post-aspergillosis diagnosis but no significant difference after this time. Over the first 36 months as a whole, no significant difference in survival rate was observed between the two groups. First-line voriconazole significantly reduced aspergillosis-attributable mortality. However, first-line voriconazole patients experienced a significantly higher probability of death from a non-aspergillosis-attributable cause. Conclusions Although the prognosis for invasive aspergillosis after stem cell transplantation has dramatically improved with the use of voriconazole, this major advance in care does not translate into increased long-term survival for these severely immunocompromised patients. PMID:22371177

  3. Lymphocytic alveolitis: A surprising index of poor prognosis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalavanga, Y A; Voulgari, P V; Georgiadis, A N; Leontaridi, C; Katsenos, S; Vassiliou, M; Drosos, A A; Constantopoulos, S H

    2006-07-01

    Twelve years ago we reported that lymphocytic alveolitis [or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytosis] correlates with clinical pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Our thesis was based on subtle clinical and functional evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pSS patients with "high lymphocytic alveolitis" (>15% lymphocytes in BAL). This report is a follow-up study of these patients. Basic clinical and functional re-evaluation of the 22 patients with pSS, studied in 1991, emphasized the differences between those with alveolitis and those without alveolitis. There was no significant functional decline. There were, however, two statistically significant differences between the two groups: (1) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had to be treated with steroids (5/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.05) and (2) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had died in the mean time (6/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.01). The causes of death were various. On only two occasions were they related to respiratory infections while there were no deaths from respiratory failure secondary to ILD. BAL lymphocytosis appears to be a surprisingly serious index of dismal prognosis in patients with pSS. We offer no unifying pathophysiologic mechanism for it and, therefore, all we propose is that BAL is performed early, in as many patients with pSS as possible. These patients should then be followed up systematically, in order to evaluate if BAL lymphocytosis has any pathophysiologic importance in the development of clinically serious pSS, which is serious enough to lead to death.

  4. Tumor budding is associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Landau, Michael S; Hastings, Steven M; Foxwell, Tyler J; Luketich, James D; Nason, Katie S; Davison, Jon M

    2014-12-01

    The treatment approach for superficial (stage T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma critically depends on the pre-operative assessment of metastatic risk. Part of that assessment involves evaluation of the primary tumor for pathologic characteristics known to predict nodal metastasis: depth of invasion (intramucosal vs submucosal), angiolymphatic invasion, tumor grade, and tumor size. Tumor budding is a histologic pattern that is associated with poor prognosis in early-stage colorectal adenocarcinoma and a predictor of nodal metastasis in T1 colorectal adenocarcinoma. In a retrospective study, we used a semi-quantitative histologic scoring system to categorize 210 surgically resected, superficial (stage T1) esophageal adenocarcinomas according to the extent of tumor budding (none, focal, and extensive) and also evaluated other known risk factors for nodal metastasis, including depth of invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, tumor grade, and tumor size. We assessed the risk of nodal metastasis associated with tumor budding in univariate analyses and controlled for other risk factors in a multivariate logistic regression model. In all, 41% (24 out of 59) of tumors with extensive tumor budding (tumor budding in ≥3 20X microscopic fields) were metastatic to regional lymph nodes, compared with 10% (12 out of 117) of tumors with no tumor budding, and 15% (5 out of 34) of tumors with focal tumor budding (P<0.001). When controlling for all pathologic risk factors in a multivariate analysis, extensive tumor budding remains an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with a 2.5-fold increase (95% CI=1.1-6.3, P=0.039) in the risk of nodal metastasis. Extensive tumor budding is also a poor prognostic factor with respect to overall survival and time to recurrence in univariate and multivariate analyses. As an independent risk factor for nodal metastasis and poor prognosis after esophagectomy, tumor budding should be evaluated

  5. Overexpression of GEFT, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, predicts poor prognosis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Shugang; Li, Hongan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yuwen; Li, Bingcheng; Cui, Xiaobin; Chen, Yunzhao; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with poor prognosis. Yet, there is lack of effective prognostic biomarkers for RMS. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore potential biomarkers for RMS based on our previous findings using array comparative genomic hybridization. We investigated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, at expression level in 45 RMS patients and 36 normal striated muscle controls using immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The expression rate of GEFT in RMS samples (42/45, 93.33%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (5/36, 13.89%). Moreover, the overexpression rate of GEFT in RMS (31/45, 68.89%) was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (0/36, 0.00%). Increased expression of GEFT correlated significantly with advanced disease stages (stages III/IV) (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.019), and distant metastasis (P=0.004), respectively, in RMS patients. In addition, RMS patients having overexpressed GEFT experienced worse overall survival (OS) than those having low levels of GEFT (P=0.001). GEFT overexpression was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poor OS in RMS patients (hazard ratio: 3.491, 95% confidence interval: 1.121-10.871, P=0.004). In conclusion, these observations provide the first evidence of GEFT overexpression in RMS and its correlations with disease aggressiveness and metastasis. These findings suggest that GEFT may serve as a promising biomarker predicting poor prognosis in RMS patients, thus implying its potential as a therapeutic target.

  6. Tumor deposits: markers of poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu-Ning; Xiao, Wei-Wei; Xi, Shao-Yan; OuYang, Pu-Yun; You, Kai-Yun; Zeng, Zhi-Fan; Ding, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Hui-Zhong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Rui-Hua; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor deposits (TDs) were reported to be poor prognoses in colorectal carcinoma, but the significance in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) (T3-4/N+) following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neo-CRT) and surgery is unclear. Since adjuvant chemotherapy showed no benefit for LARC following neo-CRT, it is of great value to investigate whether TDs can identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Between 2004 and 2012, 310 LARC patients following neo-CRT and surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and local recurrence free survival (LRFS) were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox models. Results TDs-positive patients showed adverse OS, DFS and DMFS (all P≤0.001), but not LRFS (P = 0.273). In multivariate analysis, TDs continued to be associated with poor OS (HR = 2.44, 95% CI 1.32-4.4, P = 0.004) and DFS (HR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.21-3.27, P = 0.007), but not DMFS (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 0.97-3.20, P = 0.061) or LRFS (HR = 1.85, 95% CI 0.58-5.85, P = 0.298). Among TDs-positive patients, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved OS (P = 0.045) and DMFS (P = 0.026), but not DFS (P = 0.127) or LRFS (P = 0.862). Conclusions TDs are predictive of poor survival in LARC after neo-CRT. Fortunately, TDs-positive patients appear to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26695441

  7. EZH2 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with glioma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Zhibin; Feng, Shiyu

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the prognostic value of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) expression in patients with glioma but conclude contradictory results. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic role of EZH2 in glioma by meta-analysis. The databases of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were combined to assess the association between EZH2 and overall survival (OS) as well as progression-free survival (PFS). Odd ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated to investigate the relevance of EZH2 on clinical factors. Six studies with 575 patients were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that EZH2 overexpression was correlated with poor OS (n = 6, HR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.56–3.19, p < 0.001) and PFS (n = 3, HR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.56–3.19, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that EZH2 had enhanced prognostic value in Asian patients, for WHO grade I-IV and when using immunohistochemistry (IHC) method. In addition, EZH2 was associated with KPS score < 80. No evidence of publication bias was found in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, the present study showed that EZH2 was a potential prognostic marker for poor OS, PFS and lower KPS score in glioma patients. PMID:27880940

  8. USP9X expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitination is a reversible process of posttranslational protein modification through the action of the family of deubiquitylating enzymes which contain ubiquitin-specific protease 9x (USP9X). Recent evidence indicates that USP9X is involved in the progression of various human cancers. The aim was to detect the expression of USP9X in the progression from normal epithelium to invasive esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and evaluate the relevance of USP9X expression to the tumor progression and prognosis. Methods In this study, USP9X immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissues constructed from ESCC combined with either normal epithelium or adjacent precursor tissues of 102 patients. All analyses were performed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results We observed that the level of high USP9X expression increased gradually in the transformation from normal epithelium (4.0%), to low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (10.5%), then to high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (28.6%), and finally to invasive ESCC (40.2%). The expression of USP9X was found to be significantly different between the normal mucosa and ESCC (P < 0.001), and between low grade intraepithelial neoplasia and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (p = 0.012). However, no difference was observed between the high expression of USP9X in normal mucosa and low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (P = 0.369), nor between high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and ESCC (p = 0.115). Interestingly, the most intensive staining for USP9X was usually observed in the basal and lower spinous layers of the esophageal epithelium with precursor lesions which often resulted in the earliest malignant lesion. USP9X expression status was positively associated with both depth of invasion (p = 0.046) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032). Increased USP9X expression was significantly correlated to poorer survival rate in ESCC patients (p = 0.001). When adjusted by multivariate analysis, USP

  9. Increased expression of Lin28B associates with poor prognosis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianfu; Jia, Jun; Xiong, Xuepeng; He, Haijun; Bu, Linlin; Zhao, Zhili; Huang, Congfa; Zhang, Wenfeng

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies showed that incomplete cell reprogramming can transform cells into tumour-like cells. Lin28A is associated with fibroblast and sarcoma cell reprogramming, whereas its homologue Lin28B is associated with hematopoietic cell reprogramming. This study aimed to investigate the expression and prognostic difference between Lin28A and Lin28B in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Expression level was assessed by immunohistochemistry and staining location was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Prognostic values were analysed and compared by the Kaplan-Meier analysis and uni and multivariate Cox regression models. Besides, in vitro cell assays and in vivo nude mice xenograft were used to demonstrate the influence of increased Lin28B expression in OSCC. Lin28A and Lin28B expression increased in OSCC, and co-expression of Lin28A and Lin28B showed no significant association with patient prognosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high Lin28B but not Lin28A expression had lower overall survival (OS) rates than those with low Lin28B expression. Further Univariate analysis showed that patients with increased Lin28B expression had shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and shorter OS, while multivariate analysis showed Lin28B overexpression with TNM stage predicted poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. Besides, stable expressing Lin28B in oral cancer cells promoted cell migration, invasion, colony formation, in vivo proliferation and increased the expression of cancer suppressor miRNA let-7 targeted genes IL-6, HMGA2, the EMT markers Snail and Twist, the angiogenesis inducer VEGF, and the apoptosis inhibitor Survivin. These combined results indicate that Lin28B is a novel marker for predicting prognosis in patients with OSCC and may be a therapeutic target.

  10. Inactivation of RUNX3 predicts poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mo; Wang, Zhou; Liu, Xiang-Yan; Chen, Dong

    2014-12-01

    The inactivation of RUNX3 in various cancers has been reported while the expression of RUNX3 on protein level in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its relationship with pathological parameters and prognosis still remained unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of RUNX3 in 158 ESCC samples and 20 normal esophageal mucosa samples by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The IHC result showed that RUNX3 was detected mainly in the nuclei of basal layer cells in 18 of 20 normal mucosa samples while in 158 ESCC samples, there were 46 with RUNX3 nuclei expression, 37 RUNX3 cytoplasmic expression, and 75 negative expression. The qRT-PCR confirmed the downregulation of RUNX3 mRNA in the RUNX3 protein negative group than in the RUNX3 nuclei and cytoplasmic expression group (P < 0.001), and the methylation-specific PCR showed a low methylation rate in the ESCC tissue samples with RUNX3 protein negative expression (6/40, 15%). The RUNX3 nuclei expression negatively correlated with the lymph node metastasis (P = 0.033) and recurrence status (P = 0.019), and the survival analysis showed that the patients with RUNX3 nuclei expression had a higher 5-year survival rate than the patients with RUNX3 cytoplasmic/negative expression (P = 0.022). The Cox regression analysis showed that the T classification (P = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and RUNX3 inactivation (negative/cytoplasmic expression, P = 0.039) were independent risk factor of poor prognosis. In conclusion, we found a frequent inactivation of RUNX3 due to low expression and cytoplasmic dislocalization in ESCC. The inactivation of RUNX3 may be involved in the progression of ESCC, and RUNX3 could be an indicator of prognosis for patients with ESCC after surgery.

  11. Nestin Expression Is Associated with Poor Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis in Glioma Patients: an Association Study and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Donglai; Lu, Lin; Hu, Zongtao; Fei, Zhenle; Liu, Meiqin; Wei, Lei; Xu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Nestin has been identified as a molecular marker of neural progenitor cells and putative glioma stem cells (GSCs). Various studies examining the relationship between nestin expression with the clinical outcome in glioma patients have yielded inconclusive results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the association of nestin with prognosis and clinicopathological features of glioma patients. The electronic searches were performed through the database of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CNKI. In total, this meta-analysis included 14 studies covering 897 nestin + cases and 704 controls. The correlation between nestin expression and clinicopathological or prognostic parameters was evaluated by Stata 11.0 software. Our results showed that nestin protein abundance was significantly correlated with the histological grade [odds ratio (OR) = 4.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.14-8.88, P = 0.003] of glioma. With respect to prognosis, nestin expression was positively correlated with overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.30-3.02, P = 0.000] and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.90, 95 % CI = 1.18-3.07, P = 0.040). The further stratified analysis not only defined the predictive function of nestin in different ages but also revealed that different antibodies did not alter the positive outcomes and higher standard cutoff values were more suitable for the accurate assay of nestin. Taken together, our results indicate that nestin may play an important role in the prediction of the clinicopathology and poor prognosis of glioma patients. This study should be taken into consideration in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic programs.

  12. Overexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) predicts poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hanbyoul; Lee, You Sun; Kim, Julie; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Illumina microarray was used to identify differentially expressed genes in three epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. To validate the microarray data, mRNA and protein level of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was examined. GLUT-1 had an EOC/normal cells ratio of 5.51 based on microarray. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GLUT-1 expression was significantly increased in EOC (p = .029 and p < .001, respectively). On survival analysis, GLUT-1 overexpression (HR = 4.80, p = .027) and lymph node metastases (HR = 8.35, p = .016) conferred a significantly worse overall survival. In conclusion, GLUT-1 expression is remarkably upregulated in EOC and predicts a poor overall survival.

  13. Integrative genomics reveals hypoxia inducible genes that are associated with a poor prognosis in neuroblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Clara; Hernandez, Kyle M.; DeWane, Gillian; Salwen, Helen R.; Chlenski, Alexandre; Dobratic, Marija; Mariani, Christopher J.; Godley, Lucy A.; Prabhakar, Nanduri; White, Kevin; Stranger, Barbara E.; Cohn, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is notable for its broad spectrum of clinical behavior ranging from spontaneous regression to rapidly progressive disease. Hypoxia is well known to confer a more aggressive phenotype in neuroblastoma. We analyzed transcriptome data from diagnostic neuroblastoma tumors and hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines to identify genes whose expression levels correlate with poor patient outcome and are involved in the hypoxia response. By integrating a diverse set of transcriptome datasets, including those from neuroblastoma patients and neuroblastoma derived cell lines, we identified nine genes (SLCO4A1, ENO1, HK2, PGK1, MTFP1, HILPDA, VKORC1, TPI1, and HIST1H1C) that are up-regulated in hypoxia and whose expression levels are correlated with poor patient outcome in three independent neuroblastoma cohorts. Analysis of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and ENCODE data indicate that at least five of these nine genes have an increase in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and a more open chromatin structure in hypoxia versus normoxia and are putative targets of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) as they contain HIF binding sites in their regulatory regions. Four of these genes are key components of the glycolytic pathway and another three are directly involved in cellular metabolism. We experimentally validated our computational findings demonstrating that seven of the nine genes are significantly up-regulated in response to hypoxia in the four neuroblastoma cell lines tested. This compact and robustly validated group of genes, is associated with the hypoxia response in aggressive neuroblastoma and may represent a novel target for biomarker and therapeutic development. PMID:27765905

  14. Plasmacytoid Urothelial Carcinomas – A Chemo-sensitive Cancer with Poor Prognosis, and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dayyani, Farshid; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Sircar, Kanishka; Munsell, Mark F; Millikan, Randall E; Dinney, Colin P; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) is a rare variant histology with poorly defined clinical behavior. We report clinical outcomes information on patients with predominant PUC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of treatments and outcomes in patients with predominant PUC seen at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1990–2010. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate Overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results 31 patients were identified (median age:63.5yrs; 83.3% male; TNM stage:cT1N0,n=4;cT2N0,n=7;cT3b-4aN0,n=5; cT4b, N+ or M+ n = 15). Median OS for all patients was 17.7months (Stage I-III vs IV: 45.8 vs 13.3mo). Of 16 patients with potentially surgically resectable PUC (<=pT4aN0M0) 5 received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, 10 had initial surgery, and one was treated with TURBT alone. Despite pathologic downstaging in 80% of patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, relapses were common and there was no difference in survival between patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy compared to initial surgery, even though adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 7 patients. Surgical upstaging with positive margins was also common with surgery alone. The most common site of recurrence was in the peritoneum (19/23), with relapses occurring even in those with pCR at surgery. In patients presenting with metastatic disease who were treated with chemotherapy, the median survival was 12.6 months. Conclusions PUC is a very aggressive subset with overall poor outcomes. Although downstaging is seen with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there are few long-term survivors. There is a strong predilection for recurrences along the peritoneal lining. PMID:23159581

  15. Cancer of unknown primary patients with midline nodal distribution: midway between poor and favourable prognosis?

    PubMed

    Pentheroudakis, George; Stoyianni, Aikaterini; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-04-01

    Midline nodal cancer of unknown primary (CUP) has varying definitions and an unclear natural history compared to that of extragonadal germ cell cancer (EGCC) and neuroendocrine tumors. We systematically reviewed all published series of patients with midline nodal CUP using three distinct definitions and presented our own retrospective cohort. Sixty four fit patients (median age 64) with poorly differentiated carcinoma or adenocarcinoma in midline nodal areas were treated from 1998 to 2008 at our center. Only two patients had elevated serum germ cell markers. Forty-eight percentage of patients responded to platinum-based chemotherapy (CR 11%). The median survival was 12 months (2-year survival 18%). Good PS (Hazard Ratio HR 0.287, p=0.058) and administration of platinum (HR 0.340, p=0.08) predicted for more favourable outcome. A subgroup of 15 male patients selected with stricter criteria had a CR rate of 33% and median survival of 18 months (2-year survival 24%). We identified 10 series of midline nodal CUP patients defined with discordant criteria. Despite high response rates (35-65%) to platinum chemotherapy, the median survival clustered around 12 months. Predictive factors for superior survival were low tumor bulk, patient fitness, female gender, carcinomatous histology, and absence of visceral metastases. There were differences between midline nodal CUP patients and EGCC as well as neuroendocrine tumors (age, tumor markers, response to therapy, long-term survival). Midline nodal CUP patients are poorly defined, fare less well than EGCC or neuroendocrine cancer and probably constitute a heterogeneous entity with a minority harbouring atypical germ cell cancer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Haoyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Chen; Jin, Guangzhi; Gu, Dishui; Deng, Xuan; Wang, Cun; Qin, Wenxin; Jin, Haojie

    2016-01-01

    Longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2) has been reported to act as an important tumor suppressor in the development of human cancers. However, little is known about the prognostic value of LASS2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) . In the present study, we analyzed correlation between LASS2 and TGF-β1 levels, and evaluated their prognostic values in HCC patients. We first analyzed the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 in two independent cohorts (test cohort: 184 HCC patients; validation cohort: 118 HCC patients) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of HCC. The results of IHC analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. HCC Patients with low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 had shorter overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) than patients with high expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, combination of LASS2 and TGF-β1 was an independent and significant risk factor for OS and TTR. In conclusion, low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 contributes to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for HCC patients. PMID:27581744

  17. Genomic gain of the PRL-3 gene may represent poor prognosis of primary colorectal cancer, and associate with liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, N; Yamashita, K; Tanaka, T; Kawamata, H; Ooki, A; Sato, T; Nakamura, T; Watanabe, M

    2016-01-01

    PRL-3 genomic copy number is increased in colorectal cancer (CRC), and PRL-3 expression is closely associated with lymph node and liver metastasis of CRC. However, the clinical significance of PRL-3 genomic gain for CRC remains obscure. Here, PRL-3 genomic status in 109 primary CRC tumors and in 44 CRC tumors that had metastasized to the liver, was quantified using real time PCR. Association of PRL-3 genomic status with clinicopathological factors and prognosis was assessed in detail. PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 31 primary CRC (27.4 %) and was more frequently seen in stage III than in stage II (p = 0.025). Among the clinicopathological factors assessed, PRL-3 genomic gain was significantly associated with poorly differentiated histology (p = 0.0039). Moreover, CRC patients with PRL-3 genomic gain exhibited poorer prognosis than those with no gain in stage II-IV CRC (p = 0.017). PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 18 (41 %) of the liver metastasis tumors, and this frequency of gain was significantly increased as compared to that of the corresponding primary CRCs (11 %) (p = 0.001). Our findings suggested that PRL-3 genomic gain may represent an aggressive phenotype of primary CRC, and may associate with liver metastasis.

  18. Simultaneous high expression of PLD1 and Sp1 predicts a poor prognosis for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-yong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Dong-hui; Wang, Li-wei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with few therapeutic options. Recently, insight into cancer biology suggested abnormal lipid metabolism to be a risk factor for human malignancies. As a key enzyme implicated in lipid metabolism, PLD1 was elevated in various human cancer associating with malignant phenotypes. However, little was known about its expression and function in PDAC. We showed that PLD1 was elevated in both the cell lines and clinical samples of PDAC, and it positively correlated with vascular invasion (p = 0.041) and responsible for a poor prognosis (p = 0.009). Meanwhile, we also found Sp1 to be elevated in the disease, correlating with vascular invasion (p = 0.007). Moreover, the correlation assay suggested that PLD1 positively correlated with Sp1 in the clinical sample (r = 0.390; p < 0.001) and the cell lines. Finally, we showed that co-high expression of both the factors confers the poorest prognosis for the patients, and that their simultaneous high expression might be an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.001; HR = 3.427; 95% CI 1.629−7.211). PMID:27713167

  19. High expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 predicts poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunwei; Xiang, Hua; Si, Huiyuan; Guo, Dandan; Sun, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator (MR-1) is overexpressed in human cancer cells and plays an essential role in cancer cell growth. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in patients with HCC. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect MR-1 mRNA levels in tissues samples from 120 HCC patients. Results showed that MR-1 expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues when compared with matched adjacent normal tissues (P=0.004). In HCC cancerous tissues, it was also significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.024) and serum AFP level (P=0.003). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that HCC patients with high MR-1 expression had shorter overall survival time than those with low MR-1 expression (P=0.009). When analyzed with a multivariate Cox regression model, MR-1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Furthermore, when combined with serum AFP level, the median survival time significantly differed between patients with baseline high serum AFP and high MR-1 expression levels and those with normal AFP and low MR-1 levels (P=0.007). Taken together, our results suggest that high expression of MR-1 is involved in HCC progression and could be a novel biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with HCC. PMID:26823810

  20. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

    PubMed

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-04

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

  1. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers. PMID:26725848

  2. Elevated expression of tumor miR-222 in pancreatic cancer is associated with Ki67 and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, ChongLek; He, Hang; Jiang, Yongjian; Di, Yang; Yang, Feng; Li, Ji; Jin, Chen; Fu, Deliang

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer is known for its bad prognosis. Micro-RNAs mis-expressions are associated with various human cancers and offer new candidate targets for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Micro-RNA-222 has been shown to play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation in recent studies. However, its correlations with the clinicopathological characters of pancreatic cancer still remain unclear. Through a prospective study of 60 pairs of pancreatic cancer tissues, adjacent normal tissues were examined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between the expression of micro-RNA-222 and clinico-pathological characters was performed using the two-sample Student's t test. The survival correlations were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox's proportional hazards model. Results showed that the expression levels of micro-RNA-222 were significantly elevated in the pancreatic cancer tissue compared with that in adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the overexpression of the tissue micro-RNA-222 strongly related to the expression level of Ki67. Finally, Cox's proportional hazards model analysis confirmed that micro-RNA-222 high expression level was an independent predictor of poor prognosis. This study provides the first evidence of a potential link between Ki67 and micro-RNA-222, which are both relevant to cell proliferation. Our data suggest the potential of micro-RNA-222 as a prognostic biomarker for the pancreatic cancer.

  3. Clinical Significance of UCA1 to Predict Metastasis and Poor Prognosis of Digestive System Malignancies: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Huan, Chen; Qiu, Wei; Sun, Da-Wei; Shi, Xiao-Ju; Wang, Chuan-Lei; Jiang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) has been reported to be overexpressed and correlated with progression in various cancers. However, the association between UCA1 expression and some clinicopathological features of digestive system malignancies, such as metastasis and survival, remains inconclusive. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the clinical significance of UCA1 in digestive system malignancies. Methods. Relevant literatures were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases updated to May 2016. Results. A total of 1089 patients from 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that digestive system malignancy patients with UCA1 overexpression were significantly more susceptible to developing lymph node metastasis (LNM) (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.28–2.67) and distant metastasis (DM) (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.77–5.58) and suffer from poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89–2.82, univariate analysis; HR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.69–2.98, multivariate analysis) and poor disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.59–4.43, univariate analysis; HR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.62–3.86, multivariate analysis). Conclusion. UCA1 overexpression was correlated with LNM, DM, poor OS, and poor DFS. UCA1 may serve as an indicator for metastasis and poor prognosis in digestive system malignancies. PMID:28074092

  4. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression confers poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue: A tissue microarray study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Morales, Jose; Feng, Lei; Lee, J. Jack; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) exhibits high risk for recurrence and regional metastasis even after surgical resection. We assessed the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of a group of functionally related biomarkers. We used a tissue microarray consisting SCCOT from 32 patients for this study. These patients were treated at the UT- M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1995 to 2008. Biomarker expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry and graded semiquantitatively to determine their prognostic significance. CD147 and Tp63 expressions were significantly associated with a higher T-stage and Ki-67 labelling index as well as shorter overall survival (OS). Expression of Tp63 associated positively with poorly-differentiated histology. There was significant association of Tp63 with the expression levels of CD147 and Glut-1. Glut-1 overexpression was marginally associated with a higher T-stage. There was no prognostic significance of CD44v6 expression in SCCOT. SCCOT with CD147 overexpression in combination with high Ki-67 labelling index had poor OS. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression is associated with aggressive disease with poor prognosis in SCCOT. PMID:25747176

  5. NQO1 protein expression predicts poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenling; Zhang, Yue; Jin, Tiefeng; Men, Jiguang; Lin, Zhenhua; Qi, Peng; Piao, Yingshi; Yan, Guanghai

    2015-03-31

    High-level expression of quinoneoxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) has been correlated with many types of human cancers, suggesting that NQO1 plays important roles in tumor occurrence and progression. This study attempted to explore the role of NQO1 in tumor progression and prognostic evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Total 164 tissue samples, including 150 NSCLC paired with the adjacent non-tumor tissues and 14 normal lung tissues, were picked-up for immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of the NQO1 protein, and immunofluorescence (IF) staining was also performed to detect the subcellular localization of the NQO1 protein in A549 human lung cancer cells. The correlation between NQO1 expression and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated by Chi-square test and Fisher's exact tests. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of NSCLC patients were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The NQO1 protein showed a mainly cytoplasmic staining pattern in lung cancer cells, including adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Both positive rate and strongly positive rate of NQO1 protein expression were significantly higher in NSCLC (59.3% and 28.0%) than that in adjacent non tumor (8.0% and 1.3%) and normal lung tissues (0%). The positive rate of NQO1 was related with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis, and the strongly positive rate of NQO1 protein was significantly correlated with tumor size, poor differentiation, advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis in NSCLC. Additionally, survival analyses showed that the patients with NQO1 positive expression had lower OS rates compared with those with NQO1 negative expression in the groups of T1-2, T3-4, without LN metastasis and stage I-II of NSCLC, respectively; however, in the groups of patients with LN metastasis or III-IV stages, OS rate was not correlated with

  6. Increased Expression of CAP2 Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jia; Li, Min; Wu, Dan-Chun; Liu, Li-Li; Chen, Shi-Lu; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    CAP2 has been suggested as a potential diagnostic biomarker for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its prognostic significance in HCC remains unclear. Here, we show that CAP2 expression is much higher in HCC tissues than that in paracarcinoma tissues, at both mRNA and protein levels. Data of immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that CAP2 was markedly up-regulated in 77.3% of HCC cases. High CAP2 expression, defined by the median score of IHC, was present in 53.3% of the patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high CAP2 expression was associated with poor overall survival (P < .0001), disease-free survival (P = .013) and recurrence probability (P = .004) in a training cohort of 312 HCC patients. The prognostic implication of CAP2 in HCC was further confirmed in a validation cohort of 208 HCC patients and by stratified survival analysis. Multiple Cox regression analysis indicated CAP2 as an independent predictor for overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.615, 95% confidence interval: 1.345-1.938, P < .001). Collectively, we conclude that CAP2 is increased in HCC and is a novel unfavorable biomarker for prognostic prediction for patients with this deadly disease. PMID:26500030

  7. Smoothened is a poor prognosis factor and a potential therapeutic target in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yiming; Niu, Mingshan; Xie, Peng; Yue, Chenglong; Liu, Ning; Qi, Zhenglei; Gao, Shangfeng; Liu, Hongmei; Shi, Qiong; Yu, Rutong; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapeutics. Aberrant Hedgehog signaling has been directly linked to glioma. GDC-0449 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling that blocks the activity of smoothened (Smo). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the smoothened inhibitor GDC-0449 on cell proliferation in human gliomas. We found that high expression of smoothened in glioma is a predictor of short overall survival and poor patient outcome. Our data suggest that GDC-0449 significantly inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Our results demonstrate that GDC-0449 can effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Furthermore, GDC-0449 treatment significantly suppressed glioma cell xenograft tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, GDC-0449 treatment markedly decreases the expression levels of key Hedgehog pathway component genes (Shh, Patched-1, Patched-2, smoothened, Gli1 and Gli2). These results indicate that GDC-0449 works through targeting the Hedgehog pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that smoothened could be used as a prognostic marker and molecular therapeutic target for glioma. PMID:28195165

  8. Aurora kinase A (AURKA) expression in colorectal cancer liver metastasis is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Goos, J A C M; Coupe, V M H; Diosdado, B; Delis-Van Diemen, P M; Karga, C; Beliën, J A M; Carvalho, B; van den Tol, M P; Verheul, H M W; Geldof, A A; Meijer, G A; Hoekstra, O S; Fijneman, R J A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Five-year survival after resection of colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLCM) is <30%. We recently found that aurora kinase A (AURKA) drives 20q gain-associated tumour progression and is associated with disease recurrence. This study evaluates the prognostic value of AURKA expression in CRCLM of patients who underwent liver resection. Methods: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were generated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CRCLM and matched primary tumour from a multi-institutional cohort of patients with CRCLM who underwent liver resection between 1990 and 2010. Tissue microarrays were stained for AURKA using immunohistochemistry, and a hazard rate ratio (HRR) for the association between overall survival (OS) and nuclear AURKA expression in CRCLM was calculated. Results were validated by 500-fold cross-validation. Results: The expression of AURKA was evaluated in CRCLM of 343 patients. High AURKA expression was associated with poor OS (HRR 1.55, P<0.01), with a cross-validated average HRR of 1.57 (P=0.02). Average HRR was adjusted for the established prognostic clinicopathological variables in a multivariate analysis (average HRR 1.66; P=0.02). The expression of AURKA in CRCLM was correlated to its expression in corresponding primary tumour (P<0.01). Conclusion: The expression of AURKA protein is a molecular biomarker with prognostic value for patients with CRCLM, independent of established clinicopathological variables. PMID:24104968

  9. ZNF217 is associated with poor prognosis and enhances proliferation and metastasis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Song, Lanlin; Qiu, Yuwen; Yin, Ailan; Zhong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    ZNF217 is an alternatively spliced Kruppel-like transcription factor that has recently been implicated to play a role in human carcinogenesis. Here, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to show that ZNF217 protein is overexpressed in nearly 60% of ovarian tumor samples. The disease-free survival time was shorter in patients with positive ZNF217 expression than in ZNF217-negative patients (P=0.042). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed ZNF217 genomic amplification in the poorly differentiated tumors, suggesting that ZNF217 is associated with the progression of ovarian cancer. Invasion was enhanced in HO-8910 cells stably transfected with constructs carrying full-length ZNF217 relative to cells transfected with the empty vector. To confirm our findings in vivo, we performed a tumorigenicity assay in nude mice inoculated with the HO-8910 overexpressing ZNF217 cells. As expected, tumors grown in the ZNF217 group were more invasive and prone to metastasis than those formed control groups. Based on these clinical and laboratory observations, we conclude that ZNF217 may contribute to ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis, and associated with worse clinical outcomes. PMID:25031722

  10. ZNF217 is associated with poor prognosis and enhances proliferation and metastasis in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Lanlin; Qiu, Yuwen; Yin, Ailan; Zhong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    ZNF217 is an alternatively spliced Kruppel-like transcription factor that has recently been implicated to play a role in human carcinogenesis. Here, we used immunohistochemistry (IHC) to show that ZNF217 protein is overexpressed in nearly 60% of ovarian tumor samples. The disease-free survival time was shorter in patients with positive ZNF217 expression than in ZNF217-negative patients (P=0.042). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed ZNF217 genomic amplification in the poorly differentiated tumors, suggesting that ZNF217 is associated with the progression of ovarian cancer. Invasion was enhanced in HO-8910 cells stably transfected with constructs carrying full-length ZNF217 relative to cells transfected with the empty vector. To confirm our findings in vivo, we performed a tumorigenicity assay in nude mice inoculated with the HO-8910 overexpressing ZNF217 cells. As expected, tumors grown in the ZNF217 group were more invasive and prone to metastasis than those formed control groups. Based on these clinical and laboratory observations, we conclude that ZNF217 may contribute to ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis, and associated with worse clinical outcomes.

  11. Low expression of Mel-18 predicts poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, B-H; Zhang, X; Zhang, H-Z; Lin, H-L; Feng, Y; Shao, J-Y; Huang, W-L; Kung, H-F; Zeng, M-S

    2010-12-01

    Our previous study suggested that melanoma nuclear protein 18 (Mel-18) acted as a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. This study was designed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of Mel-18 in breast cancer patients. Mel-18 was detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissues from 287 breast cancer patients, of which 287 were from primary cancer sites, 63 from matched adjacent noncancerous sites, and 35 from metastatic lymph nodes. Differences in Mel-18 expression and clinical characteristics were compared by χ² test. Prognostic outcomes correlated with Mel-18 were examined using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. The decreased Mel-18 expression is incremental depending upon the magnitude of cancer progression (P < 0.001). Mel-18 was conversely correlated with the pathological classifications (P < 0.001 for T, N, and M classifications, respectively), clinical staging (P < 0.001), and progesterone receptor (P = 0.030). Furthermore, patients with higher level of Mel-18 showed prolonged overall survivals (P < 0.001). The diminished Mel-18 expression may be a risk factor for the patients' survival (P < 0.001). Lower Mel-18 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications and a poor overall survival in breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that Mel-18 may serve as a useful marker in prognostic evaluation for patients.

  12. Smoothened is a poor prognosis factor and a potential therapeutic target in glioma.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiming; Niu, Mingshan; Xie, Peng; Yue, Chenglong; Liu, Ning; Qi, Zhenglei; Gao, Shangfeng; Liu, Hongmei; Shi, Qiong; Yu, Rutong; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-02-14

    Malignant gliomas are associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapeutics. Aberrant Hedgehog signaling has been directly linked to glioma. GDC-0449 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling that blocks the activity of smoothened (Smo). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the smoothened inhibitor GDC-0449 on cell proliferation in human gliomas. We found that high expression of smoothened in glioma is a predictor of short overall survival and poor patient outcome. Our data suggest that GDC-0449 significantly inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Our results demonstrate that GDC-0449 can effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Furthermore, GDC-0449 treatment significantly suppressed glioma cell xenograft tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, GDC-0449 treatment markedly decreases the expression levels of key Hedgehog pathway component genes (Shh, Patched-1, Patched-2, smoothened, Gli1 and Gli2). These results indicate that GDC-0449 works through targeting the Hedgehog pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that smoothened could be used as a prognostic marker and molecular therapeutic target for glioma.

  13. MicroRNA-139-3p indicates a poor prognosis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Duan, Bensong; Dong, Yuanyuan; He, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hongmei; Sheng, Haihui; Gao, Hengjun; Zhang, Xizhi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and are involved in almost biological procession. Recently, miR-139-5p has been reported to be downregulated in some types of cancer, and inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, there are few reports on the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. In this study, we examined the expression level of miR-139-3p in 63 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent paracancerous tissues using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The levels of miR-139-3p in colon cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in adjacent noncancerous tissues. There was an inverse correlation between the level of miR-139-3p and patient’s age. Lower level of miR-139-3p was significantly associated with poor overall survival, especially in patients with TNM stages I and II. In conclusion, miR-139-3p has potential as a prognostic biomarker for colon cancer. Further prospective studies are required to validate this result. PMID:25550849

  14. MicroRNA-139-3p indicates a poor prognosis of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojing; Duan, Bensong; Dong, Yuanyuan; He, Chengzhi; Zhou, Hongmei; Sheng, Haihui; Gao, Hengjun; Zhang, Xizhi

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and are involved in almost biological procession. Recently, miR-139-5p has been reported to be downregulated in some types of cancer, and inhibits cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, there are few reports on the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. In this study, we examined the expression level of miR-139-3p in 63 pairs of colon cancer and adjacent paracancerous tissues using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The levels of miR-139-3p in colon cancer tissues were significantly lower than those in adjacent noncancerous tissues. There was an inverse correlation between the level of miR-139-3p and patient's age. Lower level of miR-139-3p was significantly associated with poor overall survival, especially in patients with TNM stages I and II. In conclusion, miR-139-3p has potential as a prognostic biomarker for colon cancer. Further prospective studies are required to validate this result.

  15. Decreased apolipoprotein A-I level indicates poor prognosis in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Qi; Chen, Qi; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Li; Li, Tingwei; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an invasive lymphoid malignancy with unfavorable survival, for which a prognostic model has not yet been validated. We hypothesized that serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ENKTL. Patients and methods A total of 236 newly diagnosed cases of ENKTL were analyzed retrospectively. Results The optimal cutoff value for the serum ApoA-I level was determined to be 0.95 g/L. A total of 154 and 82 cases were assigned to the high and low ApoA-I groups, respectively. Patients in the low ApoA-I group tended to present with poorer clinical features, a lower complete remission rate (P=0.001), and poor median progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis using Cox model showed that the serum ApoA-I level was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival (P<0.001) and progression-free survival (P<0.001) for ENKTL patients. For cases in the low-risk group, as assessed by International Prognostic Index, Prognosis Index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, and Korean Prognostic Index, the serum ApoA-I level was able to differentiate cases with poor outcomes from cases with good outcomes. Conclusion Our results showed that the baseline serum ApoA-I level was helpful for predicting ENKTL prognosis. PMID:27051293

  16. Alternative polyadenylation is associated with lower expression of PABPN1 and poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Junji; Watanabe, Kousuke; Sano, Atsushi; Nagase, Takahide; Nakajima, Jun; Fukayama, Masashi; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2014-01-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA), which induces shortening of the 3′UTR, is emerging as an important phenomenon in gene regulation. APA is involved in development, cancer and cell proliferation. APA may lead to disruption of microRNA-mediated gene silencing in cancer cells via detachment of microRNA binding sites. We studied the correlation between the APA profile and the tumor aggressiveness in cases of lung cancer. We selected the top 10 genes showing significant 3′UTR shortening in lung cancer, using the package of the Bioconductor for probe-level analyses of expression microarrays. We established and evaluated the APA score by quantitative RT-PCR in 147 clinical specimens of non-small cell lung cancer and compared the results with the clinical outcomes and expression levels of APA-related genes, including PABPN1, CPEB1, E2F1 and proliferation markers (MKI67, TOP2A and MCM2). High APA scores were correlated with an advanced tumor stage and a poor prognosis (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified the APA score as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 3.0; P = 0.03). Both lower expression of PABPN1 and higher expression of the proliferation markers were correlated with high APA scores and a poor prognosis, with suppression of PABPN1 exerting its influence independent of gain of the proliferation markers. Moreover, the APA score was correlated with the maximum standardized uptake value of the tumors on positron emission tomography (r = 0.53; P < 0.001). Our results indicate that the loss of PABPN1, a suppressor of APA, might promote tumor aggressiveness by releasing the cancer cells from microRNA-mediated gene regulation. PMID:24975429

  17. Concomitant underexpression of TGFBR2 and overexpression of hTERT are associated with poor prognosis in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhong, Yahua; Wang, Qiaoli; Yang, Lei; Kang, Hong; Gao, Xiaojia; Yu, Haijun; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is highly expressed in a variety of tumors. The transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (TGFBR2) is a downstream protein of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) which suppresses telomerase activity. However, the relevance of survival to the expression of TGFBR2, hTERT or TGFBR2/hTERT has not been previously investigated in cervical cancer tissues. Our study showed that patients with low level of TGFBR2 were associated with poor prognosis (HR = 1.704, P = 0.021), but no significant relevance between hTERT expression and survival (HR = 1.390, P = 0.181). However, a combination of low level of TGFBR2 and high level of hTERT was associated with a worse survival (HR = 1.892, P = 0.020), which had higher impact of hazard ratio (HR) on the overall survival (OS) than the low TGFBR2 expression alone. Knockdown of TGFBR2 expression by shRNA in Hela cells increased cell proliferation, cell invasion, G1/S transition and telomere homeostasis but decreased cell apoptosis. Overexpressing TGFBR2 and inhibiting hTERT suppressed Hela cell growth. These results would lead us to further explore whether a phenotype of TGFBR2low/hTERThigh could be considered as a predictor of poor prognosis, and whether simultaneous use of TGFBR2 agonist and hTERT inhibitor could be developed as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:28195144

  18. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) and CD147 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are transmembrane proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylates across the plasma membrane, which appear to play an important role in solid tumours, however the role of MCTs in prostate cancer is largely unknown. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the clinico-pathological value of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) expression, namely MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4, together with CD147 and gp70 as MCT1/4 and MCT2 chaperones, respectively, in prostate carcinoma. Methods Prostate tissues were obtained from 171 patients, who performed radical prostatectomy and 14 patients who performed cystoprostatectomy. Samples and clinico-pathological data were retrieved and organized into tissue microarray (TMAs) blocks. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in neoplastic (n = 171), adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (n = 135), PIN lesions (n = 40) and normal prostatic tissue (n = 14). Protein expression was correlated with patients' clinicopathologic characteristics. Results In the present study, a significant increase of MCT2 and MCT4 expression in the cytoplasm of tumour cells and a significant decrease in both MCT1 and CD147 expression in prostate tumour cells was observed when compared to normal tissue. All MCT isoforms and CD147 were expressed in PIN lesions. Importantly, for MCT2 and MCT4 the expression levels in PIN lesions were between normal and tumour tissue, which might indicate a role for these MCTs in the malignant transformation. Associations were found between MCT1, MCT4 and CD147 expressions and poor prognosis markers; importantly MCT4 and CD147 overexpression correlated with higher PSA levels, Gleason score and pT stage, as well as with perineural invasion and biochemical recurrence. Conclusions Our data provides novel evidence for the involvement of MCTs in prostate cancer. According to our results, we consider that MCT2 should be further explored as tumour marker and both MCT4 and CD147 as

  19. Decreased expression of RNA-binding motif protein 3 correlates with tumour progression and poor prognosis in urothelial bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low nuclear expression of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) has previously been found to be associated with poor prognosis in several cancer forms e.g. breast, ovarian, colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic impact of RBM3 expression in urinary bladder cancer. Methods Immunohistochemical RBM3 expression was examined in tumours from 343 patients with urothelial bladder cancer. Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation tests were applied to explore associations between RBM3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. The impact of RBM3 expression on disease-specific survival (DSS), 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling. Results Reduced nuclear RBM3 expression was significantly associated with more advanced tumour (T) stage (p <0.001) and high grade tumours (p=0.004). Negative RBM3 expression was associated with a significantly shorter DSS (HR=2.55; 95% CI 1.68-3.86)) and 5-year OS (HR=2.10; 95% CI 1.56-2.82), also in multivariable analysis (HR=1.65; 95% CI 1.07-2.53 for DSS and HR=1.54; 95% CI 1.13-2.10 for 5-year OS). In patients with Ta and T1 tumours expressing reduced RBM3 levels, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly shorter PFS (p=0.048) and 5-year OS (p=0.006). Conclusion Loss of RBM3 expression is associated with clinically more aggressive tumours and an independent factor of poor prognosis in patients with urothelial bladder cancer and a potentially useful biomarker for treatment stratification and surveillance of disease progression. PMID:23565664

  20. Association between poor clinical prognosis and sleep duration among breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mansano-Schlosser, Thalyta Cristina; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2017-06-05

    to investigate the association between clinical progression and the quality and duration of sleep in women with breast cancer. longitudinal study, with 114 participants, conducted in a hospital in Brazil. The instruments used were: questionnaire for sociodemographic and clinical characterization, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; Beck Depression Inventory and Herth Hope Scale. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and survival analyses (outcome: poor clinical progression), using the Kaplan-Meier curve, Log-rank test and Cox proportional model. a higher probability of poor clinical progression was verified in women with sleep durations of less than six hours or nine hours and over (p=.0173). the results suggest the importance of further studies that seek to verify whether the quantitative management of sleep disorders would have an impact on the progression of breast cancer. Women should be encouraged to report sleep problems to nurses. mensurar a associação entre evolução clínica e qualidade e duração do sono em mulheres com câncer de mama. estudo longitudinal, com 114 participantes, realizado em um hospital do Brasil. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica, Índice de Qualidade do Sono de Pittsburgh; Inventário de Depressão de Beck e Escala de Esperança de Herth. Os dados foram analisados via análises descritivas e de sobrevivência (resultado: evolução clínica desfavorável), utilizando-se a curva de Kaplan-Meier, o teste log-rank e o modelo proporcional de Cox. verificou-se maior probabilidade de evolução clínica desfavorável em mulheres com duração de sono inferior a seis ou mais de nove horas (p = 0,0173). os resultados sugerem a importância de mais estudos que buscam verificar se a gestão quantitativa dos distúrbios do sono teria um impacto sobre a evolução do câncer de mama. As mulheres devem ser encorajadas a relatar isso espontaneamente aos enfermeiros. medir

  1. Visceral Adiposity and Sarcopenic Visceral Obesity are Associated with Poor Prognosis After Resection of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Shinya; Kaido, Toshimi; Hamaguchi, Yuhei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Shirai, Hisaya; Yao, Siyuan; Yagi, Shintaro; Kamo, Naoko; Hatano, Etsuro; Okajima, Hideaki; Takaori, Kyoichi; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-09-05

    Visceral fat accumulation and muscle depletion have been identified as poor prognostic factors for various cancers. However, the significance of visceral adiposity and sarcopenic visceral obesity on outcomes after resection of pancreatic cancer remains unclear. A retrospective analysis of 301 patients who underwent resection for localized pancreatic cancer between 2004 and 2015 was performed. The extent of visceral adiposity [visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio (VSR)] and visceral obesity [visceral fat area (VFA)] were measured on preoperative computed tomography images, together with skeletal muscle index (SMI) and muscle attenuation (MA). The impacts of these body composition parameters on outcomes after pancreatic resection were investigated. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates in patients with high VSR were significantly lower than those in patients with low VSR (P = 0.001, P = 0.007, respectively). There were no differences in OS and RFS between high VFA and low VFA group; however, when analyzed together with sarcopenic factors, OS and RFS rates of the patients with sarcopenic visceral obesity were significantly lower compared with those of the others. Multivariate analyses revealed that high VSR was an independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.58, P = 0.009) and recurrence (HR 1.41, P = 0.026) together with low SMI, low MA, high CA19-9, microvascular invasion, and nodal metastasis. Visceral adiposity and sarcopenic visceral obesity, as well as low muscle mass and quality, were closely associated with mortality and recurrence after resection of pancreatic cancer.

  2. Cutaneous radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast: poor prognosis in a rare secondary malignancy.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Elizabeth A; Kozono, David E; Wang, Qian; Mery, Carlos M; Butrynski, James E; Baldini, Elizabeth H; George, Suzanne; Nascimento, Alessandra F; Raut, Chandrajit P

    2012-11-01

    Cutaneous radiation-associated angiosarcoma of the breast (CRAASBr) is a rare complication of radiation therapy (RT) administered for primary breast cancer treatment. Although case series have provided clinical and histological descriptions of this disease, to our knowledge, none have identified trends in presentation and treatments that may contribute to outcomes. Demographic, clinical, histopathologic, and outcomes data for all patients presenting with CRAASBr for treatment or consultation at our institution from 1987 to 2009 were reviewed. We identified 33 patients (median age at CRAASBr presentation 71.3 years, range 43.1-87.2 years; median latency period 73.5 months, range 39.6-148.5 months). The most common presentation was breast skin ecchymosis (55 %). In four patients, initial biopsy demonstrated atypical vascular lesions suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, angiosarcoma. All patients underwent mastectomy. Median local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 18.2, 13.0, and 48.5 months, respectively. Patients who underwent resection of all irradiated breast skin as part of the mastectomy trended toward a better median LRFS (80.8 vs. 10.0 months, p = 0.065), RFS (72.6 vs. 10.0 months, p = 0.098), and OS (not achieved vs. 29.0 months, p = 0.054). CRAASBr is a potentially devastating consequence of RT for breast cancer, with poor LRFS, RFS, and OS rates. Patients with ecchymotic skin lesions require biopsy. Atypical vascular lesions require careful evaluation to rule out CRAASBr. If the diagnosis is confirmed, radical surgery encompassing both the breast parenchyma and the at-risk radiated skin should be performed.

  3. TBL1XR1 Is Highly Expressed in Gastric Cancer and Predicts Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Liu, Ni; Zhang, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the expression of transducin- (β-) like 1 X-linked receptor 1 (TBL1XR1) in human gastric cancer (GC) and its correlation with prognostic and biologic significance. Methods. TBL1XR1 mRNA expression was analyzed in gastric cancer using a microarray dataset (GSE2701) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of TBL1XR1 was performed on GC tissue microarray (TMA) to assess its prognostic and biological significance in 334 patients of GC. Results. Analysis of GSE2701 showed that the mRNA levels of TBL1XR1 were significantly elevated in primary gastric tumor and lymph node tissues than normal gastric tissues (P < 0.05). The same results of TBL1XR1 protein level were observed by IHC staining in 334 GC tissues. 204 of 334 (60.1%) primary gastric cancer tissues showed high expression of TBL1XR1 protein. TBL1XR1 overexpression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.000) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001). Moreover, high levels of TBL1XR1 predicted worse overall survival (P = 0.015). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high expression of TBL1XR1 was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (HR, 0.525; 95% confidence interval, 0.367–0.752; P = 0.005). Conclusion. This present study demonstrates that TBL1XR1 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and may be a potential predictor and therapeutic target for GC patients. PMID:27672238

  4. Autonomous growth potential of leukemia blast cells is associated with poor prognosis in human acute leukemias.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Wieman, Eric A; Guan, Xiuqin; Jakubowski, Ann A; Steinherz, Peter G; O'Reilly, Richard J

    2009-12-29

    We have described a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model that permits the subcutaneous growth of primary human acute leukemia blast cells into a measurable subcutaneous nodule which may be followed by the development of disseminated disease. Utilizing the SCID mouse model, we examined the growth potential of leukemic blasts from 133 patients with acute leukemia, (67 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 66 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)) in the animals after subcutaneous inoculation without conditioning treatment. The blasts displayed three distinct growth patterns: "aggressive", "indolent", or "no tumor growth". Out of 133 leukemias, 45 (33.8%) displayed an aggressive growth pattern, 14 (10.5%) displayed an indolent growth pattern and 74 (55.6%) did not grow in SCID mice. The growth probability of leukemias from relapsed and/or refractory disease was nearly 3 fold higher than that from patients with newly diagnosed disease. Serial observations found that leukemic blasts from the same individual, which did not initiate tumor growth at initial presentation and/or at early relapse, may engraft and grow in the later stages of disease, suggesting that the ability of leukemia cells for engraftment and proliferation was gradually acquired following the process of leukemia progression. Nine autonomous growing leukemia cell lines were established in vitro. These displayed an aggressive proliferation pattern, suggesting a possible correlation between the capacity of human leukemia cells for autonomous proliferation in vitro and an aggressive growth potential in SCID mice. In addition, we demonstrated that patients whose leukemic blasts displayed an aggressive growth and dissemination pattern in SClD mice had a poor clinical outcome in patients with ALL as well as AML. Patients whose leukemic blasts grew indolently or whose leukemia cells failed to induce growth had a significantly longer DFS and more favorable clinical course.

  5. High Rab11-FIP4 expression predicts poor prognosis and exhibits tumor promotion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yun; Ye, Mengsi; Zhou, Lingling; Shan, Yunfeng; Lu, Guangrong; Zhou, Yuhui; Zhong, Jinwei; Zheng, Jihang; Xue, Zhanxiong; Cai, Zhenzhai

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) are connected with the tumorigenesis, and they may act as tumor promoters in some cancers. The clinicopathological significance of Rab11-family interacting protein 4 (Rab11-FIP4) expression and its possible effects on pancreatic cancer (PC) are still undiscovered. In this study, Rab11-FIP4 protein expression level in 60 PC specimens and pair-matched non-cancerous samples were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis. The results were analysed and compared with each patients' clinical data. Rab11-FIP4 expression in PC tissues increased significantly more than that of adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P=0.0001). Overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 in the PC tissues was significantly related to tumor size (P=0.0001), histological grade (P=0.028), metastasis (P=0.001) and TNM stage (P=0.004) but not with age (P=0.832), gender (P=0.228) or tumor site (P=0.875). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 was significantly related to overall survival time (P=0.0036). In addition, Rab11-FIP4 in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells were successfully knocked-out using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Rab11-FIP4 knockout in PANC-1 cells inhibited cell growth, invasion and metastasis, and arrested cell cycle progression, but did not alter apoptosis. Our findings suggest that overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 predicts poor clinical outcomes for pancreatic cancer and contributes to pancreatic tumor progression. PMID:28035375

  6. Bcl-2 expression is a poor predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis of andropause-age patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xin; Jia, Hu-Liang; Zhu, Wen-Wei; Lu, Lu; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jin-Hong; Tao, Yi-Feng; Wang, Zheng-Xin; Yang, Jun; Wang, Lian-Xin; Lu, Ming; Zheng, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Qin, Lun-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) seems to be influenced by the endocrine environment. Numerous reports demonstrate the diverse expression of Bcl-2 family members under sex steroid regulation. With the exception of estrogen-related tumors, androgen-related tumors have shown their characteristics in Bcl-2 expression. In this study, the status of Bcl-2 expression in male hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was examined to verify the high incidence of HCC in males. Methods: Tumor tissue microarray was used to examine Bcl-2 expression levels in 374 HCC cases including 306 males and 68 females. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to investigate the predictive value of Bcl-2 in HCC patients. Results: Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that male patients with higher Bcl-2 levels had significantly longer median survival time and recurrence time than those with lower levels. However, no significant differences in outcomes were found between different Bcl-2 levels in female patients. When the male patients were stratified into several age points, the level of Bcl-2 expression showed poorer predictive efficiency in the 45–49 and 55–60 age groups in andropause-age patients compared with other age groups. Bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (P < 0.0001) and recurrence time (P = 0.0001) in male patients. After excluding male patients in the 45–60 age group, the predictive efficiency was enhanced (n = 147, OS, P = 0.0002, TTR, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Bcl-2 expression is an independent predictor of survival and recurrence in male HCC. Bcl-2 levels may also be regulated by androgens or androgen receptors in male HCC patients. Bcl-2 levels change and exhibit poor predictive efficiency when androgen levels vary dramatically (andropause age). PMID:28154777

  7. Upregulation of microRNA-375 is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyan; Hong, Ze; Gao, Feng; Feng, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    A genome-wide serum miRNA expression analysis previously showed the upregulation of microRNA-375 (miR-375) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients compared with healthy controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns and the prognostic relevance of miR-375 in pediatric AML. Expression levels of miR-375 in bone marrow mononuclear cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR in a cohort of 106 patients with newly diagnosed pediatric AML. Expression levels of miR-375 in the bone marrow of pediatric AML patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (P < 0.001). Then, miR-375 upregulation occurred more frequently in French-American-British classification subtype M7 than in other subtypes (P < 0.001). Regarding to cytogenetic risk, the expression levels of miR-375 in pediatric AML patients with unfavorable karyotypes were dramatically higher than those in intermediate and favorable groups (P = 0.002). Moreover, high miR-375 expression was significantly associated with shorter relapse-free survival (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P < 0.001) in pediatric AML patients. Multivariate analysis further identified miR-375 expression and cytogenetics risk as independent prognostic factors for both relapse-free survival and overall survival. In particular, the prognostic relevance of miR-375 expression was more obvious in the subgroup of patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. Our findings suggest for the first time that the upregulation of miR-375 may be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of pediatric AML. Since its correlation with poor relapse-free survival and overall survival, miR-375 may be a novel biomarker to improve the management of pediatric AML patients.

  8. Decreased Expression of miR-15b in Human Gliomas Is Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guan; Yan, Shushan; Shi, Lei; Wan, Zhengqiang; Jiang, Nan; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNA-15b (miR-15b) has been demonstrated to suppress proliferation by arresting cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis in glioma cells. However, the prognostic value of miR-15b expression in human gliomas remains unclear. In the present study, the authors examined the expression profile in glioma specimens and the prognostic value of miR-15b in patients with gliomas. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was employed to detect the expression levels of miR-15b in 92 glioma tissues categorized by World Health Organization (WHO) histopathological grades. However, the prognostic value of miR-15b in human glioma has not been evaluated yet. MiR-15b expression in human glioma tissues was distinctly lower than in normal brain tissues. Furthermore, the expression of miR-15b notably decreased with the ascending histopathological grade of gliomas. Additionally, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that low miR-15b expression was associated with poor overall survival in patients with gliomas. Similarly, miR-15b reduction occurred with increasing frequency in glioma patients with lower Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) scores than in those with higher KPS scores. No significant difference was observed between miR-15b expression and gender, age, and tumor location. These findings revealed that a lower expression level of miR-15b was closely related to a shorter overall survival, suggesting that miR-15b could be an intrinsic factor that plays an important role in the malignant progression of gliomas. PMID:25811315

  9. Decreased RGS6 expression is associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Xue, Ruihua; Bu, Fangfang; Tong, Xin; Qiang, Jiankun; Liu, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6), a member of a family of RGS proteins, has been reported to involve in multiple processes during tumor development. However, its role in pancreatic cancer has not been studied yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of RGS6 in pancreatic cancer and its role in predicting outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer. We first measured the expression of RGS6 mRNA in 20 cases of tumor tissues and matched adjacent non-tumorous tissues by quantitative real-time PCR and examined RGS6 protein by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 90 tumor and 90 paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Decreased RGS6 mRNA detected in primary tumor, compared with their non-tumor counterparts. In addition, decreased RGS6 protein expression was associated with tumor differentiation (P = 0.027), pT classification (P = 0.034), smoking status (P = 0.041) and a poor survival (P = 0.007). Cox proportional hazards regression modeling analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001; hazard ratio, 2.347, 95% CI, 1.387-3.972), tumor differentiation (P = 0.015; hazard ratio, 0.505, 95% CI, 0.291-0.876) and RGS6 expression (P = 0.048; hazard ratio, 0.567, 95% CI, 0.324-0.994) were three independent prognostic factors. Taken together, these date demonstrate that RGS6 decreases in tumor tissue and may serve as a novel biomarker for outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients and be a potential therapeutic target potential therapeutic target. PMID:25120791

  10. Pyruvate kinase M2 overexpression and poor prognosis in solid tumors of digestive system: evidence from 16 cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayuan; Hu, Liren; Chen, Manyu; Cao, Wenjun; Chen, Haicong; He, Taiping

    2016-01-01

    The expression of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been linked to tumor formation and invasion. Specifically, the relationship between high PKM2 expression and prognosis has been evaluated in solid tumors of digestive system. However, the prognostic value of PKM2 remains controversial. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases was conducted until October 2015. The end point focused on overall survival (OS). The pooled hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to correlate PKM2 overexpression with OS and clinicopathological characteristics by employing fixed- or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. We identified 18 cohorts in 16 studies involving 2,812 patients for this meta-analysis. Overall, the combined HR for OS in all tumor types was 1.74 (1.44-2.11; P<0.001). When stratified by tumor type, the influence of PKM2 expression on poor prognosis was also found in gastric cancer (HR =1.54 [1.08-2.21], P=0.018), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR =1.71 [1.38-2.12], P<0.001), hepatocellular cancer (HR =1.92 [1.52-2.42], P<0.001), biliary cancer (HR =2.11 [1.50-2.95], P<0.001), and oral cancer (HR =3.49 [1.97-6.18], P<0.001), but not in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (HR =1.03 [0.28-3.76], P=0.968). Furthermore, PKM2 overexpression had a negative effect on the late clinical stage of all tumor types except for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The high density of PKM2 overexpression was significantly associated with some clinical characteristics in different cancer types, such as tumor stage, modal metastasis, and tumor size. Our findings revealed significant association of PKM2 overexpression with OS and certain clinicopathological features in solid tumors of digestive system, thereby suggesting that PKM2 might be an indicator of poor prognosis in digestive system cancers.

  11. High ADAM8 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Tan, Yong-Fei; Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Kai; Zha, Tian-Zhou; Zhang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    tumors as compared to those from shCtrl cells. High ADAM8 expression is associated with poor overall survival in patients with HCC. Down-regulation of ADAM8 inhibits the growth,anchorage-independent growth,migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. ADAM8 may be a potential target of antiangiogenic therapy for HCC.

  12. Overexpression of HOXA1 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zha, Tian-Zhou; Hu, Ben-Shun; Yu, Hai-Feng; Tan, Yong-Fei; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Kai

    2012-12-01

    growth, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration and invasion (P < 0.05). In vivo, the xenograft transplants from shHOXA1 cells gave rise to much smaller tumors compared with those from shCtrl cells. Collectively, high HOXA1 expression is associated with poor overall survival in patients with HCC. The downregulation of HOXA1 inhibits growth, anchorage-independent growth, and migration and invasion of HepG2 cells.

  13. Low expression of PTK6/Brk predicts poor prognosis in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), also known as breast tumor kinase (Brk), was a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase containing SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase catalytic domains. The deregulated expression of PTK6 was observed in various human cancers. However, little was known about PTK6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Materials PTK6 expression was evaluated in 7 pairs of surgically resectable laryngeal tissues by Western blotting and in 13 pairs of surgically resectable laryngeal tissues by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Using immunohistochemistry, we performed a retrospective study of the PTK6 expression levels on 134 archival LSCC paraffin-embedded samples. Prognostic outcomes correlated with PTK6 were examined using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. Results The PTK6 expression level was lower in LSCC tissues than in the adjacent noncancerous epithelial laryngeal tissues by Western blots and RT-PCR. By immunohistochemical analysis, we observed high expression of PTK6 in 25 of 76 (32.9%) adjacent noncancerous epithelial laryngeal tissues and in 39 of 134 (29.1%) of LSCC, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that pN status and the expression level of PTK6 (P < 0.05) were independent and significant prognostic factors. In the primary LSCC category, median DFS (disease free survival) of high, medium and low PTK6 expression patients were 88.5 months ,74.5 months and 49.0 months (log-rank test, P = 0.002); median OS (overall survival) of high, medium and low PTK6 expression patients were 88.5 months ,76.3 months and 65.7 months (log-rank test, P = 0.002). Reduced cytoplasmic PTK6 expression in LSCC was significantly associated with late pN status (P =0.005, r = 0.27), advanced pTNM stages (III and IV) (P =0.027, r = 0.147), and poor differentiated LSCC (P <0.0001, r = 0.486). In adjacent paracancerous laryngeal

  14. Down-regulation of β-arrestin2 promotes tumour invasion and indicates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Yi; Hu, Shan-Shan; Wu, Jing-Jing; Huang, Qiong; Ma, Yang; Wang, Qing-Tong; Chen, Jing-Yu; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    β-arrestins, including β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, are multifunctional adaptor proteins. β-arrestins have recently been found to play new roles in regulating intracellular signalling networks associated with malignant cell functions. Altered β-arrestin expression has been reported in many cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. We therefore examined the roles of β-arrestins in HCC using an animal model of progressive HCC, HCC patient samples and HCC cell lines with stepwise metastatic potential. We demonstrated that β-arrestin2 level, but not β-arrestin1 level, decreased in conjunction with liver tumourigenesis in a mouse diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumour model. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 expression was reduced in HCC tissues compared with noncancerous tissues in HCC patients. β-arrestin2 down-regulation in HCC was significantly associated with poor patient prognoses and aggressive pathologic features. In addition, our in vitro study showed that β-arrestin2 overexpression significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in cultured HCC cells. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 overexpression up-regulated E-cadherin expression and inhibited vimentin expression and Akt activation. These results suggest that β-arrestin2 down-regulation increases HCC cell migration and invasion ability. Low β-arrestin2 expression may be indicative of a poor prognosis or early cancer recurrence in patients who have undergone surgery for HCC. PMID:27759077

  15. Vasculogenic mimicry is a major feature and novel predictor of poor prognosis in patients with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luxia; He, Yanjin; Sun, Shizhen; Sun, Baocun; Tang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a key developmental program, frequently activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of VM in orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the correlation between VM and tumor differentiation, recurrence and survival duration, as well as the contribution of epithelial cell kinase (EphA2) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in VM initiation. A total of 32 patients were enrolled to investigate the associations between VM in orbital RMS tumors and clinical characteristics, as well as its impact on overall survival. VM was identified and confirmed by CD31/periodic acid-Schiff double staining, while the presence of EphA2 and MMP-2 were examined by immunohistochemical analysis. VM was identified in eleven patients, particularly those with poorly differentiated orbital RMS (P=0.001). Patients with VM exhibited significantly worse survival rates (P=0.001, log-rank test), a significantly increased risk of mortality (P=0.008) and EphA2 and MMP-2 expression levels were enhanced (P=0.005 and 0.001, respectively). The VM and mitotic rate were independent predictors of poor prognosis (P=0.001 and 0.004, respectively), indicated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. These results demonstrated that VM is present in orbital RMS and represents an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. In addition, overexpression of EphA2 and MMP-2 may promote VM formation in orbital RMS.

  16. MYC/BCL6 double-hit lymphoma (DHL): a tumour associated with an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Desai, Parth; Lin, Pei; Yin, C Cameron; Tang, Guilin; Wang, Xuan J; Konoplev, Sergej N; Khoury, Joseph D; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Large B cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL6/3q27 rearrangements, designated MYC/BCL6 DHL, are uncommon. Our aim was to better characterize this group of tumours. We studied the clinicopathological features and outcome of 13 patients with MYC/BCL6 DHL and compared this group to a group of 83 MYC/BCL2 DHL patients. There were eight men and five women, with a median age of 63 years. Eleven tumours were classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and two were B cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma (BCLU). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these tumours were positive for BCL6 (100%), BCL2 (eight of 10; 80%) and CD10 (eight of 10; 80%). Nine of 12 (75%) cases had a germinal centre B cell (GCB) immunophenotype; in one case data were incomplete. All patients were treated with chemotherapy. The clinicopathological features of MYC/BCL6 DHL were similar to MYC/BCL2 DHL, except that MYC/BCL6 DHL had a GCB immunophenotype less often. Patients with MYC/BCL6 DHL had a poor overall survival, similar to patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL (P = 0.32). MYC/BCL6 DHL is an aggressive B cell lymphoma and patients often have an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis, similar to patients with MYC/BCL2 DHL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Overexpression of RACK1 Promotes Metastasis by Enhancing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qiao-Li; Huang, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Gui-Hua; Liu, Yan-Ling; Huang, Jin; Qu, Qiang; Sun, Bao; Hu, Lei; Cheng, Lin; Chen, Shu-Hui; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies show that dysregulation of the receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. However, the biological function and underlying mechanism of RACK1 in glioma remains poorly defined. Here, we found that RACK1 was significantly up-regulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues, being closely related to clinical stage of glioma both in mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with high RACK1 expression had a poor prognosis (p = 0.0062, HR = 1.898, 95% CI: 1.225–3.203). In vitro functional assays indicated that silencing of RACK1 could dramatically promote apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. More importantly, knockdown of RACK1 led to a vast accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase and their reduced proportions at the S phase by suppressing the expression of G1/S transition key regulators Cyclin D1 and CDK6. Additionally, this forced down-regulation of RACK1 significantly suppressed migration and invasion via inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as MMP2, MMP9, ZEB1, N-Cadherin, and Integrin-β1. Collectively, our study revealed that RACK1 might act as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for glioma. PMID:27763568

  18. Single Derivation Fragmented QRS Can Predict Poor Prognosis in Successfully Revascularized Acute STEMI Patients.

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Zulkif; Dursun, Huseyin; Colluoglu, Tugce; Kaya, Dayimi

    2017-07-20

    QRS fragmentation (fQRS) is classically defined as the presence of slurred QRS morphology in at least two contiguous leads, and its prognostic importance has been shown in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, no study has investigated the significance of single lead fQRS (sl-fQRS) in surface electrocardiography (ECG). To evaluate whether sl-fQRS is as valuable as classical fQRS in patients with acute STEMI who had successful revascularization with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). We included 330 patients with a first STEMI who had been successfully revascularized with pPCI. The patient's electrocardiography was obtained in the first 48 hours, and the patients were divided into three groups according to the absence of fQRS (no-fQRS); fQRS presence in a single lead (sl-fQRS); and ≥2 leads with fQRS (classical fQRS). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher both in patients with sl-fQRS and in patients with ≥ 2 leads with fQRS compared to patients with no-fQRS. In ROC curve analysis, ≥ 1 leads with fQRS yielded a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 57.4% for the prediction of in-hospital mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that sl-fQRS is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR: 3.989, 95% CI: 1.237-12.869, p = 0.021). Although the concept of at least two derivations is mentioned for the classical definition of fQRS, our study showed that fQRS in only one lead is also associated with poor outcomes. Therefore, ≥1 leads with fQRS can be useful when describing the patients under high cardiac risk in acute STEMI. A fragmentação do QRS (fQRS) é classicamente definida como a presença de morfologia empastada do QRS em pelo menos duas derivações contíguas e sua importância prognóstica tem sido demonstrada no infarto do miocárdio com elevação do ST (STEMI). No entanto, nenhum estudo investigou a significância do fQRS de derivação única (sl-fQRS) no eletrocardiograma (ECG). Avaliar se o sl

  19. Cancer‐testis antigens PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer‐testis antigen PRAME was up‐regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real‐time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer‐testis antigen, NY‐ESO‐1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well‐differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well‐differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY‐ESO‐1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round‐cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY‐ESO‐1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high‐level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our

  20. Cancer-testis antigens PRAME and NY-ESO-1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-07-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer-testis antigen PRAME was up-regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well-differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well-differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY-ESO-1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round-cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY-ESO-1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high-level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our results support the potential use of PRAME and NY

  1. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chunhao; Sun, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Xu, Liqun; Li, Jun; Xu, Benke; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-10-20

    There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6) in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC). NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p = 0.006), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006), vital status (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p = 0.001), chemotherapy (p = 0.039), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer.

  2. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations occur in 9.5% of mucosal melanoma and are associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xinan; Kong, Yan; Li, Yiqian; Zhang, Qiannan; Si, Lu; Cui, Chuanliang; Chi, Zhihong; Tang, Bixia; Mao, Lili; Lian, Bin; Wang, Xuan; Yan, Xieqiao; Li, Siming; Dai, Jie; Guo, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Mucosal melanoma (MM) is a rare subtype of melanoma in Caucasians with extremely poor prognosis, and therapy strategy has not been clearly established for MM. We aimed to investigate the genetic aberrations possibly applicable in targeted therapy of MM. We examined the somatic mutations of GNAQ and GNA11 (GNAQ/11, encoding the guanine nucleotide-binding alpha subunits) in MM and evaluated their correlation to clinicopathologic features of MM. This study collected samples from primary lesions of 284 MM patients. Tissue samples were analysed for mutations in exons 4 and 5 of GNAQ/11 in genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction amplification and Sanger sequencing. Correlations of GNAQ/11 mutations to clinicopathologic features and prognosis of MM were evaluated. The overall mutation frequency of GNAQ/11 in MM was 9.5% (27 in 284), with a frequency of 4.6% and 4.9% for GNAQ and GNA11 mutations, respectively. The mutations in exon 5 of GNAQ/11 occurred exclusively in codon 209. GNAQ(Q209L) was the most prevalent variation (92.3% of missense GNAQ mutations). GNAQ/11 mutations were not significantly associated with age, gender, ulceration, and primary anatomic site. The median overall survival for MM patients with GNAQ mutations (16.0 versus 26.0 months, P = 0.031) or GNA11 mutations (15.0 versus 26.0 months, P = 0.039) were significantly shorter than those for patients with wild-type GNAQ and GNA11, respectively. Our study suggests that GNAQ and GNA11 mutations occur frequently in MM and may be a prognostic factor for MM. Our data implicate that GNAQ/11 may be potential targets for targeted therapy of MM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase expression in hepatocellular carcinoma denotes a poor prognosis with highly malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Enooku, Kenichiro; Soroida, Yoko; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Kudo, Yotaro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Shinzawa, Seiko; Moriya, Kyoji; Ohtomo, Natsuko; Nishikawa, Takako; Inoue, Yukiko; Tomiya, Tomoaki; Kojima, Soichi; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Koike, Kazuhiko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the increased serum mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) activity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly due to the increase in ubiquitous MtCK (uMtCK), and high uMtCK mRNA expression in HCC cell lines. We explored the mechanism(s) and the relevance of high uMtCK expression in HCC. In hepatitis C virus core gene transgenic mice, known to lose mitochondrial integrity in liver and subsequently develop HCC, uMtCK mRNA and protein levels were increased in HCC tissues but not in non-tumorous liver tissues. Transient overexpression of ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box protein 9 (ASB9) reduced uMtCK protein levels in HCC cells, suggesting that increased uMtCK levels in HCC cells may be caused by increased gene expression and decreased protein degradation due to reduced ASB9 expression. The reduction of uMtCK expression by siRNA led to increased cell death, and reduced proliferation, migration and invasion in HCC cell lines. Then, consecutive 105 HCC patients, who underwent radiofrequency ablation with curative intent, were enrolled to analyze their prognosis. The patients with serum MtCK activity >19.4 U/L prior to the treatment had significantly shorter survival time than those with serum MtCK activity ≤ 19.4 U/L, where higher serum MtCK activity was retained as an independent risk for HCC-related death on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, high uMtCK expression in HCC may be caused by hepatocarcinogenesis per se but not by loss of mitochondrial integrity, of which ASB9 could be a negative regulator, and associated with highly malignant potential to suggest a poor prognosis.

  4. HYOU1, Regulated by LPLUNC1, Is Up-Regulated in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujuan; Liao, Qianjin; Li, Xiayu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Fang; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Xiaofang; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Wenling; Tang, Ke; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the roles and mechanisms of long palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (LPLUNC1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins after over-expressing LPLUNC1 in NPC cells. The qRT-PCR and Western Blot were used to further validate differentially expression of Hypoxia up-regulated 1 (HYOU1). We also applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) to validate the expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC tissues. Results: Totally 44 differentially expressed proteins were identified, among which 19 proteins were up-regulated and 25 proteins were down-regulated. Function annotation indicated that these proteins were involved in molecular chaperone, cytoskeleton, metabolism and signal transduction. It was shown that the expression of HYOU1 both at mRNA level and protein level was up-regulated significantly in NPC tissues, and HYOU1 protein expression was positively correlated with clinical staging and metastasis of NPC. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC patients had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). COX multivariate regression analysis further indicated that over-expressed HYOU1 was one of the predictors for poor prognosis in NPC patients. Conclusion: Through regulating proteins in different pathways, LPLUNC1 may inhibit the growth of NPC through participating in cell metabolism, proliferation, transcription and signaling transduction. HYOU1 can be regarded as potential molecular biomarker for progression and prognosis of NPC. PMID:26918051

  5. TP53 mutation predicts the poor prognosis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jian; Chen, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of malignant hematologic disorders with high heterogeneity. The diagnosis, clinical manifestations, classification, and prognosis of this condition differ among numerous NHL subgroups. The prognostic significance of the mutation of TP53, a tumor suppressor gene involved in cell cycle regulation, should be confirmed in NHL. In this study, our searching strategy and inclusion criteria were implemented, and the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of the included studies were calculated directly or indirectly. A total of 1,851 patients were enrolled in 22 studies. A meta-analysis was then performed using STATA version 12.0 to confirm the correlation between the status of TP53 mutation and the survival time of patients with NHL. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with a chi-square-based Q statistical test and Inconsistency index (I2) statistic. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were also evaluated. A total of 22 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled HR of the overall survival from 20 studies was 2.30 (95% CI: 1.92–2.76, p = 0.001) with heterogeneity (I2 30.2% p = 0.099). The pooled HR of the progression free survival provided in 5 articles was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.78–2.93, p = 0.001) with heterogeneity (I2 39.8% p = 0.156). No publication bias was found among the included studies, and sensitivity analysis suggested that the combined HRs were stable after any of the studies was excluded from our meta-analysis. This study identified the prognostic significance of TP53 mutation that varied in different NHL subgroups. The group with a mutated TP53 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with NHL. This parameter is a valuable basis for accurate individual therapeutic regimens. PMID:28369138

  6. Loss of 11βHSD1 enhances glycolysis, facilitates intrahepatic metastasis, and indicates poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Tan, Xiao-Long; Xia, Meng; Wu, Chao; Song, Jia; Wu, Jing-Jing; Laurence, Arian; Xie, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Liang, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-12

    11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), converting glucocorticoids from hormonally inactive cortisone to active cortisol, plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced glycolytic activity is closely associated with postoperative recurrence and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether 11βHSD1 contributes to HCC metastasis and recurrence remains unclear. Here we found that expression of 11βHSD1 in human HCC (310 pairs) was frequently decreased compared to the adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissues (ANT), which correlated well with the intrahepatic-metastatic index, serum glycemia, and other malignant clinicopathological characteristics of HCC and predicted poor prognosis. Knockdown of 11βHSD1 in BEL-7402 cells drastically reduced the pH of culture medium and induced cell death. Meanwhile, overexpression of 11βHSD1 in SMMC-7721 HCC cells resulted in repression of cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and proliferation in vitro. When transferred into BALB/c nude mice, 11βHSD1 overexpression resulted in decreased intrahepatic metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor size. F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose accumulation assay measured by positron emission tomography elucidated that 11βHSD1 reduced glucose uptake and glycolysis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro, and intrahepatic metastasis foci and subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. We showed that 11βHSD1 repressed cell metastasis, angiogenesis and proliferation of HCC by causing disruption of glycolysis via the HIF-1α and c-MYC pathways. In conclusion, 11βHSD1 inhibits the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC via restriction of tumor glycolysis activity and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients.

  7. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Sun, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Xu, Liqun; Li, Jun; Xu, Benke; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6) in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC). NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p = 0.006), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006), vital status (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p = 0.001), chemotherapy (p = 0.039), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:27775588

  8. EGFR expression is associated with cytoplasmic staining of CXCR4 and predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong-Hui; Huang, Wen-He; Wu, Jun-Dong; Du, Cai-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the significance of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CXCR4 and EGFR expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in 207 primary breast cancer specimens. The associations between receptor expression and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed, and receptor expression was also assessed as a prognostic factor. In the human MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, CXCR4 or EGFR was stably knocked down by short hairpin RNA, and the biological behavior of the cells, including migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, was investigated. The results revealed that TNBC was associated with younger age, higher histological grade and an aggressive phenotype. CXCR4 and EGFR were highly expressed in patients with TNBC, and those with high CXCR4 or EGFR expression exhibited an unfavorable prognosis in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the expression of CXCR4 protein was decreased following EGFR silencing, while CXCR4 knockdown also caused a decrease in EGFR protein levels. The migratory and invasive capabilities of MDA-MB-231 cells were decreased following the knockdown of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. A strong correlation between CXCR4 and EGFR expression was identified in patients with TNBC. The results suggest that elevated expression levels of these two receptors may serve as predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with TNBC. In addition, tumor proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis are weakened in MDA-MB-231 cells following suppression of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. Therefore, EGFR and CXCR4 may be potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. PMID:28356948

  9. EGFR expression is associated with cytoplasmic staining of CXCR4 and predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Hui; Huang, Wen-He; Wu, Jun-Dong; Du, Cai-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the significance of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CXCR4 and EGFR expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in 207 primary breast cancer specimens. The associations between receptor expression and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed, and receptor expression was also assessed as a prognostic factor. In the human MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, CXCR4 or EGFR was stably knocked down by short hairpin RNA, and the biological behavior of the cells, including migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, was investigated. The results revealed that TNBC was associated with younger age, higher histological grade and an aggressive phenotype. CXCR4 and EGFR were highly expressed in patients with TNBC, and those with high CXCR4 or EGFR expression exhibited an unfavorable prognosis in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the expression of CXCR4 protein was decreased following EGFR silencing, while CXCR4 knockdown also caused a decrease in EGFR protein levels. The migratory and invasive capabilities of MDA-MB-231 cells were decreased following the knockdown of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. A strong correlation between CXCR4 and EGFR expression was identified in patients with TNBC. The results suggest that elevated expression levels of these two receptors may serve as predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with TNBC. In addition, tumor proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis are weakened in MDA-MB-231 cells following suppression of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. Therefore, EGFR and CXCR4 may be potential therapeutic targets for TNBC.

  10. UHRF1 regulates global DNA hypomethylation and is associated with poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kenichi; Baba, Yoshifumi; Kosumi, Keisuke; Harada, Kazuto; Shigaki, Hironobu; Miyake, Keisuke; Kiyozumi, Yuki; Ohuchi, Mayuko; Kurashige, Junji; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background Global DNA hypomethylation contributes to oncogenesis through various mechanisms. The level of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE- 1) methylation is considered a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation, and is attracting interest as a good predictor of cancer prognosis. However, the mechanism how LINE-1 (global DNA) methylation is controlled in cancer cells remains to be fully elucidated. Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1) plays a crucial role in DNA methylation. UHRF1 is overexpressed in many cancers, and UHRF1 overexpression may be a mechanism underlying DNA hypomethylation in cancer cells. Nonetheless, the relationship between UHRF1, LINE-1 methylation level, and clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Results In ESCC cell lines, vector-mediated UHRF1 overexpression caused global DNA (LINE-1) hypomethylation and, conversely, UHRF1 knockdown using siRNA increased the global DNA methylation level. In ESCC tissues, UHRF1 expression was significantly associated with LINE-1 methylation levels. Furthermore, UHRF1 overexpression correlated with poor prognosis in our cohort of 160 ESCC patients. Materials and Methods The relationships between UHRF1 expression and LINE-1 methylation level (i.e., global DNA methylation level) were investigated using ESCC tissues and cell lines. In addition, we examined the correlation between UHRF1 expression, LINE-1 methylation, and clinical outcome in patients with ESCC. Conclusions Our results suggest that UHRF1 is a key epigenetic regulator of DNA methylation and might be a potential target for cancer treatment. PMID:27507047

  11. Lung parenchymal invasion in pulmonary carcinoid tumor: an important histologic feature suggesting the diagnosis of atypical carcinoid and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae Jun; Cho, Junhun; Hyeon, Jiyeon; Han, Joungho; Kim, Hong Kwan

    2013-05-01

    The majority of previous studies on pulmonary carcinoid tumor have usually focused on clinical behavior or outcome, seldom considering histopathologic features. We retrospectively collected 63 cases of resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors from 1995 to 2011 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The clinical and pathological features were correlated and survival analyses were performed. Forty cases (63.5%) were classified as typical carcinoid (TC) and 23 cases (36.5%) were classified as atypical carcinoid (AC) according to WHO classification criteria. AC patients showed a higher frequency of current smoking status and a higher stage of the tumor by the American Joint Committee on Cancer than TC patients. The disease was associated with death and recurrence in five and seven patients, respectively, with almost all of the associations found in AC patients. The five-year survival rate of TC and AC were 100% and 83.5%, respectively, with AC showing poorer prognosis than TC in overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) (p=0.005 and p=0.002). Lung parenchymal invasion was observed more commonly in AC than in TC (39.1% vs 12.5%, p=0.01) and was a poor prognostic factor in OS and DFS. Rosette-like arrangements were found only in six cases of AC, while abundant basophilic cytoplasm mimicking paraganglioma and ossification were found only in TC. Through the comprehensive study of pulmonary carcinoid tumor in Korea, we suggest that lung parenchymal invasion could be a useful histologic feature to suspect the diagnosis of AC in daily practice as well as to predict the prognosis of carcinoid tumor.

  12. High PD-L1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in 870 Chinese patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jia-bin; Fang, Wen-feng; Xue, Cong; Zhan, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xin-ke; Zheng, Qiu-fan; Peng, Rou-jun; Yuan, Zhong-yu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shu-sen

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of PD-L1 expression in tumor recurrence and metastasis in Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods Suitable tissue samples were available from 870 patients with breast cancer. Paraffin-embedded tumor sections were stained with PD-L1 antibody. The correlations between PD-L1 expression and clinical characteristics, ER/PR/HER2 status and survival parameters were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox proportional hazards model analyses were used to compare the survival of patients with high PD-L1 expression and patients with no PD-L1 expression. Results The median follow-up time was 98 months(range, 17–265 months). The positive rate of PD-L1 expression in breast cancer was 21.7% (189/870). PD-L1 high expression was inversely associated with larger tumor size, higher tumor grade, more positive lymph node number, as well as negative ER and PR status. PD-L1 expression was particularly higher in TNBC compared with non-TNBC, although no statistical significance was observed. Nomogram logistic regression results based on clinical and pathological features showed that the following factors were more likely associated with high PD-L1 expression: patient age younger than 35 years, larger tumor size, lymphovascular invasion and advanced stage. Our data indicated that patients with high PD-L1 expression had poor DFS, DMFS and overall survival compared with those with no PD-L1 expression. Univariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that PD-L1 was an independent prognostic factor for tumor prognosis. Conclusions PD-L1 expression is an important indicator of unfavorable prognosis in breast cancer patients. PMID:26378017

  13. The Controlling Nutritional Status Score Is a Significant Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Takamori, Shinkichi; Toyokawa, Gouji; Taguchi, Kenichi; Edagawa, Makoto; Shimamatsu, Shinichiro; Toyozawa, Ryo; Nosaki, Kaname; Seto, Takashi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Shoji, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Ichinose, Yukito

    2017-07-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating neoplasm; however, some patients exhibit a good response to chemotherapy or multidisciplinary therapy, including surgery and chemotherapy. It is therefore important to discover the factors that can be used to select patients who will benefit from such treatment. Although the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score has been used to predict the prognosis in other types of malignancy, its utility in patients with MPM is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of the CONUT in patients with MPM. The data of 83 patients, who were treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or multidisciplinary therapy, were analyzed in the present study. A cut-off CONUT score of 2 was used to classify all of the patients into low or high CONUT groups. Fifty-two of the 83 patients were classified into the low CONUT group. A high CONUT score was significantly correlated with chemotherapy alone (P = .011). The high CONUT group had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) (P < .001) and disease- or progression-free survival (DFS/PFS) (P < .001). The clinical stage and the CONUT score were found to be independent predictive factors for the OS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .001 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .011, respectively. The clinical stage and the CONUT score were also independent predictive factors for DFS/PFS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .006 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .013, respectively. The CONUT score was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in the patients with MPM. This score provides useful information for selecting patients who will benefit from the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High Levels of BCOX1 Expression Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Xian-Yu; He, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Jing-Shu; Liu, Yang; Kong, De-Jia; Shi, Qing-Yu; Liu, Feng; Wei, Wei; Pang, Da

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the breast cancer-overexpressed gene 1 (BCOX1) expression in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast and its value in the prognosis of the disease. The levels of BCOX1 expression in 491 paired IDC and surrounding non-tumor breast tissues as well as 40 paired fresh specimens were evaluated by tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The potential associations of high BCOX1 expression with clinicopathological variables and the overall survival of these patients were analyzed. The relative levels of BCOX1 mRNA transcripts in the IDC breast tissues were significantly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues (P = 0.005). The anti-BCOX1 was predominantly stained in the cytoplasm of breast tissue cells and the levels of BCOX1 expression in the majority of breast cancer tissues were obviously higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor breast tissues. High levels of BCOX1 expression were found in 59.5% (292/491) of breast cancer tissues. The high BCOX1 expression was significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.037), positive expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, P = 0.031) and triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.027). The high BCOX1 expression in breast cancers was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival of these patients (P = 0.023), particularly in patients with triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.005). Therefore, the high BCOX1 expression may serve as a novel marker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for patients with IDC of the breast. PMID:24489812

  15. Ki-67 and CD100 immunohistochemical expression is associated with local recurrence and poor prognosis in soft tissue sarcomas, respectively

    PubMed Central

    CAMPOS, MARCELO; DE CAMPOS, SILVANA GISELE PEGORIN; RIBEIRO, GUILHERME GOMES; EGUCHI, FLÁVIA COLTRI; SILVA, SANDRA REGINA MORINI DA; DE OLIVEIRA, CLEYTON ZANARDO; DA COSTA, ALLINI MAFRA; CURCELLI, EMÍLIO CARLOS; NUNES, MARCOS CEITA; PENNA, VALTER; LONGATTO-FILHO, ADHEMAR

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors of >50 subtypes. However, STSs represent <1% of types of cancer. Despite this low frequency, the disease is aggressive and treatment, when possible, is based on traditional chemotherapies. A number of cases of resistance to adjuvant therapies have been reported. Metastases are commonly identified in STS patients during diagnosis and the development of effective clinical parameters is crucial for correct management of the disease. The use of biological markers in cancer is a useful tool to determine patient prognosis. Ki-67 is a protein marker for proliferation of somatic cells and is widely used in prognostic studies of various types of tumor, including STSs. Cluster of differentiation 100 (CD100) is a member of the semaphorin family. The family was initially described as axon guidance molecules important for angiogenesis, organogenesis, apoptosis and neoplasia. CD100 was previously utilized as a prognostic factor in tumors and also in STSs. In the present study, protein expression of Ki-67 and CD100 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in samples of STS patients of the Barretos Cancer Hospital (Barretos, Brazil) to establish prognostic criteria of the disease. Results demonstrate a correlation between CD100 expression and poor prognosis, consistent with a previous study. Moreover, the expression of Ki-67 was identified to correlate with presence of local or locoregional recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, no large casuistic study has revealed this correlation between Ki-67 and local recurrence in STSs. The use of Ki-67 and CD100 as markers in clinical pathological analysis may be suitable as a prognostic criterion in disease progression. PMID:23759874

  16. High PD-L1 Expression Correlates with Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueh-Min; Sung, Wen-Wei; Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Tsai, Shih-Chen; Lai, Hung-Wen; Yang, Shu-Mei; Shen, Ko-Hong; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Lee, Huei; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2015-01-01

    PD-L1 has been widely demonstrated to contribute to failed antitumor immunity. Blockade of PD-L1 with monoclonal antibody could modulate the tumor immune environment to augment immunotherapy. PD-L1 expression is also detected in several types of cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the prognostic role of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still controversial. Our aim was to determine the role of PD-L1 in the prognosis of OSCC patients to identify its potential therapeutic relevance. PD-L1 immunoreactivity was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 305 cancer specimens from primary OSCC patients. The medium follow-up time after surgery was 3.8 years (range from 0.1 to 11.1 years). The prognostic value of PD-L1 on overall survival was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard models. Higher PD-L1 expression is more likely in tumor tissues of female than male OSCC patients (P = 0.0062). Patients with distant metastasis also had high PD-L1 expression (P = 0.0103). Multivariate analysis identified high PD-L1 expression as an independent risk factor in males and smokers (males: hazard ratio = 1.556, P = 0.0077; smokers: hazard ratio = 2.058, P = 0.0004). We suggest that PD-L1 expression, determined by IHC staining, could be an independent prognostic marker for OSCC patients who are male or who have a smoking habit.

  17. Decreased expression of FOXF2 as new predictor of poor prognosis in stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Peng-Zhou; Li, Guang-Ming; Tian, Yin; Song, Bin; Shi, RuYi

    2016-01-01

    Background Forkhead box F2 (FOXF2) is relatively limited to the adult lung, but its contribution to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis is unclear. Results FOXF2 mRNA levels in NSCLC were lower than that in paired normal lung tissues (P = 0.012). The FOXF2low patients had shorter survival time than the FOXF2high patients (P = 0.024) especially in stage I (P = 0.002), chemotherapy (P = 0.018) and < 60 age groups (P = 0.002). Lower FOXF2 mRNA levels could independently predict poorer survival for patients with NSCLC (HR = 2.384, 95% CI = 1.241–4.577; P = 0.009), especially in stage I (HR =4.367, 95% CI =1.599–11.925; P = 0.004). The two independent datasets confirmed our findings. Methods We examined FOXF2 mRNA levels in 84 primary NSCLC and 8 normal lung tissues using qRT-PCR. Rank-sum tests and chi-square tests were used to assess the differences among groups with various clinicopathological factors. Kaplan-Meier tests were used to compare survival status in patients with different FOXF2 mRNA levels. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the predictive value of FOXF2 mRNA level in NSCLC patients. Independent validation was performed using an independent dataset (98 samples) and an online survival analysis software Kaplan-Meier plotter (1928 samples). Conclusions Our results demonstrated that decreased FOXF2 expression is an independent predictive factor for poor prognosis of patients with NSCLC, especially in stage I NSCLC. PMID:27487137

  18. Suppression of p53-inducible gene 3 is significant for glioblastoma progression and predicts poor patient prognosis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jishu; Li, Yong; Jin, Meihua; Chen, Dunfu; Yin, Xuezhe; Jin, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant and invasive brain tumor with extremely poor prognosis. p53-inducible gene 3, a downstream molecule of the tumor suppressor p53, has been found involved in apoptosis and oxidative stress response. However, the functions of p53-inducible gene 3(PIG3) in cancer are far from clear including glioblastoma. In this study, we found that p53-inducible gene 3 expression was suppressed in glioblastoma tissues compared with normal tissues. And the expression of p53-inducible gene 3 was significantly associated with the World Health Organization grade. Patients with high p53-inducible gene 3 expression have a significantly longer median survival time (15 months) than those with low p53-inducible gene 3 expression (8 months). According to Cox regression analysis, p53-inducible gene 3 was an independent prognostic factor with multivariate hazard ratio of 0.578 (95% confidence interval, 0.352-0.947; p = 0.030) for overall survival. Additionally, gain and loss of function experiments showed that knockdown of p53-inducible gene 3 significantly increased the proliferation and invasion ability of glioblastoma cells while overexpression of p53-inducible gene 3 inhibited the proliferation and invasion ability. The results of in vivo glioblastoma models further confirmed that p53-inducible gene 3 suppression promoted glioblastoma progression. Altogether, our data suggest that high expression of p53-inducible gene 3 is significant for glioblastoma inhibition and p53-inducible gene 3 independently indicates good prognosis in patients, which might be a novel prognostic biomarker or potential therapeutic target in glioblastoma.

  19. Low expression of RBMS3 and SFRP1 are associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Youliang; Fang, Zheng; Yan, Qiang; Zhang, Shangxin; Sun, Ruochuan; khaliq, Junaid; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    RNA binding motif, single stranded interacting protein 3 (RBMS3) has been reported as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in some squamous carcinoma. However, its expression levels and clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) plays a role of tumor suppressor in many cancers by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Nevertheless, its expression levels and clinical significance in GC are in dispute. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein level of RBMS3 and SFRP1 in 23 fresh GC and corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry assay was performed to further measure the protein level of RBMS3 and SFRP1 on population-based tissue microarrays consisting of 172 GC cases. We found that 69.57% (16/23) and 73.91% (17/23) GC tissues expressed remarkably lower RBMS3 than the matched normal tissues respectively in mRNA and protein levels. Similarly, 78.26% (18/23) and 65.22% (15/23) GC tissues expressed lower SFRP1 than the matched normal tissues respectively in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, the low expression of RBMS3 and SFRP1 protein were all significantly related to the poor histological grades and prognosis (all P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, RBMS3 and SFRP1 co-expression status was independent prognostic factor for GC patients. Finally, the positive correlation between expression levels (mRNA and protein) of RBMS3 and SFRP1 was observed. Overall, RBMS3 and SFRP1 are both aberrantly low expressed in GC, and RBMS3 and SFRP1 co-expression is a potential prognosis predictor of GC. PMID:27904780

  20. CD44v6 expression is related to mesenchymal phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Seiya; Okabe, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Masayuki; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Baba, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Youhei; Kurashige, Junji; Miyamoto, Yuji; Baba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is a cancer stem cell marker in many tumors, and is one of the CD44 isoforms.CD44v6 has been reported to correlate with tumor progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. However, the relevance of CD44s and CD44v6 to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the clinical importance of CD44s and CD44v6 and their relevance to EMT in 113 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer treated by curative resection. The relevance of CD44v6 knockdown to the phenotype of colon cancer cells was examined using small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for CD44v6 in vitro. CD44v6 expression showed a significant inverse correlation with E-cadherin expression (P=0.0007) and a positive correlation with vimentin expression (P=0.0096). A multivariate analysis showed that high CD44v6 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P=0.01, HR=3.05) and overall survival (P=0.025, HR=3.16). The clinical significance and the relevance of CD44s expression to EMT markers was noted to a lesser extent compared to CD44v6 expression. The knockdown of CD44v6 decreased vimentin expression, cell invasion and HGF-induced cell migration, but conferred only a slight effect on E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells (HCT116 and LoVo). CD44v6 is related to poor outcome of patients with colorectal cancer via upregulation of the mesenchymal phenotype.

  1. Increased expression of protein kinase CK2α correlates with poor patient prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zebiao; Wang, Xiaojing; He, Jiehua

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadly gynecological malignancies. The function of protein kinase CK2α (CK2α) in EOC is still unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the protein expression of CK2α and the tumor progression, the prognosis of human EOC. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of CK2α through Western blot, using EOC cell lines like A2780, HO8910, COV644, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and the primary normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells. Furthermore, OVCAR3 and SKOV3 EOC cells were employed as a cellular model to study the role of CK2α on cell growth, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution. In addition, we investigated CK2α protein expression in tumor tissues from patients with EOC by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the association between CK2α expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of EOC patients. And we found that compared with NOSE cells, CK2α protein expression was increased in A2780, HO8910, OVCAR3, and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Decreased CK2α expression suppressed OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cell growth and induced more apoptosis. CK2α knockdown using specific siRNAs inhibited migration and invasion ability of OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. In addition, high CK2α protein expression was found in 68.4% (80/117) of EOC patients. Increased CK2α expression of was significantly correlated with FIGO staging and peritoneal cytology. Patients with higher CK2α expression had a significantly poorer overall survival compared with those with lower CK2α expression. Multi-variate Cox regression analysis proved that increased CK2α expression was an independent prognostic marker for EOC. Taken together, our data displayed that CK2α may play a role in tumor aggressive behavior of EOC and could be used as a marker for predicting prognosis of EOC patient. High CK2α expression might predict poor patient survival. PMID:28355289

  2. High expression of Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signals correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, E L; Qian, Z R; Nakasono, M; Tanahashi, T; Yoshimoto, K; Bando, Y; Kudo, E; Shimada, M; Sano, T

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling pathway has been shown to have oncogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. To demonstrate the role of TLR4 signalling in colon tumourigenesis, we examined the expression of TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The expression of TLR4 and MyD88 in 108 CRC samples, 15 adenomas, and 15 normal mucosae was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and the correlations between their immunoscores and clinicopathological variables, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), were analysed. Results: Compared with normal mucosae and adenomas, 20% cancers displayed high expression of TLR4, and 23% cancers showed high expression of MyD88. The high expression of TLR4 and MyD88 was significantly correlated with liver metastasis (P=0.0001, P=0.0054). In univariate analysis, the high expression of TLR4 was significantly associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio (HR): 2.17; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15–4.07; P=0.015). The high expression of MyD88 expression was significantly associated with poor DFS and OS (HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.31–4.13; P=0.0038 and HR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.67–5.48; P=0.0002). The high combined expression of TLR4 and MyD88 was also significantly associated with poor DFS and OS (HR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.27–3.99; P=0.0053 and HR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.64–5.38; P=0.0003). Multivariate analysis showed that high expressions of TLR4 (OS: adjusted HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 0.99–3.55; P=0.0298) and MyD88 (DFS: adjusted HR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.01–3.67; P=0.0441; OS: adjusted HR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.17–4.33; P=0.0112) were independent prognostic factors of OS. Furthermore, high co-expression of TLR4/MyD88 was strongly associated with both poor DFS and OS. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that high expression of TLR4 and MyD88 is associated with liver metastasis and is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:20145615

  3. Cyr61 expression in osteosarcoma indicates poor prognosis and promotes intratibial growth and lung metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sabile, Adam A; Arlt, Matthias J E; Muff, Roman; Bode, Beata; Langsam, Bettina; Bertz, Josefine; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Puskas, Gabor J; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents with a high propensity for lung metastasis, the major cause of disease-related death. Reliable outcome-predictive markers and targets for osteosarcoma metastasis-suppressing drugs are urgently needed for more effective treatment of metastasizing osteosarcoma, which has a current mean 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. This study investigated the prognostic value and the biological relevance of the extracellular matrix-associated growth factor Cyr61 of the CCN family of secreted proteins in osteosarcoma and metastasis. The prognostic value of Cyr61 was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analyses based on Cyr61 immunostaining of a tissue microarray of osteosarcoma biopsies collected from 60 patients with local or metastatic disease. Effects of Cyr61 overexpression on intratibial tumor growth and lung metastasis of the low metastatic human SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line were examined in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Cyr61-provoked signaling was studied in vitro in nonmanipulated SaOS-2 cells. Cyr61 immunostaining of osteosarcoma tissue cores correlated significantly (p = 0.02) with poor patient survival. Mice intratibially injected with Cyr61-overexpressing SaOS-2 cells showed faster tumor growth and an increase in number and outgrowth of lung metastases and consequently significantly (p = 0.0018) shorter survival than mice injected with control SaOS-2 cells. Cyr61-evoked PI-3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling in SaOS-2 cells resulted in a subcellular redistribution of the cell cycle inhibitor p21(Cip1/WAF1). Cyr61 has considerable potential as a novel marker for poor prognosis in osteosarcoma and is an attractive target for primary tumor- and metastases-suppressing drugs. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  4. YY1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis-free survival in patients suffering osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The polycomb transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) overexpression can be causally implicated in experimental tumor growth and metastasization. To date, there is no clinical evidence of YY1 involvement in outcome of patients with osteosarcoma. Prognosis of osteosarcoma is still severe and only few patients survive beyond five years. We performed a prospective immunohistochemistry analysis to correlate YY1 immunostaining with metastatic development and survival in a selected homogeneous group of patients with osteosarcoma. Methods We studied 41 patients suffering from osteosarcoma (stage II-IVa). Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard regression to evaluate the correlation between YY1 expression and both metastasis development and mortality. Results YY1 protein is not usually present in normal bone; in contrast, a high number of patients (61%) showed a high score of YY1 positive cells (51-100%) and 39% had a low score (10-50% positive cells). No statistical difference was found in histology, anatomic sites, or response to chemotherapy between the two degrees of YY1 expression. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the highest score of YY1 expression was predictive of both low metastasis-free survival (HR = 4.690, 95%CI = 1.079-20.396; p = 0.039) and poor overall survival (HR = 8.353, 95%CI = 1.863-37.451 p = 0.006) regardless of the effects of covariates such as age, gender, histology and chemonecrosis. Conclusion Overexpression of YY1 in primary site of osteosarcoma is associated with the occurrence of metastasis and poor clinical outcome. PMID:22047406

  5. Tumor Budding Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Superficial Esophageal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Michael S.; Hastings, Steven M.; Foxwell, Tyler J.; Luketich, James D.; Nason, Katie S.; Davison, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment approach for superficial (stage T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma critically depends on the pre-operative assessment of metastatic risk. Part of that assessment involves evaluation of the primary tumor for pathologic characteristics known to predict nodal metastasis: depth of invasion (intramucosal versus submucosal), angiolymphatic invasion, tumor grade and tumor size. Tumor budding is a histologic pattern that is associated with poor prognosis in early stage colorectal adenocarcinoma and a predictor of nodal metastasis in T1 colorectal adenocarcinoma. In a retrospective study, we used a semi-quantitative histologic scoring system to categorize 210 surgically resected, superficial (stage T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma according to the extent of tumor budding (none, focal and extensive) and also evaluated other known risk factors for nodal metastasis, including depth of invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, tumor grade and tumor size. We assessed the risk of nodal metastasis associated with tumor budding in univariate analyses and controlled for other risk factors in a multivariate logistic regression model. Forty-one percent (24/59) of tumors with extensive tumor budding (tumor budding in ≥3 20X microscopic fields) were metastatic to regional lymph nodes, compared to 10% (12/117) of tumors with no tumor budding and 15% (5/34) of tumors with focal tumor budding (p<0.001). When controlling for all pathologic risk factors in a multivariate analysis, extensive tumor budding remains an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in superficial esophageal adenocarcinoma associated with a 2.5-fold increase (95% CI,1.1–6.3, p=0.039) in the risk of nodal metastasis. Extensive tumor budding is also a poor prognostic factor with respect to overall survival and time to recurrence in univariate and multivariate analyses. As an independent risk factor for nodal metastasis and survival after esophagectomy, tumor budding should be evaluated in superficial (T1

  6. Decreased expression of Beclin-1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin-1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin-1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin-1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin-1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin-1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non-cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin-1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour-node-metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin-1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin-1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin-1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  7. Abnormal expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecules (sMICA) and natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) not only correlate with tumorigenesis and progression, but also with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of the differential expression of sMICA and NKG2D in pancreatic carcinoma and paracarcinoma tissues from 70 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that sMICA expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumor tissues (67.1%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (31.4%), whereas NKG2D expression was significantly (P<0.001) lower in tumor tissues (32.9%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (60.0%). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed a negative correlation between the expression of sMICA and that of NKG2D (r=−0.676, P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was significantly correlated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), while a high NKG2D expression was significantly associated with increased DFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001) of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was an independent predictive factor for poor DFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012); but low NKG2D expression was not an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.238) and OS (P=0.574). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are abnormal and negatively correlated with one another in pancreatic carcinoma tissues; they may be considered as valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:26730197

  8. CD44v3 and v6 variant isoform expression correlates with poor prognosis in early-stage vulvar cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Tempfer, C.; Sliutz, G.; Haeusler, G.; Speiser, P.; Reinthaller, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Vavra, N.; Kainz, C.

    1998-01-01

    Expression of alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms has been reported to correlate with poor prognosis in human squamous cell cancers, i.e. squamous cell cancer of the lung and cervix. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CD44 isoform expression is a prognostic factor in early-stage squamous cell cancer of the vulva. Seventy cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I were examined immunohistochemically for expression of CD44 isoforms. We used four different variant exon sequence-specific murine monoclonal antibodies to epitopes encoded by exons v3, v5, v6 and v7-8 of human variant CD44. The correlation of CD44 expression with histological grade and disease-free and overall survival was investigated. CD44 isoforms CD44v3, CD44v5, CD44v6 and CD44v7-8 were detected in 28% (20/70), 47% (33/70), 33% (23/70) and 17% (12/70) of the tumour samples respectively. Patients suffering from tumours expressing CD44v6 had a poorer relapse-free (log-rank test, P = 0.02) and overall survival (log-rank test, P = 0.03). Likewise, patients suffering from tumours expressing CD44v3 had a poorer relapse-free (log-rank test, P = 0.04) and overall survival (log-rank test, P = 0.01). Expression of CD44v5 and CD44v7-8 did not compromise the patients' outcome. Histological grade did not correlate with CD44 isoform expression. Immunohistochemically detected expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon v6 or v3 is correlated with a poor relapse-free and overall survival in FIGO stage I vulvar cancer patients. PMID:9792156

  9. Low expression of PKCα and high expression of KRAS predict poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suxian; Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Yun; Wan, Yizeng

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine the association between protein kinase Cα (PKCα) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) expression and the response to folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX regimen) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The protein levels of PKCα and KRAS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from patients with CRC and in non-cancerous tissues, including 152 cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma, 30 cases of colorectal adenoma and 20 normal colonic mucosa samples. The association between PKCα and KRAS expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The rates of positive PKCα protein expression in patients with poorly, moderately and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma were 16.7% (6/36), 40.0% (24/60), and 57.1% (32/56), respectively (P<0.013). The rate of positive KRAS expression in CRC patients was significantly higher than in patients with colon adenoma and normal colon mucosa (P<0.001). Expression levels of KRAS were associated with the degree of differentiation of CRC (P<0.001). Expression of PKCα was negatively correlated with KRAS expression in CRC tissues. The mean progression-free survival (PFS) times in patients with high and low expression of PKCα were 43.9 and 38.8 months, respectively (P<0.001). The mean PFS times were 38.5 and 45.5 months in patients with high and low expression of KRAS, respectively (P=0.001). In conclusion, low PKCα and high KRAS expression predicted relatively poor prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:27602102

  10. Overexpression of Transforming Acidic Coiled Coil‑Containing Protein 3 Reflects Malignant Characteristics and Poor Prognosis of Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Tian, Yu; Wang, Guang-Zhi; Zhao, Shi-Hong; Han, Bo; Li, Yong-Li; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese glioma genome atlas (CGGA) and publicly available data, we demonstrated that TACC3 were overexpressed along with glioma grade and served as an independent negative prognostic biomarker for glioma patients. Functions’ annotations and gene sets’ enrichment analysis suggested that TACC3 may participate in cell cycle, DNA repair, epithelium-mesenchymal transition and other tumor-related biological processes and molecular pathways. Patients with high TACC3 expression showed CD133+ stem cell properties, glioma plasticity and shorter overall survival time under chemo-/radio-therapy. Additionally, a TACC3 associated the miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on in silico prediction and expression pattern, which provide a foundation for further detection of TACC3-miRNA-mRNA axis function. Collectively, our observations identify TACC3 as an oncogene of tumor malignancy, as well as a prognostic and motoring biomarker for glioma patients. PMID:28273854

  11. CCR4 frameshift mutation identifies a distinct group of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kato, Takeharu; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Niino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yuya; Shimono, Joji; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Seto, Masao; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an intractable T cell neoplasm caused by human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive mutation studies have revealed recurrent somatic CCR4 mutations in ATLL, although clinicopathological findings associated with CCR4 mutations remain to be delineated. In the current study, 184 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma, including 113 cases of ATLL, were subjected to CCR4 mutation analysis. This sequence analysis identified mutations in 27% (30/113) of cases of ATLL and 9% (4/44) of cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. Identified mutations included nonsense (NS) and frameshift (FS) mutations. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between ATLL cases stratified by presence of CCR4 mutation. All ATLL cases with CCR4 mutations exhibited cell-surface CCR4 positivity. Semi-quantitative CCR4 protein analysis of immunohistochemical sections revealed higher CCR4 expression in cases with NS mutations of CCR4 than in cases with wild-type (WT) CCR4. Furthermore, among ATLL cases, FS mutation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, compared with NS mutation and WT CCR4. These results suggest that CCR4 mutation is an important determinant of the clinical course in ATLL cases, and that NS and FS mutations of CCR4 behave differently with respect to ATLL pathophysiology.

  12. Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 is up-regulated in gastric cancer and associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen-Yu; Hua, Long; Yao, Kun-Hou; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumor progression. The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of lncRNA CCAT2 expression in human gastric cancer. Methods: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in 85 pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to determine its prognostic value, overall survival and progression-free survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissues. By statistical analyses, high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was observed to be closely correlated with higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis. Moreover, patients with high lncRNA CCAT2 expression had shorter overall survival and progression-free survival compared with the low lncRNA CCAT2 group. Multivariate analyses indicated that high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Conclusions: Our results suggested that up-regulation of lncRNA CCAT2 was correlated with gastric cancer progression, and lncRNA CCAT2 might be a potential molecular biomarker for predicting the prognosis of patients. PMID:25755774

  13. TERT promoter mutations lead to high transcriptional activity under hypoxia and temozolomide treatment and predict poor prognosis in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Han, Sheng; Meng, Lingxuan; Li, Zhonghua; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Anhua

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations on transcriptional activity of the TERT gene under hypoxic and temozolomide (TMZ) treatment conditions, and investigated the status and prognostic value of these mutations in gliomas. The effect of TERT promoter mutations on the transcriptional activity of the TERT gene under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions was investigated in glioma cells using the luciferase assay. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 101 glioma samples (grades I-IV) and 49 other brain tumors by sequencing. TERT mRNA expression in gliomas was examined by real-time PCR. Hazard ratios from survival analysis of glioma patients were determined relative to the presence of TERT promoter mutations. Mutations in the TERT promoter enhanced gene transcription even under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions, inducing upregulation of TERT mRNA expression. Mutations were detected in gliomas, but not in meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, cavernomas, intracranial metastases, normal brain tissues, or peripheral blood of glioma patients. Patients with TERT promoter mutations had lower survival rates, even after adjusting for other known or potential risk factors, and the incidence of mutation was correlated with patient age. TERT promoter mutations were specific to gliomas. TERT promoter mutations maintained its ability of inducing high transcriptional activity even under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions, and the presence of mutations was associated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. These findings demonstrate that TERT promoter mutations are novel prognostic markers for gliomas that can inform prospective therapeutic strategies.

  14. CD38 in Hairy Cell Leukemia Is a Marker of Poor Prognosis and a New Target for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Poret, Nicolas; Fu, Qiangwei; Guihard, Soizic; Cheok, Meyling; Miller, Katie; Zeng, Gordon; Quesnel, Bruno; Troussard, Xavier; Galiègue-Zouitina, Sylvie; Shelley, Carl Simon

    2015-09-15

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is characterized by underexpression of the intracellular signaling molecule RhoH. Reconstitution of RhoH expression limits HCL pathogenesis in a mouse model, indicating this could represent a new therapeutic strategy. However, while RhoH reconstitution is theoretically possible as a therapy, it is technically immensely challenging as an appropriately functional RhoH protein needs to be specifically targeted. Because of this problem, we sought to identify druggable proteins on the HCL surface that were dependent upon RhoH underexpression. One such protein was identified as CD38. Analysis of 51 HCL patients demonstrated that 18 were CD38-positive. Interrogation of the clinical record of 23 relapsed HCL patients demonstrated those that were CD38-positive had a mean time to salvage therapy 71 months shorter than patients who were CD38-negative. Knockout of the CD38 gene in HCL cells increased apoptosis, inhibited adherence to endothelial monolayers, and compromised ability to produce tumors in vivo. Furthermore, an anti-CD38 antibody proved effective against pre-existing HCL tumors. Taken together, our data indicate that CD38 expression in HCL drives poor prognosis by promoting survival and heterotypic adhesion. Our data also indicate that CD38-positive HCL patients might benefit from treatments based on CD38 targeting. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. High NKG2A expression contributes to NK cell exhaustion and predicts a poor prognosis of patients with liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Xu, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Mei; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Chuanshan; Wang, Jinyu; Song, Jiaxi; Zheng, Meijuan; Sun, Haoyu; Wei, Haiming; Xiao, Weihua; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: As the predominant lymphocyte subset in the liver, natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to be highly associated with the outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we reported that NKG2A, a checkpoint candidate, mediates human and murine NK cell dysfunction in CHB. However, NK cell exhaustion and, particularly, the level of NKG2A expression within liver tumors have not been reported. Methods: In this study, we analyzed NKG2A expression and the related dysfunction of NK cells located in intra- or peritumor regions of liver tissue samples from 207 HCC patients, in addition to analyzing disease outcomes. Results: The expression of NKG2A in NK cells and the NKG2A ligand, HLA-E, in intratumor HCC tissues was observed to be increased. These NK cells, and particularly CD56(dim) NK cells, with higher NKG2A expression showed features of functional exhaustion and were associated with a poor prognosis. The increase in NKG2A expression might be induced by IL-10, which was present at a high level in the plasma of HCC patients. Blocking IL-10 could specifically inhibit NKG2A expression in NK cells. Conclusions: These findings indicate that NKG2A expression is influenced by factors from cancer nests and contributes to NK cell exhaustion, suggesting that NKG2A blockade has the potential to restore immunity against liver tumors by reversing NK cell exhaustion.

  16. The Postoperative Immunosuppressive Phenotypes of Peripheral T Helper Cells Are Associated with Poor Prognosis of Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ganglan; Miao, Liping; Wang, Meng; Guo, MingYan; Wang, Chengli; Ji, Fengtao; Cao, Minghui

    2017-10-01

    T helper cells play essential roles in anti-tumor immune response. However, the postoperative changes of peripheral T cell subsets and their clinical significance in breast cancer patients remain largely unknown. We evaluated the perioperative changes of T lymphocyte subsets in invasive breast cancer (IBC) patients and breast fibroadenoma (BF) patients preoperatively (preop) and 6, 24, 72 hours postoperatively (POH6, POH24, and POH72). Proportions of CD3, CD4, CD8, T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17 cells, regulatory T cells (Treg), and CD4(+)/CD8(+), Th1/Th2 ratio were detected by flow cytometry. Changes in T helper cell quantity were correlated to clinicopathological parameters. Furthermore, we explored the association between the perioperative variations of T cell subsets and disease-free survival (DFS) of IBC patients. In IBC patients, Th1 cells diminished while Tregs elevated in postoperative 72 hours in the peripheral blood. In contrast, no significant perioperative changes of T cell subsets were observed in BF patients. Postoperative lower Th1 cells at POH 72 of IBC patients were correlated with greater tumor burden, HER2 positive and Ki67 positive. The increased Tregs at POH 72 of IBC patients were correlated with larger tumor size and HER2 positive. Th1 cell decline and Treg increment were both associated with shorter DFS in IBC patients. The variations of peripheral T helper cell subsets showed postoperative immunosuppression and were associated with poor prognosis in IBC patients.

  17. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 facilitates cell proliferation and migration and is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Wu, Yu-Nong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Min; Ding, Xu; Li, Huai-Qi; Geng, Meiyu; Xie, Zuo-Quan; Wu, He-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) is a cell membrane transporter of lactate. Recent studies have shown that MCT4 is over-expressed in various cancers; however, its role in cancer maintenance and aggressiveness has not been fully demonstrated. This study investigated the role of MCT4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and found that it is highly expressed in OSCC patients by using immunohistochemistry. Moreover, this over-expression of MCT4 was closely associated with tumor size, TNM classification, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis and tumor recurrence, and also poor prognosis. To further study mechanisms of MCT4 in vitro, we used small-interfering RNA to silence its expression in OSCC cell lines. The results showed that knock-down of MCT4 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The inhibition of proliferation was associated with down-regulation of p-AKT and p-ERK1/2, while decreased cell migration and invasion may be caused by down-regulation of integrin β4-SRC-FAK and MEK-ERK signaling. Together, these findings provide new insight into the critical role of MCT4 in cell proliferation and metastasis in OSCC.

  18. Long non-coding RNA BANCR regulates growth and metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis in retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Su, Shizheng; Gao, Jian; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ju; Li, Hong; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence shows that BRAF-activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) acts as a critical role in the proliferation and metastasis in malignant melanoma and lung cancer; however, little is known about the significance of lncRNA BANCR in retinoblastoma. The purpose of our study is to explore the role of lncRNA BANCR in retinoblastoma clinical samples and cell lines. The expression of lncRNA BANCR was measured in 60 retinoblastoma samples and normal retina samples by using RT-PCR. The effects of lncRNA BANCR on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were also explored. In our results, lncRNA BANCR is overexpressed in retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines and is associated with tumor size, choroidal invasion, and optic nerve invasion. Moreover, patients with high levels of lncRNA BANCR expression had poorer survival than those with lower levels of lncRNA BANCR expression. Multivariate analysis showed that increased lncRNA BANCR expression was a poor independent prognostic factor for retinoblastoma patients. Furthermore, knocking down lncRNA BANCR expression significantly suppressed the retinoblastoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. In conclusion, lncRNA BANCR plays a significant role in retinoblastoma aggressiveness and prognosis and may act as a promising target for therapeutic strategy and prognostic prediction.

  19. HAGE (DDX43) is a biomarker for poor prognosis and a predictor of chemotherapy response in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Fatah, T M A; McArdle, S E B; Johnson, C; Moseley, P M; Ball, G R; Pockley, A G; Ellis, I O; Rees, R C; Chan, S Y T

    2014-01-01

    Background: HAGE protein is a known immunogenic cancer-specific antigen. Methods: The biological, prognostic and predictive values of HAGE expression was studied using immunohistochemistry in three cohorts of patients with BC (n=2147): early primary (EP-BC; n=1676); primary oestrogen receptor-negative (PER-BC; n=275) treated with adjuvant anthracycline-combination therapies (Adjuvant-ACT); and primary locally advanced disease (PLA-BC) who received neo-adjuvant anthracycline-combination therapies (Neo-adjuvant-ACT; n=196). The relationship between HAGE expression and the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in matched prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy samples were investigated. Results: Eight percent of patients with EP-BC exhibited high HAGE expression (HAGE+) and was associated with aggressive clinico-pathological features (Ps<0.01). Furthermore, HAGE+expression was associated with poor prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analysis (Ps<0.001). Patients with HAGE+did not benefit from hormonal therapy in high-risk ER-positive disease. HAGE+and TILs were found to be independent predictors for pathological complete response to neoadjuvant-ACT; P<0.001. A statistically significant loss of HAGE expression following neoadjuvant-ACT was found (P=0.000001), and progression-free survival was worse in those patients who had HAGE+residual disease (P=0.0003). Conclusions: This is the first report to show HAGE to be a potential prognostic marker and a predictor of response to ACT in patients with BC. PMID:24755885

  20. Elevated serum apolipoprotein E is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinmei; Song, Junli; Feng, Pinning; Wang, Yanhong; Long, Weiqing; Liu, Min; Li, Laisheng

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a factor involved in Alzheimer's disease, which recently attracted great attention as an important protein related to tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, serum ApoE levels and its diagnosis and prognosis value in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are still unknown. In 196 NSCLC patients and 203 healthy controls, serum ApoE was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay. The associations of serum ApoE levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of NSCLC patients were analyzed. Serum ApoE levels were obviously elevated in NSCLC patients compared with healthy controls (41.6 ± 11.63 vs. 33.8 ± 6.24 mg/L) and were associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis status, and distant metastasis status (all P < 0.0001). For NSCLC diagnosis, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.71 at a specificity of 0.90 and sensitivity of 0.47. For lymph node metastasis predicting, the area under the ROC curve was 0.68 at a specificity of 0.56 and sensitivity of 0.73. From ROC/area under curve (AUC) analysis, we used 41.25 mg/L as the serum ApoE cut-off value, to divide NSCLC patients into two groups, the median survival was 11.0 weeks (95 % CI = 8.7 to 13.3) for patients in high serum ApoE group and 20.0 weeks (95 % CI = 15.0 to 25.0) in low serum ApoE group. Serum ApoE levels elevated in NSCLC patients, which also associated with TNM stages, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis, suggest that serum ApoE may act as a useful clinical serological biomarkers for evaluating the progress of NSCLC.

  1. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  2. The long non-coding RNA HOTAIR is upregulated in endometrial carcinoma and correlates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoying; Bao, Wei; Li, Xiaocui; Chen, Zheng; Che, Qi; Wang, Huihui; Wan, Xiao-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key molecules in human cancer. Homeobox (HOX) transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), is associated with a variety of human cancers, such as breast, liver and lung cancer. However, whether HOTAIR can function as a molecular marker in endometrial carcinoma (EC) remains unknown. In the present study, the expression of HOTAIR in 66 EC tissues from patients with EC and 30 normal tissues from healthy age-matched control subjects was determined using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Furthermore, using in situ hybridization, we measured HOTAIR expression in 129 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections, which included 96 tissues that matched the frozen cases, 21 other EC tissues and 12 atypical hyperplasia tissues. Correlations between HOTAIR expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients were analyzed. Our results revealed that HOTAIR expression in the EC tissues was significantly upregulated compared with normal tissues (p<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant association between HOTAIR expression and the EC grade (p<0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Moreover, in the FFPE tissues, but not the frozen tissues, we found that a higher HOTAIR expression also correlated with the depth of myometrial invasion (p=0.019) and lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.015). More importantly, patients with a higher HOTAIR expression showed significantly poorer overall survival than those with lower HOTAIR expression (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that a high expression of HOTAIR is involved in the progression of cancer and may be a novel biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with EC.

  3. Hypoacetylation of acetyl-histone H3 (H3K9ac) as marker of poor prognosis in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Webber, Liana P; Wagner, Vivian P; Curra, Marina; Vargas, Pablo A; Meurer, Luise; Carrard, Vinícius C; Squarize, Cristiane H; Castilho, Rogério M; Martins, Manoela D

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetics refers to changes in cell characteristics that occur independently of modifications to the DNA sequence. Oral carcinogenesis is influenced by modifications in epigenetic mechanisms, including changes in histones, which are proteins that support chromatin remodelling for the dynamic regulation of gene expression and silencing. The dysregulation of histone acetylation can lead to the uncontrolled activity of different genes, thereby triggering events associated with malignant transformation. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of acetyl-histone H3 at lys9 (H3K9ac) in oral leucoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in addition to its association with cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and clinical-pathological findings. Samples of normal oral mucosa (NOM), OL and OSCC were submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using anti-H3K9ac, Ki67 and vimentin. Slides were submitted to quantitative analysis regarding the percentage of positive cells. OSCC presented less expression of H3K9ac in comparison to OL (P < 0.01), whereas Ki67 and vimentin levels increased from OL to OSCC (P < 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). OSCC patients with poor prognosis had less H3K9ac expression (P = 0.04). The Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival curves also revealed lower survival rates in patients with less H3K9ac expression (P < 0.01). The present findings suggest that changes in H3K9ac occur during the process of oral carcinogenesis along with an increase in cell proliferation and EMT. The results demonstrate that H3K9ac may be a useful novel prognostic marker for OSCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. TERT Promoter Mutations Lead to High Transcriptional Activity under Hypoxia and Temozolomide Treatment and Predict Poor Prognosis in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingxuan; Li, Zhonghua; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Anhua

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explored the effects of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations on transcriptional activity of the TERT gene under hypoxic and temozolomide (TMZ) treatment conditions, and investigated the status and prognostic value of these mutations in gliomas. Methods The effect of TERT promoter mutations on the transcriptional activity of the TERT gene under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions was investigated in glioma cells using the luciferase assay. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 101 glioma samples (grades I–IV) and 49 other brain tumors by sequencing. TERT mRNA expression in gliomas was examined by real-time PCR. Hazard ratios from survival analysis of glioma patients were determined relative to the presence of TERT promoter mutations. Results Mutations in the TERT promoter enhanced gene transcription even under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions, inducing upregulation of TERT mRNA expression. Mutations were detected in gliomas, but not in meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, cavernomas, intracranial metastases, normal brain tissues, or peripheral blood of glioma patients. Patients with TERT promoter mutations had lower survival rates, even after adjusting for other known or potential risk factors, and the incidence of mutation was correlated with patient age. Conclusion TERT promoter mutations were specific to gliomas. TERT promoter mutations maintained its ability of inducing high transcriptional activity even under hypoxic and TMZ treatment conditions, and the presence of mutations was associated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. These findings demonstrate that TERT promoter mutations are novel prognostic markers for gliomas that can inform prospective therapeutic strategies. PMID:24937153

  5. Tumor necrosis is associated with increased alphavbeta3 integrin expression and poor prognosis in nodular cutaneous melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Ingeborg M; Ladstein, Rita G; Straume, Oddbjørn; Naumov, George N; Akslen, Lars A

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are considered important in cancer progression, but these features have not been much studied in melanomas. Our hypothesis was that rapid growth in cutaneous melanomas of the vertical growth phase might lead to tissue hypoxia, alterations in apoptotic activity and tumor necrosis. We proposed that these tumor characteristics might be associated with changes in expression of cell adhesion proteins leading to increased invasive capacity and reduced patient survival. Methods A well characterized series of nodular melanoma (originally 202 cases) and other benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (109 cases) were examined for the presence of necrosis, apoptotic activity (TUNEL assay), immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia markers (HIF-1 α, CAIX, TNF-α, Apaf-1) and cell adhesion proteins (αvβ3 integrin, CD44/HCAM and osteopontin). We hypothesized that tumor hypoxia and necrosis might be associated with increased invasiveness in melanoma through alterations of tumor cell adhesion proteins. Results Necrosis was present in 29% of nodular melanomas and was associated with increased tumor thickness, tumor ulceration, vascular invasion, higher tumor proliferation and apoptotic index, increased expression of αvβ3 integrin and poor patient outcome by multivariate analysis. Tumor cell apoptosis did also correlate with reduced patient survival. Expression of TNF-α and Apaf-1 was significantly associated with tumor thickness, and osteopontin expression correlated with increased tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67). Conclusion Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are important features of melanoma progression and prognosis, at least partly through alterations in cell adhesion molecules such as increased αvβ3 integrin expression, revealing potentially important targets for new therapeutic approaches to be further explored. PMID:19061491

  6. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for patients with poor prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, M. J.; Coppin, C. M.; Murray, N.; Nevill, T. J.; Reece, D. E.; Klingemann, H. G.; Shepherd, J. D.; Nantel, S. H.; Sutherland, H. J.; Phillips, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with poor prognosis nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (six with extreme burden disease at presentation in whom partial remission had been achieved with initial induction therapy, and 15 with recurrent disease after induction therapy) were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The first six received etoposide 3.0 g m-2, ifosfamide 6.0 g m-2 and carboplatin 1.2 g m-2 (Regimen 1), and the subsequent 15 received etoposide 2.4 g m2 (continuous infusion), cyclophosphamide 7.2 g m-2 and carboplatin 0.8 g m-2 (Regimen 2) followed by infusion of previously stored autologous marrow. Regimen 1 was associated with considerable renal toxicity and mucositis, whereas Regimen 2 was relatively well tolerated. Two patients died as a consequence of the treatment: one of candidemia and one of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Only one of 17 patients who were autografted in or approaching marker remission subsequently developed disease progression (event-free survival 82%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 55% to 94%), whereas all four patients who had progressive disease at autografting subsequently developed further disease progression and died. Fourteen patients remain well and free of disease 0.5 to 6.5 years (median 3.3) post-BMT (event-free survival 67%, 95% CI 43% to 83%). A strategy of prompt reinduction followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous BMT at the first sign of failure of standard therapy may allow cure to be a realistic expectation. PMID:8394733

  7. Failure of CRP decline within three days of hospitalization is associated with poor prognosis of Community-acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Stine Bang; Baunbæk Egelund, Gertrud; Jensen, Andreas Vestergaard; Petersen, Pelle Trier; Rohde, Gernot; Ravn, Pernille

    2017-04-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-known acute phase protein used to monitor the patient's response during treatment in infectious diseases. Mortality from Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) remains high, particularly in hospitalized patients. Better risk prediction during hospitalization could improve management and ultimately reduce mortality levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate CRP on the 3rd day (CRP3) of hospitalization as a predictor for 30 days mortality. A retrospective multicentre cohort study of adult patients admitted with CAP at three Danish hospitals. Predictive associations of CRP3 (absolute levels and relative decline) and 30 days mortality were analysed using receiver operating characteristics and logistic regression. Eight hundred and fourteen patients were included and 90 (11%) died within 30 days. The area under the curve for CRP3 level and decline for predicting 30 days mortality were 0.64 (0.57-0.70) and 0.71 (0.65-0.76). Risk of death was increased in patients with CRP3 level >75 mg/l (OR 2.44; 95%CI 1.36-4.37) and in patients with a CRP3 decline <50% (OR 4.25; 95%CI 2.30-7.83). In the multivariate analysis, the highest mortality risk was seen in patients who failed to decline by 50%, irrespective of the actual level of CRP (OR 7.8; 95%CI 3.2-19.3). Mortality risk increased significantly according to CRP decline for all strata of CURB-65 score. CRP responses day 3 is a valuable predictor of 30 days mortality in hospitalized CAP patients. Failure to decline in CRP was associated with a poor prognosis irrespective of the actual level of CRP or CURB-65.

  8. MicroRNA-130b Promotes Tumor Development and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Tommaso; Fucci, Alessandra; Votino, Carolina; Sabatino, Lina; Pancione, Massimo; Laudanna, Carmelo; Binaschi, Monica; Bigioni, Mario; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Parente, Domenico; Forte, Nicola; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA-130b (miR-130b) is involved in several biologic processes; its role in colorectal tumorigenesis has not been addressed so far. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-130b up-regulation exhibits clinical relevance as it is linked to advanced colorectal cancers (CRCs), poor patients' prognosis, and molecular features of enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. miR-130b high-expressing cells develop large, dedifferentiated, and vascularized tumors in mouse xenografts, features that are reverted by intratumor injection of a specific antisense RNA. In contrast, injection of the corresponding mimic in mouse xenografts from miR-130b low-expressing cells increases tumor growth and angiogenic potential while reduces the epithelial hallmarks. These biologic effects are reproduced in human CRC cell lines. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) as an miR-130b direct target in CRC in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the effects of PPARγ gain- and loss-of-function phenocopy those due to miR-130b down-regulation or up-regulation, respectively, underscoring their biologic relevance. Furthermore, we provide mechanistic evidences that most of the miR-130b-dependent effects are due to PPARγ suppression that in turn deregulates PTEN, E-cadherin, Snail, and vascular endothelial growth factor, key mediators of cell proliferation, EMT, and angiogenesis. Since higher levels of miR-130b are found in advanced tumor stages (III–IV), we propose a novel role of the miR-130b-PPARγ axis in fostering the progression toward more invasive CRCs. Detection of onco-miR-130b and its association with PPARγ may be useful as a prognostic biomarker. Its targeting in vivo should be evaluated as a novel effective therapeutic tool against CRC. PMID:24027433

  9. MicroRNA-130b Promotes Tumor Development and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Tommaso; Fucci, Alessandra; Votino, Carolina; Sabatino, Lina; Pancione, Massimo; Laudanna, Carmelo; Binaschi, Monica; Bigioni, Mario; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Parente, Domenico; Forte, Nicola; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA-130b (miR-130b) is involved in several biologic processes; its role in colorectal tumorigenesis has not been addressed so far. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-130b up-regulation exhibits clinical relevance as it is linked to advanced colorectal cancers (CRCs), poor patients' prognosis, and molecular features of enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. miR-130b high-expressing cells develop large, dedifferentiated, and vascularized tumors in mouse xenografts, features that are reverted by intratumor injection of a specific antisense RNA. In contrast, injection of the corresponding mimic in mouse xenografts from miR-130b low-expressing cells increases tumor growth and angiogenic potential while reduces the epithelial hallmarks. These biologic effects are reproduced in human CRC cell lines. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) as an miR-130b direct target in CRC in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the effects of PPARγ gain- and loss-of-function phenocopy those due to miR-130b down-regulation or up-regulation, respectively, underscoring their biologic relevance. Furthermore, we provide mechanistic evidences that most of the miR-130b-dependent effects are due to PPARγ suppression that in turn deregulates PTEN, E-cadherin, Snail, and vascular endothelial growth factor, key mediators of cell proliferation, EMT, and angiogenesis. Since higher levels of miR-130b are found in advanced tumor stages (III-IV), we propose a novel role of the miR-130b-PPARγ axis in fostering the progression toward more invasive CRCs. Detection of onco-miR-130b and its association with PPARγ may be useful as a prognostic biomarker. Its targeting in vivo should be evaluated as a novel effective therapeutic tool against CRC. PMID:24204200

  10. Low SGK1 Expression in Human Adrenocortical Tumors Is Associated with ACTH-Independent Glucocorticoid Secretion and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sbiera, Silviu; Leich, Ellen; Tissier, Frédérique; Steinhauer, Sonja; Deutschbein, Timo; Fassnacht, Martin; Allolio, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Context: Using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, we observed allelic loss of the gene for serum glucocorticoid (GC) kinase 1 (SGK1), a GC-responsive kinase involved in multiple cellular functions, in a subset of cortisol-secreting adenomas. Objective: Our objective was to analyze SGK1 expression in adrenocortical tumors and to further characterize its role in ACTH-independent cortisol secretion, tumor progression, and prognosis. Design and Setting: Gene expression levels of SGK1, SGK3, and CTNNB1 (coding for β-catenin) and protein expression levels of SGK1, nuclear β-catenin, and phosphorylated AKT were determined in adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands. Patients: A total of 227 adrenocortical tumors (40 adenomas and 187 carcinomas) and 25 normal adrenal tissues were included. Among them, 62 frozen tumor samples were used for mRNA analysis and 203 tumors were investigated on tissue microarrays or full standard slides by immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the relationship between SGK1 mRNA and/or protein levels and clinical parameters. Results: SGK1 mRNA levels were lower in cortisol-secreting than in nonsecreting tumors (P < 0.005). Nonsecreting neoplasias showed a significant correlation between SGK1 and CTNNB1 mRNA levels (P < 0.001; r = 0.57). Low SGK1 protein levels, but not nuclear β-catenin and phosphorylated AKT, were associated with poor overall survival in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (P < 0.005; hazard ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.24–3.24), independent of tumor stage and GC secretion. Conclusion: Low SGK1 expression is related to ACTH-independent cortisol secretion in adrenocortical tumors and is a new prognostic factor in adrenocortical carcinoma. PMID:23055545

  11. h-Prune is associated with poor prognosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in patients with colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Arihiro, Koji; Kikuchi, Akira; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-08-15

    The prognosis of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) remains low despite advances in chemotherapy and surgery. The expression of h-prune (human homolog of Drosophila prune protein; HGNC13420), an exopolyphosphatase, is correlated with progression and aggressiveness in several cancers and promotes migration and invasion. We investigated the role of h-prune in CRLM. To investigate the role of h-prune, immunohistochemical analysis for h-prune was performed in 87 surgically resected specimens of CRLM obtained between 2001 and 2009 at the Hiroshima University Hospital. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed positive staining for h-prune in 24 (28%) cases. The overall survival rate was significantly lower in h-prune-positive cases than in h-prune-negative cases (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that h-prune positivity was the only independent factor related to poor overall survival of patients after curative hepatectomy of CRLM. In vitro and in vivo, h-prune-knocked-down and h-prune-overexpressing cells were analyzed. In vitro, h-prune was associated with increased cell motility and upregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. In a mouse model, h-prune was associated with invasion of the tumor and distant metastases. In summary, h-prune expression is a useful marker to identify high-risk patients for resectable colorectal liver metastasis. h-Prune expression is necessary for cancer cell motility and EMT and is associated with liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer cells. h-Prune could be a new prognostic marker and molecular target for CRLM. © 2016 UICC.

  12. Allelic loss on distal chromosome 17p is associated with poor prognosis in a group of Brazilian breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, M. A.; Pacheco, M. M.; Brentani, M. M.; Marques, L. A.; Brentani, R. R.; Ponder, B. A.; Mulligan, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    We examined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for two loci on chromosome 17p (D17S5 and TP53), and erbB-2 gene amplification, in primary breast cancers from 67 Brazilian patients. We identified two distinct regions of LOH on chromosome 17p, one spanning TP53 and the other a more telomeric region (D17S5). Based on a short-term follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analyses of patients' disease-free survival showed that patients with LOH for D17S5, but retaining heterozygosity for TP53, were at higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.007) than those who retained heterozygosity for D17S5. Bivariate analyses indicated that patients with LOH for D17S5 alone had an increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 7.2) over patients with erbB-2 amplification (hazard ratio = 3.7), when compared with patients with neither alteration (hazard ratio = 1.0). Further, lymph node-positive patients whose tumours had both LOH for D17S5 and erbB-2 gene amplification had a higher risk of recurrence than patients whose tumours had neither of these genetic alterations. Our data confirm previous reports of a putative tumour-suppressor gene, distinct from TP53, on distal chromosome 17p which is associated with breast cancer. They further suggest that LOH for loci in this region may provide an independent indicator to identify patients with poor prognosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7908218

  13. High expression of IMPDH2 is associated with aggressive features and poor prognosis of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Zheng, Zhousan; Gao, Ying; Duan, Shiyu; Chen, Cui; Rong, Jian; Wang, Kebing; Yun, Miao; Weng, Huiwen; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2017-04-07

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type II (IMPDH2) has been shown to play critical roles in the development and progression of several human cancers. However, little is known about IMPDH2 expression and its clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Western blotting, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate IMPDH2 expression in NPC cell lines and tissues. In our study, elevated expression of IMPDH2 was observed at both the protein and mRNA levels in NPC cell lines than in NPEC2 Bmi-1. IMPDH2 protein expression was markedly higher in NPC tissues than in adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Moreover, IMPDH2 expression in NPC correlated with several clinicopathological parameters, including T classification (P = 0.023), TNM stage (P = 0.020), distant metastasis (P = 0.001) and death (P = 0.002). Further Cox regression analysis suggested that IMPDH2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.001) and disease-free survival (P < 0.001). In addition, stratified survival analysis showed that high expression of IMPDH2 could be a prognostic factor for NPC patients with TNM stage I/II (OS: P = 0.012; DMFS: P = 0.007), TNM stage III/IV (OS: P = 0.028; DMFS: P = 0.020). Our study demonstrates IMPDH2 may be served as an independent prognostic biomarker for NPC patients, in which high IMPDH expression suggests poor prognosis of NPC patients.

  14. Low levels of serum miR-99a is a predictor of poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Song, Z J; Wang, Y Y; Yin, Y; Liu, Y; Nan, X

    2016-08-26

    MicroRNA (miRNA) deregulation has been previously linked to the initiation and development of breast cancer. Although miR-99a is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers, including breast cancer, the serum miR-99a expression level in breast cancer and its clinical significance remains unknown. Blood samples were obtained from 72 patients with breast cancer and 40 healthy volunteers, and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the level of expression of serum miR-99a in the study participants. Furthermore, we investigated the association between serum miR-99a and the clinical outcome of breast cancer. Serum miR-99a expression was significantly downregulated in patients with breast cancer, compared to that in healthy controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, the serum miR-99a was correlated with various clinical parameters of breast cancer, including lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0194), distant metastasis (P = 0.0037), Ki67 intensity (P = 0.0164), TNM stage (P = 0.0096), and histological grade (P = 0.0051) of cancer. Additionally, breast cancer patients displaying lower miR-99a levels showed poorer overall survival rates (P = 0.0411). The serum miR-99a level was also found to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer (hazard ratio = 3.176, 95% confidence interval = 1.543-7.360, P = 0.023). Our data indicated that serum miR-99a expression was downregulated in breast cancer patients; moreover, this downregulation was associated with poor prognosis, suggesting that serum miR-99a could function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer.

  15. Lewis Y antigen modified CD47 is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis and promotes early ovarian cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Mingzi; Zhu, Liancheng; Zhuang, Huiyu; Hao, Yingying; Gao, Song; Liu, Shuice; Liu, Qing; Liu, Dawo; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a membrane receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays an important role in the mechanisms of tumor immune escape. CD47 participates in tumor immune escape by combining with SIRPα to reduce the phagocytic activity of macrophages. There are six potential N-glycosylation sites on CD47, and glycosylation is known to be necessary for its membrane localization. However, it is still unknown to what extent glycosylation influences CD47 ligand binding properties and subsequent signaling. By using immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we showed that CD47 contains Lewis y antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that both the positive expression and the overexpression of CD47 and Lewis y antigen in cancer tissues and borderline tumors were significantly higher than those in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovarian tissues (P < 0.05). A linear correlation between the expression patterns of CD47 and Lewis y antigen was evident (r = 0.47, P < 0.01). The high expression of CD47 and Lewis y antigen showed significant correlations with the clinical pathological parameters of ovarian cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards, lymph node metastasis, and degree of differentiation] (P < 0.05). The Cox model and Kaplan-Meier tests showed that high expression of CD47 was an independent adverse risk factor for the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Cases with both high CD47 and Lewis y antigen expression had poor prognoses. Our study demonstrates that Lewis y antigens of CD47 may play a crucial role in the development of ovarian cancer, and could be new targets for immunotherapy for ovarian cancer.

  16. Association of Decreased Expression of Serum miR-9 with Poor Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Legang; Liu, Ling; Fu, Honghai; Wang, Qiuqin; Shi, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of miR-9 is a common feature of many types of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, whether the expression level of serum miR-9 is changed in patients with OSCC remains unknown. Material/Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the expression level of serum miR-9 in OSCC patients, oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients, and healthy volunteers, then we evaluated the association between serum miR-9 expression level and clinical outcome of OSCC patients. Results The expression level of serum miR-9 was significantly downregulated in patients with OSCC or OLK in comparison with healthy controls (P<0.01). Serum miR-9 expression level was associated with various clinicopathological parameters, including T stage (P=0.013), lymph node metastasis (P=0.002), and TNM stage (P=0.007). In addition, the OSCC patients in the low serum miR-9 expression group had poorer overall survival rate (P=0.022) and disease-free survival rate (P=0.004) compared with those in the high serum miR-9 expression group. Multivariate analysis showed that serum miR-9 was an independent prognostic factor for OSCC. Conclusions Serum miR-9 was downregulated in patients with OSCC and patients with OLK. In addition, low serum miR-9 was correlated with poor prognosis of OSCC, indicating miR-9 might play a tumor suppressive role in OSCC and can serve as a promising biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:26813876

  17. Overexpression of MYC and BCL2 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-hua; Bi, Xi-wen; Li, Peng-fei; Xia, Zhong-jun; Huang, Hui-qiang; Jiang, Wen-qi; Zhang, Yu-jing; Wang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recently double-hit lymphoma or double protein expressor lymphoma has been identified as a distinct group of diffuse large B cell lymphoma with poor prognosis. However, the expression status, clinical and prognostic effect of combined overexpression of MYC and BCL2 in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) are not known. Materials and methods: Paraffin-embedded lymphoma samples from 53 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL were studied using immunohistochemistry for MYC and BCL2, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for MYC and BCL2 were done on 5 tissue sections with highest percentages of both MYC and BCL2 positive lymphoma cells. Results: The median percentage of MYC-positive lymphoma cells and BCL2-positive lymphoma cells were 20% (range, 5%-45%) and 70% (10%-95%), respectively. Using median scores as cutoffs, we assigned each patient an IHC double-hit score (DHS) that ranged from 0 to 2. Using this DHS, 15 patients (28.3%) had a DHS of 0, 24 patients (45.3%) had a DHS of 1, and the remaining 14 patients (26.4%) had a DHS of 2. FISH analysis was performed on 5 tissue sections with DHS of 2, and none of them had MYC or BCL2 rearrangement. The DHS was not associated with patients' age, gender, disease stage, LDH level, B symptoms, performance status, or local tumor invasiveness. However, patients with tumor localized in extranasal sites seemed to have higher expression of BCL2 and higher DHS than nasal lesions (p=0.014 and 0.042, respectively). In univariate survival analysis, either high expression of MYC or BCL2 was significantly correlated with inferior PFS and OS (p<0.05). According to the DHS, patients with ENKTL could be divided into three significantly different risk groups for PFS and OS (3-year PFS rate for DHS of 0, 1, and 2 was 60%, 41%, and 21%, respectively, p=0.008; 3-year OS rate for DHS of 0, 1, and 2 was 79%, 49%, and 33%, respectively, p=0.015). In multivariate survival analysis, it was found that DHS was an

  18. C14ORF166 overexpression is associated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijing; Ou, Jianping; Lei, Fangyong; Hou, Teng; Wu, Shu; Niu, Chunhao; Xu, Liqun; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    C14ORF166 (chromosome 14 open reading frame 166) is a transcriptional repressor related to the regulation of centrosome architecture. However, the role of C14ORF166 in the development and progression of cancer remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of C14ORF166 in cervical cancer. C14ORF166 expression was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting in cervical cancer cell lines and eight paired cervical cancer samples and the adjacent normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze C14ORF166 protein expression in 148 clinicopathologically characterized cervical cancer specimens. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the expression of C14ORF166 and clinicopathologic features and prognosis. C14ORF166 mRNA and protein expression were significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and tissue samples (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a high expression of C14ORF166 was observed in 39.9 % (59/148) of the cervical cancer specimens; the remaining samples expressed low levels or did not express any detectable C14ORF166. The chi-square test indicated that high-level expression of C14ORF166 was significantly associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P < 0.001), vital status (P = 0.026), tumor size (P = 0.034), serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level (SCC-Ag; P = 0.035), and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001). Patients with highly expressed C14ORF166 showed a tendency to receive postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.005) and postoperative radiation (P = 0.008). Furthermore, high C14ORF166 expression was associated with poorer overall survival compared to low C14ORF166 expression, and C14ORF166 was a significant prognostic factor in univariate and multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High C14ORF166 expression had prognostic

  19. CPE overexpression is correlated with pelvic lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong-Wei; Tan, Jin-Feng; Shang, Jian-Hong; Hou, Min-Zhi; Liu, Jun; He, Li; Yao, Shu-Zhong; He, Shan-Yang

    2016-08-01

    prognostic factor for overall survival in early-stage cervical cancer. High-level CPE expression was associated with a poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. CPE may serve as a biomarker for predicting PLNM and survival in these patients.

  20. Overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα is associated with undifferentiated status and poor prognosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a particularly severe disease characterized by a high rate of recurrence and death even after surgical resection. Molecular characterization of HCC helps refine prognosis and may facilitate the development of improved therapy. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases have recently been identified as cellular factors associated with cancer. Also, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα (PI4KA) is necessary for the propagation of the hepatitis C virus, a major etiological factor for HCC. Methods Reverse transcription, quantitative real-time PCR was used to assay PI4KA mRNA. The expression levels were investigated both in a collection of molecularly and clinically characterized hepatic tissues from 344 patients with diverse liver diseases and in human hepatocyte cell lines whose proliferative and differentiation status was controlled by specific culture conditions. Analytical microarray data for 60 HCC and six normal liver tissue samples were exploited to study correlations between PI4KA mRNA levels and cell proliferation markers in vivo. Postoperative disease-specific survival and time to recurrence in a set of 214 patients with HCC were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results PI4KA mRNA was more abundant in HCC than normal healthy tissues. This upregulation correlated significantly with both poor differentiation and the active proliferation rate in HCC. These associations were confirmed with in vitro models. Moreover, patients with HCC who had been treated by surgical resection and had higher PI4KA mRNA concentrations in their tumor tissue exhibited a higher risk of tumor recurrence (median time: 20 months versus 49 months, P = 0.0012) and shorter disease-specific survival (first quartile time: 16 months versus 48 months, P = 0.0004). Finally, the abundance of PI4KA mRNA proved to be an independent prognostic marker of survival for cases of HCC (hazard ratio = 2.36, P = 0.0064). Conclusions PI4

  1. Reduced Expression of the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor in Pancreatic and Periampullary Adenocarcinoma Signifies Tumour Progression and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Richard; Elebro, Jacob; Gaber, Alexander; Jonsson, Liv; Heby, Margareta; Yudina, Yulyana; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Eberhard, Jakob; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001–2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n = 175) and paired lymph node metastases (n = 105). A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3%) primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4%) lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p = 0.018). Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p<0.001), perineural growth (p = 0.027), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.016), vascular invasion (p = 0.033) and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p = 0.039). In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR = 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71–5.25) and early recurrence (HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.67–4.98). This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.10–3.57). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high

  2. Upregulator of Cell Proliferation Predicts Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Contributes to Hepatocarcinogenesis by Downregulating FOXO3a

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jue-heng; Li, Jun; Yun, Jing-ping; Lai, Jia-ming; Xie, Dong-ying; Lin, Bing-liang; Yuan, Yun-fei; Li, Mengfeng; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential correlation between the expression level of upregulator of cell proliferation (URGCP/URG4) and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to examine the biological function of URGCP/URG4 in the progression of HCC, to better understand its underlying molecular mechanism in hepatic tumorigenesis. Design URGCP/URG4 expression was analyzed in 15 HCC cell lines, in 278 archived paraffin-embedded HCC sections, and in 10 pairs of fresh HCC tumor and para-tumor non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting analysis (WB). The effect of URGCP/URG4 on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis was examined in vitro and in vivo. WB and luciferase reporter analyses were performed to identify the effects of URGCP/URG4-overexpression or -knockdown on expression of cell cycle regulators and transcriptional activity of FOXO3a. Results IHC results revealed an upregulation of URGCP/URG4 in all HCC cell lines and fresh HCC samples as compared with normal liver cells and para-tumor tissues, respectively. URGCP/URG4 was also expressed at a high level in 122 of the 278 (43.8%) archived HCC specimens. The expression level of URGCP/URG4 was significantly correlated with clinical staging and poor patient survival of HCC in the study cohort, and in various clinical subgroups. Strikingly, ectopic expression of URGCP/URG4 induced proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells, while silencing of URGCP/URG4 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, URGCP/URG4 overexpression in HCC cells increased cellular entry into the G1/S transitional phase, associated with downregulation of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 and upregulation of cyclin D1. These effects were accompanied by enhanced Akt activity and reduced FOXO3a transcriptional activity. Conclusions URGCP/URG4 plays an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenesis of HCC and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and

  3. Co-expression of COX-2 and 5-LO in primary glioblastoma is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingfu; Chen, Yupeng; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Lifeng; Liu, Xueyong; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiaoling; Chen, Dayang

    2015-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are important factors in tumorigenesis and malignant progression; however, studies of their roles in glioblastoma have produced conflicting results. To define the frequencies of COX-2 and 5-LO expression and their correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis, tumor tissues from 76 cases of newly diagnosed primary ordinary glioblastoma were examined for COX-2 and 5-LO expression by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of COX-2 and 5-LO and the relationships between the co-expression of COX-2/5-LO and patient age and gender, edema index (EI), Karnofsky Performance Scale and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. COX-2 and 5-LO were expressed in 73.7 % (56/76) and 92.1 % (70/76) of the samples, respectively. Among the clinicopathological characteristics, only age (>60 years) exhibited a significant association with the high expression of COX-2. No statistically significant correlations were found in the 5-LO cohort. A significant positive correlation was revealed between the COX-2 and 5-LO scores (r = 0.374; p = 0.001). The elevated co-expression of COX-2 and 5-LO was observed primarily in the patients over the age of 60 years. Patients with a high expression of COX-2 had a significantly shorter OS (p < 0.01), whereas the immunoexpression of 5-LO was not associated with the OS of patients with glioblastoma. Survival analysis indicated that simultaneous high levels of COX-2 and 5-LO expression were significantly correlated with poor OS and, conversely, that a low/low expression pattern of these two proteins was significantly associated with better OS (p < 0.05). Moreover, the Cox multivariable proportional hazard model showed that a high expression of COX-2, high co-expression of COX-2 and 5-LO, and a high Ki-67 index were significant predictors of shorter OS in primary glioblastoma, independent of age, gender, EI, 5-LO expression and p53 status. The hazard ratios for OS were 2.347 (95 % CI 1

  4. Neuroendocrine-like cells -derived CXCL10 and CXCL11 induce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophage leading to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Xu, He-Yang; Wang, Jie; Chu, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that neuroendocrine differentiation in colorectal cancer is one of the important factors leading to worse prognosis. In this study, we apply immunohistochemical staining, Western-blot, RT-PCR and ELISA to investigate the underlying mechanism that how the neuroendocrine differentiation to affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer. The interaction of colorectal cancer cells, neuroendocrine-like cells and tumor-associated macrophages in colorectal cancer progress is also investigated. By analyzing 82 cases of colorectal cancer patients treated in our institution, we found that colorectal adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation had increasing number of tumor-associated macrophages and worse prognosis. Further evaluation of cytology showed that neuroendocrine cells have the ability to recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate the tumor tissue, and the tumor-associated macrophages enhance the proliferation and invasion abilities of the colon cancer cells. Moreover, we confirmed that CXCL10 and CXCL11 are the key chemokines in neuroendocrine-like cells and they promote the chemotaxis activity of tumor-associated macrophages. The secretion of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by neuroendocrine-like cells can recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate in tumor tissues. The latter enhances the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cell and lead to poor prognosis. PMID:27034164

  5. Aberrant expression of KPNA2 is associated with a poor prognosis and contributes to OCT4 nuclear transportation in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingcheng; Dong, Daoquan; Cheng, Ran; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Shuqi; Zhu, Yuhong; Fan, Longlong; Mao, Xiangming; Gui, Yaoting; Li, Zesong; Li, Xianxin; Shi, Bentao

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) is up-regulated in quite a number of cancers and associated with poor prognosis. Here, we found that expression levels of KPNA2 and OCT4 are up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues and significantly associated with primary tumor stage and bladder cancer patients' poorer prognosis. Our data also showed decreased cell proliferation and migration rates of bladder cancer cell lines when the expression of KPNA2 and OCT4 was silenced. Meanwhile, cell apoptosis rate was increased. Furthermore, Co-IP and immunofluorescence assay showed the KPNA2 interacts with OCT4 and inhibits OCT4 nuclear transportation when KPNA2 was silenced. Thus, we confirmed that up-regulated KPNA2 and OCT4 expression is a common feature of bladder cancer that is correlated with increased aggressive tumor behavior. Also, we propose that KPNA2 regulates the process of OCT4 nuclear transportation in bladder cancer. PMID:27611951

  6. Targeted O-glycoproteomics explored increased sialylation and identified MUC16 as a poor prognosis biomarker in advanced stage bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sofia; Azevedo, Rita; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Ferreira, Dylan; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Manuel; Neves, Diogo; Amaro, Teresina; Cruz, Ricardo; Tavares, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Silva, André M N; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2017-02-03

    Bladder carcinogenesis and tumour progression is accompanied by profound alterations in protein glycosylation on the cell surface, which may be explored for improving disease management. In a search for prognosis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets we have screened, using immunohistochemistry, a series of bladder tumours with differing clinicopathology for short-chain O-glycans commonly found in glycoproteins of human solid tumours. These included the Tn and T antigens and their sialylated counterparts sialyl-Tn(STn) and sialyl-T(ST), which are generally associated with poor prognosis. We have also explored the nature of T antigen sialylation, namely the sialyl-3-T(S3T) and sialyl-6-T(S6T) sialoforms, based on combinations of enzymatic treatments. We observed a predominance of sialoglycans over neutral glycoforms (Tn and T antigens) in bladder tumours. In particular, the STn antigen was associated with high-grade disease and muscle invasion, in accordance with our previous observations. The S3T and S6T antigens were detected for the first time in bladder tumours but not in healthy urothelia, highlighting their cancer-specific nature. These glycans were also overexpressed in advanced lesions, especially in cases showing muscle invasion. Glycoproteomic analyses of advanced bladder tumours based on enzymatic treatments, Vicia Villosa lectin-affinity chromatography enrichment and nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of several key cancer-associated glycoproteins (MUC16, CD44, integrins) carrying altered glycosylation. Of particular interest were MUC16 STn(+) -glycoforms, characteristic of ovarian cancers, which were found in a subset of advanced-stage bladder tumours facing the worst prognosis. In summary, significant alterations in the O-glycome and O-glycoproteome of bladder tumors hold promise for the development of novel non-invasive diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, abnormal MUC16 glycoforms hold potential as

  7. Podocin is translocated to cytoplasm in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis rats and in poor-prognosis patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hiromitsu; Hidaka, Teruo; Takagi-Akiba, Miyuki; Ichimura, Koichiro; Oliva Trejo, Juan Alejandro; Sasaki, Yu; Wang, Juan; Sakai, Tatsuo; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2015-05-01

    Podocytes serve as the final barrier to urinary protein loss through a highly specialized structure called a slit membrane and maintain foot process and glomerular basement membranes. Podocyte injury results in progressive glomerular damage and accelerates sclerotic changes, although the exact mechanism of podocyte injury is still obscure. We focus on the staining gap (podocin gap) defined as the staining difference between podocin and synaptopodin, which are normally located in the foot process. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis rats, the podocin gap is significantly increased (p < 0.05) and podocin is translocated to the cytoplasm on days 7 and 14 but not on day 28. Surprisingly, the gap is also significantly increased (p < 0.05) in human kidney biopsy specimens of poor-prognosis IgA nephropathy patients. This suggests that the podocin gap could be a useful marker for classifying the prognosis of IgA nephropathy and indicating the translocation of podocin to the cytoplasm. Next, we find more evidence of podocin trafficking in podocytes where podocin merges with Rab5 in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis rats at day 14. In immunoelectron microscopy, the podocin positive area was significantly translocated from the foot process areas to the cytoplasm (p< 0.05) on days 7 and 14 in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis rats. Interestingly, podocin is also translocated to the cytoplasm in poor-prognosis human IgA nephropathy. In this paper, we demonstrate that the translocation of podocin by endocytosis could be a key traffic event of critical podocyte injury and that the podocin gap could indicate the prognosis of IgA nephropathy.

  8. The coexpression of EphB4 and EphrinB2 is associated with poor prognosis in HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuelu; Song, Chen; Huang, Gena; Sun, Siwen; Qiao, Jingjing; Zhao, Jinbo; Zhao, Zuowei; Li, Man

    2017-01-01

    Objective HER2 overexpression is associated with aggressive phenotypes in breast cancer, including increased tumor proliferation, greater invasiveness, and reduced overall survival. The overall response rate to HER2-targeted therapies remains <30%. There is an urgent need for the identification of efficient markers to predict patients with a poor prognosis. This study was designed to investigate the correlation between EphB4 and EphrinB2 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of HER2-positive breast cancer. Materials and methods A total of 111 primary HER2-positive breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study (diagnosed since December 2005 to November 2010 from the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University). The protein expression of EphB4 and EphrinB2 was examined by immunohistochemistry using paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. Results There was a significant correlation between EphB4 and EphrinB2 expression (P=0.013, r=0.255). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the prognosis of patients with a high expression of both EphB4 and EphrinB2 was significantly worse than the prognosis of patients with either EphB4 or EphrinB2 expression and patients with negative expression (hazard ratio [HR] =1.935, P=0.0224). However, high expression of EphB4 or EphrinB2 alone was not an independent prognostic factor to predict worse overall survival. To summarize, HER2-positive breast cancer patients with overexpression of both EphB4 and EphrinB2 were associated with the worst prognosis. Conclusion High expression of EphB4 and EphrinB2 correlated with poor overall survival, which can serve as an independent prognostic indicator in primary HER2-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:28356761

  9. Circulating Levels of PAI-1 and SERPINE1 4G/4G Polymorphism Are Predictive of Poor Prognosis in HCC Patients Undergoing TACE1

    PubMed Central

    Divella, Rosa; Daniele, Antonella; Abbate, Ines; Savino, Eufemia; Casamassima, Porzia; Sciortino, Giancarlo; Simone, Giovanni; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Fazio, Vito; Gadaleta, Cosimo Damiano; Sabbà, Carlo; Mazzocca, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although several molecular markers have been proposed as prognostic of disease progression in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), predictive markers of response to treatment are still unsatisfactory. Here, we propose a genetic polymorphism as a potential predictive factor of poor prognosis in HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). In particular, we show that the guanosine insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of SERPINE1 gene at the − 675 bp position, named 4G/4G, predicts poor prognosis in a cohort of 75 patients with HCC undergoing TACE. By a combination of ELISA and SERPINE1 promoter study, we found that the presence of elevated plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in patients with 4G/4G genotype is significantly associated with reduced overall survival compared to patients with 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotype in HCC patients after TACE. Our analysis provided evidence that variation in SERPINE1 gene plays a role in defining the outcome in patients treated with TACE. In addition to a poor disease outcome, the 4G/4G variant represents an unfavorable predictive factor for response to chemotherapy as well. PMID:26310373

  10. Circulating Levels of PAI-1 and SERPINE1 4G/4G Polymorphism Are Predictive of Poor Prognosis in HCC Patients Undergoing TACE.

    PubMed

    Divella, Rosa; Daniele, Antonella; Abbate, Ines; Savino, Eufemia; Casamassima, Porzia; Sciortino, Giancarlo; Simone, Giovanni; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Fazio, Vito; Gadaleta, Cosimo Damiano; Sabbà, Carlo; Mazzocca, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Although several molecular markers have been proposed as prognostic of disease progression in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), predictive markers of response to treatment are still unsatisfactory. Here, we propose a genetic polymorphism as a potential predictive factor of poor prognosis in HCC patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). In particular, we show that the guanosine insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of SERPINE1 gene at the -675 bp position, named 4G/4G, predicts poor prognosis in a cohort of 75 patients with HCC undergoing TACE. By a combination of ELISA and SERPINE1 promoter study, we found that the presence of elevated plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in patients with 4G/4G genotype is significantly associated with reduced overall survival compared to patients with 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotype in HCC patients after TACE. Our analysis provided evidence that variation in SERPINE1 gene plays a role in defining the outcome in patients treated with TACE. In addition to a poor disease outcome, the 4G/4G variant represents an unfavorable predictive factor for response to chemotherapy as well. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single high-dose etoposide and melphalan with non-cryopreserved autologous marrow rescue as primary therapy for relapsed, refractory and poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, L. K.; Dansey, R. D.; Bezwoda, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    A simplified schedule of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) consisting of melphalan (140 mg m-2) plus VP16 (2.5 g m-2) given over 12-18 h together with autologous non-cryopreserved autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT) was used for treatment of relapsed (37 patients) and refractory (seven patients) patients and as first-line treatment (four patients) for poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease. Two patients had a second HDC-ABMT after relapse following prior HDC-ABMT, giving a total of 50 procedures among 48 patients. The haematological recovery rate was 98% with a complete response rate of the Hodgkin's disease of > 90%. Factors significantly influencing response rate were performance status and the presence of liver involvement. Thirty-nine patients are alive, with 37 in continuous complete remission. The median duration of survival and median duration of remission have not been reached at a median follow-up time of 45 months. Adverse prognostic factors for survival were disease status at the time of HDC-ABMT (refractory versus relapse, with primarily refractory patients showing significantly poor survival) and the presence of liver involvement. High-dose chemotherapy with short-duration chemotherapy and non-cryopreserved bone marrow is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with relapsed and poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease. PMID:8080741

  12. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: a case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Merel R; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Habbema, J Dik F

    2008-01-01

    Background Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to define the treatment threshold for more aggressive treatment. This approach is illustrated by a case study in advanced testicular cancer, where patients with a high risk of mortality under standard treatment may be eligible for high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support, which is currently defined by the IGCC classification. Methods We used published literature to estimate the benefit and harm of high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) versus standard-dose chemotherapy (SD-CT) for patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell cancer. Benefit and harm were defined as the reduction and increase in absolute risk of mortality due to HD-CT respectively. Harm included early and late treatment related death, and treatment related morbidity (weighted by 'utility'). Results We considered a conservative and an optimistic benefit of 30 and 40% risk reduction respectively. We estimated the excess treatment related mortality at 2%. When treatment related morbidity was taken into account, the harm of HD-CT increased to 5%. With a relative benefit of 30% and harm of 2 or 5%, HD-CT might be beneficial for patients with over 7 or 17% risk of cancer specific mortality with SD chemotherapy, while with a relative benefit of 40% HD-CT was beneficial over 5 and 12.5% risk respectively. Compared to the IGCC classification 14% of the patients would receive more aggressive treatment, and 2% less intensive treatment. Conclusion Benefit and harm can be used to define 'poor prognosis' explicitly for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients who are considered for high-dose chemotherapy. This approach can readily be adapted to new results and extended to other cancers to define candidates for more aggressive

  13. Increased ΔNp63 expression is predictive of malignant transformation in oral epithelial dysplasia and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Ryota; Kawano, Shintaro; Kiyosue, Takahiro; Goto, Yuichi; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Jinno, Teppei; Toyoshima, Takeshi; Kitamura, Ryoji; Oobu, Kazunari; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-12-01

    This study examined immunohistochemical expression of ΔNp63, a keratinocyte stem cell marker, in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and then to elucidate usefulness of ΔNp63 as a marker for diagnosis and prognosis. One-hundred and twelve cases of OL and 81 cases of OSCC were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for ΔNp63, Ki-67, and cytokeratin 14. These labeling indices (LIs) were calculated, and the association of these LIs with clinicopathologic characteristics in the OL and OSCC was evaluated. In the OL, these LIs increased significantly according to the severity of epithelial dysplasia (p<0.0001). ΔNp63-LI in the OL with malignant transformation was significantly higher than that in the OL without (49.3 vs. 34.2%; p<0.01). In the OSCC, the LIs increased significantly in association with the histologic grade (p<0.0001). A significant difference between the high and low ΔNp63-LI groups was found in the incidence of cervical lymph node and distant metastasis (p<0.05). The prognosis of the high ΔNp63-LI (mean value >73.8%) group is poorer than that of the low ΔNp63-LI (mean value ≤73.8%) group (p<0.05). These results suggested that increased ΔNp63 expression is involved in malignant transformation in epithelial dysplasia and poor prognosis in OSCC.

  14. High expression of HO-1 predicts poor prognosis of ovarian cancer patients and promotes proliferation and aggressiveness of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Xu, Y; Lu, J; Xue, J; Liu, P

    2017-08-14

    HO-1 has been proved to be associated with tumor aggressivity and poor prognosis in various cancers. Our study provides the first study to demonstrate the relationship of HO-1 expression and clinical characteristics in ovarian cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to examine the expression of HO-1 in tissue species and fresh tissues. CCK-8 was used to investigate cell viability. Transwell chamber was performed to estimate migration and invasion capacities in A2780 and Skov-3 cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that the expression of HO-1 was higher in ovarian cancer tissues than normal ovarian tissues. High expression of HO-1 was significantly associated with serous ovarian cancer, high FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis, and non-optimal debulking. Patients with high expression of HO-1 exhibited an unfavorable prognosis. In vitro inducing the expression of HO-1 promoted the proliferation and metastasis of A2780 and Skov-3 cells, with the increased expressions of mesenchymal marker (Vimentin), epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated transcript factor (Zeb-1), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2), and the decreased expressions of epithelial marker (Keratin) and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax). Meanwhile, after incubating A2780 and Skov-3 together with HO-1 inhibitor, above results could be reversed. HO-1 might be a potential marker for prediction of ovarian cancer prognosis and a target for ovarian cancer treatment.

  15. High leukocyte mtDNA content contributes to poor prognosis through ROS-mediated immunosuppression in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Xingchun; Chen, Yibing; Guo, Xu; Li, Jibin; Huang, Qichao; Yang, Yefa; Lyu, Zhuomin; Zhang, Hongxin; Xing, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    Compelling epidemiological evidences indicate a significant association between leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and incidence risk of several malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether leukocyte mtDNA content affect prognosis of HCC patients and underlying mechanism has never been explored. In our study, leukocyte mtDNA content was measured in 618 HCC patients and its prognostic value was analyzed. Moreover, we detected the immunophenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma concentrations of several cytokines in 40 HCC patients and assessed the modulating effects of mtDNA content on immunosuppression in cell models. Our results showed that HCC patients with high leukocyte mtDNA content exhibited a significantly worse recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those with low leukocyte mtDNA content. Leukocyte mtDNA content and TNM stage exhibited a notable joint effect in prognosis prediction. Furthermore, we found that patients with high leukocyte mtDNA content exhibited a higher frequency of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and lower frequency of NK cells in PBMCs and had higher TGF-β1 and lower TNF-α and IFN-γ plasma concentration when compared with those with low leukocyte mtDNA content, which suggests an immunosuppressive status. High leukocyte mtDNA content significantly enhanced the ROS-mediated secretion of TGF-β1, which accounted for higher Treg and lower NK frequency in PBMCs. In a conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrates that leukocyte mtDNA content is an independent prognostic marker complementing TNM stage and associated with an ROS-mediated immunosuppressive phenotype in HCC patients. PMID:26985767

  16. Acetylcholine-Provoked Coronary Spasm at Site of Significant Organic Stenosis Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients With Coronary Vasospastic Angina.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Masanobu; Kaikita, Koichi; Sato, Koji; Tanaka, Tomoko; Sugamura, Koichi; Sakamoto, Kenji; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Soejima, Hirofumi; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-09-08

    Coronary artery spasm contributes to the pathogenesis of variant angina and ischemic heart disease and may play a role in the progression of atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the location of spasm is related to outcome. This study compared the clinical features and prognosis of patients with coronary spasm at the site of significant atherosclerotic stenosis with patients with spasm at sites without stenosis or nonsignificant stenosis. This was a retrospective, observational study of 1,877 consecutive patients with typical or atypical angina-like chest pain undergoing acetylcholine (ACh)-provocation testing. A total of 1,760 patients were eligible for analysis. ACh-provoked coronary spasm and significant organic stenosis were observed in 873 and 358 patients, respectively. In patients with significant atherosclerotic stenosis, ACh-positive patients (n = 233) were younger and without diabetes mellitus compared with nonspasm patients (n = 125). In patients without organic stenosis, ACh-positive patients (n = 640) were older, had dyslipidemia, and were more likely to have a family history of ischemic heart disease than nonspasm patients (n = 762). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified ST-segment elevation during anginal attacks, organic stenosis of the left anterior descending artery, and multivessel spasm as correlates of spasm at sites of significant organic stenosis (n = 192). Multivariate analysis identified ACh-provoked spasm at the site of significant stenosis and use of nitrates as the 2 prognostic factors for major adverse cardiac events. The clinical features and prognosis of patients with ACh-provoked coronary spasm were different when it occurred at the site of significant atherosclerotic stenosis compared with patients with spasm elsewhere. Both spasm at the site of significant organic stenosis and nitrate use were significant predictors of major adverse cardiac events. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  17. Increased expression of αTubulin is associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer after surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao; Zhao, Guo-chao; Xu, Ya-dong; Wang, Dan-song; Jin, Da-yong; Ji, Yuan; Lou, Wen-hui; Wu, Wen-chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background αTubulin, the essential orchestrator of cytoskeletal protein polymers, critical for cell growth and division, motility, signaling development and maintenance of cell shape, plays vital roles in the oncogenesis and progression of various types of cancer, but its role in prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate its prognostic value in patients with pancreatic cancer after surgical resection. Results αTubulin expression in pancreatic cancer was significantly associated with N classification (p = 0.013) and TNM stage (p = 0.025). Increased expression of αTubulin in tumoral tissue was associated with decreased overall survival rate (p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that αTubulin expression was an independent prognostic indicator for pancreatic cancer except for T and N classification (p = 0.002). Using multivariate analysis, αTubulin expression, CA19-9, and N classification were selected to generate the nomogram to predict the 1-year and 3-year overall survival. The c-index of this model was 0.692. The calibration curve for probability of survival showed good agreement between prediction by nomogram and actual observation. Methods αTubulin expression was evaluated by tissue microarrays from 124 pancreatic cancer patients and statistically assessed for correlations with the clinical profiles and the prognosis of the patients with pancreatic cancer. The prognostic nomogram was designed to predict 1-year and 3-year overall survival probability. Conclusions αTubulin expression might be an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer after surgical resection and could potentially be a high-priority therapeutic target. Incorporating αTubulin expression into CA19-9 and N classification can provide a good prognostic model. PMID:27447976

  18. High Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and NF-κB Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiwang; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Xiaojuan; Feng, Chan; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yonglin; Lin, Yun; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-11

    BACKGROUND SDF-1 and NF-κB are associated with the prognosis of a wide range of cancers, but their value in cervical cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer and their significance in clinical prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in 105 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival times (OS) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS The expression level of both SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer are higher than that in the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). SDF-1 expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade (P<0.05). NF-κB expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) status (P<0.05). The patients with a positive expression of SDF-1or NF-κB tended to have much shorter survival time than patients with negative expression. In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression and lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of the OS in cervical cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS The expression of SDF-1 is significantly associated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade. The expression of NF-κB is significantly associated with tumor size, FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis. The positive SDF-1or NF-κB expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis. These may be valuable biomarkers for the prognosis and the potential therapeutic targets of cervical cancer.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha gene are associated with an increasing risk and a poor prognosis of sporadic renal cell carcinoma in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Eijiro; Megumi, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Ishitoya, Satoshi; Terachi, Toshiro; Tachibana, Mitsuhiro; Matsushiro, Hisanori; Habuchi, Tomonori; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu

    2002-08-01

    It has been suggested that the immune system of the host may be capable of modulating the clinical course of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. In fact, the amount of Th2 cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 in the serum of patients has been found to be an important predictor of poor prognosis. Recently, it was reported that genetic polymorphisms of the IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Ralpha) gene affect the strength of signaling through the receptor. In addition, these same polymorphisms were found to be associated with an increased risk of atopy by causing Th2-dominated responses of the host. The significance of the polymorphisms on the incidence and prognosis in sporadic RCC patients were examined to clarify the role of IL-4 as well as that of the Th1/Th2 immune system in this disease. A case-control study was performed with 143 sporadic RCCs in a Japanese population and 205 Japanese controls. Logistic regression models were also used to assess the genetic effects on prognosis. The frequencies of variant alleles that enhance signaling of IL-4 were significantly related to an increased risk of RCC. Furthermore, multivariate regression analysis showed that the genotype of the IL-4R gene was an independent prognostic factor for cause-specific survival (P = 0.018) together with M classification (P = 0.0002) and histopathological grade (P = 0.044). The present findings show that the preferential Th2-type response to tumors was associated with a poorer prognosis and suggest that polymorphisms of the IL-4Ralpha gene may serve as useful genetic markers for assessing the risk of the development and progression of RCC.

  20. High Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and NF-κB Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiwang; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Xiaojuan; Feng, Chan; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yonglin; Lin, Yun; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Background SDF-1 and NF-κB are associated with the prognosis of a wide range of cancers, but their value in cervical cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer and their significance in clinical prognosis. Material/Methods The expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in 105 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival times (OS) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The expression level of both SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer are higher than that in the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). SDF-1 expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade (P<0.05). NF-κB expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) status (P<0.05). The patients with a positive expression of SDF-1or NF-κB tended to have much shorter survival time than patients with negative expression. In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression and lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of the OS in cervical cancer patients. Conclusions The expression of SDF-1 is significantly associated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade. The expression of NF-κB is significantly associated with tumor size, FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis. The positive SDF-1or NF-κB expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis. These may be valuable biomarkers for the prognosis and the potential therapeutic targets of cervical cancer. PMID:28074045

  1. RAC1b overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in KRAS/BRAF WT metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line FOLFOX/XELOX chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Alonso, Vicente; Escudero, Pilar; Marmol, Maribel; Horndler, Carlos; Ortego, Javier; Gallego, Rosa; Codony-Servat, Jordi; Garcia-Albeniz, Xabier; Jares, Pedro; Castells, Antoni; Lozano, Juan José; Rosell, Rafael; Maurel, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Chemotherapy is the principal treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. RAC1b, a RAC1 spliced variant, is over-expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), and impairs apoptosis by activation of nuclear-factor-KB. Since RAC1b has been associated with the BRAF(V600E) mutation, associated with poor prognosis in CRC, we evaluated the role of RAC1b expression as a predictor of chemotherapy efficacy in mCRC. We analysed KRAS and BRAF mutation, microsatellite instability and RAC1b expression in 157 mCRC patients treated with FOLFOX/XELOX in first-line therapy. KRAS mutations were detected in 46 patients (34%), 10 patients were BRAF mutant (7%) and 79 were WT for both, KRAS and BRAF (59%). RAC1b overexpression was found in 30 patients (19%). In the multivariate analysis, BRAF mutational status was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS); hazard ratio (HR), 2.78 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-5.72; p=0.0057). RAC1b overexpression was a poor survival factor for OS (HR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.2-4.59; p=0.01) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.78; p=0.01) in KRAS/BRAF WT mCRC patients. RAC1b overexpression constitutes a marker of poor prognosis in KRAS/BRAF WT mCRC patients treated with first-line FOLFOX/XELOX therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of Ran GTPase Components Regulating Nuclear Export, but not Mitotic Spindle Assembly, Marks Chromosome Instability and Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Srividya; Thangavelu, Pulari U; Duijf, Pascal H G

    2016-10-01

    Ran GTPase regulates nuclear import, nuclear export, and mitotic spindle assembly. The multifunctional involvement of seventeen Ran GTPase components in these processes has complicated research into how each contributes to cancer development. To assess whether individual and process-specific misexpression of Ran GTPase components contribute to chromosome instability (CIN) and worsen breast cancer patient prognosis. Using publicly available datasets, we studied the degree of misexpression of all Ran GTPase signaling components in breast cancer, assessed their involvement in CIN and used four clinical tests to evaluate whether their misregulation may constitute independent prognostic predictors. A significant majority of Ran GTPase signaling components is overexpressed in breast cancer. Strikingly, spindle assembly components are overexpressed and associated with CIN with only marginal significance and four independent tests indicate that this does not worsen patient outcome. Overexpression of nuclear import components is neither CIN-associated nor clinically significant. In sharp contrast, overexpression of nuclear export components constitutes a strong independent marker for both CIN and poor patient prognosis. We identify Exportin 2/CSE1L, Exportin 3/XPOT, Exportin 5/XPO5, and RANBP1 as novel potential targets. We find that overexpression of Ran GTPase components involved in nuclear export, but not nuclear import or mitotic spindle assembly, is a strong CIN-associated marker for poor breast cancer prognosis. This could mean that increased nuclear export (of, for instance, pRb, p53, p73, BRCA1, p21, p27, E2F4, IκB, survivin), rather than spindle defects, mainly drives CIN and tumorigenesis. Hence, selective inhibitors of nuclear export may be effective for treating the most aggressive and chromosomally unstable breast cancers.

  3. Sole rearrangement but not amplification of MYC is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma and B cell lymphoma unclassifiable

    PubMed Central

    Landsburg, Daniel; Falkiewicz, Marissa; Petrich, Adam; Chu, Benjamin; Behdad, Amir; Li, Shaoying; Medeiros, L.; Cassaday, Ryan; Reddy, Nishitha; Bast, Martin; Vose, Julie; Kruczek, Kimberly; Smith, Scott; Patel, Priyank; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Karmali, Reem; Rajguru, Saurabh; Yang, David; Maly, Joseph; Blum, Kristie; Zhao, Weiqiang; VanSlambrouck, Charles; Nabhan, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Rearrangement of MYC is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and B cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU), particularly in the setting of double hit lymphoma (DHL). Yet, little is known about outcomes of patients who demonstrate MYC rearrangement without evidence of BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangement (single hit) or amplification (>4 copies) of MYC. We identified 87 patients with single hit lymphoma (SHL), 22 patients with MYC-amplified lymphoma (MYC amp) as well as 127 DLBCL patients without MYC rearrangement or amplification (MYC normal) and 45 patients with double hit lymphoma (DHL), all treated with either R-CHOP or intensive induction therapy. For SHL and MYC amp patients, the 2 year progression free survival rate (2yPFS) was 49% and 48% and 2 year overall survival rate (2yOS) was 59% and 71%, respectively. SHL patients receiving intensive induction experienced higher 2yPFS (59% vs. 23%, P=0.006) but similar 2yOS as compared with SHL patients receiving R-CHOP. SHL DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP, but not intensive induction, experienced significantly lower 2yPFS and 2yOS (p<0.001 for both) when compared with MYC normal patients. SHL patients appear to have a poor prognosis, which may be improved with receipt of intensive induction. PMID:27469075

  4. High expression of CD147 and MMP-9 is correlated with poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu; Ma, Wenjie; Zhang, Minghui; Tang, Dabei; Shi, Qingtao; Xu, Shanqi; Zhang, Xiaosan; Liu, Yupeng; Song, Ying; Liu, Leyuan; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate expression of CD147 and MMP-9 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) so as to determine whether these two proteins may be correlated with poor prognosis of TNBC patients. We examined the expression levels of the CD147 and MMP-9 in 127 patients with TNBC and 30 patients with mammary gland fibroma using immunohistochemical staining before any treatments. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between the expression of these two proteins and various clinicopathologic factors including survival status of patients with TNBC. Positive stain of CD147 and MMP-9 was observed in all samples of TNBC. A statistically positive correlation was observed between the expression levels of CD147 and MMP-9 in TNBC tissues. The incidences of high expression were 48.0 % for CD147 and 53.5 % for MMP-9 in 127 TNBC tissues, respectively. High expression of either CD147 or MMP-9 was significantly correlated with clinical feature and shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P(CD147) = 0.039; P(MMP-9) = 0.017) and overall survival (OS) (P(CD147) = 0.037; P(MMP-9) = 0.023). The expression levels of CD147 and MMP-9 are positively correlated with invasion, metastasis and shorter PFS/OS of TNBC. Patients with high expression of CD147 and MMP-9 had poor prognosis than TNBC patients with low expression.

  5. Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone is a Poor Prognosis Marker of Head and Neck Cancer and Promotes Cell Growth via RUNX2 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Min; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Su, Chia-Yi; Peng, Hsuan-Yu; Chang, Yu-Chan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chen, Chi-Long; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Hsiao, Michael; Shiah, Shine-Gwo

    2017-01-01

    Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone (PTHLH) is an autocrine/paracrine ligand that is up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the cellular function and regulatory mechanism in HNSCC remains obscure. We investigated the clinical significance of PTHLH in HNSCC patients, and verified the role of RUNX2/PTHLH axis, which is stimulated HNSCC cell growth. In patients, PTHLH is a poor prognosis marker. PTHLH expression lead to increasing the cell proliferation potential through an autocrine/paracrine role and elevating blood calcium level in Nod-SCID mice. In public HNSCC microarray cohorts, PTHLH is found to be co-expressed with RUNX2. Physiologically, PTHLH is regulated by RUNX2 and also acting as key calcium regulator. However, elevations of calcium concentration also increased the RUNX2 expression. PTHLH, calcium, and RUNX2 form a positive feedback loop in HNSCC. Furthermore, ectopic RUNX2 expression also increased PTHLH expression and promoted proliferation potential through PTHLH expression. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we found PTHLH also stimulated expression of cell cycle regulators, namely CCNA2, CCNE2, and CDC25A in HNSCC cells, and these genes are also up-regulated in HNSCC patients. In summary, our results reveal that PTHLH expression is a poor prognosis marker in HNSCC patients, and RUNX2-PTHLH axis contributes to HNSCC tumor growth. PMID:28120940

  6. DNMT3A R882 Mutations Predict a Poor Prognosis in AML: A Meta-Analysis From 4474 Patients.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Qing; Peng, Li; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Bin-Yuan; Li, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-05-01

    DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) mutations were widely believed to be independently associated with inferior prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. As dominant missense alterations in DNMT3A mutations, R882 mutations cause the focal hypomethylation phenotype. However, there remains debate on the influence of R882 mutations on AML prognosis. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed at further illustrating the prognostic power of DNMT3A R882 mutations in AML patients.Eligible studies were identified from 5 databases containing PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Library (up to October 25, 2015). Effects (hazard ratios [HRs] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were pooled to estimate the prognostic power of mutant DNMT3A R882 in overall patients and subgroups of AML patients.Eight competent studies with 4474 AML patients including 694 with DNMT3A R882 mutations were included. AML patients with DNMT3A R882 mutations showed significant shorter RFS (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.24-1.59, P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.17-1.86, P = 0.001) in the overall population. DNMT3A R882 mutations predicted worse RFS and OS among the subgroups of patients under age 60 (RFS: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.25-1.66, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15-1.90, P = 0.002), over age 60 (RFS: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.40-2.93, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.53, P < 0.001), cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML (RFS: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.26-1.83, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.16-2.41, P = 0.006), and non-CN-AML (RFS: HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20-3.21, P = 0.006; OS: HR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.52-4.15, P = 0.0038).DNMT3A R882 mutations possessed significant unfavorable prognostic influence on RFS and OS in AML patients.

  7. Signet ring cell colorectal carcinoma: a distinct subset of mucin-poor microsatellite-stable signet ring cell carcinoma associated with dismal prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J; Nikiforova, Marina N; Chang, Daniel T; Chu, Edward; Bahary, Nathan; Brand, Randall E; Zureikat, Amer H; Zeh, Herbert J; Choudry, Haroon; Pai, Reetesh K

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated a consecutive series of signet ring cell colorectal carcinomas in an attempt to correlate the histopathologic pattern of infiltration with molecular alterations and prognosis. Of the 4760 primary colorectal carcinomas surgically resected between the years 2002 and 2012, 53 (1%) were composed of >50% signet ring cells. Of the 53 signet ring cell carcinomas, 40 (75%) were composed of >50% extracellular mucin with signet ring cells floating within pools of mucin and were subclassified as mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas. Thirteen (25%) carcinomas were characterized by diffusely infiltrating carcinomas with minimal to no extracellular mucin and were subclassified as mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas. All 13 mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas were either stage III or IV, whereas many cases of mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma were stage I or II (17 cases) (P=0.005). Compared with mucin-rich tumors, mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinomas more frequently demonstrated adverse histologic features such as lymphatic invasion (13/13, 100% vs. 22/40, 55%; P=0.002), venous invasion (6/13, 46% vs. 3/40, 8%; P=0.004), and perineural invasion (11/13, 85% vs. 9/40, 23%; P=0.0001). Twenty-three of 53 (43%) signet ring cell carcinomas demonstrated high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Twenty-two of 23 (96%) MSI-H signet ring cell carcinomas were mucin rich; only 1 MSI-H signet ring carcinoma was mucin poor (P=0.0033). Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had significantly reduced overall and recurrence-free survival compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinomas (P=0.0035 and 0.0001, respectively), even when adjusting for tumor stage. Mucin-poor signet ring cell carcinoma had a higher propensity for peritoneal dissemination (5/13, 38%) compared with mucin-rich signet ring cell carcinoma (5/40, 12.5%), although this was not statistically significant (P=0.052). Finally, MSI-H and microsatellite-stable signet ring cell carcinomas had

  8. High expression of CTHRC1 promotes EMT of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Shanyang; Li, Yang; Pan, Yunping; Feng, Chongjin; Chen, Xinlin; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Millicent; Wang, Liantang; Ke, Zunfu

    2015-01-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1) is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple malignant tumors. However, the expression characteristics and function of CTHRC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain unclear. We found that CTHRC1 expression was up-regulated in the paraffin-embedded EOC tissues compared to borderline or benign tumor tissues. CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (p = 0.008), menopause (p = 0.037), clinical stage (p = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) and was also an important prognostic factor for the overall survival of EOC patients, as revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTHRC1 increased the invasive capabilities of EOC cells in vitro by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We showed that ectopic transfection of CTHRC1 in EOC cells up-regulated the expression of EMT markers such as N-cadherin and vimentin, and EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail. Knockdown of CTHRC1 expression in EOC cells resulted in down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and translocation of β-catenin. Collectively, CTHRC1 may promote EOC metastasis through the induction of EMT process and serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis as well as a target for therapy. PMID:26452130

  9. Vicious circle of acute radiation toxicities and weight loss predicts poor prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Jiang, Xiong-ying; Qiu, Bo; Shen, Lu-Jun; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight loss during radiotherapy has been known as a negative prognostic factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, but the factors related to weight loss during radiotherapy were not fully understood. Methods: A total of 322 newly diagnosed NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between June 2002 and August 2006 were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank test were applied for survival analysis; a multiple regression was used to identify the factors related to weight loss during radiotherapy. Results: The mean and median values of weight loss (%) during radiotherapy were 6.85% and 6.70%. NPC patients with critical weight loss (> 5.4%) have poorer overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) than the patients without critical weight loss (p = 0.002 and 0.021, respectively). Pre-radiotherapy weight, acute mucosal toxicity, acute pharynx and esophagus toxicity, and acute upper gastrointestinal toxicity were related to the weight loss during radiotherapy independently (p = 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, respectively). Conclusions: Acute radiation toxicities had significant and independent impact on weight loss during radiotherapy. The vicious circle of acute radiation toxicities and weight loss had bad effect on prognosis of NPC patients. PMID:28382146

  10. High expression of microRNA-454 is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Ni; Liu, Yi-Rong; Hu, Xin; Song, Chuan-Gui; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-454 (miR-454) has been reported to play an oncogenic or tumor suppressor role in most cancers. However, the clinical relevance of miR-454 in breast cancer remains unclear. We examined the expression of miR-454 in a tissue microarray containing 534 breast cancer specimens from female patients at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center using in situ hybridization (ISH). Of these, 250 patients formed the training set and the other 284 were the validation set. The relationship between miR-454 and clinical outcome was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. High expression of miR-454 indicated worse disease-free survival (DFS) in both cohorts (P = 0.006 for training set; P = 0.010 for validation set). Furthermore, in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, miR-454 was positively correlated with worse clinical outcome (P = 0.013 for training set, P = 0.014 for validation set). In addition, patients in the low miR-454 expression cohort had better response to anthracycline compared to non-anthracycline chemotherapy (P = 0.056), but this difference was not observed in the high miR-454 expression cohort. Our findings indicated that miR-454 is a potential predictor of prognosis and chemotherapy response in TNBC. PMID:27588500

  11. Upregulation of MAGEA4 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Zi-Hao; Yang, Tong-Xin; Wang, Han-Jin; Cao, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common type of cancer in the People’s Republic of China. Many genes have been reported to be linked with it. Melanoma antigen gene family A (MAGEA) genes are frequently highly expressed in various types of carcinoma. However, the specific role of MAGEA gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remains unclear. MAGEA4 is a member of MAGEA genes. We aimed to investigate the expression and prognosis of MAGEA4 expression in ESCC. MAGEA4 messenger RNA expression levels of 120 pairs of tumor and nontumor tissues of patients with ESCC were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly elevated in tumor tissues of patients with ESCC compared to nontumor ones. In addition, overexpression of MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (P=0.018) in early stage of patients with ESCC (I–IIA). In conclusion, MAGEA4 played an important role in the early stage of ESCC and overexpression of MAGEA4 was expected to become a potential prognostic marker for patients with early stage of ESCC. PMID:27478386

  12. Low expression of olfactomedin 4 correlates with poor prognosis in smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenmei; Luo, Liang; Wu, Fenping; Lai, Zhennan; Li, Xiaofang; Xie, Zhong; Tang, Zhi; Yang, Zhixiong; Liang, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) has been demonstrated to serve an important function in tumor progression. This study aims to analyze the correlation between OLFM4 expression and clinicopathological features and the prognostic significance of OLFM4 in the context of smoking status of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 218 NSCLC patients, who were histopathologically diagnosed from 2001 to 2013, were reviewed in the study. OLFM4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples. The association of OLFM4 with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Overall survival and disease-specific survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that OLFM4 was highly expressed in 64.2% of NSCLC patients. OLFM4 expression level in NSCLC lesions was strongly correlated with pathologic grade (P = .017), lymph node metastasis (P = .012), peritumor intravascular cancer emboli (P = .03), and smoking status (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that, among smoking patients, those with low OLFM4 expression had shorter survival time (overall survival and disease-specific survival) than those with high OLFM4 (P < .05). Conclusively, although low OLFM4 expression is not an independent prognostic biomarker, it might indicate worse prognosis for smoking patients with NSCLC, thereby identifying patients who might benefit from targeting OLFM4 therapy.

  13. Increased expression of MUC3A is associated with poor prognosis in localized clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zewei; Fu, Hangcheng; Xu, Jiejie; Liu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    MUC3A is a membrane-associated mucin that recent evidence reveals the role of MUC3A in pathogenesis and progression of cancers. To evaluate the association between MUC3A expression with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with localized clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), we retrospectively detected MUC3A expression in samples of 384 postoperative localized ccRCC patients by immunohistochemistry. Median follow-up was 73 months (range: 42 – 74 mo). Overall, 41 patients died, 47 experienced recurrence. High MUC3A expression occurred in 45.8% of localized ccRCC cases, which was significantly associated with high pT-stage, high Fuhrman grade, high frequency of necrosis and LVI, and increased risk of recurrence and death (Logrank test P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis, MUC3A expression was confirmed as an adverse independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS. The prognostic accuracy of UISS, SSIGN, Leibovich models was significantly increased when MUC3A expression was integrated. Meanwhile, MUC3A was enrolled into a newly built nomogram with other factors selected by multivariate analysis. Calibration curves revealed optimal consistency between observations and prognosis. In conclusion, high MUC3A expression is an adverse prognostic biomarker for OS and RFS in postoperative localized ccRCC patients. PMID:27374181

  14. Co-expression of CXCL8 and HIF-1α is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Peng; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Biskup, Ewelina; Zhou, Jiang; Li, Hong-Liang; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Ming-Liang; Xu, Feng

    2015-09-08

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), induces cytokines such as CXCL8 and tumor dissemination, chemo- and radio-resistance. We analyzed correlation between HIF-1α and CXCL8 levels, tumor characteristics and overall survival in 102 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 were increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Patients with high levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 had worse outcome and poorer prognosis than those with lower levels. Co-overexpression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 was an independent negative prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival. HIF-1α silencing and CXCL8 siRNA decreased migration under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Hypoxia-induced activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3 pathways was reversed by depletion of CXCL8. We conclude that HIF-1α and CXCL8 induce HCC progression and metastasis, associated with activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3. Co-expression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  15. Co-expression of CXCL8 and HIF-1α is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xian-Peng; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Biskup, Ewelina; Zhou, Jiang; Li, Hong-Liang; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Ming-Liang; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), induces cytokines such as CXCL8 and tumor dissemination, chemo- and radio-resistance. We analyzed correlation between HIF-1α and CXCL8 levels, tumor characteristics and overall survival in 102 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 were increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Patients with high levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 had worse outcome and poorer prognosis than those with lower levels. Co-overexpression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 was an independent negative prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival. HIF-1α silencing and CXCL8 siRNA decreased migration under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Hypoxia-induced activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3 pathways was reversed by depletion of CXCL8. We conclude that HIF-1α and CXCL8 induce HCC progression and metastasis, associated with activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3. Co-expression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:26078356

  16. A retrospective evaluation of prognosis and cost-effectiveness of IVF in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Busnelli, Andrea; Papaleo, Enrico; Del Prato, Diana; La Vecchia, Irene; Iachini, Eleonora; Paffoni, Alessio; Candiani, Massimo; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2015-02-01

    Do the Bologna criteria for poor responders successfully identify women with poor IVF outcome? The Bologna criteria effectively identify a population with a uniformly low chance of success. Women undergoing IVF who respond poorly to ovarian hyper-stimulation have a low chance of success. Even if improving IVF outcome in this population represents a main priority, the lack of a unique definition of the condition has hampered research in this area. To overcome this impediment, a recent expert meeting in Bologna proposed a new definition of poor responders ('Bologna criteria'). However, data supporting the relevance of this definition in clinical practice are scanty. Retrospective study of women undergoing IVF-ICSI between January 2010 and December 2012 in two independent infertility units. Women could be included if they fulfilled the definition of poor ovarian response (POR) according to Bologna criteria prior to initiation of the cycle. Women were included only for one cycle. The main outcome was the live birth rate per started cycle. The perspective of the cost analysis was the one of the health provider. Three-hundred sixty-two women from two independent Infertility Units were selected. A binomial distribution model was used to calculate the 95% CI of the rate of success. Characteristics of women who did and did not obtain a live birth were compared. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for confounders. The economic analysis included costs for pharmacological compounds and for the IVF procedure. The benefits were estimated on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). To develop the model, we used the local life-expectancy tables, we applied a 3% discount of life years gained and we used a 0.07 improvement in quality of life associated with parenthood. Sensitivity analyses were performed varying the improvement of the quality of life and including/excluding the male partner. The reference values for cost-effectiveness were the Italian and the local (Lombardy

  17. Long non-coding RNA MVIH is associated with poor prognosis and malignant biological behavior in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bo; Xu, Shou-Ping; Liang, Xiao-Shuan; Li, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Pang, Da

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, with the development of transcriptomics, the effect of long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) on the regulation of biological processes is being elucidated. LncRNAs play an important role in tumor occurrence and development. LncRNA associated with microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (LncRNA MVIH) was first identified in hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis upregulation, and poor recurrence-free survival. MVIH has an important role in non-small cell lung cancer, in which it promotes cell proliferation and metastasis, and high MVIH expression indicates poor overall survival. However, the involvement of MVIH in breast cancer is unclear. Our research revealed that the expression levels of MVIH in breast cancer tissues were higher than in adjacent noncancerous tissues, and high MVIH expression was correlated with Ki67 expression. Moreover, breast cancer patients with high MVIH expression levels showed poor overall survival and disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis results indicated that MVIH was an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. In addition, upregulated MVIH expression levels promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle, and inhibited cell apoptosis, while reduced MVIH expression showed the converse. In summary, our findings suggest that MVIH may have an important role in breast cancer and may serve as a new biomarker and a potential therapeutic target.

  18. Association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking with tumor progression and poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Deyao; Lan, Linhua; Huang, Kate; Chen, Lin; Xu, Cuicui; Wang, Rongrong; Shi, Yang; Wu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yongzhang; Lu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all lung cancer cases. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor which is attributed to more than four out of five cases of lung cancers. The prognostic impact of cell cycle regulation-associated tumor suppressors including p53 and p21 for NSCLC is still controversial. In the present study, we examined p53 and p21 expression using immunoblotting in tumor and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from NSCLC patients. Moreover, tissue microarrays (TMAs) including 150 specimens was used to examine p53 and p21 expression by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The association between p53/p21 and various clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier overall survival was used to analyze the association between p53/p21 expression and prognosis of NSCLC patients, as well as the association of cigarette smoking with p53/p21 expression and prognosis. The results of the immunoblotting showed that expression of p53 and p21 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). The IHC results showed that 50.67% of the cases had high expression of p21; however, the percentage of patients having high expression of p53 was 31.3%. Univariate and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the factors related to prognosis with p53 and p21 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that p53 expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC (P=0.005), while p21 could not serve as an independent prognostic factor (P=0.123). In addition, smoking history was closely related to lung cancer risk (P=0.041), but could not be an independent assessment factor (P=0.740). In this study, we further demonstrated the association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking and overexpression of p53 or p21 are associated with poor prognosis. The combination of p53/p21 expression and

  19. TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator protects from spontaneous apoptosis and predicts poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Xia, Yi; Zhu, Yu; Zhao, Hui-Hui; Zhu, Han; Xie, Yue; Fan, Lei; Wang, Li; Miao, Kou-Rong; Yu, Hui; Miao, Yu-Qing; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Hua-Yuan; Chen, Yao-Yu; Xu, Wei; Qian, Si-Xuan; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-11-01

    Circulating chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells appear not to be overly utilizing aerobic glycolysis. However, recurrent contact with CLL cells in a stromal microenvironment leads to increased aerobic glycolysis and the cells' overall glycolytic capacity, which promotes cell survival and proliferation. TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) has been directly implicated in cellular metabolism in the control of glycolysis. TIGAR inhibits glycolysis and protects cells from intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated apoptosis. TIGAR mRNA expression was investigated by quantitative PCR in 102 newly diagnosed CLL patients. Furthermore, the relationship between the expression of TIGAR and its clinical characteristics and prognosis were investigated. Moreover, we also investigated the correlation between TIGAR expression and apoptosis in primary CLL cells. Our data revealed that TIGAR overexpression was correlated with the protection from spontaneous apoptosis in CLL cells, and is strongly associated with advanced Binet stage, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IGHV) status, CD38 positivity, β2-microglobulin and p53 aberrations. Higher expression of TIGAR was associated with shorter treatment-free survival (median: three months vs. 51 months, P=0.0108), worse overall survival (median: 74 months vs. not reached, P=0.0242), and the diverse responses to fludarabine-based chemotherapy. TIGAR expression in patients resistant to chemotherapy was significantly higher than in patients sensitive to chemotherapy (mean: 0.3859±0.1710 vs. 0.0974±0.0291, P=0.0290). Taken together, our findings revealed that high TIGAR expression is closely correlated with worse clinical outcome in CLL patients, and depicted how bioenergetic characteristics could be therapeutically exploited in CLL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactate Dehydrogenase 5 Expression in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Is Associated with the Induced Hypoxia Regulated Protein and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhujun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hongfeng; Zhao, Xinmin; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5) is one of the major isoenzymes catalyzing the biochemical process of pyruvate to lactate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of serum LDH-5 and test whether this enzyme is regulated by tumor hypoxia and represents a prognostic marker in patients with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). In this study, LDH-5 levels were detected using agarose gel electrophoresis in NHL patients (n = 266) and non-NHL controls including benign lymphadenectasis (n = 30) and healthy cohorts (n = 233). We also explored the expression of LDH-5 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α in NHL and benign controls by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Moreover, the role of LDH-5 in the progression of NHL was assessed by multivariate Cox analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. Serum concentrations of LDH-5 were significantly higher in NHL patients (9.3%) than in benign patients and healthy controls (7.5% and 7.2%, respectively, P<0.01). Application of LDH-5 detection increased the sensitivity of NHL detection, identifying 53.4% of NHL patients as positive, compared with the measurement of total LDH levels (36.5% sensitivity). LDH-5 concentrations increased with clinical stage, extra-nodal site involvement, and WHO performance status of patients with NHL. Exposure to a hypoxic environment induced the expression of LDH-5 and its overexpression correlated with HIF1α cytoplasmic accumulation in NHL cells. In multivariate analyses, LDH-5 was an independent marker for progression-free survival in patients with NHL (P<0.001). Overall, the expression of LDH-5 was elevated in NHL, showing an association with tumor hypoxia and unfavorable prognosis. Thus, LDH-5 emerges as a promising prognostic predictor for NHL patients. PMID:24086384

  1. May increased CA125 in borderline ovarian tumor be indicative of a poor prognosis? A case report.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Emanuela; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Pecorella, Irene; Bernardo, Silvia; Frati, Luigi; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Manganaro, Lucia

    2014-07-01

    We present a case of a 58-year-old menopausal woman referred to our hospital for the presence of large pelvic masses diagnosed by clinical examination and pelvic ultrasound. MRI examination showed voluminous bilateral capsulated multilocular ovarian cysts slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted images with thick septa and small papillary projections. CT scan confirmed the MRI findings. Among the ovarian tumor markers analyzed (CA125, HE4, and CA72.4), only Ca125 was slightly increased (48 U/ml). These data were suggestive of mucinous ovarian tumor. The patient underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, appendectomy, and multiple peritoneal biopsies. Pathological examination revealed bilateral borderline mucinous ovarian tumor with superficial atypical implants. Nine months later, the patient complained of left coxofemoral pain and underwent a PET/TC total body that suggested pubic bone metastases. Ovarian tumor markers were analyzed, and a second PET/TC was performed. CA125 was 252 U/ml, HE4 62 pM/L, and CA72.4 > 100 U/Ml. PET/TC was suggestive of peritoneal carcinosis. The patient was readmitted to the hospital. Clinical examination revealed small vaginal nodules. All nodules were excised. Microscopic analysis of all specimens revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma of intestinal type.The case shows that even a slight CA125 increase in the presence of a borderline ovarian tumor should not be overlooked since it can be indicative of a progressive disease. This case also highlights its additional diagnostic value when serum CA125 analysis is used in conjunction with MRI and CT imaging for the prognosis of mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (mBOTs).

  2. ULBP2 and RAET1E NKG2D ligands are independent predictors of poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    McGilvray, Roger W; Eagle, Robert A; Rolland, Phil; Jafferji, Insiya; Trowsdale, John; Durrant, Lindy G

    2010-09-01

    The human activating immune receptor, NKG2D, binds to a diverse array of cellular ligands of the MIC and unique long 16 (UL16)-binding protein (ULBP)/retinoic acid early transcript (RAET) family. NKG2D is thought to participate in anticancer immune responses. By using tissue microarrays representing over 300 patients with defined clinicopathological factors, we present the first comprehensive screen of the expression of all NKG2D ligands in primary ovarian cancers. NKG2D ligands were expressed by the majority of tumors; however, the level of expression varied considerably. By categorizing each tumor as having negative, low or high expression, it was shown that high expression of several NKG2D ligands is inversely correlated with disease survival. Patients whose tumors had high expression of RAET1E (p = 0.037), ULBP1 (p = 0.036) and ULBP3 (p = 0.004) surviving a median of 11, 14 and 11 months, respectively, compared with disease-specific survival of 29, 30 and 25 months in patients whose tumors showed no expression of these ligands. These results contrast with previous findings showing that high level NKG2D ligand expression is associated with good prognosis in colorectal cancer and suggest a fundamental difference in the involvement of NKG2D-mediated immunity in these two types of cancer. By using multivariate analysis, the factors retaining independent prognostic significance were International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stage (p < 0.001), presence of residual disease (p = 0.003), ULBP2 (p = 0.042) and RAET1E (p = 0.030).

  3. Krüppel-Like Factor 7 is a Marker of Aggressive Gastric Cancer and Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhonghua; Yu, Tingting; Fan, Zhining; Yang, Hongmei; Lin, Xin

    2017-10-05

    Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 7 protein is a member of the KLF transcription factor family, which plays important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. However, the role of KLF7 in gastric cancer (GC) is unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the role of KLF7 in GC and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of GC patients. We first systematically evaluated dysregulation of the KLF family in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) GC database. Then, 252 patients who underwent surgery for GC were enrolled to validate the results from the TCGA. Functional studies were also used to explore the role of KLF7 in GC. In the TCGA database, we found that KLF7 was an independent predictor for survival by both univariate and multivariate analysis (P<0.05). In a validation cohort, KLF7 expression was significantly increased in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal controls (P=0.013). High KLF7 expression correlated with inferior prognostic factors, such as T stage (P=0.022), N stage (P =0.005) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.009). Furthermore, we observed a strong negative correlation between KLF7 expression and 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival in GC patients (P<0.05). Moreover, our in vitro studies showed a notable decrease in migration in KLF7 knockdown cells. KLF7 has an important role in GC progression, as it inhibits GC cell migration and may serve as a prognostic marker. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Down-regulation of miR-503 expression predicate advanced mythological features and poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Weiqing; Zhong, Zhaokun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore what impact miR-503 has on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Cancer and matched non-malignant lung tissue specimens were collected from 109 patients who underwent surgery in Tanisha Hospital from Jun 2006 to July 2013. Overall survival (OS) curves were analyzed using the Lapland-Meier method, and the differences were examined using log-rank tests. Cox proportional- hazards regression analysis was applied in order to estimate univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for OS. Results: The relative expression of miR-503 in NSCLC tissues (0.366 ± 0.130) was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous lung tissues (1.667 ± 1.047, P < 0.01). Statistically significant association was observed between miR-503 expression and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), TNM stage (P = 0.008), and tumor grade (P = 0.043). Lapland Meier analysis clearly illustrated that the patients with the lower expression of miR-503 had a worse outcome compared to patients with higher miR-503 expression (P = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that miR-503 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.992, 95% CI: 2.276-9.872; P = 0.018) in NSCLC. Conclusion: In patients with NSCLC, low miR-503 expression is an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26191272

  5. High expression of long noncoding RNA HULC is a poor predictor of prognosis and regulates cell proliferation in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Jing; Ding, Min; He, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Emerging studies show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in carcinogenesis. This study investigated the role of lncRNA highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) expression in glioma and its clinical significance in glioma patients. Materials and methods HULC expression was detected in glioma tissues and cell lines by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. Association between HULC levels and clinicopathological factors and patients prognosis was also analyzed. Expression of HULC was restored and knocked down in glioma cell line U87 by using HULC cDNA and siRNA, respectively. CCK-8 and colony formation assays were used to investigate the role of HULC in the regulation of proliferation of glioma cells. Results HULC was highly expressed in glioma tissues, being closely related to age and grade of glioma. Univariate survival analysis demonstrated that high HULC levels were significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.422; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.220–0.806; P=0.009), and it remained an independent predictor for OS (HR, 0.340; 95% CI, 0.175–0.659; P=0.001) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Functionally, forced expression of HULC results in increased cell proliferation and colony formation of U87 glioma cell line, whereas knockdown of HULC expression reduced these oncogenic properties of glioma cells. Conclusion These findings suggest that HULC may play an important role in glioma progression and will be further evaluated as a biomarker for predicting the survival of glioma patients. PMID:28053545

  6. HOXB7 overexpression promotes cell proliferation and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients by inducing expression of both AKT and MARKs

    PubMed Central

    He, Xujun; Liu, Zhengchuang; Xia, Yingjie; Xu, Ji; Lv, Guocai; Wang, Lu; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Liping; Mou, Yiping; Jiang, Xiaoting; Ma, Jie; Zhao, Zhongkuo; Ni, Haibin; Xu, Wenjuan; Ru, Guoqing; Huang, Dongsheng; Tao, Houquan

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of HOXB7 has been reported to correlate with the progression in many cancers. However, the specific mechanism by which it promotes the evolution of gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC by assessing HOXB7 expression in patient tissue and its correlation to clinical characteristics. We found that GC tissues showed increased expression of HOXB7 and that the HOXB7 expression was significantly associated with Lauren classification, invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis and poor prognosis, and could serve as an independent prognostic factor. To further investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC, we generated stable GC cell lines and both over-expressed and knocked down HOXB7 expression. Over-expression of HOXB7 in GC cell lines enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion ability, whereas the opposite trends were observed upon reduction of HOXB7 expression by knockdown. These findings were further supported by our in vivo studies which show that HOXB7 expression can affect the GC cells' subcutaneous growth and lung metastases. A Phospho-MAPK Array Kit was used to explore the possible mechanism of HOXB7-induced cell proliferation and invasion. We found that the AKT signaling pathway and the two members of the MAPK pathway, were involved in those promoting effects. In conclusion, our results showed that increased expression of HOXB7 might play an important role in promoting GC proliferation, migration and invasion by inducing both AKT and MAPK pathways, thus resulting in progression of, and poor prognosis in GC patients. PMID:27901487

  7. A high LDL-C to HDL-C ratio predicts poor prognosis for initially metastatic colorectal cancer patients with elevations in LDL-C.

    PubMed

    Liao, Fangxin; He, Wenzhuo; Jiang, Chang; Yin, Chenxi; Guo, Guifang; Chen, Xuxian; Qiu, Huijuan; Rong, Yuming; Zhang, Bei; Xu, Dazhi; Xia, Liangping

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid disequilibrium has been documented for several types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC), it remains unknown whether lipid parameters are associated with the outcome of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Here, we retrospectively examined the lipid profiles of 453 mCRC patients and investigated whether any of the lipid parameters correlated with the outcome of mCRC patients. Pretreatment serum lipids, including triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were collected in 453 initially mCRC patients. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio (LHR) was calculated and divided into the first, second, and third tertiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of lipids on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Nearly two-fifths of the patients (41.3%) exhibited elevations in LDL-C while most patients (88.3%) showed normal HDL-C levels. Decreased HDL-C (P=0.542) and increased LDL-C (P=0.023) were prognostic factors for poor OS, while triglyceride (P=0.542) and cholesterol (P=0.215) were not. Multivariate analysis revealed that LDL-C (P=0.031) was an independent prognostic factor. Triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C did not correlate with PFS. Among patients with elevations in LDL-C levels, patients in the third tertile of the LHR had a markedly shorter median OS compared to those in the first or second tertile (P=0.012). Thus, increased LDL-C level is an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in mCRC patients, and a high LHR predicts poor prognosis for initially mCRC patients with elevations in LDL-C.

  8. High expression level and nuclear localization of Sam68 are associated with progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68; 68 kDa) has been implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of several human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of Sam68 expression and its subcellular localization in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Sam68 expression was examined in CRC cell lines, nine matched CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Sam68 protein expression and localization were determined in 224 paraffin-embedded archived CRC samples using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance. Results Sam68 was upregulated in CRC cell lines and CRC, as compared with normal tissues; high Sam68 expression was detected in 120/224 (53.6%) of the CRC tissues. High Sam68 expression correlated significantly with poor differentiation (P = 0.033), advanced T stage (P < 0.001), N stage (P = 0.023) and distant metastasis (P = 0.033). Sam68 nuclear localization correlated significantly with poor differentiation (P = 0.002) and T stage (P =0.021). Patients with high Sam68 expression or Sam68 nuclear localization had poorer overall survival than patients with low Sam68 expression or Sam68 cytoplasmic localization. Patients with high Sam68 expression had a higher risk of recurrence than those with low Sam68 expression. Conclusions Overexpression of Sam68 correlated highly with cancer progression and poor differentiation in CRC. High Sam68 expression and Sam68 nuclear localization were associated with poorer overall survival. PMID:23937454

  9. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC. PMID:27050277

  10. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-05-10

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC.

  11. Mutation of the TERT promoter leads to poor prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soo-Jung; Kim, Dong-Sun; Park, Won-Jin; Lee, Hyunsu; Choi, In-Jang; Park, Jae-Yong; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2017-08-01

    Mutations in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and alterations in telomere length (TL) have been the focus of research in various types of cancer. In the present study, the frequency and clinical characteristics of TERT promoter mutations and TL were studied in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). TERT promoter mutations and TL were analyzed in 188 patients using DNA sequencing and the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The TERT promoter mutation rate was observed to be 2.2% (4/188 NSCLC cases), and it was significantly associated with regional lymph node invasion (P<0.001). No significant difference in TL was observed between the patients with and without TERT promoter mutations. TL was decreased in males (P=0.058 vs. females) and smokers (P=0.008 vs. non-smokers). Survival analyses demonstrated poor prognoses for patients with NSCLC with TERT promoter mutations (P<0.001). Multivariate survival analyses demonstrated that TERT promoter mutations were an independent prognostic marker for poor overall survival (P=0.045). The results of the present study demonstrated that TERT promoter mutation was not frequent in NSCLC; however, it may have value as a prognostic marker in NSCLC.

  12. c-Myc and Her2 cooperate to drive a stem-like phenotype with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nair, R; Roden, D L; Teo, W S; McFarland, A; Junankar, S; Ye, S; Nguyen, A; Yang, J; Nikolic, I; Hui, M; Morey, A; Shah, J; Pfefferle, A D; Usary, J; Selinger, C; Baker, L A; Armstrong, N; Cowley, M J; Naylor, M J; Ormandy, C J; Lakhani, S R; Herschkowitz, J I; Perou, C M; Kaplan, W; O'Toole, S A; Swarbrick, A

    2014-07-24

    The HER2 (ERBB2) and MYC genes are commonly amplified in breast cancer, yet little is known about their molecular and clinical interaction. Using a novel chimeric mammary transgenic approach and in vitro models, we demonstrate markedly increased self-renewal and tumour-propagating capability of cells transformed with Her2 and c-Myc. Coexpression of both oncoproteins in cultured cells led to the activation of a c-Myc transcriptional signature and acquisition of a self-renewing phenotype independent of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition programme or regulation of conventional cancer stem cell markers. Instead, Her2 and c-Myc cooperated to induce the expression of lipoprotein lipase, which was required for proliferation and self-renewal in vitro. HER2 and MYC were frequently coamplified in breast cancer, associated with aggressive clinical behaviour and poor outcome. Lastly, we show that in HER2(+) breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (but not targeted anti-Her2 therapy), MYC amplification is associated with a poor outcome. These findings demonstrate the importance of molecular and cellular context in oncogenic transformation and acquisition of a malignant stem-like phenotype and have diagnostic and therapeutic consequences for the clinical management of HER2(+) breast cancer.

  13. YAP Promotes Ovarian Cancer Cell Tumorigenesis and Is Indicative of a Poor Prognosis for Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yan; Liu, Yixiong; Li, Wenhui; Li, Ming; Fan, Heng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    YAP is a key component of the Hippo signaling pathway and plays a critical role in the development and progression of multiple cancer types, including ovarian cancer. However, the effects of YAP on ovarian cancer development in vivo and its downstream effectors remain uncertain. In this study we found that strong YAP expression was associated with poor ovarian cancer patient survival. Specifically, we showed for the first time that high YAP expression levels were positively correlated with TEAD4 gene expression, and their co-expression was a prognostic marker for poor ovarian cancer survival. Hyperactivation of YAP by mutating its five inhibitory phosphorylation sites (YAP-5SA) increased ovarian cancer cell proliferation, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, cell migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, expression of a dominant negative YAP mutant reversed these phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggested that YAP caused these effects by promoting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Thus, YAP promotes ovarian cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Further, high YAP and TEAD4 expression is a prognostic marker for ovarian cancer progression and a potential target for ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:24622501

  14. Wntless (GPR177) expression correlates with poor prognosis in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Wang, Li-Ting; Huang, Shih-Bo; Chai, Chee-Yin; Wang, Shen-Nien; Liao, Yu-Mei; Lin, Pei-Chin; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Hsu, Shih-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) is the most common childhood leukemia, with a cure rate of 80%. Nevertheless, disease relapse is the most important prognostic factor for the disease outcome. We aimed to elucidate the role of Wnt secretion-regulating protein, Wntless (Wls)/GPR177, on disease outcome in pediatric patients with BCP ALL, and assess its pathogenetic role in the regulation of the disease. Wls expression was characterized and correlated with Wnt pathway signaling in the bone marrow leukemia cells isolated from 44 pediatric patients with BCP ALL. The overexpression of Wls was detected in leukemia cells and was significantly correlated with the disease relapse and poor survival in the patients. The high expression of Wls also correlated with the Wnt expression and consequent downstream signaling activation, which was shown to provide essential proliferation, transformation and anti-apoptotic activity during leukemogenesis. These results indicated that Wls played an essential role in disease relapse and poor survival in patients with BCP ALL. Therefore, Wls may provide a potential future therapeutic target, particularly for patients who do not respond to existing therapies and suffer relapse.

  15. SET and MYND Domain-Containing Protein 3 (SMYD3) Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Susceptibility and Poor Prognosis in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Xu, Hui; Gao, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Xiang; Zhou, Xu-Hong; Tang, Juan; Liu, Qiong-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship of the polymorphisms of SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) with risk and prognosis of ovarian cancer. Material/Methods The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification method was applied to detect the polymorphisms of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the SMYD3 gene promoter region for 156 patients with ovarian cancer (case group) and 174 healthy people (control group). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were applied to detect SMYD3 mRNA and protein expressions. Results The frequencies of VNTR genotype 3/3 and allele genotype 3 in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the frequency of genotype 2/2 in the control group was significantly higher than that in case group (all P<0.05). The proportion of poorly differentiated patients carrying VNTR genotype 3/3 was significantly higher than the proportion of poorly differentiated patients carrying VNTR genotype 2/2+2/3, while the proportion of patients carrying genotype 3/3 with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III–IV disease was significantly higher than the proportion of patients carrying genotype 2/2 +2/3 with FIGO stage III–IV disease (all P<0.05). SMYD3 mRNA and protein expressions were higher in the patients carrying genotype 3/3 than they were in the patients with the 2/2+2/3 genotype (all P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate for patients carrying VNTR genotype 3/3 was significantly lower than that of patients carrying genotype 2/2+2/3, and Cox regression analysis showed that VNTR genotype 3/3 was an independent risk factor for ovarian cancer prognosis (all P<0.05). Conclusions VNTR genotype 3/3 of the SMYD3 gene was associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. The polymorphism of VNTR genotype could be recognized as an indicator for the poor prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:28024138

  16. Validation of Methotrexate-First Strategy in Patients with Early, Poor-Prognosis Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From a Two-Year Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Dell, James R.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Mikuls, Ted R.; Cofield, Stacey S.; Bridges, S. Louis; Ranganath, Veena K.; Moreland, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Methotrexate (MTX) taken as monotherapy is recommended as the initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes of a blinded trial of initial MTX monotherapy with the option to step-up to combination therapy as compared to immediate combination therapy in patients with early, poor-prognosis RA. Methods In the Treatment of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) trial, 755 participants with early, poor-prognosis RA were randomized to receive MTX monotherapy or combination therapy (MTX + etanercept or MTX + sulfasalazine + hydroxychloroquine). Participants randomized to receive MTX monotherapy stepped up to combination therapy at 24 weeks if the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) was ≥ 3.2. Results Attrition at 24 weeks was similar in the MTX monotherapy and combination groups. Of the 370 evaluable participants in the initial MTX group, 28% achieved low levels of disease activity and did not step-up to combination therapy (MTX monotherapy group). The mean ± SD DAS28-ESR in participants continuing to take MTX monotherapy at week 102 was 2.7 ± 1.2, which is similar to that in participants who were randomized to immediate combination therapy (2.9 ± 1.2). Participants who received MTX monotherapy had less radiographic progression at week 102 as compared to those who received immediate combination therapy (mean ± SD change in modified Sharp score 0.2 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 6.4. Participants assigned to initial MTX who required step-up to combination therapy at 24 weeks (72%) demonstrated similar DAS28-ESR values (3.5 ± 1.3 vs 3.2 ± 1.3 at week 48) and radiographic progression (change in modified Sharp score 1.2 ± 4.1 vs 1.1 ± 6.4 at week 102) as those assigned to immediate combination therapy. The results for either of the immediate combination approaches, whether triple therapy or MTX + etanercept, were similar. Conclusion These

  17. CXCL10/CXCR3 overexpression as a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with stage II colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    BAI, MING; CHEN, XIA; BA, YI

    2016-01-01

    The CXCL10/CXCR3 axis of inflammatory mediators is one of the most important groups of chemokine axes, which has been proven to be a lymphocyte-associated metastasis mediator in several tumors. The term inflammatory adhesions refers to tumors found to be attached to the surrouding tissues during surgery, although no cancer cell infiltration is later identified on pathological examination. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine the correlation between the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, inflammatory adhesions and prognosis. Clinicohistopathological data were collected from 401 CRC patients who had undergone R0 resection. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0 software. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to measure the expression of CXCL10 and CXCR3 in 71 recurrent CRC patients, 72 non-recurrent CRC patients and 10 samples from normal peritumoral tissues, all retrieved from the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China. Inflammatory adhesions, tumor location and size and the number of high-risk factors for reccurrence were more significantly associated with overall survival (OS) rather than disease-free survival in all the patients as determined by the log-rank and Cox's regression hazard analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that only the presence of inflammatory adhesions (P=0.025) was associated with the OS of recurrent patients. Patients with recurrence exhibited higher CXCR3 (P<0.001) and CXCL10 (P<0.001) expression compared with non-recurrent patients, as determined by IHC. The correlation between clinicopathological variables, CXCL10/CXCR3 expression and survival was also analyzed: Inflammatory adhesions and general tumor type (ulcerated vs. elevated) exhibited a significant correlation with CXCR3; however, the expression of CXCL10 was not significantly correlated with tumor location, histological type, size, gender, or preoperative

  18. CXCL10/CXCR3 overexpression as a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with stage II colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; Chen, Xia; Ba, Y I

    2016-01-01

    The CXCL10/CXCR3 axis of inflammatory mediators is one of the most important groups of chemokine axes, which has been proven to be a lymphocyte-associated metastasis mediator in several tumors. The term inflammatory adhesions refers to tumors found to be attached to the surrouding tissues during surgery, although no cancer cell infiltration is later identified on pathological examination. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine the correlation between the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, inflammatory adhesions and prognosis. Clinicohistopathological data were collected from 401 CRC patients who had undergone R0 resection. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0 software. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to measure the expression of CXCL10 and CXCR3 in 71 recurrent CRC patients, 72 non-recurrent CRC patients and 10 samples from normal peritumoral tissues, all retrieved from the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China. Inflammatory adhesions, tumor location and size and the number of high-risk factors for reccurrence were more significantly associated with overall survival (OS) rather than disease-free survival in all the patients as determined by the log-rank and Cox's regression hazard analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that only the presence of inflammatory adhesions (P=0.025) was associated with the OS of recurrent patients. Patients with recurrence exhibited higher CXCR3 (P<0.001) and CXCL10 (P<0.001) expression compared with non-recurrent patients, as determined by IHC. The correlation between clinicopathological variables, CXCL10/CXCR3 expression and survival was also analyzed: Inflammatory adhesions and general tumor type (ulcerated vs. elevated) exhibited a significant correlation with CXCR3; however, the expression of CXCL10 was not significantly correlated with tumor location, histological type, size, gender, or preoperative

  19. Upregulated long non-coding RNA LINC00152 expression is associated with progression and poor prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianjun; Liu, Yan; Guo, Can; Zhang, Shanshan; Gong, Zhaojian; Tang, Yanyan; Yang, Liting; He, Yi; Lian, Yu; Li, Xiayu; Deng, Hao; Liao, Qianjin; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Yong; Li, Guiyuan; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Xiong, Wei; Yang, Xinming

    2017-01-01

    Altered expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with human carcinogenesis and might be used as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. However, the expression of lncRNAs in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and their relevance on the diagnosis, progression and prognosis of TSCC have not been thoroughly elucidated. To discover novel TSCC-related lncRNAs, we analyzed the lncRNA expression patterns in two sets of previously published TSCC gene expression profile data (GSE30784 and GSE9844), and found that long intergenic non-coding RNA 152 (LINC00152) was significantly upregulated in TSCC samples. We then detected LINC00152 expression in two other cohorts of TSCC samples. Quantitative Real time PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicated that LINC00152 was highly expressed in 15 primary TSCC biopsies when compared with 14 adjacent non-tumor tongue squamous cell epithelium samples. The expression of LINC00152 was also measured in 182 paraffin-embedded human TSCC tissues by in situ hybridization, increased expression of LINC00152 was significantly correlated with TSCC progression, such as T stage (p = 0.009), N stage (p = 0.036), TNM stage (p = 0.017), and associated with relapse (p < 0.001), and invasion (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that increased LINC00152 expression contributed to both poor overall survival (p = 0.006) and disease-free survival (p = 0.007) of TSCC patients. These findings suggest that LINC00152 might serve as a potential biomarker for early detection and prognosis prediction of TSCC. PMID:28367232

  20. Hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) is associated with poor prognosis via activation of c-MET in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengzhan; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Shinichiro; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Arakawa, Yusuke; Takasu, Chie; Ishikawa, Daichi; Imoto, Issei; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2014-12-01

    Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation status, representing global DNA methylation levels, is associated with patient prognosis in several types of cancer. This study was designed to examine the prognostic significance of LINE-1 methylation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the possible mechanisms related to oncogene activation. Seventy-five HCC patients who underwent hepatectomy between 2006 and 2012 were enrolled in this study. Quantitative pyrosequencing was performed to quantify the methylation level of three CpG sites in the LINE-1 promoter. Clinicopathological variables and prognosis were compared between LINE-1 hypo- and hypermethylation groups. LINE-1-inserted c-MET (L1-MET) gene expression and its correlation with LINE-1 methylation levels also were analyzed. LINE-1 was significantly hypomethylated in tumor tissues compared with nontumor tissues (48.3 ± 12.2 % vs. 68.2 ± 2.0 %, respectively, p < 0.0001). LINE-1 hypomethylation was not associated with any clinicopathological factors in HCC patients, except sex (p < 0.05). However, patients with LINE-1 hypomethylation exhibited significantly poorer outcome, and multivariate analysis revealed that LINE-1 hypomethylation was an independent risk factor for overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 6.1, p = 0.031) and disease-free survival (HR = 2.34, p = 0.045). L1-MET expression was significantly higher in tumor tissues (p < 0.01). L1-MET expression levels were inversely correlated with LINE-1 methylation levels, and positively correlated with c-MET expression (p < 0.05). Furthermore, higher c-MET protein expression was observed in the LINE-1 hypomethylated tumor tissues compared with hypermethylated tumor tissues (p = 0.032). LINE-1 hypomethylation is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC, possibly due to activation of c-MET expression.

  1. Poor prognosis of ovarian cancer with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: case report and review of published works.

    PubMed

    Asada, Kayo; Kawana, Kei; Teshima, Shinichi; Saito, Ako; Kawabata, Masakiyo; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2014-03-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is well-reported to result in unfavorable prognoses in many organ cancers while being rarely reported in gynecologic cancer, especially ovarian and endometrial cancers. Here we report a case of ovarian cancer with LCNEC which spread to distant organs within 1 year of primary surgery despite the fact that the post-surgical stage was Ia. The case received platinum-based chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy after her curative surgery. However, LCNEC in the case was resistant to the chemotherapy. In our review of published works, ovarian cancer cases with LCNEC show poor prognoses regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy following complete resection. Median overall survival was 10 months in stage I cases. Development of chemotherapy sensitive for LCNEC is needed.

  2. FXYD5 is a Marker for Poor Prognosis and a Potential Driver for Metastasis in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Pichai; Purwin, Timothy; Pestell, Richard; Tozeren, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality, but aside from a few well-studied mutations, very little is known about its underlying causes. As such, we performed survival analysis on ovarian copy number amplifications and gene expression datasets presented by The Cancer Genome Atlas in order to identify potential drivers and markers of aggressive OC. Additionally, two independent datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus web platform were used to validate the identified markers. Based on our analysis, we identified FXYD5, a glycoprotein known to reduce cell adhesion, as a potential driver of metastasis and a significant predictor of mortality in OC. As a marker of poor outcome, the protein has effective antibodies against it for use in tissue arrays. FXYD5 bridges together a wide variety of cancers, including ovarian, breast cancer stage II, thyroid, colorectal, pancreatic, and head and neck cancers for metastasis studies. PMID:26494976

  3. Biomarkers in Tumor Microenvironment? Upregulation of Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Correlates with Gastric Cancer Progression and Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengmou; Qian, Chengjia; Hu, Ziwei; Fei, Bojian; Zhou, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Recent evidence points to importance of cross talk between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma on gastric cancer progression. Tumor microenvironment biomarkers thus represent a new opportunity for diagnostics innovation. Reactive stromal fibroblasts selectively express the fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP-α), a homodimeric integral membrane gelatinase that belongs to the serine protease family. We report here that FAP-α expression is significantly elevated in gastric cancer samples by more than fivefold (p < 0.05), using transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Notably, the greatest FAP-α upregulation was observed in the poorly differentiated group (p < 0.001). Moreover, elevated FAP-α expression levels correlated with adverse clinical-pathological characteristics, such as diffuse histological subtype (p < 0.001), advanced pathological stage (p < 0.01) and poor survival. Functional annotation analysis demonstrated that FAP-α upregulation was associated with activation of biological processes implicated in tumor progression, including cell migration and angiogenesis pathways. These observations underscore the possible prognostic significance of FAP-α in gastric cancer and its potential as a novel biomarker for personalized medicine. We caution, however, that further multiomics, biochemical, and animal studies are necessary to ascertain the role of FAP-α as a causative and mechanistic biomarker. Based on pathway analyses, we hypothesize that gastric cancer patients exhibiting FAP-α upregulation might presumably benefit from antiangiogenic drugs in addition to standard therapeutic regimens. We call for future research focusing on the tumor microenvironment biomarkers in clinical oncology.

  4. High expression of hexokinase domain containing 1 is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype in hepatocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zijian; Huang, Shanzhou; Wang, Huanyu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Dong; Peng, Baogang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-10

    Rapid progress and metastasis remain the major treatment failure modes of hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatoma cell proliferation and migration are poorly understood. Metabolic abnormalities play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. However, the functions and mechanisms of HKDC1 in cancer remain unknown. In this study, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to detect the HKDC1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines. The Oncomine™ Cancer Microarray Database was applied to analysis the correlations between HKDC1 expression and HCC clinical characteristics. MTT and Transwell migration assays were performed to determine the functions of HKDC1 in HCC cells. The effect of HKDC1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using Western blotting assay. In this study, we found that HKDC1 expression levels were elevated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. HCC patients with high expression levels of HKDC1 had poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, higher HKDC1 levels also predicted a worse OS of patients within solitary, elevated pre-operated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level and higher tumor diameter. Moreover, silencing HKDC1 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration in vitro. Downregulated HKDC1 expression repressed β-Catenin and c-Myc expression, which indicates that silencing HKDC1 may reduce proliferation and migration via inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCC. In summary, HKDC1 provides further insight into HCC tumor progression and may provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. -- Highlights: •HKDC1 is upregulated in HCC. •Patients with high HKDC1 expressions perform worse OS. •Silencing HKDC1 suppresses proliferation and migration. •Silencing HKDC1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  5. Over-Expressed Twist Associates with Markers of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancers via ERK and Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan-Ke; Chen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Fan; Bai, Jing-Wen; Qiu, Si-Qi; Du, Cai-Wen; Huang, Wen-He; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of Twist, a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and predicts poor prognosis in various kinds of cancers, including breast cancer. In order to further clarify Twist’s role in breast cancer, we detected Twist expression in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Twist expression was observed in 54% (220/408) of breast cancer patients and was positively associated with tumor size, Ki67, VEGF-C and HER2 expression. Conversely, Twist was negatively associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and E-cadherin expression. Patients with Twist expression had a poorer prognosis for 30-month disease free survival (DFS) (82.9%) than patients with negative Twist (92.3%). Overexpression of Twist led to dramatic changes in cellular morphology, proliferation, migratory/invasive capability, and expression of EMT-related biomarkers in breast cancer cells. Moreover, we show that Twist serves as a driver of tumorigenesis, as well as an inducer of EMT, at least in part, through activation of the Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways which are critical for Twist-mediated EMT. Our results demonstrate that Twist expression is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. PMID:26295469

  6. The A Allele at rs13419896 of EPAS1 Is Associated with Enhanced Expression and Poor Prognosis for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Putra, Andika C; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Lee, Kian Leong; Yamane, Yuko; Gustine, Ewita; Isobe, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Hiyama, Keiko; Poellinger, Lorenz; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α, or EPAS1) is important for cancer progression, and is a putative biomarker for poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the EPAS1 overexpression are not still fully understood. We explored a role of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs13419896 located within intron 1 of the EPAS1 gene in regulation of its expression. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that a region including the rs13419896 SNP plays a role in regulation of the EPAS1 gene expression and the SNP alters the binding activity of transcription factors. In vitro analyses demonstrated that a fragment containing the SNP locus function as a regulatory region and that a fragment with A allele showed higher transactivation activity than one with G, especially in the presence of overexpressed c-Fos or c-Jun. Moreover, NSCLC patients with the A allele showed poorer prognosis than those with G at the SNP even after adjustment with various variables. In conclusion, the genetic polymorphism of the EPAS1 gene may lead to variation of its gene expression levels to drive progression of the cancer and serve as a prognostic marker for NSCLC.

  7. The A Allele at rs13419896 of EPAS1 Is Associated with Enhanced Expression and Poor Prognosis for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kian Leong; Yamane, Yuko; Gustine, Ewita; Isobe, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Hiyama, Keiko; Poellinger, Lorenz; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α, or EPAS1) is important for cancer progression, and is a putative biomarker for poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, molecular mechanisms underlying the EPAS1 overexpression are not still fully understood. We explored a role of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs13419896 located within intron 1 of the EPAS1 gene in regulation of its expression. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that a region including the rs13419896 SNP plays a role in regulation of the EPAS1 gene expression and the SNP alters the binding activity of transcription factors. In vitro analyses demonstrated that a fragment containing the SNP locus function as a regulatory region and that a fragment with A allele showed higher transactivation activity than one with G, especially in the presence of overexpressed c-Fos or c-Jun. Moreover, NSCLC patients with the A allele showed poorer prognosis than those with G at the SNP even after adjustment with various variables. In conclusion, the genetic polymorphism of the EPAS1 gene may lead to variation of its gene expression levels to drive progression of the cancer and serve as a prognostic marker for NSCLC. PMID:26263511

  8. Low EphA7 Expression Correlated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Jun-Yi; Bai, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiu-E; Wu, Jian-Yi; Chen, Bo; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Shao-Hong; Shen, Jian; Shen, Jin-Hui; Yao, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Lian-Zhu; Wu, Bao; Gu, Hong-Li; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Xin; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, EphA7 plays an important role in cancer. However, the expression and significance of Eph receptors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. Here, we detected the expression of EphA7 by immunohistochemistry in a sample of 352 patients with ESCC, and aimed to investigate the expression status of EphA7 in ESCC and its impact on prognosis. The results showed that low EphA7 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastases (N0: 29%; N1: 64%. p<0.001), poor degree of tumor differentiation (G1: 31%; G2: 49%; G3: 58%. p=0.009) and pTNM staging (I+II: 33%; III+IV: 58%. p<0.001). Furthermore, in a combined analysis, patients with low EphA7-expressing tumors showed a shorter overall survival than those with high expression, resulting in a five-year overall survival rate of 47.4% vs. 52.6%, respectively (p=0.016). Consequently, patients with a low EphA7 expression have poorer prognosis in ESCC compared with those manifesting high expression. PMID:26160986

  9. The combination of PD-L1 expression and decreased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with a poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hitomi; Kubo, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Rin; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Arima, Nobuyuki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Okido, Masayuki; Yamada, Mai; Kai, Masaya; Kishimoto, Junji; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2017-01-17

    This study included patients with primary triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who underwent resection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2014. Among the 248 TNBCs studied, programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression was detected in 103 (41.5%) tumors, and high levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were present in 118 (47.6%) tumors. PD-L1 expression correlated with high levels of TILs, but was not a prognostic factor. Patients with TILs-high tumors had better overall survival than those with TILs-low tumors (P = 0.016). There was a strong interaction between PD-L1 expression and TILs that was associated with both recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0018) and overall survival (P = 0.015). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that PD-L1-positive/TILs-low was an independent negative prognostic factor for both recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Our findings suggest that PD-L1-positive/TILs-low tumors are associated with a poor prognosis in patients with TNBC, and that it is important to focus on the combination of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs present in the tumor microenvironment. These biomarkers may be useful for stratification of TNBCs and for predicting prognosis and developing novel cancer immunotherapies.

  10. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL indicates a poor prognosis of cervical cancer and promotes carcinogenesis via PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongli; Sun, Guixia; Zhang, Hongxia; Tian, Jun; Li, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are playing critical roles in tumorgenesis. LncRNA ANRIL has been reported to promote tumor progression in types of cancers. However, the expression and function of ANRIL in cervical cancer are still largely unclear. We measured the expression of ANRIL in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines and analyzed its association with clinicopathological features and prognosis. Loss-of-function experiments were used to identify the biological function of ANRIL. Our results showed that the expression of lncRNA ANRIL was significantly increased both in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Patients with high ANRIL expression had advanced FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival than those with low ANRIL expression. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis suggested that high ANRIL expression was an independent prognostic factor of prognosis. Loss-of-function experiments showed that decreased expression of ANRIL inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer. Finally, western blot indicated that the PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be inactivated in cervical cancer cells after ANRIL inhibition. These results indicated that lncRNA ANRIL might play an important role in cervical cancer progression and could serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in cervical cancer.

  11. Presence of a putative tumor-initiating progenitor cell population predicts poor prognosis in smokers with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Aik T.; Mah, Vei; Nickerson, Derek W.; Gilbert, Jennifer L.; Ha, Vi Luan; Hegab, Ahmed E.; Horvath, Steve; Alavi, Mohammad; Maresh, Erin L.; Chia, David; Gower, Adam C.; Lenburg, Marc E.; Spira, Avrum; Solis, Luisa M.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Walser, Tonya C.; Wallace, William D.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Goodglick, Lee; Gomperts, Brigitte N.

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is the most important known risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Tobacco exposure results in chronic inflammation, tissue injury and repair. A recent hypothesis argues for a stem/progenitor cell involved in airway epithelial repair that may be a tumor-initiating cell in lung cancer, and which may be associated with recurrence and metastasis. We used immunostaining, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blots and lung cancer tissue microarrays to identify subpopulations of airway epithelial stem/progenitor cells under steady state conditions, normal repair, aberrant repair with premalignant lesions and lung cancer and their correlation with injury and prognosis. We identified a population of keratin 14 (K14)-expressing progenitor epithelial cells that was involved in repair after injury. Dysregulated repair resulted in persistence of K14+ cells in the airway epithelium in premalignant lesions. The presence of K14+ cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples predicted poorer outcomes. This was especially true in smokers where the presence of K14+ cells in NSCLC was predictive of metastasis. The presence of K14+ progenitor airway epithelial cells in NSCLC predicted a poor prognosis and this predictive value was strongest in smokers, where it also correlated with metastasis. This suggests that reparative K14+ progenitor cells may be tumor-initiating cells in this subgroup of smokers with NSCLC. PMID:20710044

  12. Decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression indicates early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with histological grade II tumor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng-Zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiao-Qing; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor, FOXF2, plays an important role in tissue development, extracellular matrix synthesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, implying that it may be associated with the metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. However, the relationship between FOXF2 expression and breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis, remains to be elucidated. In this study, FOXF2 mRNA levels in 305 primary breast cancer tissues were examined using RT-QPCR. Results showed that FOXF2 mRNA levels in primary breast cancer were negatively associated with tumor progression, including tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and clinical stage. Patients with low FOXF2 mRNA levels had a high risk of relapse and metastasis within three years. Low FOXF2 mRNA levels could predict shorter disease-free survival for those patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer. Taken together, we conclude that decreased FOXF2 expression indicates the early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer.

  13. Long interspersed nuclear element 1 hypomethylation is a marker of poor prognosis in stage IA non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kenichiro; Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Isao; Oda, Makoto; Watanabe, Go; Minamoto, Toshinari

    2010-04-15

    Global hypomethylation and the hypermethylation of gene promoter regions are common events in tumor DNA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of both global hypomethylation and gene promoter hypermethylation in DNA from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Genomic DNA was obtained from the tumor tissue of 379 NSCLC patients who underwent surgery. Methylation levels were measured by real-time PCR following bisulfite modification of DNA and were correlated with clinicopathologic parameters and patient prognosis. Methylation of long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1) was used as a surrogate marker for global methylation. Hypermethylation of the APC, CDH13, and RASSF1 promoter regions was also evaluated. Tumor tissue showed significantly higher CDH13 and RASSF1 methylation levels compared with normal lung tissue, but lower LINE-1 methylation levels. APC, RASSF1, and LINE-1 methylation levels were significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis of an initial cohort of 234 cases. APC and LINE-1 methylation remained significant prognostic factors in multivariate analysis that included age, gender, smoking history, histologic type, and pathologic stage. LINE-1 methylation showed marginally significant prognostic value in stage IA and IB disease. Expansion of the study cohort to 364 cases revealed that LINE-1 methylation had significant prognostic value for stage IA NSCLC patients in multivariate analysis. LINE-1 hypomethylation was an independent marker of poor prognosis in stage IA NSCLC. Validation of this finding in additional tumor cohorts could have clinical relevance for the management of early-stage NSCLC.

  14. TACC3 overexpression in cholangiocarcinoma correlates with poor prognosis and is a potential anti-cancer molecular drug target for HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-ming; Schemmer, Peter; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yan; Qian, Ya-wei; Qi, Wei-peng; Zhang, Jian; Shen, Qi; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been implicated in multiple malignant tumors, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) exert anti-cancer effects. However, the expression of HDACs and the anti-tumor mechanism of HDACIs in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that expression of HDACs 2, 3, and 8 were up-regulated in CCA tissues and those patients with high expression of HDAC2 and/or HDAC3 had a worse prognosis. In CCA cells, two HDACIs, trichostatin (TSA) and vorinostat (SAHA), suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis and G2/M cycle arrest. Microarray analysis revealed that TACC3 mRNA was down-regulated in CCA cells treated with TSA. TACC3 was highly expressed in CCA tissues and predicted a poor prognosis in CCA patients. TACC3 knockdown induced G2/M cycle arrest and suppressed the invasion, metastasis, and proliferation of CCA cells, both in vitro and in vivo. TACC3 overexpression reversed the effects of its knockdown. These findings suggest TACC3 may be a useful prognostic biomarker for CCA and is a potential therapeutic target for HDACIs. PMID:27705912

  15. Overexpression of cannabinoid receptor 1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is correlated with metastasis to lymph nodes and distant organs, and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hijiya, Naoki; Shibata, Tomotaka; Daa, Tsutomu; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsuura, Keiko; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nakada, Chisato; Iha, Hidekatsu; Inomata, Masafumi; Moriyama, Masatsugu

    2017-02-01

    In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the status of metastasis to lymph nodes is strongly associated with prognosis. Consequently, development of a biomarker to detect the presence of metastasis would be clinically valuable. In this study, we found that overexpression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) was applicable as a marker for prediction of metastasis in ESCC. CB1R overexpression was detected immunohistochemically in 54 of 88 cases (61.4%). The intensity of CB1R expression was uniform in both intraepithelial and invasive regions in each case, and was significantly correlated with the status of metastasis to lymph nodes (P = 0.046) and distant organs (P = 0.047). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that CB1R overexpression was independently associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.019). Biological analysis of CB1R overexpression using ESCC cell lines revealed that CB1R activation appeared to promote cell proliferation and invasion. On the basis of these findings, we propose that evaluation of CB1R expression status in biopsy specimens of ESCC using immunohistochemistry might be clinically useful for prediction of metastasis to lymph nodes and distant organs. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Polymicrobial Amniotic Fluid Infection with Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma and Other Bacteria Induces Severe Intra-Amniotic Inflammation Associated with Poor Perinatal Prognosis in Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Noriko; Yoneda, Satoshi; Niimi, Hideki; Ueno, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Shirou; Ito, Mika; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Urushiyama, Daichi; Hata, Kenichiro; Suda, Wataru; Hattori, Masahira; Kigawa, Mika; Kitajima, Isao; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    To study the relationship between perinatal prognosis in cases of preterm labor (PTL) and polymicrobial infection in amniotic fluid (AF) and intra-amniotic (IA) inflammation using a highly sensitive and reliable PCR-based method. To detect prokaryotes using a nested PCR-based method, eukaryote-made thermostable DNA polymerase without bacterial DNA contamination was used in combination with bacterial universal primers. We collected AF aseptically from 118 PTL cases and 50 term subjects. The prevalence of microorganisms was 33% (39/118) by PCR and only 7.6% (9/118) by culture. PTL caused by a combination of positive Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma and other bacteria had significantly higher AF IL-8 levels and a significantly shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery interval. Our newly established PCR method is useful for detecting IA microorganisms. Polymicrobial infection with Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma and other bacteria induces severe IA inflammation associated with poor perinatal prognosis in PTL. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Long non-coding RNA MVIH indicates a poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Nie, Feng-Qi; Zhu, Quan; Xu, Tong-Peng; Zou, Yan-Fen; Xie, Min; Sun, Ming; Xia, Rui; Lu, Kai-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as major players in governing fundamental biological processes, and many of which are misregulated in multiple cancers and likely to play a functional role in tumorigenesis. Therefore, identification of cancer-associated lncRNAs and investigation of their biological functions and molecular mechanisms are important for understanding the development and progression of cancer. lncRNA associated with microvascular invasion in HCC (lncRNA MVIH) was found to be generally upregulated in HCC. Moreover, MVIH overexpression could serve as an independent risk factor to predict poor RFS and promote tumor growth and metastasis via activating angiogenesis. However, its biological role and clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development and progression is unknown. In this study, we found that lncRNA MVIH levels were increased in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Its expression level was significantly correlated with TNM stages, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, patients with high levels of MVIH expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, knockdown of MVIH expression by siRNA could inhibit cell proliferation and invasion, while ectopic expression of MVIH promoted cell proliferation and invasion in NSCLC cells partly via regulating MMP2 and MMP9 protein expression. Our findings present that increased lncRNA MVIH could be identified as a poor prognostic biomarker in NSCLC and regulate cell proliferation and invasion.

  18. High Infiltration of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Influences Poor Prognosis in Human Gastric Cancer Patients, Associates With the Phenomenon of EMT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia; Yan, Yan; Yang, Ya; Wang, Li; Li, Min; Wang, Jizhao; Liu, Xu; Duan, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with poor prognosis in numerous human cancers and play important roles in tumor progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to invasion and metastasis in cancer. However, the associations between TAMs and EMT are not clear in gastric cancer (GC). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TAMs on EMT in human GC. TAMs marker CD68 and EMT-related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human GC tissues and their clinical significance were evaluated. A high level of infiltration of TAMs was associated with aggressive characteristics of tumor and an independent poor prognostic factor in human GC tissues. Infiltration of TAMs was also associated with EMT-related proteins in human GC tissues. Our findings suggest that the high level of infiltration TAMs was associated with aggressive features of GC and is an independent poor prognostic factor in GC patients. TAMs are associated with EMT induction in human GC tissues. The level of TAMs infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in GC. PMID:26871785

  19. High Infiltration of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Influences Poor Prognosis in Human Gastric Cancer Patients, Associates With the Phenomenon of EMT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Yan, Yan; Yang, Ya; Wang, Li; Li, Min; Wang, Jizhao; Liu, Xu; Duan, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jiansheng

    2016-02-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with poor prognosis in numerous human cancers and play important roles in tumor progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to invasion and metastasis in cancer. However, the associations between TAMs and EMT are not clear in gastric cancer (GC). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TAMs on EMT in human GC.TAMs marker CD68 and EMT-related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human GC tissues and their clinical significance were evaluated.A high level of infiltration of TAMs was associated with aggressive characteristics of tumor and an independent poor prognostic factor in human GC tissues. Infiltration of TAMs was also associated with EMT-related proteins in human GC tissues.Our findings suggest that the high level of infiltration TAMs was associated with aggressive features of GC and is an independent poor prognostic factor in GC patients. TAMs are associated with EMT induction in human GC tissues. The level of TAMs infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in GC.

  20. Association between Tumor Vasculogenic Mimicry and the Poor Prognosis of Gastric Cancer in China: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiujun; Yuan, Yuan; Jin, Zhichao; Xu, Tao; Gao, Yebo; Wei, Huamin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Hua, Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vasculogenic mimicry can promote tumor growth and metastasis. This article is aimed at conducting a systematic meta-analysis to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of vasculogenic mimicry and gastric cancer. Methods. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the VIP and Wanfang Database for eligible studies. We manually searched for printed journals and relevant textbooks. Subgroups analyses were performed based on the region, manuscript quality, methods of vasculogenic mimicry identification, pathology, and number of patients. Results. Nine studies with 997 patients were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between vasculogenic mimicry-positive patients and those with gastric cancer with poor overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.47), poor pathological grading, high tumor node metastasis clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, deep tumor invasion, and distant metastasis. Conclusions. Vasculogenic mimicry is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer in China. Clinical studies with large samples are needed worldwide and standardized protocols should be adopted in the future to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between gastric cancer and vasculogenic mimicry.