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Sample records for poor prognosis non-aml

  1. Factors predicting poor prognosis in ischemic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Añón, Ramón; Boscá, Marta Maia; Sanchiz, Vicente; Tosca, Joan; Almela, Pedro; Amorós, Cirilo; Benages, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    ). Stenosis was the only endoscopic finding that appeared more frequently in seriously ill patients than in slightly ill patients (66.6% vs 17.3%, P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: The factors that can predict poor prognosis of IC are the absence of hematochezia, tachycardia and peritonism, anemia and hyponatremia and stenosis. PMID:16937472

  2. Azacitidine. Poor-prognosis myelodysplasia: promising, but more data needed.

    PubMed

    2011-02-01

    Some myelodysplastic syndromes carry a poor prognosis. This is also the case for chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (related to myelodysplastic syndromes), and acute myeloblastic leukaemia, a frequent complication of myelodysplasia. The only treatment capable of providing long-term remission (in about 1 in 2 patients on average) is haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but this burdensome treatment can only be used in a minority of cases. Azacitidine (Vidaza, Celgene), an agent that blocks DNA synthesis, is the first drug to receive EU marketing authorisation in these settings. Its clinical evaluation is based on an unblinded trial that included 358 patients comparable to those discussed in the marketing authorisation. In addition to individually tailored symptomatic care, they were randomised to receive either azacitidine or conventional care regimens chosen by their physician (no treatment, low-dose cytarabine, or an anthracycline plus cytarabine). The median overall survival time was significantly longer with azacitidine (24.5 versus 15 months), and transfusion requirements were also reduced. Another comparative trial versus symptomatic treatment alone in 191 patients with various prognoses also showed an increase in survival time with azacitidine, but this study suffered from methodological flaws. The main adverse effects of azacitidine are potentially severe toxicity for various blood cells, gastrointestinal disorders, and reactions at the injection site. In practice, when haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is not feasible for poor-prognosis patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or related disorders, azacitidine can be used instead of disappointing standard treatments, even though more clinical evaluation is needed.

  3. Arpin downregulation in breast cancer is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Lomakina, Maria E; Lallemand, François; Vacher, Sophie; Molinie, Nicolas; Dang, Irene; Cacheux, Wulfran; Chipysheva, Tamara A; Ermilova, Valeria D; de Koning, Leanne; Dubois, Thierry; Bièche, Ivan; Alexandrova, Antonina Y; Gautreau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Arp2/3 complex is required for cell migration and invasion. The Arp2/3 complex and its activators, such as the WAVE complex, are deregulated in diverse cancers. Here we investigate the expression of Arpin, the Arp2/3 inhibitory protein that antagonises the WAVE complex. Methods: We used qRT–PCR and reverse phase protein arrays in a patient cohort with known clinical parameters and outcome, immunofluorescence in breast biopsy cryosections and breast cancer cell lines. Results: Arpin was downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels in mammary carcinoma cells. Arpin mRNA downregulation was associated with poor metastasis-free survival (MFS) on univariate analysis (P=0.022). High expression of the NCKAP1 gene that encodes a WAVE complex subunit was also associated with poor MFS on univariate analysis (P=0.0037) and was mutually exclusive with Arpin low. Arpin low or NCKAP1 high was an independent prognosis factor on multivariate analysis (P=0.0012) and was strongly associated with poor MFS (P=0.000064). Conclusions: Loss of the Arp2/3 inhibitory protein Arpin produces a similar poor outcome in breast cancer as high expression of the NCKAP1 subunit of the Arp2/3 activatory WAVE complex. PMID:26867158

  4. The challenge of poor-prognosis germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Toner, Guy C

    2007-05-01

    Patients who have a poor prognosis can be identified at presentation by well-defined prognostic factors. Prognostic groups as defined by the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification should be used in the clinic, in clinical trials, and when reporting results. No systemic treatment has been shown to improve outcome compared with four cycles of chemotherapy composed of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, which remains the standard of care. Surgery to resect residual masses after chemotherapy and in the salvage setting is a vital component of optimal care. The best outcomes occur with treatment at a center with experience and expertise in their management. Further major improvements are likely to require novel systemic therapies rather than modifications of existing approaches.

  5. Management of poor-prognosis testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Kiranpreet; Gilligan, Timothy D.; Stephenson, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the outcome of patients with intermediate-and poor-risk germ cell tumors at diagnosis is optimized by the use of risk-appropriate chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy surgical resection of residual masses. Currently, there is no role for high-dose chemotherapy in the first-line setting. Patients who progress on first-line chemotherapy or who relapse after an initial complete response also have a poor prognosis. In the setting of early relapse, the standard approach at most centers is conventional-dose, ifosfamide-based regimens and post-chemotherapy resection of residual masses. The treatment of patients with late relapse is complete surgical resection whenever feasible. Salvage chemotherapy for late relapse may be used prior to surgery in patients where a complete resection is not feasible. A complete surgical resection of all residual sites of disease after chemotherapy is critical for the prevention of relapse and the long-term survival of patients with advanced germ cell tumors. PMID:20535296

  6. Coping with Poor Prognosis in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, David A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The intensive care pediatrician who prophesies to parents that their child's illness is irreversible may encounter denial and hostility. Four cases are reported in which parents rejected their child's hopeless prognosis, counterprophesied miraculous cures, resolved to obtain exorcism, criticized the care, or accused nurses of neglect. Journal…

  7. High Hepsin expression predicts poor prognosis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Wenyi; Wang, Yanru; Peng, Peike; Li, Lili; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Li, Can; Yang, Caiting; Wang, Xuefei; Zhang, Chunyi; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Hepsin, a membrane-associated serine protease, is frequently upregulated in epithelial cancers and involved in cancer progression. Our study aims to describe the expression pattern and evaluate the clinical implication of hepsin in gastric cancer patients. The mRNA expression of hepsin was analyzed in 50 gastric cancer and matched non-tumor tissues, which was downregulated in 78% (39/50) of gastric cancer. By searching and analyzing four independent datasets from Oncomine, we obtained the similar results. Furthermore, we evaluated the hepsin expression by IHC in tissue microarray (TMA) containing 220 Gastric Cancer specimens. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were taken to access the prognosis of gastric cancer and predicted that hepsin protein expression was one of the significant and independent prognostic factors for overall survival of Gastric Cancer. PMID:27841306

  8. LINC00978 predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lin-lin; Chi, Ya-yun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Nai-si; Wang, Lin; Wu, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs in the human genome that involves in breast cancer development and progression. Here, we identify a lncRNA, LINC00978, which is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues compared with corresponding controls. Furthermore, LINC00978 expression is negatively associated with hormone receptor (HR) status in 195 breast cancer patients studied (p = 0.033). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis shows that patients with high LINC00978 expression have poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with low LINC00978 expression (p = 0.012), and multivariate analysis identifies LINC00978 as an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer (p = 0.008, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.270, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.237–4.165). Our study indicates that LINC00978 may be an oncogene in breast cancer, and can serve as a potential biomarker to predict prognosis in breast cancer patients. PMID:27897214

  9. CD73 is associated with poor prognosis in HNSCC

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wei; Yang, Rong; Lu, Wei; Liu, Zhe-Qi; Chen, Yi-Ming; Yang, Xi; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Li-Zhen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Xu; Chen, Wan-Tao; Ji, Tong; Zhang, Chen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    CD73 is a cell surface immunosuppressive enzyme involved in tumor progression and metastasis. While patients whose cancer cells express elevated CD73 are typically associated with an unfavorable outcome, the clinical impact of CD73 expression in patients with Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the prognostic significance of CD73 in HNSCC using gene and protein expression analyses. Our results demonstrate that high levels of CD73 are significantly associated with reduced overall survival in patients with HNSCC. We also investigated the functional role of CD73 in vitro and demonstrated that CD73 promotes HNSCC migration and invasion through adenosine A3R stimulation and the activation of EGF/EGFR signaling. Moreover, in vivo xenograft studies demonstrated that CD73 promotes tumorigenesis. In conclusion, our study highlights a role for CD73 as a poor prognostic marker of patient survival and also as a candidate therapeutic target in HNSCCs. PMID:27557512

  10. B7-H4 is Predictive of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, YongHui; Li, ZhiHan

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, some studies were performed to evaluate the relevance of B7-H4 and gastric cancer (GC) prognosis. However, the results remained controversial. Therefore, we performed the present meta-analysis. Material/Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Web of Science databases. All data were extracted and reviewed from each eligible study independently by 2 investigators. The strength of association between B7-H4 and GC prognosis was assessed by computing odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Six studies that evaluated the association between B7-H4 and GC prognosis were included. The results showed a statistically significant association of B7-H4 and GC prognosis (OR=1.63, 95%CI=1.30–2.03). Furthermore, we conducted subgroup analysis based on source of B7-H4; the results from blood (OR=1.71; 95%CI, 1.09–2.68) and tissue (OR=1.60; 95%CI, 1.03–2.07) indicated B7-H4 was significantly associated with poor prognosis. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that GC patients with high B7-H4 have poor prognosis. PMID:27820598

  11. Maternal response to high-risk obstetric telemedicine consults when perinatal prognosis is poor.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Stephanie N; Rhoads, Sarah J; Green, Angela L; Ott, Rachel E; Sandlin, Adam T; Magann, Everett F

    2013-10-01

    This is a qualitative descriptive study evaluating the maternal response after the woman has learned her pregnancy has a poor prognosis via telemedicine rather than in a traditional, face-to-face, consultation method. In general, telemedicine was positively viewed by the participants; however, the experience may be markedly improved by implementing several simple changes in the overall consultative process.

  12. Sixteen-kinase gene expression identifies luminal breast cancers with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Pascal; Cervera, Nathalie; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Chabannon, Christian; Charpin, Colette; Chaffanet, Max; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Bertucci, François

    2008-02-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease made of various molecular subtypes with different prognosis. However, evolution remains difficult to predict within some subtypes, such as luminal A, and treatment is not as adapted as it should be. Refinement of prognostic classification and identification of new therapeutic targets are needed. Using oligonucleotide microarrays, we profiled 227 breast cancers. We focused our analysis on two major breast cancer subtypes with opposite prognosis, luminal A (n = 80) and basal (n = 58), and on genes encoding protein kinases. Whole-kinome expression separated luminal A and basal tumors. The expression (measured by a kinase score) of 16 genes encoding serine/threonine kinases involved in mitosis distinguished two subgroups of luminal A tumors: Aa, of good prognosis and Ab, of poor prognosis. This classification and its prognostic effect were validated in 276 luminal A cases from three independent series profiled across different microarray platforms. The classification outperformed the current prognostic factors in univariate and multivariate analyses in both training and validation sets. The luminal Ab subgroup, characterized by high mitotic activity compared with luminal Aa tumors, displayed clinical characteristics and a kinase score intermediate between the luminal Aa subgroup and the luminal B subtype, suggesting a continuum in luminal tumors. Some of the mitotic kinases of the signature represent therapeutic targets under investigation. The identification of luminal A cases of poor prognosis should help select appropriate treatment, whereas the identification of a relevant kinase set provides potential targets.

  13. Underexpression of Specific Interferon Genes Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Because the prognosis of melanoma is challenging and inaccurate when using current clinical approaches, clinicians are seeking more accurate molecular markers to improve risk models. Accordingly, we performed a survival analysis on 404 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort of skin cutaneous melanoma. Using our recently developed gene network model, we identified biological signatures that confidently predict the prognosis of melanoma (p-value < 10−5). Our model predicted 38 cases as low–risk and 54 cases as high–risk. The probability of surviving at least 5 years was 64% for low–risk and 14% for high–risk cases. In particular, we found that the overexpression of specific genes in the mitotic cell cycle pathway and the underexpression of specific genes in the interferon pathway are both associated with poor prognosis. We show that our predictive model assesses the risk more accurately than the traditional Clark staging method. Therefore, our model can help clinicians design treatment strategies more effectively. Furthermore, our findings shed light on the biology of melanoma and its prognosis. This is the first in vivo study that demonstrates the association between the interferon pathway and the prognosis of melanoma. PMID:28114321

  14. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS): do concomitant esophageal malformations indicate a poor prognosis?

    PubMed

    Küker, W; Friese, S; Riethmüller, J; Krägeloh-Mann, I

    2000-12-01

    Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS) is a syndrome of cortical malformation characterized by faciopharyngoglossomasticatory diplegia. We report on two cases of CBPS with associated esophageal malformations and a poor mental and motor development. The association of CBPS and esophageal malformations may indicate a subgroup of patients with a very early prenatal injury, characterised by a bad prognosis due to severe cortical disorganization. However, it can not be excluded that the association of CBPS and esophageal malformation is purely coincidental.

  15. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Involving Multiple Organs: An Unusual Case with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ranaivo, Irina Mamisoa; Andrianarison, Malalaniaina; Razanakoto, Naina Harinjara; Ramarozatovo, Lala Soavina

    2016-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferative disorder that usually affects the lymph nodes. Although extranodal involvement has been reported in diverse sites, manifestation in the cardiovascular system is extremely rare. Specifically, cardiac involvement in Rosai-Dorfman disease is an extraordinarily infrequent event. We describe a case of a 36-year-old female who presented Rosai-Dorfman disease of multiple organs including the heart, with poor prognosis. PMID:27872644

  16. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  17. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A.; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments. PMID:27833611

  18. Circulating Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 Associates with Weight Loss and Poor Prognosis in Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arner, Peter; Henjes, Frauke; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Darmanis, Spyros; Dahlman, Ingrid; Iresjö, Britt-Marie; Naredi, Peter; Agustsson, Thorhallur; Lundholm, Kent; Nilsson, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer cachexia (CC) is linked to poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms promoting this condition are not known, several circulating proteins have been proposed to contribute. We analyzed the plasma proteome in cancer subjects in order to identify factors associated with cachexia. Design/Subjects Plasma was obtained from a screening cohort of 59 patients, newly diagnosed with suspected gastrointestinal cancer, with (n = 32) or without (n = 27) cachexia. Samples were subjected to proteomic profiling using 760 antibodies (targeting 698 individual proteins) from the Human Protein Atlas project. The main findings were validated in a cohort of 93 patients with verified and advanced pancreas cancer. Results Only six proteins displayed differential plasma levels in the screening cohort. Among these, Carnosine Dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) was confirmed by sandwich immunoassay to be lower in CC (p = 0.008). In both cohorts, low CNDP1 levels were associated with markers of poor prognosis including weight loss, malnutrition, lipid breakdown, low circulating albumin/IGF1 levels and poor quality of life. Eleven of the subjects in the discovery cohort were finally diagnosed with non-malignant disease but omitting these subjects from the analyses did not have any major influence on the results. Conclusions In gastrointestinal cancer, reduced plasma levels of CNDP1 associate with signs of catabolism and poor outcome. These results, together with recently published data demonstrating lower circulating CNDP1 in subjects with glioblastoma and metastatic prostate cancer, suggest that CNDP1 may constitute a marker of aggressive cancer and CC. PMID:25898255

  19. MACC1 upregulation promotes gastric cancer tumor cell metastasis and predicts a poor prognosis*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiu-ping; Xiang, Cheng; Wang, Gang; Lei, Ke-feng; Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    In various studies, metastasis associated with colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been frequently reported to be abnormally highly expressed in human lung cancer, colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study focuses on the association of MACC1 expression with gastric cancer (GC). During our experiment, the MACC1 expression was tested in 105 GC samples using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients were summarized. During analysis, MACC1 distribution in GC samples with distant metastasis was higher than that in normal samples and in tumors with no dissemination. Subsequently, a lower 5-year survival rate had a strong correlation with high MACC1 expression. As a consequence, the present results suggest that MACC1 is more frequently expressed in a poor prognosis phenotype of GC and acts as a promising prognostic prediction parameter for GC. PMID:27143263

  20. MACC1 upregulation promotes gastric cancer tumor cell metastasis and predicts a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiu-Ping; Xiang, Cheng; Wang, Gang; Lei, Ke-Feng; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    In various studies, metastasis associated with colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has been frequently reported to be abnormally highly expressed in human lung cancer, colon cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Our study focuses on the association of MACC1 expression with gastric cancer (GC). During our experiment, the MACC1 expression was tested in 105 GC samples using an immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients were summarized. During analysis, MACC1 distribution in GC samples with distant metastasis was higher than that in normal samples and in tumors with no dissemination. Subsequently, a lower 5-year survival rate had a strong correlation with high MACC1 expression. As a consequence, the present results suggest that MACC1 is more frequently expressed in a poor prognosis phenotype of GC and acts as a promising prognostic prediction parameter for GC.

  1. [Fetal supraventricular tachycardia associated with anasarca: poor prognosis despite treatment. Apropos of two cases].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, C; de Geeter, B; Zimmermann, A; Gottwalles, Y; Boulenc, J M

    1998-05-01

    Two cases of foetal supraventricular tachycardia with hydrops with fatal outcomes illustrate the poor general prognosis of this condition. The absence of therapeutic consensus, of large series in the existing literature, does not prevent logical and reasonable management based on rhythmological, pharmacological and prognostic criteria. A combined approach associating antiarrhythmic therapy by the transplacental and intrafunicular approaches seems acceptable now that funicular puncture can be undertaken easily, and certain antiarrhythmic molecules suggest encouraging results. It is important to try to assess the haemodynamic tolerance by foetal Doppler echocardiography because the foetal prognosis depends on ischaemic cerebral lesions induced by anoxia, difficult to diagnose in utero: when observed, aggressive and occasionally dangerous therapies to foetus and mother may be justified in these extreme situations of foetoplacental hydrops.

  2. MET4 Expression Predicts Poor Prognosis of Gastric Cancers with Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Naoko; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Takahata, Risa; Brian, Cao; Ping, Zhao; Ito, Nozomi; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Ichikura, Takashi; Hase, Kazuo; Vande Woude, George F; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-12-23

    Role of HGF/SF-MET signaling is important in cancer progression, but its relation with Helicobacter pylori-positive gastric cancers remains to be elucidated. In total, 201 patients with primary gastric carcinoma who underwent curative or debulking resection without preoperative chemotherapy were studied. MET4 and anti-HGF/SF mAbs were used for immunohistochemical analysis. Survival of gastric cancer patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of MET-staining status with outcome. The effect of live H. pylori bacteria on cell signaling and biological behaviors was evaluated using gastric cancer cell lines. MET4-positive gastric cancers showed poorer prognosis than MET4-negative cases (overall survival, P = 0.02; relapse-free survival, P = 0.06). Positive staining for MET4 was also a statistically significant factor to predict poor prognosis in H. pylori-positive cases (overall survival, P < 0.01; relapse-free survival, P = 0.01) but not in H. pylori-negative cases. Gastric cancers positively stained with both HGF/SF and MET4 showed a tendency of worst prognosis. Stimulation of MET-positive gastric cancer cells with live H. pylori bacteria directly up-regulated MET phosphorylation and activated MET downstream signals such as p44/42MAPK and Akt, conferring cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activity. In conclusion, positive staining for MET4 was useful for predicting poor prognosis of gastric cancers with H. pylori infection. H. pylori stimulated MET-positive gastric cancers and activated downstream signaling, thereby promoting cancer proliferation and anti-apoptotic activity. These results support the importance of H. pylori elimination from gastric epithelial surface in clinical therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Wild-type APC predicts poor prognosis in microsatellite-stable proximal colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jorissen, Robert N; Christie, Michael; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sakthianandeswaren, Anuratha; Li, Shan; Love, Christopher; Xu, Zheng-Zhou; Molloy, Peter L; Jones, Ian T; McLaughlin, Stephen; Ward, Robyn L; Hawkins, Nicholas J; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Moore, James; Burgess, Antony W; Busam, Dana; Zhao, Qi; Strausberg, Robert L; Lipton, Lara; Desai, Jayesh; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver M

    2015-01-01

    Background: APC mutations (APC-mt) occur in ∼70% of colorectal cancers (CRCs), but their relationship to prognosis is unclear. Methods: APC prognostic value was evaluated in 746 stage I–IV CRC patients, stratifying for tumour location and microsatellite instability (MSI). Microarrays were used to identify a gene signature that could classify APC mutation status, and classifier ability to predict prognosis was examined in an independent cohort. Results: Wild-type APC microsatellite stable (APC-wt/MSS) tumours from the proximal colon showed poorer overall and recurrence-free survival (OS, RFS) than APC-mt/MSS proximal, APC-wt/MSS distal and APC-mt/MSS distal tumours (OS HR⩾1.79, P⩽0.015; RFS HR⩾1.88, P⩽0.026). APC was a stronger prognostic indicator than BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, TP53, CpG island methylator phenotype or chromosomal instability status (P⩽0.036). Microarray analysis similarly revealed poorer survival in MSS proximal cancers with an APC-wt-like signature (P=0.019). APC status did not affect outcomes in MSI tumours. In a validation on 206 patients with proximal colon cancer, APC-wt-like signature MSS cases showed poorer survival than APC-mt-like signature MSS or MSI cases (OS HR⩾2.50, P⩽0.010; RFS HR⩾2.14, P⩽0.025). Poor prognosis APC-wt/MSS proximal tumours exhibited features of the sessile serrated neoplasia pathway (P⩽0.016). Conclusions: APC-wt status is a marker of poor prognosis in MSS proximal colon cancer. PMID:26305864

  4. LDHB may be a significant predictor of poor prognosis in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Chen, Yu; Bai, Pingping; Wang, Jiaqiang; Liu, Zhenhui; Wang, Tao; Cai, Qiqing

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is considered as the key glycolytic enzyme and involved in tumor initiation and metabolism. Here, we firstly found that LDHB was highly expressed in osteosarcoma cell lines. Expression profiling indicated that LDHB mRNA was elevated in osteosarcoma tissues with metastasis versus without metastasis, and LDHB high expression predicted a poor prognosis in patients. After LDHB knockdown by siRNA transfection, cell growth and proliferation were inhibited and presented a dose-dependent cell death via MTT assay. Meanwhile, wound healing and matrigel invasion assay revealed that LDHB knockdown inhibited migration and invasion activities in osteosarcoma cells. We further constructed tissue microarray in 40 osteosarcoma tissues. Correlation between LDHB and clinicopathological features indicated that LDHB expressions were associated with tumor TNM stage, recurrence and survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curve revealed that overall survival was significantly decreased in patients with high expression of LDHB. Patients with recurrence or advanced stage showed an increased LDHB, suggesting that increased LDHB was closely associated with a poor prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. Thus, LDHB can be considered as a prognostic marker for tumor recurrence and poor overall survival in osteosarcoma. PMID:27904684

  5. Overexpression of NDRG1 is an indicator of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chua, Mei-Sze; Sun, Hongbo; Cheung, Siu T; Mason, Veronica; Higgins, John; Ross, Douglas T; Fan, Sheung T; So, Samuel

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly lethal cancer that typically has poor prognosis. Prognostic markers can help in its clinical management and in understanding the biology of poor prognosis. Through an earlier gene expression study, we identified N-Myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) to be significantly highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma compared to nontumor liver. As NDRG1 is a differentiation-related gene with putative metastasis suppressor activity, we investigated the clinical significance of its overexpression. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using an independent set of patient samples confirmed the significant overexpression of NDRG1 in hepatocellular carcinoma compared to nontumor liver samples (P<0.001). Additionally, high levels of NDRG1 transcript correlated with shorter overall survival (P<0.001), late tumor stage (P=0.001), vascular invasion (P=0.003), large tumor size (P=0.011), and high Edmondson-Steiner histological grade (P=0.005). Using immunohistochemistry, NDRG1 protein was found to be significantly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma samples compared to nontumor liver or cirrhotic and benign liver lesions (P<0.001). Among the hepatocellular carcinoma samples, those which are moderately and poorly differentiated express higher levels of NDRG1 protein than those which are well-differentiated (P<0.005). Additionally, hepatocellular carcinomas with vascular invasion also express elevated levels of NDRG1 protein compared to those without vascular invasion (significant at P<0.005). Our results suggest NDRG1 to be a likely tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, the overexpression of which is correlated with tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, and overall survival. Its significantly elevated expression in hepatocellular carcinoma could be a useful indicator of tumor aggressiveness and therefore patient prognosis.

  6. Cystic brain metastasis is associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing; Huang, Zhou; Wu, Shikai; Ding, Lijuan; Shen, Ge; Cha, Lei; Wang, Junliang; Song, Santai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastasis (BM) with a cystic component from breast cancer is rare and largely uncharacterized. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of cystic BM in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. Results A total of 35 eligible patients with cystic BM and 255 patients with solid BM were analyzed. Three factors were significantly associated with an increased probability of developing cystic lesions: age at diagnosis ≤ 40 years, age at BM ≤ 45 years, and poor histological grade (p < 0.05). Patients with cystic metastasis were also characterized by a larger metastasis volume, a shorter progression-free survival (PFS) following their first treatment for BM, and poor overall survival after BM (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that local control of cystic BM was only potentially achieved for HER2-negative primary tumors (p = 0.084). Methods Breast cancer patients with parenchymal BM were reviewed from consecutive cases treated at our institution. Cystic BM was defined when the volume of a cystic lesion was greater than 50% of the aggregated volume of all lesions present. Clinicopathologic and radiographic variables were correlated with development of cystic lesions and with prognosis of cystic BM. Conclusions This study shows that cystic BM from breast cancer, a special morphological type of BM, had worse prognosis than the more commonly observed solid BM. Younger age and low tumor grade were associated with the development of cystic lesions. Further comprehensive research and management of cystic BM are warranted to improve its poor prognosis. PMID:27659537

  7. High expression of FOXR2 in breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Song, Haiping; He, Wenshan; Huang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Huiqiong; Huang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Forkhead box protein R2 (FOXR2) is associated with human central nervous system neoplasms. However, the expression level of FOXR2 in breast cancer specimens remains largely unknown. To identify whether FOXR2 can serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining were utilized to detect the expression of FOXR2. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of FOXR2 in breast cancer samples were novelty higher compared to non-tumorous breast tissues. IHC results revealed FOXR2 expression was significantly correlated to classifications tumor size (p = 0.007) and Ki-67 (p = 0.019). The patients with high expression of FOXR2 had a significantly poor prognosis compared to those of low expression (p = 0.003), especially in the patients with tumor size ≥2 cm (p = 0.006) and lymph node metastasis status (p = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that FOXR2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer patients (p = 0.035). This study first identifies that FOXR2 may be an important molecular marker for diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer.

  8. Loss of Bad expression confers poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Liu, Dan; Chen, Bojiang; Zeng, Jing; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shangfu; Mo, Xianming; Li, Weimin

    2012-09-01

    Proapoptotic BH-3-only protein Bad (Bcl-Xl/Bcl-2-associated death promoter homolog, Bad) initiates apoptosis in human cells, and contributes to tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistant in malignancies. This study explored association between the Bad expression level and prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In our study, a cohort of 88 resected primary NSCLC cases were collected and analyzed. Bad expression level was determined via immunohistochemical staining assay. The prognostic significances of Bad expression were evaluated with univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The results showed that compared with normal lung tissues, Bad expression level significantly decreased in NSCLC (P < 0.05). Bad expression was associated with adjuvant therapy status. Loss of Bad independently predicted poor prognosis in whole NSCLC cohort and early stage subjects (T1 + T2 and N0 + N1) (all P < 0.05). Overall survival time was also drastically shortened for Bad negative phenotype in NSCLC patients with smoking history, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study provided clinical evidence that loss of Bad is an independent and powerful predictor of adverse prognosis in NSCLC. Bad protein could be a new biomarker for selecting individual therapy strategies and predicting therapeutic response in subjects with NSCLC.

  9. Platelet-lymphocyte ratio acts as an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiong; Qin, Boyu; Zhao, Weihong; Yang, Junlan

    2017-01-01

    Platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a hematological parameter which is investigated as a biomarker for prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Due to the controversial results from previous studies, we performed a meta-analysis. Databases of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched to identify eligible studies. STATA version 12.0 was used for statistical analysis. Seven studies with 3,741 patients were ultimately included in this meta-analysis. High PLR was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.07–2.25, p = 0.022) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.3-2.3, p < 0.001) in breast cancer patients. Subgroup analyses disclosed that elevated PLR could predict worse OS in Asian populations and poor DFS in both Asian and non-Asian patients. In addition, PLR remains a significant prognostic marker for OS in patients receiving systemic treatment (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.06–2.99, p = 0.03) and patients receiving chemotherapy (HR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.09–7.26, p = 0.032). High PLR also indicates poor DFS in patients who receive chemotherapy (HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.47–4.61, p = 0.001), surgery (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.12–2.89, p = 0.016) and systemic treatment (HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.03–4.01, p = 0.042). Moreover, PLR was also in association with HER-2 positivity (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.2–1.83, p < 0.001). In conclusion, this meta-analysis revealed that PLR could serve as an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. PMID:27906679

  10. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype related to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shushan; Wang, Zengfang; Wang, Zengyan; Duan, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Jun; Sun, Beicheng

    2016-08-01

    Published studies showed controversial findings about the relationship between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype and clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between GSTM1 null genotype and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify prospective or retrospective cohort studies assessing the association of GSTM1 null genotype with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) in colorectal cancer. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to assess the association of GSTM1 null genotype with OS or DFS. Finally, 15 studies from 14 publications with 4326 colorectal cancer patients were included into the meta-analysis. There was no heterogeneity in the meta-analysis relating OS (I (2) = 0 %) and DFS (I (2) = 0 %). Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.07-1.30, P = 0.001). In addition, GSTM1 null genotype was also significantly associated with poor DFS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.03-1.28, P = 0.015). No obvious risk of publication bias was observed. GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with poor OS and DFS in patients with colorectal cancer, which suggests that GSTM1 null genotype confers poor effect on the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  11. APOBEC3G expression is correlated with poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lan, Huanrong; Jin, Ketao; Gan, Meifu; Wen, Shouxiang; Bi, Tienan; Zhou, Shenkang; Zhu, Naibiao; Teng, Lisong; Yu, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    Increased expression of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G) in human primary colorectal tumors and hepatic metastasis has been detected. However, the clinical relevance of APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection. APOBEC3G expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded primary colon carcinoma and paired hepatic metastasis tissues from 136 patients with liver metastasis from colon carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection. The relation between APOBEC3G expression and clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in these 136 patients was retrospectively examined. The prognostic significance of negative or positive APOBEC3G expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Positive expression of APOBEC3G was correlated with liver metastasis of colon cancer. Univariate analysis indicated significantly worse overall survival (OS) for patients with a positive APOBEC3G expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis than for patients with a negative APOBEC3G expression. Multivariate analysis showed positive-APOBEC3G in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis to be an independent prognostic factor for OS after hepatic resection (P = 0.000). Positive expression of APOBEC3G was statistically significantly associated with poor prognosis of colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis. APOBEC3G could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection.

  12. High PARP-1 expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ying; Gao, Dongna; Xing, Jing; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was previously demonstrated to be overexpressed in numerous malignant tumors and associated with invasiveness and poor prognosis. However, the expression of the PARP-1 protein in gastric cancer and its association with clinical outcomes requires further investigation. In the present study, the expression of PARP-1 in 564 gastric cancer tissues and 335 tumor-adjacent control tissues is investigated, using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry. PARP-1 expression levels were demonstrated to be significantly higher in gastric cancer tissue samples, as compared with control tissue samples. In gastric cancer, high PARP-1 expression levels were significantly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection (P=0.032), decreased differentiation (P<0.001), increased depth of invasion (P=0.037), presence of lymphatic invasion (P<0.001), presence of lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P=0.015). High PARP-1 expression levels were associated with a significantly shorter overall survival rate (P<0.001) and disease-free survival rate (P=0.001) in patients with gastric cancer, particularly a subset of patients with H. pylori infection or an advanced TNM stage. In addition, univariate analysis indicated that PARP-1 high expression levels were significantly associated with a poor prognosis in gastric cancer. These results suggest that PARP-1 expression may be involved in the progression and prognosis of gastric cancer, particularly H. pylori-positive or advanced-stage gastric cancer. PMID:27895737

  13. Cell division cycle 20 overexpression predicts poor prognosis for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run; Sun, Qi; Sun, Jing; Wang, Xin; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Wang, Anpeng; Jiang, Feng; Xu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The cell division cycle 20, a key component of spindle assembly checkpoint, is an essential activator of the anaphase-promoting complex. Aberrant expression of cell division cycle 20 has been detected in various human cancers. However, its clinical significance has never been deeply investigated in non-small-cell lung cancer. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas database and using some certain online databases, we validated overexpression of cell division cycle 20 in both messenger RNA and protein levels, explored its clinical significance, and evaluated the prognostic role of cell division cycle 20 in non-small-cell lung cancer. Cell division cycle 20 expression was significantly correlated with sex (p = 0.003), histological classification (p < 0.0001), and tumor size (p = 0.0116) in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. In lung adenocarcinoma patients, overexpression of cell division cycle 20 was significantly associated with bigger primary tumor size (p = 0.0023), higher MKI67 level (r = 0.7618, p < 0.0001), higher DNA ploidy level (p < 0.0001), and poor prognosis (hazard ratio = 2.39, confidence interval: 1.87-3.05, p < 0.0001). However, in lung squamous cell carcinoma patients, no significant association of cell division cycle 20 expression was observed with any clinical parameter or prognosis. Overexpression of cell division cycle 20 is associated with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and its overexpression can also be used to identify high-risk groups. In conclusion, cell division cycle 20 might serve as a potential biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  14. Nestin expression as an independent indicator of poor prognosis for patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    KURATA, KENTO; ONODA, NAOYOSHI; NODA, SATORU; KASHIWAGI, SHINICHIRO; ASANO, YUKA; KAWAJIRI, HIDEMI; TAKASHIMA, TSUTOMU; TANAKA, SAYAKA; OHSAWA, MASAHIKO; HIRAKAWA, KOSEI

    2015-01-01

    The protein nestin, a neuronal stem cell marker, has been reported to indicate a poor prognosis in various tumours. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans, and its molecular background has not been identified. The present study evaluated the expression of nestin and its significance in ATC. Tissue samples from 23 patients with ATC were subjected to immunohistochemical staining and the staining intensity of nestin in the cytoplasm was evaluated. The expression of nestin in the tumour cytoplasm was confirmed in 6 of the 23 tissue samples (26.1%). Between the nestin-positive group (n=6) and the nestin-negative group (n=17), there were no significant differences in the clinicopathological factors of the patients. However, the nestin-positive group exhibited significantly worse prognoses than the nestin-negative group (median survival time, 86.5 vs. 306 days; P<0.01, log-rank test). The multivariate analysis indicated that nestin expression was a prognostic indicator for the ATC patients (hazard ratio, 5.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.63–19.50; P<0.01), which is independent of the known clinical indicators. Nestin expression has the potential to be an independent indicator of a poor prognosis for patients with ATC. PMID:26622582

  15. Deregulation of COMMD1 Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Taskinen, Minna; Louhimo, Riku; Koivula, Satu; Chen, Ping; Rantanen, Ville; Holte, Harald; Delabie, Jan; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Björkholm, Magnus; Fluge, Øystein; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Fjordén, Karin; Jerkeman, Mats; Eriksson, Mikael; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Leppä, Sirpa

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite improved survival for the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the prognosis after relapse is poor. The aim was to identify molecular events that contribute to relapse and treatment resistance in DLBCL. Methods We analysed 51 prospectively collected pretreatment tumour samples from clinically high risk patients treated in a Nordic phase II study with dose-dense chemoimmunotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis with high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression microarrays. Major finding was validated at the protein level immunohistochemically in a trial specific tissue microarray series of 70, and in an independent validation series of 146 patients. Results We identified 31 genes whose expression changes were strongly associated with copy number aberrations. In addition, gains of chromosomes 2p15 and 18q12.2 were associated with unfavourable survival. The 2p15 aberration harboured COMMD1 gene, whose expression had a significant adverse prognostic impact on survival. Immunohistochemical analysis of COMMD1 expression in two series confirmed the association of COMMD1 expression with poor prognosis. Conclusion COMMD1 is a potential novel prognostic factor in DLBCLs. The results highlight the value of integrated comprehensive analysis to identify prognostic markers and genetic driver events not previously implicated in DLBCL. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01502982 PMID:24625556

  16. Elevated Aurora B expression contributes to chemoresistance and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqian; Jiang, Chunling; Li, Huilan; Lv, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Qian, Xiaolong; Fu, Li; Xu, Bo; Guo, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Aurora-B is a major kinase responsible for appropriate mitotic progression. Elevated expression of Aurora-B has been frequently associated with several types of cancer, including breast cancer. However, it is not clear whether the alteration contributes to tumor responses to therapies and prognosis. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Aurora-B, S1981p-ATM, Ki67, and p53 in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 312 invasive breast cancer patients. The correlation between disease-free-survival (DFS) and Aurora-B expression was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine whether Aurora-B was an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer. We found that Aurora-B expression was correlated with the proliferation index (P < 0.001) and p53 expression (P = 0.014) in breast cancer tissues. Further we found that Aurora-B expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and histological grade (P = 0.001). Multivariate analyses indicated that elevated Aurora-B expression predicted a poor survival. In a subgroup of patients that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, we found that elevated Aurora-B contributed to chemoresistance (P = 0.011). In conclusion, elevated Aurora-B expression in breast cancer patients contributes to chemoresistance and predicts poor prognosis.

  17. Cancer stem cell markers predict a poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Yang, Guosheng; Jiang, Rui; Cheng, Yong; Yang, Haifan; Pei, Lijun; Qiu, Xiaofu

    2016-01-01

    Background Relevant markers of CSCs may serve as prognostic biomarkers of RCC. However, their actual prognostic significance remains inconclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to reevaluate the association of CSCs-relevant markers (CXCR4, CD133, CD44, CD105) expression with RCC prognosis more precisely. Methods PubMed and Embase were searched to look for eligible studies. The pooled hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to reassess the association of CSCs markers expression and RCC prognosis of overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and progression-free survival (PFS). Results There were 25 relevant articles, encompassing 2673 RCC patients, eligible for meta-analysis. Overall pooled analysis suggested that high CSCs markers expression predicted poor OS (HR, 2.10, 95% CI: 1.73–2.55) and DFS (HR, 3.77, 95% CI: 2.30–6.19). High CXCR4 expression predicted worse OS (HR, 2.57, 95% CI: 1.95–3.40), CSS (HR,1.97, 95% CI: 1.50–2.59), and DFS (HR, 5.82, 95% CI: 3.01–11.25). CD44 over-expression correlated with a poor OS(HR,1.58, 95% CI: 1.14–2.18), CSS (HR, 2.58, 95% CI: 1.27–5.23), and DFS (HR, 4.49, 95% CI: 2.12–9.53) in RCC patients. CD133 was an independent favorable prognostic factor for CSS (HR, 0.4, 95% CI: 0.29–0.54). Conclusions The presence of CSCs markers correlates with poor RCC outcome. CSCs may be potentially utilized as prognostic markers to stratify RCC patients, probably representing also a novel potential therapeutic target. PMID:27588469

  18. Invasive micropapillary mucinous carcinoma of the breast is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Yang, Mu; Li, Zhenhua; Guo, Xiaojing; Lin, Yang; Lang, Ronggang; Shen, Beibei; Pringle, Gordon; Zhang, Xinmin; Fu, Li

    2015-06-01

    Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of breast (IMpC) is a special type of breast cancer with frequent lymph node metastasis (LNM) and poor prognosis, while pure mucinous carcinoma of breast (PMC) is generally associated with infrequent LNM and better prognosis. A similar micropapillary epithelial growth pattern has been described in PMC that was named as invasive micropapillary mucinous carcinoma (IMpMC), but its prognostic significance is as yet not known. A retrospective review of 531 cases of PMC in 43,685 cases of breast cancer diagnosed over a 10-year period was conducted to assess the frequency of IMpMC and its prognostic implications. IMpMC was identified in 134 (25.2 %) of the 531 PMC cases. Compared to conventional PMC (cPMC), IMpMC was found more frequently in younger patients and in tumors with increased frequency of LNM and lymphovascular invasion, and higher HER2 expression. In stage-matched Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with stage II-III IMpMC suffered a decreased overall survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) than matched cPMC patients. Multivariate analysis confirmed the presence of IMpMC morphology was an independent unfavorable predictor for LNM and RFS of PMC. However, decreased LNM, lower nuclear grade, higher expression of ER and PR, less expression of HER2, and better prognosis were identified in IMpMC when compared with IMpC (n = 281). This is the first study to show the prognostic significance of IMpMC in a large cohort. IMpMC pursues a more aggressive clinical course than cPMC and should be managed differently; therefore, recognition of IMpMC and its accurate diagnosis are clinically important.

  19. Autophagy may promote carcinoma cell invasion and correlate with poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Takeo; Sato, Yasunori; Ren, Xiang Shan; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Hirano, Satoshi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2014-01-01

    The role of autophagy in cholangiocarcinoma is poorly understood. This study investigated its involvement in cholangiocarcinoma, focusing on carcinoma cell invasion and prognostic significance using cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, CCKS1 and HuCCT1, and human tissues of hilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Nutrient starvation induced the expression of LC3-II and the formation of LC3 puncta in both CCKS1 and HuCCT1, suggesting the occurrence of autophagy. The induction of autophagy was accompanied by the increased expression of an autophagy-related protein, Ambra1, in the cells. Under starvation conditions, the invasive activity of both cells was significantly increased, and a lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, attenuated this increased invasive activity. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), known as an inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the invasive activity of both cells, and chloroquine also significantly reduced TGF-β1-induced cell invasion. Immunohistochemical staining using cholangiocarcinoma tissues showed that the expression of Ambra1 positively correlated with the expression of Snail, one of the major transcriptional factors of EMT. In addition, overexpression of Ambra1 significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival rate of the patients. These results suggest that the occurrence of autophagy may be associated with a malignant phenotype and poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma, and autophagy is possibly involved in EMT-related cholangiocarcinoma cell invasion.

  20. CHKA mediates the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma and acts as a prognostic indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ping; Yang, Shen; Li, Guodong; Bao, Wentao; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase α (CHKA), the enzyme that converts choline to phosphocholine, has been studied in human carcinogenesis widely. However, the expression and underlying clinicopathological characteristics of CHKA in lung adenocarcinoma remains elusive. In the present study, a tissue microarray of 119 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma samples and corresponding adjacent normal mucosae was used to analysis CHKA expression by immunohistochemistry, and CHKA was observed to exhibit enhanced expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Elevated CHKA expression in lung adenocarcinoma tissues at the gene and protein level was observed. The levels of CHKA expression were closely associated with the poor prognosis status of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, certain clinicopathological characteristics such as tumor diameter and differentiation were observed to be significant in those lung adenocarcinoma patients who displayed enhanced CHKA expression. The analysis of CHKA expression could provide a more precise way to predict the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Collectively, the present study revealed a novel biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma, and indicated that CHKA may be a promising prognostic marker and therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27588131

  1. TRIP13 impairs mitotic checkpoint surveillance and is associated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Yang, Guang; Yang, Hongxing; Song, Dongliang; Hu, Liangning; Xie, Bingqian; Wang, Houcai; Gao, Lu; Gao, Minjie; Xu, Hongwei; Xu, Zhijian; Wu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Yiwen; Zhu, Weiliang; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2017-02-01

    AAA-ATPase TRIP13 is one of the chromosome instability gene recently established in multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common and incurable hematological malignancy. However, the specific function of TRIP13 in MM is largely unknown. Using sequential gene expression profiling, we demonstrated that high TRIP13 expression levels were positively correlated with progression, disease relapse, and poor prognosis in MM patients. Overexpressing human TRIP13 in myeloma cells prompted cell growth and drug resistance, and overexpressing murine TRIP13, which shares 93% sequence identity with human TRIP13, led to colony formation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Meanwhile, the knockdown of TRIP13 inhibited myeloma cell growth, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced tumor burden in xenograft MM mice. Mechanistically, we observed that the overexpression of TRIP13 abrogated the spindle checkpoint and induced proteasome-mediated degradation of MAD2 primarily through the Akt pathway. Thus, our results demonstrate that TRIP13 may serve as a biomarker for MM disease development and prognosis, making it a potential target for future therapies.

  2. Increased FLI-1 Expression is Associated With Poor Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiou-Fu; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chai, Chee-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Friend leukemia integration-1 (FLI-1) antibody, a commercially available antibody directed against the C-terminus of FLI-1 protein-binding domain, has been used as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of small blue round cell tumors and vascular neoplasms, but shows inconsistent expression in lung cancers. The aims of this study were to evaluate FLI-1 immunohistochemical expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and its relationships between the clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis. We investigated the FLI-1 expression in 108 cases of NSCLC by using multiple tumor microarrays. Correlations between the FLI-1 expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognostic significance were analyzed. The effect of FLI-1 expression on survival is estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards models. Our results revealed that patients with high FLI-1 expression had shorter overall survival (P=0.014) than those with low FLI-1 expression. In multivariate analysis, FLI-1 was confirmed as an independent poor prognostic factor in NSCLC (overall survival: hazard ratio, 7.292; 95% confidence interval, 0.294-0.823; P=0.007). In conclusion, this study shows that FLI-1 is expressed variably in different subtypes of NSCLC, and its expression is related to clinicopathologic parameters and poorer prognosis. However, further studies are required to elucidate its function in tumorigenesis of NSCLC.

  3. Overexpression of CHKA contributes to tumor progression and metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang-Zhen; Xu, Qing-Guo; Zhai, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Cai, Qing-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of choline kinase alpha (CHKA) has been reported in a variety of human malignancies including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the role of CHKA in the progression and prognosis of CRC remains unknown. In this study, we found that CHKA was frequently upregulated in CRC clinical samples and CRC-derived cell lines and was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.028), TNM stage (p = 0.009), disease recurrence (p = 0.004) and death (p < 0.001). Survival analyses indicated that patients with higher CHKA expression had a significantly shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than those with lower CHKA expression. Multivariate analyses confirmed that increased CHKA expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC patients. In addition, combination of CHKA with TNM stage was a more powerful predictor of poor prognosis than either parameter alone. Functional study demonstrated that knockdown of CHKA expression profoundly suppressed the growth and metastasis of CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic investigation revealed that EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway was essential for mediating CHKA function. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that CHKA contributes to tumor progression and metastasis and may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:27556502

  4. Chronic Activation of Innate Immunity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Cancer Patients Treated With Oncolytic Adenovirus.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Kristian; Liikanen, Ilkka; Juhila, Juuso; Turkki, Riku; Tähtinen, Siri; Kankainen, Matti; Vassilev, Lotta; Ristimäki, Ari; Koski, Anniina; Kanerva, Anna; Diaconu, Iulia; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Oksanen, Minna; Linder, Nina; Joensuu, Timo; Lundin, Johan; Hemminki, Akseli

    2016-02-01

    Despite many clinical trials conducted with oncolytic viruses, the exact tumor-level mechanisms affecting therapeutic efficacy have not been established. Currently there are no biomarkers available that would predict the clinical outcome to any oncolytic virus. To assess the baseline immunological phenotype and find potential prognostic biomarkers, we monitored mRNA expression levels in 31 tumor biopsy or fluid samples from 27 patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Additionally, protein expression was studied from 19 biopsies using immunohistochemical staining. We found highly significant changes in several signaling pathways and genes associated with immune responses, such as B-cell receptor signaling (P < 0.001), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling (P < 0.001), and leukocyte extravasation signaling (P < 0.001), in patients surviving a shorter time than their controls. In immunohistochemical analysis, markers CD4 and CD163 were significantly elevated (P = 0.020 and P = 0.016 respectively), in patients with shorter than expected survival. Interestingly, T-cell exhaustion marker TIM-3 was also found to be significantly upregulated (P = 0.006) in patients with poor prognosis. Collectively, these data suggest that activation of several functions of the innate immunity before treatment is associated with inferior survival in patients treated with oncolytic adenovirus. Conversely, lack of chronic innate inflammation at baseline may predict improved treatment outcome, as suggested by good overall prognosis.

  5. Expression of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors in astrocytomas is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, O; Pineda-Olvera, B; Guevara-Salazar, P; Hernández-Pedro, N; Morales-Espinosa, D; Cerón-Lizarraga, T L; González-De la Rosa, C H; Rembao, D; Segura-Pacheco, B; Sotelo, J

    2008-01-01

    Astrocytomas develop intense vascular proliferation, essential for tumour growth and invasiveness. Angiotensin II (ANGII) was initially described as a vasoconstrictor; recent studies have shown its participation in cellular proliferation, vascularisation, and apoptosis. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the expression of ANGII receptors – AT1 and AT2 – and their relationship with prognosis. We studied 133 tumours from patients with diagnosis of astrocytoma who underwent surgery from 1997 to 2002. AT1 and AT2 were expressed in 52 and 44% of the tumours, respectively, when determined by both reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Ten per cent of low-grade astrocytomas were positive for AT1, whereas grade III and IV astrocytomas were positive in 67% (P<0.001). AT2 receptors were positive in 17% of low-grade astrocytomas and in 53% of high-grade astrocytomas (P=0.01). AT1-positive tumours showed higher cellular proliferation and vascular density. Patients with AT1-positive tumours had a lower survival rate than those with AT1-negative (P<0.001). No association to survival was found for AT2 in the multivariate analysis. Expression of AT1 and AT2 is associated with high grade of malignancy, increased cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis, and is thus related to poor prognosis. These findings suggest that ANGII receptors might be potential therapeutic targets for high-grade astrocytomas. PMID:18594540

  6. Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle: Diagnostic Parameters Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    HAGIWARA, Seiichi; MORI, Kouichiro; OKADA, Hiroyuki; OIKAWA, Shin; NAGAHATA, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to identify the diagnostic characteristics associated with poor prognosis and mortality in dairy cows with acute clinical Escherichia coli mastitis. On 17 dairy farms, 24 dairy cows with acute E. coli mastitis that had received therapeutic treatment were categorized into 2 groups by outcome: 17 cows that recovered (survivors) and 7 cows that died or were euthanized (non-survivors). Two days after onset of acute E. coli mastitis, dysstasia was observed in non-survivors, but not in survivors. Compared with survivors, significantly increased hematocrit (HCT) values and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations, and significantly decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts were found in non-survivors on days 2 and 3 after therapy. Dysstasia, associated with decreased antithrombin activity and platelet counts, and with increased HCT and NEFA concentrations, was considered to be the major prognostic indicator associated with high mortality after therapeutic treatment in acute E. coli mastitis. PMID:25056677

  7. Subclonal mutations in SETBP1 confer a poor prognosis in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Troup, Camille B.; Gelston, Laura C.; Haliburton, John; Chow, Eric D.; Yu, Kristie B.; Akutagawa, Jon; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro N.; Liu, Y. Lucy; Wang, Yong-Dong; Beckman, Kyle; Emanuel, Peter D.; Braun, Benjamin S.; Abate, Adam; Gerbing, Robert B.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Loh, Mignon L.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm of childhood associated with a poor prognosis. Recently, massively parallel sequencing has identified recurrent mutations in the SKI domain of SETBP1 in a variety of myeloid disorders. These lesions were detected in nearly 10% of patients with JMML and have been characterized as secondary events. We hypothesized that rare subclones with SETBP1 mutations are present at diagnosis in a large portion of patients who relapse, but are below the limits of detection for conventional deep sequencing platforms. Using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, we identified SETBP1 mutations in 17/56 (30%) of patients who were treated in the Children’s Oncology Group sponsored clinical trial, AAML0122. Five-year event-free survival in patients with SETBP1 mutations was 18% ± 9% compared with 51% ± 8% for those without mutations (P = .006). PMID:25395418

  8. Identification and targeting of a TACE-dependent autocrine loopwhich predicts poor prognosis in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Paraic A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2005-06-15

    The ability to proliferate independently of signals from other cell types is a fundamental characteristic of tumor cells. Using a 3D culture model of human breast cancer progression, we have delineated a protease-dependent autocrine loop which provides an oncogenic stimulus in the absence of proto-oncogene mutation. Inhibition of this protease, TACE/ADAM17, reverts the malignant phenotype by preventing mobilization of two crucial growth factors, Amphiregulin and TGF{alpha}. We show further that the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors is overcome by physiological levels of growth factors and that successful EGFR inhibition is dependent on reducing ligand bioavailability. Using existing patient outcome data, we demonstrate a strong correlation between TACE and TGF{alpha} expression in human breast cancers that is predictive of poor prognosis.

  9. JAM-A expression positively correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    McSherry, Elaine A; McGee, Sharon F; Jirstrom, Karin; Doyle, Emma M; Brennan, Donal J; Landberg, Goran; Dervan, Peter A; Hopkins, Ann M; Gallagher, William M

    2009-09-15

    The cell-cell adhesion protein junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) influences epithelial cell morphology and migration. As migration is required for tumor cell invasion and metastasis, we sought to elucidate the role of JAM-A in invasive breast cancer. A breast cancer tissue microarray was analyzed for JAM-A protein expression, in parallel with analysis of JAM-A gene expression data from a breast cancer clinical dataset. Our data demonstrate a novel association between JAM-A gene and protein upregulation and poor prognosis in breast cancer. To mechanistically dissect this process, we used lentiviral technology to stably knock down JAM-A gene expression by shRNA in MCF7 breast cancer cells, which express high-endogenous levels of JAM-A. We also antagonized JAM-A function in wild-type MCF7 cells using an inhibitory antibody that blocks JAM-A dimerization. Knockdown or functional antagonism of JAM-A decreased breast cancer cell migration in scratch-wound assays. Reductions in beta1-integrin protein levels were observed after JAM-A-knockdown in MCF7 cells, suggesting a mechanism for reduced motility after loss of JAM-A. Consistent with this hypothesis, tissue microarray analysis of beta1-integrin protein expression in invasive breast cancer tissues revealed a trend toward high beta1-integrin protein levels being indicative of poor prognosis. Twenty-two percent of patients were observed to coexpress high levels of JAM-A and beta1-integrin protein, and MDA-MB-231 breast cells stably overexpressing JAM-A showed an increase in beta1-integrin protein expression. Our results are consistent with a previously unreported role for JAM-A overexpression as a possible mechanism contributing to progression in primary breast cancer; and a potential therapeutic target.

  10. Overexpression of the PSAT1 Gene in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Is an Indicator of Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Kuang-Ming; Chao, Tung-Bo; Tian, Yu-Feng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Lee, Sung-Wei; Chuang, Hua-Ying; Chan, Ti-Chun; Chen, Tzu-Ju; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in southern China and Southeast Asia, but risk stratification and treatment outcome in NPC patients remain suboptimal. Our study identified and validated metabolic drivers that are relevant to the pathogenesis of NPC using a published transcriptome. Phosphoserine aminotransferase 1 (PSAT1) is an enzyme that is involved in serine biosynthesis, and its overexpression is associated with colon cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. However, its expression has not been systemically evaluated in patients with NPC. Materials and Methods: We evaluated two public transcriptomes of NPC tissues and benign nasopharyngeal mucosal epithelial tissues that deposited in the NIH Gene Expression Omnibus database under accession number GSE34574 and GSE12452. We also performed immunohistochemical staining and assessment of PSAT1 in a total of 124 NPC patients received radiotherapy and were regularly followed-up until death or loss. The endpoints analyzed were local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: We retrospectively evaluated 124 patients with NPC and found that high PSAT1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of NPC and indicator of advanced tumor stage. High PSAT1 expression also correlated with an aggressive clinical course, with significantly shorter DSS (HR= 2.856, 95% CI 1.599 to 5.101), DMFS (HR= 3.305, 95% CI 1.720 to 6.347), LRFS (HR= 2.834, 95% CI 1.376 to 5.835), and OS HR= 2.935, 95% CI 1.646-5.234) in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Our study showed that PSAT1 is a potential prognostic biomarker and higher expression of PSAT1 is associated with a poor prognosis in NPC. PMID:27326252

  11. Tbx2 confers poor prognosis in glioblastoma and promotes temozolomide resistance with change of mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Fuxin; Du, Jianzhou; Ni, Weimin; Liu, Weixian

    2017-01-01

    Tbx2 is a cancer-related protein that was found to be overexpressed in several human malignancies. The present study aims to investigate the clinical significance and biological role of Tbx2 in human astrocytoma. We examined its protein expression in 102 cases of astrocytoma tissues using immunohistochemical staining. Negative Tbx2 staining was observed in normal astrocytes, and positive nuclear staining was found in 41 out of 102 astrocytoma specimens. The rate of Tbx2 overexpression in pylocytic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma, and glioblastoma multiform (GBM) were 0%, 26.1%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. Tbx2 overexpression correlated with poor prognosis in patients with astrocytoma or GBM. Tbx2 plasmid transfection was performed in A172 cells, and Tbx2 siRNA knockdown was carried out in U251 cells. Cell Counting Kit-8, cell cycle analysis, and matrigel invasion assay showed that Tbx2 overexpression upregulated cell proliferation, G1-S transition, and invasion, with corresponding change of cyclin D1, p21, and MMP 2 and 9. Importantly, we demonstrated that Tbx2 reduced apoptosis and conferred resistance to temozolomide in GBM cell lines. Further experiments showed that Tbx2 could regulate mitochondrial fission/fusion balance. Western blot showed that Tbx2 overexpression reduced caspase 3 cleavage, while it induced Bcl-2 and p-Drp1 upregulation. In conclusion, our results indicated that Tbx2 might serve as an indicator for poor prognosis and also be useful as an important therapeutic in human GBM, which inhibits apoptosis through regulation of mitochondrial function. PMID:28260920

  12. Curcumin induces cell death of the main molecular myeloma subtypes, particularly the poor prognosis subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Bougie, Patricia; Halliez, Maxime; Maïga, Sophie; Godon, Catherine; Kervoëlen, Charlotte; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Moreau, Philippe; Amiot, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell malignancy, remains incurable despite the development of new therapies. Curcumin anti-tumor effects were previously characterized in multiple myeloma, however only few MM cell lines were included in these studies. Since myeloma is a heterogeneous disease it is important to address the impact of myeloma molecular heterogeneity in curcumin cell death induction. In the present study, a large panel of human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs) (n = 29), representing the main molecular MM subgroups, was screened for curcumin sensitivity. We observed that curcumin cell death induction was heterogeneous, of note 16 HMCLs were highly sensitive to curcumin (LD50 < 20.5 μM), 6 HMCLs exhibited intermediate LD50 values (20.5 μM ≤ LD50 < 32.2 μM) and only 7 HMCLs were weakly sensitive (35 < LD50 < 56 μM). Cell lines harboring the t(11;14) translocation were less sensitive (median LD50 32.9 μM) than non-t(11;14) (median LD50 17.9 μM), which included poor prognosis t(4;14) and t(14;16) cells. Interestingly, curcumin sensitivity was not dependent on TP53 status. For the first time we showed that primary myeloma cells were also sensitive, even those displaying del(17p), another poor prognosis factor. We also unravel the contribution of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family molecules in curcumin response. We found that down-regulation of Mcl-1, an essential MM survival factor, was associated with curcumin-induced cell death and its knockdown sensitized myeloma cells to curcumin, highlighting Mcl-1 as an important target for curcumin-induced apoptosis. Altogether, these results support clinical trials including curcumin in association with standard therapy. PMID:25517601

  13. IVF outcomes in average- and poor-prognosis infertile women according to the number of embryos transferred.

    PubMed

    Vega, Mario G; Gleicher, Norbert; Darmon, Sarah K; Weghofer, Andrea; Wu, Yan-Guang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lin; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Kushnir, Vitaly A

    2016-09-01

    Outcome measures of IVF success, which account for effectiveness of IVF and perinatal outcome risks, have recently been described. The association between number of embryos transferred in average and poor-prognosis IVF patients, and the chances of having good or poor IVF and perinatal outcomes, was investigated. Good IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as the birth of a live, term, normal-weight infant (≥2500 g). Poor IVF and perinatal outcome was defined as no live birth or birth of a very low weight neonate (<1500 g) or severe prematurity (birth at <32 weeks gestation). Each neonate was analysed as a separate outcome. A total of 713 IVF cycles in 504 average and poor-prognosis patients from January 2010 to December 2013 were identified. The odds of having good IVF and perinatal outcomes increased by 28% for each additional embryo transferred. The odds of poor IVF and perinatal outcome decreased by 32% with an additional embryo transferred. The likelihood of live birth with good perinatal outcome in average- and poor-prognosis patients after IVF increases with additional embryos being transferred. These data add to recently reported evidence in favour of multiple embryo transfer in older women and those with average or poor IVF prognosis.

  14. Splicing factor mutations predict poor prognosis in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Hsin-An; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Chou, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Cheng-Hong; Lin, Chien-Chin; Lin, Liang-In; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Chiang, Ying-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Tang, Jih-Luh; Yao, Ming; Li, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shang-Yi; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Chien-Ting; Wu, Shang-Ju; Tsay, Woei; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in splicing factor (SF) genes are frequently detected in myelodysplastic syndrome, but the prognostic relevance of these genes mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated mutations of three SF genes, SF3B1, U2AF1 and SRSF2, by Sanger sequencing in 500 patients with de novo AML and analysed their clinical relevance. SF mutations were identified in 10.8% of total cohort and 13.2% of those with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. SF mutations were closely associated with RUNX1, ASXL1, IDH2 and TET2 mutations. SF-mutated AML patients had a significantly lower complete remission rate and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) than those without the mutation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SFmutation was an independent poor prognostic factor for DFS and OS. A scoring system incorporating SF mutation and ten other prognostic factors was proved very useful to risk-stratify AML patients. Sequential study of paired samples showed that SF mutations were stable during AML evolution. In conclusion, SF mutations are associated with distinct clinic-biological features and poor prognosis in de novo AML patients and are rather stable during disease progression. These mutations may be potential targets for novel treatment and biomarkers for disease monitoring in AML. PMID:26812887

  15. Matrix-Gla protein promotes osteosarcoma lung metastasis and associates with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zandueta, Carolina; Ormazábal, Cristina; Perurena, Naiara; Martínez-Canarias, Susana; Zalacaín, Marta; Julián, Mikel San; Grigoriadis, Agamemnon E; Valencia, Karmele; Campos-Laborie, Francisco J; Rivas, Javier De Las; Vicent, Silvestre; Patiño-García, Ana; Lecanda, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most prevalent osseous tumour in children and adolescents and, within this, lung metastases remain one of the factors associated with a dismal prognosis. At present, the genetic determinants driving pulmonary metastasis are poorly understood. We adopted a novel strategy using robust filtering analysis of transcriptomic profiling in tumour osteoblastic cell populations derived from human chemo-naive primary tumours displaying extreme phenotypes (indolent versus metastatic) to uncover predictors associated with metastasis and poor survival. We identified MGP, encoding matrix-Gla protein (MGP), a non-collagenous matrix protein previously associated with the inhibition of arterial calcification. Using different orthotopic models, we found that ectopic expression of Mgp in murine and human OS cells led to a marked increase in lung metastasis. This effect was independent of the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues required for its physiological role. Abrogation of Mgp prevented lung metastatic activity, an effect that was rescued by forced expression. Mgp levels dramatically altered endothelial adhesion, trans-endothelial migration in vitro and tumour cell extravasation ability in vivo. Furthermore, Mgp modulated metalloproteinase activities and TGFβ-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation. In the clinical setting, OS patients who developed lung metastases had high serum levels of MGP at diagnosis. Thus, MGP represents a novel adverse prognostic factor and a potential therapeutic target in OS. Microarray datasets may be found at: http://bioinfow.dep.usal.es/osteosarcoma/ Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Overexpression of Rad51 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer: Our Experience with 54 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Liao, Dian-ying; Xie, Li; Wang, Jin; Luo, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background Aberrant Rad51 expression is implicated in the progression of human malignancies. However, the role of Rad51 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains undefined. This study aimed to establish a relationship between Rad51 and clinicopathologic features of CRC. Methods We retrospectively examined the paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from 54 patients with CRC who had received surgical therapies at our institution during 2006–2008. Rad51 expression in adenocarcinoma, paracancerous tissue, and normal colonic tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between Rad51 immunoreactivity and clinicopathologic features of these patients was evaluated. Results Rad51 immunoreactivity was detected in 67% of adenocarcinoma, 48% of paracancerous tissue, and 27% of normal colonic mucosa. Rad51 expression in adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than normal colonic tissue (p < 0.05). Rad51 was also overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumors and tumor samples from patients with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Patients with Rad51 overexpression had a 69% two-year survival, 49% three-year survival, and 16% five-year survival, considerably worse than patients with negative Rad51 expression (p < 0.05). Conclusion Our data suggest that Rad51 overexpression is correlated with malignant phenotypes of CRC and may predict poor prognosis for these patients. PMID:28099437

  17. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer.

  18. High expression of REGγ is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis of patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chai, Fan; Liang, Yan; Bi, Jiong; Chen, Li; Zhang, Fan; Cui, Youhong; Bian, Xiuwu; Jiang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    REGgamma (REGγ) has been recently found in several types of human cancer, however, its clinical significance in metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer remains unknown. In this study, immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate REGγ expression in both mouse and human breast cancer specimens. We found that in MMTV-PyMT mice, 14 out of 20 (70%) mouse mammary carcinomas were REGγ positive, which was significantly higher than control (0/20, 0%, P < 0.001) and lower than metastatic lung tumour (20/20, 100%, P = 0.027). Further investigation for REGγ expression in 136 human breast cancer tissues with the paired peritumoural normal breast tissues and 140 breast benign disease tissue samples showed that REGγ was undetectable in normal breast tissues and nonmetastatic axillary lymph nodes (ALNs), whereas 111 out of 136 (81.6%) breast cancer tissue samples were REGγ positive, which was significantly higher than breast benign disease tissues (9/140, 6.4%, P < 0.001) and lower than metastatic ALNs (116/116, 100%, P < 0.001). The 5-year disease-free and overall survivals of patients with negative/low level of REGγ were significantly higher than those of patients with high level of REGγ (P < 0.05). Cox regression analyses further indicated that REGγ could serve as a novel independent prognostic factor for breast cancer (OR = 4.369, P = 0.008). Our results suggest that the high expression of REGγ might predict metastasis and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

  19. DHX32 expression is an indicator of poor breast cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Guojun; Wang, Yajie; Ma, Ruimin; Zhang, Limin; Lv, Hong; Fang, Fang; Kang, Xixiong

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that DEAH-box polypeptide 32 (DHX32) serves an important role in the progression and metastasis of cancer. However, the role of DHX32 in breast cancer remains to be completely elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and clinical significance of DHX32 in breast cancer. The reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to analyze DHX32 messenger (m)RNA expression, and western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine DHX32 protein expression in breast cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The association in breast cancer between DHX32 expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed using 193 breast cancer tissue samples. The results of the present study demonstrated that breast cancer tissues exhibited increased DHX32 mRNA and protein expression compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001). In addition, DHX32 expression was significantly associated with breast cancer clinical stage (P=0.006), histological grade (P=0.029), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001) and expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P=0.004). Kaplan-Meier estimator analysis indicated that increased DHX32 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that DHX32 expression is an independent prognostic factor for decreased overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that DHX32 overexpression is an unfavorable prognostic biomarker in breast cancer and a potential therapeutic target of future breast cancer treatments. PMID:28356982

  20. HBV is a risk factor for poor patient prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghu; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Peng; Xiao, Senlin; Wu, Guo; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Hui; Han, Xiuguo; Wang, Shuguang; Li, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists regarding pathological factors affecting the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-HCC). Their postoperative clinical behaviors and the exact HBV Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) thresholds that distinguish good and poor prognoses are unknown. This study aimed to compare clinicopathological, pre- and postoperative clinical factors and overall and recurrence-free survival (RFS) between HBV-HCC patients and nonhepatitis B and nonhepatitis C HCC (NBC-HCC) patients to determine the optimal prognostic HBV DNA threshold. Data from 1440 patients with HBV-HCC and NBC-HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Liver function in the HBV-HCC group was significantly worse than in the NBC-HCC group. Compared with NBC-HCC patients, HBV-HCC patients had significantly more vascular invasion and advanced HCC. The HBV-HCC patients also had significantly worse liver function and more complications. Further survival analysis showed significantly lower overall and RFS rates and a higher early recurrence rate in the HBV-HCC group. Univariate analysis indicated that HBV was a risk factor for overall and RFS. Finally, X-tile analysis revealed that the optimal HBV DNA cutoff points for predicting RFS and overall survival in HCC patients were 10,100 and 12,800 IU/mL, respectively. After hepatectomy for HCC, HBV-HCC patients had more complications and a worse prognosis than NBC-HCC patients. Antiviral therapy should be considered before hepatectomy in patients with high (more than approximately 104 IU/mL) HBV DNA levels. PMID:27495026

  1. Elevated YKL-40 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guoxing; Xiang, Longchao; Sun, Xue; Wang, Xuanbin; Li, Hongliang; Ge, Wei; Cao, Fengjun

    2017-01-17

    Numerous studies have investigated the prognostic role of YKL-40 in breast cancer, but yielded inconsistent results. To derive a more precise evaluation, relevant publications assessing the association between YKL-40 expression and clinical outcome of breast cancer patients were electronically searched and identified. A combined analysis of included studies was performed using fixed- or random-effect model to calculate the pooled hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio(OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the assessment of the association. Ten eligible studies involving 1250 patients were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled analysis showed that elevated YKL-40 expression was significantly associated with a poor overall survival(OS: HR=1.48, 95%CI= 1.11-1.97) and disease-free survival(DFS: HR=1.51, 95%CI= 1.10-2.07). The subgroup analysis by detection methods revealed an unfavorable OS in breast cancer patients with elevated YKL-40 expression evaluated by IHC(HR=1.39, 95%CI=1.12-1.71) but not by ELISA/RIA. Also, the stratification analysis by ethnicity showed a significant association between increased YKL-40 expression and shorter OS of breast cancer patients in western population(HR=1.51, 95%CI=1.03-2.21) as well as Asian population (HR=1.40, 95%CI= 1.05-1.86). Similarly, the subgroup analysis by detection methods revealed a significantly inferior DFS in breast cancer patients with increased YKL-40 expression disregarding the use of IHC(HR=2.02, 95%CI=1.47-2.79) or ELISA/RIA(HR=1.06, 95%CI= 1.02 -1.10). Additionally, increased YKL-40 expression was found to significantly correlate with larger tumor size (OR=2.38, 95%CI=1.41-4.05).The present meta-analysis indicate that elevated YKL-40 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. YKL-40 may serve as a promising predictive biomarker of prognosis of breast cancer.

  2. Surgical Rehabilitation Techniques in Children with Poor Prognosis Short Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mariela; Junco, Paloma Triana; Andres, Ane M; Sánchez-Galán, Alba; Amesty, Maria Virginia; Ramos, Esther; Prieto, Gerardo; Hernandez, Francisco; Lopez Santamaria, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) requires a multidisciplinary management based on nutritional support, surgical and medical rehabilitation, and transplantation. The aim of this study is to review our experience with surgical rehabilitation techniques (SRTs: enteroplasty, Bianchi, Serial Transverse Enteroplasty Procedure [STEP]) in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and poor prognosis due to complex abdominal pathology. We performed a single-center retrospective study of patients with IF evaluated for intestinal transplantation in the Intestinal Rehabilitation Unit who underwent an SRT. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis.A total of 205 patients (107 males/98 females) with mean age of 25 ± 7 months were assessed for IF. A total of 433 laparotomies were performed on 130 patients including intestinal resection, enteroplasties, adhesiolysis, and transit reconstruction. SRT were performed in 22 patients: 12 enteroplasties, 8 STEPs, and 4 Bianchi procedures. All patients were parenteral nutrition (PN) dependent with different stages of liver disease: mild (13), moderate (5), and severe (4). The adaptation rate for patients who underwent enteroplasty, STEP, and Bianchi were 70, 63, and 25%, respectively, although the techniques are not comparable. Overall, intestinal adaptation was achieved in nine (41%) patients, and four (18%) patients showed significant reduction of PN needs. One child did not respond to SRT and did not meet transplantation criteria. The remaining eight (36%) patients were included on the waiting list for transplant: four were transplanted, two are still on the waiting list, and two died. Better outcomes were observed in milder cases of liver disease (mild 77%, moderate 40%, severe 25%) (p < 0.05). Conversely, a trend toward a poorer outcome was observed in cases with ultrashort bowel (p > 0.05). One patient required reoperation after a Bianchi procedure due to intestinal ischemia and six needed further re-STEP or adhesiolysis

  3. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC. All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02). This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC. PMID:27258499

  4. Th17 cells and interleukin-17 increase with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Han, Yixiang; Ye, Aifang; Bi, Laixi; Wu, Jianbo; Yu, Kang; Zhang, Shenghui

    2014-08-01

    Although Th17 cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, their roles in malignancies are currently under debate. The role and mechanism of Th17 cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that the frequency of Th17 cells was significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow mononuclear cells from AML patients compared with healthy donors. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, IL-23, IL-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were significantly increased in blood and bone marrow in AML patients compared with healthy donors. The in vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-6, IL-23, but not TGF-β1 promoted the generation and differentiation of Th17 cells from naive CD4(+) T cells in humans. IL-17A, a signature cytokine secreted by Th17 cells, induced the proliferation of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R)-positive AML cells via IL-17R, in which activation of PI3K/Akt and Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway may play important roles. In addition, combination of IL-17A and IL-22 significantly reduced the generation of Th1 cells and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ from healthy donor or AML patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patients with high Th17 cell frequency had poor prognosis, whereas patients with high Th1 cell frequency had prolonged survival. Combined analysis of Th1 and Th17 cell frequencies improved the ability to predict patient outcomes. In conclusion, Th17 cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AML and may be an important therapeutic target and prognostic predictor.

  5. PRL-3, an emerging marker of carcinogenesis, is strongly associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Pryczynicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    PRL-3 protein belongs to the family of protein tyrosine phosphatases with unique COOH-terminal prenylation motif, which determines the functions of this protein and its location in the cell. Numerous research studies revealed that apart from performing the poorly investigated physiological role, PRL-3 takes part in the process of carcinogenesis. Specifically, it is involved in reconstructing of the cytoskeleton, regulating adhesion and cell cycle of the cancer cells, and in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Through these mechanisms PRL-3 protein participates in invasion, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis. Numerous studies indicate that PRL-3 expression is particularly important in colorectal, as well as in gastric, ovarian and breast carcinomas. Recently, several studies on PRL-3 protein in other types of cancer have been published. They reveal a significant role of this protein in the process of angiogenesis and metastasis. It has been proven that a higher expression of PRL-3 correlates with tumor progression and its severity. While the degree of overexpression of PRL-3 varies in different types of tumors, most research shows that in the metastases of these tumors, whether to the lymph nodes or to other organs, the level of expression is extremely high. Overexpression of PRL-3 protein was repeatedly confirmed in metastases, but not with primary tumors. PRL-3 seems to be an adequate marker in diagnosing the stage of tumor advancement for various types of carcinomas, especially for colorectal carcinoma investigated thoroughly in this study. PRL-3 overexpression predicts poor prognosis in patients with various carcinomas and is a promising target in the cancer treatment.

  6. Increased expression of argininosuccinate synthetase protein predicts poor prognosis in human gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yan-Shen; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Lai, Ming-Derg; Yen, Meng-Chi; Luo, Yi-Pey; Chen, Yi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1, also known as ASS) has been found in cancer cells and is involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of ASS expression in human gastric cancer and to determine the possible correlations between ASS expression and clinicopathological findings. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin‑embedded tissues to determine whether ASS was expressed in 11 of 11 specimens from patients with gastric cancer. The protein was localized primarily to the cytoplasm of cancer cells and normal epithelium. In the Oncomine cancer microarray database, expression of the ASS gene was significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues. To investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic roles of ASS expression, we performed western blot analysis of 35 matched specimens of gastric adenocarcinomas and normal tissue obtained from patients treated at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. The ratio of relative ASS expression (expressed as the ASS/β-actin ratio) in tumor tissues to that in normal tissues was correlated with large tumor size (P=0.007) and with the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system (P=0.031). Patients whose cancer had increased the relative expression of ASS were positive for perineural invasion and had poor recurrence-free survival. In summary, ASS expression in gastric cancer was associated with a poor prognosis. Further study of mechanisms to silence the ASS gene or decrease the enzymatic activity of ASS protein has the potential to provide new treatments for patients with gastric cancer.

  7. CREPT expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    She, Yaoguang; Liang, Jiao; Chen, Lin; Qiu, Ying; Liu, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Huang, Xiaohui; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Chang, Zhijie; Li, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    Retroperitoneal leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are rare gynecological malignancies that display poor prognosis and high mortality. Cell cycle-related and expression-elevated protein in tumor (CREPT) is an oncogene that is involved in the regulation of many cell cycle-related proteins. However, its distribution and clinical significance in retroperitoneal LMS remains poorly understood. This study assessed the histological classifications of postoperative tumor samples from 71 cases of retroperitoneal LMS that were collected at The General Hospital of the People’s Liberation Army from January 1998 to December 2012. We found that more than half of the patients displayed positive expressions of CREPT, Ki-67 and PCNA via immunohistochemical analysis. The expression of CREPT correlated with histological grade (P = 0.044), and the PCNA expression level correlated with the differentiation of tumor cells and histological grade (P < 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that survival was associated with histological grade and the expression level of CREPT (P = 0.011 and P = 0.012, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the patients lacking CREPT expression exhibited significantly longer overall postoperative survival (median, 60.0 months) than the patients displaying CREPT expression (median, 33.0 months), and CREPT expression correlated with distant recurrence within 5 years after surgery (P = 0.004). Western blot analyses showed that CREPT was more strongly expressed in the retroperitoneal LMS tumor tissue than in paired control tissue. Based on the above data, we concluded that CREPT displays unique immunostaining for retroperitoneal LMS tissue and can be used to supplement other currently available retroperitoneal LMS markers. PMID:25400738

  8. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  9. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S.; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W.; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J.; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C.; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5′ terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted. PMID:25595892

  10. Somatic MED12 mutations are associated with poor prognosis markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kämpjärvi, Kati; Järvinen, Tiina M; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Ruppert, Amy S; Senter, Leigha; Hoag, Kevin W; Dufva, Olli; Kontro, Mika; Rassenti, Laura; Hertlein, Erin; Kipps, Thomas J; Porkka, Kimmo; Byrd, John C; de la Chapelle, Albert; Vahteristo, Pia

    2015-01-30

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults. We performed systematic database search and identified highly specific MED12 mutations in CLL patients. To study this further, we collected three independent sample series comprising over 700 CLL samples and screened MED12 exons 1 and 2 by direct sequencing. Mutations were identified at significant frequency in all three series with a combined mutation frequency of 5.2% (37/709). Positive mutation status was found to be associated with unmutated IGHV and ZAP70 expression, which are well-known poor prognosis markers in CLL. Our results recognize CLL as the first extrauterine cancer type where 5'terminus of MED12 is mutated at significant frequency. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations lead to dissociation of Cyclin C-CDK8/19 from the core Mediator and to the loss of Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. Additional studies on the role of MED12 mutation status as a putative prognostic factor as well as mutations' exact tumorigenic mechanism in CLL are warranted.

  11. NDRG1 as a biomarker for metastasis, recurrence and of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Xie, Hai-Yang; Xu, Xiao; Wu, Jian; Wei, Xuyong; Su, Rong; Zhang, Wu; Lv, Zhen; Zheng, Shusen; Zhou, Lin

    2011-11-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been reported to be a multifunctional protein associated with carcinogenesis, however, the cellular function of NDRG1 remains elusive in human cancers. Here, our proteomics profile analysis of HCC tissues with different metastatic capabilities revealed that NDRG1 was correlated with metastasis and recurrence in HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT). Immunohistochemical staining of 143 HCC patients after LT showed that NDRG1-positive expression had poor prognosis, either for shorter disease-free survival or overall survival (P < 0.001), compared with NDRG1-negative expression. Multivariate analysis confirmed NDRG1 as an independent prognostic value (P < 0.001). In addition, in vitro experiments HCC cells with small interfering RNA against NDRG1 significantly suppressed its proliferation, colony formation, invasion and migration ability. Microarray analysis revealed that NDRG1 modulated the expression of genes associated with transmembrane transporter activity, chemoattractant activity, immune response, cell adhesion and cell proliferation process. Taken together, these results suggested that NDRG1 was an important molecule in controlling HCC metastasis and thus suggested as a novel biomarker for predicting HCC recurrence after LT.

  12. High expression of GNA13 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Rong, Jian; Duan, Shiyu; Chen, Cui; Li, Yin; Peng, Baogang; Yi, Bin; Zheng, Zhousan; Gao, Ying; Wang, Kebing; Yun, Miao; Weng, Huiwen; Zhang, Jiaxing; Ye, Sheng

    2016-11-24

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha 13 (GNA13) has been found to play critical roles in the development of several human cancers. However, little is known about GNA13 expression and its clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our study, GNA13 was reported to be significantly up-regulated in HCC tissues, and this was correlated with several clinicopathological parameters, including tumor multiplicity (P = 0.004), TNM stage (P = 0.002), and BCLC stage (P = 0.010). Further Cox regression analysis suggested that GNA13 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.014) and disease-free survival (P = 0.005). Moreover, we found that overexpression of GNA13 couldn't promote cell proliferation in vitro, but could significantly increase the invasion ability of HCC cells. Together, our study demonstrates GNA13 may be served as a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients after curative hepatectomy, in which high expression of GNA13 suggests poor prognosis of HCC patients.

  13. Positive expression of KIF20A indicates poor prognosis of glioma patients

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jia; Huang, Wei; Shi, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    Glioma patients have a poor overall survival; however, patients can show distinct clinical outcomes due to the high heterogeneity of the tumor, which may be indicated by certain clinicobiological parameters. Kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A), which participates in cytokinesis and intracellular transportation, has been recently reported to be upregulated in pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. In the current study, we investigated the expression of KIF20A in gliomas and its significance in predicting the prognosis after surgery. We found that KIF20A positive expression in glioma tissues correlated significantly with Ki67 protein expression and advanced World Health Organization grade. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that KIF20A can act as an independent prognostic factor for predicting the overall survival of glioma patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that KIF20A can positively regulate the expression of Ki67 in glioma cell lines. Correspondingly, overexpression of KIF20A can promote cell proliferation and invasion, whereas knockdown of KIF20A can inhibit cell viability and invasion capacity. In vitro study also showed that under the treatment of plumbagin, an anticancer drug, KIF20A expression decreased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the overexpression of KIF20A can also increase the drug resistance toward plumbagin, which provided the possibility that KIF20A may contribute to the chemotherapy resistance of gliomas. PMID:27843327

  14. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  15. Downregulation of ACSM3 promotes metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hao-Yu; Yang, Chen; Tao, Xue-Mei; He, Jia; Wang, Ting; Wang, Hui; Wang, Cun; Jin, Guang-Zhi; Jin, Hao-Jie; Qin, Wen-Xin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of cancer metastasis is crucial for reduction of cancer mortality. Acyl-CoA medium-chain synthetase 3 (ACSM3) is an acyl-CoA synthetase which takes part in the first step of fatty acid metabolism. However, the expression, clinical significance and biological function of ACSM3 remain unknown in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, the expression and prognostic relevance of ACSM3 were investigated by tissue microarray and HCC clinical samples. Migration and invasion assays were carried out for functional analysis in vitro and a xenograft model was used to analyze the effects of ACSM3 on cancer metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, human phospho-kinase array assays were performed to explore molecular mechanisms of ACSM3 in HCC. The results showed ACSM3 was downregulated in HCC tissues. HCC patients with low expression of ACSM3 exhibited poor prognosis. Overexpression of ACSM3 attenuated migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo and downregulated the phosphorylation of WNK1 and AKT. Our findings indicate ACSM3 is a novel prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  16. Reduction of AZGP1 predicts poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong; Wu, Yufeng; Qin, Yanru; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Lili; Guan, Xinyuan; Luo, Suxia; Wang, Qiming

    2017-01-01

    Background As a key regulator in lipid mobilization, AZGP1 has been reported to play a significant role in various cancers. This study was carried out to investigate the role of AZGP1 in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients in Northern China. Materials and methods Through the application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, AZGP1 expression in ESCC tissues from Northern China was examined. Results Decreased expression of AZGP1 was observed in ~60% ESCC patients. AZGP1 downregulation was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.035), advanced clinical stage (P=0.018), poor prognosis for 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS; P<0.001), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS; P=0.016), and metastasis-free survival (MeFS; P=0.014). In addition, Cox multivariate analysis revealed that AZGP1 downregulation remained to be an independent prognosticator for shorter DSS (P=0.001), LRFS (P=0.011), and MeFS (P=0.004). Conclusion AZGP1 might be a candidate tumor suppressor and a potential novel prognostic biomarker for ESCC patients in Northern China. PMID:28053542

  17. Underweight status predicts a poor prognosis in elderly patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Manabu; Sasaki, Shin; Ozaki, Kosuke; Ishimaru, Kazuhiro; Terai, Emi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of underweight status on the survival of elderly patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). A total of 113 patients aged ≥75 years who underwent curative surgery for CRC were included. In addition to standard perioperative variables, body mass index (BMI) was assessed. The patients were categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2) or non-underweight (BMI≥18.5 kg/m2). The 3-year overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were analyzed. Of the 113 patients, 24 (21%) were underweight. The two groups were well-balanced regarding all factors evaluated. In the multivariate analysis, underweight status was an independent indicator of lower 3-year OS [hazard ratio (HR)=2.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.50; P=0.033] and CSS (HR=3.51, 95% CI: 1.16–10.60; P=0.025) rates. Compared with the non-underweight group, the underweight group had significantly worse 3-year OS (66.7 vs. 86.5%, respectively; P=0.017) and CSS (74.1 vs. 90.9%, respectively; P=0.025) rates. Therefore, underweight status was a significant risk factor for poor survival in elderly CRC patients. The development of effective nutritional interventions may improve the prognosis of such patients. PMID:27602223

  18. Methylation of MGMT Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Stage III Duodenal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sharmab, Anup; Xie, Fei; Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kai; Wan, Weiwei; Baylin, Stephen B.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Ahuja, Nita

    2016-01-01

    Background O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status has not been extensively investigated in duodenal adenocarcinoma (DA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the MGMT methylation status and examine its possible prognostic value in patients with stage III DA. Methods Demographics, tumor characteristics and survival were available for 64 patients with stage III DA. MGMT methylation was detected by using MethyLight. A Cox proportional hazard model was built to predict survival, adjusted for clinicopathological characteristics and tumor molecular features, including the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), microsatellite instability (MSI), and KRAS mutations. Results MGMT methylation was detected in 17 of 64 (26.6%) patients, and was not correlated with sex, age, tumor differentiation, CIMP, MSI, or KRAS mutations. MGMT methylation was the only one factor associated with both overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) on both univariate and multivariate analyses. In patients treated with surgery alone, MGMT-methylated group had worse OS and DFS when compared with MGMT-unmethylated group. However, in patients treated with chemotherapy/radiotherapy, outcomes became comparable between the two groups. Conclusions Our results demonstrate MGMT methylation is a reliable and independent prognostic factor in DAs. Methylation of MGMT is associated with poor prognosis in patients with stage III DAs. PMID:27643594

  19. c-Fos over-expression promotes radioresistance and predicts poor prognosis in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guokai; Chen, Furong; Tu, Ziwei; Liu, Guiyun; Zhao, Yu; Peng, Ming-Jing; He, Zheng-Wen; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Lindsay, Holly; Xia, Yun-Fei; Li, Xiao-Nan

    2016-01-01

    c-Fos is a major component of activator protein (AP)-1 complex. It has been implicated in cell differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. To investigate the role of c-Fos in glioma radiosensitivity and to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we downregulated c-Fos gene expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA in glioma cell lines and subsequently analyzed the radiosensitivity, DNA damage repair capacity, and cell cycle distribution. Finally, we explored its prognostic value in 41 malignant glioma patients by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that silencing c-Fos sensitized glioma cells to radiation by increasing radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), disturbing the DNA damage repair process, promoting G2/M cell cycle arrest, and enhancing apoptosis. c-Fos protein overexpression correlated with poor prognosis in malignant glioma patients treated with standard therapy. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism of radioresistance in malignant glioma and identify c-Fos as a potentially novel therapeutic target for malignant glioma patients. PMID:27602752

  20. Increased BTLA and HVEM in gastric cancer are associated with progression and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiuwen; Li, Sen; Gao, Hongyu; Nanding, Abiyasi; Quan, Lina; Yang, Chunyan; Ding, Shaohua; Xue, Yingwei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Deregulation of immune checkpoint molecules by tumor cells is related to immune escape. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the appearance of B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and its ligand herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) with the prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Patients and methods A total of 136 patients with curative gastrectomy were included. The expression of BTLA and HVEM was detected by immunohistochemistry, and its correlation with the clinical significance of gastric cancer was further analyzed. Results The positivity of BTLA and HVEM was detected in 74.3% (101/136) and 89.0% (121/136) of the gastric cancer specimens, respectively. A high expression of BTLA and HVEM was detected, respectively, in 28.7% (39/136) and 44.9% (61/136) of the specimens. Characteristics analysis showed that the high expression of BTLA was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.030). Similarly, the high expression of HVEM was also significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.007) and depth of invasion (P=0.011). In addition, there was a positive correlation between the expression of BTLA and HVEM in gastric cancer specimens (r=0.245, P=0.004). Univariate analysis revealed that the high expression of BTLA and HVEM was associated with overall survival of patients along with tumor size, Borrmann type, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and histological grade (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis established that the high expression of HVEM (P=0.010), depth of invasion (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), and histological grade (P=0.027) were independent prognostic factors associated with overall survival in patients with gastric cancer. Conclusion The increased BTLA and HVEM levels correlate with the development and poor prognosis of gastric cancer. HVEM is an important prognostic indicator, and BTLA/HVEM pathway is considered to be a promising candidate for immunotherapy of gastric cancer. PMID

  1. High Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Reactivity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Bladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yihuan; Zhang, Xin; Mo, Meile; Tan, Zhong; Huang, Lanshan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Chunqin; Wei, Fanglin; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Rongquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ki-67 is considered as one of prime biomarkers to reflect cell proliferation and immunohistochemical Ki-67 staining has been widely applied in clinical pathology. To solve the widespread controversy whether Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicts clinical prognosis of bladder carcinoma (BC), we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis by combining results from different literature. A comprehensive search was conducted in the Chinese databases of WanFang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP as well as English databases of PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Wiley online library. Independent studies linking Ki-67 to cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were included in our meta-analysis. With the cut-off values literature provided, hazard ratio (HR) values between the survival distributions were extracted and later combined with STATA 12.0. In total, 76 studies (n = 13,053 patients) were eligible for the meta-analysis. It was indicated in either univariate or multivariate analysis for survival that high Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicted poor prognosis. In the univariate analysis, the combined HR for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 2.588 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.623–4.127, P < 0.001), 2.697 (95%CI: 1.874–3.883, P < 0.001), 2.649 (95%CI: 1.632–4.300, P < 0.001), 3.506 (95%CI: 2.231–5.508, P < 0.001), and 1.792 (95%CI: 1.409–2.279, P < 0.001), respectively. The pooled HR of multivariate analysis for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 1.868 (95%CI: 1.343–2.597, P < 0.001), 2.626 (95%CI: 2.089–3.301, P < 0.001), 1.104 (95%CI: 1.008–1.209, P = 0.032), 1.518 (95%CI: 1.299–1.773, P < 0.001), and 1.294 (95%CI: 1.203–1.392, P < 0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis of univariate analysis by origin showed that Ki-67 reactivity significantly

  2. Up-Regulated Expression of SPRY4-IT1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenlong; Song, Zi-zheng; Xu, Qunfang; Qu, Xinyan; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yu; Yu, Qun; Wang, Shengqi

    2017-01-01

    Background Long non-coding RNA SPRY4 intronic transcript 1 (lncRNA SPRY4-IT1) has been reported to be associated with the progression of several cancers, but its expression level in colorectal cancer (CRC) has rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical significance of SPRY4-IT1 in CRC. Material/Methods The relative expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in diseased tissues and the adjacent normal tissues of 106 CRC patients. Chi-square method was used to evaluate the association between SPRY4-IT1 expression and the clinical features. Additionally, we assessed the overall survival at different expression levels of SPRY4-IT1 using Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic significance of SPRY4-IT1 was estimated by Cox regression analysis. Results Up-regulated level of SPRY4-IT1 was detected in pathologic tissues of CRC patients compared with adjacent normal tissues (P=0.000). The relative expression of SPRY4-IT1 was associated with the tumor size, the depth of invasion, lymph node invasion, distant invasion, and tumor stage (P<0.05). Patients with high expression of SPRY4-IT1 had poor overall survival compared with those with high level (39.3 vs. 49.3 months, log-rank test, P=0.016). Cox regression analysis showed that SPRY4-IT1 could act as an independent prognostic factor in CRC (HR=2.341, 95% CI=1.136–4.826, P=0.021). Conclusions SPRY4-IT1 might be associated with tumorigenesis and progression of CRC, and it may be a promising biomarker for prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:28099409

  3. High expression of cellular retinol binding protein-1 in lung adenocarcinoma is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Doldo, Elena; Costanza, Gaetana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Pompeo, Eugenio; Agostinelli, Sara; Bellezza, Guido; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Giunta, Alessandro; Sidoni, Angelo; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adenocarcinoma, the most common non-small cell lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, with a low overall survival (OS) despite increasing attempts to achieve an early diagnosis and accomplish surgical and multimodality treatment strategies. Cellular retinol binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) regulates retinol bioavailability and cell differentiation, but its role in lung cancerogenesis remains uncertain. Experimental design CRBP-1 expression, clinical outcome and other prognostic factors were investigated in 167 lung adenocarcinoma patients. CRBP-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray sections, gene copy number analysis and tumor methylation specific PCR. Effects of CRBP-1 expression on proliferation/apoptosis gene array, protein and transcripts were investigated in transfected A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Results CRBP-1High expression was observed in 62.3% of adenocarcinomas and correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS as an independent prognostic factor. CRBP-1 gene copy gain also associated with tumor CRBP-1High status and dedifferentiation. CRBP-1-transfected (CRBP-1+) A549 grew more than CRBP-1− A549 cells. At >1μM concentrations, all trans-retinoic acid and retinol reduced viability more in CRBP-1+ than in CRBP-1− A549 cells. CRBP-1+ A549 cells showed up-regulated RARα/ RXRα and proliferative and transcriptional genes including pAkt, pEGFR, pErk1/2, creb1 and c-jun, whereas RARβ and p53 were strongly down-regulated; pAkt/pErk/ pEGFR inhibitors counteracted proliferative advantage and increased RARα/RXRα, c-jun and CD44 expression in CRBP-1+ A549 cells. Conclusion CRBP-1High expression in lung adenocarcinoma correlated with increased tumor grade and reduced OS, likely through increased Akt/Erk/EGFR-mediated cell proliferation and differentiation. CRBP-1High expression can be considered an additional marker of poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:26807202

  4. High expression of WISP1 in colon cancer is associated with apoptosis, invasion and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hong; Du, Chunyan; Liu, Xiaowen; Yu, Shengjia; Wang, Yanong

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer (CC) likes many epithelial-derived cancers, resulting from a complex tumorigenic process. However, the exactly mechanisms of development and progression of CC are still unknown. In this study, integrated analysis in the GSE33113 and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center Hospital datasets revealed that WISP1 expression was significantly increased in CC cases, positivity correlated with the advanced pathologic stage and a poor prognosis was more likely in CC patients with higher levels of WISP1. Downregulation of WISP1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion through increasing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle at G1 phase in CC LOVO and RKO cells. Besides, Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that relative genes involved in the Cell adhesion molecules and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways were enriched in WISP1-higher expression patients. Western blot analysis showed that Cell adhesion molecules pathway associated genes (ICAM- 1, VCAM-1, SDC2 and CDH2) and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway associated genes (VEGFC, CCL18, CXCR4 and TGFBR1) were also modulated by WISP1 downregulation. Then, we found that the protein β-catenin was identified as a binding partner of WISP1 and mediated the functions of WISP1 through promoting cell proliferation and invasion in LOVO and RKO cells. Further in vivo tumor formation study in nude mice indicated that inhibition of WISP1 delayed the progress of tumor formation and inhibited PCNA expression. These results indicate that WISP1 could act as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer. PMID:27409174

  5. Serum cell death biomarkers for prediction of liver fibrosis and poor prognosis in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Tomohiro; Umemura, Takeji; Fujimori, Naoyuki; Shibata, Soichiro; Ichikawa, Yuki; Kimura, Takefumi; Joshita, Satoru; Komatsu, Michiharu; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tanaka, Eiji; Ota, Masao

    2015-01-01

    The development of simple, noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis is urgently needed for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). This study examined the ability of several serum biomarkers of cell death to estimate fibrosis and prognosis in PBC. A cohort of 130 patients with biopsy-proven PBC and 90 healthy subjects were enrolled. We assessed the utility of the M30 ELISA, which detects caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) fragments and is representative of apoptotic cell death, as well as the M65 and newly developed M65 Epideath (M65ED) ELISAs, which detect total CK-18 as indicators of overall cell death, in predicting clinically relevant fibrosis stage. All 3 cell death biomarkers were significantly higher in patients with PBC than in healthy controls and were significantly correlated with fibrosis stage. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the M65 and M65ED assays for differentiation among significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis were 0.66 and 0.76, 0.66 and 0.73, and 0.74 and 0.82, respectively. In multivariate analysis, high M65ED (hazard ratio 6.13; 95% confidence interval 1.18-31.69; P = 0.031) and severe fibrosis (hazard ratio 7.45; 95% confidence interval 1.82-30.51; P = 0.005) were independently associated with liver-related death, transplantation, or decompensation. High serum M65ED was also significantly associated with poor outcome in PBC (log-rank test; P = 0.001). Noninvasive cell death biomarkers appear to be clinically useful in predicting fibrosis in PBC. Moreover, the M65ED assay may represent a new surrogate marker of adverse disease outcome.

  6. CEP55 overexpression predicts poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhou; Jia, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) involves alterations in multiple genes with corresponding proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) shares certain features with oncogenes, and CEP55 overexpression is associated with the development and progression of malignant tumors. The present study aimed to analyze, for the first time, whether CEP55 expression is related to clinicopothalogic features in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as patient survival. A total of 110 patients with mid-thoracic ESCC who suffered from Ivor-Lewis were enrolled. The CEP55 expression profile of these patients in tumour tissues and corresponding healthy esophageal mucosa (CHEM) was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Correlations between CEP55 expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed using χ2 test. The log-rank test was employed to calculate survival rate. A Cox regression multivariate analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. The results demonstrated that CEP55 expression in ESCC was significantly higher than that of CHEM (P<0.001). Overexpression of CEP55 was significantly associated with differentiation degree (P=0.022), T stage (P=0.019), lymph node metastasis (P=0.033), clinicopathological staging (P=0.002) and tumor recurrence (P=0.021) in locally advanced ESCC patients. In addition, CEP55 overexpression was significantly associated with reduced overall survival of patients after surgery (P=0.012). The 5-year survival rate of patients without CEP55 overexpression was significantly higher than that of patients with CEP55 overexpression (P=0.012). Therefore, these findings suggest that CEP55 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in locally advanced ESCC patients. PMID:28123547

  7. Metallothionein isoform 3 overexpression is associated with breast cancers having a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sens, M A; Somji, S; Garrett, S H; Beall, C L; Sens, D A

    2001-07-01

    The third isoform (MT-3) of the metallothionein gene family is unique in that it has a limited tissue distribution, is not induced by metals, has a neuronal growth inhibitory activity, and sequesters zinc more effectively under zinc-depleted conditions. The goal of the present study was to determine whether MT-3 was absent in normal breast tissue, was overexpressed in breast cancers, and if MT-3 overexpression would be associated with disease outcome. A combination of immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate that the normal breast had no detectable expression of MT-3 mRNA or protein. Using immunohistochemistry, it was shown that MT-3 was overexpressed in 25 of 34 cases of breast cancer. In all cases of positive staining, MT-3 was diffusely localized to the cytoplasm. The tumors from these 34 cases were divided as to outcome based on known 5-year survival, with 20 patients being disease free at 5 years (good outcome) and the other 14 having recurring disease within 5 years (bad outcome). When analyzed for MT-3 staining, it was shown that there was a trend for increased MT-3 immunoreactivity in the group having bad outcomes. However, when the tumor subgrouping was further defined on the basis of carcinoma in situ (CIS), there was a marked significant difference in MT-3 staining between patients with good and bad outcomes. Limited to DCIS, MT-3 staining was significantly increased in patients with bad outcomes compared to those with good outcomes. Thus, these studies demonstrate that MT-3 is overexpressed in selected breast cancers and that overexpression is associated with tumors having a poor prognosis.

  8. CMS proposal for interventional pain management by nurse anesthetists: evidence by proclamation with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Falco, Frank J E; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Hansen, Hans; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    and training qualifications for CRNAs to offer interventional techniques, the FTC issued their opinion and CMS proposed to expand these practice patterns with a policy of improved access and reduced cost. However, in reality, the opposite will happen and will increase fraud, reduce access due to inappropriate procedures, and increase complications, all as a result of privileges by legislation without education. The CMS proposal for interventional pain management by nurse anesthetists is a proclamation with a poor prognosis.

  9. Efficacy of vincristine and etoposide with escalating cyclophosphamide in poor-prognosis pediatric brain tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, David S.; Cohn, Richard J.; McCowage, Geoffrey; Alvaro, Frank; Oswald, Cecilia; Mrongovius, Robert; White, Les

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the VETOPEC regimen, a regimen of vincristine and etoposide with escalating doses of cyclophosphamide (CPA), in pediatric patients with high-risk brain tumors. Three consecutive studies by the Australia and New Zealand Children’s Cancer Study Group—VETOPEC I, Baby Brain 91, and VETOPEC II—have used a specific chemotherapy regimen of vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP-16) and escalating CPA in patients with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk solid tumors. Patients in the VETOPEC II cohort were treated with very high dose CPA with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue. We analyzed the subset of patients with high-risk brain tumors treated with these intensive VETOPEC-based protocols to assess the response, toxicity, and survival. We also assessed whether the use of very high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue improved the response rate or affected toxicity. Seventy-one brain tumor patients were treated with VETOPEC-based protocols. Of the 54 patients evaluable for tumor response, 17 had a complete response (CR) and 20 a partial response (PR) to treatment, which yielded an overall response rate of 69%. The CR + PR was 83% (19/23) for medulloblastomas, 56% (5/9) for primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 55% (6/11) for grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas, and 80% (6/8) for ependymomas. At a median follow-up of 36 months, overall survival for the entire cohort of 71 patients was 32%, with event-free survival of 13%. There were no toxic deaths within the PBSC-supported VETOPEC II cohort, despite higher CPA doses, compared with 7% among the non-PBSC patients. This regimen produces high response rates in a variety of very poor prognosis pediatric brain tumors. The maximum tolerated dose of CPA was not reached. Higher escalation in doses of CPA did not deliver a further improvement in response. With PBSC rescue in the VETOPEC II study, hematologic toxicity was no longer a limiting factor. The response rates observed

  10. Efficacy of vincristine and etoposide with escalating cyclophosphamide in poor-prognosis pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, David S; Cohn, Richard J; McCowage, Geoffrey; Alvaro, Frank; Oswald, Cecilia; Mrongovius, Robert; White, Les

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of the VETOPEC regimen, a regimen of vincristine and etoposide with escalating doses of cyclophosphamide (CPA), in pediatric patients with high-risk brain tumors. Three consecutive studies by the Australia and New Zealand Children's Cancer Study Group--VETOPEC I, Baby Brain 91, and VETOPEC II--have used a specific chemotherapy regimen of vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP-16) and escalating CPA in patients with relapsed, refractory, or high-risk solid tumors. Patients in the VETOPEC II cohort were treated with very high dose CPA with peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) rescue. We analyzed the subset of patients with high-risk brain tumors treated with these intensive VETOPEC-based protocols to assess the response, toxicity, and survival. We also assessed whether the use of very high dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue improved the response rate or affected toxicity. Seventy-one brain tumor patients were treated with VETOPEC-based protocols. Of the 54 patients evaluable for tumor response, 17 had a complete response (CR) and 20 a partial response (PR) to treatment, which yielded an overall response rate of 69%. The CR + PR was 83% (19/23) for medulloblastomas, 56% (5/9) for primitive neuroectodermal tumors, 55% (6/11) for grade 3 and 4 astrocytomas, and 80% (6/8) for ependymomas. At a median follow-up of 36 months, overall survival for the entire cohort of 71 patients was 32%, with event-free survival of 13%. There were no toxic deaths within the PBSC-supported VETOPEC II cohort, despite higher CPA doses, compared with 7% among the non-PBSC patients. This regimen produces high response rates in a variety of very poor prognosis pediatric brain tumors. The maximum tolerated dose of CPA was not reached. Higher escalation in doses of CPA did not deliver a further improvement in response. With PBSC rescue in the VETOPEC II study, hematologic toxicity was no longer a limiting factor. The response rates observed

  11. Low PLCE1 levels are correlated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ya; Xing, Song-Ge; Jia, Wei-Dong; Huang, Mei; Bian, Na-Na

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous reports show that phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1) expression is positively correlated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas; however, the expression of PLCE1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its correlation with clinical outcome still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of PLCE1 in HCC tissue and to determine whether PLCE1 was a prognostic factor for HCC patients. Materials and methods PLCE1 levels in 20 paired HCC tissues and corresponding paracarcinomatous tissues was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. In addition, protein levels of PLCE1 in one normal liver epithelial cell and four HCC cell lines were examined using Western blot assay. Moreover, immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the expression of PLCE1 in HCC and corresponding surrounding tissues from 90 patients. Statistical analyses were used to examine the association between PLCE1 levels and clinicopathological features. Results We found that the expression of PLCE1 in tumor tissues was significantly lower than those in paracarcinomatous tissues at both mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05). We also determined that PLCE1 protein expression levels were lower in HCC cell lines than normal liver epithelial cells (P<0.05). Notably, immunohistochemical assay showed that PLCE1 expression was significantly low in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent normal liver tissues (40% vs 18.9%; P<0.05). Besides, PLCE1 levels were negatively correlated with tumor capsulae, vascular invasion, Edmondson grade, alpha-fetoprotein, and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P<0.05). Univariate analysis revealed that lower level expression of PLCE1 was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) rate (P<0.001) and disease-free survival rate (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that low PLCE1 level was an independent poor prognostic factor of OS and recurrence

  12. Expression of the Stem Cell Factor Nestin in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Svenja; Friess, Martina; Frischknecht, Lukas; Korol, Dimitri; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Stahel, Rolf; Vrugt, Bart; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Soltermann, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background The epithelioid and sarcomatoid histologic variants of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can be considered as E- and M-parts of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) axis; the biphasic being an intermediate. EMT is associated with an increase of stem cell (SC) traits. We correlated the neural crest SC marker nestin and the EMT marker periostin with histology, type of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and overall survival (OS) of MPM patients. Patients and Methods Tumor tissues of a historic cohort 1 (320 patients) and an intended induction chemotherapy followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) cohort 2 (145 patients) were immunohistochemically H-scored (intensity of immunoreactivity multiplied by frequency of stained cells). Paired chemo-naïve biopsies and -treated surgical specimens were available for 105/145 patients. CT included platinum/gemcitabine (Pla/Gem) or platinum/pemetrexed (Pla/Pem). Results Expression of any cytosolic nestin progressively increased from epithelioid to biphasic to sarcomatoid MPM in cohort 1, whereas the diagnostic markers calretinin and podoplanin decreased. In cohort 2, Pla/Pem CT increased the expression level of nestin in comparison to Pla/Gem, whereas the opposite was found for periostin. In Pla/Pem treated patients, nestin was higher in biphasic MPM compared to epithelioid. In addition to non-epithelioid histology, any expression of nestin in chemo-naïve biopsies (median overall survival: 22 vs. 17 months) and chemo-treated surgical specimens (18 vs. 12 months) as well as high periostin in biopsies (23 vs. 15 months) were associated with poor prognosis. In the multivariate survival analysis, any nestin expression in chemo-naïve biopsies proved to be an independent prognosticator against histology. In both pre- and post-CT situations, the combination of nestin or periostin expression with non-epithelioid histology was particularly/ dismal (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The SC marker nestin and the EMT

  13. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production

    PubMed Central

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T.; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Plant, Nick J.

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  14. High-dose therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation in first complete or partial remission for poor prognosis Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Fleury, J; Legros, M; Colombat, P; Cure, H; Travade, P; Tortochaux, J; Dionet, C; Chollet, P; Linassier, C; Lamagnere, J P; Blaise, D; Viens, P; Maraninchi, D; Plagne, R

    1996-01-01

    We report the experience of three French centres which evaluated high-dose therapy (HDT) as consolidation therapy for poor prognosis Hodgkin's disease (HD). From March 1986 to April 1990, 23 consecutive patients with poor prognosis stage IV HD underwent HDT followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) after achieving either complete remission (CR1) or good partial response (GPR1) (reduction mass> 75%). The median age was 31 years (range 18 to 55 years), 14 were male. All patients except one initially had at least 2 poor prognosis factors such as: systemic symptoms (n = 19), bulky tumor (n = 16), more than one extranodal site (n = 9), bone marrow involvement (n = 5), lymphocyte count < or = 1.10(9)/1 (n = 8) and biological stage B (n = 21). All patients had previously been treated with alternating MOPP/ABVD. Ten patients were in GPR1 and 13 in CR1 before transplant. The conditioning regimens were: CBV (n = 17), BEAM (n = 5), BEAC (n = 1) followed by bone marrow rescue. Radiotherapy was introduced just before the conditioning regimen for 6 patients or after ABMT for 5 patients. Nine of 10 patients in GPR1 achieved CR after ABMT but one died early of treatment-related toxicity. Five of 22 patients who were in CR posttransplant, relapsed (3, 4, 4, 18, 36 months). Seventeen patients remain alive in continuous CR with a median follow-up of 60 months (range: 30-100 months). The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) projected at 5 years are 92% and 77% respectively. Consolidation by HDT and ABMT proved to be well tolerated. An international trial is currently underway to attempt to demonstrate a clear benefit on survival for this subset of poor prognosis HD patients.

  15. High Vimentin Expression Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Predicated a Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuli; Liu, Liu; Ye, Weimin; Ye, Dongxia; Wang, Tong; Guo, Wenzheng; Liao, Yueling; Xu, Dongliang; Song, Hongyong; Zhang, Ling; Zhu, Hanguang; Deng, Jiong; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common public health problem worldwide with poor prognosis, which is largely due to lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Identification of specific molecular markers of OSCC with lymph node metastasis would be very important for early and specific diagnosis. In this study, we screened for the potential prognosis markers via unbiased transcriptomic microarray analysis in paired two OSCC cell lines, a lymph node metastatic HN12 cell line and a low metastatic parental HN4 cell line. The results showed that vimentin, with 87-fold increase of expression, was on the top of all upregulated genes in metastatic HN12 cells compared to non-metastatic HN4 cells. Treatment of non-metastatic HN4 cells with TGF-β1 induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), with increased vimentin expression as well as enhanced migration activity. Consistently, knockdown of vimentin via siRNA resulted in suppressed invasion and migration activities of HN12 cells, suggesting an essential role of vimentin in EMT-related functions of OSCC cells. Finally, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining analysis showed that high vimentin expression was strongly associated with high lymph node metastases (p < 0.05), and poor overall survival (p < 0.05) in OSCC patients. Thus, high vimentin expression is strongly associated with increased metastatic potential, and may serve as a prediction marker for poor prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:27966589

  16. CDH1 promoter methylation correlates with decreased gene expression and poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Sun, Xin; Qin, Sida; Wang, Huangzhen; DU, Ning; Li, Yanbo; Pang, Yamei; Wang, Cuicui; Xu, Chongwen; Ren, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is associated with poor prognosis and metastasis in patients with breast cancer, and methylation of its promoter is correlated with decreased gene expression. However, there is currently no direct evidence that CDH1 promoter methylation indicates poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. In the present study, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to detect the methylation status of the CDH1 promoter in 137 primary breast cancer, 85 matched normal breast tissue and 13 lung metastasis specimens. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to assess the relative expression levels of CDH1 mRNA, and correlation analysis between CDH1 methylation status, and gene expression, clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival was performed. Methylation of CDH1 was identified in 40.9% (56/137) of primary breast cancer specimens, 61.5% (8/13) of lung metastasis specimens and none of the matched normal breast specimens. The downregulation of CDH1 mRNA and E-cadherin protein expression were identified to be significantly correlated with CDH1 methylation (P<0.05). In addition, CDH1 methylation was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and estrogen receptor status of patients (P<0.05). In univariate analyses, patients with CDH1 methylation exhibited poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS; P<0.05). Furthermore, multivariate analyses revealed that CDH1 methylation was an independent prognostic factor predicting poor OS (HR, 1.737; 95% CI, 0.957-3.766; P=0.041) and DFS (HR, 2.018; 95% CI, 2.057-3.845; P=0.033) in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, the present study suggests that CDH1 promoter methylation may be correlated with breast carcinogenesis and indicates poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer.

  17. Upregulation of COL6A1 is predictive of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yijun; Zhang, Hailiang; Shi, Guohai; Zhu, Yao; Dai, Bo; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is reported to play an important role in tumorigenesis and progression. Collagen VI is an important ECM protein. In this study, we investigated the potential role of the COL6A1 gene, which encodes the α1 polypeptide of collagen VI, in the biological functions involved in the progression and outcome of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Materials and methods: A total of 288 ccRCC patients who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) or nephron sparing nephrectomy (NSS) at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) were enrolled. Total RNA was extracted from frozen samples obtained from the tissue bank of FUSCC and expression of COL6A1 was determined by qRT-PCR. The clinical relationship between COL6A1 expression and ccRCC prognosis was analyzed. These data were then validated in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. We also investigated the effect of COL6A1 overexpression in a xenografted tumor model in nude mice in vivo. Results: In multivariate analysis of TCGA cohorts, COL6A1 high expression was predictive of poor prognosis in ccRCC patients’ overall survival (OS) (HR: 2.588 95%CI 1.616–4.146) and disease free survival(DFS) (HR: 3.106 95%CI 1.534–6.288). In FUSCC cohorts, after adjusted for relevant factors, the COL6A1 expression indicates poor prognosis in ccRCC patients’s OS (HR 2.211; 95% CI, 1.360–8.060) and DFS (HR 3.052; 95%CI, 1.500–6.210). COL6A1 overexpression promoted tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. Conclusion: Increased COL6A1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in ccRCC patients. Moreover, COL6A1 stimulates tumor growth in vivo. PMID:26317545

  18. Low expression of BMPRIB indicates poor prognosis of breast cancer and is insensitive to taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Kun; Qin, Fengxia; Zhang, Huikun; Liu, Xiaoli; Guo, Caixia; Zhang, Ming; Gu, Feng; Fu, Li; Ma, Yongjie

    2016-01-26

    Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type IB (BMPRIB) is one osteogenesis factor, which function in breast cancer has been rarely explored until recently. In the clinical study presented here, involving a cohort of 368 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients, we identified that patients with low expression of BMPRIB exhibited poor prognosis, especially in the luminal B subtype. We also provided the first piece of evidence that low level of BMPRIB was a promoting factor for breast cancer patients to develop bone metastasis, but not lung, liver or brain. The first of its kind, we reported that patients with high expression of BMPRIB exhibited favorable prognosis by a retrospective analysis consisting of 168 patients treated with TE (taxane and anthracycline) regimens. And the patients with high expression of BMPRIB were more sensitive to TE regimens in the detection of 32 paired pre-neoadjuvant and post-neoadjuvant specimens. Overall, our study concluded that low expression of BMPRIB indicated poor prognosis of breast cancer and was insensitive to taxane-anthracycline chemotherapy. Our findings also lay a foundation to help clinicians improve identification of patients for TE regimens by BMPRIB in the era of precision medicine.

  19. FRZB up-regulation is correlated with hepatic metastasis and poor prognosis in colon carcinoma patients with hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanping; Zhang, Fang; Lan, Huanrong; Chen, Ke; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Guoming; Teng, Lisong; Jin, Ketao

    2015-01-01

    Frizzled-related protein (FRZB) was up-regulated in hepatic metastasis samples compared with primary colon cancer samples in our previous work. However, the clinical relevance of FRZB in colon cancer hepatic metastasis remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of FRZB in patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection. FRZB expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) primary colon carcinoma and paired hepatic metastasis tissues from 136 patients with liver metastasis from colon carcinoma that underwent hepatic resection. The relation between FRZB expression and clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in these 136 patients was retrospectively examined. The prognostic significance of negative or positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank tests. Positive expression of FRZB was correlated with liver metastasis of colon cancer. Univariate analysis indicated significantly worse overall survival (OS) for patients with a positive FRZB expression in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis than for patients with a negative FRZB expression. Multivariate analysis showed positive-FRZB in colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis to be an independent prognostic factor for OS after hepatic resection (P = 0.001). Positive expression of FRZB was statistically significantly associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis. FRZB could be a novel predictor for poor prognosis of patients with colon carcinoma hepatic metastasis after hepatic resection.

  20. miR-135b, a key regulator of malignancy, is linked to poor prognosis in human myxoid liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Nezu, Y; Hagiwara, K; Yamamoto, Y; Fujiwara, T; Matsuo, K; Yoshida, A; Kawai, A; Saito, T; Ochiya, T

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid/round cell (RC) liposarcomas (MLS) were originally classified into two distinct populations based on histological differences; a myxoid component and a RC component. It is notable that, depending on an increase of the RC component, the prognosis significantly differs. Hence, the RC component is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the malignancy of the RC component still remain largely unknown. Here, we report microRNA-135b (miR-135b), a key regulator of the malignancy, highly expressed in the RC component and promoting MLS cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through the direct suppression of thrombospondin 2 (THBS2). Decreased THBS2 expression by miR-135b increases the total amount of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and influences cellular density and an extracellular matrix structure, thereby resulting in morphological change in tumor. The expression levels of miR-135b and THBS2 significantly correlated with a poor prognosis in MLS patients. Overall, our study reveals that the miR-135b/THBS2/MMP2 axis is tightly related to MLS pathophysiology and has an important clinical implication. This work provides noteworthy evidence for overcoming metastasis and improving patient outcomes, and sheds light on miR-135b and THBS2 as novel molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy in MLS. PMID:27157622

  1. Promoter CpG island methylation of RET predicts poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Draht, Muriel X G; Smits, Kim M; Tournier, Benjamin; Jooste, Valerie; Chapusot, Caroline; Carvalho, Beatriz; Cleven, Arjen H G; Derks, Sarah; Wouters, Kim A D; Belt, Eric J T; Stockmann, Hein B A C; Bril, Herman; Weijenberg, Matty P; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Herman, James G; Meijer, Gerrit A; Piard, Françoise; Melotte, Veerle; van Engeland, Manon

    2014-05-01

    Improved prognostic stratification of patients with TNM stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is desired, since 20-30% of high-risk stage II patients may die within five years of diagnosis. This study was conducted to investigate REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene promoter CpG island methylation as a possible prognostic marker for TNM stage II CRC patients. The utility of RET promoter CpG island methylation in tumors of stage II CRC patients as a prognostic biomarker for CRC related death was studied in three independent series (including 233, 231, and 294 TNM stage II patients, respectively) by using MSP and pyrosequencing. The prognostic value of RET promoter CpG island methylation was analyzed by using Cox regression analysis. In the first series, analyzed by MSP, CRC stage II patients (n = 233) with RET methylated tumors had a significantly worse overall survival as compared to those with unmethylated tumors (HRmultivariable = 2.51, 95%-CI: 1.42-4.43). Despite a significant prognostic effect of RET methylation in stage III patients of a second series, analyzed by MSP, the prognostic effect in stage II patients (n = 231) was not statistically significant (HRmultivariable = 1.16, 95%-CI 0.71-1.92). The third series (n = 294), analyzed by pyrosequencing, confirmed a statistically significant association between RET methylation and poor overall survival in stage II patients (HRmultivariable = 1.91, 95%-CI: 1.04-3.53). Our results show that RET promoter CpG island methylation, analyzed by two different techniques, is associated with a poor prognosis in stage II CRC in two independent series and a poor prognosis in stage III CRC in one series. RET methylation may serve as a useful and robust tool for clinical practice to identify high-risk stage II CRC patients with a poor prognosis. This merits further investigation.

  2. Risk factors in the pregnancy of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: association of hypocomplementaemia with poor prognosis.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, S; Sasaki, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Seino, J; Okamura, K; Yoshinaga, K; Morito, N; Kasukawa, R; Aotuka, S; Yokohari, R

    1992-01-01

    Fetal wastage is still high in the pregnancies of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We examined retrospectively the cases of 38 patients with inactive SLE in whom pregnancy was either desired or had already been obtained. The prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in the group with fetal loss was high. The antibodies were, however, also detected in five of 14 patients who had had a live birth. It was noted that low levels of serum complement activity (CH50 less than 25 U/ml) occurred in five of six patients with fetal loss, but in only two of 22 with a live birth. Serial studies also confirmed a close association between decreased serum complement activity and poor fetal prognosis in lupus pregnancy. Treatment with increased doses of prednisolone may help to achieve successful live births. Thus hypocomplementaemia may be associated with a worse prognosis for the fetus in the pregnancies of some patients with SLE in remission. Images PMID:1616326

  3. p16 upregulation is linked to poor prognosis in ERG negative prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Burdelski, Christoph; Dieckmann, Tatsiana; Heumann, Asmus; Hube-Magg, Claudia; Kluth, Martina; Beyer, Burkhard; Steuber, Thomas; Pompe, Raisa; Graefen, Markus; Simon, Ronald; Minner, Sarah; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Koop, Christina; Izbicki, Jakob; Sauter, Guido; Krech, Till; Schlomm, Thorsten; Wilczak, Waldemar; Lebok, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Altered expression of the p16 tumor suppressor is frequently found in prostate cancer, but its role for tumor development and patient prognosis is disputed. In order to clarify the prognostic role of p16 and to draw conclusions on interactions with key molecular features of prostate cancer, we studied p16 expression in a tissue microarray (TMA) with more than 12,400 prostate cancers and attached clinical, pathological, and molecular data such as ERG status and deletions of 3p13, 5q21, 6q15, and PTEN. p16 immunostaining was absent in non-neoplastic prostate cells but was found in 37 % of 9627 interpretable prostate cancers. Finding p16 expression in 58 % of ERG positive but in only 22 % of ERG negative cancers (p < 0.0001), highlights the known androgen-dependence of both genes. Significant associations between p16 upregulation and tumor phenotype or patient prognosis were strictly limited to the subset of ERG negative cancers. For example, p16 positivity increased from 15 % in Gleason ≤3 + 3 to 38 % in Gleason ≥4 + 4 cancers (p < 0.0001) and was associated with early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001). p16 upregulation was strongly linked to deletions of PTEN (p < 0.0001), highlighting the interaction of both genes in growth control. In conclusion, p16 upregulation is a strong prognostic factor in ERG negative cancers. The strict limitation of its prognostic impact to a molecularly defined subgroup challenges the concept of molecular prognosis testing without considering molecular subtypes.

  4. p53 exon 7 mutations as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, P; Vega, F J; Caldés, T; Massa, M; de Juan, C; Cerdán, F J; Sánchez, A; López, J A; Torres, A J; Balibrea, J L; Benito, M

    1998-08-14

    We have studied 61 resected colorectal adenocarcinomas in order to investigate p53 mutations as a prognostic factor for this pathology. Mutations in exons 5-9 of the p53 gene were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique followed by sequencing. Our data indicate that p53 exon 7 mutations were prevalent in the latest stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and patients bearing this alteration had the worst prognosis. Therefore, according to our results, mutations affecting exon 7 of the p53 gene could be considered as a useful marker of biological aggressiveness for colorectal cancer.

  5. GATA3 expression correlates with poor prognosis and tumor-associated macrophage infiltration in peripheral T cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yunping; Zhong, Dingrong; Luo, Yufeng; Zhou, Daobin

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined the prognostic value of two T-cell-specific transcription factors, GATA3 and T-bet, in PTCL, uncovered the pathogenesis of PTCL, and investigated new PTCL therapeutic targets. Samples from 109 PTCL patients were examined for expression of GATA3, T-bet and CD68. High GATA3 expression correlated with poor survival in PTCL patients and with tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration, as indicated by the presence of CD68-positive cells. Multivariate analysis further confirmed that high GATA3 expression and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores higher than 2 were independent predictors of patient survival. Using lentiviral transfection to induce stable GATA3 knockdown in a PTCL cell line, we observed that GATA-3 knockdown in Hut78 cells decreased levels of IL4, IL5, IL13 and VEGF mRNA and reduced the number of co-cultured U937 cells that differentiated towards the M2 phenotype. These results suggest that high GATA3 expression is a predictor of a poor prognosis in PTCL, and that T lymphoma cells promote M2-type macrophage differentiation through a GATA3-dependent mechanism. PMID:27589565

  6. Mast Cells Comprise the Major of Interleukin 17-Producing Cells and Predict a Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jian-Fei; Pan, Hong-Ying; Ying, Xi-Hui; Lou, Jian; Ji, Jian-Song; Zou, Hai

    2016-03-01

    IL-17 and IL-17-producing cells have been found in many types of human cancers and murine models. However, the source of tumor-infiltrating IL-17 and IL-17-producing cells in HCC and the prognostic values remain poorly understood. A total of 57 HCC patients were enrolled in this study, and immunofluorescence double stain was used to evaluate the colocalization of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, CD56 NK cells, CD20 B cells, CD68 Macrophages, and MCT mast cells with IL-17. The prognostic value of IL-17-producing cells was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model. MCT mast cells, but not other cells, were the predominant IL-17-producing cell type. Overall survival analysis revealed that the increasing intratumoral-infiltrated MCT mast cells were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence double stain showed a positive correlation between the number of MCT mast cells and MCVs. These findings indicated the major IL-17-producing cells in HCC were MCT mast cells and these cells infiltration may promote tumor progression by angiogenesis. Increased MCT mast cells was associated with a poor prognosis, indicating therapy targeting MCT mast cells might be an effective strategy in controlling intratumor IL-17 infiltration and MCVs.

  7. How FSH and AMH reflect probabilities of oocyte numbers in poor prognosis patients with small oocyte yields.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Darmon, Sarah K; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Weghofer, Andrea; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Lin; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H

    2016-11-01

    In poor prognosis patients undergoing in vitro fertilization, advance determinations of likely oocyte yields are especially important since oocyte numbers to large degree determine in vitro fertilization cycle outcomes. Based on baseline follicle stimulating hormone and anti-müllerian hormone levels at time of initial presentation, we here, therefore, determined at all ages the probabilities of obtaining 1-≥5 oocytes in a retrospective analysis of 1554 consecutive patients undergoing in vitro fertilization cycles at an academically affiliated private fertility center. At lowest levels (≤2.5 mIU/mL), Follicle stimulating hormone at all ages was highly predictable for ≥1 oocyte (88-96 %). Probabilities declined and diverged between ages with increasing follicle stimulating hormone, though narrowed again at high follicle stimulating hormone. Anti-Müllerian hormone demonstrated at higher levels (2.5-≥5 ng/ml) at all ages almost perfect probabilities (99-100 %). With declining anti-Müllerian hormone, age categories, however, increasingly diverged, though to lesser degree than follicle stimulating hormone. In poor prognosis patients, follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone, thus, offer at different ages very specific probabilities for retrieval of 1-≥5 oocytes. Since oocyte numbers are associated with embryo numbers, and numbers of transferable embryos with live birth rates, here presented probability tables should facilitate improved prognostication of poor prognosis patients. Discrepancies in here reported probabilities between follicle stimulating hormone and anti-müllerian hormone also further define follicle stimulating hormone and anti-müllerian hormone in their respective abilities to represent functional ovarian reserve at different ages.

  8. In situ hybridisation and S1 mapping show that the presence of infiltrating plasma cells is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, H.; Collis, P.; Baildam, A.; Ralphs, D.; Lyons, B.; Howell, A.; Craig, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to identify potential markers of prognosis in breast cancer, representative cDNA libraries were constructed using RNA isolated from primary breast tumour tissue associated with good and poor prognosis. Cross-screening of these libraries repeatedly identified cloned mRNA species associated with the immune system, in particular B-cells, in libraries derived from tumours of poor prognosis. We have used one of these a kappa IV light chain cDNA probe, in two complementary studies to investigate the relationship between immunoglobin gene expression and prognosis. The results obtained using a combination of S1 mapping, RNA blotting and in situ hybridisation demonstrate that the presence of plasma cells, as defined by infiltrating cells which express high levels of immunoglobulin kappa-chain mRNA, is associated with a poor prognosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3224077

  9. Downregulation of the long noncoding RNA EGOT correlates with malignant status and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shou-Ping; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Sui, Shi-Yao; Bai, Nan-Xia; Gao, Song; Zhang, Guang-Wen; Shi, Qing-Yu; You, Zi-Long; Zhan, Chao; Pang, Da

    2015-12-01

    Eosinophil granule ontogeny transcript (EGOT) is a long noncoding RNA involved in the regulation of eosinophil granule protein transcript expression. However, little is known about the role of EGOT in malignant disease. This study aimed to assess the potential role of EGOT in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression levels of EGOT in 250 breast cancerous tissues and 50 adjacent noncancerous tissues. The correlation of EGOT expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis was also analyzed. EGOT expression was lower in breast cancer compared with the adjacent noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001), and low levels of EGOT expression were significantly correlated with larger tumor size (P = 0.022), more lymph node metastasis (P = 0.020), and higher Ki-67 expression (P = 0.017). Moreover, patients with low levels of EGOT expression showed significantly worse prognosis for overall survival (P = 0.040), and this result was further validated in a larger cohort from a public database. Multivariate analysis suggested that low levels of EGOT were a poor independent prognostic predictor for breast cancer patients (HR = 1.857, 95 % CI = 1.032-3.340, P = 0.039). In conclusion, EGOT may play an important role in breast cancer progression and prognosis and may serve as a new potential prognostic target in breast cancer patients.

  10. Aurora-A identifies early recurrence and poor prognosis and promises a potential therapeutic target in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Wu, Xing; Zhou, Wei-hua; Liu, An-wen; Wu, Jian-bing; Deng, Jin-yun; Yue, Cai-feng; Yang, Shao-bing; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Zhong-yu; Liu, Quentin

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) acquires an unfavorable prognosis, emerging as a major challenge for the treatment of breast cancer. In the present study, 122 TNBC patients were subjected to analysis of Aurora-A (Aur-A) expression and survival prognosis. We found that Aur-A high expression was positively associated with initial clinical stage (P = 0.025), the proliferation marker Ki-67 (P = 0.001), and the recurrence rate of TNBC patients (P<0.001). In TNBC patients with Aur-A high expression, the risk of distant recurrence peaked at the first 3 years and declined rapidly thereafter, whereas patients with Aur-A low expression showed a relatively constant risk of recurrence during the entire follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that overexpression of Aur-A predicted poor overall survival (P = 0.002) and progression-free survival (P = 0.012) in TNBC. Furthermore, overexpression of Aur-A, associated with high Ki-67, predicted an inferior prognosis compared with low expression of both Aur-A and Ki-67. Importantly, we further found that Aur-A was overexpressed in TNBC cells, and inhibition of this kinase inhibited cell proliferation and prevented cell migration in TNBC. Our findings demonstrated that Aur-A was a potential therapeutic target for TNBC and inhibition of Aur-A kinase was a promising regimen for TNBC cancer therapy.

  11. Increased Serum Level of MicroRNA-663 Is Correlated with Poor Prognosis of Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shaoqiang; Deng, Yanming; Chen, Lusi; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Zhenhe; Luo, Weijun; Lv, Zhiqian; Li, Shaoen; Xun, Tao

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) play crucial roles in the carcinogenesis and malignant progression of human cancers including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of serum miR-663 levels with the clinical factors and prognosis of NPC patients. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the amount of miR-663 in serum in NPC patients and healthy controls. Our data showed that the amount of miR-663 in serum was significantly higher in NPC patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, the serum levels of miR-663 were significantly correlated with the grade, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage of NPC. Furthermore, higher serum miR-663 levels were closely associated with worse 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) of patients with NPC, and the serum level of miR-663 was found to be an independent predicator for the prognosis of NPC. In addition, after receiving chemoradiotherapy, the serum levels of miR-663 were significantly reduced in NPC patients. In summary, miR-663 was upregulated in the serum of NPC patients, which was downregulated after chemoradiotherapy, and its increased levels were closely associated with malignant progression and poor prognosis in NPC patients. Therefore, the amount of miR-663 in serum may become a potential predicator for the clinical outcome of NPC patients. PMID:27667893

  12. Upregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 is associated with tumorigenesis and poor prognosis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Yi; Li, Qing; Ren, Tao; Xia, Wei; Peng, Yu; Liu, Gao-Lei; Luo, Hao; Yang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Xiao-Yan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer is a fatal malignancy with a rising incidence rate. Effective methods for early diagnosis, monitoring metastasis, and prognosis are currently unavailable for gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the association of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression with the prognosis of gastric cancer. Methods The expressions of PD-L1 and APE1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in 107 cases of human gastric carcinoma. The correlation of PD-L1 and APE1 expression with the clinicopathologic features of gastric carcinoma was analyzed by SPSS version 19.0. Results The positive expression rates of PD-L1 and APE1 in gastric cancer tissues were 50.5% (54/107) and 86.9% (93/107), respectively. PD-L1 and APE1 positive expressions were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, pathological type, overall survival, and higher T stage. Furthermore, the expression of PD-L1 in highly differentiated gastric cancers was higher than that in poorly differentiated cancers (P=0.008). Moreover, the expression of APE1 and PD-L1 in gastric cancers was positively correlated (r=0.336, P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that the depth of invasion was a significant prognostic factor (risk ratio 19.91; P=0.000), but there was no significant relationship with PD-L1, APE1, prognosis, and other characteristics. Conclusion The deregulation of PD-L1 and APE1 might contribute to the development and the poor prognosis of gastric cancer. Our findings suggest that high expression of PD-L1 and APE1 is a risk factor of gastric cancer and a new biomarker to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer. Furthermore, our findings suggest that targeting the PD-L1 and APE1 signaling pathways may be a new strategy for cancer immune therapy and targeted therapy for gastric cancer, especially in patients with deep invasion and lymph node metastasis. PMID:25733810

  13. Developing thyroid disorders is associated with poor prognosis factors in patient with stable chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Silva-Tinoco, Rubén; Castillo-Martínez, Lilia; Orea-Tejeda, Arturo; Orozco-Gutiérrez, Juan José; Vázquez-Díaz, Oscar; Montaño-Hernández, Patricia; Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Reza-Albarrán, Alfredo

    2011-03-03

    We sought to assess the developing of thyroid disorders in forty eight patients with chronic stable heart failure and without thyroid abnormalities during six months follow-up. Thyroid function disorders were observed in 27.1% of the subjects: sick euthyroid syndrome (12.5%), subclinical hypothyroidism (10.4%) and overt hypothyroidism (6.2%). Subjects with higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels at the end of the study had more hospitalizations. The developing of altered thyroid profile was related to lower hemoglobin levels, smaller phase angle with bioelectrical impedance method and more fatigue perception by the patients. This abnormal thyroid function behavior on stable chronic heart failure and was observed as part of the disease progress and was associated to worse prognosis factors as lower phase angle and anemia.

  14. Increased expression of PDIA3 and its association with cancer cell proliferation and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Hideyuki; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Ueda, Junji; Ishino, Kousuke; Peng, Wei-Xia; Wada, Ryuichi; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Uchida, Eiji; Naito, Zenya

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unfavorable following complete tumor resection. The aim of the present study was to identify a molecule able to predict HCC prognosis through comprehensive protein profiling and to elucidate its clinicopathological significance. Comprehensive protein profiling of HCC was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Through the bioinformatic analysis of proteins expressed differentially in HCC and non-HCC tissues, protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) was identified as a candidate for the prediction of prognosis. PDIA3 expression was subsequently examined in 86 cases of HCC by immunostaining and associations between PDIA3 expression levels and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. The Ki-67 index and apoptotic cell death of carcinoma cells were examined by immunostaining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay in 24 cases. The results demonstrated that PDIA3 was expressed in all 86 HCC cases; 56 HCC cases (65%) exhibited high expression of PDIA3 and 30 (35%) exhibited low expression. The disease-free and overall survival times of HCC patients with high PDIA3 expression were significantly shorter than in HCC patients with low expression. Furthermore, increased expression of PDIA3 was associated with an elevated Ki-67 index, indicating increased cancer cell proliferation and a reduction in apoptotic cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that PDIA3 expression is associated with tumor proliferation and decreased apoptosis in HCC, and that increased expression of PDIA3 predicts poor prognosis. PDIA3 may therefore be a key molecule in the development of novel targeting therapies for patients with HCC. PMID:28101228

  15. Elevated expression of USP9X correlates with poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, You; Liu, Yu; Yang, Bo; Cao, Hong; Yang, Chun-Xu; Ouyang, Wen; Zhang, Shi-Min; Yang, Gui-Fang; Zhou, Fu-Xiang; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9, X-linked (USP9X) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and to evaluate the relevance of USP9X expression to tumor prognosis. Methods Ninety-five patients who underwent surgical resection for clinical stage I-IIIA NSCLC between July 2008 and July 2011 were included in this study. Immunohistochemical analysis of USP9X expression was performed on 95 NSCLC tissues and 32 adjacent normal lung parenchymal tissues from these patients. The Chi-squared test was used to compare the clinicopathological characteristics between different groups. Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox regression model were used to determine the independent prognostic factors. A P value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results The expression of USP9X was found to be significantly higher in NSCLC tissue (44.2%) than in adjacent normal lung parenchymal tissue (6.3%) (P<0.001). High USP9X expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), clinical stage (P<0.001) and a reduced overall survival rate (P=0.001) in patients with NSCLC. Based on the multivariate analysis, the elevated expression of the USP9X protein was a significant predictor of poor prognosis for NSCLC patients (HR =2.244, P=0.028). Conclusions The current study demonstrated that the expression of USP9X in NSCLC tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue and that this elevated expression level of USP9X was associated with poor prognosis among NSCLC patients, suggesting that USP9X might serve as a prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. PMID:25973233

  16. “Frequent exacerbator” is a phenotype of poor prognosis in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Ryusuke; Kawayama, Tomotaka; Suetomo, Masashi; Kinoshita, Takashi; Tokunaga, Yoshihisa; Imaoka, Haruki; Matsunaga, Kazuko; Okamoto, Masaki; Hoshino, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognosis of Japanese patients with COPD who suffer repeated exacerbations is unclear, although Westerners with such episodes have a poor prognosis. Materials and methods We conducted a 1-year prospective observational trial involving 90 Japanese patients with COPD: 58 nonexacerbators, 12 infrequent exacerbators, and 20 frequent exacerbators classified on the basis of exacerbation frequency (zero, one, and two or more exacerbations/year), respectively, during the previous year were observed prospectively for 1 year. The characteristics of frequent exacerbators, the frequency of exacerbation, and the period until the first event were then compared among the groups. Results A total of 78 patients completed the study. Frequent exacerbators had a significantly higher risk of frequent exacerbation in the following year than the case for nonexacerbators (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.94 [1.21–7.17], P=0.0340), but not in comparison with infrequent exacerbators (1.51 [0.49–4.63], P>0.05). The mean annual frequency of exacerbations in the following year was significantly (P=0.0020) higher in the frequent exacerbators (1.4 exacerbations/year) than in the nonexacerbators (0.4), but not in the infrequent exacerbators (0.9, P>0.05). The mean period until the first exacerbation was significantly shorter in the frequent exacerbators than in the infrequent or nonexacerbators (P=0.0012). Independent risk factors for future frequent exacerbation included the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, more severe airflow obstruction, and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Conclusion Our present results indicate that Japanese COPD patients suffering frequent exacerbation have a poor prognosis. The characteristics of Japanese and Western COPD patients suffering frequent exacerbation are similar. PMID:26893552

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic detection of lactate is predictive of a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru; Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Yosuke; Takayasu, Takeshi; Akiyama, Yuji; Saito, Taiichi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse brainstem glioma has a poor prognosis, and there are few long-term survivors. We looked for clinical, conventional magnetic resonance (MR), and MR spectroscopic (MRS) findings predictive of the prognosis of patients with brainstem glioma. Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study of 23 patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine or diffuse medullary brainstem glioma treated during the period 2000–2009. To evaluate prognostic values, we performed a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (log-rank test) that incorporated the patients’ age and sex, symptom duration, the presence or absence of cranial nerve palsy, long tract sign, ataxia, and cysts, the chemotherapeutic regimen, Gd enhancement, longitudinal and cerebellar extension, basilar artery encasement, and MRS parameters. Of the 23 diffuse brainstem gliomas, 19 were located at the pons (ratio of male to female patients, 1.1:1). The mean age of the 23 patients was 15.9 years (range, 4–50 years); 16 were aged <20 years. The duration of overall survival was 19.7 months; in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, it was 16.6 months, and in patients aged <20 years, it was 11.8 months. Clinical and conventional MR findings at presentation were not predictive of the prognosis in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. In addition, a patient age <20 years and the detection of lactate by MRS were poor prognostic factors. The MRS detection of lactate is a prognostic factor in patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Additional studies of larger patient populations using other imaging modalities are needed. PMID:21653595

  18. Suppression of ABHD2, identified through a functional genomics screen, causes anoikis resistance, chemoresistance and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamanoi, Koji; Matsumura, Noriomi; Murphy, Susan K.; Baba, Tsukasa; Abiko, Kaoru; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Konishi, Ikuo; Mandai, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Anoikis resistance is a hallmark of cancer, and relates to malignant phenotypes, including chemoresistance, cancer stem like phenotypes and dissemination. The aim of this study was to identify key factors contributing to anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer using a functional genomics screen. A library of 81 000 shRNAs targeting 15 000 genes was transduced into OVCA420 cells, followed by incubation in soft agar and colony selection. We found shRNAs directed to ABHD2, ELAC2 and CYB5R3 caused reproducible anoikis resistance. These three genes are deleted in many serous ovarian cancers according to The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Suppression of ABHD2 in OVCA420 cells increased phosphorylated p38 and ERK, platinum resistance, and side population cells (p<0.01, respectively). Conversely, overexpression of ABHD2 decreased resistance to anoikis (p<0.05) and the amount of phosphorylated p38 and ERK in OVCA420 and SKOV3 cells. In clinical serous ovarian cancer specimens, low expression of ABHD2 was associated with platinum resistance and poor prognosis (p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, we found three novel genes relevant to anoikis resistance in ovarian cancer using a functional genomics screen. Suppression of ABHD2 may promote a malignant phenotype and poor prognosis for women with serous ovarian cancer. PMID:27323405

  19. Decreased TCL6 expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guohai; Zhang, Hailiang; Sun, Fukang; Ye, Dingwei

    2017-01-01

    One-third of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients present with metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The prognosis of these patients is poor. To identify potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ccRCC, we re-evaluated published long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression profiling data from the Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress database. We found that five lncRNAs were differentially expressed in ccRCC and adjacent tissues. These lncRNAs were assessed in an independent cohort of 71 paired patient samples using real-time PCR. Differences in expression of three of the lncRNAs (ENSG00000177133, TCL6, and ENSG00000244020) were validated in this analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that low expression of ENSG00000177133 and TCL6 was associated with a poor prognosis. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that TCL6 but not ENSG00000177133 expression was an independent predictor of ccRCC aggressiveness and had hazard ratios predictive of clinical outcome. TCL6 expression was negatively correlated with pTNM stage. Overexpression of TCL6 in 786-O and Caki-1 ccRCC cells decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to controls. Our results indicate that lncRNA expression is altered in ccRCC and that decreased TCL6 expression may be an independent adverse prognostic factor in ccRCC patients. PMID:27494890

  20. Abnormalities in Chromosomes 1q and 13 Independently Correlate With Factors of Poor Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyoung; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Hyoun Chan; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Background We comprehensively profiled cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) and analyzed the relationship between cytogenetic abnormalities of undetermined prognostic significance and established prognostic factors. Methods The karyotype of 333 newly diagnosed MM cases was analyzed in association with established prognostic factors. Survival analysis was also performed. Results MM with abnormal karyotypes (41.1%) exhibited high international scoring system (ISS) stage, frequent IgA type, elevated IgG or IgA levels, elevated calcium levels, elevated creatine (Cr) levels, elevated β2-microglobulin levels, and decreased Hb levels. Structural abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 were independently associated with elevated levels of IgG or IgA, calcium, and Cr, respectively. Chromosome 13 abnormalities were associated with poor prognosis and decreased overall survival. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 are associated with established factors for poor prognosis, irrespective of the presence of other concurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 13 abnormalities have a prognostic impact on overall survival in association with elevated Cr levels. Frequent centromeric breakpoints appear to be related to MM pathogenesis. PMID:27578511

  1. Up-Regulation of RFC3 Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer Metastasis and is Associated With Poor Prognosis Via EMT.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen-Yu; Wu, San-Gang; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Ying; Chen, Ming; Bao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) was regarded as the most aggressive and mortal subtype of breast cancer (BC) since the molecular subtype system has been established. Abundant studies have revealed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) played a pivotal role during breast cancer metastasis and progression, especially in TNBC. Herein, we showed that inhibition the expression of replication factor C subunit 3 (RFC3) significantly attenuated TNBC metastasis and progression, which was associated with EMT signal pathway. In TNBC cells, knockdown of RFC3 can down-regulate mesenchymal markers and up-regulate epithelial markers, significantly attenuated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Additionally, silencing RFC3 expression can decrease nude mice tumor volume, weight and relieve lung metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that overexpression of RFC3 in TNBC showed increased metastasis, progression and poor prognosis. We confirmed all of these results by immunohistochemistry analysis in 127 human TNBC tissues and found that RFC3 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis in TNBC. Taken all these findings into consideration, we can conclude that up-regulation of RFC3 promotes TNBC progression through EMT signal pathway. Therefore, RFC3 could be an independent prognostic factor and therapeutic target for TNBC.

  2. Poor prognosis of patients presenting with symptomatic myocardial infarction but without chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, M; Lawrance, R; Sapsford, R; Durham, N; Oldham, J; Greenwood, D; Jackson, B; Morrell, C; Robinson, M; Hall, A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment of patients presenting with atypical forms of acute myocardial infarction.
DESIGN—Consecutive cases of possible acute myocardial infarction were sought from coronary care registers, biochemistry records, and hospital management systems. Case notes were reviewed and predefined epidemiological and clinical variables were abstracted.
SETTING—20 adjacent hospitals in the former Yorkshire region.
PATIENTS—3684 consecutive cases of possible acute myocardial infarction admitted in a three month period were identified, of whom 2096 had a first episode of confirmed acute myocardial infarction.
RESULTS—20.2% of all patients admitted with an eventual diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction presented with symptoms other than chest pain. Compared with the group presenting with chest pain, these patients were older (76.6 v 69.1 years, p < 0.001), were more often women (54.6% v 35.3%, p < 0.001), and were more likely to have a history of heart failure (18.6% v 6.9%, p < 0.001). They had a higher 30 and 365 day mortality (49.2% and 61.0%, respectively) compared with patients presenting with chest pain (17.9% and 26.2%). In a Cox regression analysis the hazard ratio for presentation without chest pain was 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.97) (p < 0.001) adjusted for age, heart rate, blood pressure, left ventricular impairment, and infarction with ST segment elevation as covariates. Importantly, they were also less likely to receive treatments with a proven ability to improve prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS—Atypical presentation of myocardial infarction without chest pain is common and associated with increased mortality. This may result in part from a failure to use beneficial treatment strategies.


Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; atypical presentation PMID:11602537

  3. Dub3 expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Shu, Bin; Xi, Tao; Su, Ning; Liu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Dub3 is a deubiquitinating enzyme. It is highly expressed in tumor-derived cell lines and has an established role in tumor proliferation. However, the role of Dub3 in human ovarian cancer remains unclear. Expression of Dub3 was evaluated in ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The relationship between Dub3 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. Using RNA interference, the effects of Dub3 on cell proliferation and apoptosis were investigated in ovarian cancer cell line. All normal ovary tissues exhibited very little or no Dub3 immunoreactivity. High levels of Dub3 expression were examined by immunohistochemical analysis in 13.3% of cystadenomas, in 30.0% of borderline tumors, and in 58.9% of ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Dub3 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and clinical staging (P<0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated that Dub3 expression was an independent prognostic indicator of the survival of patients with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, the expression of Cdc25A was closely correlated with that of Dub3 in cancer cells and tissues. Knockdown of Dub3 could inhibit the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and increase cell apoptosis. These data indicate that the Dub3 might be a valuable biomarker for the prediction of ovarian cancer prognosis and Dub3 inhibition might be a potential strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.

  4. Musashi2 as a novel predictive biomarker for liver metastasis and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zhen; Zhou, Taicheng; Rao, Liangjun; Jiang, Zhipeng; Li, Yingru; Hou, Zehui; Yang, Bin; Han, Fanghai; Chen, Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Aberrant expression of musashi2 (MSI-2) has been detected in several malignancies. However, its role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. Our study was designed to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of MSI-2 protein in patients with colorectal cancer. The expression of MSI-2 was detected in 164 patients' colorectal cancer and control specimens by the tissue microarray technique and immunohistochemical staining. The correlations between MSI-2 expression and clinicopathological variables including overall survival were analyzed. The prognostic value of liver metastasis is evaluated by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. MSI-2 was highly expressed in 32.9% (54/164) of the colorectal cancer. Overexpression of MSI-2 was associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, liver metastasis, Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) clinical stage, and Carcinoembryonicantigen (CEA) level (P = 0.040, 0.014, <0.001, <0.001, 0.003, and 0.002, respectively). In the Cox multivariate test, MSI-2 overexpression, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis were found to be the independent prognostic factors (P = 0.027, 0.010, and 0.001, respectively). Further logistic regression suggested that TNM stage and MSI-2 high expression were related to liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients. Conclusively, our study indicates that MSI-2 overexpression is associated with an unfavorable prognosis and may be a potential biomarker for liver metastasis in colorectal cancer patients.

  5. Biliary metastasis in colorectal cancer confers a poor prognosis: case study of 5 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Frederick Hong-Xiang; Shi, Wang

    2017-01-01

    The biliary duct is an extremely rare site for colon cancer metastasis. It often leads to a diagnostic dilemma, since primary cholangiocarcinoma (potentially treatable with surgery) has a similar presentation. This paper highlights our experience with 5 consecutive patients who had colon malignancy with biliary metastasis, and prognosis of their disease. Five patients, with a history of primary colon cancer since 2010, were identified to have biliary metastasis. Of these, 4 (80.0%) patients were male. The median time to diagnosis of biliary metastasis from diagnosis of colon cancer was 59.2 months (0-70.1 months), and all exhibited symptoms of biliary obstruction or its associated complications. Evaluation of the tumour samples revealed all specimens to be negative for CK7 but positive for CK20, suggestive of a colorectal primary. The median survival of the 5 patients was 23.5 months (1.8-44.5 months) from the diagnosis of biliary metastasis. However, none of their death was related to the direct complication of biliary obstruction. Biliary metastasis is a rare entity for metastatic colon malignancy. Diagnosis may be difficult radiologically, and immunohistochemical staining may help in identification. The overall survival for these patients is dismal. PMID:28317047

  6. Axl Expression Stratifies Patients with Poor Prognosis after Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong; Li, Jun; Shi, Lehua; Zou, Qifei; Wan, Xuying; Jiao, Binghua; Wang, Hongyang; Wu, Mengchao; Zhang, Yongjie; Shen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase which plays an important role in multiple human malignancies. Design The Axl expression was examined in several hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) cell lines, paired tumor and nontumorous samples. Then, we examined cell growth curve, cell apoptosis and cell migration in SMMC-7721 cells over-expressed with Axl or siRNA against Axl, respectively. Finally, the prognostic value of Axl was investigated in a prospective cohort of 246 consecutive HCC patients undergoing curative hepatoectomy. Results We found Axl was positive in 22% of examined tumor tissues and all four cell lines. Over-expressing Axl in SMMC-7721 cells accelerated cell growth, cell migration and inhibited cell apoptosis, while knock-down of Axl exerted opposite effect. Axl expression was closely associated with serum AFP, multiple tumors, absence of encapsulation, microvascular invasion, and advanced BCLC or TNM stage. Patients with positive Axl staining had a higher 5-year recurrence rate (92% vs. 71%, P<0.001) and a lower 5-year survival rate (9% vs. 48%, P<0.001) than those with negative staining. The multivariate analyses showed that Axl expression was an independent factor for both tumor recurrence (HR: 1.725; 95% CI: 1.219–2.441) and survival (1.847; 1.291–2.642). Conclusion Axl expression suggests more aggressive tumor invasiveness and predicts worse prognosis for HCC patients undergoing resection. PMID:27182739

  7. Low Level of Microsatellite Instability Correlates with Poor Clinical Prognosis in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mojarad, Ehsan Nazemalhosseini; Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Mirtalebi, Hanieh; Taleghani, Mohammad Yaghoob; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Savabkar, Sanaz; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad Amin; Jalaeikhoo, Hasan; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Kuppen, Peter J. K.; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The influence of microsatellite instability (MSI) on the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) requires more investigation. We assessed the role of MSI status in survival of individuals diagnosed with primary colorectal cancer. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the MSI status was determined in 158 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors and their matched normal tissues from patients who underwent curative surgery. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to assess the clinical prognostic significance. In this study we found that MSI-H tumors were predominantly located in the colon versus rectum (p = 0.03), associated with poorer differentiation (p = 0.003) and TNM stage II/III of tumors (p = 0.02). In CRC patients with stage II, MSI-L cases showed significantly poorer survival compared with patients who had MSI-H or MSS tumors (p = 0.04). This study indicates that MSI-L tumors correlate with poorer clinical outcome in patients with stage II tumors (p = 0.04) or in tumors located in the colon (p = 0.02). MSI-L characterizes a distinct subgroup of CRC patients who have a poorer outcome. This study suggests that MSI status in CRC, as a clinical prognostic marker, is dependent on other factors, such as tumor stage and location. PMID:27429617

  8. Downregulation of ALDOB is associated with poor prognosis of patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Jin, Yi; Chen, Yuan; Yao, Hai-Bo; Xia, Ying-Jie; Ma, Ying-Yu; Wang, Wei; Shao, Qin-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the expression of ALDOB in gastric cancer (GC) tissue and to reveal its potential clinicopathological and prognostic significance. Materials and methods We screened for genes that were differentially expressed between GC and nontumor tissues using a microarray, specifically the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Array platform. We then verified the transcriptional and translational levels of ALDOB by performing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). In addition, a merged data set based on the Gene Expression Omnibus was generated and a survival analysis performed. Results The microarray analysis revealed that ALDOB was downregulated (more than sevenfold) in GC compared with nontumor tissue. Both qRT-PCR and IHC validated the decrease of ALDOB in GC tissue. Moreover, we found that the expression of ALDOB was significantly related to tumor-invasion depth, lymph-node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage. The survival analysis, based on the IHC and merged data set, indicated that the overall survival was better in patients with high ALDOB expression. The Cox regression analysis showed that ALDOB expression was an independent prognostic factor for GC. Conclusion The expression of ALDOB in GC tissue was significantly related to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of the disease, thus suggesting that ALDOB could act as a novel molecular marker for GC. PMID:27785057

  9. Overexpression of long noncoding RNA HOTTIP promotes tumor invasion and predicts poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Heng; Liu, Kun; Qian, Keqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Long noncoding RNAs have been proved to play important roles in the tumorigenesis and development of human gastric cancer (GC). Our study aims to investigate the expression and function of Homeobox A transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) in GC. Methods HOTTIP expression was detected in GC tissues and cell lines by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Association between HOTTIP levels and clinicopathological factors and patient prognosis was also analyzed. MTT, flow cytometry, and transwell invasion and migration assays were used to investigate the role of HOTTIP in the regulation of biological behaviors of GC cells. Results HOTTIP expression was remarkably increased in GC tissues and cell lines compared with that in the normal control. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed that high HOTTIP expression correlated with larger tumor size, deeper invasion depth, positive lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage, and shorter overall survival. Multivariate regression analysis identified HOTTIP overexpression as an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in GC patients. Moreover, HOTTIP downregulation by si-HOTTIP transfection impaired GC cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and reduced cell invasion and migration. Conclusion These findings suggested that HOTTIP may contribute to GC initiation and progression, and would be not only a novel prognostic marker but also a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:27103834

  10. Decreased Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 Predicts Poor Prognosis of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinshuang; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Fengjun; Liang, Ning; Wang, Yao; Meng, Xiangjiao; Du, Juan

    2016-01-01

    TUSC3 was recently identified as a potential tumor suppressor gene in a variety of human malignancies. However, no data are currently available regarding the expressions of TUSC3 in esophageal cancer (ESCC).The purposes of this study was to investigated the expressions of TUSC3 in ESCC tissues and assess the relationship between TUSC3 levels and clinico-pathological characteristics of ESCC patients. TUSC3 protein expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarray slides in esophageal cancer, which included 95 esophageal squamous carcinoma specimens (ESCC), and 75 normal esophageal mucosa (NEM). We found that TUSC3 in ESCC was significant lower than that in NEM (P=0.000). According to multi-clinical classifications, TUSC3 level varied significantly with TNM stage, T stage, and N stage (p<0.001, p=0.0368, p<0.0001, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that gender, TNM stage, T stage, N stage, TUSC3 expression were prognostic factors for survival. Multivariate analysis showed that in our study, only TUSC3 expression was independent prognostic factors for ESCC. Our results indicated for the first time, a combined analysis of TUSC3 expressions as well as the clinical variables will help predict the prognosis of ESCC patients. Further large-sample validation and functional analysis should be performed to evaluate its potential prognostic and therapeutic values for ESCC patients.

  11. Overexpression of GEFT, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, predicts poor prognosis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Shugang; Li, Hongan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yuwen; Li, Bingcheng; Cui, Xiaobin; Chen, Yunzhao; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with poor prognosis. Yet, there is lack of effective prognostic biomarkers for RMS. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore potential biomarkers for RMS based on our previous findings using array comparative genomic hybridization. We investigated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, at expression level in 45 RMS patients and 36 normal striated muscle controls using immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The expression rate of GEFT in RMS samples (42/45, 93.33%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (5/36, 13.89%). Moreover, the overexpression rate of GEFT in RMS (31/45, 68.89%) was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (0/36, 0.00%). Increased expression of GEFT correlated significantly with advanced disease stages (stages III/IV) (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.019), and distant metastasis (P=0.004), respectively, in RMS patients. In addition, RMS patients having overexpressed GEFT experienced worse overall survival (OS) than those having low levels of GEFT (P=0.001). GEFT overexpression was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poor OS in RMS patients (hazard ratio: 3.491, 95% confidence interval: 1.121-10.871, P=0.004). In conclusion, these observations provide the first evidence of GEFT overexpression in RMS and its correlations with disease aggressiveness and metastasis. These findings suggest that GEFT may serve as a promising biomarker predicting poor prognosis in RMS patients, thus implying its potential as a therapeutic target.

  12. Gastric type endocervical adenocarcinoma: an aggressive tumor with unusual metastatic patterns and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Karamurzin, Yevgeniy S.; Kiyokawa, Takako; Parkash, Vinita; Jotwani, Anjali R.; Patel, Prusha; Pike, Malcolm C.; Soslow, Robert A.; Park, Kay J.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (GAS) is a rare variant of mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma not etiologically associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) at the well-differentiated end of the morphologic spectrum. These tumors are reported to have worse prognosis than usual HPV-associated endocervical adenocarcinoma (UEA). A retrospective review of GAS was performed from the pathology databases of three institutions spanning 20 years. Stage, metastatic patterns, and overall survival were documented. Forty GAS cases were identified, with clinical follow-up data available for 38. The tumors were subclassified as MDA (n=13) and non-MDA GAS (n=27). Two patients were syndromic (one Li-Fraumeni, one Peutz-Jeghers). At presentation, 59% were advanced stage (FIGO II–IV), 50% had lymph node metastases, 35% had ovarian involvement, 20% had abdominal disease, 39% had at least one site of metastasis at the time of initial surgery, and 12% of patients experienced distant recurrence. The metastatic sites included lymph nodes, adnexa, omentum, bowel, peritoneum, diaphragm, abdominal wall, bladder, vagina, appendix, and brain. Follow-up ranged from 1.4 to 136.0 months (mean, 33.9 months); 20/38 (52.6%) had no evidence of disease, 3/38 (7.9%) were alive with disease, and 15/38 (39.5%) died of disease. Disease specific survival at 5 years was 42% for GAS vs. 91% for UEA. There were no survival differences between MDA and non-MDA GAS. GAS represents a distinct, biologically aggressive type of endocervical adenocarcinoma. The majority of patients present at advanced stage and pelvic, abdominal, and distant metastases are not uncommon. PMID:26457350

  13. Overexpression of HOXB7 is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    TU, WEIWEI; ZHU, XINGWU; HAN, YANG; WEN, YUGANG; QIU, GUOQIANG; ZHOU, CHONGZHI

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the homeobox gene HOXB7 is overexpressed in certain cancers, which promotes tumorigenesis. However, less is known about the association between the HOXB7 gene and gastric cancer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the expression level of HOXB7 and gastric cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of the homeobox B7 (HOXB7) RNA and protein, respectively. In addition, the association between the expression of HOXB7 and the clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rates, and the COX proportional hazards model was used to investigate univariate and multivariate analyses. The expression level of HOXB7 RNA and protein was significantly elevated in cancerous tissues compared with the corresponding normal mucosa. Increased expression of HOXB7 was significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.01), T stage (P<0.001) and advanced Union for International Cancer Control stage (P=0.003). In addition, patients with positive HOXB7 expression possessed an evident lower overall survival and disease-free survival rate compared with patients with tumors that did not express HOXB7. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that HOXB7 served as a significant independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS in patients with gastric cancer. The present data indicate that the HOXB7 gene may play an important role in the process of gastric tumorigenesis, and also indicate that HOXB7 may be an important determinant of patient prognosis in gastric cancer. PMID:26722273

  14. Decreased xanthine oxidoreductase is a predictor of poor prognosis in early‐stage gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linder, N; Haglund, C; Lundin, M; Nordling, S; Ristimäki, A; Kokkola, A; Mrena, J; Wiksten, J‐P; Lundin, J

    2006-01-01

    Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a key enzyme in the degradation of DNA, RNA and high‐energy phosphates. About half of the patients with breast cancer have a decrease in XOR expression. Patients with breast cancer with unfavourable prognosis are independently identified by the loss of XOR. Aim To assess the clinical relevance of XOR expression in gastric cancer. Methods XOR levels were studied by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray specimens of 337 patients with gastric cancer and the relation between XOR expression and a series of clinicopathological variables, as well as disease‐specific survival, was assessed. Results XOR was moderately decreased in 41% and was undetectable in another 14% of the tumours compared with the corresponding normal tissue. Decreased XOR was associated with advanced stage, deep tumour penetration, diffusely spread tumour location, positive lymph node status, large tumour size, non‐curative disease, cellular aneuploidy, high S‐phase fraction and high cyclooxygenase‐2 expression, but not with p53 expression or Borrmann classification. Down regulation of XOR was associated with unfavourable outcome, and the cumulative 5‐year gastric cancer‐specific survival in patients with strong XOR expression was 47%, compared with 22% in those with moderate to negative expression (p<0.001). This was also true in patients with stage I–II (p = 0.01) and lymph node‐negative (p = 0.02) disease, as well as in patients with smaller (⩽5 cm) tumours (p = 0.02). Conclusion XOR expression in gastric cancer may be a new marker for a more aggressive gastric cancer biology, similar to that previously reported for breast cancer. PMID:16935971

  15. Decreased expression of SOX17 is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, De-Yuan; Tan, Hao-Sheng; Wei, Jin-Li; Zhu, Chang-Ren; Jiang, Ji-Xin; Zhu, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Feng-Lin; Chong, Mei-Hong; Ren, Chuan-Li

    2015-09-01

    The SOX17 (SRY-related HMG-box) transcription factor is involved in a variety of biological processes and is related to the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple tumors. However, the clinical application of SOX17 for breast cancer prognosis is currently limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of SOX17 expression in human breast cancer. qPCR and western blot assays were performed to measure the expression of SOX17 in breast cancer cell lines and 30 matched pairs of breast cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues. A SOX17 overexpression cell model was used to examine changes in cell growth in vitro. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to retrospectively examine the prognostic impact of SOX17 expression in 187 additional breast cancer patients. Our results showed that SOX17 expression was decreased at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the breast cancer cell lines and tissues, and that SOX17 overexpression could strongly suppress cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, the lack of SOX17 protein expression was strongly correlated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001) and had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to normal SOX17 expression (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that lower SOX17 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.007; HR = 2.854; 95 % CI 1.326-6.147) and OS (P = 0.005; HR = 5.035; 95 % CI 1.648-15.385) for breast cancer. Our findings indicate that SOX17 expression is a useful prognostic biomarker for breast cancer.

  16. Persistent poor long-term prognosis of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients surviving invasive aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Salmeron, Géraldine; Porcher, Raphaël; Bergeron, Anne; Robin, Marie; de Latour, Régis Peffault; Ferry, Christèle; Rocha, Vanderson; Petropoulou, Anna; Xhaard, Aliénor; Lacroix, Claire; Sulahian, Annie; Socié, Gérard; Ribaud, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background Voriconazole treatment increases early survival of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with invasive aspergillosis. We investigated whether this survival advantage translates into an increased long-term survival. Design and Methods This retrospective study involved all patients with an invasive aspergillosis diagnosis transplanted between September 1997 and December 2008, at the Saint-Louis Hospital, Paris, France. The primary end point was survival up to 36 months. Survival analysis before and after 12 weeks, as well as cumulative incidence analysis in a competing risk framework, were used to assess the effect of voriconazole treatment and other factors on mortality. Results Among 87 patients, 42 received first-line voriconazole and 45 received another antifungal agent. Median survival time was 2.6 months and survival rate at 36 months was 18%. Overall, there was a significant difference in the survival rates of the two groups. Specifically, there was a dramatic difference in survival rates up to ten months post-aspergillosis diagnosis but no significant difference after this time. Over the first 36 months as a whole, no significant difference in survival rate was observed between the two groups. First-line voriconazole significantly reduced aspergillosis-attributable mortality. However, first-line voriconazole patients experienced a significantly higher probability of death from a non-aspergillosis-attributable cause. Conclusions Although the prognosis for invasive aspergillosis after stem cell transplantation has dramatically improved with the use of voriconazole, this major advance in care does not translate into increased long-term survival for these severely immunocompromised patients. PMID:22371177

  17. Tumor deposits: markers of poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu-Ning; Xiao, Wei-Wei; Xi, Shao-Yan; OuYang, Pu-Yun; You, Kai-Yun; Zeng, Zhi-Fan; Ding, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Hui-Zhong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Rui-Hua; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor deposits (TDs) were reported to be poor prognoses in colorectal carcinoma, but the significance in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) (T3-4/N+) following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neo-CRT) and surgery is unclear. Since adjuvant chemotherapy showed no benefit for LARC following neo-CRT, it is of great value to investigate whether TDs can identify the subgroup of patients who may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Between 2004 and 2012, 310 LARC patients following neo-CRT and surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) and local recurrence free survival (LRFS) were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox models. Results TDs-positive patients showed adverse OS, DFS and DMFS (all P≤0.001), but not LRFS (P = 0.273). In multivariate analysis, TDs continued to be associated with poor OS (HR = 2.44, 95% CI 1.32-4.4, P = 0.004) and DFS (HR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.21-3.27, P = 0.007), but not DMFS (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 0.97-3.20, P = 0.061) or LRFS (HR = 1.85, 95% CI 0.58-5.85, P = 0.298). Among TDs-positive patients, adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved OS (P = 0.045) and DMFS (P = 0.026), but not DFS (P = 0.127) or LRFS (P = 0.862). Conclusions TDs are predictive of poor survival in LARC after neo-CRT. Fortunately, TDs-positive patients appear to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:26695441

  18. EZH2 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with glioma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Zhibin; Feng, Shiyu

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the prognostic value of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) expression in patients with glioma but conclude contradictory results. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate the prognostic role of EZH2 in glioma by meta-analysis. The databases of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were combined to assess the association between EZH2 and overall survival (OS) as well as progression-free survival (PFS). Odd ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated to investigate the relevance of EZH2 on clinical factors. Six studies with 575 patients were included for meta-analysis. The results showed that EZH2 overexpression was correlated with poor OS (n = 6, HR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.56–3.19, p < 0.001) and PFS (n = 3, HR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.56–3.19, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that EZH2 had enhanced prognostic value in Asian patients, for WHO grade I-IV and when using immunohistochemistry (IHC) method. In addition, EZH2 was associated with KPS score < 80. No evidence of publication bias was found in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, the present study showed that EZH2 was a potential prognostic marker for poor OS, PFS and lower KPS score in glioma patients. PMID:27880940

  19. USP9X expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitination is a reversible process of posttranslational protein modification through the action of the family of deubiquitylating enzymes which contain ubiquitin-specific protease 9x (USP9X). Recent evidence indicates that USP9X is involved in the progression of various human cancers. The aim was to detect the expression of USP9X in the progression from normal epithelium to invasive esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and evaluate the relevance of USP9X expression to the tumor progression and prognosis. Methods In this study, USP9X immunohistochemical analysis was performed on tissues constructed from ESCC combined with either normal epithelium or adjacent precursor tissues of 102 patients. All analyses were performed by SPSS 13.0 software. Results We observed that the level of high USP9X expression increased gradually in the transformation from normal epithelium (4.0%), to low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (10.5%), then to high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (28.6%), and finally to invasive ESCC (40.2%). The expression of USP9X was found to be significantly different between the normal mucosa and ESCC (P < 0.001), and between low grade intraepithelial neoplasia and high grade intraepithelial neoplasia (p = 0.012). However, no difference was observed between the high expression of USP9X in normal mucosa and low grade intraepithelial neoplasia (P = 0.369), nor between high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and ESCC (p = 0.115). Interestingly, the most intensive staining for USP9X was usually observed in the basal and lower spinous layers of the esophageal epithelium with precursor lesions which often resulted in the earliest malignant lesion. USP9X expression status was positively associated with both depth of invasion (p = 0.046) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.032). Increased USP9X expression was significantly correlated to poorer survival rate in ESCC patients (p = 0.001). When adjusted by multivariate analysis, USP

  20. S100A6 Overexpression Is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Is Epigenetically Up-Regulated in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhong, Xi-Yao; Xing, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Yi-Qiang; Niu, Zhao-Jian; Peng, Yong; Du, Hong; Zhang, Gui-Guo; Hu, Ying; Liu, Ni; Zhu, Yu-Bing; Ge, Shao-Hua; Zhao, Wei; Lu, Ai-Ping; Li, Ji-You; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2010-01-01

    S100A6 has been implicated in a variety of biological functions as well as tumorigenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression status of S100A6 in relation to the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer and further explored a possible association of its expression with epigenetic regulation. S100A6 expression was remarkably increased in 67.5% of gastric cancer tissues as compared with matched noncancerous tissues. Statistical analysis demonstrated a clear correlation between high S100A6 expression and various clinicopathological features, such as depth of wall invasion, positive lymph node involvement, liver metastasis, vascular invasion, and tumor-node metastasis stage (P < 0.05 in all cases), as well as revealed that S100A6 is an independent prognostic predictor (P = 0.026) significantly related to poor prognosis (P = 0.0004). Further exploration found an inverse relationship between S100A6 expression and the methylation status of the seventh and eighth CpG sites in the promoter/first exon and the second to fifth sites in the second exon/second intron. In addition, the level of histone H3 acetylation was found to be significantly higher in S100A6-expressing cancer cells. After 5-azacytidine or trichostatin A treatment, S100A6 expression was clearly increased in S100A6 low-expressing cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that S100A6 plays an important role in the progression of gastric cancer, affecting patient prognosis, and is up-regulated by epigenetic regulation. PMID:20581057

  1. Inactivation of RUNX3 predicts poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mo; Wang, Zhou; Liu, Xiang-Yan; Chen, Dong

    2014-12-01

    The inactivation of RUNX3 in various cancers has been reported while the expression of RUNX3 on protein level in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its relationship with pathological parameters and prognosis still remained unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of RUNX3 in 158 ESCC samples and 20 normal esophageal mucosa samples by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. The IHC result showed that RUNX3 was detected mainly in the nuclei of basal layer cells in 18 of 20 normal mucosa samples while in 158 ESCC samples, there were 46 with RUNX3 nuclei expression, 37 RUNX3 cytoplasmic expression, and 75 negative expression. The qRT-PCR confirmed the downregulation of RUNX3 mRNA in the RUNX3 protein negative group than in the RUNX3 nuclei and cytoplasmic expression group (P < 0.001), and the methylation-specific PCR showed a low methylation rate in the ESCC tissue samples with RUNX3 protein negative expression (6/40, 15%). The RUNX3 nuclei expression negatively correlated with the lymph node metastasis (P = 0.033) and recurrence status (P = 0.019), and the survival analysis showed that the patients with RUNX3 nuclei expression had a higher 5-year survival rate than the patients with RUNX3 cytoplasmic/negative expression (P = 0.022). The Cox regression analysis showed that the T classification (P = 0.001), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and RUNX3 inactivation (negative/cytoplasmic expression, P = 0.039) were independent risk factor of poor prognosis. In conclusion, we found a frequent inactivation of RUNX3 due to low expression and cytoplasmic dislocalization in ESCC. The inactivation of RUNX3 may be involved in the progression of ESCC, and RUNX3 could be an indicator of prognosis for patients with ESCC after surgery.

  2. Nestin Expression Is Associated with Poor Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis in Glioma Patients: an Association Study and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Donglai; Lu, Lin; Hu, Zongtao; Fei, Zhenle; Liu, Meiqin; Wei, Lei; Xu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Nestin has been identified as a molecular marker of neural progenitor cells and putative glioma stem cells (GSCs). Various studies examining the relationship between nestin expression with the clinical outcome in glioma patients have yielded inconclusive results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the association of nestin with prognosis and clinicopathological features of glioma patients. The electronic searches were performed through the database of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and CNKI. In total, this meta-analysis included 14 studies covering 897 nestin + cases and 704 controls. The correlation between nestin expression and clinicopathological or prognostic parameters was evaluated by Stata 11.0 software. Our results showed that nestin protein abundance was significantly correlated with the histological grade [odds ratio (OR) = 4.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.14-8.88, P = 0.003] of glioma. With respect to prognosis, nestin expression was positively correlated with overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.98, 95 % CI = 1.30-3.02, P = 0.000] and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.90, 95 % CI = 1.18-3.07, P = 0.040). The further stratified analysis not only defined the predictive function of nestin in different ages but also revealed that different antibodies did not alter the positive outcomes and higher standard cutoff values were more suitable for the accurate assay of nestin. Taken together, our results indicate that nestin may play an important role in the prediction of the clinicopathology and poor prognosis of glioma patients. This study should be taken into consideration in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic programs.

  3. Overexpression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) predicts poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hanbyoul; Lee, You Sun; Kim, Julie; Chung, Joon-Yong; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Illumina microarray was used to identify differentially expressed genes in three epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. To validate the microarray data, mRNA and protein level of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) was examined. GLUT-1 had an EOC/normal cells ratio of 5.51 based on microarray. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that GLUT-1 expression was significantly increased in EOC (p = .029 and p < .001, respectively). On survival analysis, GLUT-1 overexpression (HR = 4.80, p = .027) and lymph node metastases (HR = 8.35, p = .016) conferred a significantly worse overall survival. In conclusion, GLUT-1 expression is remarkably upregulated in EOC and predicts a poor overall survival.

  4. Integrative genomics reveals hypoxia inducible genes that are associated with a poor prognosis in neuroblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Clara; Hernandez, Kyle M.; DeWane, Gillian; Salwen, Helen R.; Chlenski, Alexandre; Dobratic, Marija; Mariani, Christopher J.; Godley, Lucy A.; Prabhakar, Nanduri; White, Kevin; Stranger, Barbara E.; Cohn, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is notable for its broad spectrum of clinical behavior ranging from spontaneous regression to rapidly progressive disease. Hypoxia is well known to confer a more aggressive phenotype in neuroblastoma. We analyzed transcriptome data from diagnostic neuroblastoma tumors and hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines to identify genes whose expression levels correlate with poor patient outcome and are involved in the hypoxia response. By integrating a diverse set of transcriptome datasets, including those from neuroblastoma patients and neuroblastoma derived cell lines, we identified nine genes (SLCO4A1, ENO1, HK2, PGK1, MTFP1, HILPDA, VKORC1, TPI1, and HIST1H1C) that are up-regulated in hypoxia and whose expression levels are correlated with poor patient outcome in three independent neuroblastoma cohorts. Analysis of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and ENCODE data indicate that at least five of these nine genes have an increase in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and a more open chromatin structure in hypoxia versus normoxia and are putative targets of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) as they contain HIF binding sites in their regulatory regions. Four of these genes are key components of the glycolytic pathway and another three are directly involved in cellular metabolism. We experimentally validated our computational findings demonstrating that seven of the nine genes are significantly up-regulated in response to hypoxia in the four neuroblastoma cell lines tested. This compact and robustly validated group of genes, is associated with the hypoxia response in aggressive neuroblastoma and may represent a novel target for biomarker and therapeutic development. PMID:27765905

  5. Plasmacytoid Urothelial Carcinomas – A Chemo-sensitive Cancer with Poor Prognosis, and Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Dayyani, Farshid; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Sircar, Kanishka; Munsell, Mark F; Millikan, Randall E; Dinney, Colin P; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) is a rare variant histology with poorly defined clinical behavior. We report clinical outcomes information on patients with predominant PUC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of treatments and outcomes in patients with predominant PUC seen at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 1990–2010. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate Overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results 31 patients were identified (median age:63.5yrs; 83.3% male; TNM stage:cT1N0,n=4;cT2N0,n=7;cT3b-4aN0,n=5; cT4b, N+ or M+ n = 15). Median OS for all patients was 17.7months (Stage I-III vs IV: 45.8 vs 13.3mo). Of 16 patients with potentially surgically resectable PUC (<=pT4aN0M0) 5 received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, 10 had initial surgery, and one was treated with TURBT alone. Despite pathologic downstaging in 80% of patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, relapses were common and there was no difference in survival between patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy compared to initial surgery, even though adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 7 patients. Surgical upstaging with positive margins was also common with surgery alone. The most common site of recurrence was in the peritoneum (19/23), with relapses occurring even in those with pCR at surgery. In patients presenting with metastatic disease who were treated with chemotherapy, the median survival was 12.6 months. Conclusions PUC is a very aggressive subset with overall poor outcomes. Although downstaging is seen with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, there are few long-term survivors. There is a strong predilection for recurrences along the peritoneal lining. PMID:23159581

  6. Clinical Significance of UCA1 to Predict Metastasis and Poor Prognosis of Digestive System Malignancies: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Huan, Chen; Qiu, Wei; Sun, Da-Wei; Shi, Xiao-Ju; Wang, Chuan-Lei; Jiang, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) has been reported to be overexpressed and correlated with progression in various cancers. However, the association between UCA1 expression and some clinicopathological features of digestive system malignancies, such as metastasis and survival, remains inconclusive. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the clinical significance of UCA1 in digestive system malignancies. Methods. Relevant literatures were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases updated to May 2016. Results. A total of 1089 patients from 10 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that digestive system malignancy patients with UCA1 overexpression were significantly more susceptible to developing lymph node metastasis (LNM) (OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.28–2.67) and distant metastasis (DM) (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.77–5.58) and suffer from poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.89–2.82, univariate analysis; HR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.69–2.98, multivariate analysis) and poor disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.59–4.43, univariate analysis; HR = 2.50, 95% CI: 1.62–3.86, multivariate analysis). Conclusion. UCA1 overexpression was correlated with LNM, DM, poor OS, and poor DFS. UCA1 may serve as an indicator for metastasis and poor prognosis in digestive system malignancies. PMID:28074092

  7. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression confers poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue: A tissue microarray study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Morales, Jose; Feng, Lei; Lee, J. Jack; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) exhibits high risk for recurrence and regional metastasis even after surgical resection. We assessed the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of a group of functionally related biomarkers. We used a tissue microarray consisting SCCOT from 32 patients for this study. These patients were treated at the UT- M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1995 to 2008. Biomarker expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry and graded semiquantitatively to determine their prognostic significance. CD147 and Tp63 expressions were significantly associated with a higher T-stage and Ki-67 labelling index as well as shorter overall survival (OS). Expression of Tp63 associated positively with poorly-differentiated histology. There was significant association of Tp63 with the expression levels of CD147 and Glut-1. Glut-1 overexpression was marginally associated with a higher T-stage. There was no prognostic significance of CD44v6 expression in SCCOT. SCCOT with CD147 overexpression in combination with high Ki-67 labelling index had poor OS. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression is associated with aggressive disease with poor prognosis in SCCOT. PMID:25747176

  8. Genomic gain of the PRL-3 gene may represent poor prognosis of primary colorectal cancer, and associate with liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, N; Yamashita, K; Tanaka, T; Kawamata, H; Ooki, A; Sato, T; Nakamura, T; Watanabe, M

    2016-01-01

    PRL-3 genomic copy number is increased in colorectal cancer (CRC), and PRL-3 expression is closely associated with lymph node and liver metastasis of CRC. However, the clinical significance of PRL-3 genomic gain for CRC remains obscure. Here, PRL-3 genomic status in 109 primary CRC tumors and in 44 CRC tumors that had metastasized to the liver, was quantified using real time PCR. Association of PRL-3 genomic status with clinicopathological factors and prognosis was assessed in detail. PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 31 primary CRC (27.4 %) and was more frequently seen in stage III than in stage II (p = 0.025). Among the clinicopathological factors assessed, PRL-3 genomic gain was significantly associated with poorly differentiated histology (p = 0.0039). Moreover, CRC patients with PRL-3 genomic gain exhibited poorer prognosis than those with no gain in stage II-IV CRC (p = 0.017). PRL-3 genomic gain was identified in 18 (41 %) of the liver metastasis tumors, and this frequency of gain was significantly increased as compared to that of the corresponding primary CRCs (11 %) (p = 0.001). Our findings suggested that PRL-3 genomic gain may represent an aggressive phenotype of primary CRC, and may associate with liver metastasis.

  9. Simultaneous high expression of PLD1 and Sp1 predicts a poor prognosis for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-yong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Dong-hui; Wang, Li-wei

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal disease with few therapeutic options. Recently, insight into cancer biology suggested abnormal lipid metabolism to be a risk factor for human malignancies. As a key enzyme implicated in lipid metabolism, PLD1 was elevated in various human cancer associating with malignant phenotypes. However, little was known about its expression and function in PDAC. We showed that PLD1 was elevated in both the cell lines and clinical samples of PDAC, and it positively correlated with vascular invasion (p = 0.041) and responsible for a poor prognosis (p = 0.009). Meanwhile, we also found Sp1 to be elevated in the disease, correlating with vascular invasion (p = 0.007). Moreover, the correlation assay suggested that PLD1 positively correlated with Sp1 in the clinical sample (r = 0.390; p < 0.001) and the cell lines. Finally, we showed that co-high expression of both the factors confers the poorest prognosis for the patients, and that their simultaneous high expression might be an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.001; HR = 3.427; 95% CI 1.629−7.211). PMID:27713167

  10. Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Aritro; Chan, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers. PMID:26725848

  11. High expression of myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 predicts poor prognosis for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunwei; Xiang, Hua; Si, Huiyuan; Guo, Dandan; Sun, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Myofibrillogenesis regulator (MR-1) is overexpressed in human cancer cells and plays an essential role in cancer cell growth. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of MR-1 expression with clinicopathologic features and prognosis in patients with HCC. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect MR-1 mRNA levels in tissues samples from 120 HCC patients. Results showed that MR-1 expression was significantly higher in HCC tissues when compared with matched adjacent normal tissues (P=0.004). In HCC cancerous tissues, it was also significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.024) and serum AFP level (P=0.003). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that HCC patients with high MR-1 expression had shorter overall survival time than those with low MR-1 expression (P=0.009). When analyzed with a multivariate Cox regression model, MR-1 was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Furthermore, when combined with serum AFP level, the median survival time significantly differed between patients with baseline high serum AFP and high MR-1 expression levels and those with normal AFP and low MR-1 levels (P=0.007). Taken together, our results suggest that high expression of MR-1 is involved in HCC progression and could be a novel biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with HCC. PMID:26823810

  12. Co-expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Haoyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Chen; Jin, Guangzhi; Gu, Dishui; Deng, Xuan; Wang, Cun; Qin, Wenxin; Jin, Haojie

    2016-01-01

    Longevity assurance homolog 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2) has been reported to act as an important tumor suppressor in the development of human cancers. However, little is known about the prognostic value of LASS2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) . In the present study, we analyzed correlation between LASS2 and TGF-β1 levels, and evaluated their prognostic values in HCC patients. We first analyzed the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 in two independent cohorts (test cohort: 184 HCC patients; validation cohort: 118 HCC patients) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of HCC. The results of IHC analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. HCC Patients with low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 had shorter overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) than patients with high expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, combination of LASS2 and TGF-β1 was an independent and significant risk factor for OS and TTR. In conclusion, low expression of LASS2 and TGF-β1 contributes to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC, and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for HCC patients. PMID:27581744

  13. Elevated expression of tumor miR-222 in pancreatic cancer is associated with Ki67 and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, ChongLek; He, Hang; Jiang, Yongjian; Di, Yang; Yang, Feng; Li, Ji; Jin, Chen; Fu, Deliang

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer is known for its bad prognosis. Micro-RNAs mis-expressions are associated with various human cancers and offer new candidate targets for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Micro-RNA-222 has been shown to play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation in recent studies. However, its correlations with the clinicopathological characters of pancreatic cancer still remain unclear. Through a prospective study of 60 pairs of pancreatic cancer tissues, adjacent normal tissues were examined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between the expression of micro-RNA-222 and clinico-pathological characters was performed using the two-sample Student's t test. The survival correlations were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox's proportional hazards model. Results showed that the expression levels of micro-RNA-222 were significantly elevated in the pancreatic cancer tissue compared with that in adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the overexpression of the tissue micro-RNA-222 strongly related to the expression level of Ki67. Finally, Cox's proportional hazards model analysis confirmed that micro-RNA-222 high expression level was an independent predictor of poor prognosis. This study provides the first evidence of a potential link between Ki67 and micro-RNA-222, which are both relevant to cell proliferation. Our data suggest the potential of micro-RNA-222 as a prognostic biomarker for the pancreatic cancer.

  14. Decreased apolipoprotein A-I level indicates poor prognosis in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Qi; Chen, Qi; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Li; Li, Tingwei; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an invasive lymphoid malignancy with unfavorable survival, for which a prognostic model has not yet been validated. We hypothesized that serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ENKTL. Patients and methods A total of 236 newly diagnosed cases of ENKTL were analyzed retrospectively. Results The optimal cutoff value for the serum ApoA-I level was determined to be 0.95 g/L. A total of 154 and 82 cases were assigned to the high and low ApoA-I groups, respectively. Patients in the low ApoA-I group tended to present with poorer clinical features, a lower complete remission rate (P=0.001), and poor median progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis using Cox model showed that the serum ApoA-I level was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival (P<0.001) and progression-free survival (P<0.001) for ENKTL patients. For cases in the low-risk group, as assessed by International Prognostic Index, Prognosis Index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, and Korean Prognostic Index, the serum ApoA-I level was able to differentiate cases with poor outcomes from cases with good outcomes. Conclusion Our results showed that the baseline serum ApoA-I level was helpful for predicting ENKTL prognosis. PMID:27051293

  15. Concomitant underexpression of TGFBR2 and overexpression of hTERT are associated with poor prognosis in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhong, Yahua; Wang, Qiaoli; Yang, Lei; Kang, Hong; Gao, Xiaojia; Yu, Haijun; Xie, Conghua; Zhou, Fuxiang; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is highly expressed in a variety of tumors. The transforming growth factor beta receptor type II (TGFBR2) is a downstream protein of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) which suppresses telomerase activity. However, the relevance of survival to the expression of TGFBR2, hTERT or TGFBR2/hTERT has not been previously investigated in cervical cancer tissues. Our study showed that patients with low level of TGFBR2 were associated with poor prognosis (HR = 1.704, P = 0.021), but no significant relevance between hTERT expression and survival (HR = 1.390, P = 0.181). However, a combination of low level of TGFBR2 and high level of hTERT was associated with a worse survival (HR = 1.892, P = 0.020), which had higher impact of hazard ratio (HR) on the overall survival (OS) than the low TGFBR2 expression alone. Knockdown of TGFBR2 expression by shRNA in Hela cells increased cell proliferation, cell invasion, G1/S transition and telomere homeostasis but decreased cell apoptosis. Overexpressing TGFBR2 and inhibiting hTERT suppressed Hela cell growth. These results would lead us to further explore whether a phenotype of TGFBR2low/hTERThigh could be considered as a predictor of poor prognosis, and whether simultaneous use of TGFBR2 agonist and hTERT inhibitor could be developed as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:28195144

  16. Increased Expression of CAP2 Indicates Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jia; Li, Min; Wu, Dan-Chun; Liu, Li-Li; Chen, Shi-Lu; Yun, Jing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    CAP2 has been suggested as a potential diagnostic biomarker for early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its prognostic significance in HCC remains unclear. Here, we show that CAP2 expression is much higher in HCC tissues than that in paracarcinoma tissues, at both mRNA and protein levels. Data of immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that CAP2 was markedly up-regulated in 77.3% of HCC cases. High CAP2 expression, defined by the median score of IHC, was present in 53.3% of the patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that high CAP2 expression was associated with poor overall survival (P < .0001), disease-free survival (P = .013) and recurrence probability (P = .004) in a training cohort of 312 HCC patients. The prognostic implication of CAP2 in HCC was further confirmed in a validation cohort of 208 HCC patients and by stratified survival analysis. Multiple Cox regression analysis indicated CAP2 as an independent predictor for overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.615, 95% confidence interval: 1.345-1.938, P < .001). Collectively, we conclude that CAP2 is increased in HCC and is a novel unfavorable biomarker for prognostic prediction for patients with this deadly disease. PMID:26500030

  17. Smoothened is a poor prognosis factor and a potential therapeutic target in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yiming; Niu, Mingshan; Xie, Peng; Yue, Chenglong; Liu, Ning; Qi, Zhenglei; Gao, Shangfeng; Liu, Hongmei; Shi, Qiong; Yu, Rutong; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapeutics. Aberrant Hedgehog signaling has been directly linked to glioma. GDC-0449 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling that blocks the activity of smoothened (Smo). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the smoothened inhibitor GDC-0449 on cell proliferation in human gliomas. We found that high expression of smoothened in glioma is a predictor of short overall survival and poor patient outcome. Our data suggest that GDC-0449 significantly inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Our results demonstrate that GDC-0449 can effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Furthermore, GDC-0449 treatment significantly suppressed glioma cell xenograft tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, GDC-0449 treatment markedly decreases the expression levels of key Hedgehog pathway component genes (Shh, Patched-1, Patched-2, smoothened, Gli1 and Gli2). These results indicate that GDC-0449 works through targeting the Hedgehog pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that smoothened could be used as a prognostic marker and molecular therapeutic target for glioma. PMID:28195165

  18. Smoothened is a poor prognosis factor and a potential therapeutic target in glioma.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiming; Niu, Mingshan; Xie, Peng; Yue, Chenglong; Liu, Ning; Qi, Zhenglei; Gao, Shangfeng; Liu, Hongmei; Shi, Qiong; Yu, Rutong; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-02-14

    Malignant gliomas are associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapeutics. Aberrant Hedgehog signaling has been directly linked to glioma. GDC-0449 is a novel small molecule inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling that blocks the activity of smoothened (Smo). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of the smoothened inhibitor GDC-0449 on cell proliferation in human gliomas. We found that high expression of smoothened in glioma is a predictor of short overall survival and poor patient outcome. Our data suggest that GDC-0449 significantly inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Our results demonstrate that GDC-0449 can effectively inhibit the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Furthermore, GDC-0449 treatment significantly suppressed glioma cell xenograft tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, GDC-0449 treatment markedly decreases the expression levels of key Hedgehog pathway component genes (Shh, Patched-1, Patched-2, smoothened, Gli1 and Gli2). These results indicate that GDC-0449 works through targeting the Hedgehog pathway. Taken together, our study suggests that smoothened could be used as a prognostic marker and molecular therapeutic target for glioma.

  19. Upregulation of microRNA-375 is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengyan; Hong, Ze; Gao, Feng; Feng, Weijing

    2013-11-01

    A genome-wide serum miRNA expression analysis previously showed the upregulation of microRNA-375 (miR-375) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients compared with healthy controls. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression patterns and the prognostic relevance of miR-375 in pediatric AML. Expression levels of miR-375 in bone marrow mononuclear cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR in a cohort of 106 patients with newly diagnosed pediatric AML. Expression levels of miR-375 in the bone marrow of pediatric AML patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (P < 0.001). Then, miR-375 upregulation occurred more frequently in French-American-British classification subtype M7 than in other subtypes (P < 0.001). Regarding to cytogenetic risk, the expression levels of miR-375 in pediatric AML patients with unfavorable karyotypes were dramatically higher than those in intermediate and favorable groups (P = 0.002). Moreover, high miR-375 expression was significantly associated with shorter relapse-free survival (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P < 0.001) in pediatric AML patients. Multivariate analysis further identified miR-375 expression and cytogenetics risk as independent prognostic factors for both relapse-free survival and overall survival. In particular, the prognostic relevance of miR-375 expression was more obvious in the subgroup of patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. Our findings suggest for the first time that the upregulation of miR-375 may be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development and progression of pediatric AML. Since its correlation with poor relapse-free survival and overall survival, miR-375 may be a novel biomarker to improve the management of pediatric AML patients.

  20. Decreased Expression of miR-15b in Human Gliomas Is Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guan; Yan, Shushan; Shi, Lei; Wan, Zhengqiang; Jiang, Nan; Li, Min

    2015-01-01

    Abstract MicroRNA-15b (miR-15b) has been demonstrated to suppress proliferation by arresting cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis in glioma cells. However, the prognostic value of miR-15b expression in human gliomas remains unclear. In the present study, the authors examined the expression profile in glioma specimens and the prognostic value of miR-15b in patients with gliomas. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was employed to detect the expression levels of miR-15b in 92 glioma tissues categorized by World Health Organization (WHO) histopathological grades. However, the prognostic value of miR-15b in human glioma has not been evaluated yet. MiR-15b expression in human glioma tissues was distinctly lower than in normal brain tissues. Furthermore, the expression of miR-15b notably decreased with the ascending histopathological grade of gliomas. Additionally, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that low miR-15b expression was associated with poor overall survival in patients with gliomas. Similarly, miR-15b reduction occurred with increasing frequency in glioma patients with lower Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) scores than in those with higher KPS scores. No significant difference was observed between miR-15b expression and gender, age, and tumor location. These findings revealed that a lower expression level of miR-15b was closely related to a shorter overall survival, suggesting that miR-15b could be an intrinsic factor that plays an important role in the malignant progression of gliomas. PMID:25811315

  1. TBL1XR1 Is Highly Expressed in Gastric Cancer and Predicts Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Liu, Ni; Zhang, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the expression of transducin- (β-) like 1 X-linked receptor 1 (TBL1XR1) in human gastric cancer (GC) and its correlation with prognostic and biologic significance. Methods. TBL1XR1 mRNA expression was analyzed in gastric cancer using a microarray dataset (GSE2701) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of TBL1XR1 was performed on GC tissue microarray (TMA) to assess its prognostic and biological significance in 334 patients of GC. Results. Analysis of GSE2701 showed that the mRNA levels of TBL1XR1 were significantly elevated in primary gastric tumor and lymph node tissues than normal gastric tissues (P < 0.05). The same results of TBL1XR1 protein level were observed by IHC staining in 334 GC tissues. 204 of 334 (60.1%) primary gastric cancer tissues showed high expression of TBL1XR1 protein. TBL1XR1 overexpression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.000) and advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001). Moreover, high levels of TBL1XR1 predicted worse overall survival (P = 0.015). Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high expression of TBL1XR1 was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (HR, 0.525; 95% confidence interval, 0.367–0.752; P = 0.005). Conclusion. This present study demonstrates that TBL1XR1 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and may be a potential predictor and therapeutic target for GC patients. PMID:27672238

  2. High Rab11-FIP4 expression predicts poor prognosis and exhibits tumor promotion in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yun; Ye, Mengsi; Zhou, Lingling; Shan, Yunfeng; Lu, Guangrong; Zhou, Yuhui; Zhong, Jinwei; Zheng, Jihang; Xue, Zhanxiong; Cai, Zhenzhai

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have demonstrated that Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) are connected with the tumorigenesis, and they may act as tumor promoters in some cancers. The clinicopathological significance of Rab11-family interacting protein 4 (Rab11-FIP4) expression and its possible effects on pancreatic cancer (PC) are still undiscovered. In this study, Rab11-FIP4 protein expression level in 60 PC specimens and pair-matched non-cancerous samples were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis. The results were analysed and compared with each patients' clinical data. Rab11-FIP4 expression in PC tissues increased significantly more than that of adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P=0.0001). Overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 in the PC tissues was significantly related to tumor size (P=0.0001), histological grade (P=0.028), metastasis (P=0.001) and TNM stage (P=0.004) but not with age (P=0.832), gender (P=0.228) or tumor site (P=0.875). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 was significantly related to overall survival time (P=0.0036). In addition, Rab11-FIP4 in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells were successfully knocked-out using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Rab11-FIP4 knockout in PANC-1 cells inhibited cell growth, invasion and metastasis, and arrested cell cycle progression, but did not alter apoptosis. Our findings suggest that overexpression of Rab11-FIP4 predicts poor clinical outcomes for pancreatic cancer and contributes to pancreatic tumor progression. PMID:28035375

  3. Bcl-2 expression is a poor predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis of andropause-age patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xin; Jia, Hu-Liang; Zhu, Wen-Wei; Lu, Lu; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jin-Hong; Tao, Yi-Feng; Wang, Zheng-Xin; Yang, Jun; Wang, Lian-Xin; Lu, Ming; Zheng, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Qin, Lun-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) seems to be influenced by the endocrine environment. Numerous reports demonstrate the diverse expression of Bcl-2 family members under sex steroid regulation. With the exception of estrogen-related tumors, androgen-related tumors have shown their characteristics in Bcl-2 expression. In this study, the status of Bcl-2 expression in male hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was examined to verify the high incidence of HCC in males. Methods: Tumor tissue microarray was used to examine Bcl-2 expression levels in 374 HCC cases including 306 males and 68 females. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to investigate the predictive value of Bcl-2 in HCC patients. Results: Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that male patients with higher Bcl-2 levels had significantly longer median survival time and recurrence time than those with lower levels. However, no significant differences in outcomes were found between different Bcl-2 levels in female patients. When the male patients were stratified into several age points, the level of Bcl-2 expression showed poorer predictive efficiency in the 45–49 and 55–60 age groups in andropause-age patients compared with other age groups. Bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (P < 0.0001) and recurrence time (P = 0.0001) in male patients. After excluding male patients in the 45–60 age group, the predictive efficiency was enhanced (n = 147, OS, P = 0.0002, TTR, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Bcl-2 expression is an independent predictor of survival and recurrence in male HCC. Bcl-2 levels may also be regulated by androgens or androgen receptors in male HCC patients. Bcl-2 levels change and exhibit poor predictive efficiency when androgen levels vary dramatically (andropause age). PMID:28154777

  4. Interleukin 10 expression is related to aggressiveness and poor prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Lucas Leite; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Nonogaki, Sueli; Marcello, Marjory Alana; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Vassallo, José; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2017-02-01

    Most patients with thyroid cancer will evolve very well with current therapies. However, 10-30% of these patients will present recurrent disease and some of them will eventually die. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine that can contribute to the immune escape of neoplastic cells. We aimed to investigate IL-10 as a molecular marker to improve the clinical management of patients with thyroid cancer. We retrospectively studied 162 patients with follicular cell-derived thyroid cancer who attended to our institution, including 63 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas, 46 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, 11 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 42 follicular thyroid carcinomas. Patients were treated according to current guidelines and followed-up for 1-150 months. Additionally, we studied 96 samples of non-malignant tissues. We investigated the expression of IL-10 in tumor cells by semiquantitative and quantitative methods. Malignant tissues presented higher positivity (0.773 ± 0.140) than non-malignant samples (0.623 ± 0.190; p < 0.001). Tumors with extrathyroidal invasion at diagnosis presented higher levels of positivity for IL-10 (0.802 ± 0.125) than tumors without extrathyroidal invasion (0.731 ± 0.147; p = 0.004). We observed a positive correlation between tumor size and IL-10 positivity (correlation coefficient = 0.407; p < 0.001). Patients with IL-10 positivity above the median presented lower relapse-free survival rate compared to those patients whose tumors presented IL-10 positivity below the median. We suggest that a simple IL-10 IHC analysis could help selecting patients who would benefit from a more intensive approach.

  5. Decreased RGS6 expression is associated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Xue, Ruihua; Bu, Fangfang; Tong, Xin; Qiang, Jiankun; Liu, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6), a member of a family of RGS proteins, has been reported to involve in multiple processes during tumor development. However, its role in pancreatic cancer has not been studied yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of RGS6 in pancreatic cancer and its role in predicting outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer. We first measured the expression of RGS6 mRNA in 20 cases of tumor tissues and matched adjacent non-tumorous tissues by quantitative real-time PCR and examined RGS6 protein by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays containing 90 tumor and 90 paired adjacent non-tumor tissues. Decreased RGS6 mRNA detected in primary tumor, compared with their non-tumor counterparts. In addition, decreased RGS6 protein expression was associated with tumor differentiation (P = 0.027), pT classification (P = 0.034), smoking status (P = 0.041) and a poor survival (P = 0.007). Cox proportional hazards regression modeling analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001; hazard ratio, 2.347, 95% CI, 1.387-3.972), tumor differentiation (P = 0.015; hazard ratio, 0.505, 95% CI, 0.291-0.876) and RGS6 expression (P = 0.048; hazard ratio, 0.567, 95% CI, 0.324-0.994) were three independent prognostic factors. Taken together, these date demonstrate that RGS6 decreases in tumor tissue and may serve as a novel biomarker for outcomes in pancreatic cancer patients and be a potential therapeutic target potential therapeutic target. PMID:25120791

  6. Low expression of PTK6/Brk predicts poor prognosis in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6), also known as breast tumor kinase (Brk), was a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase containing SH3, SH2, and tyrosine kinase catalytic domains. The deregulated expression of PTK6 was observed in various human cancers. However, little was known about PTK6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Materials PTK6 expression was evaluated in 7 pairs of surgically resectable laryngeal tissues by Western blotting and in 13 pairs of surgically resectable laryngeal tissues by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Using immunohistochemistry, we performed a retrospective study of the PTK6 expression levels on 134 archival LSCC paraffin-embedded samples. Prognostic outcomes correlated with PTK6 were examined using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards model. Results The PTK6 expression level was lower in LSCC tissues than in the adjacent noncancerous epithelial laryngeal tissues by Western blots and RT-PCR. By immunohistochemical analysis, we observed high expression of PTK6 in 25 of 76 (32.9%) adjacent noncancerous epithelial laryngeal tissues and in 39 of 134 (29.1%) of LSCC, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that pN status and the expression level of PTK6 (P < 0.05) were independent and significant prognostic factors. In the primary LSCC category, median DFS (disease free survival) of high, medium and low PTK6 expression patients were 88.5 months ,74.5 months and 49.0 months (log-rank test, P = 0.002); median OS (overall survival) of high, medium and low PTK6 expression patients were 88.5 months ,76.3 months and 65.7 months (log-rank test, P = 0.002). Reduced cytoplasmic PTK6 expression in LSCC was significantly associated with late pN status (P =0.005, r = 0.27), advanced pTNM stages (III and IV) (P =0.027, r = 0.147), and poor differentiated LSCC (P <0.0001, r = 0.486). In adjacent paracancerous laryngeal

  7. Vasculogenic mimicry is a major feature and novel predictor of poor prognosis in patients with orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luxia; He, Yanjin; Sun, Shizhen; Sun, Baocun; Tang, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a key developmental program, frequently activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of VM in orbital rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the correlation between VM and tumor differentiation, recurrence and survival duration, as well as the contribution of epithelial cell kinase (EphA2) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in VM initiation. A total of 32 patients were enrolled to investigate the associations between VM in orbital RMS tumors and clinical characteristics, as well as its impact on overall survival. VM was identified and confirmed by CD31/periodic acid-Schiff double staining, while the presence of EphA2 and MMP-2 were examined by immunohistochemical analysis. VM was identified in eleven patients, particularly those with poorly differentiated orbital RMS (P=0.001). Patients with VM exhibited significantly worse survival rates (P=0.001, log-rank test), a significantly increased risk of mortality (P=0.008) and EphA2 and MMP-2 expression levels were enhanced (P=0.005 and 0.001, respectively). The VM and mitotic rate were independent predictors of poor prognosis (P=0.001 and 0.004, respectively), indicated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. These results demonstrated that VM is present in orbital RMS and represents an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. In addition, overexpression of EphA2 and MMP-2 may promote VM formation in orbital RMS.

  8. Overexpression of RACK1 Promotes Metastasis by Enhancing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Qiao-Li; Huang, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Gui-Hua; Liu, Yan-Ling; Huang, Jin; Qu, Qiang; Sun, Bao; Hu, Lei; Cheng, Lin; Chen, Shu-Hui; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies show that dysregulation of the receptor of activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. However, the biological function and underlying mechanism of RACK1 in glioma remains poorly defined. Here, we found that RACK1 was significantly up-regulated in glioma tissues compared with normal brain tissues, being closely related to clinical stage of glioma both in mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with high RACK1 expression had a poor prognosis (p = 0.0062, HR = 1.898, 95% CI: 1.225–3.203). In vitro functional assays indicated that silencing of RACK1 could dramatically promote apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. More importantly, knockdown of RACK1 led to a vast accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase and their reduced proportions at the S phase by suppressing the expression of G1/S transition key regulators Cyclin D1 and CDK6. Additionally, this forced down-regulation of RACK1 significantly suppressed migration and invasion via inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as MMP2, MMP9, ZEB1, N-Cadherin, and Integrin-β1. Collectively, our study revealed that RACK1 might act as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for glioma. PMID:27763568

  9. Down-regulation of β-arrestin2 promotes tumour invasion and indicates poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wu-Yi; Hu, Shan-Shan; Wu, Jing-Jing; Huang, Qiong; Ma, Yang; Wang, Qing-Tong; Chen, Jing-Yu; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    β-arrestins, including β-arrestin1 and β-arrestin2, are multifunctional adaptor proteins. β-arrestins have recently been found to play new roles in regulating intracellular signalling networks associated with malignant cell functions. Altered β-arrestin expression has been reported in many cancers, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. We therefore examined the roles of β-arrestins in HCC using an animal model of progressive HCC, HCC patient samples and HCC cell lines with stepwise metastatic potential. We demonstrated that β-arrestin2 level, but not β-arrestin1 level, decreased in conjunction with liver tumourigenesis in a mouse diethylnitrosamine-induced liver tumour model. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 expression was reduced in HCC tissues compared with noncancerous tissues in HCC patients. β-arrestin2 down-regulation in HCC was significantly associated with poor patient prognoses and aggressive pathologic features. In addition, our in vitro study showed that β-arrestin2 overexpression significantly reduced cell migration and invasion in cultured HCC cells. Furthermore, β-arrestin2 overexpression up-regulated E-cadherin expression and inhibited vimentin expression and Akt activation. These results suggest that β-arrestin2 down-regulation increases HCC cell migration and invasion ability. Low β-arrestin2 expression may be indicative of a poor prognosis or early cancer recurrence in patients who have undergone surgery for HCC. PMID:27759077

  10. Cancer-testis antigens PRAME and NY-ESO-1 correlate with tumour grade and poor prognosis in myxoid liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Iura, Kunio; Kohashi, Kenichi; Hotokebuchi, Yuka; Ishii, Takeaki; Maekawa, Akira; Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-07-01

    Myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. Although myxoid liposarcoma is relatively chemosensitive and thus a good candidate for chemotherapy, cases with relapsed or metastatic disease still have poor outcome. Here, we performed a gene microarray analysis to compare the gene expression profiles in six clinical myxoid liposarcoma samples and three normal adipose tissue samples, and to identify molecular biomarkers that would be useful as diagnostic markers or treatment targets in myxoid liposarcoma. This showed that the cancer-testis antigen PRAME was up-regulated in myxoid liposarcoma. We then performed immunohistochemical, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses to quantify the expression of PRAME and another cancer-testis antigen, NY-ESO-1, in clinical samples of myxoid liposarcoma (n = 93), dedifferentiated (n = 46), well-differentiated (n = 32) and pleomorphic liposarcomas (n = 14). Immunohistochemically, positivity for PRAME and NY-ESO-1 was observed in 84/93 (90%) and 83/93 (89%) of the myxoid liposarcomas, and in 20/46 (43%) and 3/46 (7%) of the dedifferentiated, 3/32 (9%) and 1/32 (3%) of the well-differentiated and 7/14 (50%) and 3/21 (21%) of the pleomorphic liposarcomas, respectively. High immunohistochemical expression of PRAME and/or NY-ESO-1 was significantly correlated with tumour diameter, the existence of tumour necrosis, a round-cell component of >5%, higher histological grade and advanced clinical stage. High PRAME and NY-ESO-1 expression correlated significantly with poor prognosis in a univariate analysis. The myxoid liposarcomas showed significantly higher protein and mRNA expression levels of PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) than the other liposarcomas. In conclusion, PRAME and NY-ESO-1 (CTAG1B) were expressed in the vast majority of myxoid liposarcomas, and their high-level expression correlated with tumour grade and poor prognosis. Our results support the potential use of PRAME and NY

  11. CD44v6 expression is related to mesenchymal phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Seiya; Okabe, Hirohisa; Watanabe, Masayuki; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Baba, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Youhei; Kurashige, Junji; Miyamoto, Yuji; Baba, Hideo

    2013-04-01

    CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is a cancer stem cell marker in many tumors, and is one of the CD44 isoforms.CD44v6 has been reported to correlate with tumor progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. However, the relevance of CD44s and CD44v6 to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the clinical importance of CD44s and CD44v6 and their relevance to EMT in 113 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer treated by curative resection. The relevance of CD44v6 knockdown to the phenotype of colon cancer cells was examined using small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for CD44v6 in vitro. CD44v6 expression showed a significant inverse correlation with E-cadherin expression (P=0.0007) and a positive correlation with vimentin expression (P=0.0096). A multivariate analysis showed that high CD44v6 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P=0.01, HR=3.05) and overall survival (P=0.025, HR=3.16). The clinical significance and the relevance of CD44s expression to EMT markers was noted to a lesser extent compared to CD44v6 expression. The knockdown of CD44v6 decreased vimentin expression, cell invasion and HGF-induced cell migration, but conferred only a slight effect on E-cadherin expression in colon cancer cells (HCT116 and LoVo). CD44v6 is related to poor outcome of patients with colorectal cancer via upregulation of the mesenchymal phenotype.

  12. UHRF1 regulates global DNA hypomethylation and is associated with poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kenichi; Baba, Yoshifumi; Kosumi, Keisuke; Harada, Kazuto; Shigaki, Hironobu; Miyake, Keisuke; Kiyozumi, Yuki; Ohuchi, Mayuko; Kurashige, Junji; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Background Global DNA hypomethylation contributes to oncogenesis through various mechanisms. The level of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE- 1) methylation is considered a surrogate marker of global DNA methylation, and is attracting interest as a good predictor of cancer prognosis. However, the mechanism how LINE-1 (global DNA) methylation is controlled in cancer cells remains to be fully elucidated. Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1) plays a crucial role in DNA methylation. UHRF1 is overexpressed in many cancers, and UHRF1 overexpression may be a mechanism underlying DNA hypomethylation in cancer cells. Nonetheless, the relationship between UHRF1, LINE-1 methylation level, and clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Results In ESCC cell lines, vector-mediated UHRF1 overexpression caused global DNA (LINE-1) hypomethylation and, conversely, UHRF1 knockdown using siRNA increased the global DNA methylation level. In ESCC tissues, UHRF1 expression was significantly associated with LINE-1 methylation levels. Furthermore, UHRF1 overexpression correlated with poor prognosis in our cohort of 160 ESCC patients. Materials and Methods The relationships between UHRF1 expression and LINE-1 methylation level (i.e., global DNA methylation level) were investigated using ESCC tissues and cell lines. In addition, we examined the correlation between UHRF1 expression, LINE-1 methylation, and clinical outcome in patients with ESCC. Conclusions Our results suggest that UHRF1 is a key epigenetic regulator of DNA methylation and might be a potential target for cancer treatment. PMID:27507047

  13. Lung parenchymal invasion in pulmonary carcinoid tumor: an important histologic feature suggesting the diagnosis of atypical carcinoid and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae Jun; Cho, Junhun; Hyeon, Jiyeon; Han, Joungho; Kim, Hong Kwan

    2013-05-01

    The majority of previous studies on pulmonary carcinoid tumor have usually focused on clinical behavior or outcome, seldom considering histopathologic features. We retrospectively collected 63 cases of resected pulmonary carcinoid tumors from 1995 to 2011 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. The clinical and pathological features were correlated and survival analyses were performed. Forty cases (63.5%) were classified as typical carcinoid (TC) and 23 cases (36.5%) were classified as atypical carcinoid (AC) according to WHO classification criteria. AC patients showed a higher frequency of current smoking status and a higher stage of the tumor by the American Joint Committee on Cancer than TC patients. The disease was associated with death and recurrence in five and seven patients, respectively, with almost all of the associations found in AC patients. The five-year survival rate of TC and AC were 100% and 83.5%, respectively, with AC showing poorer prognosis than TC in overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) (p=0.005 and p=0.002). Lung parenchymal invasion was observed more commonly in AC than in TC (39.1% vs 12.5%, p=0.01) and was a poor prognostic factor in OS and DFS. Rosette-like arrangements were found only in six cases of AC, while abundant basophilic cytoplasm mimicking paraganglioma and ossification were found only in TC. Through the comprehensive study of pulmonary carcinoid tumor in Korea, we suggest that lung parenchymal invasion could be a useful histologic feature to suspect the diagnosis of AC in daily practice as well as to predict the prognosis of carcinoid tumor.

  14. High Levels of BCOX1 Expression Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Xian-Yu; He, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Jing-Shu; Liu, Yang; Kong, De-Jia; Shi, Qing-Yu; Liu, Feng; Wei, Wei; Pang, Da

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the breast cancer-overexpressed gene 1 (BCOX1) expression in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast and its value in the prognosis of the disease. The levels of BCOX1 expression in 491 paired IDC and surrounding non-tumor breast tissues as well as 40 paired fresh specimens were evaluated by tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The potential associations of high BCOX1 expression with clinicopathological variables and the overall survival of these patients were analyzed. The relative levels of BCOX1 mRNA transcripts in the IDC breast tissues were significantly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues (P = 0.005). The anti-BCOX1 was predominantly stained in the cytoplasm of breast tissue cells and the levels of BCOX1 expression in the majority of breast cancer tissues were obviously higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor breast tissues. High levels of BCOX1 expression were found in 59.5% (292/491) of breast cancer tissues. The high BCOX1 expression was significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.037), positive expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, P = 0.031) and triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.027). The high BCOX1 expression in breast cancers was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival of these patients (P = 0.023), particularly in patients with triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.005). Therefore, the high BCOX1 expression may serve as a novel marker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for patients with IDC of the breast. PMID:24489812

  15. Loss of 11βHSD1 enhances glycolysis, facilitates intrahepatic metastasis, and indicates poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Tan, Xiao-Long; Xia, Meng; Wu, Chao; Song, Jia; Wu, Jing-Jing; Laurence, Arian; Xie, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Liang, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-12

    11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), converting glucocorticoids from hormonally inactive cortisone to active cortisol, plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that enhanced glycolytic activity is closely associated with postoperative recurrence and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether 11βHSD1 contributes to HCC metastasis and recurrence remains unclear. Here we found that expression of 11βHSD1 in human HCC (310 pairs) was frequently decreased compared to the adjacent non-neoplastic liver tissues (ANT), which correlated well with the intrahepatic-metastatic index, serum glycemia, and other malignant clinicopathological characteristics of HCC and predicted poor prognosis. Knockdown of 11βHSD1 in BEL-7402 cells drastically reduced the pH of culture medium and induced cell death. Meanwhile, overexpression of 11βHSD1 in SMMC-7721 HCC cells resulted in repression of cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and proliferation in vitro. When transferred into BALB/c nude mice, 11βHSD1 overexpression resulted in decreased intrahepatic metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor size. F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose accumulation assay measured by positron emission tomography elucidated that 11βHSD1 reduced glucose uptake and glycolysis in SMMC-7721 cells in vitro, and intrahepatic metastasis foci and subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. We showed that 11βHSD1 repressed cell metastasis, angiogenesis and proliferation of HCC by causing disruption of glycolysis via the HIF-1α and c-MYC pathways. In conclusion, 11βHSD1 inhibits the intrahepatic metastasis of HCC via restriction of tumor glycolysis activity and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for patients.

  16. Decreased expression of FOXF2 as new predictor of poor prognosis in stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Peng-Zhou; Li, Guang-Ming; Tian, Yin; Song, Bin; Shi, RuYi

    2016-01-01

    Background Forkhead box F2 (FOXF2) is relatively limited to the adult lung, but its contribution to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis is unclear. Results FOXF2 mRNA levels in NSCLC were lower than that in paired normal lung tissues (P = 0.012). The FOXF2low patients had shorter survival time than the FOXF2high patients (P = 0.024) especially in stage I (P = 0.002), chemotherapy (P = 0.018) and < 60 age groups (P = 0.002). Lower FOXF2 mRNA levels could independently predict poorer survival for patients with NSCLC (HR = 2.384, 95% CI = 1.241–4.577; P = 0.009), especially in stage I (HR =4.367, 95% CI =1.599–11.925; P = 0.004). The two independent datasets confirmed our findings. Methods We examined FOXF2 mRNA levels in 84 primary NSCLC and 8 normal lung tissues using qRT-PCR. Rank-sum tests and chi-square tests were used to assess the differences among groups with various clinicopathological factors. Kaplan-Meier tests were used to compare survival status in patients with different FOXF2 mRNA levels. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to evaluate the predictive value of FOXF2 mRNA level in NSCLC patients. Independent validation was performed using an independent dataset (98 samples) and an online survival analysis software Kaplan-Meier plotter (1928 samples). Conclusions Our results demonstrated that decreased FOXF2 expression is an independent predictive factor for poor prognosis of patients with NSCLC, especially in stage I NSCLC. PMID:27487137

  17. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Sun, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Xu, Liqun; Li, Jun; Xu, Benke; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6) in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC). NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p = 0.006), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006), vital status (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p = 0.001), chemotherapy (p = 0.039), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:27775588

  18. High ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase expression in hepatocellular carcinoma denotes a poor prognosis with highly malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Enooku, Kenichiro; Soroida, Yoko; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Kudo, Yotaro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Shinzawa, Seiko; Moriya, Kyoji; Ohtomo, Natsuko; Nishikawa, Takako; Inoue, Yukiko; Tomiya, Tomoaki; Kojima, Soichi; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Koike, Kazuhiko; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ikeda, Hitoshi

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported the increased serum mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) activity in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly due to the increase in ubiquitous MtCK (uMtCK), and high uMtCK mRNA expression in HCC cell lines. We explored the mechanism(s) and the relevance of high uMtCK expression in HCC. In hepatitis C virus core gene transgenic mice, known to lose mitochondrial integrity in liver and subsequently develop HCC, uMtCK mRNA and protein levels were increased in HCC tissues but not in non-tumorous liver tissues. Transient overexpression of ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box protein 9 (ASB9) reduced uMtCK protein levels in HCC cells, suggesting that increased uMtCK levels in HCC cells may be caused by increased gene expression and decreased protein degradation due to reduced ASB9 expression. The reduction of uMtCK expression by siRNA led to increased cell death, and reduced proliferation, migration and invasion in HCC cell lines. Then, consecutive 105 HCC patients, who underwent radiofrequency ablation with curative intent, were enrolled to analyze their prognosis. The patients with serum MtCK activity >19.4 U/L prior to the treatment had significantly shorter survival time than those with serum MtCK activity ≤ 19.4 U/L, where higher serum MtCK activity was retained as an independent risk for HCC-related death on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, high uMtCK expression in HCC may be caused by hepatocarcinogenesis per se but not by loss of mitochondrial integrity, of which ASB9 could be a negative regulator, and associated with highly malignant potential to suggest a poor prognosis.

  19. EGFR expression is associated with cytoplasmic staining of CXCR4 and predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong-Hui; Huang, Wen-He; Wu, Jun-Dong; Du, Cai-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the significance of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CXCR4 and EGFR expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in 207 primary breast cancer specimens. The associations between receptor expression and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed, and receptor expression was also assessed as a prognostic factor. In the human MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, CXCR4 or EGFR was stably knocked down by short hairpin RNA, and the biological behavior of the cells, including migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, was investigated. The results revealed that TNBC was associated with younger age, higher histological grade and an aggressive phenotype. CXCR4 and EGFR were highly expressed in patients with TNBC, and those with high CXCR4 or EGFR expression exhibited an unfavorable prognosis in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the expression of CXCR4 protein was decreased following EGFR silencing, while CXCR4 knockdown also caused a decrease in EGFR protein levels. The migratory and invasive capabilities of MDA-MB-231 cells were decreased following the knockdown of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. A strong correlation between CXCR4 and EGFR expression was identified in patients with TNBC. The results suggest that elevated expression levels of these two receptors may serve as predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with TNBC. In addition, tumor proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis are weakened in MDA-MB-231 cells following suppression of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. Therefore, EGFR and CXCR4 may be potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. PMID:28356948

  20. EGFR expression is associated with cytoplasmic staining of CXCR4 and predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Hui; Huang, Wen-He; Wu, Jun-Dong; Du, Cai-Wen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the significance of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). CXCR4 and EGFR expression levels were immunohistochemically determined in 207 primary breast cancer specimens. The associations between receptor expression and clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed, and receptor expression was also assessed as a prognostic factor. In the human MDA-MB-231 TNBC cell line, CXCR4 or EGFR was stably knocked down by short hairpin RNA, and the biological behavior of the cells, including migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, was investigated. The results revealed that TNBC was associated with younger age, higher histological grade and an aggressive phenotype. CXCR4 and EGFR were highly expressed in patients with TNBC, and those with high CXCR4 or EGFR expression exhibited an unfavorable prognosis in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. In MDA-MB-231 cells, the expression of CXCR4 protein was decreased following EGFR silencing, while CXCR4 knockdown also caused a decrease in EGFR protein levels. The migratory and invasive capabilities of MDA-MB-231 cells were decreased following the knockdown of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. A strong correlation between CXCR4 and EGFR expression was identified in patients with TNBC. The results suggest that elevated expression levels of these two receptors may serve as predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with TNBC. In addition, tumor proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis are weakened in MDA-MB-231 cells following suppression of CXCR4 or EGFR expression. Therefore, EGFR and CXCR4 may be potential therapeutic targets for TNBC.

  1. High PD-L1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in 870 Chinese patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jia-bin; Fang, Wen-feng; Xue, Cong; Zhan, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xin-ke; Zheng, Qiu-fan; Peng, Rou-jun; Yuan, Zhong-yu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shu-sen

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of PD-L1 expression in tumor recurrence and metastasis in Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods Suitable tissue samples were available from 870 patients with breast cancer. Paraffin-embedded tumor sections were stained with PD-L1 antibody. The correlations between PD-L1 expression and clinical characteristics, ER/PR/HER2 status and survival parameters were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier and univariate Cox proportional hazards model analyses were used to compare the survival of patients with high PD-L1 expression and patients with no PD-L1 expression. Results The median follow-up time was 98 months(range, 17–265 months). The positive rate of PD-L1 expression in breast cancer was 21.7% (189/870). PD-L1 high expression was inversely associated with larger tumor size, higher tumor grade, more positive lymph node number, as well as negative ER and PR status. PD-L1 expression was particularly higher in TNBC compared with non-TNBC, although no statistical significance was observed. Nomogram logistic regression results based on clinical and pathological features showed that the following factors were more likely associated with high PD-L1 expression: patient age younger than 35 years, larger tumor size, lymphovascular invasion and advanced stage. Our data indicated that patients with high PD-L1 expression had poor DFS, DMFS and overall survival compared with those with no PD-L1 expression. Univariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that PD-L1 was an independent prognostic factor for tumor prognosis. Conclusions PD-L1 expression is an important indicator of unfavorable prognosis in breast cancer patients. PMID:26378017

  2. HYOU1, Regulated by LPLUNC1, Is Up-Regulated in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Associated with Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujuan; Liao, Qianjin; Li, Xiayu; Wang, Hui; Wei, Fang; Chen, Jie; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Xiaofang; Chen, Pan; Zhang, Wenling; Tang, Ke; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Li, Guiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the roles and mechanisms of long palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (LPLUNC1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: The two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) was applied to identify differentially expressed proteins after over-expressing LPLUNC1 in NPC cells. The qRT-PCR and Western Blot were used to further validate differentially expression of Hypoxia up-regulated 1 (HYOU1). We also applied immunohistochemistry (IHC) to validate the expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC tissues. Results: Totally 44 differentially expressed proteins were identified, among which 19 proteins were up-regulated and 25 proteins were down-regulated. Function annotation indicated that these proteins were involved in molecular chaperone, cytoskeleton, metabolism and signal transduction. It was shown that the expression of HYOU1 both at mRNA level and protein level was up-regulated significantly in NPC tissues, and HYOU1 protein expression was positively correlated with clinical staging and metastasis of NPC. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that high expression of HYOU1 protein in NPC patients had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). COX multivariate regression analysis further indicated that over-expressed HYOU1 was one of the predictors for poor prognosis in NPC patients. Conclusion: Through regulating proteins in different pathways, LPLUNC1 may inhibit the growth of NPC through participating in cell metabolism, proliferation, transcription and signaling transduction. HYOU1 can be regarded as potential molecular biomarker for progression and prognosis of NPC. PMID:26918051

  3. Low expression of RBMS3 and SFRP1 are associated with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Youliang; Fang, Zheng; Yan, Qiang; Zhang, Shangxin; Sun, Ruochuan; khaliq, Junaid; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    RNA binding motif, single stranded interacting protein 3 (RBMS3) has been reported as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in some squamous carcinoma. However, its expression levels and clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) plays a role of tumor suppressor in many cancers by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Nevertheless, its expression levels and clinical significance in GC are in dispute. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein level of RBMS3 and SFRP1 in 23 fresh GC and corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry assay was performed to further measure the protein level of RBMS3 and SFRP1 on population-based tissue microarrays consisting of 172 GC cases. We found that 69.57% (16/23) and 73.91% (17/23) GC tissues expressed remarkably lower RBMS3 than the matched normal tissues respectively in mRNA and protein levels. Similarly, 78.26% (18/23) and 65.22% (15/23) GC tissues expressed lower SFRP1 than the matched normal tissues respectively in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, the low expression of RBMS3 and SFRP1 protein were all significantly related to the poor histological grades and prognosis (all P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, RBMS3 and SFRP1 co-expression status was independent prognostic factor for GC patients. Finally, the positive correlation between expression levels (mRNA and protein) of RBMS3 and SFRP1 was observed. Overall, RBMS3 and SFRP1 are both aberrantly low expressed in GC, and RBMS3 and SFRP1 co-expression is a potential prognosis predictor of GC. PMID:27904780

  4. TP53 mutation predicts the poor prognosis of non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jian; Chen, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of malignant hematologic disorders with high heterogeneity. The diagnosis, clinical manifestations, classification, and prognosis of this condition differ among numerous NHL subgroups. The prognostic significance of the mutation of TP53, a tumor suppressor gene involved in cell cycle regulation, should be confirmed in NHL. In this study, our searching strategy and inclusion criteria were implemented, and the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of the included studies were calculated directly or indirectly. A total of 1,851 patients were enrolled in 22 studies. A meta-analysis was then performed using STATA version 12.0 to confirm the correlation between the status of TP53 mutation and the survival time of patients with NHL. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with a chi-square-based Q statistical test and Inconsistency index (I2) statistic. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were also evaluated. A total of 22 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled HR of the overall survival from 20 studies was 2.30 (95% CI: 1.92–2.76, p = 0.001) with heterogeneity (I2 30.2% p = 0.099). The pooled HR of the progression free survival provided in 5 articles was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.78–2.93, p = 0.001) with heterogeneity (I2 39.8% p = 0.156). No publication bias was found among the included studies, and sensitivity analysis suggested that the combined HRs were stable after any of the studies was excluded from our meta-analysis. This study identified the prognostic significance of TP53 mutation that varied in different NHL subgroups. The group with a mutated TP53 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with NHL. This parameter is a valuable basis for accurate individual therapeutic regimens. PMID:28369138

  5. Increased expression of protein kinase CK2α correlates with poor patient prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zebiao; Wang, Xiaojing; He, Jiehua

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadly gynecological malignancies. The function of protein kinase CK2α (CK2α) in EOC is still unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the protein expression of CK2α and the tumor progression, the prognosis of human EOC. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of CK2α through Western blot, using EOC cell lines like A2780, HO8910, COV644, OVCAR3, SKOV3, and the primary normal ovarian surface epithelial (NOSE) cells. Furthermore, OVCAR3 and SKOV3 EOC cells were employed as a cellular model to study the role of CK2α on cell growth, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and cell cycle distribution. In addition, we investigated CK2α protein expression in tumor tissues from patients with EOC by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the association between CK2α expression and clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of EOC patients. And we found that compared with NOSE cells, CK2α protein expression was increased in A2780, HO8910, OVCAR3, and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Decreased CK2α expression suppressed OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cell growth and induced more apoptosis. CK2α knockdown using specific siRNAs inhibited migration and invasion ability of OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. In addition, high CK2α protein expression was found in 68.4% (80/117) of EOC patients. Increased CK2α expression of was significantly correlated with FIGO staging and peritoneal cytology. Patients with higher CK2α expression had a significantly poorer overall survival compared with those with lower CK2α expression. Multi-variate Cox regression analysis proved that increased CK2α expression was an independent prognostic marker for EOC. Taken together, our data displayed that CK2α may play a role in tumor aggressive behavior of EOC and could be used as a marker for predicting prognosis of EOC patient. High CK2α expression might predict poor patient survival. PMID:28355289

  6. High expression of Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signals correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, E L; Qian, Z R; Nakasono, M; Tanahashi, T; Yoshimoto, K; Bando, Y; Kudo, E; Shimada, M; Sano, T

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling pathway has been shown to have oncogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. To demonstrate the role of TLR4 signalling in colon tumourigenesis, we examined the expression of TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The expression of TLR4 and MyD88 in 108 CRC samples, 15 adenomas, and 15 normal mucosae was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and the correlations between their immunoscores and clinicopathological variables, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), were analysed. Results: Compared with normal mucosae and adenomas, 20% cancers displayed high expression of TLR4, and 23% cancers showed high expression of MyD88. The high expression of TLR4 and MyD88 was significantly correlated with liver metastasis (P=0.0001, P=0.0054). In univariate analysis, the high expression of TLR4 was significantly associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio (HR): 2.17; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.15–4.07; P=0.015). The high expression of MyD88 expression was significantly associated with poor DFS and OS (HR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.31–4.13; P=0.0038 and HR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.67–5.48; P=0.0002). The high combined expression of TLR4 and MyD88 was also significantly associated with poor DFS and OS (HR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.27–3.99; P=0.0053 and HR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.64–5.38; P=0.0003). Multivariate analysis showed that high expressions of TLR4 (OS: adjusted HR: 1.88; 95% CI: 0.99–3.55; P=0.0298) and MyD88 (DFS: adjusted HR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.01–3.67; P=0.0441; OS: adjusted HR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.17–4.33; P=0.0112) were independent prognostic factors of OS. Furthermore, high co-expression of TLR4/MyD88 was strongly associated with both poor DFS and OS. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that high expression of TLR4 and MyD88 is associated with liver metastasis and is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:20145615

  7. Abnormal expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecules (sMICA) and natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) not only correlate with tumorigenesis and progression, but also with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of the differential expression of sMICA and NKG2D in pancreatic carcinoma and paracarcinoma tissues from 70 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that sMICA expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumor tissues (67.1%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (31.4%), whereas NKG2D expression was significantly (P<0.001) lower in tumor tissues (32.9%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (60.0%). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed a negative correlation between the expression of sMICA and that of NKG2D (r=−0.676, P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was significantly correlated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), while a high NKG2D expression was significantly associated with increased DFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001) of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was an independent predictive factor for poor DFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012); but low NKG2D expression was not an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.238) and OS (P=0.574). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are abnormal and negatively correlated with one another in pancreatic carcinoma tissues; they may be considered as valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:26730197

  8. Low expression of PKCα and high expression of KRAS predict poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suxian; Wang, Yadi; Zhang, Yun; Wan, Yizeng

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine the association between protein kinase Cα (PKCα) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) expression and the response to folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX regimen) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The protein levels of PKCα and KRAS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from patients with CRC and in non-cancerous tissues, including 152 cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma, 30 cases of colorectal adenoma and 20 normal colonic mucosa samples. The association between PKCα and KRAS expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed. The rates of positive PKCα protein expression in patients with poorly, moderately and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma were 16.7% (6/36), 40.0% (24/60), and 57.1% (32/56), respectively (P<0.013). The rate of positive KRAS expression in CRC patients was significantly higher than in patients with colon adenoma and normal colon mucosa (P<0.001). Expression levels of KRAS were associated with the degree of differentiation of CRC (P<0.001). Expression of PKCα was negatively correlated with KRAS expression in CRC tissues. The mean progression-free survival (PFS) times in patients with high and low expression of PKCα were 43.9 and 38.8 months, respectively (P<0.001). The mean PFS times were 38.5 and 45.5 months in patients with high and low expression of KRAS, respectively (P=0.001). In conclusion, low PKCα and high KRAS expression predicted relatively poor prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:27602102

  9. Decreased expression of Beclin-1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin-1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin-1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin-1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin-1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin-1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non-cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin-1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour-node-metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin-1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin-1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin-1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  10. CD44v3 and v6 variant isoform expression correlates with poor prognosis in early-stage vulvar cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Tempfer, C.; Sliutz, G.; Haeusler, G.; Speiser, P.; Reinthaller, A.; Breitenecker, G.; Vavra, N.; Kainz, C.

    1998-01-01

    Expression of alternatively spliced CD44 isoforms has been reported to correlate with poor prognosis in human squamous cell cancers, i.e. squamous cell cancer of the lung and cervix. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CD44 isoform expression is a prognostic factor in early-stage squamous cell cancer of the vulva. Seventy cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I were examined immunohistochemically for expression of CD44 isoforms. We used four different variant exon sequence-specific murine monoclonal antibodies to epitopes encoded by exons v3, v5, v6 and v7-8 of human variant CD44. The correlation of CD44 expression with histological grade and disease-free and overall survival was investigated. CD44 isoforms CD44v3, CD44v5, CD44v6 and CD44v7-8 were detected in 28% (20/70), 47% (33/70), 33% (23/70) and 17% (12/70) of the tumour samples respectively. Patients suffering from tumours expressing CD44v6 had a poorer relapse-free (log-rank test, P = 0.02) and overall survival (log-rank test, P = 0.03). Likewise, patients suffering from tumours expressing CD44v3 had a poorer relapse-free (log-rank test, P = 0.04) and overall survival (log-rank test, P = 0.01). Expression of CD44v5 and CD44v7-8 did not compromise the patients' outcome. Histological grade did not correlate with CD44 isoform expression. Immunohistochemically detected expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon v6 or v3 is correlated with a poor relapse-free and overall survival in FIGO stage I vulvar cancer patients. PMID:9792156

  11. High NKG2A expression contributes to NK cell exhaustion and predicts a poor prognosis of patients with liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Xu, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Mei; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Chuanshan; Wang, Jinyu; Song, Jiaxi; Zheng, Meijuan; Sun, Haoyu; Wei, Haiming; Xiao, Weihua; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: As the predominant lymphocyte subset in the liver, natural killer (NK) cells have been shown to be highly associated with the outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (CHB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previously, we reported that NKG2A, a checkpoint candidate, mediates human and murine NK cell dysfunction in CHB. However, NK cell exhaustion and, particularly, the level of NKG2A expression within liver tumors have not been reported. Methods: In this study, we analyzed NKG2A expression and the related dysfunction of NK cells located in intra- or peritumor regions of liver tissue samples from 207 HCC patients, in addition to analyzing disease outcomes. Results: The expression of NKG2A in NK cells and the NKG2A ligand, HLA-E, in intratumor HCC tissues was observed to be increased. These NK cells, and particularly CD56(dim) NK cells, with higher NKG2A expression showed features of functional exhaustion and were associated with a poor prognosis. The increase in NKG2A expression might be induced by IL-10, which was present at a high level in the plasma of HCC patients. Blocking IL-10 could specifically inhibit NKG2A expression in NK cells. Conclusions: These findings indicate that NKG2A expression is influenced by factors from cancer nests and contributes to NK cell exhaustion, suggesting that NKG2A blockade has the potential to restore immunity against liver tumors by reversing NK cell exhaustion.

  12. Long non-coding RNA BANCR regulates growth and metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis in retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Su, Shizheng; Gao, Jian; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ju; Li, Hong; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence shows that BRAF-activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) acts as a critical role in the proliferation and metastasis in malignant melanoma and lung cancer; however, little is known about the significance of lncRNA BANCR in retinoblastoma. The purpose of our study is to explore the role of lncRNA BANCR in retinoblastoma clinical samples and cell lines. The expression of lncRNA BANCR was measured in 60 retinoblastoma samples and normal retina samples by using RT-PCR. The effects of lncRNA BANCR on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were also explored. In our results, lncRNA BANCR is overexpressed in retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines and is associated with tumor size, choroidal invasion, and optic nerve invasion. Moreover, patients with high levels of lncRNA BANCR expression had poorer survival than those with lower levels of lncRNA BANCR expression. Multivariate analysis showed that increased lncRNA BANCR expression was a poor independent prognostic factor for retinoblastoma patients. Furthermore, knocking down lncRNA BANCR expression significantly suppressed the retinoblastoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. In conclusion, lncRNA BANCR plays a significant role in retinoblastoma aggressiveness and prognosis and may act as a promising target for therapeutic strategy and prognostic prediction.

  13. HAGE (DDX43) is a biomarker for poor prognosis and a predictor of chemotherapy response in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Fatah, T M A; McArdle, S E B; Johnson, C; Moseley, P M; Ball, G R; Pockley, A G; Ellis, I O; Rees, R C; Chan, S Y T

    2014-01-01

    Background: HAGE protein is a known immunogenic cancer-specific antigen. Methods: The biological, prognostic and predictive values of HAGE expression was studied using immunohistochemistry in three cohorts of patients with BC (n=2147): early primary (EP-BC; n=1676); primary oestrogen receptor-negative (PER-BC; n=275) treated with adjuvant anthracycline-combination therapies (Adjuvant-ACT); and primary locally advanced disease (PLA-BC) who received neo-adjuvant anthracycline-combination therapies (Neo-adjuvant-ACT; n=196). The relationship between HAGE expression and the tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in matched prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy samples were investigated. Results: Eight percent of patients with EP-BC exhibited high HAGE expression (HAGE+) and was associated with aggressive clinico-pathological features (Ps<0.01). Furthermore, HAGE+expression was associated with poor prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analysis (Ps<0.001). Patients with HAGE+did not benefit from hormonal therapy in high-risk ER-positive disease. HAGE+and TILs were found to be independent predictors for pathological complete response to neoadjuvant-ACT; P<0.001. A statistically significant loss of HAGE expression following neoadjuvant-ACT was found (P=0.000001), and progression-free survival was worse in those patients who had HAGE+residual disease (P=0.0003). Conclusions: This is the first report to show HAGE to be a potential prognostic marker and a predictor of response to ACT in patients with BC. PMID:24755885

  14. Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 is up-regulated in gastric cancer and associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen-Yu; Hua, Long; Yao, Kun-Hou; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Hu, Jun-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumor progression. The aim of our study was to explore the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of lncRNA CCAT2 expression in human gastric cancer. Methods: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in 85 pairs of gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumor tissues were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to determine its prognostic value, overall survival and progression-free survival were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Expression levels of lncRNA CCAT2 in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in adjacent non-tumor tissues. By statistical analyses, high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was observed to be closely correlated with higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis. Moreover, patients with high lncRNA CCAT2 expression had shorter overall survival and progression-free survival compared with the low lncRNA CCAT2 group. Multivariate analyses indicated that high lncRNA CCAT2 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Conclusions: Our results suggested that up-regulation of lncRNA CCAT2 was correlated with gastric cancer progression, and lncRNA CCAT2 might be a potential molecular biomarker for predicting the prognosis of patients. PMID:25755774

  15. CCR4 frameshift mutation identifies a distinct group of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kato, Takeharu; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Niino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yuya; Shimono, Joji; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Seto, Masao; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an intractable T cell neoplasm caused by human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive mutation studies have revealed recurrent somatic CCR4 mutations in ATLL, although clinicopathological findings associated with CCR4 mutations remain to be delineated. In the current study, 184 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma, including 113 cases of ATLL, were subjected to CCR4 mutation analysis. This sequence analysis identified mutations in 27% (30/113) of cases of ATLL and 9% (4/44) of cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. Identified mutations included nonsense (NS) and frameshift (FS) mutations. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between ATLL cases stratified by presence of CCR4 mutation. All ATLL cases with CCR4 mutations exhibited cell-surface CCR4 positivity. Semi-quantitative CCR4 protein analysis of immunohistochemical sections revealed higher CCR4 expression in cases with NS mutations of CCR4 than in cases with wild-type (WT) CCR4. Furthermore, among ATLL cases, FS mutation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, compared with NS mutation and WT CCR4. These results suggest that CCR4 mutation is an important determinant of the clinical course in ATLL cases, and that NS and FS mutations of CCR4 behave differently with respect to ATLL pathophysiology.

  16. Overexpression of Transforming Acidic Coiled Coil‑Containing Protein 3 Reflects Malignant Characteristics and Poor Prognosis of Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying; Tian, Yu; Wang, Guang-Zhi; Zhao, Shi-Hong; Han, Bo; Li, Yong-Li; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2017-01-01

    Gliomas are malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. Recently, research was indicative of a tight connection between tumor malignancy and genetic alterations. Here, we propose an oncogenic implication of transforming acidic coiled-coil-containing protein 3 (TACC3) in gliomas. By comprehensively analyzing the Chinese glioma genome atlas (CGGA) and publicly available data, we demonstrated that TACC3 were overexpressed along with glioma grade and served as an independent negative prognostic biomarker for glioma patients. Functions’ annotations and gene sets’ enrichment analysis suggested that TACC3 may participate in cell cycle, DNA repair, epithelium-mesenchymal transition and other tumor-related biological processes and molecular pathways. Patients with high TACC3 expression showed CD133+ stem cell properties, glioma plasticity and shorter overall survival time under chemo-/radio-therapy. Additionally, a TACC3 associated the miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on in silico prediction and expression pattern, which provide a foundation for further detection of TACC3-miRNA-mRNA axis function. Collectively, our observations identify TACC3 as an oncogene of tumor malignancy, as well as a prognostic and motoring biomarker for glioma patients. PMID:28273854

  17. Poor Prognosis with In Vitro Fertilization in Indian Women Compared to Caucasian Women Despite Similar Embryo Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shahine, Lora K.; Lamb, Julie D.; Lathi, Ruth B.; Milki, Amin A.; Langen, Elizabeth; Westphal, Lynn M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Disease prevalence and response to medical therapy may differ among patients of diverse ethnicities. Poor outcomes with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment have been previously shown in Indian women compared to Caucasian women, and some evidence suggests that poor embryo quality may be a cause for the discrepancy. In our center, only patients with the highest quality cleavage stage embryos are considered eligible for extending embryo culture to the blastocyst stage. We compared live birth rates (LBR) between Indian and Caucasian women after blastocyst transfer to investigate whether differences in IVF outcomes between these ethnicities would persist in patients who transferred similar quality embryos. Methodology/Principal Findings In this retrospective cohort analysis, we compared IVF outcome between 145 Caucasians and 80 Indians who had a blastocyst transfer between January 1, 2005 and June 31, 2007 in our university center. Indians were younger than Caucasians by 2.7 years (34.03 vs. 36.71, P = 0.03), were more likely to have an agonist down regulation protocol (68% vs. 43%, P<0.01), and were more likely to have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although not significant, (24% vs. 14%, P = 0.06). Sixty eight percent of Indian patients had the highest quality embryos (4AB blastocyst or better) transferred compared to 71% of the Caucasians (P = 0.2). LBR was significantly lower in the Indians compared to the Caucasians (24% vs. 41%, P<0.01) with an odds ratio of 0.63, (95%CI 0.46–0.86). Controlling for age, stimulation protocol and PCOS showed persistently lower LBR with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.56, (95%CI 0.40–0.79) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance Despite younger age and similar embryo quality, Indians had a significantly lower LBR than Caucasians. In this preliminary study, poor prognosis after IVF for Indian ethnicity persisted despite limiting analysis to patients with high quality embryos transferred

  18. Elevated serum apolipoprotein E is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinmei; Song, Junli; Feng, Pinning; Wang, Yanhong; Long, Weiqing; Liu, Min; Li, Laisheng

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a factor involved in Alzheimer's disease, which recently attracted great attention as an important protein related to tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, serum ApoE levels and its diagnosis and prognosis value in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients are still unknown. In 196 NSCLC patients and 203 healthy controls, serum ApoE was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay. The associations of serum ApoE levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes of NSCLC patients were analyzed. Serum ApoE levels were obviously elevated in NSCLC patients compared with healthy controls (41.6 ± 11.63 vs. 33.8 ± 6.24 mg/L) and were associated with TNM stage, lymph node metastasis status, and distant metastasis status (all P < 0.0001). For NSCLC diagnosis, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.71 at a specificity of 0.90 and sensitivity of 0.47. For lymph node metastasis predicting, the area under the ROC curve was 0.68 at a specificity of 0.56 and sensitivity of 0.73. From ROC/area under curve (AUC) analysis, we used 41.25 mg/L as the serum ApoE cut-off value, to divide NSCLC patients into two groups, the median survival was 11.0 weeks (95 % CI = 8.7 to 13.3) for patients in high serum ApoE group and 20.0 weeks (95 % CI = 15.0 to 25.0) in low serum ApoE group. Serum ApoE levels elevated in NSCLC patients, which also associated with TNM stages, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis, suggest that serum ApoE may act as a useful clinical serological biomarkers for evaluating the progress of NSCLC.

  19. Low levels of serum miR-99a is a predictor of poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Song, Z J; Wang, Y Y; Yin, Y; Liu, Y; Nan, X

    2016-08-26

    MicroRNA (miRNA) deregulation has been previously linked to the initiation and development of breast cancer. Although miR-99a is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancers, including breast cancer, the serum miR-99a expression level in breast cancer and its clinical significance remains unknown. Blood samples were obtained from 72 patients with breast cancer and 40 healthy volunteers, and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the level of expression of serum miR-99a in the study participants. Furthermore, we investigated the association between serum miR-99a and the clinical outcome of breast cancer. Serum miR-99a expression was significantly downregulated in patients with breast cancer, compared to that in healthy controls (P < 0.01). Moreover, the serum miR-99a was correlated with various clinical parameters of breast cancer, including lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0194), distant metastasis (P = 0.0037), Ki67 intensity (P = 0.0164), TNM stage (P = 0.0096), and histological grade (P = 0.0051) of cancer. Additionally, breast cancer patients displaying lower miR-99a levels showed poorer overall survival rates (P = 0.0411). The serum miR-99a level was also found to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer (hazard ratio = 3.176, 95% confidence interval = 1.543-7.360, P = 0.023). Our data indicated that serum miR-99a expression was downregulated in breast cancer patients; moreover, this downregulation was associated with poor prognosis, suggesting that serum miR-99a could function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer.

  20. Allelic loss on distal chromosome 17p is associated with poor prognosis in a group of Brazilian breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, M. A.; Pacheco, M. M.; Brentani, M. M.; Marques, L. A.; Brentani, R. R.; Ponder, B. A.; Mulligan, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    We examined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for two loci on chromosome 17p (D17S5 and TP53), and erbB-2 gene amplification, in primary breast cancers from 67 Brazilian patients. We identified two distinct regions of LOH on chromosome 17p, one spanning TP53 and the other a more telomeric region (D17S5). Based on a short-term follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analyses of patients' disease-free survival showed that patients with LOH for D17S5, but retaining heterozygosity for TP53, were at higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.007) than those who retained heterozygosity for D17S5. Bivariate analyses indicated that patients with LOH for D17S5 alone had an increased risk of recurrence (hazard ratio = 7.2) over patients with erbB-2 amplification (hazard ratio = 3.7), when compared with patients with neither alteration (hazard ratio = 1.0). Further, lymph node-positive patients whose tumours had both LOH for D17S5 and erbB-2 gene amplification had a higher risk of recurrence than patients whose tumours had neither of these genetic alterations. Our data confirm previous reports of a putative tumour-suppressor gene, distinct from TP53, on distal chromosome 17p which is associated with breast cancer. They further suggest that LOH for loci in this region may provide an independent indicator to identify patients with poor prognosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7908218

  1. High expression of IMPDH2 is associated with aggressive features and poor prognosis of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Zheng, Zhousan; Gao, Ying; Duan, Shiyu; Chen, Cui; Rong, Jian; Wang, Kebing; Yun, Miao; Weng, Huiwen; Ye, Sheng; Zhang, Jiaxing

    2017-04-07

    Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase type II (IMPDH2) has been shown to play critical roles in the development and progression of several human cancers. However, little is known about IMPDH2 expression and its clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Western blotting, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to evaluate IMPDH2 expression in NPC cell lines and tissues. In our study, elevated expression of IMPDH2 was observed at both the protein and mRNA levels in NPC cell lines than in NPEC2 Bmi-1. IMPDH2 protein expression was markedly higher in NPC tissues than in adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Moreover, IMPDH2 expression in NPC correlated with several clinicopathological parameters, including T classification (P = 0.023), TNM stage (P = 0.020), distant metastasis (P = 0.001) and death (P = 0.002). Further Cox regression analysis suggested that IMPDH2 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.001) and disease-free survival (P < 0.001). In addition, stratified survival analysis showed that high expression of IMPDH2 could be a prognostic factor for NPC patients with TNM stage I/II (OS: P = 0.012; DMFS: P = 0.007), TNM stage III/IV (OS: P = 0.028; DMFS: P = 0.020). Our study demonstrates IMPDH2 may be served as an independent prognostic biomarker for NPC patients, in which high IMPDH expression suggests poor prognosis of NPC patients.

  2. Low SGK1 Expression in Human Adrenocortical Tumors Is Associated with ACTH-Independent Glucocorticoid Secretion and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Sbiera, Silviu; Leich, Ellen; Tissier, Frédérique; Steinhauer, Sonja; Deutschbein, Timo; Fassnacht, Martin; Allolio, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Context: Using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, we observed allelic loss of the gene for serum glucocorticoid (GC) kinase 1 (SGK1), a GC-responsive kinase involved in multiple cellular functions, in a subset of cortisol-secreting adenomas. Objective: Our objective was to analyze SGK1 expression in adrenocortical tumors and to further characterize its role in ACTH-independent cortisol secretion, tumor progression, and prognosis. Design and Setting: Gene expression levels of SGK1, SGK3, and CTNNB1 (coding for β-catenin) and protein expression levels of SGK1, nuclear β-catenin, and phosphorylated AKT were determined in adrenocortical tumors and normal adrenal glands. Patients: A total of 227 adrenocortical tumors (40 adenomas and 187 carcinomas) and 25 normal adrenal tissues were included. Among them, 62 frozen tumor samples were used for mRNA analysis and 203 tumors were investigated on tissue microarrays or full standard slides by immunohistochemistry. Main Outcome Measures: We evaluated the relationship between SGK1 mRNA and/or protein levels and clinical parameters. Results: SGK1 mRNA levels were lower in cortisol-secreting than in nonsecreting tumors (P < 0.005). Nonsecreting neoplasias showed a significant correlation between SGK1 and CTNNB1 mRNA levels (P < 0.001; r = 0.57). Low SGK1 protein levels, but not nuclear β-catenin and phosphorylated AKT, were associated with poor overall survival in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (P < 0.005; hazard ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval = 1.24–3.24), independent of tumor stage and GC secretion. Conclusion: Low SGK1 expression is related to ACTH-independent cortisol secretion in adrenocortical tumors and is a new prognostic factor in adrenocortical carcinoma. PMID:23055545

  3. MicroRNA-130b Promotes Tumor Development and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Tommaso; Fucci, Alessandra; Votino, Carolina; Sabatino, Lina; Pancione, Massimo; Laudanna, Carmelo; Binaschi, Monica; Bigioni, Mario; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Parente, Domenico; Forte, Nicola; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA-130b (miR-130b) is involved in several biologic processes; its role in colorectal tumorigenesis has not been addressed so far. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-130b up-regulation exhibits clinical relevance as it is linked to advanced colorectal cancers (CRCs), poor patients' prognosis, and molecular features of enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. miR-130b high-expressing cells develop large, dedifferentiated, and vascularized tumors in mouse xenografts, features that are reverted by intratumor injection of a specific antisense RNA. In contrast, injection of the corresponding mimic in mouse xenografts from miR-130b low-expressing cells increases tumor growth and angiogenic potential while reduces the epithelial hallmarks. These biologic effects are reproduced in human CRC cell lines. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) as an miR-130b direct target in CRC in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the effects of PPARγ gain- and loss-of-function phenocopy those due to miR-130b down-regulation or up-regulation, respectively, underscoring their biologic relevance. Furthermore, we provide mechanistic evidences that most of the miR-130b-dependent effects are due to PPARγ suppression that in turn deregulates PTEN, E-cadherin, Snail, and vascular endothelial growth factor, key mediators of cell proliferation, EMT, and angiogenesis. Since higher levels of miR-130b are found in advanced tumor stages (III–IV), we propose a novel role of the miR-130b-PPARγ axis in fostering the progression toward more invasive CRCs. Detection of onco-miR-130b and its association with PPARγ may be useful as a prognostic biomarker. Its targeting in vivo should be evaluated as a novel effective therapeutic tool against CRC. PMID:24027433

  4. MicroRNA-130b Promotes Tumor Development and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Colangelo, Tommaso; Fucci, Alessandra; Votino, Carolina; Sabatino, Lina; Pancione, Massimo; Laudanna, Carmelo; Binaschi, Monica; Bigioni, Mario; Maggi, Carlo Alberto; Parente, Domenico; Forte, Nicola; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA-130b (miR-130b) is involved in several biologic processes; its role in colorectal tumorigenesis has not been addressed so far. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-130b up-regulation exhibits clinical relevance as it is linked to advanced colorectal cancers (CRCs), poor patients' prognosis, and molecular features of enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis. miR-130b high-expressing cells develop large, dedifferentiated, and vascularized tumors in mouse xenografts, features that are reverted by intratumor injection of a specific antisense RNA. In contrast, injection of the corresponding mimic in mouse xenografts from miR-130b low-expressing cells increases tumor growth and angiogenic potential while reduces the epithelial hallmarks. These biologic effects are reproduced in human CRC cell lines. We identify peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) as an miR-130b direct target in CRC in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the effects of PPARγ gain- and loss-of-function phenocopy those due to miR-130b down-regulation or up-regulation, respectively, underscoring their biologic relevance. Furthermore, we provide mechanistic evidences that most of the miR-130b-dependent effects are due to PPARγ suppression that in turn deregulates PTEN, E-cadherin, Snail, and vascular endothelial growth factor, key mediators of cell proliferation, EMT, and angiogenesis. Since higher levels of miR-130b are found in advanced tumor stages (III-IV), we propose a novel role of the miR-130b-PPARγ axis in fostering the progression toward more invasive CRCs. Detection of onco-miR-130b and its association with PPARγ may be useful as a prognostic biomarker. Its targeting in vivo should be evaluated as a novel effective therapeutic tool against CRC. PMID:24204200

  5. Tumor necrosis is associated with increased alphavbeta3 integrin expression and poor prognosis in nodular cutaneous melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Ingeborg M; Ladstein, Rita G; Straume, Oddbjørn; Naumov, George N; Akslen, Lars A

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are considered important in cancer progression, but these features have not been much studied in melanomas. Our hypothesis was that rapid growth in cutaneous melanomas of the vertical growth phase might lead to tissue hypoxia, alterations in apoptotic activity and tumor necrosis. We proposed that these tumor characteristics might be associated with changes in expression of cell adhesion proteins leading to increased invasive capacity and reduced patient survival. Methods A well characterized series of nodular melanoma (originally 202 cases) and other benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (109 cases) were examined for the presence of necrosis, apoptotic activity (TUNEL assay), immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia markers (HIF-1 α, CAIX, TNF-α, Apaf-1) and cell adhesion proteins (αvβ3 integrin, CD44/HCAM and osteopontin). We hypothesized that tumor hypoxia and necrosis might be associated with increased invasiveness in melanoma through alterations of tumor cell adhesion proteins. Results Necrosis was present in 29% of nodular melanomas and was associated with increased tumor thickness, tumor ulceration, vascular invasion, higher tumor proliferation and apoptotic index, increased expression of αvβ3 integrin and poor patient outcome by multivariate analysis. Tumor cell apoptosis did also correlate with reduced patient survival. Expression of TNF-α and Apaf-1 was significantly associated with tumor thickness, and osteopontin expression correlated with increased tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67). Conclusion Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are important features of melanoma progression and prognosis, at least partly through alterations in cell adhesion molecules such as increased αvβ3 integrin expression, revealing potentially important targets for new therapeutic approaches to be further explored. PMID:19061491

  6. Association of Decreased Expression of Serum miR-9 with Poor Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Legang; Liu, Ling; Fu, Honghai; Wang, Qiuqin; Shi, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of miR-9 is a common feature of many types of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, whether the expression level of serum miR-9 is changed in patients with OSCC remains unknown. Material/Methods Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to examine the expression level of serum miR-9 in OSCC patients, oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients, and healthy volunteers, then we evaluated the association between serum miR-9 expression level and clinical outcome of OSCC patients. Results The expression level of serum miR-9 was significantly downregulated in patients with OSCC or OLK in comparison with healthy controls (P<0.01). Serum miR-9 expression level was associated with various clinicopathological parameters, including T stage (P=0.013), lymph node metastasis (P=0.002), and TNM stage (P=0.007). In addition, the OSCC patients in the low serum miR-9 expression group had poorer overall survival rate (P=0.022) and disease-free survival rate (P=0.004) compared with those in the high serum miR-9 expression group. Multivariate analysis showed that serum miR-9 was an independent prognostic factor for OSCC. Conclusions Serum miR-9 was downregulated in patients with OSCC and patients with OLK. In addition, low serum miR-9 was correlated with poor prognosis of OSCC, indicating miR-9 might play a tumor suppressive role in OSCC and can serve as a promising biomarker for this deadly disease. PMID:26813876

  7. Overexpression of MYC and BCL2 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-hua; Bi, Xi-wen; Li, Peng-fei; Xia, Zhong-jun; Huang, Hui-qiang; Jiang, Wen-qi; Zhang, Yu-jing; Wang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recently double-hit lymphoma or double protein expressor lymphoma has been identified as a distinct group of diffuse large B cell lymphoma with poor prognosis. However, the expression status, clinical and prognostic effect of combined overexpression of MYC and BCL2 in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) are not known. Materials and methods: Paraffin-embedded lymphoma samples from 53 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL were studied using immunohistochemistry for MYC and BCL2, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for MYC and BCL2 were done on 5 tissue sections with highest percentages of both MYC and BCL2 positive lymphoma cells. Results: The median percentage of MYC-positive lymphoma cells and BCL2-positive lymphoma cells were 20% (range, 5%-45%) and 70% (10%-95%), respectively. Using median scores as cutoffs, we assigned each patient an IHC double-hit score (DHS) that ranged from 0 to 2. Using this DHS, 15 patients (28.3%) had a DHS of 0, 24 patients (45.3%) had a DHS of 1, and the remaining 14 patients (26.4%) had a DHS of 2. FISH analysis was performed on 5 tissue sections with DHS of 2, and none of them had MYC or BCL2 rearrangement. The DHS was not associated with patients' age, gender, disease stage, LDH level, B symptoms, performance status, or local tumor invasiveness. However, patients with tumor localized in extranasal sites seemed to have higher expression of BCL2 and higher DHS than nasal lesions (p=0.014 and 0.042, respectively). In univariate survival analysis, either high expression of MYC or BCL2 was significantly correlated with inferior PFS and OS (p<0.05). According to the DHS, patients with ENKTL could be divided into three significantly different risk groups for PFS and OS (3-year PFS rate for DHS of 0, 1, and 2 was 60%, 41%, and 21%, respectively, p=0.008; 3-year OS rate for DHS of 0, 1, and 2 was 79%, 49%, and 33%, respectively, p=0.015). In multivariate survival analysis, it was found that DHS was an

  8. Overexpression of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα is associated with undifferentiated status and poor prognosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a particularly severe disease characterized by a high rate of recurrence and death even after surgical resection. Molecular characterization of HCC helps refine prognosis and may facilitate the development of improved therapy. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases have recently been identified as cellular factors associated with cancer. Also, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type IIIα (PI4KA) is necessary for the propagation of the hepatitis C virus, a major etiological factor for HCC. Methods Reverse transcription, quantitative real-time PCR was used to assay PI4KA mRNA. The expression levels were investigated both in a collection of molecularly and clinically characterized hepatic tissues from 344 patients with diverse liver diseases and in human hepatocyte cell lines whose proliferative and differentiation status was controlled by specific culture conditions. Analytical microarray data for 60 HCC and six normal liver tissue samples were exploited to study correlations between PI4KA mRNA levels and cell proliferation markers in vivo. Postoperative disease-specific survival and time to recurrence in a set of 214 patients with HCC were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results PI4KA mRNA was more abundant in HCC than normal healthy tissues. This upregulation correlated significantly with both poor differentiation and the active proliferation rate in HCC. These associations were confirmed with in vitro models. Moreover, patients with HCC who had been treated by surgical resection and had higher PI4KA mRNA concentrations in their tumor tissue exhibited a higher risk of tumor recurrence (median time: 20 months versus 49 months, P = 0.0012) and shorter disease-specific survival (first quartile time: 16 months versus 48 months, P = 0.0004). Finally, the abundance of PI4KA mRNA proved to be an independent prognostic marker of survival for cases of HCC (hazard ratio = 2.36, P = 0.0064). Conclusions PI4

  9. Upregulator of Cell Proliferation Predicts Poor Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Contributes to Hepatocarcinogenesis by Downregulating FOXO3a

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jue-heng; Li, Jun; Yun, Jing-ping; Lai, Jia-ming; Xie, Dong-ying; Lin, Bing-liang; Yuan, Yun-fei; Li, Mengfeng; Gao, Zhi-liang

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential correlation between the expression level of upregulator of cell proliferation (URGCP/URG4) and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to examine the biological function of URGCP/URG4 in the progression of HCC, to better understand its underlying molecular mechanism in hepatic tumorigenesis. Design URGCP/URG4 expression was analyzed in 15 HCC cell lines, in 278 archived paraffin-embedded HCC sections, and in 10 pairs of fresh HCC tumor and para-tumor non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting analysis (WB). The effect of URGCP/URG4 on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis was examined in vitro and in vivo. WB and luciferase reporter analyses were performed to identify the effects of URGCP/URG4-overexpression or -knockdown on expression of cell cycle regulators and transcriptional activity of FOXO3a. Results IHC results revealed an upregulation of URGCP/URG4 in all HCC cell lines and fresh HCC samples as compared with normal liver cells and para-tumor tissues, respectively. URGCP/URG4 was also expressed at a high level in 122 of the 278 (43.8%) archived HCC specimens. The expression level of URGCP/URG4 was significantly correlated with clinical staging and poor patient survival of HCC in the study cohort, and in various clinical subgroups. Strikingly, ectopic expression of URGCP/URG4 induced proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells, while silencing of URGCP/URG4 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, URGCP/URG4 overexpression in HCC cells increased cellular entry into the G1/S transitional phase, associated with downregulation of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 and upregulation of cyclin D1. These effects were accompanied by enhanced Akt activity and reduced FOXO3a transcriptional activity. Conclusions URGCP/URG4 plays an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenesis of HCC and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and

  10. Reduced Expression of the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor in Pancreatic and Periampullary Adenocarcinoma Signifies Tumour Progression and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Fristedt, Richard; Elebro, Jacob; Gaber, Alexander; Jonsson, Liv; Heby, Margareta; Yudina, Yulyana; Nodin, Björn; Uhlén, Mathias; Eberhard, Jakob; Jirström, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is a key component of the mucosal immune system that mediates epithelial transcytosis of immunoglobulins. High pIgR expression has been reported to correlate with a less aggressive tumour phenotype and an improved prognosis in several human cancer types. Here, we examined the expression and prognostic significance of pIgR in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma. The study cohort encompasses a consecutive series of 175 patients surgically treated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma in Malmö and Lund University Hospitals, Sweden, between 2001–2011. Tissue microarrays were constructed from primary tumours (n = 175) and paired lymph node metastases (n = 105). A multiplied score was calculated from the fraction and intensity of pIgR staining. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to select the prognostic cut-off. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death and recurrence within 5 years were calculated. pIgR expression could be evaluated in 172/175 (98.3%) primary tumours and in 96/105 (91.4%) lymph node metastases. pIgR expression was significantly down-regulated in lymph node metastases as compared with primary tumours (p = 0.018). Low pIgR expression was significantly associated with poor differentiation grade (p<0.001), perineural growth (p = 0.027), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.016), vascular invasion (p = 0.033) and infiltration of the peripancreatic fat (p = 0.039). In the entire cohort, low pIgR expression was significantly associated with an impaired 5-year survival (HR = 2.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71–5.25) and early recurrence (HR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.67–4.98). This association remained significant for survival after adjustment for conventional clinicopathological factors, tumour origin and adjuvant treatment (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.10–3.57). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that high

  11. Co-expression of COX-2 and 5-LO in primary glioblastoma is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingfu; Chen, Yupeng; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Lifeng; Liu, Xueyong; Zhang, Li; Li, Xiaoling; Chen, Dayang

    2015-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) are important factors in tumorigenesis and malignant progression; however, studies of their roles in glioblastoma have produced conflicting results. To define the frequencies of COX-2 and 5-LO expression and their correlation with clinicopathological features and prognosis, tumor tissues from 76 cases of newly diagnosed primary ordinary glioblastoma were examined for COX-2 and 5-LO expression by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of COX-2 and 5-LO and the relationships between the co-expression of COX-2/5-LO and patient age and gender, edema index (EI), Karnofsky Performance Scale and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. COX-2 and 5-LO were expressed in 73.7 % (56/76) and 92.1 % (70/76) of the samples, respectively. Among the clinicopathological characteristics, only age (>60 years) exhibited a significant association with the high expression of COX-2. No statistically significant correlations were found in the 5-LO cohort. A significant positive correlation was revealed between the COX-2 and 5-LO scores (r = 0.374; p = 0.001). The elevated co-expression of COX-2 and 5-LO was observed primarily in the patients over the age of 60 years. Patients with a high expression of COX-2 had a significantly shorter OS (p < 0.01), whereas the immunoexpression of 5-LO was not associated with the OS of patients with glioblastoma. Survival analysis indicated that simultaneous high levels of COX-2 and 5-LO expression were significantly correlated with poor OS and, conversely, that a low/low expression pattern of these two proteins was significantly associated with better OS (p < 0.05). Moreover, the Cox multivariable proportional hazard model showed that a high expression of COX-2, high co-expression of COX-2 and 5-LO, and a high Ki-67 index were significant predictors of shorter OS in primary glioblastoma, independent of age, gender, EI, 5-LO expression and p53 status. The hazard ratios for OS were 2.347 (95 % CI 1

  12. Neuroendocrine-like cells -derived CXCL10 and CXCL11 induce the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophage leading to the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Xu, He-Yang; Wang, Jie; Chu, Zhong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study revealed that neuroendocrine differentiation in colorectal cancer is one of the important factors leading to worse prognosis. In this study, we apply immunohistochemical staining, Western-blot, RT-PCR and ELISA to investigate the underlying mechanism that how the neuroendocrine differentiation to affect the prognosis of colorectal cancer. The interaction of colorectal cancer cells, neuroendocrine-like cells and tumor-associated macrophages in colorectal cancer progress is also investigated. By analyzing 82 cases of colorectal cancer patients treated in our institution, we found that colorectal adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation had increasing number of tumor-associated macrophages and worse prognosis. Further evaluation of cytology showed that neuroendocrine cells have the ability to recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate the tumor tissue, and the tumor-associated macrophages enhance the proliferation and invasion abilities of the colon cancer cells. Moreover, we confirmed that CXCL10 and CXCL11 are the key chemokines in neuroendocrine-like cells and they promote the chemotaxis activity of tumor-associated macrophages. The secretion of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by neuroendocrine-like cells can recruit tumor-associated macrophages to infiltrate in tumor tissues. The latter enhances the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cell and lead to poor prognosis. PMID:27034164

  13. Aberrant expression of KPNA2 is associated with a poor prognosis and contributes to OCT4 nuclear transportation in bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingcheng; Dong, Daoquan; Cheng, Ran; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Shuqi; Zhu, Yuhong; Fan, Longlong; Mao, Xiangming; Gui, Yaoting; Li, Zesong; Li, Xianxin; Shi, Bentao

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) is up-regulated in quite a number of cancers and associated with poor prognosis. Here, we found that expression levels of KPNA2 and OCT4 are up-regulated in bladder cancer tissues and significantly associated with primary tumor stage and bladder cancer patients' poorer prognosis. Our data also showed decreased cell proliferation and migration rates of bladder cancer cell lines when the expression of KPNA2 and OCT4 was silenced. Meanwhile, cell apoptosis rate was increased. Furthermore, Co-IP and immunofluorescence assay showed the KPNA2 interacts with OCT4 and inhibits OCT4 nuclear transportation when KPNA2 was silenced. Thus, we confirmed that up-regulated KPNA2 and OCT4 expression is a common feature of bladder cancer that is correlated with increased aggressive tumor behavior. Also, we propose that KPNA2 regulates the process of OCT4 nuclear transportation in bladder cancer. PMID:27611951

  14. The coexpression of EphB4 and EphrinB2 is associated with poor prognosis in HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuelu; Song, Chen; Huang, Gena; Sun, Siwen; Qiao, Jingjing; Zhao, Jinbo; Zhao, Zuowei; Li, Man

    2017-01-01

    Objective HER2 overexpression is associated with aggressive phenotypes in breast cancer, including increased tumor proliferation, greater invasiveness, and reduced overall survival. The overall response rate to HER2-targeted therapies remains <30%. There is an urgent need for the identification of efficient markers to predict patients with a poor prognosis. This study was designed to investigate the correlation between EphB4 and EphrinB2 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of HER2-positive breast cancer. Materials and methods A total of 111 primary HER2-positive breast cancer patients were enrolled in this study (diagnosed since December 2005 to November 2010 from the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University). The protein expression of EphB4 and EphrinB2 was examined by immunohistochemistry using paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. Results There was a significant correlation between EphB4 and EphrinB2 expression (P=0.013, r=0.255). Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the prognosis of patients with a high expression of both EphB4 and EphrinB2 was significantly worse than the prognosis of patients with either EphB4 or EphrinB2 expression and patients with negative expression (hazard ratio [HR] =1.935, P=0.0224). However, high expression of EphB4 or EphrinB2 alone was not an independent prognostic factor to predict worse overall survival. To summarize, HER2-positive breast cancer patients with overexpression of both EphB4 and EphrinB2 were associated with the worst prognosis. Conclusion High expression of EphB4 and EphrinB2 correlated with poor overall survival, which can serve as an independent prognostic indicator in primary HER2-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:28356761

  15. Targeted O-glycoproteomics explored increased sialylation and identified MUC16 as a poor prognosis biomarker in advanced stage bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sofia; Azevedo, Rita; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Ferreira, Dylan; Lima, Luís; Peixoto, Andreia; Fernandes, Elisabete; Neves, Manuel; Neves, Diogo; Amaro, Teresina; Cruz, Ricardo; Tavares, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Silva, André M N; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2017-02-03

    Bladder carcinogenesis and tumour progression is accompanied by profound alterations in protein glycosylation on the cell surface, which may be explored for improving disease management. In a search for prognosis biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets we have screened, using immunohistochemistry, a series of bladder tumours with differing clinicopathology for short-chain O-glycans commonly found in glycoproteins of human solid tumours. These included the Tn and T antigens and their sialylated counterparts sialyl-Tn(STn) and sialyl-T(ST), which are generally associated with poor prognosis. We have also explored the nature of T antigen sialylation, namely the sialyl-3-T(S3T) and sialyl-6-T(S6T) sialoforms, based on combinations of enzymatic treatments. We observed a predominance of sialoglycans over neutral glycoforms (Tn and T antigens) in bladder tumours. In particular, the STn antigen was associated with high-grade disease and muscle invasion, in accordance with our previous observations. The S3T and S6T antigens were detected for the first time in bladder tumours but not in healthy urothelia, highlighting their cancer-specific nature. These glycans were also overexpressed in advanced lesions, especially in cases showing muscle invasion. Glycoproteomic analyses of advanced bladder tumours based on enzymatic treatments, Vicia Villosa lectin-affinity chromatography enrichment and nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of several key cancer-associated glycoproteins (MUC16, CD44, integrins) carrying altered glycosylation. Of particular interest were MUC16 STn(+) -glycoforms, characteristic of ovarian cancers, which were found in a subset of advanced-stage bladder tumours facing the worst prognosis. In summary, significant alterations in the O-glycome and O-glycoproteome of bladder tumors hold promise for the development of novel non-invasive diagnostic tools and targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, abnormal MUC16 glycoforms hold potential as

  16. Single high-dose etoposide and melphalan with non-cryopreserved autologous marrow rescue as primary therapy for relapsed, refractory and poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, L. K.; Dansey, R. D.; Bezwoda, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    A simplified schedule of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) consisting of melphalan (140 mg m-2) plus VP16 (2.5 g m-2) given over 12-18 h together with autologous non-cryopreserved autologous bone marrow transplant (ABMT) was used for treatment of relapsed (37 patients) and refractory (seven patients) patients and as first-line treatment (four patients) for poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease. Two patients had a second HDC-ABMT after relapse following prior HDC-ABMT, giving a total of 50 procedures among 48 patients. The haematological recovery rate was 98% with a complete response rate of the Hodgkin's disease of > 90%. Factors significantly influencing response rate were performance status and the presence of liver involvement. Thirty-nine patients are alive, with 37 in continuous complete remission. The median duration of survival and median duration of remission have not been reached at a median follow-up time of 45 months. Adverse prognostic factors for survival were disease status at the time of HDC-ABMT (refractory versus relapse, with primarily refractory patients showing significantly poor survival) and the presence of liver involvement. High-dose chemotherapy with short-duration chemotherapy and non-cryopreserved bone marrow is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with relapsed and poor-prognosis Hodgkin's disease. PMID:8080741

  17. A decision-analytic approach to define poor prognosis patients: a case study for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Merel R; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Habbema, J Dik F

    2008-01-01

    Background Classification systems may be useful to direct more aggressive treatment to cancer patients with a relatively poor prognosis. The definition of 'poor prognosis' often lacks a formal basis. We propose a decision analytic approach to weigh benefits and harms explicitly to define the treatment threshold for more aggressive treatment. This approach is illustrated by a case study in advanced testicular cancer, where patients with a high risk of mortality under standard treatment may be eligible for high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support, which is currently defined by the IGCC classification. Methods We used published literature to estimate the benefit and harm of high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) versus standard-dose chemotherapy (SD-CT) for patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell cancer. Benefit and harm were defined as the reduction and increase in absolute risk of mortality due to HD-CT respectively. Harm included early and late treatment related death, and treatment related morbidity (weighted by 'utility'). Results We considered a conservative and an optimistic benefit of 30 and 40% risk reduction respectively. We estimated the excess treatment related mortality at 2%. When treatment related morbidity was taken into account, the harm of HD-CT increased to 5%. With a relative benefit of 30% and harm of 2 or 5%, HD-CT might be beneficial for patients with over 7 or 17% risk of cancer specific mortality with SD chemotherapy, while with a relative benefit of 40% HD-CT was beneficial over 5 and 12.5% risk respectively. Compared to the IGCC classification 14% of the patients would receive more aggressive treatment, and 2% less intensive treatment. Conclusion Benefit and harm can be used to define 'poor prognosis' explicitly for non-seminomatous germ cell cancer patients who are considered for high-dose chemotherapy. This approach can readily be adapted to new results and extended to other cancers to define candidates for more aggressive

  18. Increased ΔNp63 expression is predictive of malignant transformation in oral epithelial dysplasia and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Ryota; Kawano, Shintaro; Kiyosue, Takahiro; Goto, Yuichi; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Jinno, Teppei; Toyoshima, Takeshi; Kitamura, Ryoji; Oobu, Kazunari; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-12-01

    This study examined immunohistochemical expression of ΔNp63, a keratinocyte stem cell marker, in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and then to elucidate usefulness of ΔNp63 as a marker for diagnosis and prognosis. One-hundred and twelve cases of OL and 81 cases of OSCC were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining for ΔNp63, Ki-67, and cytokeratin 14. These labeling indices (LIs) were calculated, and the association of these LIs with clinicopathologic characteristics in the OL and OSCC was evaluated. In the OL, these LIs increased significantly according to the severity of epithelial dysplasia (p<0.0001). ΔNp63-LI in the OL with malignant transformation was significantly higher than that in the OL without (49.3 vs. 34.2%; p<0.01). In the OSCC, the LIs increased significantly in association with the histologic grade (p<0.0001). A significant difference between the high and low ΔNp63-LI groups was found in the incidence of cervical lymph node and distant metastasis (p<0.05). The prognosis of the high ΔNp63-LI (mean value >73.8%) group is poorer than that of the low ΔNp63-LI (mean value ≤73.8%) group (p<0.05). These results suggested that increased ΔNp63 expression is involved in malignant transformation in epithelial dysplasia and poor prognosis in OSCC.

  19. Increased expression of αTubulin is associated with poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer after surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao; Zhao, Guo-chao; Xu, Ya-dong; Wang, Dan-song; Jin, Da-yong; Ji, Yuan; Lou, Wen-hui; Wu, Wen-chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background αTubulin, the essential orchestrator of cytoskeletal protein polymers, critical for cell growth and division, motility, signaling development and maintenance of cell shape, plays vital roles in the oncogenesis and progression of various types of cancer, but its role in prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate its prognostic value in patients with pancreatic cancer after surgical resection. Results αTubulin expression in pancreatic cancer was significantly associated with N classification (p = 0.013) and TNM stage (p = 0.025). Increased expression of αTubulin in tumoral tissue was associated with decreased overall survival rate (p = 0.002). Multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that αTubulin expression was an independent prognostic indicator for pancreatic cancer except for T and N classification (p = 0.002). Using multivariate analysis, αTubulin expression, CA19-9, and N classification were selected to generate the nomogram to predict the 1-year and 3-year overall survival. The c-index of this model was 0.692. The calibration curve for probability of survival showed good agreement between prediction by nomogram and actual observation. Methods αTubulin expression was evaluated by tissue microarrays from 124 pancreatic cancer patients and statistically assessed for correlations with the clinical profiles and the prognosis of the patients with pancreatic cancer. The prognostic nomogram was designed to predict 1-year and 3-year overall survival probability. Conclusions αTubulin expression might be an independent prognostic factor for pancreatic cancer after surgical resection and could potentially be a high-priority therapeutic target. Incorporating αTubulin expression into CA19-9 and N classification can provide a good prognostic model. PMID:27447976

  20. High Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and NF-κB Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiwang; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Xiaojuan; Feng, Chan; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yonglin; Lin, Yun; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Background SDF-1 and NF-κB are associated with the prognosis of a wide range of cancers, but their value in cervical cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer and their significance in clinical prognosis. Material/Methods The expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in 105 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival times (OS) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The expression level of both SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer are higher than that in the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). SDF-1 expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade (P<0.05). NF-κB expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) status (P<0.05). The patients with a positive expression of SDF-1or NF-κB tended to have much shorter survival time than patients with negative expression. In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression and lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of the OS in cervical cancer patients. Conclusions The expression of SDF-1 is significantly associated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade. The expression of NF-κB is significantly associated with tumor size, FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis. The positive SDF-1or NF-κB expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis. These may be valuable biomarkers for the prognosis and the potential therapeutic targets of cervical cancer. PMID:28074045

  1. High Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) and NF-κB Predicts Poor Prognosis in Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhiwang; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Xiaojuan; Feng, Chan; Yang, Guang; Lu, Yonglin; Lin, Yun; Dong, Chunyan

    2017-01-11

    BACKGROUND SDF-1 and NF-κB are associated with the prognosis of a wide range of cancers, but their value in cervical cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer and their significance in clinical prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of SDF-1and NF-κB in 105 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed by chi-square test. The overall survival times (OS) were collected by follow-up and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS The expression level of both SDF-1and NF-κB in cervical cancer are higher than that in the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). SDF-1 expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade (P<0.05). NF-κB expression are correlated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis (LNM) status (P<0.05). The patients with a positive expression of SDF-1or NF-κB tended to have much shorter survival time than patients with negative expression. In addition, multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SDF-1 expression and lymph node metastasis are independent predictors of the OS in cervical cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS The expression of SDF-1 is significantly associated with tumor size and FIGO histology grade. The expression of NF-κB is significantly associated with tumor size, FIGO histology grade, and lymph node metastasis. The positive SDF-1or NF-κB expression is significantly correlated with poor prognosis. These may be valuable biomarkers for the prognosis and the potential therapeutic targets of cervical cancer.

  2. Sole rearrangement but not amplification of MYC is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma and B cell lymphoma unclassifiable

    PubMed Central

    Landsburg, Daniel; Falkiewicz, Marissa; Petrich, Adam; Chu, Benjamin; Behdad, Amir; Li, Shaoying; Medeiros, L.; Cassaday, Ryan; Reddy, Nishitha; Bast, Martin; Vose, Julie; Kruczek, Kimberly; Smith, Scott; Patel, Priyank; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Karmali, Reem; Rajguru, Saurabh; Yang, David; Maly, Joseph; Blum, Kristie; Zhao, Weiqiang; VanSlambrouck, Charles; Nabhan, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Rearrangement of MYC is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and B cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU), particularly in the setting of double hit lymphoma (DHL). Yet, little is known about outcomes of patients who demonstrate MYC rearrangement without evidence of BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangement (single hit) or amplification (>4 copies) of MYC. We identified 87 patients with single hit lymphoma (SHL), 22 patients with MYC-amplified lymphoma (MYC amp) as well as 127 DLBCL patients without MYC rearrangement or amplification (MYC normal) and 45 patients with double hit lymphoma (DHL), all treated with either R-CHOP or intensive induction therapy. For SHL and MYC amp patients, the 2 year progression free survival rate (2yPFS) was 49% and 48% and 2 year overall survival rate (2yOS) was 59% and 71%, respectively. SHL patients receiving intensive induction experienced higher 2yPFS (59% vs. 23%, P=0.006) but similar 2yOS as compared with SHL patients receiving R-CHOP. SHL DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP, but not intensive induction, experienced significantly lower 2yPFS and 2yOS (p<0.001 for both) when compared with MYC normal patients. SHL patients appear to have a poor prognosis, which may be improved with receipt of intensive induction. PMID:27469075

  3. Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone is a Poor Prognosis Marker of Head and Neck Cancer and Promotes Cell Growth via RUNX2 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Min; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Su, Chia-Yi; Peng, Hsuan-Yu; Chang, Yu-Chan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chen, Chi-Long; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Hsiao, Michael; Shiah, Shine-Gwo

    2017-01-01

    Parathyroid Hormone-Like Hormone (PTHLH) is an autocrine/paracrine ligand that is up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the cellular function and regulatory mechanism in HNSCC remains obscure. We investigated the clinical significance of PTHLH in HNSCC patients, and verified the role of RUNX2/PTHLH axis, which is stimulated HNSCC cell growth. In patients, PTHLH is a poor prognosis marker. PTHLH expression lead to increasing the cell proliferation potential through an autocrine/paracrine role and elevating blood calcium level in Nod-SCID mice. In public HNSCC microarray cohorts, PTHLH is found to be co-expressed with RUNX2. Physiologically, PTHLH is regulated by RUNX2 and also acting as key calcium regulator. However, elevations of calcium concentration also increased the RUNX2 expression. PTHLH, calcium, and RUNX2 form a positive feedback loop in HNSCC. Furthermore, ectopic RUNX2 expression also increased PTHLH expression and promoted proliferation potential through PTHLH expression. Using cDNA microarray analysis, we found PTHLH also stimulated expression of cell cycle regulators, namely CCNA2, CCNE2, and CDC25A in HNSCC cells, and these genes are also up-regulated in HNSCC patients. In summary, our results reveal that PTHLH expression is a poor prognosis marker in HNSCC patients, and RUNX2-PTHLH axis contributes to HNSCC tumor growth. PMID:28120940

  4. High expression of CD147 and MMP-9 is correlated with poor prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu; Ma, Wenjie; Zhang, Minghui; Tang, Dabei; Shi, Qingtao; Xu, Shanqi; Zhang, Xiaosan; Liu, Yupeng; Song, Ying; Liu, Leyuan; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate expression of CD147 and MMP-9 in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) so as to determine whether these two proteins may be correlated with poor prognosis of TNBC patients. We examined the expression levels of the CD147 and MMP-9 in 127 patients with TNBC and 30 patients with mammary gland fibroma using immunohistochemical staining before any treatments. Furthermore, we analyzed the correlation between the expression of these two proteins and various clinicopathologic factors including survival status of patients with TNBC. Positive stain of CD147 and MMP-9 was observed in all samples of TNBC. A statistically positive correlation was observed between the expression levels of CD147 and MMP-9 in TNBC tissues. The incidences of high expression were 48.0 % for CD147 and 53.5 % for MMP-9 in 127 TNBC tissues, respectively. High expression of either CD147 or MMP-9 was significantly correlated with clinical feature and shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P(CD147) = 0.039; P(MMP-9) = 0.017) and overall survival (OS) (P(CD147) = 0.037; P(MMP-9) = 0.023). The expression levels of CD147 and MMP-9 are positively correlated with invasion, metastasis and shorter PFS/OS of TNBC. Patients with high expression of CD147 and MMP-9 had poor prognosis than TNBC patients with low expression.

  5. DNMT3A R882 Mutations Predict a Poor Prognosis in AML: A Meta-Analysis From 4474 Patients.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Qing; Peng, Li; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Jiang, Bin-Yuan; Li, Guan-Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-05-01

    DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) mutations were widely believed to be independently associated with inferior prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. As dominant missense alterations in DNMT3A mutations, R882 mutations cause the focal hypomethylation phenotype. However, there remains debate on the influence of R882 mutations on AML prognosis. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed at further illustrating the prognostic power of DNMT3A R882 mutations in AML patients.Eligible studies were identified from 5 databases containing PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Library (up to October 25, 2015). Effects (hazard ratios [HRs] with 95% confidence interval [CI]) of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were pooled to estimate the prognostic power of mutant DNMT3A R882 in overall patients and subgroups of AML patients.Eight competent studies with 4474 AML patients including 694 with DNMT3A R882 mutations were included. AML patients with DNMT3A R882 mutations showed significant shorter RFS (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.24-1.59, P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.17-1.86, P = 0.001) in the overall population. DNMT3A R882 mutations predicted worse RFS and OS among the subgroups of patients under age 60 (RFS: HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.25-1.66, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.15-1.90, P = 0.002), over age 60 (RFS: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.40-2.93, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.53, P < 0.001), cytogenetically normal (CN)-AML (RFS: HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.26-1.83, P < 0.001; OS: HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.16-2.41, P = 0.006), and non-CN-AML (RFS: HR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20-3.21, P = 0.006; OS: HR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.52-4.15, P = 0.0038).DNMT3A R882 mutations possessed significant unfavorable prognostic influence on RFS and OS in AML patients.

  6. Vicious circle of acute radiation toxicities and weight loss predicts poor prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo; Jiang, Xiong-ying; Qiu, Bo; Shen, Lu-Jun; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Weight loss during radiotherapy has been known as a negative prognostic factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, but the factors related to weight loss during radiotherapy were not fully understood. Methods: A total of 322 newly diagnosed NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between June 2002 and August 2006 were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank test were applied for survival analysis; a multiple regression was used to identify the factors related to weight loss during radiotherapy. Results: The mean and median values of weight loss (%) during radiotherapy were 6.85% and 6.70%. NPC patients with critical weight loss (> 5.4%) have poorer overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) than the patients without critical weight loss (p = 0.002 and 0.021, respectively). Pre-radiotherapy weight, acute mucosal toxicity, acute pharynx and esophagus toxicity, and acute upper gastrointestinal toxicity were related to the weight loss during radiotherapy independently (p = 0.01, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.009, respectively). Conclusions: Acute radiation toxicities had significant and independent impact on weight loss during radiotherapy. The vicious circle of acute radiation toxicities and weight loss had bad effect on prognosis of NPC patients. PMID:28382146

  7. Increased expression of MUC3A is associated with poor prognosis in localized clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Fu, Qiang; Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zewei; Fu, Hangcheng; Xu, Jiejie; Liu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    MUC3A is a membrane-associated mucin that recent evidence reveals the role of MUC3A in pathogenesis and progression of cancers. To evaluate the association between MUC3A expression with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with localized clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), we retrospectively detected MUC3A expression in samples of 384 postoperative localized ccRCC patients by immunohistochemistry. Median follow-up was 73 months (range: 42 – 74 mo). Overall, 41 patients died, 47 experienced recurrence. High MUC3A expression occurred in 45.8% of localized ccRCC cases, which was significantly associated with high pT-stage, high Fuhrman grade, high frequency of necrosis and LVI, and increased risk of recurrence and death (Logrank test P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). By multivariate analysis, MUC3A expression was confirmed as an adverse independent prognostic factor for OS and RFS. The prognostic accuracy of UISS, SSIGN, Leibovich models was significantly increased when MUC3A expression was integrated. Meanwhile, MUC3A was enrolled into a newly built nomogram with other factors selected by multivariate analysis. Calibration curves revealed optimal consistency between observations and prognosis. In conclusion, high MUC3A expression is an adverse prognostic biomarker for OS and RFS in postoperative localized ccRCC patients. PMID:27374181

  8. Low expression of olfactomedin 4 correlates with poor prognosis in smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Wenmei; Luo, Liang; Wu, Fenping; Lai, Zhennan; Li, Xiaofang; Xie, Zhong; Tang, Zhi; Yang, Zhixiong; Liang, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) has been demonstrated to serve an important function in tumor progression. This study aims to analyze the correlation between OLFM4 expression and clinicopathological features and the prognostic significance of OLFM4 in the context of smoking status of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 218 NSCLC patients, who were histopathologically diagnosed from 2001 to 2013, were reviewed in the study. OLFM4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples. The association of OLFM4 with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Overall survival and disease-specific survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that OLFM4 was highly expressed in 64.2% of NSCLC patients. OLFM4 expression level in NSCLC lesions was strongly correlated with pathologic grade (P = .017), lymph node metastasis (P = .012), peritumor intravascular cancer emboli (P = .03), and smoking status (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that, among smoking patients, those with low OLFM4 expression had shorter survival time (overall survival and disease-specific survival) than those with high OLFM4 (P < .05). Conclusively, although low OLFM4 expression is not an independent prognostic biomarker, it might indicate worse prognosis for smoking patients with NSCLC, thereby identifying patients who might benefit from targeting OLFM4 therapy.

  9. Upregulation of MAGEA4 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Zi-Hao; Yang, Tong-Xin; Wang, Han-Jin; Cao, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common type of cancer in the People’s Republic of China. Many genes have been reported to be linked with it. Melanoma antigen gene family A (MAGEA) genes are frequently highly expressed in various types of carcinoma. However, the specific role of MAGEA gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remains unclear. MAGEA4 is a member of MAGEA genes. We aimed to investigate the expression and prognosis of MAGEA4 expression in ESCC. MAGEA4 messenger RNA expression levels of 120 pairs of tumor and nontumor tissues of patients with ESCC were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly elevated in tumor tissues of patients with ESCC compared to nontumor ones. In addition, overexpression of MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (P=0.018) in early stage of patients with ESCC (I–IIA). In conclusion, MAGEA4 played an important role in the early stage of ESCC and overexpression of MAGEA4 was expected to become a potential prognostic marker for patients with early stage of ESCC. PMID:27478386

  10. High expression of microRNA-454 is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Ni; Liu, Yi-Rong; Hu, Xin; Song, Chuan-Gui; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-454 (miR-454) has been reported to play an oncogenic or tumor suppressor role in most cancers. However, the clinical relevance of miR-454 in breast cancer remains unclear. We examined the expression of miR-454 in a tissue microarray containing 534 breast cancer specimens from female patients at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center using in situ hybridization (ISH). Of these, 250 patients formed the training set and the other 284 were the validation set. The relationship between miR-454 and clinical outcome was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. High expression of miR-454 indicated worse disease-free survival (DFS) in both cohorts (P = 0.006 for training set; P = 0.010 for validation set). Furthermore, in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, miR-454 was positively correlated with worse clinical outcome (P = 0.013 for training set, P = 0.014 for validation set). In addition, patients in the low miR-454 expression cohort had better response to anthracycline compared to non-anthracycline chemotherapy (P = 0.056), but this difference was not observed in the high miR-454 expression cohort. Our findings indicated that miR-454 is a potential predictor of prognosis and chemotherapy response in TNBC. PMID:27588500

  11. High expression of CTHRC1 promotes EMT of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Shanyang; Li, Yang; Pan, Yunping; Feng, Chongjin; Chen, Xinlin; Zhang, Yang; Lin, Millicent; Wang, Liantang; Ke, Zunfu

    2015-01-01

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1) is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple malignant tumors. However, the expression characteristics and function of CTHRC1 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remain unclear. We found that CTHRC1 expression was up-regulated in the paraffin-embedded EOC tissues compared to borderline or benign tumor tissues. CTHRC1 expression was positively correlated with tumor size (p = 0.008), menopause (p = 0.037), clinical stage (p = 0.002) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) and was also an important prognostic factor for the overall survival of EOC patients, as revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. CTHRC1 increased the invasive capabilities of EOC cells in vitro by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We showed that ectopic transfection of CTHRC1 in EOC cells up-regulated the expression of EMT markers such as N-cadherin and vimentin, and EMT-associated transcriptional factor Snail. Knockdown of CTHRC1 expression in EOC cells resulted in down-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and translocation of β-catenin. Collectively, CTHRC1 may promote EOC metastasis through the induction of EMT process and serve as a potential biomarker for prognosis as well as a target for therapy. PMID:26452130

  12. Co-expression of CXCL8 and HIF-1α is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Peng; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Biskup, Ewelina; Zhou, Jiang; Li, Hong-Liang; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Ming-Liang; Xu, Feng

    2015-09-08

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), induces cytokines such as CXCL8 and tumor dissemination, chemo- and radio-resistance. We analyzed correlation between HIF-1α and CXCL8 levels, tumor characteristics and overall survival in 102 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 were increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Patients with high levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 had worse outcome and poorer prognosis than those with lower levels. Co-overexpression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 was an independent negative prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival. HIF-1α silencing and CXCL8 siRNA decreased migration under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Hypoxia-induced activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3 pathways was reversed by depletion of CXCL8. We conclude that HIF-1α and CXCL8 induce HCC progression and metastasis, associated with activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3. Co-expression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  13. Co-expression of CXCL8 and HIF-1α is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xian-Peng; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Biskup, Ewelina; Zhou, Jiang; Li, Hong-Liang; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Ming-Liang; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), induces cytokines such as CXCL8 and tumor dissemination, chemo- and radio-resistance. We analyzed correlation between HIF-1α and CXCL8 levels, tumor characteristics and overall survival in 102 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 were increased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Patients with high levels of HIF-1α and CXCL8 had worse outcome and poorer prognosis than those with lower levels. Co-overexpression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 was an independent negative prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival. HIF-1α silencing and CXCL8 siRNA decreased migration under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Hypoxia-induced activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3 pathways was reversed by depletion of CXCL8. We conclude that HIF-1α and CXCL8 induce HCC progression and metastasis, associated with activation of AKT/mTOR/STAT3. Co-expression of HIF-1α and CXCL8 is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:26078356

  14. Long non-coding RNA MVIH is associated with poor prognosis and malignant biological behavior in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Bo; Xu, Shou-Ping; Liang, Xiao-Shuan; Li, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Pang, Da

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, with the development of transcriptomics, the effect of long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) on the regulation of biological processes is being elucidated. LncRNAs play an important role in tumor occurrence and development. LncRNA associated with microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (LncRNA MVIH) was first identified in hepatocellular carcinoma and is associated with angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis upregulation, and poor recurrence-free survival. MVIH has an important role in non-small cell lung cancer, in which it promotes cell proliferation and metastasis, and high MVIH expression indicates poor overall survival. However, the involvement of MVIH in breast cancer is unclear. Our research revealed that the expression levels of MVIH in breast cancer tissues were higher than in adjacent noncancerous tissues, and high MVIH expression was correlated with Ki67 expression. Moreover, breast cancer patients with high MVIH expression levels showed poor overall survival and disease-free survival. Multivariate analysis results indicated that MVIH was an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. In addition, upregulated MVIH expression levels promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle, and inhibited cell apoptosis, while reduced MVIH expression showed the converse. In summary, our findings suggest that MVIH may have an important role in breast cancer and may serve as a new biomarker and a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking with tumor progression and poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Deyao; Lan, Linhua; Huang, Kate; Chen, Lin; Xu, Cuicui; Wang, Rongrong; Shi, Yang; Wu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yongzhang; Lu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all lung cancer cases. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor which is attributed to more than four out of five cases of lung cancers. The prognostic impact of cell cycle regulation-associated tumor suppressors including p53 and p21 for NSCLC is still controversial. In the present study, we examined p53 and p21 expression using immunoblotting in tumor and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from NSCLC patients. Moreover, tissue microarrays (TMAs) including 150 specimens was used to examine p53 and p21 expression by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The association between p53/p21 and various clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier overall survival was used to analyze the association between p53/p21 expression and prognosis of NSCLC patients, as well as the association of cigarette smoking with p53/p21 expression and prognosis. The results of the immunoblotting showed that expression of p53 and p21 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). The IHC results showed that 50.67% of the cases had high expression of p21; however, the percentage of patients having high expression of p53 was 31.3%. Univariate and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the factors related to prognosis with p53 and p21 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that p53 expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC (P=0.005), while p21 could not serve as an independent prognostic factor (P=0.123). In addition, smoking history was closely related to lung cancer risk (P=0.041), but could not be an independent assessment factor (P=0.740). In this study, we further demonstrated the association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking and overexpression of p53 or p21 are associated with poor prognosis. The combination of p53/p21 expression and

  16. A high LDL-C to HDL-C ratio predicts poor prognosis for initially metastatic colorectal cancer patients with elevations in LDL-C.

    PubMed

    Liao, Fangxin; He, Wenzhuo; Jiang, Chang; Yin, Chenxi; Guo, Guifang; Chen, Xuxian; Qiu, Huijuan; Rong, Yuming; Zhang, Bei; Xu, Dazhi; Xia, Liangping

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid disequilibrium has been documented for several types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC), it remains unknown whether lipid parameters are associated with the outcome of metastatic CRC (mCRC) patients. Here, we retrospectively examined the lipid profiles of 453 mCRC patients and investigated whether any of the lipid parameters correlated with the outcome of mCRC patients. Pretreatment serum lipids, including triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were collected in 453 initially mCRC patients. The LDL-C to HDL-C ratio (LHR) was calculated and divided into the first, second, and third tertiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of lipids on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Nearly two-fifths of the patients (41.3%) exhibited elevations in LDL-C while most patients (88.3%) showed normal HDL-C levels. Decreased HDL-C (P=0.542) and increased LDL-C (P=0.023) were prognostic factors for poor OS, while triglyceride (P=0.542) and cholesterol (P=0.215) were not. Multivariate analysis revealed that LDL-C (P=0.031) was an independent prognostic factor. Triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C did not correlate with PFS. Among patients with elevations in LDL-C levels, patients in the third tertile of the LHR had a markedly shorter median OS compared to those in the first or second tertile (P=0.012). Thus, increased LDL-C level is an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in mCRC patients, and a high LHR predicts poor prognosis for initially mCRC patients with elevations in LDL-C.

  17. HOXB7 overexpression promotes cell proliferation and correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients by inducing expression of both AKT and MARKs

    PubMed Central

    He, Xujun; Liu, Zhengchuang; Xia, Yingjie; Xu, Ji; Lv, Guocai; Wang, Lu; Ma, Tonghui; Jiang, Liping; Mou, Yiping; Jiang, Xiaoting; Ma, Jie; Zhao, Zhongkuo; Ni, Haibin; Xu, Wenjuan; Ru, Guoqing; Huang, Dongsheng; Tao, Houquan

    2017-01-01

    Increased expression of HOXB7 has been reported to correlate with the progression in many cancers. However, the specific mechanism by which it promotes the evolution of gastric cancer (GC) is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC by assessing HOXB7 expression in patient tissue and its correlation to clinical characteristics. We found that GC tissues showed increased expression of HOXB7 and that the HOXB7 expression was significantly associated with Lauren classification, invasion depth, lymphatic metastasis and poor prognosis, and could serve as an independent prognostic factor. To further investigate the role of HOXB7 in GC, we generated stable GC cell lines and both over-expressed and knocked down HOXB7 expression. Over-expression of HOXB7 in GC cell lines enhanced cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion ability, whereas the opposite trends were observed upon reduction of HOXB7 expression by knockdown. These findings were further supported by our in vivo studies which show that HOXB7 expression can affect the GC cells' subcutaneous growth and lung metastases. A Phospho-MAPK Array Kit was used to explore the possible mechanism of HOXB7-induced cell proliferation and invasion. We found that the AKT signaling pathway and the two members of the MAPK pathway, were involved in those promoting effects. In conclusion, our results showed that increased expression of HOXB7 might play an important role in promoting GC proliferation, migration and invasion by inducing both AKT and MAPK pathways, thus resulting in progression of, and poor prognosis in GC patients. PMID:27901487

  18. ULBP2 and RAET1E NKG2D ligands are independent predictors of poor prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    McGilvray, Roger W; Eagle, Robert A; Rolland, Phil; Jafferji, Insiya; Trowsdale, John; Durrant, Lindy G

    2010-09-01

    The human activating immune receptor, NKG2D, binds to a diverse array of cellular ligands of the MIC and unique long 16 (UL16)-binding protein (ULBP)/retinoic acid early transcript (RAET) family. NKG2D is thought to participate in anticancer immune responses. By using tissue microarrays representing over 300 patients with defined clinicopathological factors, we present the first comprehensive screen of the expression of all NKG2D ligands in primary ovarian cancers. NKG2D ligands were expressed by the majority of tumors; however, the level of expression varied considerably. By categorizing each tumor as having negative, low or high expression, it was shown that high expression of several NKG2D ligands is inversely correlated with disease survival. Patients whose tumors had high expression of RAET1E (p = 0.037), ULBP1 (p = 0.036) and ULBP3 (p = 0.004) surviving a median of 11, 14 and 11 months, respectively, compared with disease-specific survival of 29, 30 and 25 months in patients whose tumors showed no expression of these ligands. These results contrast with previous findings showing that high level NKG2D ligand expression is associated with good prognosis in colorectal cancer and suggest a fundamental difference in the involvement of NKG2D-mediated immunity in these two types of cancer. By using multivariate analysis, the factors retaining independent prognostic significance were International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians stage (p < 0.001), presence of residual disease (p = 0.003), ULBP2 (p = 0.042) and RAET1E (p = 0.030).

  19. Down-regulation of miR-503 expression predicate advanced mythological features and poor prognosis in patients with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Qu, Weiqing; Zhong, Zhaokun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore what impact miR-503 has on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Cancer and matched non-malignant lung tissue specimens were collected from 109 patients who underwent surgery in Tanisha Hospital from Jun 2006 to July 2013. Overall survival (OS) curves were analyzed using the Lapland-Meier method, and the differences were examined using log-rank tests. Cox proportional- hazards regression analysis was applied in order to estimate univariate and multivariate hazard ratios for OS. Results: The relative expression of miR-503 in NSCLC tissues (0.366 ± 0.130) was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous lung tissues (1.667 ± 1.047, P < 0.01). Statistically significant association was observed between miR-503 expression and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.005), distant metastasis (P = 0.002), TNM stage (P = 0.008), and tumor grade (P = 0.043). Lapland Meier analysis clearly illustrated that the patients with the lower expression of miR-503 had a worse outcome compared to patients with higher miR-503 expression (P = 0.004). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that miR-503 expression level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.992, 95% CI: 2.276-9.872; P = 0.018) in NSCLC. Conclusion: In patients with NSCLC, low miR-503 expression is an independent prognostic factor. PMID:26191272

  20. High expression of long noncoding RNA HULC is a poor predictor of prognosis and regulates cell proliferation in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Min; Wu, Jing; Ding, Min; He, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Emerging studies show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important roles in carcinogenesis. This study investigated the role of lncRNA highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC) expression in glioma and its clinical significance in glioma patients. Materials and methods HULC expression was detected in glioma tissues and cell lines by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. Association between HULC levels and clinicopathological factors and patients prognosis was also analyzed. Expression of HULC was restored and knocked down in glioma cell line U87 by using HULC cDNA and siRNA, respectively. CCK-8 and colony formation assays were used to investigate the role of HULC in the regulation of proliferation of glioma cells. Results HULC was highly expressed in glioma tissues, being closely related to age and grade of glioma. Univariate survival analysis demonstrated that high HULC levels were significantly associated with overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.422; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.220–0.806; P=0.009), and it remained an independent predictor for OS (HR, 0.340; 95% CI, 0.175–0.659; P=0.001) in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Functionally, forced expression of HULC results in increased cell proliferation and colony formation of U87 glioma cell line, whereas knockdown of HULC expression reduced these oncogenic properties of glioma cells. Conclusion These findings suggest that HULC may play an important role in glioma progression and will be further evaluated as a biomarker for predicting the survival of glioma patients. PMID:28053545

  1. High expression level and nuclear localization of Sam68 are associated with progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68; 68 kDa) has been implicated in the oncogenesis and progression of several human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic significance of Sam68 expression and its subcellular localization in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Sam68 expression was examined in CRC cell lines, nine matched CRC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Sam68 protein expression and localization were determined in 224 paraffin-embedded archived CRC samples using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the clinicopathologic significance. Results Sam68 was upregulated in CRC cell lines and CRC, as compared with normal tissues; high Sam68 expression was detected in 120/224 (53.6%) of the CRC tissues. High Sam68 expression correlated significantly with poor differentiation (P = 0.033), advanced T stage (P < 0.001), N stage (P = 0.023) and distant metastasis (P = 0.033). Sam68 nuclear localization correlated significantly with poor differentiation (P = 0.002) and T stage (P =0.021). Patients with high Sam68 expression or Sam68 nuclear localization had poorer overall survival than patients with low Sam68 expression or Sam68 cytoplasmic localization. Patients with high Sam68 expression had a higher risk of recurrence than those with low Sam68 expression. Conclusions Overexpression of Sam68 correlated highly with cancer progression and poor differentiation in CRC. High Sam68 expression and Sam68 nuclear localization were associated with poorer overall survival. PMID:23937454

  2. c-Myc and Her2 cooperate to drive a stem-like phenotype with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nair, R; Roden, D L; Teo, W S; McFarland, A; Junankar, S; Ye, S; Nguyen, A; Yang, J; Nikolic, I; Hui, M; Morey, A; Shah, J; Pfefferle, A D; Usary, J; Selinger, C; Baker, L A; Armstrong, N; Cowley, M J; Naylor, M J; Ormandy, C J; Lakhani, S R; Herschkowitz, J I; Perou, C M; Kaplan, W; O'Toole, S A; Swarbrick, A

    2014-07-24

    The HER2 (ERBB2) and MYC genes are commonly amplified in breast cancer, yet little is known about their molecular and clinical interaction. Using a novel chimeric mammary transgenic approach and in vitro models, we demonstrate markedly increased self-renewal and tumour-propagating capability of cells transformed with Her2 and c-Myc. Coexpression of both oncoproteins in cultured cells led to the activation of a c-Myc transcriptional signature and acquisition of a self-renewing phenotype independent of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition programme or regulation of conventional cancer stem cell markers. Instead, Her2 and c-Myc cooperated to induce the expression of lipoprotein lipase, which was required for proliferation and self-renewal in vitro. HER2 and MYC were frequently coamplified in breast cancer, associated with aggressive clinical behaviour and poor outcome. Lastly, we show that in HER2(+) breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (but not targeted anti-Her2 therapy), MYC amplification is associated with a poor outcome. These findings demonstrate the importance of molecular and cellular context in oncogenic transformation and acquisition of a malignant stem-like phenotype and have diagnostic and therapeutic consequences for the clinical management of HER2(+) breast cancer.

  3. Wntless (GPR177) expression correlates with poor prognosis in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia via Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Wang, Li-Ting; Huang, Shih-Bo; Chai, Chee-Yin; Wang, Shen-Nien; Liao, Yu-Mei; Lin, Pei-Chin; Liu, Kwei-Yan; Hsu, Shih-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) is the most common childhood leukemia, with a cure rate of 80%. Nevertheless, disease relapse is the most important prognostic factor for the disease outcome. We aimed to elucidate the role of Wnt secretion-regulating protein, Wntless (Wls)/GPR177, on disease outcome in pediatric patients with BCP ALL, and assess its pathogenetic role in the regulation of the disease. Wls expression was characterized and correlated with Wnt pathway signaling in the bone marrow leukemia cells isolated from 44 pediatric patients with BCP ALL. The overexpression of Wls was detected in leukemia cells and was significantly correlated with the disease relapse and poor survival in the patients. The high expression of Wls also correlated with the Wnt expression and consequent downstream signaling activation, which was shown to provide essential proliferation, transformation and anti-apoptotic activity during leukemogenesis. These results indicated that Wls played an essential role in disease relapse and poor survival in patients with BCP ALL. Therefore, Wls may provide a potential future therapeutic target, particularly for patients who do not respond to existing therapies and suffer relapse.

  4. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-05-10

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC.

  5. Validation of Methotrexate-First Strategy in Patients with Early, Poor-Prognosis Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From a Two-Year Randomized, Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    O'Dell, James R.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Mikuls, Ted R.; Cofield, Stacey S.; Bridges, S. Louis; Ranganath, Veena K.; Moreland, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective Methotrexate (MTX) taken as monotherapy is recommended as the initial disease-modifying antirheumatic drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes of a blinded trial of initial MTX monotherapy with the option to step-up to combination therapy as compared to immediate combination therapy in patients with early, poor-prognosis RA. Methods In the Treatment of Early Rheumatoid Arthritis (TEAR) trial, 755 participants with early, poor-prognosis RA were randomized to receive MTX monotherapy or combination therapy (MTX + etanercept or MTX + sulfasalazine + hydroxychloroquine). Participants randomized to receive MTX monotherapy stepped up to combination therapy at 24 weeks if the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR) was ≥ 3.2. Results Attrition at 24 weeks was similar in the MTX monotherapy and combination groups. Of the 370 evaluable participants in the initial MTX group, 28% achieved low levels of disease activity and did not step-up to combination therapy (MTX monotherapy group). The mean ± SD DAS28-ESR in participants continuing to take MTX monotherapy at week 102 was 2.7 ± 1.2, which is similar to that in participants who were randomized to immediate combination therapy (2.9 ± 1.2). Participants who received MTX monotherapy had less radiographic progression at week 102 as compared to those who received immediate combination therapy (mean ± SD change in modified Sharp score 0.2 ± 1.1 versus 1.1 ± 6.4. Participants assigned to initial MTX who required step-up to combination therapy at 24 weeks (72%) demonstrated similar DAS28-ESR values (3.5 ± 1.3 vs 3.2 ± 1.3 at week 48) and radiographic progression (change in modified Sharp score 1.2 ± 4.1 vs 1.1 ± 6.4 at week 102) as those assigned to immediate combination therapy. The results for either of the immediate combination approaches, whether triple therapy or MTX + etanercept, were similar. Conclusion These

  6. SET and MYND Domain-Containing Protein 3 (SMYD3) Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Susceptibility and Poor Prognosis in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Xu, Hui; Gao, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Shu-Xiang; Zhou, Xu-Hong; Tang, Juan; Liu, Qiong-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship of the polymorphisms of SET and MYND domain-containing protein 3 (SMYD3) with risk and prognosis of ovarian cancer. Material/Methods The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification method was applied to detect the polymorphisms of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the SMYD3 gene promoter region for 156 patients with ovarian cancer (case group) and 174 healthy people (control group). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were applied to detect SMYD3 mRNA and protein expressions. Results The frequencies of VNTR genotype 3/3 and allele genotype 3 in the case group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the frequency of genotype 2/2 in the control group was significantly higher than that in case group (all P<0.05). The proportion of poorly differentiated patients carrying VNTR genotype 3/3 was significantly higher than the proportion of poorly differentiated patients carrying VNTR genotype 2/2+2/3, while the proportion of patients carrying genotype 3/3 with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III–IV disease was significantly higher than the proportion of patients carrying genotype 2/2 +2/3 with FIGO stage III–IV disease (all P<0.05). SMYD3 mRNA and protein expressions were higher in the patients carrying genotype 3/3 than they were in the patients with the 2/2+2/3 genotype (all P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate for patients carrying VNTR genotype 3/3 was significantly lower than that of patients carrying genotype 2/2+2/3, and Cox regression analysis showed that VNTR genotype 3/3 was an independent risk factor for ovarian cancer prognosis (all P<0.05). Conclusions VNTR genotype 3/3 of the SMYD3 gene was associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. The polymorphism of VNTR genotype could be recognized as an indicator for the poor prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:28024138

  7. CXCL10/CXCR3 overexpression as a biomarker of poor prognosis in patients with stage II colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming; Chen, Xia; Ba, Y I

    2016-01-01

    The CXCL10/CXCR3 axis of inflammatory mediators is one of the most important groups of chemokine axes, which has been proven to be a lymphocyte-associated metastasis mediator in several tumors. The term inflammatory adhesions refers to tumors found to be attached to the surrouding tissues during surgery, although no cancer cell infiltration is later identified on pathological examination. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and determine the correlation between the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, inflammatory adhesions and prognosis. Clinicohistopathological data were collected from 401 CRC patients who had undergone R0 resection. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0 software. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to measure the expression of CXCL10 and CXCR3 in 71 recurrent CRC patients, 72 non-recurrent CRC patients and 10 samples from normal peritumoral tissues, all retrieved from the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China. Inflammatory adhesions, tumor location and size and the number of high-risk factors for reccurrence were more significantly associated with overall survival (OS) rather than disease-free survival in all the patients as determined by the log-rank and Cox's regression hazard analysis. Further analysis demonstrated that only the presence of inflammatory adhesions (P=0.025) was associated with the OS of recurrent patients. Patients with recurrence exhibited higher CXCR3 (P<0.001) and CXCL10 (P<0.001) expression compared with non-recurrent patients, as determined by IHC. The correlation between clinicopathological variables, CXCL10/CXCR3 expression and survival was also analyzed: Inflammatory adhesions and general tumor type (ulcerated vs. elevated) exhibited a significant correlation with CXCR3; however, the expression of CXCL10 was not significantly correlated with tumor location, histological type, size, gender, or preoperative

  8. Upregulated long non-coding RNA LINC00152 expression is associated with progression and poor prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianjun; Liu, Yan; Guo, Can; Zhang, Shanshan; Gong, Zhaojian; Tang, Yanyan; Yang, Liting; He, Yi; Lian, Yu; Li, Xiayu; Deng, Hao; Liao, Qianjin; Li, Xiaoling; Li, Yong; Li, Guiyuan; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Xiong, Wei; Yang, Xinming

    2017-01-01

    Altered expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with human carcinogenesis and might be used as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. However, the expression of lncRNAs in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and their relevance on the diagnosis, progression and prognosis of TSCC have not been thoroughly elucidated. To discover novel TSCC-related lncRNAs, we analyzed the lncRNA expression patterns in two sets of previously published TSCC gene expression profile data (GSE30784 and GSE9844), and found that long intergenic non-coding RNA 152 (LINC00152) was significantly upregulated in TSCC samples. We then detected LINC00152 expression in two other cohorts of TSCC samples. Quantitative Real time PCR (qRT-PCR) results indicated that LINC00152 was highly expressed in 15 primary TSCC biopsies when compared with 14 adjacent non-tumor tongue squamous cell epithelium samples. The expression of LINC00152 was also measured in 182 paraffin-embedded human TSCC tissues by in situ hybridization, increased expression of LINC00152 was significantly correlated with TSCC progression, such as T stage (p = 0.009), N stage (p = 0.036), TNM stage (p = 0.017), and associated with relapse (p < 0.001), and invasion (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that increased LINC00152 expression contributed to both poor overall survival (p = 0.006) and disease-free survival (p = 0.007) of TSCC patients. These findings suggest that LINC00152 might serve as a potential biomarker for early detection and prognosis prediction of TSCC. PMID:28367232

  9. FXYD5 is a Marker for Poor Prognosis and a Potential Driver for Metastasis in Ovarian Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Pichai; Purwin, Timothy; Pestell, Richard; Tozeren, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality, but aside from a few well-studied mutations, very little is known about its underlying causes. As such, we performed survival analysis on ovarian copy number amplifications and gene expression datasets presented by The Cancer Genome Atlas in order to identify potential drivers and markers of aggressive OC. Additionally, two independent datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus web platform were used to validate the identified markers. Based on our analysis, we identified FXYD5, a glycoprotein known to reduce cell adhesion, as a potential driver of metastasis and a significant predictor of mortality in OC. As a marker of poor outcome, the protein has effective antibodies against it for use in tissue arrays. FXYD5 bridges together a wide variety of cancers, including ovarian, breast cancer stage II, thyroid, colorectal, pancreatic, and head and neck cancers for metastasis studies. PMID:26494976

  10. Poor prognosis of ovarian cancer with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: case report and review of published works.

    PubMed

    Asada, Kayo; Kawana, Kei; Teshima, Shinichi; Saito, Ako; Kawabata, Masakiyo; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2014-03-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is well-reported to result in unfavorable prognoses in many organ cancers while being rarely reported in gynecologic cancer, especially ovarian and endometrial cancers. Here we report a case of ovarian cancer with LCNEC which spread to distant organs within 1 year of primary surgery despite the fact that the post-surgical stage was Ia. The case received platinum-based chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy after her curative surgery. However, LCNEC in the case was resistant to the chemotherapy. In our review of published works, ovarian cancer cases with LCNEC show poor prognoses regardless of adjuvant chemotherapy following complete resection. Median overall survival was 10 months in stage I cases. Development of chemotherapy sensitive for LCNEC is needed.

  11. Biomarkers in Tumor Microenvironment? Upregulation of Fibroblast Activation Protein-α Correlates with Gastric Cancer Progression and Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mengmou; Qian, Chengjia; Hu, Ziwei; Fei, Bojian; Zhou, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Recent evidence points to importance of cross talk between cancer cells and the surrounding stroma on gastric cancer progression. Tumor microenvironment biomarkers thus represent a new opportunity for diagnostics innovation. Reactive stromal fibroblasts selectively express the fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP-α), a homodimeric integral membrane gelatinase that belongs to the serine protease family. We report here that FAP-α expression is significantly elevated in gastric cancer samples by more than fivefold (p < 0.05), using transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Notably, the greatest FAP-α upregulation was observed in the poorly differentiated group (p < 0.001). Moreover, elevated FAP-α expression levels correlated with adverse clinical-pathological characteristics, such as diffuse histological subtype (p < 0.001), advanced pathological stage (p < 0.01) and poor survival. Functional annotation analysis demonstrated that FAP-α upregulation was associated with activation of biological processes implicated in tumor progression, including cell migration and angiogenesis pathways. These observations underscore the possible prognostic significance of FAP-α in gastric cancer and its potential as a novel biomarker for personalized medicine. We caution, however, that further multiomics, biochemical, and animal studies are necessary to ascertain the role of FAP-α as a causative and mechanistic biomarker. Based on pathway analyses, we hypothesize that gastric cancer patients exhibiting FAP-α upregulation might presumably benefit from antiangiogenic drugs in addition to standard therapeutic regimens. We call for future research focusing on the tumor microenvironment biomarkers in clinical oncology.

  12. Association between Tumor Vasculogenic Mimicry and the Poor Prognosis of Gastric Cancer in China: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiujun; Yuan, Yuan; Jin, Zhichao; Xu, Tao; Gao, Yebo; Wei, Huamin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Hua, Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vasculogenic mimicry can promote tumor growth and metastasis. This article is aimed at conducting a systematic meta-analysis to explore the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of vasculogenic mimicry and gastric cancer. Methods. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the VIP and Wanfang Database for eligible studies. We manually searched for printed journals and relevant textbooks. Subgroups analyses were performed based on the region, manuscript quality, methods of vasculogenic mimicry identification, pathology, and number of patients. Results. Nine studies with 997 patients were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between vasculogenic mimicry-positive patients and those with gastric cancer with poor overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.47), poor pathological grading, high tumor node metastasis clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, deep tumor invasion, and distant metastasis. Conclusions. Vasculogenic mimicry is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer in China. Clinical studies with large samples are needed worldwide and standardized protocols should be adopted in the future to achieve a better understanding of the relationship between gastric cancer and vasculogenic mimicry.

  13. High Infiltration of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Influences Poor Prognosis in Human Gastric Cancer Patients, Associates With the Phenomenon of EMT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Yan, Yan; Yang, Ya; Wang, Li; Li, Min; Wang, Jizhao; Liu, Xu; Duan, Xiaoyi; Wang, Jiansheng

    2016-02-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are associated with poor prognosis in numerous human cancers and play important roles in tumor progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to invasion and metastasis in cancer. However, the associations between TAMs and EMT are not clear in gastric cancer (GC). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of TAMs on EMT in human GC.TAMs marker CD68 and EMT-related proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human GC tissues and their clinical significance were evaluated.A high level of infiltration of TAMs was associated with aggressive characteristics of tumor and an independent poor prognostic factor in human GC tissues. Infiltration of TAMs was also associated with EMT-related proteins in human GC tissues.Our findings suggest that the high level of infiltration TAMs was associated with aggressive features of GC and is an independent poor prognostic factor in GC patients. TAMs are associated with EMT induction in human GC tissues. The level of TAMs infiltration may be used as a prognostic factor and even a therapeutic target in GC.

  14. Long non-coding RNA MVIH indicates a poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer and promotes cell proliferation and invasion.

    PubMed

    Nie, Feng-Qi; Zhu, Quan; Xu, Tong-Peng; Zou, Yan-Fen; Xie, Min; Sun, Ming; Xia, Rui; Lu, Kai-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as major players in governing fundamental biological processes, and many of which are misregulated in multiple cancers and likely to play a functional role in tumorigenesis. Therefore, identification of cancer-associated lncRNAs and investigation of their biological functions and molecular mechanisms are important for understanding the development and progression of cancer. lncRNA associated with microvascular invasion in HCC (lncRNA MVIH) was found to be generally upregulated in HCC. Moreover, MVIH overexpression could serve as an independent risk factor to predict poor RFS and promote tumor growth and metastasis via activating angiogenesis. However, its biological role and clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development and progression is unknown. In this study, we found that lncRNA MVIH levels were increased in NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Its expression level was significantly correlated with TNM stages, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, patients with high levels of MVIH expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Furthermore, knockdown of MVIH expression by siRNA could inhibit cell proliferation and invasion, while ectopic expression of MVIH promoted cell proliferation and invasion in NSCLC cells partly via regulating MMP2 and MMP9 protein expression. Our findings present that increased lncRNA MVIH could be identified as a poor prognostic biomarker in NSCLC and regulate cell proliferation and invasion.

  15. The combination of PD-L1 expression and decreased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with a poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hitomi; Kubo, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Rin; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Arima, Nobuyuki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Okido, Masayuki; Yamada, Mai; Kai, Masaya; Kishimoto, Junji; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2017-01-17

    This study included patients with primary triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who underwent resection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2014. Among the 248 TNBCs studied, programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression was detected in 103 (41.5%) tumors, and high levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were present in 118 (47.6%) tumors. PD-L1 expression correlated with high levels of TILs, but was not a prognostic factor. Patients with TILs-high tumors had better overall survival than those with TILs-low tumors (P = 0.016). There was a strong interaction between PD-L1 expression and TILs that was associated with both recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0018) and overall survival (P = 0.015). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that PD-L1-positive/TILs-low was an independent negative prognostic factor for both recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Our findings suggest that PD-L1-positive/TILs-low tumors are associated with a poor prognosis in patients with TNBC, and that it is important to focus on the combination of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs present in the tumor microenvironment. These biomarkers may be useful for stratification of TNBCs and for predicting prognosis and developing novel cancer immunotherapies.

  16. Low EphA7 Expression Correlated with Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu-Qin; Zhang, Jun-Yi; Bai, Chun-Ying; Xu, Xiu-E; Wu, Jian-Yi; Chen, Bo; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Shao-Hong; Shen, Jian; Shen, Jin-Hui; Yao, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Lian-Zhu; Wu, Bao; Gu, Hong-Li; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Xin; Li, En-Min; Xu, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases, EphA7 plays an important role in cancer. However, the expression and significance of Eph receptors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unclear. Here, we detected the expression of EphA7 by immunohistochemistry in a sample of 352 patients with ESCC, and aimed to investigate the expression status of EphA7 in ESCC and its impact on prognosis. The results showed that low EphA7 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastases (N0: 29%; N1: 64%. p<0.001), poor degree of tumor differentiation (G1: 31%; G2: 49%; G3: 58%. p=0.009) and pTNM staging (I+II: 33%; III+IV: 58%. p<0.001). Furthermore, in a combined analysis, patients with low EphA7-expressing tumors showed a shorter overall survival than those with high expression, resulting in a five-year overall survival rate of 47.4% vs. 52.6%, respectively (p=0.016). Consequently, patients with a low EphA7 expression have poorer prognosis in ESCC compared with those manifesting high expression. PMID:26160986

  17. TACC3 overexpression in cholangiocarcinoma correlates with poor prognosis and is a potential anti-cancer molecular drug target for HDAC inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-ming; Schemmer, Peter; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yan; Qian, Ya-wei; Qi, Wei-peng; Zhang, Jian; Shen, Qi; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been implicated in multiple malignant tumors, and HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs) exert anti-cancer effects. However, the expression of HDACs and the anti-tumor mechanism of HDACIs in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we found that expression of HDACs 2, 3, and 8 were up-regulated in CCA tissues and those patients with high expression of HDAC2 and/or HDAC3 had a worse prognosis. In CCA cells, two HDACIs, trichostatin (TSA) and vorinostat (SAHA), suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis and G2/M cycle arrest. Microarray analysis revealed that TACC3 mRNA was down-regulated in CCA cells treated with TSA. TACC3 was highly expressed in CCA tissues and predicted a poor prognosis in CCA patients. TACC3 knockdown induced G2/M cycle arrest and suppressed the invasion, metastasis, and proliferation of CCA cells, both in vitro and in vivo. TACC3 overexpression reversed the effects of its knockdown. These findings suggest TACC3 may be a useful prognostic biomarker for CCA and is a potential therapeutic target for HDACIs. PMID:27705912

  18. Overexpression of cannabinoid receptor 1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is correlated with metastasis to lymph nodes and distant organs, and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Hijiya, Naoki; Shibata, Tomotaka; Daa, Tsutomu; Hamanaka, Ryoji; Uchida, Tomohisa; Matsuura, Keiko; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nakada, Chisato; Iha, Hidekatsu; Inomata, Masafumi; Moriyama, Masatsugu

    2017-02-01

    In patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the status of metastasis to lymph nodes is strongly associated with prognosis. Consequently, development of a biomarker to detect the presence of metastasis would be clinically valuable. In this study, we found that overexpression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) was applicable as a marker for prediction of metastasis in ESCC. CB1R overexpression was detected immunohistochemically in 54 of 88 cases (61.4%). The intensity of CB1R expression was uniform in both intraepithelial and invasive regions in each case, and was significantly correlated with the status of metastasis to lymph nodes (P = 0.046) and distant organs (P = 0.047). Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that CB1R overexpression was independently associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.019). Biological analysis of CB1R overexpression using ESCC cell lines revealed that CB1R activation appeared to promote cell proliferation and invasion. On the basis of these findings, we propose that evaluation of CB1R expression status in biopsy specimens of ESCC using immunohistochemistry might be clinically useful for prediction of metastasis to lymph nodes and distant organs.

  19. Long non-coding RNA ANRIL indicates a poor prognosis of cervical cancer and promotes carcinogenesis via PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongli; Sun, Guixia; Zhang, Hongxia; Tian, Jun; Li, Yanyun

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are playing critical roles in tumorgenesis. LncRNA ANRIL has been reported to promote tumor progression in types of cancers. However, the expression and function of ANRIL in cervical cancer are still largely unclear. We measured the expression of ANRIL in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines and analyzed its association with clinicopathological features and prognosis. Loss-of-function experiments were used to identify the biological function of ANRIL. Our results showed that the expression of lncRNA ANRIL was significantly increased both in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines. Patients with high ANRIL expression had advanced FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis and poor overall survival than those with low ANRIL expression. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis suggested that high ANRIL expression was an independent prognostic factor of prognosis. Loss-of-function experiments showed that decreased expression of ANRIL inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer. Finally, western blot indicated that the PI3K/Akt pathway was found to be inactivated in cervical cancer cells after ANRIL inhibition. These results indicated that lncRNA ANRIL might play an important role in cervical cancer progression and could serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in cervical cancer.

  20. Decreased FOXF2 mRNA expression indicates early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for breast cancer patients with histological grade II tumor.

    PubMed

    Kong, Peng-Zhou; Yang, Fan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiao-Qing; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor, FOXF2, plays an important role in tissue development, extracellular matrix synthesis, and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, implying that it may be associated with the metastatic capabilities of cancer cells. However, the relationship between FOXF2 expression and breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis, remains to be elucidated. In this study, FOXF2 mRNA levels in 305 primary breast cancer tissues were examined using RT-QPCR. Results showed that FOXF2 mRNA levels in primary breast cancer were negatively associated with tumor progression, including tumor size, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and clinical stage. Patients with low FOXF2 mRNA levels had a high risk of relapse and metastasis within three years. Low FOXF2 mRNA levels could predict shorter disease-free survival for those patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer. Taken together, we conclude that decreased FOXF2 expression indicates the early-onset metastasis and poor prognosis for patients with histological grade II and triple-negative breast cancer.

  1. Over-Expressed Twist Associates with Markers of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancers via ERK and Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuan-Ke; Chen, Wei-Ling; Zhang, Fan; Bai, Jing-Wen; Qiu, Si-Qi; Du, Cai-Wen; Huang, Wen-He; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of Twist, a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and predicts poor prognosis in various kinds of cancers, including breast cancer. In order to further clarify Twist’s role in breast cancer, we detected Twist expression in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Twist expression was observed in 54% (220/408) of breast cancer patients and was positively associated with tumor size, Ki67, VEGF-C and HER2 expression. Conversely, Twist was negatively associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and E-cadherin expression. Patients with Twist expression had a poorer prognosis for 30-month disease free survival (DFS) (82.9%) than patients with negative Twist (92.3%). Overexpression of Twist led to dramatic changes in cellular morphology, proliferation, migratory/invasive capability, and expression of EMT-related biomarkers in breast cancer cells. Moreover, we show that Twist serves as a driver of tumorigenesis, as well as an inducer of EMT, at least in part, through activation of the Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways which are critical for Twist-mediated EMT. Our results demonstrate that Twist expression is an important prognostic factor in breast cancer patients. PMID:26295469

  2. Rac1 overexpression is correlated with epithelial mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujuan; Liao, Qianjin; Han, Yaqian; Chen, Jie; Liu, Zhigang; Ling, Hang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Wenjuan; Oyang, Linda; Xia, Longzheng; Wang, Li; Wang, Heran; Xue, Lei; Wang, Hui; Hu, Bingqiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate1(Rac1) and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) are key therapeutic targets in cancer. We investigated the clinical significance of Rac1 and markers of EMT expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and their possible correlation with EMT phenotype. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of Rac1, Snail1, Twist1, N-cadherin (N-cad), Vimentin (Vim), and E-cadherin (E-cad) in 153 NSCLC paraffin-embedded specimens and 45 normal specimens adjacent to tumors. The correlation of Rac1 and EMT markers with clinicopathological characteristics and the relationship between the protein levels and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results: Compared with non-tumor tissues, the NSCLC tissues showed marked elevation in the levels of Rac1, Snail1, Twist1, N-cad, and Vim levels, whereas the E-cad levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The aberrant expression of Rac1 and EMT markers was significantly associated with TNM stage and metastasis (P < 0.05). Increased expression of Rac1 may be associated with poor OS and PFS compared with low expression (P<0.001 and P=0.004). Significant correlations were observed between the EMT markers expressed and OS or PFS(P<0.01). In addition, multivariate analysis indicated that the expression of Rac1, Snail1, Twist1, N-cad, Vim, and E-cad was an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC. Interestingly, Rac1 expression was positively correlated with Snail1, Twist1, N-cad, and Vim levels (r=0.563, r=0.440, r=0.247 r=0.536, P<0.01, respectively) and negatively correlated with E-cad levels (r=-0.464, P<0.001) in NSCLC tissues. Rac1, Twist, Snail1, Vim and N-cad were highly expressed in lung cancer patients resistant to radiotherapy, while E-cad was poorly expressed. Conclusion: Rac1 may promote NSCLC progression and metastasis via EMT, which may be considered as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27877226

  3. Novel X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis inhibiting compound as sensitizer for TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Lukas P; Patz, Michaela; Pallasch, Christian P; Brinker, Reinhild; Claasen, Julia; Schulz, Alexandra; Hallek, Michael; Kashkar, Hamid; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Given that aggressive DNA damaging chemotherapy shows suboptimal efficacy in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is able to induce tumour-specific apoptosis. However, apoptosis might be inhibited by elevated levels of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Use of XIAP-inhibiting compounds might sensitize primary CLL cells towards TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. A novel small molecule, compound A (CA), an inhibitor of XIAP, was used in combination with TRAIL to induce apoptosis in primary CLL cells (n = 48). XIAP was significantly more highly expressed in primary CLL cells (n = 28) compared to healthy B cells (n = 16) (P = 0·02). Our data obtained by specific knock-down of XIAP by siRNA identified XIAP as the key factor conferring resistance to TRAIL in CLL. Combined treatment with CA/TRAIL significantly increased apoptosis compared to untreated (P = 8·5 × 10⁻¹⁰), solely CA (P = 4·1 × 10⁻¹²) or TRAIL treated (P = 4·8 × 10⁻¹⁰) CLL cells. CA rendered 40 of 48 (83·3%) primary CLL samples susceptible to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. In particular, cells derived from patients with poor prognosis CLL (ZAP-70(+) , IGHV unmutated, 17p-) were highly responsive to this drug combination. Our highly-effective XIAP inhibitor CA, in concert with TRAIL, shows potential for the treatment of CLL cases with poor prognosis and therefore warrants further clinical investigation.

  4. Copy number gain of PIK3CA and MET is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brauswetter, Diána; Dános, Kornél; Gurbi, Bianka; Félegyházi, Éva Fruzsina; Birtalan, Ede; Meggyesházi, Nóra; Krenács, Tibor; Tamás, László; Peták, István

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas is still growing, and the long-term prognosis of advanced disease remains poor. Only a fraction of head and neck cancers are sensitive to the EGFR-inhibitor cetuximab, which is the only registered targeted therapy available today. In several cancers, gene copy number alterations of MET and PIK3CA have been found to be prognostic and predictive for therapy response. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze in head and neck cancers the pathological characteristics and prognostic significance of copy number changes of MET and PIK3CA genes. MET and PIK3CA copy numbers were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tumor samples of 152 patients. Expression of EGFR, p16, and Ki67 was studied by immunohistochemistry. High polysomy of PIK3CA (chromosome 3) was found in 20 % of cases and amplification in 4.5 %. Regarding MET, 35 % of cases showed low or high polysomy of the gene (chromosome 7), while no intra-chromosomal amplification of MET was detected. PIK3CA copy number gain (high polysomy or amplification) was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival, larger tumor volume, and lower p16 expression. MET copy number gain (low or high polysomy) in tumors was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival and lower level of EGFR. PIK3CA and MET may play an important role in oncogenesis of certain specific subtypes of head and neck cancer. There is an urgent need for the development of novel targeted therapies against these tumors associated with poor prognosis.

  5. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Zhou, Dong-Xun; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zou, Da-Jin

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear {beta}-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  6. Maintenance of remission following 2 years of standard treatment then dose reduction with abatacept in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Westhovens, Rene; Robles, Manuel; Ximenes, Antonio Carlos; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Durez, Patrick; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Grassi, Walter; Haraoui, Boulos; Shergy, William; Park, Sung-Hwan; Genant, Harry; Peterfy, Charles; Becker, Jean-Claude; Murthy, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate maintenance of response while reducing intravenous abatacept dose from ∼10 mg/kg to ∼5 mg/kg in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who achieved disease activity score (DAS)28 (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ESR) <2.6. Methods This 1-year, multinational, randomised, double-blind substudy evaluated the efficacy and safety of ∼10 mg/kg and ∼5 mg/kg abatacept in patients with early RA with poor prognosis who had reached DAS28 (ESR) <2.6 at year 2 of the AGREE study. The primary outcome was time to disease relapse (defined as additional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, ≥2 courses high-dose steroids, return to open-label abatacept ∼10 mg/kg, or DAS28 (C reactive protein) ≥3.2 at two consecutive visits). Results 108 patients were randomised (∼10 mg/kg, n=58; ∼5 mg/kg, n=50). Three and five patients, respectively, discontinued, and four per group returned to open-label abatacept. Relapse over time and the proportion of patients relapsing were similar in both groups (31% (∼10 mg/kg) vs 34% (∼5 mg/kg); HR: 0.87 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.69)). Mean steady-state trough serum concentration for the ∼10 mg/kg group was 20.3–24.1 µg/mL, compared with 8.8–12.0 µg/mL for the ∼5 mg/kg group. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that abatacept dose reduction may be an option in patients with poor prognosis early RA who achieve DAS28 (ESR) <2.6 after ≥1 year on abatacept (∼10 mg/kg). Trial registration number NCT00989235. PMID:25550337

  7. Conventional allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma may overcome the poor prognosis associated with a positive FDG-PET scan before transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Akihide; Izutsu, Koji; Takahashi, Miwako; Kako, Shinichi; Oshima, Kumi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Momose, Toshimitsu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-06-01

    A positive scan in pretransplantation fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been shown to be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with lymphoma undergoing high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). For those with a positive FDG-PET scan, treatment that includes allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) may be an alternative. However, it is uncertain whether allo-SCT can overcome a poor prognosis. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of 14 patients with lymphoma who had undergone FDG-PET scan within one month before allo-SCT at our institution. Eleven patients were FDG-PET-positive and three were negative. With a median follow-up of 17 months (range: 6-44) after allo-SCT, the cumulative incidence of progression was 29.3% in FDG-PET-positive patients and 0% in the FDG-PET-negative patients. Four of the 11 patients who had post-transplantation FDG-PET showed FDG-avid lesions on the first post-transplantation scan. In two of the four, regression of the lesions was observed during the scheduled reduction of immunosuppressant without donor lymphocyte infusion and remained without progression at the last follow-up (34 and 8 months). Durable responses after allo-SCT, at least with conventional conditioning regimens, can be expected in patients with FDG-PET-positive lesions before transplantation. Thus, conventional allo-SCT could be an attractive modality compared to ASCT for patients with positive FDG-PET after the completion of conventional salvage chemotherapy, and particularly for patients with T and NK-cell lymphomas.

  8. Absent and abundant MET immunoreactivity is associated with poor prognosis of patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    De Herdt, Maria J.; Willems, Stefan M.; van der Steen, Berdine; Noorlag, Rob; Verhoef, Esther I.; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.; van Es, Robert J.J.; Koljenović, Senada; de Jong, Robert J. Baatenburg; Looijenga, Leendert H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) MET is widely expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), its prognostic value remains unclear. This might be due to the use of a variety of antibodies and scoring systems. Here, the reliability of five commercial C-terminal MET antibodies (D1C2, CVD13, SP44, C-12 and C-28) was evaluated before examining the prognostic value of MET immunoreactivity in HNSCC. Using cancer cell lines, it was shown that D1C2 and CVD13 specifically detect MET under reducing, native and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) conditions. Immunohistochemical staining of routinely FFPE oral SCC with D1C2 and CVD13 demonstrated that D1C2 is most sensitive in the detection of membranous MET. Examination of membranous D1C2 immunoreactivity with 179 FFPE oral and oropharyngeal SCC – represented in a tissue microarray – illustrated that staining is either uniform (negative or positive) across tumors or differs between a tumor's center and periphery. Ultimately, statistical analysis revealed that D1C2 uniform staining is significantly associated with poor 5-year overall and disease free survival of patients lacking vasoinvasive growth (HR = 3.019, p < 0.001; HR = 2.559, p < 0.001). These findings might contribute to reliable stratification of patients eligible for treatment with biologicals directed against MET. PMID:26909606

  9. p63 is an alternative p53 repressor in melanoma that confers chemoresistance and a poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Matin, Rubeta N.; Chikh, Anissa; Law Pak Chong, Stephanie; Mesher, David; Graf, Manuela; Sanza’, Paolo; Senatore, Valentina; Scatolini, Maria; Moretti, Francesca; Leigh, Irene M.; Proby, Charlotte M.; Costanzo, Antonio; Chiorino, Giovanna; Cerio, Rino; Harwood, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of apoptosis in melanoma pathogenesis and chemoresistance is poorly characterized. Mutations in TP53 occur infrequently, yet the TP53 apoptotic pathway is often abrogated. This may result from alterations in TP53 family members, including the TP53 homologue TP63. Here we demonstrate that TP63 has an antiapoptotic role in melanoma and is responsible for mediating chemoresistance. Although p63 was not expressed in primary melanocytes, up-regulation of p63 mRNA and protein was observed in melanoma cell lines and clinical samples, providing the first evidence of significant p63 expression in this lineage. Upon genotoxic stress, endogenous p63 isoforms were stabilized in both nuclear and mitochondrial subcellular compartments. Our data provide evidence of a physiological interaction between p63 with p53 whereby translocation of p63 to the mitochondria occurred through a codependent process with p53, whereas accumulation of p53 in the nucleus was prevented by p63. Using RNA interference technology, both isoforms of p63 (TA and ΔNp63) were demonstrated to confer chemoresistance, revealing a novel oncogenic role for p63 in melanoma cells. Furthermore, expression of p63 in both primary and metastatic melanoma clinical samples significantly correlated with melanoma-specific deaths in these patients. Ultimately, these observations provide a possible explanation for abrogation of the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway in melanoma, implicating novel approaches aimed at sensitizing melanoma to therapeutic agents. PMID:23420876

  10. Expression of beta-catenin by acute myeloid leukemia cells predicts enhanced clonogenic capacities and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ysebaert, L; Chicanne, G; Demur, C; De Toni, F; Prade-Houdellier, N; Ruidavets, J-B; Mansat-De Mas, V; Rigal-Huguet, F; Laurent, G; Payrastre, B; Manenti, S; Racaud-Sultan, C

    2006-07-01

    Activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has recently been shown to be crucial to the establishment of leukemic stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. We sought to determine whether beta-catenin was correlated to clonogenic capacity also in the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) setting. Eighty-two patients were retrospectively evaluated for beta-catenin expression by Western blot. beta-Catenin was expressed (although at various protein levels) in 61% of patients, and was undetectable in the remaining cases. In our cohort, beta-catenin expression was correlated with the clonogenic proliferation of AML-colony forming cells (AML-CFC or CFU-L) in methylcellulose in the presence of 5637-conditioned medium, and more strikingly with self-renewing of leukemic cells, as assessed in vitro by a re-plating assay. In survival analyses, beta-catenin appeared as a new independent prognostic factor predicting poor event-free survival and shortened overall survival (both with P<0.05). Furthermore, variations in beta-catenin protein levels were dependent on post-transcriptional mechanisms involving the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway only in leukemic cells. Indeed, beta-catenin negative leukemic cells were found to increase beta-catenin in response to Wnt3a agonist in contrast to normal counterparts. Altogether, our data pave the way to the evaluation of Wnt pathway inhibition as a new rationale for eradicating the clonogenic pool of AML cells.

  11. Mutations of codon 918 in the RET proto-oncogene correlate to poor prognosis in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zedenius, J.; Svensson, A.; Baeckdahl, M.; Wallin, G.

    1995-10-01

    The hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes types 2A and B (MEN 2A and B) were recently linked to germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, altering one of five cysteine residues in exon 10 or 11 (MEN 2A), or substituting a methionine for a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16 (MEN 2B). The latter mutation also occurs somatically in some sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), and has in a previous study been correlated with a less favorable clinical outcome. In the present study, 46 MTCs were selected for investigation of the codon 918 mutation. The mutation was found in 29 tumors (63%), and was significantly correlated with a poor outcome, with regard to distant metastasis or tumor recurrence (p<10{sup 4}). Two tumors showed multifocal growth and C-cell hyperplasia, and these patients were therefore also investigated for germline mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16. The codon 918 mutation was found only in the tumors, thus of somatic origin. The RET codon 918 mutation may have prognostic impact, and therefore preoperative assessment may influence decision-making in the treatment of patients suffering from MTC. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Nuclear localization of the CK2α-subunit correlates with poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rabjerg, Maj; Guerra, Barbara; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Mikkelsen, Minne Line Nedergaard; Köhler, Ralf; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Marcussen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2α, one of the two catalytic isoforms of the protein kinase CK2 has been shown to contribute to tumor development, tumor proliferation and suppression of apoptosis in various malignancies. We conducted this study to investigate CK2 expression in different subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and in the benign oncocytoma. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that CK2α expression was significantly increased at the mRNA and protein levels in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Also the kinase activity of CK2 was significantly increased in ccRCC compared to normal renal cortex. Nuclear protein expression of CK2α correlated in univariate analysis with poor Progression Free Survival (HR = 8.11, p = 0.016). Functional analyses (cell proliferation assay) revealed an inhibitory effect of Caki-2 cell growth following CK2 inhibition with CX-4945. Our results suggest that CK2α promotes migration and invasion of ccRCC and therefore could serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and molecular therapeutic target in this type of cancer. PMID:27906674

  13. Acute myeloid leukemia after myelodysplastic syndrome and failure of therapy with hypomethylating agents: an emerging entity with a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Elias; Ghanem, Hady; Huang, Xuelin; Ravandi, Farhad; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; O'Brien, Susan; Faderl, Stephan; Pierce, Sherry; Choi, Sangbum; Verstovsek, Srdan; Brandt, Mark; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the outcomes of 63 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) arising from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after hypomethylating agent failure. Their median age was 63 years. All 63 patients had received ≥ 1 salvage regimens for AML, and 35 patients (55%) had received ≥ 2. Of the 31 patients (49%) who had received high-dose cytarabine (HDAC) at first relapse, 2 (6%) achieved complete remission (CR) and 4 (13%) CR with incomplete platelet recovery (overall response rate, 19%). Of the 32 patients (51%) who had received other treatments, including investigational agents, 4 (12%) achieved CR and 4 (12%) CR with incomplete platelet recovery (overall response rate, 24%). The median response duration was 20 weeks. With a median follow-up of 42 months from the AML diagnosis, the median survival (21 weeks) was similar between the 2 groups. The 1- and 2-year survival rate was 19% and 8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified low albumin, HDAC treatment, and platelet count < 50 × 10(9)/L as independent adverse factors for CR and a platelet count < 50 × 10(9)/L and age > 65 years as independent adverse factors for survival. Thus, the outcome of AML evolving from MDS after hypomethylating agent failure is poor and not improved with HDAC. Novel therapies directed toward this emerging entity are urgently needed.

  14. High CD4+ T cell density is associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinglei; Hao, Chongli; Cheng, Guangzhou; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiang; Li, Chang; Qiu, Juhui; Ding, Kejia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of CD4+ T cells in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) tissues in situ. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of CD4+ T cells in 131 NMIBC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to estimate overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: NMIBC patients were divided into two groups based on the median frequency of CD4+ T cells (median, 1/×400 high resolution). On univariate analysis, CD4+ T cell density was inversely associated with overall survival (P = 0.01). In those patients with high CD4+ T density, 5-year OS rates was only 77%, compared with 86% in those with low density, respectively. Although CD4+ T cell density showed no prognostic significance for RFS (P = 0.36), 5-year RFS rates of patients with high CD4+ T density (58%) was lower than those of patients with low CD4+ T density (65%, respectively). By multivariate analysis, tumor infiltrating CD4+ T cell density emerged as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 2.75; P = 0.004). In addition, no association was found between CD4+ T cell density and any clinicopathological variables (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CD4+ T cells could potentially serve as a poor prognostic marker for patients with NMIBC. PMID:26617883

  15. NCAPG2 promotes tumour proliferation by regulating G2/M phase and associates with poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Xi, Guang-Min; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Bing; Liu, Ya-Fang; Xu, Wu-Jian; Zhu, Qingqing; Cai, Feng; Zhou, Ze-Jun; Miu, Ying-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Jin, Jia-Jia; Li, Qian; Lv, Tang-Feng; Song, Yong

    2017-04-01

    NCAPG2 is a component of the condensin II complex and contributes to chromosome segregation via microtubule-kinetochore attachment during mitosis. It is well known that NCAPG2 plays a critical role in cell mitosis; however, the role of altered NCAPG2 expression and its transcriptional regulatory function in cancer development remains mostly unknown. Here, for the first time we reported that NCAPG2 was evidently increased in non-small cell lung cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal lung tissues. Clinicopathological data analysis showed that NCAPG2 overexpression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and pathologic-Tumour Nodes Metastasen stages, and was an independent prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of NCAPG2 could inhibit tumour cell growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 and H1299) in vitro and could significantly lead to cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase. Furthermore, we found that NCAPG2 silencing significantly decreased the expression levels of G2/M phase cell cycle-related protein expressions (Cyclin B1, Cdc2) and increased the expression levels of p27 and p21 through Western blot analysis. Taken together, we demonstrated that increased NCAPG2 expression could regulate cell proliferation and identified as a poor prognostic biomarker in lung adenocarcinoma.

  16. A Functional Polymorphism (rs10817938) in the XPA Promoter Region Is Associated with Poor Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chunhai; Wang, Jinzhu; Li, Chong; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guoxia

    2016-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms of XPA gene have been studied in several cancers such as rs10817938, rs2808668. However, the role of XPA polymorphisms in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. Thus, we analyzed the association of XPA polymorphisms with OSCC risk, clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in the present study. TaqMan genotyping was used to evaluate the frequency of rs10817938, rs2808668 polymorphisms in OSCC patients. The prognostic significance of these polymorphisms was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves, Log-Rank analyses, and the Cox proportional hazard model. Luciferase reporter assay, RT-PCR and western blot were used to determine whether rs10817938 could influence transcription activity and XPA expression. The results showed that individuals carrying TC and CC genotypes had significantly greater risk of developing OSCC (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93; OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.32–5.71, respectively) when compared with wild-type TT genotype at rs10817938. OSCC patients with C allele at rs10817938 were more susceptible to lymph metastases, poor pathological differentiation and late TNM stage (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.17–2.37; OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.18–2.28; OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.11–2.14; respectively). A significant gene-environment interaction between smoking and CC genotype at rs10817938 was observed (COR = 3.60, 95% CI 1.20–10.9) and data also showed that OSCC patients with CC genotype and C allele had worse survival (p<0.001 for both). The T to C substitution at rs10817938 significantly decreased transcription activity of XPA gene, XPA mRNA and protein were also decreased in individuals with C allele at rs10817938. In addition, no significant association of rs2808668 polymorphism with OSCC risk, prognosis could be observed. In conclusion, the present study showed that XPA rs10817938 polymorphism is a functional SNP in vitro and in vivo and a biomarker for poor prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:27622501

  17. Are atherosclerotic risk factors associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hyperuricemic acute heart failure? The evaluation of the causal dependence of acute heart failure and hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hirotake; Shirakabe, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Hata, Noritake; Shinada, Takuro; Matsushita, Masato; Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Shibata, Yusaku; Shibuya, Junsuke; Shiomura, Reiko; Nishigoori, Suguru; Asai, Kuniya; Shimizu, Wataru

    2017-04-01

    Atherosclerosis induces the elevation of uric acid (UA), and an elevated UA level is well known to lead to a poor prognosis in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, the prognostic value of atherosclerotic risk factors in hyperuricemic AHF patients remains to be elucidated. The data from 928 patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at Nippon Medical School Chiba Hokusoh Hospital between January 2001 and December 2014, and whose serum UA levels were measured were screened. A total of 394 AHF patients with hyperuricemia were enrolled in this study. The patients were assigned to a low-risk group (≤1 atherosclerosis risk factor) and a high-risk group (≥2 atherosclerosis risk factors) according to their number of risk factors. The patients in the low-risk group were more likely to have dilated cardiomyopathy, clinical scenario 3 than those in the high-risk group. The serum total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein, and brain-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher in the low-risk group than the high-risk group (p < 0.001, p = 0.005, p = 0.003, and p = 0.008, respectively). A multivariate Cox regression model revealed that the number of risk factors (number = 1, HR (hazard ratio) 0.243, 95 % CI 0.096-0.618, p = 0.003; number = 2, HR 0.253, 95 % CI 0.108-0.593, p = 0.002; number ≥3, HR 0.209, 95 % CI 0.093-0.472, p < 0.001), eGFR (per 1.0 mmol/l increase) (HR 0.977, 95 % CI 0.961-0.994, p = 0.007), and serum UA level (per 1 mg/dl increase) (HR 1.270, 95 % CI 1.123-1.435, p < 0.001) was an independent predictor of 1-year mortality. The prognosis, including all-cause death and HF events, was significantly poorer among the low-risk patients than among the high-risk patients. Atherosclerotic risk factors were not associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hyperuricemic AHF.

  18. Loss of PTEN expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Carracedo, Dario; Turk, Andrew T.; Fine, Stuart A.; Akhavan, Nathan; Tweel, Benjamin C.; Parsons, Ramon; Chabot, John A.; Allendorf, John D.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Remotti, Helen E.; Su, Gloria H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previously, we reported PIK3CA gene mutations in high-grade intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). However, the contribution of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway (PI3K) dysregulation to pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood and its prognostic value unknown. We investigated the dysregulation of the PI3K signaling pathway in IPMN and its clinical implication. Experimental Design Thirty-six IPMN specimens were examined by novel mutant-enriched methods for hot-spot mutations in the PIK3CA and AKT1 genes. PIK3CA and AKT1 gene amplifications and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the PTEN locus were also evaluated. Additionally, the expression levels of PDPK1/PDK1, PTEN and Ki67 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Results Three cases carrying the E17K mutation in the AKT1 gene and one case harboring the H1047R mutation in the PIK3CA gene were detected among the 36 cases. PDK1 was significantly overexpressed in the high-grade IPMN vs. low-grade IPMN (p = 0.034) and in pancreatic and intestinal-type of IPMN vs. gastric-type of IPMN (p = 0.020). Loss of PTEN expression was strongly associated with presence of invasive carcinoma and poor survival in these IPMN patients (p = 0.014). Conclusion This is the first report of AKT1 mutations in IPMN. Our data indicate that oncogenic activation of the PI3K pathway can contribute to the progression of IPMN, in particular loss of PTEN expression. This finding suggests the potential employment of PI3K pathway-targeted therapies for IPMN patients. The incorporation of PTEN expression status in making surgical decisions may also benefit IPMN patients and should warrant further investigation. PMID:24132918

  19. Gene expression profile of A549 cells from tissue of 4D model predicts poor prognosis in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dhruva K; Creighton, Chad J; Zhang, Yiqun; Gibbons, Don L; Kurie, Jonathan M; Kim, Min P

    2014-02-15

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in regulating cell growth and metastasis. Recently, we developed an ex vivo lung cancer model (four dimensional, 4D) that forms perfusable tumor nodules on a lung matrix that mimics human lung cancer histopathology and protease secretion pattern. We compared the gene expression profile (Human OneArray v5 chip) of A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line, grown in a petri dish (two-dimensional, 2D), and of the same cells grown in the matrix of our ex vivo model (4D). Furthermore, we obtained gene expression data of A549 cells grown in a petri dish (2D) and matrigel (three-dimensional, 3D) from a previous study and compared the 3D expression profile with that of 4D. Expression array analysis showed 2,954 genes differentially expressed between 2D and 4D. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed upregulation of several genes associated with extracellular matrix, polarity and cell fate and development. Moreover, expression array analysis of 2D vs. 3D showed 1,006 genes that were most differentially expressed, with only 36 genes (4%) having similar expression patterns as observed between 2D and 4D. Finally, the differential gene expression signature of 4D cells (vs. 2D) correlated significantly with poor survival in patients with lung cancer (n = 1,492), while the expression signature of 3D vs. 2D correlated with better survival in lung cancer patients with lung cancer. As patients with larger tumors have a worse rate of survival, the ex vivo 4D model may be a good mimic of natural progression of tumor growth in lung cancer patients.

  20. Co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 indicates radiation resistance and poor prognosis in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Qiong; Chen, Xiang; Xie, Xiao-Xue; Zhou, Qin; Li, Kai; Li, Shan; Shen, Liang-Fang; Su, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of CD147 and GLUT-1, which play important roles in glycolysis in response to radiotherapy and clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma (LACSCC). The records of 132 female patients who received primary radiation therapy to treat LACSCC at FIGO stages IB-IVA were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-seven patients with PFS (progression-free survival) of less than 36 months were regarded as radiation-resistant. Eighty-five patients with PFS longer than 36 months were regarded as radiation-sensitive. Using pretreatment paraffin-embedded tissues, we evaluated CD147 and GLUT-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of CD147, GLUT-1, and CD147 and GLUT-1 combined were 44.7%, 52.9% and 36.5%, respectively, in the radiation-sensitive group, and 91.5%, 89.4% and 83.0%, respectively, in the radiation-resistant group. The 5-year progress free survival (PFS) rates in the CD147-low, CD147-high, GLUT-1-low, GLUT-1-high, CD147- and/or GLUT-1-low and CD147- and GLUT-1- dual high expression groups were 66.79%, 87.10%, 52.78%, 85.82%, 55.94%, 82.90% and 50.82%, respectively. CD147 and GLUT-1 co-expression, FIGO stage and tumor diameter were independent poor prognostic factors for patients with LACSCC in multivariate Cox regression analysis. Patients with high expression of CD147 alone, GLUT-1 alone or co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 showed greater resistance to radiotherapy and a shorter PFS than those with low expression. In particular, co-expression of CD147 and GLUT-1 can be considered as a negative independent prognostic factor.

  1. SIX1 overexpression predicts poor prognosis and induces radioresistance through AKT signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng; Li, Guang; Tang, Lingrong; Li, Yaming

    2017-01-01

    The Sineoculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) protein has been found to be overexpressed in several human cancers. However, its expression pattern and biological roles in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain unexplored. This study examined the clinical significance of SIX1 in 119 ESCC tissues. It was found that SIX1 protein was upregulated in 36.9% (44/119) cases. SIX1 overexpression was an independent predictor for short survival of ESCC patients. siRNA knockdown and plasmid transfection were carried out in ESCC cell lines. SIX1 depletion inhibited cell growth, invasion, and colony formation, whereas its overexpression facilitated in vivo and in vitro cell growth, invasion, and colony formation. The apoptosis rate induced by X-ray irradiation was substantially increased by SIX1 knockdown in Eca-109 cells. Ectopic overexpression of SIX1 in TE-1 cells dramatically enhanced resistance to irradiation. Western blot analysis showed that SIX1 depletion downregulated cyclin E, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), Bcl-2 expression and upregulated Bim expression. SIX1 overexpression exhibited the opposite effect on these proteins. In addition, it was found that SIX1 could positively regulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT signaling pathway. ERK inhibitor abolished the effect of SIX1 on MMP-2 expression. AKT inhibitor treatment blocked the role of SIX1 on anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SIX1 overexpression predicts poor survival in ESCC patients and confers radioresistance through activation of AKT signaling pathways. PMID:28260921

  2. VNN1 overexpression is associated with poor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy and adverse prognosis in patients with rectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chi-Yung; Zhang, Yimin; Song, Junlong; Lin, Shih-Chun; Sun, Shengrong; Chang, I-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer is prevalent worldwide and it is also the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. For rectal cancer, neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by radical proctectomy is gold standard treatment for patients with stage II/III rectal cancer. By data mining a public dataset of rectal cancer transcriptome (GSE35452) from Gene Expression Omnibus, National Center of Biotechnology Information (GEO, NCBI), we identified that VNN1 was the most significantly upregulated gene among those related to nitrogen compound metabolic process (GO:0006807). Therefore, we analyzed the clinicopathological correlation and prognostic impact of VNN1 protein (pantetheinase), which encoded by VNN1 gene. Methods: VNN1 immunostaining was performed in 172 rectal adenocarcinomas treated with preoperative CCRT followed by surgery, which were bisected into high- and low-expression subgroups. Furthermore, statistical analyses were performed to correlate the relationship between VNN1 immunoreactivity and clinicopathological features, as well as three survival indices: disease-specific survival (DSS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Results: High VNN1 immunoexpression was significantly associated with advanced pre-treatment and post-treatment disease and poor response to CCRT (all P ≤ .026). In addition, VNN1 overexpression was linked to adverse DSS, LRFS and MeFS in univariate analysis and served as an independent prognosticator indicating worse DSS and LRFS in multivariate analysis (all P ≤ .019). Conclusion: VNN1 may play a crucial role in rectal cancer progression and responsiveness to CCRT, and serve as a novel prognostic biomarker. Additional studies to clarify the molecular pathway are essential for developing potential VNN1-targeted therapies for rectal cancer. PMID:27830030

  3. Comparison of The Effectiveness of Clomiphene Citrate versus Letrozole in Mild IVF in Poor Prognosis Subfertile Women with Failed IVF Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Oktem, Mesut; Guler, Ismail; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Nuray; Karabacak, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Background Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate (CC) vs. letrozole (L) plus human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol in poor prognosis women with previous failed ovarian stimulation undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included cycles with CC and L plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocols of 32 poor responders who had failed to have ideal follicles to be retrieved during oocyte pick-up (OPU) or embryo transfer (ET) at least for 2 previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with microdose flare protocol or GnRH antagonist protocol from January 2006 to December 2009. Main outcome measures were implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle. Duration of stimulation, mean gonadotropin dose used, endometrial thickness, number of mature follicles, serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, number of retrieved oocytes and fertilization rates were also evaluated. Results A total number of 42 cycles of 32 severe poor responders were evaluated. Total gonadotropin consumption was significantly lower (1491 ± 873 vs. 2808 ± 1581 IU, P=0.005) and mean E2 level on the day of hCG injection were significantly higher in CC group than L group (443.3 ± 255.2 vs. 255.4 ± 285.2 pg/mL, P=0.03). ET, overall pregnancy and live birth rates per cycle were significantly higher in CC than L protocol (27.2 vs. 15%, 13.6 vs. 0% and 4.5 vs. 0%, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion Severe poor responders who had previously failed to respond to microdose or GnRH antagonist protocols may benefit from CC plus hMG/GnRH antagonist protocol despite high cancellation rate. PMID:26644850

  4. PRAME expression in head and neck cancer correlates with markers of poor prognosis and might help in selecting candidates for retinoid chemoprevention in pre-malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Miroslaw J.; DeLeo, Albert B.; Łuczak, Michał; Molinska-Glura, Marta; Misiak, Jan; Szarzynska, Bronislawa; Dworacki, Grzegorz; Zagor, Mariola; Rozwadowska, Natalia; Kurpisz, Maciej; Krzeski, Antoni; Kruk-Zagajewska, Aleksandra; Kopec, Tomasz; Banaszewski, Jacek; Whiteside, Theresa L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives PRAME (Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma) is a tumor-associated antigen recognized by immunocytes, and it induces cytotoxic T cell-mediated responses in melanoma. PRAME expression in tumors interferes with retinoic acid receptor (RAR) signaling thus promoting tumor progression. Here, we study PRAME expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to determine its potential clinical significance. Materials and Methods PRAME expression in HNSCC was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays of primary tumors (n=53), metastatic lymph nodes (n=8) and normal oral mucosa (n=11). Biopsies of dysplastic oral lesions (n=12) were also examined. PRAME expression levels in tissues were correlated with markers of poor prognosis in HNSCC. PRAME mRNA in HNSCC cell lines and in normal immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) was measured by qRT-PCR, and the protein expression by flow cytometry and western blots. Results PRAME was expressed in HNSCC cell lines and HNSCC lesions. PRAME expression in dysplastic mucosa was variable. No or only weak expression was found in normal cells or tissues. PRAME expression levels significantly correlated with the tumor grade, size, nodal involvement and the clinical status of HNSCC patients. Conclusions Elevated PRAME expression associates with clinicopathologic markers of poor outcome in HNSCC and might identify potential candidates with pre-cancerous lesions for chemoprevention with retinoids. PMID:22944049

  5. Borealin/Dasra B is a cell cycle-regulated chromosomal passenger protein and its nuclear accumulation is linked to poor prognosis for human gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.-L.; Chen, T.-H.; Wang, C.-F.; Chiang, Y.-H.; Huang, Y.-L.; Wong, F.-H.; Chou, C.-K. . E-mail: ckchou@mail.pmf.org.tw; Chen, C.-M. . E-mail: cmchen@ym.edu.tw

    2006-04-15

    Chromosomal passenger proteins including Aurora B, Survivin, and Borealin/Dasra B, also called CDCA8/FLJ10468, are known to play crucial roles during mitosis and cell division. Inappropriate chromosomal segregation and cell division may cause auneuploidy leading to cancer. However, it is still unclear how the expression of chromosomal passenger proteins may be linked to cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that Borealin is a cell cycle-regulated gene and is upregulated at G2-M phases of the cell cycle. We showed that Borealin interacts with Survivin but not with Aurora B. The interaction domain of Survivin in Borealin was mapped to the N-terminal 92 amino-acid residues of Borealin. To examine the linkage between expression of Borealin and cancer, we performed immunohistochemistry analysis using anti-Borealin specific antibody on the paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues. Our results showed that Borealin expression is significantly correlated with Survivin (P = 0.003) and Ki67 (P = 0.007) in gastric cancer. Interestingly, an increased nuclear Borealin level reveals borderline association with a poor survival rate (P = 0.047). Taken together, our results demonstrated that Borealin is a cell cycle-regulated chromosomal passenger protein and its aberrant expression is linked to a poor prognosis for gastric cancer.

  6. Concurrent Hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DKK2 Activates the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway and Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Duan, Xiang-Long; Qi, Xiao-Li; Meng, Lei; Xu, Yi-Song; Wu, Tong; Dai, Peng-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant hypermethylation of Wnt antagonists has been observed in gastric cancer. A number of studies have focused on the hypermethylation of a single Wnt antagonist and its role in regulating the activation of signaling. However, how the Wnt antagonists interacted to regulate the signaling pathway has not been reported. In the present study, we systematically investigated the methylation of some Wnt antagonist genes (SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5, DKK1, DKK2, and APC) and their regulatory role in carcinogenesis. We found that aberrant promoter methylation of SFRP2, SFRP4, DKK1, and DKK2 was significantly increased in gastric cancer. Moreover, concurrent hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DKK2 was observed in gastric cancer and this was significantly associated with increased expression of β-catenin, indicating that the joint inactivation of these two genes promoted the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Further analysis using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that DKK2 methylation was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival, and the predictive value was markedly enhanced when the combined methylation status of SFRP2 and DKK2 was considered. In addition, the methylation level of SFRP4 and DKK2 was correlated with the patient’s age and tumor differentiation, respectively. In conclusion, epigenetic silencing of Wnt antagonists was associated with gastric carcinogenesis, and concurrent hypermethylation of SFRP2 and DKK2 could be a potential marker for a prognosis of poor overall survival. PMID:28152305

  7. Circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) myeloid-derived suppressor cell is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with ESCC.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haitao; Zhang, Guangbo; Li, Guangbin; Ma, Haitao; Zhang, Xueguang

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrate that a population of suppressive cells known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) is key immune modulators which suppress antitumor immunity. In this study, we found that the level of circulating CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in patients was significantly higher than that of healthy donors and was correlated with tumor burden, lymph node metastasis, and tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) clinical stage. More importantly, we for the first time find the level of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) is a biological indicator of poor prognosis through the analysis of 3-year overall survival. Furthermore, we evidenced that the proportion of CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in the tumor metastatic tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) was notably higher compared to tumor-free TDLNs. Additionally, CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients expressed dramatically increased programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) comparing to that from healthy control. Subsequently, blocking PD-L1 pathway by antibody could effectively reverse the suppressive effect on autologous T cell proliferation mediated by CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) cells in vitro. In conclusion, our data revealed CD14(+)HLA-DR(-/low) MDSCs which increase in ESCC patients is a novel poor prognostic indicator and may exert immunosuppressive properties through PD-L1/PD-1 pathway.

  8. Selective participation of c-Jun with Fra-2/c-Fos promotes aggressive tumor phenotypes and poor prognosis in tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Shilpi; Kumar, Prabhat; Kaur, Harsimrut; Sharma, Nishi; Saluja, Daman; Bharti, Alok C.; Das, Bhudev C.

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is most aggressive head and neck cancer often associated with HR-HPV infection. The role of AP-1 which is an essential regulator of HPV oncogene expression and tumorigenesis is not reported in tongue cancer. One hundred tongue tissue biopsies comprising precancer, cancer and adjacent controls including two tongue cancer cell lines were employed to study the role of HPV infection and AP-1 family proteins. An exclusive prevalence (28%) of HR-HPV type 16 was observed mainly in well differentiated tongue carcinomas (78.5%). A higher expression and DNA binding activity of AP-1 was observed in tongue tumors and cancer cell lines with c-Fos and Fra-2 as the major binding partners forming the functional AP-1 complex but c-Jun participated only in HPV negative and poorly differentiated carcinoma. Knocking down of Fra-2 responsible for aggressive tongue tumorigenesis led to significant reduction in c-Fos, c-Jun, MMP-9 and HPVE6/E7 expression but Fra-1 and p53 were upregulated. The binding and expression of c-Fos/Fra-2 increased as a function of severity of tongue lesions, yet selective participation of c-Jun appears to promote poor differentiation and aggressive tumorigenesis only in HPV negative cases while HPV infection leads to well differentiation and better prognosis preferably in nonsmokers. PMID:26581505

  9. Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Translocation t(8;16) Presents with Features Which Mimic Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia and is Associated With Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Adi; Zickl, Lynette; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Jhanwar, Suresh; Gulam, Manjit A; Panageas, Katherine S.; Patel, Jay P.; Jurcic, Joseph; Maslak, Peter; Paietta, Elisabeth; Mangan, James K.; Carroll, Martin; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Luger, Selina M.; Douer, Dan; Litzow, Mark R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Levine, Ross L.; Tallman, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Previous small series have suggested that acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16) is a distinct morphologic and clinical entity associated with poor prognosis. We describe 18 patients with t(8;16) AML, including their clinical, cytomorphologic, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features. Half of the patients had extramedullary disease, most commonly leukemia cutis, which often preceded bone marrow involvement and six had therapy-related AML. Patients with t(8;16) AML commonly present with clinical and pathological features that mimic APL, with promyelocytes and promyeloblast-like cells and coagulopathy in most patients. Several patients also presented with marrow histiocytes with hemophagocytosis and erythrophagocytosis. Comprehensive molecular analysis for co-occurring genetic alterations revealed a somatic mutation in RUNX1 in 1 of 6 t(8;16) patients with no known AML mutation in the remaining five t(8;16) patients. This suggests that the t(8;16) translocation could be sufficient to induce hematopoietic cell transformation to AML without acquiring other genetic alteration. These data further support classifying t(8;16) AML as a clinically and molecularly defined subtype of AML marked by characteristic clinical and cytomorphologic features that mimic APL, and is associated with very poor survival. PMID:23102703

  10. CpG island methylation profile of estrogen receptor alpha in Iranian females with triple negative or non-triple negative breast cancer: new marker of poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Fatemeh; Salami, Siamak; Omrani, Mir Davood; Maleki, Davood

    2012-01-01

    One decade early onset of the breast cancer in Iranian females was reported but the basis of the observed difference has remained unclear and difference in gene silencing by epigenetic processes is suggested. Hence, this study was sought to map the methylation status of ER gene CpG islands and its impact on clinicopathological factors of triple negative and non-triple negative ductal cell carcinoma of the breast in Iranian females. Surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tissues from sixty Iranian women with confirmed invasive ductal carcinoma were assessed by methylation-specific PCR using primer sets encompassing some of the 29 CpGs across the ER gene CpG island. The estrogen and progesterone receptors, Her-2 overexpression, and nuclear accumulation of P53 were examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Methylated ER3, ER4, and ER5 were found in 41.7, 11.3, and 43.3% of the samples, respectively. Significantly higher methylation of ER4 was found in the tumors with nuclear accumulation of P53, and significantly higher methylation of ER5 was found in patients with lymph node involvement and tumor with bigger size or higher grades. Furthermore, significantly higher rate of ER5 methylation was found in patients with Her-2+ tumors and in postmenopausal patients with ER-, PgR-, or ER-/PgR- tumors. However, no significant difference in ERs methylation status was found between triple negative and non-triple negative tumors in pre- and postmenopausal patients. Findings revealed that aberrant hypermethylation of ER-a gene frequently occur in Iranian women with invasive ductal cell carcinoma of the breast. However, methylation of different CpG islands produced a diverse impact on the prognosis of breast cancer, and ER5 was found to be the most frequently methylated region in the Iranian women, and could serve as a marker of poor prognosis.

  11. Overexpression of homeobox B-13 correlates with angiogenesis, aberrant expression of EMT markers, aggressive characteristics and poor prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lu-Lu; Wu, Yang; Cai, Chong-Yang; Tang, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression of homeobox B (Hoxb)-13 and analyze its relationship with tumor angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated markers (E-cadherin and vimentin), clinicopathologic data and prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the level of Hoxb-13 expression in tumor tissues and surrounding non-tumor tissues from 85 subjects with pancreatic carcinoma. Besides, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31, E-cadherin and vimentin were also detected in tumor tissues by immunostaining. We found that the level of Hoxb-13 expression was significantly higher in pancreatic carcinoma tissues than in paracarcinomatous tissues (P < 0.05). Hoxb-13 staining was positively correlated with VEGF (r = 0.429, P < 0.001) and microvessel density (MVD) (r = 0.454, P < 0.001). Likewise, Hoxb-13 staining was positively correlated with vimentin (r = 0.448, P < 0.001); while it was negatively correlated with E-cadherin (r = -0.405, P < 0.001). High Hoxb-13 expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathological characteristics, worse disease-free survival (DFS) (P < 0.001) and worse overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that Hoxb-13 was an independent predictor for poor DFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P = 0.002). In conclusion, our data show that overexpressed Hoxb-13 is correlated with tumor angiogenesis, aberrant expression of EMT-associated markers and aggressive clinicopathological characteristics, and serves as a promising marker for unfavourable prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma.

  12. H19 serves as a diagnostic biomarker and up-regulation of H19 expression contributes to poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Wang, Y F; Zhang, X Q; Lv, J M; Li, Y; Liu, X X; Xu, T P

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidences indicate that dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in cancer tumorigenesis and progression and might be used as diagnosis and prognosis biomarker, or potential therapeutic targets. LncRNA H19 has been reported to be upregulated in diverse human cancers; however, its clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC) remains elusive. Expression levels of H19 in 128 pairs of GC and adjacent normal tissues, GC cell lines and GC juices compared to their corresponding controls were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier analysis were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Cox proportional hazard analysis. H19 expression was remarkably increased in GC tissues and cell lines compared with that in the normal control, and its up-regulation was significantly correlated to invasion depth (P < 0.001), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.002) and regional lymph nodes metastasis (P < 0.001) in GC. H19 levels were robust in differentiating GC tissues from controls [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.697; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.636-0.752, p<0.01]. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that increased H19 expression contributed to poor overall survival (P = 0.017) and disease-free survival (P = 0.024) of patients. A multivariate survival analysis also indicated that H19 could be an independent prognostic marker. The levels of H19 in gastric juice from gastric patients were significantly higher than those from normal subjects (P = 0.034). Furthermore, knockdown of H19 expression by siRNA could inhibit cell migration and invasion in GC cells partly via regulating E-cadherin protein expression. H19 might serve as a promising biomarker for early detection and prognosis prediction of GC.

  13. Low Concentration of BDNF in the Acute Phase of Ischemic Stroke as a Factor in Poor Prognosis in Terms of Functional Status of Patients.

    PubMed

    Lasek-Bal, Anetta; Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Halina; Różycka, Jagoda; Bal, Wiesław; Holecki, Michał; Duława, Jan; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2015-12-14

    BACKGROUND According to recent studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably plays a role in development of cerebral ischemia and can be significant for the prognosis of improved mobility after stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the blood concentration of BDNF during the 1st day of first-ever ischemic stroke and find a potential association between BDNF concentration and the neurological status in the acute period, as well as between BDNF and the functional status in the sub-acute phase of stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS The prospective study involved 87 patients aged 39-99 years (42 women, 45 men) with first-in-life complete ischemic stroke. All study subjects underwent analysis as follows: BDNF blood concentration and neurological status according to NIHSS on the 1st day of stroke, comorbidities, etiological type of ischemic stroke by ASCOD, and functional status on the 14th and 90th day after the onset according to mRankin scale. RESULTS Mean concentration of BDNF in the study group was 9.96 ng/mL±5.21, median 10.39 ng/mL. Patients aged ≤65 years (25 individuals) had a significantly higher mean concentration of BDNF (11.94 ng/mL±4.46; median 12.34 ng/mL) than the older subjects (62 individuals) with a mean concentration of 9.17 ng/mL±5.32 (median 8.66 ng/mL). The mean score by mRankin scale on the 90th day was significantly higher among patients with lower concentrations of BDNF on the 1st day of stroke, which reflects their poorer functional status. The functional status on the 90th day was significantly worse (3-6 points by Rankin scale) in patients who had BDNF below the mean value in the acute phase of stroke. The independent factors for poor functional status of patients on the 90th day after stroke were a score >4 points by NIHSS (RR 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00-1.31; p=0.027) and the concentration of BDNF below the mean value (assessed on the 1st day of stroke) (RR 14.49; CI 4.60-45.45; p=0.000). CONCLUSIONS The neurological

  14. The elevated preoperative fasting blood glucose predicts a poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: The Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dan; Peng, Feng; Lin, Xiandong; Chen, Gang; Liang, Binying; Li, Chao; Zhang, Hejun; Liao, Xuehong; Lin, Jinxiu; Zheng, Xiongwei; Niu, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes as a latent risk factor for cancer has been extensively investigated, while its postoperative prognosis for esophageal cancer is rarely reported. We therefore sought to assess whether the elevated fasting blood glucose before surgery was associated with poor survival in esophageal cancer patients by eliciting a subset of data from the ongoing Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study. Over 15-year follow-up, 2535 patients receiving three-field lymphadenectomy were assessable. Only patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (n=2396) were analyzed due to the lower prevalence of the other histological types. In ESCC patients, the follow-up duration ranged from 0.5 to 180 months (median 38.2 months). The median survival time (MST) was remarkably shorter in males than in females (80.7 vs. 180+ months, Log-rank test: P<0.001). In males, the survival was worse in patients with diabetes than those without (MST: 27.9 vs. 111.1 months, Log-rank test: P<0.001). In females, the survivor was improved in patients with diabetes (MST: 71.5 months), but was still worse than patients without diabetes (MST: 180+ months, Log-rank test: P<0.001). The overall multivariate hazard ratio for per unit increment in fasting blood glucose was 1.11 (95% confidence interval or CI: 1.09-1.14, P<0.001) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.03-1.13, P=0.002) in males and females, respectively. Further survival tree analysis consolidated the discrimination ability of fasting blood glucose for the survival of ESCC patients. Taken together, our findings convincingly demonstrated that the elevated preoperative fasting blood glucose can predict poor survival of ESCC patients, especially in males. PMID:27533454

  15. The elevated preoperative fasting blood glucose predicts a poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: The Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Peng, Feng; Lin, Xiandong; Chen, Gang; Liang, Binying; Li, Chao; Zhang, Hejun; Liao, Xuehong; Lin, Jinxiu; Zheng, Xiongwei; Niu, Wenquan

    2016-10-04

    Diabetes as a latent risk factor for cancer has been extensively investigated, while its postoperative prognosis for esophageal cancer is rarely reported. We therefore sought to assess whether the elevated fasting blood glucose before surgery was associated with poor survival in esophageal cancer patients by eliciting a subset of data from the ongoing Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study. Over 15-year follow-up, 2535 patients receiving three-field lymphadenectomy were assessable. Only patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (n=2396) were analyzed due to the lower prevalence of the other histological types. In ESCC patients, the follow-up duration ranged from 0.5 to 180 months (median 38.2 months). The median survival time (MST) was remarkably shorter in males than in females (80.7 vs. 180+ months, Log-rank test: P<0.001). In males, the survival was worse in patients with diabetes than those without (MST: 27.9 vs. 111.1 months, Log-rank test: P<0.001). In females, the survivor was improved in patients with diabetes (MST: 71.5 months), but was still worse than patients without diabetes (MST: 180+ months, Log-rank test: P<0.001). The overall multivariate hazard ratio for per unit increment in fasting blood glucose was 1.11 (95% confidence interval or CI: 1.09-1.14, P<0.001) and 1.08 (95% CI: 1.03-1.13, P=0.002) in males and females, respectively. Further survival tree analysis consolidated the discrimination ability of fasting blood glucose for the survival of ESCC patients. Taken together, our findings convincingly demonstrated that the elevated preoperative fasting blood glucose can predict poor survival of ESCC patients, especially in males.

  16. Overexpression of HnRNP A1 promotes tumor invasion through regulating CD44v6 and indicates poor prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng-Jun; Dai, Zhi; Zhou, Shao-Lai; Fu, Xiu-Tao; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Shi, Ying-Hong; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia

    2013-03-01

    Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 is a member of the A/B subfamily of ubiquitously expressed hnRNPs, which have a wide variety of functions in gene expression and signal transduction. To investigate the biological function and clinical significance of hnRNP A1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we measured hnRNP A1 expression in four HCC cell lines and two independent cohorts of HCC patients. We found that hnRNP A1 was overexpressed in the highly metastatic HCC cell lines and in tumor tissues of patients with recurrent HCC. Knockdown of hnRNP A1 in highly metastatic HCC cells caused a significant decrease in cell invasion, while upregulation of hnRNP A1 in poorly metastatic HCC cells led to a significant increase in their invasive capacity. We found that this effect may occur through the regulation of CD44v6 expression by hnRNP A1 in HCC cells. Both quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-RCR) and immunohistochemistry revealed that hnRNP A1 was upregulated in HCC tissues and coincided with overexpression of CD44v6. HCC patients with high hnRNP A1 tended to have higher levels of CD44v6, shorter overall survival (OS) and higher rates of tumor recurrence. Multivariate analyses revealed that hnRNP A1 alone or in combination with CD44v6 were independent prognostic indicators for OS and time to recurrence and have potential as therapeutic targets. In conclusion, overexpression of hnRNP A1 promotes HCC invasion by regulating the level of CD44v6 and indicates a poor prognosis for HCC patients after curative resection.

  17. Increased myo-inositol in parietal white and gray matter as a biomarker of poor prognosis in neuropsychiatric lupus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Del Castillo, A; Alonso, J; Martínez-Valle, F; Alonso-Vila, S; Garrido-Castro, A C; Vilardell-Tarrés, M; Rovira, Á; Ordi-Ros, J

    2014-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations can be a serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus, affecting nearly 56% of these patients. Frequently, acceptable clinical outcome is observed in neurolupus with immunosuppressive therapy. Different metabolites identified with MR spectroscopy may be associated with modifications in the natural history of this disease, specifically in the central nervous system. We report a case of neurolupus with progressive neurologic impairment despite aggressive immunosuppressive treatment. We describe clinical features, laboratory and MRI results, as well as characteristic findings on MR spectroscopy. Serial MRI identified atrophy of the left temporal lobe. MR spectroscopy showed an increase of myo-inositol/creatine ratio intensity, accompanied by a decrease of N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in both parietal white and gray matter. During follow-up, the patient developed progressive cognitive deficiency despite the intensification of therapy. Neurolupus manifestations are common and immunosuppressive treatment often avoids severe complications. Characteristic findings on MR spectroscopy may be useful for clinicians to determine poor prognosis and resistance to therapy.

  18. Highly expressed ribosomal protein L34 indicates poor prognosis in osteosarcoma and its knockdown suppresses osteosarcoma proliferation probably through translational control

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shuju; Zhao, Jinmin; Fowdur, Mitra; Wang, Kun; Jiang, Tenglong; He, Maolin

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma has devastating health implications on children and adolescents. However, due to its low incidence and high tumor heterogeneity, it is hard to achieve any further improvements in therapy and overall survival. Ribosomal protein L34 (RPL34) has been increasingly recognized to promote the proliferation of malignant cells, but its role in osteosarcoma has not been investigated. In this study, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry revealed that RPL34 was highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissues when compared to adjacent tissues and normal bone tissues. Survival analysis showed that high expression of RPL34 predicted a poor prognosis for osteosarcoma patients. Knockdown of RPL34 in Saos-2 cells via lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest. Moreover, screening of transcription factors using University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Browser, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis, Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that MYC participates in the transcriptional regulation of RPL34, which interacts with the subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and probably involves the translational control of growth-promoting proteins. Our findings suggest that RPL34 plays an important role in the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. PMID:27883047

  19. AURKA, DLGAP5, TPX2, KIF11 and CKAP5: Five specific mitosis-associated genes correlate with poor prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Marc A.; Christopoulos, Petros; Muley, Thomas; Warth, Arne; Klingmueller, Ursula; Thomas, Michael; Herth, Felix J.F.; Dienemann, Hendrik; Mueller, Nikola S.; Theis, Fabian; Meister, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The growth of a tumor depends to a certain extent on an increase in mitotic events. Key steps during mitosis are the regulated assembly of the spindle apparatus and the separation of the sister chromatids. The microtubule-associated protein Aurora kinase A phosphorylates DLGAP5 in order to correctly segregate the chromatids. Its activity and recruitment to the spindle apparatus is regulated by TPX2. KIF11 and CKAP5 control the correct arrangement of the microtubules and prevent their degradation. In the present study, we investigated the role of these five molecules in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We analyzed the expression of the five genes in a large cohort of NSCLC patients (n=362) by quantitative real-time PCR. Each of the genes was highly overexpressed in the tumor tissues compared to corresponding normal lung tissue. The correlation of the expression of the individual genes depended on the histology. An increased expression of AURKA, DLGAP5, TPX2, KIF11 and CKAP5 was associated with poor overall survival (P=0.001–0.065). AURKA was a significant prognostic marker using multivariate analyses (P=0.006). Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the five mitosis-associated proteins co-localized with the spindle apparatus during cell division. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the expression of the mitosis-associated genes AURKA, DLGAP5, TPX2, KIF11 and CKAP5 is associated with the prognosis of NSCLC patients. PMID:28101582

  20. Upregulation of miRNA-155 promotes tumour angiogenesis by targeting VHL and is associated with poor prognosis and triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, W; He, L; Richards, EJ; Challa, S; Xu, C-X; Permuth-Wey, J; Lancaster, JM; Coppola, D; Sellers, TA; Djeu, JY; Cheng, JQ

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is frequently up-regulated in various types of human cancer; however, its role in cancer angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the role of miR-155 in angiogenesis through targeting von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor (VHL) in breast cancer. Ectopic expression of miR-155 induced whereas knockdown of miR-155 inhibited HUVEC network formation, proliferation, invasion, and migration. Furthermore, mammary fat pad xenotransplantation of ectopically expressed miR-155 resulted in extensive angiogenesis, proliferation, tumour necrosis, and recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells such as tumour associated macrophages. Expression of VHL abrogated these miR-155 effects. Moreover, miR-155 expression inversely correlates with VHL expression level and is associated with late stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis as well as triple-negative tumour in breast cancer. These findings indicate that miR-155 plays a pivotal role in tumour angiogenesis by downregulation of VHL, and provide a basis for miR-155-expressing tumours to embody an aggressive malignant phenotype, and therefore, miR-155 is an important therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:23353819

  1. AngioMatrix, a signature of the tumor angiogenic switch-specific matrisome, correlates with poor prognosis for glioma and colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Tristan; Arnold, Christiane; van der Heyden, Michaël; Orend, Gertraud; Hussenet, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis represents a rate-limiting step during tumor progression. Targeting angiogenesis is already applied in cancer treatment, yet limits of anti-angiogenic therapies have emerged, notably because tumors adapt and recur after treatment. Therefore, there is a strong need to better understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying tumor angiogenesis. Using the RIP1-Tag2 transgenic murine model, we identified 298 genes that are deregulated during the angiogenic switch, revealing an ingression/expansion of specific stromal cell types including endothelial cells and pericytes, but also macrophages and perivascular mesenchymal cells. Canonical TGF-β signaling is up-regulated during the angiogenic switch, especially in tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts. The matrisome, comprising extracellular matrix (ECM) and ECM-associated molecules, is significantly enriched, which allowed us to define the AngioMatrix signature as the 110 matrisomal genes induced during the RIP1-Tag2 angiogenic switch. Several AngioMatrix molecules were validated at expression level. Ablation of tenascin-C, one of the most highly induced ECM molecules during the switch, resulted in reduced angiogenesis confirming its important role. In human glioma and colorectal samples, the AngioMatrix signature correlates with the expression of endothelial cell markers, is increased with tumor progression and finally correlates with poor prognosis demonstrating its diagnostic and therapeutic potential. PMID:25301723

  2. Multi-institutional study of nuclear KIFC1 as a biomarker of poor prognosis in African American women with triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Angela; Garlapati, Chakravarthy; Li, Xiaoxian (Bill); Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Wright, Nikita; Bhattarai, Shristi; Mittal, Karuna; Wetherilt, Ceyda Sönmez; Krishnamurti, Uma; Reid, Michelle D.; Jones, Mildred; Gupta, Meenakshi; Osan, Remus; Pattni, Sonal; Riaz, Ansa; Klimov, Sergey; Rao, Arundhati; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Rida, Padmashree C. G.; Aneja, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear KIFC1 (nKIFC1) predicts worse outcomes in breast cancer, but its prognostic value within racially distinct triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients is unknown. Thus, nKIFC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 163 African American (AA) and 144 White TNBC tissue microarrays (TMAs) pooled from four hospitals. nKIFC1 correlated significantly with Ki67 in White TNBCs but not in AA TNBCs, suggesting that nKIFC1 is not merely a surrogate for proliferation in AA TNBCs. High nKIFC1 weighted index (WI) was associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (Hazard Ratios [HRs] = 3.5, 3.1, and 3.8, respectively; P = 0.01, 0.009, and 0.007, respectively) in multivariable Cox models in AA TNBCs but not White TNBCs. Furthermore, KIFC1 knockdown more severely impaired migration in AA TNBC cells than White TNBC cells. Collectively, these data suggest that nKIFC1 WI an independent biomarker of poor prognosis in AA TNBC patients, potentially due to the necessity of KIFC1 for migration in AA TNBC cells. PMID:28218233

  3. Ofatumumab in poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a Phase IV, non-interventional, observational study from the European Research Initiative on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Carol; Montillo, Marco; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Dimou, Maria; Bloor, Adrian; Dupuis, Jehan; Schuh, Anna; Norin, Stefan; Geisler, Christian; Hillmen, Peter; Doubek, Michael; Trněný, Marek; Obrtlikova, Petra; Laurenti, Luca; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Smolej, Lukas; Ghia, Paolo; Cymbalista, Florence; Jaeger, Ulrich; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Stavroyianni, Niki; Carrington, Patrick; Zouabi, Hamadi; Leblond, Veronique; Gomez-Garcia, Juan C.; Rubio, Martin; Marasca, Roberto; Musuraca, Gerardo; Rigacci, Luigi; Farina, Lucia; Paolini, Rossella; Pospisilova, Sarka; Kimby, Eva; Bradley, Colm; Montserrat, Emili

    2015-01-01

    We report the largest retrospective, phase IV non-interventional, observational study of ofatumumab therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Total number of patients was 103; median age was 65 years (range 39–85). Median number of prior lines of therapy was 4 (range 1–13), including, in most cases, rituximab-, fludarabine- and alemtuzumab-based regimens; 13 patients had been allografted. Of 113 adverse events, 28 (29%) were considered to be directly related to ofatumumab. Grade 3–4 toxicities included neutropenia (10%), thrombocytopenia (5%), anemia (3%), pneumonia (17%), and fever (3%). Two heavily pre-treated patients developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. On an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall response rate was 22% (3 complete response, 1 incomplete complete response). Median progression-free and overall survival times were 5 and 11 months, respectively. This study confirms in a daily-life setting the feasibility and acceptable toxicity of ofatumumab treatment in advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The complete response rate, however, was low. Therefore, treatment with ofatumumab should be moved to earlier phases of the disease. Ideally, this should be done in combination with other agents, as recently approved for ofatumumab plus chlorambucil as front-line treatment for patients unfit for fludarabine. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01453062. PMID:25596264

  4. Multi-institutional study of nuclear KIFC1 as a biomarker of poor prognosis in African American women with triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Angela; Garlapati, Chakravarthy; Li, Xiaoxian Bill; Turaga, Ravi Chakra; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela; Wright, Nikita; Bhattarai, Shristi; Mittal, Karuna; Wetherilt, Ceyda Sönmez; Krishnamurti, Uma; Reid, Michelle D; Jones, Mildred; Gupta, Meenakshi; Osan, Remus; Pattni, Sonal; Riaz, Ansa; Klimov, Sergey; Rao, Arundhati; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Rida, Padmashree C G; Aneja, Ritu

    2017-02-20

    Nuclear KIFC1 (nKIFC1) predicts worse outcomes in breast cancer, but its prognostic value within racially distinct triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients is unknown. Thus, nKIFC1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 163 African American (AA) and 144 White TNBC tissue microarrays (TMAs) pooled from four hospitals. nKIFC1 correlated significantly with Ki67 in White TNBCs but not in AA TNBCs, suggesting that nKIFC1 is not merely a surrogate for proliferation in AA TNBCs. High nKIFC1 weighted index (WI) was associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (Hazard Ratios [HRs] = 3.5, 3.1, and 3.8, respectively; P = 0.01, 0.009, and 0.007, respectively) in multivariable Cox models in AA TNBCs but not White TNBCs. Furthermore, KIFC1 knockdown more severely impaired migration in AA TNBC cells than White TNBC cells. Collectively, these data suggest that nKIFC1 WI an independent biomarker of poor prognosis in AA TNBC patients, potentially due to the necessity of KIFC1 for migration in AA TNBC cells.

  5. Overexpression of AKIP1 predicts poor prognosis of patients with breast carcinoma and promotes cancer metastasis through Akt/GSK-3β/Snail pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Dan; Li, Xinning; Li, Chunhong; Liang, Junrong; Zeng, Tian; Su, Naiwei; Jiang, Qipei; Huang, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1), a molecular regulator of protein kinase A, was overexpressed in breast cancer. However, the prognostic and biological role of AKIP1 in breast cancer is still elusive. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role and molecular mechanism of AKIP1 in breast cancer development. The mRNA levels of AKIP1 in breast cancer and paired normal breast tissues were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. The relationship of AKIP1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical prognosis of breast cancer patients was investigated. In vitro migration and invasion assays were performed in MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells to determine its role in metastasis and the possible mechanism. The result showed that AKIP1 expression was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues compared with that in normal breast tissues. High expression of AKIP1 was associated significantly with advanced tumor stage (P<0.001), tumor size (P=0.029), and lymph node metastasis (P=0.004). Moreover, overexpression of AKIP1 was significantly correlated with poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival (P=0.038 and P=0.005, respectively). Furthermore, down-regulation of AKIP1 remarkably inhibited breast cancer cell motility and invasion through inhibiting the Akt/GSK-3β/Snail pathway. Therefore, AKIP1 may represent a prospective prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target of breast cancer. PMID:27904695

  6. LAPTM4B-35, a Cancer-Related Gene, Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in TNM Stages I-III Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Lianhai; Xing, Xiaofang; Wang, Xiaohong; Hu, Ying; Du, Hong; Li, Lin; Li, Shen; Zhou, Rouli; Wen, Xian-Zi; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background Lysosome-associated transmembrane protein 4β-35 (LAPTM4B-35), a member of the mammalian 4-tetratransmembrane spanning protein superfamily, has been reported to be overexpressed in several cancers. However the expression of LAPTM4B-35 and its role in the progression of gastric cancer (GC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate LAPTM4B-35 expression in GC, its potential relevance to clinicopathologic parameters and role of LAPTM4B-35 during gastric carcinogenesis. Methods In the present study, paraffin-embedded specimens with GC (n = 240, including 180 paired specimens) and 24 paired fresh frozen tissues were analyzed. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to analyze the expression of LAPTM4B-35 in GC. The effects of LAPTM4B-35 on GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined by overexpression and knockdown assays. Results IHC showed that LAPTM4B-35 was expressed in 68.3% (123/180) of GC tissues, while in 16.1% (29/180) of their paired adjacent noncancerous gastric tissues (P = 0.000). LAPTM4B-35 mRNA levels in GC tissues were also significantly elevated when compared with their paired adjacent noncancerous tissues (P = 0.017). Overexpression of LAPTM4B-35 was significantly associated with degree of differentiation, depth of invasion, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that patients with LAPTM4B-35 expression had a significant decrease in overall survival (OS) in stages I-III GC patients (P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis showed high expression of LAPTM4B-35 was an independent prognostic factor for OS in stage I-III GC patients (P = 0.025). Conclusion These findings indicate that LAPTM4B-35 overexpression may be related to GC progression and poor prognosis, and thus may serve as a new prediction marker of prognosis in GC patients. PMID:25849595

  7. High Ki-67 Immunohistochemical Reactivity Correlates With Poor Prognosis in Bladder Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis with 13,053 Patients Involved.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yihuan; Zhang, Xin; Mo, Meile; Tan, Zhong; Huang, Lanshan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Chunqin; Wei, Fanglin; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Rongquan; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Ki-67 is considered as one of prime biomarkers to reflect cell proliferation and immunohistochemical Ki-67 staining has been widely applied in clinical pathology. To solve the widespread controversy whether Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicts clinical prognosis of bladder carcinoma (BC), we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis by combining results from different literature. A comprehensive search was conducted in the Chinese databases of WanFang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP as well as English databases of PubMed, ISI web of science, EMBASE, Science Direct, and Wiley online library. Independent studies linking Ki-67 to cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were included in our meta-analysis. With the cut-off values literature provided, hazard ratio (HR) values between the survival distributions were extracted and later combined with STATA 12.0. In total, 76 studies (n = 13,053 patients) were eligible for the meta-analysis. It was indicated in either univariate or multivariate analysis for survival that high Ki-67 reactivity significantly predicted poor prognosis. In the univariate analysis, the combined HR for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 2.588 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.623-4.127, P < 0.001), 2.697 (95%CI: 1.874-3.883, P < 0.001), 2.649 (95%CI: 1.632-4.300, P < 0.001), 3.506 (95%CI: 2.231-5.508, P < 0.001), and 1.792 (95%CI: 1.409-2.279, P < 0.001), respectively. The pooled HR of multivariate analysis for CSS, DFS, OS, PFS, and RFS were 1.868 (95%CI: 1.343-2.597, P < 0.001), 2.626 (95%CI: 2.089-3.301, P < 0.001), 1.104 (95%CI: 1.008-1.209, P = 0.032), 1.518 (95%CI: 1.299-1.773, P < 0.001), and 1.294 (95%CI: 1.203-1.392, P < 0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis of univariate analysis by origin showed that Ki-67 reactivity significantly correlated with all 5

  8. Overexpression of a novel cell cycle regulator ecdysoneless in breast cancer: a marker of poor prognosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangshan; Mirza, Sameer; Alshareeda, Alaa; Zhang, Ying; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah Basavaraju; Bele, Aditya; Kim, Jun Hyun; Mohibi, Shakur; Goswami, Monica; Lele, Subodh M; West, William; Qiu, Fang; Ellis, Ian O; Rakha, Emad A; Green, Andrew R; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2012-07-01

    Uncontrolled proliferation is one of the hallmarks of breast cancer. We have previously identified the human Ecd protein (human ortholog of Drosophila Ecdysoneless, hereafter called Ecd) as a novel promoter of mammalian cell cycle progression, a function related to its ability to remove the repressive effects of Rb-family tumor suppressors on E2F transcription factors. Given the frequent dysregulation of cell cycle regulatory components in human cancer, we used immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded tissues to examine Ecd expression in normal breast tissue versus tissues representing increasing breast cancer progression. Initial studies of a smaller cohort without outcomes information showed that Ecd expression was barely detectable in normal breast tissue and in hyperplasia of breast, but high levels of Ecd were detected in benign breast hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDCs) of the breast. In this cohort of 104 IDC patients, Ecd expression levels showed a positive correlation with higher grade (P=0.04). Further analyses of Ecd expression using a larger, independent cohort (954) confirmed these results, with a strong positive correlation of elevated Ecd expression with higher histological grade (P=0.013), mitotic index (P=0.032), and Nottingham Prognostic Index score (P=0.014). Ecd expression was positively associated with HER2/neu (P=0.002) overexpression, a known marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer. Significantly, increased Ecd expression showed a strong positive association with shorter breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) (P=0.008) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.003) in HER2/neu overexpressing patients. Taken together, our results reveal Ecd as a novel marker for breast cancer progression and show that levels of Ecd expression predict poorer survival in Her2/neu overexpressing breast cancer patients.

  9. P53 gene mutations in breast cancers in Midwestern U.S. women: Null as well as missense-type mutations are associated with poor prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszyk, H.; Hartmann, A.; Saitoh, S.

    1994-09-01

    Differences in patterns of p53 gene mutation in different types of cancers support the idea that analysis of acquired alterations in this gene will be useful as a {open_quotes}mutagen test{close_quotes}. We are studying the pattern of p53 gene mutation in sporadic breast carcinomas in high and low risk populations. All translated exons and adjacent splice regions have been analyzed in 53 primary breast cancers from Midwestern U.S. Caucasian women. A total of 21 mutations were found in exons 2-11 and splice regions (39.6%). The mutations include 8 missense, 4 nonsense, 1 splice site point mutation, and 8 microdeletions. Comparisons of the pattern of mutations within exons 5-9 show that the frequency of missense mutations (44%) was lower in breast cancers of U.S. Midwestern women than in most tumor types and in breast cancers in other populations. Compared to breast cancers reported in a Scottish population, Midwestern U.S. women have a high frequency of microdeletion mutations (p=0.006) and a low frequency of G:C-T:A transversions (p=0.046). These findings suggest that environmental or endogenous factors contribute to p53 mutagenesis in mammary tissue to different extents among different populations. The presence of a mutation was associated with shorter time to disease recurrence (p=0.05) and shorter survival (p=0.003) (median duration of follow-up 19 months). Both putative dominant negative missense-type mutations (missense and in-frame microdeletions; p=0.001) and null mutations (hemizygous nonsense and frameshift mutations; p=0.007) were associated with poor prognosis. Thus, tumors with missense p53 mutations associated with altered binding to other proteins, altered transcriptional regulation and a dramatic increase in p53 protein concentration have similar clinical outcomes to tumors with null mutations associated with truncated or garbled proteins.

  10. Annexin A1 Preferentially Predicts Poor Prognosis of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Patients by Activating mTOR-S6 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Anjana; Ganesan, Nivetha; Tachibana, Kazunoshin; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Albarracin, Constance T.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Coarfa, Cristian; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an anti-inflammatory protein reported to play a role in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and to be deregulated in breast cancer. The exact role of annexin A1 in the biology of breast cancer remains unclear. We hypothesized that the annexin A1 plays an oncogenic role in basal subtype of breast cancer by modulating key growth pathway(s). Methods By mining the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-Breast Cancer dataset and manipulating annexin A1 levels in breast cancer cell lines, we studied the role of annexin A1 in breast cancer and underlying signaling pathways. Results Our in-silico analysis of TCGA-breast cancer dataset demonstrated that annexin A1 mRNA expression is higher in basal subtype compared to luminal and HER2 subtypes. Within the basal subtype, patients show significantly poorer overall survival associated with higher expression of annexin A1. In both TCGA patient samples and cell lines, annexin A1 levels were significantly higher in basal-like breast cancer than luminal and Her2/neu-positive breast cancer. Stable annexin A1 knockdown in TNBC cell lines suppressed the mTOR-S6 pathway likely through activation of AMPK but had no impact on the MAPK, c-Met, and EGFR pathways. In a cell migration assay, annexin A1-depleted TNBC cells showed delayed migration as compared to wild-type cells, which could be responsible for poor patient prognosis in basal like breast cancers that are known to express higher annexin A1. Conclusions Our data suggest that annexin A1 is prognostic only in patients with basal like breast cancer. This appears to be in part due to the role of annexin A1 in activating mTOR-pS6 pathway. PMID:26000884

  11. Decreased pretreatment lymphocyte/monocyte ratio is associated with poor prognosis in stage Ib1–IIa cervical cancer patients who undergo radical surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Sheng, Xiu-gui; Zhang, Shi-qian

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, pretreatment monocyte counts and the lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) have been proven to be significantly associated with the clinical outcomes of several types of cancer. In this study, we analyzed the prognostic significance of the LMR in stage Ib1–IIa cervical cancer patients who underwent a radical operation. Methods A total of 485 patients with stage Ib1–IIa cervical cancer were included in this retrospective study. We evaluated the prognostic values of the absolute lymphocyte count, absolute monocyte count, and LMR by applying receiver operating characteristic curves. Kaplan–Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional analyses were used to determine the recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Results The area under the curve was 0.640 for the RFS and 0.647 for the OS using the LMR. In the univariate analysis, an elevated preoperative LMR was significantly associated with an increased RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.373; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.247–0.563; P<0.001), and this result remained significant in the multivariate analysis (HR, 0.439; 95% CI: 0.279–0.693; P<0.001). In the univariate analysis, an elevated LMR was also significantly associated with an increased OS (HR, 0.381; 95% CI: 0.233–0.622; P<0.001), and the significance persisted in the multivariate analysis (HR, 0.417; 95% CI: 0.244–0.714; P=0.001). Conclusion A decreased pretreatment LMR is associated with a poor prognosis in stage Ib1–IIa cervical cancer patients who undergo a radical operation. A prospective study is warranted for further validation of our findings. PMID:26089685

  12. Post-treatment plasma EBV-DNA positivity predicts early relapse and poor prognosis for patients with extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma in the era of asparaginase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Jing-hua; Xia, Zhong-jun; Lu, Yue; Huang, Hui-qiang; Jiang, Wen-qi; Zhang, Yu-jing

    2015-10-06

    Circulating Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is a biomarker of EBV-associated malignancies. Its prognostic value in early stage NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) in the era of asparaginase was investigated. 68 patients were treated with a median of 4 cycles of asparaginase-based chemotherapy followed by a median of 54.6 Gy (range 50-60 Gy) radiation. The amount of EBV-DNA was prospectively measured in both pretreatment and post-treatment plasma samples by real-time quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, complete response (CR) rate was 79.4%, and overall response rate (ORR) was 88.2%. Patients with negative pretreatment EBV-DNA had a higher CR rate (96.0% vs. 69.8%, p = 0.023). The 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate was 71% and 83%, respectively. In multivariate survival analysis, post-treatment EBV-DNA positivity and treatment response (non-CR) were prognostic factors for both worse PFS and OS (p < 0.05). Local tumor invasion was also a prognostic factor for worse OS (p = 0.010). In patients with CR, post-treatment EBV-DNA positivity correlated with inferior PFS and OS (both p < 0.0001). In patients with positive pretreatment EBV-DNA, negative post-treatment EBV-DNA correlated with better PFS and OS (both p < 0.0001). These findings indicate that post-treatment EBV-DNA positivity can predict early relapse and poor prognosis for patients with early stage NKTCL in the era of asparaginase, and may be used as an indicator of minimal residual disease.

  13. Gallotannin-rich Caesalpinia spinosa fraction decreases the primary tumor and factors associated with poor prognosis in a murine breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several treatment alternatives are available for primary breast cancer, although those for metastatic disease or inflammation associated with tumor progression are ineffective. Therefore, there is a great need for new therapeutic alternatives capable of generating an immune response against residual tumor cells, thus contributing to eradication of micrometastases and cancer stem cells. The use of complex natural products is an excellent therapeutic alternative widely used by Chinese, Hindu, Egyptian, and ancestral Latin-American Indian populations. Methods The present study evaluated cytotoxic, antitumor, and tumor progression activities of a gallotannin-rich fraction derived from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et). The parameters evaluated in vitro were mitochondrial membrane depolarization, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and clonogenic activity. The parameters evaluated in vivo were tumor growth, leukocyte number, metastatic cell number, and cytokine production by flow cytometry. Results The in vitro results showed that the P2Et fraction induced apoptosis with mitochondrial membrane potential loss, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and decreased clonogenic capacity of 4T1 cells. In vivo, the P2Et fraction induced primary tumor reduction in terms of diameter and weight in BALB/c mice transplanted with 4T1 cells and decreased numbers of metastatic cells, mainly in the spleen. Furthermore, decreases in the number of peripheral blood leukocytes (leukemoid reaction) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels were found, which are events associated with a poor prognosis. The P2Et fraction exerts its activity on the primary tumor, reduces cell migration to distant organs, and decreases IL-6 serum levels, implying tumor microenvironment mechanisms. Conclusions Overall, the P2Et fraction lessens risk factors associated with tumor progression and diminishes primary tumor size, showing

  14. Id-1 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB promote migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and are correlated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Guo, Ming-Ming; Han, Ping; Lin, Ji-Zhen; Liang, Fa-Ya; Tan, Guang-Mou; Li, Hua-Bin; Zeng, Musheng; Huang, Xiao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation (Id)-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) have been detected in many malignant tumors, and their presence has been correlated with the metastatic potential of these tumors. This study was undertaken to investigate the prognostic significance of the expression of Id-1 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB (NF-κB/p65) and the proteins' roles in the invasion process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and NPC cell lines were examined using reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analysis, whereas the mRNA and protein levels of Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 in clinical NPC specimens were determined by reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 to allow for the examination of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression and migratory capacity changes in CNE-2 cells. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that elevated Id-1 expression was a significant independent predictor of the 5 year overall survival rate (hazards ratio = 16.720, P = 0.005). Furthermore, elevated expression of both Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 was associated with poor clinical survival (P = 0.049). Targeting Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 mRNA with shRNA in CNE-2 cells inhibited MMP-9 expression and decreased the migratory capacity of CNE-2 cells. In conclusion, Id-1 expression is a novel independent prognostic marker molecule that helps identify NPC patients with a poor prognosis. Additionally, combined analysis of Id-1 and NF-κB/p65 can be useful for identifying patients at risk for unfavorable clinical outcomes. Id-1 or/and NF-κB/p65 enhanced tumor cell migration, which is associated with the secretion of MMP-9.

  15. Increased MicroRNA-34b and -34c Predominantly Expressed in Stromal Tissues Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okayama, Hirokazu; Inamura, Kentaro; Anami, Katsuhiro; Nguyen, Giang H.; Horikawa, Izumi; Hawkes, Jason E.; Bowman, Elise D.; Leung, Suet Yi; Harris, Curtis C.

    2015-01-01

    The microRNA-34 family (miR-34a, -34b and -34c) have been reported to be tumor suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs) that are regulated by the TP53 and DNA hypermethylation. However, the expression, regulation, and prognostic value of the miR-34 family have not been systematically studied in colon cancer. To elucidate the roles of miR-34 family in colon carcinogenesis, miR-34a/b/c were measured in tumors and adjacent noncancerous tissues from 159 American and 113 Chinese colon cancer patients using quantitative RT-PCR, and we examined associations between miR-34a/b/c expression with TNM staging, cancer-specific mortality, TP53 mutation status and Affymetrix microarray data. All miR-34 family members were significantly increased in colon tumors, counter to the proposed tumor suppressor role for these miRNAs. Increased miR-34b/c were observed in more advanced tumors in two independent cohorts and increased expression of miR-34b/c was associated with poor cancer-specific mortality. While the expression of miR-34 family was not associated with TP53 mutation status, TP53 transcriptional activity was associated with miR-34a/b/c expression that is consistent with the proposed regulation of miR-34a/b/c by TP53. To examine where the miR-34 family is expressed, the expression of miR-34 family was compared between epitheliums and stromal tissues using laser microdissection technique. The expression of miR-34b/c was increased significantly in stromal tissues, especially in cancer stroma, compared with epithelial tissue. In conclusion, increased miR-34b/c predominantly expressed in stromal tissues is associated with poor prognosis in colon cancer. MiR-34 may contribute to cancer-stromal interaction associated with colon cancer progression. PMID:25894979

  16. Downregulation of RNF128 Predicts Progression and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Upper Tract and Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Wang, Chieh-Tien; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Li, Ching-Chia; Chan, Ti-Chun; Liang, Peir-In; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: The TP53 tumor suppressor gene plays a crucial role in the carcinogenesis of many malignancies, including urothelial carcinoma (UC). Overexpression of p53 is associated with poor prognosis in UC. Recently, RING finger protein 128 (RNF128) was shown to be involved in p53-induced apoptosis, forming a negative feedback loop. However, the significance of RNF128 in patients with UC remains unknown. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the expression of RNF128 in UC and to assess its predictive and prognostic value in a well-established cohort. Methods: Through data mining from a published transcriptome (GSE31684), RNF128 was identified as the most differentially expressed gene in UC among those associated with negative regulation of the cytokine biosynthetic process (GO:0042036). Its immunoexpression was further evaluated using the H-scores of 340 patients with upper urinary tract UC (UTUC) and 295 with urinary bladder UC (UBUC). The scores were correlated with clinicopathological features, disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). We also used Western blot analysis to evaluate RNF128 protein expression in human urothelial cell (HUC) lines. Results: Downregulation of RNF128 expression was significantly associated with advanced pT stage (p<0.001), high histological grade (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.035), nodal metastasis (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.001), vascular invasion (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.008) and high mitotic rate (UTUC, p=0.003; UBUC, p=0.023). Low expression of RNF128 was an adverse prognosticator for DSS (UTUC, p<0.0001; UBUC, p<0.0001) and MeFS (UTUC, p<0.0001; UBUC, p=0.0002). Moreover, low expression was predictive of poor DSS (UTUC, p=0.006; UBUC, p=0.003) and MeFS (UTUC, p=0.009; UBUC, p=0.036) in multivariate comparisons. Western blot analysis showed that the RNF128 protein was downregulated in invasive urothelial cancer cell lines. Conclusion: Our findings showed that downregulation of RNF128 was correlated with

  17. Ribosomal Proteins RPS11 and RPS20, Two Stress-Response Markers of Glioblastoma Stem Cells, Are Novel Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Glioblastoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuai; Tso, Jonathan L.; Menjivar, Jimmy C.; Wei, Bowen; Lucey, Gregory M.; Mareninov, Sergey; Chen, Zugen; Liau, Linda M.; Lai, Albert; Nelson, Stanley F.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Tso, Cho-Lea

    2015-01-01

    suggests that TRGC are clinically relevant cells that represent resistant tumorigenic clones from patient tumors and that their properties, at least in part, are reflected in poor-prognosis GBM. The screening of TRGC signatures may represent a novel alternative strategy for identifying new prognostic biomarkers. PMID:26506620

  18. SPOCK1 Is a Novel Transforming Growth Factor-β–Induced Myoepithelial Marker That Enhances Invasion and Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Ching; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Lu, Yueh-Tong; Lien, Huang-Chun

    2016-01-01

    In addition to contraction, myoepithelia have diverse paracrine effects, including a tumor suppression effect. However, certain myoepithelial markers have been shown to contribute to tumor progression. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to contractile myofibroblasts. We investigated whether TGF-β can upregulate potential myoepithelial markers, which may have functional and clinicopathological significance in breast cancer. We found that TGF-β induced SPOCK1 expression in MCF10A, MCF12A, and M10 breast cells and demonstrated SPOCK1 as a novel myoepithelial marker that was immunolocalized within or beneath myoepithelia lining ductolobular units. A functional study showed that overexpression of SPOCK1 enhanced invasiveness in mammary immortalized and cancer cells. To further determine the biological significance of SPOCK1 in breast cancer, we investigated the expression of SPOCK1 in 478 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases through immunohistochemistry and correlated the expression with clinicopathological characteristics. SPOCK1 expression was significantly correlated with high pathological tumor size (P = 0.012), high histological grade (P = 0.013), the triple-negative phenotype (P = 0.022), and the basal-like phenotype (P = 0.026) and was correlated with a significantly poorer overall survival on univariate analysis (P = 0.001, log-rank test). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that SPOCK1 expression maintained an independent poor prognostic factor of overall survival. Analysis of SPOCK1 expression on various non-IDC carcinoma subtypes showed an enrichment of SPOCK1 expression in metaplastic carcinoma, which is pathogenetically closely related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In conclusion, we identified SPOCK1 as a novel TGF-β–induced myoepithelial marker and further demonstrated that SPOCK1 enhanced invasion in breast cancer cells and correlated with poor prognosis in breast

  19. 3q26.2/EVI1 rearrangement is associated with poor prognosis in classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhihong; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zi; Tang, Guilin; Hodjat, Parsa; Yang, Su; Fang, Lianghua; Li, Yan; Verstovsek, Srdan; Hu, Shimin

    2017-03-24

    3q26.2 rearrangement. In summary, 3q26.2 rearrangement in classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms is associated with other concurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, a rapid disease progression and blast transformation, a poor response to chemotherapy and a dismal prognosis.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 24 March 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.19.

  20. The expressions of NEDD9 and E-cadherin correlate with metastasis and poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Qingzhong; Pan, Guozheng; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Diwen

    2016-01-01

    Background Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9), a member of Crk-associated substrate family, is involved in cancer cell adhesion, migration, invasion, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition. E-cadherin is a key event in the cellular invasion during the epithelial–mesenchymal transition mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among NEDD9 expression, E-cadherin expression, and survival in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Methods NEDD9 and E-cadherin expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 106 TNBC patients and 120 non-TNBC patients. And the association of clinicopathological factors with survival was analyzed using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression in TNBC patients. Results The results revealed that the rate of increased expression of NEDD9 and reduced expression of E-cadherin was significantly higher in TNBC group than that in non-TNBC group (P<0.001, both). Comparison of features between TNBC and non-TNBC groups showed that histological type (P=0.026) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.001) were significantly different. Correlation analysis showed that positive NEDD9 expression and negative E-cadherin expression were significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and tumor-node-metastasis stage (P<0.05). In addition, the enhanced NEDD9 expression was significantly associated with a reduced 5-year survival for TNBC patients (overall survival [OS]: P=0.013; disease-free survival [DFS]: P=0.021). Negative E-cadherin expression showed a significantly worse 5-year OS and DFS (OS: P=0.011; DFS: P=0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that lymph node metastasis (OS: P=0.006; DFS: P=0.004), tumor-node-metastasis stage (OS: P=0.012; DFS: P=0.001), NEDD9 (OS: P=0.046; DFS: P=0.022), and E-cadherin (OS: P=0.022; DFS: P=0.025) independently predicted a poor prognosis of OS and DFS. Moreover, patients with NEDD9-positive/E-cadherin-negative expression had a significantly worse

  1. KRAS mutation is a weak, but valid predictor for poor prognosis and treatment outcomes in NSCLC: A meta-analysis of 41 studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei; Yang, Yan; Zhu, Hongcheng; Zhang, Youcheng; Zhou, Rongping; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-02-16

    Mutation of oncogene KRAS is common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, its clinical significance is still controversial. Independent studies evaluating its prognostic and predictive value usually drew inconsistent conclusions. Hence, We performed a meta-analysis with 41 relative publications, retrieved from multi-databases, to reconcile these controversial results and to give an overall impression of KRAS mutation in NSCLC. According to our findings, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in early stage resected NSCLC (hazard ratio or HR=1.56 and 1.57, 95% CI 1.39-1.76 and 1.17-2.09 respectively), and with inferior outcomes of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) treatment and chemotherapy (relative risk or RR=0.21 and 0.66 for objective response rate or ORR, 95% CI 0.12-0.39 and 0.54-0.81 respectively; HR=1.46 and 1.30 for progression-free survival or PFS, 95%CI 1.23-1.74 and 1.14-1.50 respectively) in advanced NSCLC. When EGFR mutant patients were excluded, KRAS mutation was still significantly associated with worse OS and PFS of EGFR-TKIs (HR=1.40 and 1.35, 95 % CI 1.21-1.61 and 1.11-1.64). Although KRAS mutant patients presented worse DFS and PFS of chemotherapy (HR=1.33 and 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.84 and 0.95-1.30), and lower response rate to EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy (RR=0.55 and 0.88, 95 % CI 0.27-1.11 and 0.76-1.02), statistical differences were not met. In conclusion, KRAS mutation is a weak, but valid predictor for poor prognosis and treatment outcomes in NSCLC. There's a need for developing target therapies for KRAS mutant lung cancer and other tumors.

  2. SAP domain-dependent Mkl1 signaling stimulates proliferation and cell migration by induction of a distinct gene set indicative of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    -proliferative poor-outcome classes in human breast cancer and a strongly reduced survival rate for patients independent of tumor grade. Conclusions This study highlights a crucial role for the transcriptional regulator Mkl1 and its SAP domain during breast cancer progression. We identified a novel gene set that correlates with bad prognosis and thus may help in deciding the rigor of therapy. PMID:24495796

  3. ICOS is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer as it promotes the amplification of immunosuppressive CD4(+) T cells by plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Faget, Julien; Sisirak, Vanja; Blay, Jean-Yves; Caux, Christophe; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Ménétrier-Caux, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) that infiltrate primary breast tumors impair patient survival. The ICOS-mediated interaction between tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells and pDCs leads to the amplification of Tregs and interleukin-10 secretion. Importantly, ICOS(+) cell infiltration correlates with adverse patient prognosis, identifying ICOS as a new target for cancer immunotherapy.

  4. ICOS is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer as it promotes the amplification of immunosuppressive CD4+ T cells by plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Faget, Julien; Sisirak, Vanja; Blay, Jean-Yves; Caux, Christophe; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie; Ménétrier-Caux, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) that infiltrate primary breast tumors impair patient survival. The ICOS-mediated interaction between tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T cells and pDCs leads to the amplification of Tregs and interleukin-10 secretion. Importantly, ICOS+ cell infiltration correlates with adverse patient prognosis, identifying ICOS as a new target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23802069

  5. High Levels of Soluble C5b-9 Complex in Dialysis Fluid May Predict Poor Prognosis in Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Masashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Higashide, Keiko; Sei, Yumi; Iguchi, Daiki; Sakata, Fumiko; Horie, Masanobu; Maruyama, Shoichi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Morgan, B. Paul; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background We searched for indicators to predict the prognosis of infectious peritonitis by measuring levels of complement proteins and activation products in peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid (PDF) of patients at early stages of peritonitis. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the levels of sC5b-9, C3 and C4 in PDF and the subsequent clinical prognosis. Methods We measured levels of sC5b-9, C3 and C4 in PDF on days 1, 2 and 5 post-onset of peritonitis in 104 episodes of infectious peritonitis in PD patients from 2008 and retrospectively compared levels with clinical outcomes. Further analysis for the presence of causative microorganisms or to demonstrate bacterial culture negative peritonitis was performed and correlated with change of levels of sC5b-9 in PDF. Results When PD patients with peritonitis were divided into groups that either failed to recover from peritonitis and were finally withdrawn from PD (group 1; n = 25) or recovered (group 2; n = 79), levels of sC5b-9, C3 and C4 in PDF were significantly higher in group 1 patients compared to those in group 2 on day5. Analysis of microorganisms showed significantly higher sC5b-9 levels in PDF of peritonitis cases caused by culture negative peritonitis in group 1 compared with group 2 when we analyzed for individual microorganisms. Of note, on day5, the sC5b-9 levels in PDF were similarly high in peritonitis caused by fungi or other organisms. Conclusion Our results suggested that levels of complement markers in PDF, especially sC5b-9, have potential as surrogate markers to predict prognosis of PD-related peritonitis. PMID:28046064

  6. Co-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and human tissue factor is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Li, Zhonghu; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yujun; Jiang, Yan; He, Yu; Li, Xiaowu

    2014-08-01

    The metastasis-related molecules CD133, CD44v6 and human tissue factor (TF) have been shown to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to determine whether co-expression of these three molecules was associated with metastasis and overall prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma. We analyzed the expression profiles of these three molecules by immunohistochemistry and evaluated the relationship of their expression profiles with metastasis and prognosis in 109 pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that the expression levels of CD133, CD44v6 and TF were increased in pancreatic carcinoma. Co-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF (tri-expression) was also detected in pancreatic carcinoma. Clinical analysis showed that individual expression of CD133, CD44v6 or TF was associated with vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis, while tri-expression was associated with lymph node metastasis. Survival analysis showed that patients with co-expression of CD133 and TF or tri-expression had lower and the lowest overall survival rates, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that T-factor, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, and individual levels or tri-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF were survival risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that tri-expression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF was an independent predictor of survival. These results suggest that overexpression of CD133, CD44v6 and TF is associated with pancreatic carcinoma metastasis. Tri-expression of these three molecules may be a useful predictor for pancreatic carcinoma prognosis.

  7. Depression induces poor prognosis associates with the down-regulation brain derived neurotrophic factor of serum in advanced small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yufeng; Si, Ruirui; Yang, Sen; Xia, Suhua; He, Zelai; Wang, Lili; He, Zhen; Wang, Qiming; Tang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer often experience a state of depression, and these conditions may severely affect their quality of life (QoL) and prescription compliance. The current study was conducted to delineate the complex links between depression and the prognosis of patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and the underlying mechanism was also explored. 186 patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy for newly diagnosed stage III or stage IV SCLC were enrolled. The Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaire was completed the day before the start of chemotherapy to assess the depression status of the patients. Patients with stage IV SCLC or lower BMI have higher depression scores. In terms of the adverse effects of chemotherapy, depression severely decreases patient tolerance to chemotherapy and their QoL score (R2 = 0.2385) and is also associated with severe vomiting (P < 0.001), leukopenia (R2 = 0.2332), and prolonged hospital stay (R2 = 0.1961). More importantly, severe depression reduces the PFS (R2 = 0.1943) and OS (P < 0.01) of the patients. We found that patients with severe depression displayed a downregulated level of serum BDNF and that the level of serum BDNF was highly correlated with the OS of the patients (R2 = 0.2292). Using the MTT cell viability assay in vitro, we observed that cotreatment with BDNF clearly enhanced the chemosensitivity of NCI-H69 tumor cells to Cisplatin and induced the downregulation of ABCG2. Based on this evidence, it appears that a relationship does exist between depression and prognosis in SCLC and that the mechanism by which depression affects prognosis is achieved via the downregulation of BDNF expression. PMID:27852063

  8. Nestin expression on tumour vessels and tumour-infiltrating macrophages define a poor prognosis subgroup of pt1 clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Sbidian, Emilie; Posseme, Katia; Letierce, Alexia; Guettier, Catherine; Benoît, Gérard; Ferlicot, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    The behaviour of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) is highly unpredictable. Despite adequate initial surgery, 20 to 30 % of patients will develop local recurrence or metastasis during follow-up. Usual clinical and pathology parameters tend to classify most patients in an intermediate prognosis group, and molecular markers to determine prognosis more accurately are needed. A key feature of CCRCC is its abundant vascularization. Factors that upregulate angiogenesis, such as hypoxia and the presence of immune cells including macrophages, also modulate tumour proliferation and metastasis. We studied angiogenesis, as defined by nestin-positive capillaries, and tumour infiltration by macrophages especially in the good prognosis pT1 subgroup of CCRCC. We assessed whether these parameters are associated with metastatic extension and survival in CCRCC. The expression of HIF1α, CAIX, nestin, CD68 and CD163 was assessed by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray (TMA) containing tissue samples from 257 consecutive patients with sporadic CCRCC. Factors associated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analysed. The presence of nestin-positive tumour vessels was independently associated with shorter PFS in the whole cohort and in the pT1 subgroup. The presence of tumour-infiltrating macrophages was independently associated with shorter OS in the whole cohort and in the pT1 subgroup. The presence of nestin-positive endothelial cells is associated with early relapse, especially in the pT1 subgroup and may help to select patients for antiangiogenic treatment. The presence of tumour-infiltrating M2-type macrophages is a strong predictor of short survival and may be used to adapt treatment strategy.

  9. NUP98 is rearranged in 3.8% of pediatric AML forming a clinical and molecular homogenous group with a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Struski, S; Lagarde, S; Bories, P; Puiseux, C; Prade, N; Cuccuini, W; Pages, M-P; Bidet, A; Gervais, C; Lafage-Pochitaloff, M; Roche-Lestienne, C; Barin, C; Penther, D; Nadal, N; Radford-Weiss, I; Collonge-Rame, M-A; Gaillard, B; Mugneret, F; Lefebvre, C; Bart-Delabesse, E; Petit, A; Leverger, G; Broccardo, C; Luquet, I; Pasquet, M; Delabesse, E

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare disease whose prognosis is highly variable according to factors such as chromosomal abnormalities. Recurrent genomic rearrangements are detected in half of pediatric AML by karyotype. NUcleoPorin 98 (NUP98) gene is rearranged with 31 different fusion partner genes. These rearrangements are frequently undetected by conventional cytogenetics, as the NUP98 gene is located at the end of the chromosome 11 short arm (11p15). By screening a series of 574 pediatric AML, we detected a NUP98 rearrangement in 22 cases (3.8%), a frequency similar to CBFB-MYH11 fusion gene (4.0%). The most frequent NUP98 fusion gene partner is NSD1. These cases are homogeneous regarding their biological and clinical characteristics, and associated with bad prognosis only improved by bone marrow transplantation. We detailed the biological characteristics of these AML by exome sequencing which demonstrated few recurrent mutations (FLT3 ITD, WT1, CEBPA, NBPF14, BCR and ODF1). The analysis of the clonal structure in these cases suggests that the mutation order in the NUP98-rearranged pediatric AML begins with the NUP98 rearrangement leading to epigenetic dysregulations then followed by mutations of critical hematopoietic transcription factors and finally, activation of the FLT3 signaling pathway.

  10. Autophagy Defects Suggested by Low Levels of Autophagy Activator MAP1S and High Levels of Autophagy Inhibitor LRPPRC Predict Poor Prognosis of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xianhan; Zhong, Weide; Huang, Hai; He, Huichan; Jiang, Funeng; Chen, Yanru; Yue, Fei; Zou, Jing; Li, Xun; He, Yongzhong; You, Pan; Yang, Weiqiang; Lai, Yiming; Wang, Fen; Liu, Leyuan

    2016-01-01

    MAP1S (originally named C19ORF5) is a widely distributed homolog of neuronal-specific MAP1A and MAP1B, and bridges autophagic components with microtubules and mitochondria to affect autophagosomal biogenesis and degradation. Mitochondrion-associated protein LRPPRC functions as an inhibitor for autophagy initiation to protect mitochondria from autophagy degradation. MAP1S and LRPPRC interact with each other and may collaboratively regulate autophagy although the underlying mechanism is yet unknown. Previously, we have reported that LRPPRC levels serve as a prognosis marker of patients with prostate adenocarcinomas (PCA), and that patients with high LRPPRC levels survive a shorter period after surgery than those with low levels of LRPPRC. MAP1S levels are elevated in diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocelular carcinomas in wildtype mice and the exposed MAP1S-deficient mice develop more malignant hepatocellular carcinomas. We performed immunochemical analysis to evaluate the co-relationship among the levels of MAP1S, LRPPRC, P62, and γ-H2AX. Samples were collected from wildtype and prostate-specific PTEN-deficient mice, 111 patients with PCA who had been followed up for 10 years and 38 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia enrolled in hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The levels of MAP1S were generally elevated so the MAP1S-mediated autophagy was activated in PCA developed in either PTEN-deficient mice or patients than their respective benign tumors. The MAP1S levels among patients with PCA vary dramatically, and patients with low MAP1S levels survive a shorter period than those with high MAP1S levels. Levels of MAP1S in collaboration with levels of LRPPRC can serve as markers for prognosis of prostate cancer patients. PMID:25043940

  11. Assessing the clinical value of microRNAs in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liposarcoma tissues: Overexpressed miR-155 is an indicator of poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kapodistrias, Nikolaos; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Batistatou, Anna; Gogou, Penelope; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Sainis, Ioannis; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Scorilas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Liposarcoma (LPS) is a malignancy with extreme heterogeneity and thus optimization towards personalizing patient prognosis and treatment is essential. Here, we evaluated miR-155, miR-21, miR-143, miR-145 and miR-451 that are implicated in LPS, as novel FFPE tissue biomarkers. A total of 83 FFPE tissue specimens from primary LPS and lipomas (LPM) were analyzed. A proteinase K incubation-Trizol treatment coupled protocol was used for RNA isolation. After polyadenylation of total RNA and reverse transcription, expression analysis of 9 candidate reference and 5 target miRNAs was performed by qPCR. Genorm and NormFinder were used for finding the most suitable molecules for normalization. Survival analyses were performed in order to evaluate the prognostic potential of miRNAs. MiR-103 and miR-191 are most suitable for normalization of miRNA expression in LPS. MiR-155 and miR-21 are clearly overexpressed (P<0.001) in LPS compared with LPM specimens, whereas miR-145 (P<0.001), miR-143 (P =0.008) and miR-451 (P=0.037) are underexpressed. MiR-155 (P=0.007) and miR-21 (P=0.029) are differentially expressed between well-differentiated, dedifferentiated, myxoid/round cell and pleomorphic LPs tumor subtypes. MiR-155 represents a novel independent indicator of unfavorable prognosis in LPS (HR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.23–7.17, P = 0.016). PMID:28036291

  12. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells deficient in IFNα production promote the amplification of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Sisirak, Vanja; Faget, Julien; Vey, Nelly; Blay, Jean-Yves; Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Caux, Christophe; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) within breast carcinoma lesions is associated with a poor clinical outcome. We demonstrated that the deleterious impact of tumor-associated pDCs (TApDCs) is due to their impaired capacity to produce Type I interferon, which in turn potentiates their ability to sustain the proliferation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells. PMID:23482834

  13. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells deficient in IFNα production promote the amplification of FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells and are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sisirak, Vanja; Faget, Julien; Vey, Nelly; Blay, Jean-Yves; Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; Caux, Christophe; Bendriss-Vermare, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) within breast carcinoma lesions is associated with a poor clinical outcome. We demonstrated that the deleterious impact of tumor-associated pDCs (TApDCs) is due to their impaired capacity to produce Type I interferon, which in turn potentiates their ability to sustain the proliferation of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells.

  14. DNMT3A mutation is a poor prognosis biomarker in AML: results of a meta-analysis of 4500 AML patients.

    PubMed

    Shivarov, Velizar; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Stoimenov, Angel; Tiu, Ramon

    2013-11-01

    Somatic DNA methyl transferase 3A (DNMT3A) mutations have been recognized recently as recurrent molecular aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The precise role of these mutations in leukemogenesis remains elusive but a number of studies have already been conducted to study their potential prognostic value in AML patients with variable results. We performed a meta-analysis on published data from over 4500 AML patients to provide robust evidence supporting DNMT3A mutation testing in clinical setting for AML patients. Our meta-analysis showed that DNMT3A mutations were associated with M4 and M5 AML subtypes. Those mutations conferred significantly worse prognosis with both shorter OS (p=0.0004) and shorter RFS (p=0.002). Notably, DNMT3A mutations appeared to be an independent adverse prognostic factor also in younger patients with normal cytogenetics AML (OS (p=0.01) and RFS (p=0.0005)) and also in the subgroup of patients with high risk genotypes defined according to the criteria of the European Leukemia Net (ELN) (OS (p=0.002)). Therefore, DNMT3A mutational status can improve the risk stratification of AML patients in the setting of integrated mutational profiling.

  15. Overexpression of PP2A inhibitor SET oncoprotein is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Gu, Yixue; Wang, Hongsheng; Yin, Jiang; Zheng, Guopei; Zhang, Zhijie; Lu, Minyin; Wang, Chenkun; He, Zhimin

    2015-06-20

    SET oncoprotein is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and SET-mediated PP2A inhibition is an important regulatory mechanism for promoting cancer initiation and progression of several types of human leukemia disease. However, its potential relevance in solid tumors as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains mostly unknown. In this study, we showed that SET was evidently overexpressed in human NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC tissues. Clinicopathologic analysis showed that SET expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (p < 0.001), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with high SET expression had poorer overall survival rates than those with low SET expression. Moreover, knockdown of SET in NSCLC cells resulted in attenuated proliferative and invasive abilities. The biological effect of SET on proliferation and invasion was mediated by the inhibition of the PP2A, which in turn, activation of AKT and ERK, increased the expression of cyclin D1 and MMP9, and decreased the expression of p27. Furthermore, we observed that restoration of PP2A using SET antagonist FTY720 impaired proliferative and invasive potential in vitro, as well as inhibited tumor growth in vivo of NSCLC cells. Taken together, SET oncoprotein plays an important role in NSCLC progression, which could serve as a potential prognosis marker and a novel therapeutic target for NSCLC patients.

  16. Downregulation of the neonatal Fc receptor expression in non-small cell lung cancer tissue is associated with a poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Dalloneau, Emilie; Baroukh, Nadine; Mavridis, Konstantinos; Maillet, Agnès; Gueugnon, Fabien; Courty, Yves; Petit, Agnès; Kryza, Thomas; Del Rio, Maguy; Guyetant, Serge; Castaneda, Diana Carolina Cadena; Dhommée, Christine; Arnoult, Christophe; Scorilas, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Although the recommended tumor, node and metastasis (TNM) classification and stage determination are important to select therapeutic options for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), additional molecular markers are required to indicate the prognosis, in particular within a specific stage, and help with the management of patients. Because neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has recently been involved in colon cancer immunosurveillance, we measured its expression in non-cancerous and NSCLC lung tissues and evaluated its prognostic value in overall survival for patient with NSCLC. FcRn expression was determined at both mRNA and protein levels on cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from 80 NSCLC patients. In NSCLC, FcRn was mainly found in resident and tumor infiltrating immune cells. The corresponding mRNA and protein were significantly less abundant in lung tumor than non-cancerous tissue. Moreover, analysis of our cohort and datasets from the public data bases show that FCGRT mRNA down-regulation is a robust and independent, unfavorable predictive factor of NSCLC patient survival. We conclude that FCGRT mRNA expression may be a useful additional marker for immunoscoring, reflecting tumor immune system, and help in the decision-making process for NSCLC patients. PMID:27384673

  17. The Number of Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes and Pathological Tumor Depth Predicts Prognosis in Patients With Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; and others

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The objective of this retrospective study was twofold: (1) to investigate prognostic factors for clinical outcomes in patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and (2) to identify specific prognostic subgroups that may help to guide treatment decisions. Methods and Materials: We examined 102 patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were followed for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. The 5-year rates of local control, neck control, distant metastasis, disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival served as main outcome measures. Results: The 5-year rates were as follows: local control (79%), neck control (64%), distant metastases (27%), disease-free survival (48%), disease-specific survival (52%), and overall survival (42%). Multivariable analysis showed that the number of pathologically positive nodes ({>=}4 vs. {<=}3) was a significant predictor of neck control, distant metastasis, and disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates. In addition, the presence of tumor depth of {>=}11 mm (vs. <11 mm) was a significant predictor of distant metastasis, disease-specific survival, and overall survival rates. The combination of the two predictors (26.5%, 27/102) was independently associated with poorer neck control (p = 0.0319), distant metastasis (p < 0.0001), and disease-free (p < 0.0001), disease-specific (p < 0.0001), and overall survival (p < 0.0001) rates. Conclusions: In patients with poorly differentiated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, the presence of at least 4 pathologically positive lymph nodes and of a pathological tumor depth {>=}11 mm identifies a subset of subjects with poor clinical outcomes. Patients carrying both risk factors are suitable candidates for the development of novel therapeutic approaches.

  18. Usefulness of right-to-left shunting and poor exercise gas exchange for predicting prognosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oudiz, Ronald J; Midde, Raghu; Hovenesyan, Arsen; Sun, Xing-Guo; Roveran, Giorgio; Hansen, James E; Wasserman, Karlman

    2010-04-15

    We hypothesized that the longitudinal changes in peak oxygen uptake, ventilatory efficiency, and exercise-induced right-to-left shunting in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) would predict outcomes better than baseline measurements alone. Patients with PAH die prematurely. Identifying prognostic markers is critical for treating patients with PAH; however, longitudinal prognostic information of PAH is limited. We enrolled 103 patients with PAH into a long-term, prospective outcome study using serial cardiopulmonary exercise testing to measure the peak oxygen uptake, ventilatory efficiency (ratio of ventilation to carbon dioxide output at the anaerobic threshold), right-to-left shunting, and other factors in patients treated with optimal therapy. The patients were followed up for a mean of 4.7 years. During the study period, 20 patients died, and 3 underwent lung transplantation. The baseline peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory efficiency was 0.79 L/min and 49 (normal <34), respectively, reflecting severe disease. Poorer ventilatory efficiency and greater New York Heart Association classification were associated with poor outcome at baseline and at follow-up. On multivariate analysis, the persistence or development of an exercise-induced right-to-left shunt strongly predicted death or transplantation (p <0.0001), independent of the hemodynamics and all other exercise measures, including peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory efficiency. The absence of a shunt at baseline was associated with a 20% rate of nonsurvival, which decreased to 7% at follow-up. A poorer ventilatory efficiency appeared to be associated with a poor outcome in patients without a shunt. In conclusion, a persistent exercise-induced right-to-left shunt and poor ventilatory efficiency were highly predictive of poor outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  19. VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A-independent mechanism and serves as a marker of poor prognosis for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Yin; Hosaka, Kayoko; Andersson, Patrik; Wang, Jian; Tholander, Fredrik; Cao, Ziquan; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Tegnér, Jesper; Yang, Yunlong; Iwamoto, Hideki; Lim, Sharon; Cao, Yihai

    2015-06-02

    The biological functions of VEGF-B in cancer progression remain poorly understood. Here, we report that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through the remodeling of tumor microvasculature. Knockdown of VEGF-B in tumors resulted in increased perivascular cell coverage and impaired pulmonary metastasis of human melanomas. In contrast, the gain of VEGF-B function in tumors led to pseudonormalized tumor vasculatures that were highly leaky and poorly perfused. Tumors expressing high levels of VEGF-B were more metastatic, although primary tumor growth was largely impaired. Similarly, VEGF-B in a VEGF-A-null tumor resulted in attenuated primary tumor growth but substantial pulmonary metastases. VEGF-B also led to highly metastatic phenotypes in Vegfr1 tk(-/-) mice and mice treated with anti-VEGF-A. These data indicate that VEGF-B promotes cancer metastasis through a VEGF-A-independent mechanism. High expression levels of VEGF-B in two large-cohort studies of human patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma correlated with poor survival. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that VEGF-B is a vascular remodeling factor promoting cancer metastasis and that targeting VEGF-B may be an important therapeutic approach for cancer metastasis.

  20. Upregulation of the long non-coding RNA SPRY4-IT1 indicates a poor prognosis and promotes tumorigenesis in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Liu, Chunhua; Lu, Zhanbin; Chen, Li; Wang, Juan; Li, Yindi; Ma, Huiping

    2017-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be critical mediators in various tumors associated with cancer progression. LncRNA SPRY4-IT1 serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the biological role and clinical significance of lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 in human ovarian cancer (OC) need to be completely elucidated. The aim of the present study was to explore the lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 expression in human OC patients and its role in OC cells. We show that lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 expression is significantly upregulated in ovarian tumor tissues and OC cell lines in comparison with adjacent non-tumor control tissues and the human ovarian immortalized nontumorigenic ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE), respectively. Further analysis by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate analysis indicated that high lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 expression may be an independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in OC patients. Furthermore, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 was up to 0.8512, indicating lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 has diagnostic values to discriminate tumor tissues from nontumorous tissues. Also, knockdown of lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 inhibited the proliferation of OC cells by CCK-8 assay and clonogenic assay and arrested cell cycle at a G0/G1 stage in OC cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 may be considered as a new predictor in the clinical prognosis of OC patients.

  1. Pretreatment Alkaline Phosphatase and Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Predict Poor Prognosis and Response to Salvage Radiotherapy in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Metachronous Bone-Only Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    He, ShaSha; Wang, Yan; Peng, Hao; Yang, Lin; Chen, HaiYang; Liang, ShaoBo; Lu, LiXia; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background: The bones are the most common site of distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Few prognostic markers are available to guide treatment and sub-classify patients with bone metastasis. We aimed to identify the prognostic value of pretreatment serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV DNA) in patients with bone-only metastasis. Methods: A total of 272 patients who developed bone-only metastases after therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized according to pretreatment serum ALP (< or ≥ 110 U/L) and pretreatment plasma EBV DNA (< or ≥ 6,750 copies ml-1). Univariate and multivariate analyses of clinical variables were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Results: Median OS for the cohort was 34.06 months (range, 2.53-143.87 months). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis verified pretreatment serum ALP and pretreatment plasma EBV DNA were independent prognostic factors for OS. In stratified survival analysis of patients with elevated pretreatment serum ALP and/or plasma EBV DNA, delivery of radiotherapy (RT) to bone metastases provided a significant OS benefit compared to other therapeutic methods (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates two important points: firstly, pretreatment serum ALP and plasma EBV DNA have prognostic value at the first diagnosis of bone-only metastasis in NPC. Secondly, radiotherapy of bone metastasis improves the prognosis of patients with elevated pretreatment serum ALP and plasma EBV DNA. PMID:28261343

  2. Overexpression of collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is associated with tumour aggressiveness and poor prognosis in human non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ke, Zunfu; He, Weiling; Lai, Yuanhui; Guo, Xuefeng; Chen, Sharon; Li, Shuhua; Wang, Yuefeng; Wang, Liantang

    2014-10-15

    Collagen triple helix repeat-containing 1 (CTHRC1), a novel oncogene, was identified to be aberrantly overexpressed in several malignant tumors. However, the expression profile of CTHRC1 and its clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unknown. In this study, we showed that CTHRC1 was evidently overexpressed in human NSCLC tissues and NSCLC cell lines at the protein and mRNA level. Ectopic up-regulation of CTHRC1 in cancer cells resulted in elevated invasive and proliferative abilities, which were attenuated by the specific CTHRC1 siRNA. The biological effect of CTHRC1 on metastasis and proliferation was mediated by the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Furthermore, CTHRC1 immunoreactivity was evidently overexpressed in paraffin-embedded NSCLC tissues (212/292, 72.60%) in comparison to corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues (6/66, 9.09%) (p<0.001). Clinicopathologic analysis showed that CTHRC1 expression was significantly correlated with differentiation degree (p<0.001), clinical stage (p<0.001), T classification (p<0.001), lymph node metastasis (p=0.013) and distant metastasis (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with high CTHRC1 expression had poorer overall survival rates than those with low CTHRC1 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that CTHRC1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of NSCLC patients. Collectively, CTHRC1 plays important roles in NSCLC progression, and the evaluation of CTHRC1 expression could serve as a potential marker for metastasis progression and prognosis in NSCLC patients.

  3. High expression of fibronectin is associated with poor prognosis, cell proliferation and malignancy via the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wenzhong; Xiao, Enhua; Ding, Ru; Luo, Ping; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Fibronectin is a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, and regulates the processes of self-renewal and cell cycle progression. This study aimed to investigate fibronectin expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and elucidate the effects of fibronectin on CRC by using a knockdown approach. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of fibronectin in 107 CRC patient tissues and gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot analysis. Based on the above findings, the association among fibronectin expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed. Next, fibronectin expression was silenced by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the effects of fibronectin siRNA transfection on CRC cells and tumor growth in nude mice were assessed. Expression of genes in the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway were analyzed after fibronectin siRNA transfection both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the results, high expression of fibronectin was observed both in the CRC tissues and CRC cell lines. The expression level was positively correlated with TNM stage (P=0.0025) and distant metastasis (P=0.0013). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the patients with low fibronectin expression had a longer survival time comparing to those with relatively high expression. Knockdown of fibronectin suppressed SW480 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, knockdown of fibronectin led to S phase cell cycle arrest. The following study showed that the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway in CRC was affected by fibronectin knockdown. Tumor formation was also depressed by fibronectin siRNA transfection of CRC cells. These results showed the significant role of fibronectin in CRC tissues and cell lines. Therefore, fibronectin may be regarded as a potential target for CRC treatment. PMID:27748871

  4. Overexpression of the long non-coding RNA, linc-UBC1, is associated with poor prognosis and facilitates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xunfeng; Wen, Jianfan; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Guowei; Zhang, Gangqing

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve comprehensive roles in various diseases, including cancer. lncRNA upregulated in bladder cancer 1 (linc-UBC1) is a notable biomarker of prognosis in certain cancer types; however, its involvement in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of linc-UBC1 in patients with CRC and to investigate its effect on CRC cells. The expression levels of linc-UBC1 were estimated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in clinical CRC specimens and matched adjacent non-tumor mucosa from 96 cases of CRC, as well as in a number of CRC cell lines. In addition, the biological roles of linc-UBC1 were examined using a cell counting kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and migration and invasion assays following the downregulation of linc-UBC1 by small interfering RNA. The results revealed that linc-UBC1 was significantly overexpressed in CRC tissues and the majority of CRC cell lines compared with the matched non-tumor mucosa and normal intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, high expression levels of linc-UBC1 were significantly associated with large tumor size, greater tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, and advanced tumor-node-metastasis stages. Patients with abnormal expression of linc-UBC1 had poorer overall survival times according to Kaplan–Meier analyses. Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that linc-UBC1 was a significant independent prognostic factor. The results also revealed that reducing the expression of linc-UBC1 led to the inhibition of migration, invasion, and proliferation of CRC cells in vitro. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that overexpression of linc-UBC1 promotes proliferation and metastasis in CRC, and may be considered as a novel diagnostic marker of CRC. PMID:28260919

  5. Long noncoding RNA LINC01296 is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer and promotes cancer-cell proliferation and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Gong; Zhang, Cheng; Zheng, Yuxiao; Xu, Haoxiang; Yang, Haiwei; Hua, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    a potential biomarker of prognosis. PMID:28392705

  6. CDKN2A (p16) mRNA decreased expression is a marker of poor prognosis in malignant high-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Sibin, M K; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Narasingarao, K V L; Lavanya, Ch; Chetan, G K

    2015-09-01

    Human high-grade glioma is heterogeneous in nature based on pathological and genetic profiling. Various tumour suppressor gene alterations are considered as prognostic markers in high-grade glioma. Gene expression of CDKN2A (p16) is used in various cancers as a prognostic biomarker along with methylation and deletion status of this gene. Expression levels of p16 mRNA were not studied as a biomarker in gliomas before. In this study, we have performed mRNA quantification analysis on 48 high-grade glioma tissues and checked for a possible prognostic role. The decreased expression of p16 mRNA in majority of the tumour tissues (57.1 %) was observed when compared to control tissues (P = 0.02). mRNA expression level was correlated with clinical variables also. p16 deletion status and BMI1 mRNA expression were also considered for comparison. p16 mRNA was negatively correlated with the BMI1 mRNA (P = <0.0001) but not with p16 deletion. p16 mRNA expression, midline shift in MRI and tumour type were able to predict patient survival in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). p16 mRNA could independently predict prognosis of OS (P = 0.0146) and PFS (P = 0.0305) in multivariate analysis. We have shown that p16 mRNA expression can act as an independent prognostic biomarker in high-grade glioma.

  7. Long non-coding RNA ATB promotes growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition and predicts poor prognosis in human prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, SONG; YI, XIAO-MING; TANG, CHAO-PENG; GE, JING-PING; ZHANG, ZHENG-YU; ZHOU, WEN-QUAN

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be critical mediators in various tumors associated with cancer progression. Long non-coding RNA activated by TGF-β (lncRNA-ATB) is a stimulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and serves as a novel prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the biological role and clinical significance of lncRNA-ATB in human prostate cancer have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to explore the expression of lncRNA-ATB in human prostate cancer patients and the role of lncRNA-ATB in prostate cancer cells. We showed that lncRNA-ATB expression was significantly upregulated in tumor tissues in patients with prostate cancer in comparison with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Further analysis indicted that high lncRNA-ATB expression may be an independent prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival in prostate cancer patients. Overexpression of lncRNA-ATB promoted, and knockdown of lncRNA-ATB inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells via regulations of cell cycle regulatory protein expression levels. In addition, lncRNA-ATB stimulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with ZEB1 and ZNF217 expression levels via ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. These results indicated that lncRNA-ATB may be considered as a new predictor in the clinical prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. Overexpression of lncRNA-ATB exerts mitogenic and EMT effects of prostate cancer via activation of ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. PMID:27176634

  8. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway enhances cancer cell invasion by upregulating the MMP expression and is associated with poor prognosis in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masaru; Mikami, Shuji; Kikuchi, Eiji; Kosaka, Takeo; Miyajima, Akira; Nakagawa, Ken; Mukai, Makio; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu

    2010-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the activation of the AhR pathway are involved in xenobiotic-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although xenobiotics, such as cigarette smoke, contribute to the development of urothelial carcinoma (UC), the relationship between AhR and UC is unclear. In the present study, we investigated AhR expression in 209 patients with upper urinary tract UC. The nuclear expression of AhR was significantly associated with histological grade, pathological T stage, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that nuclear AhR expression was a significant and independent predictor for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 2.469, P = 0.013). To determine whether the AhR pathway can be activated in the T24 UC cell line, we examined the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are target genes of the AhR pathway, following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ligand of AhR. TCDD treatment upregulated the expression levels of AhR, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. TCDD enhanced T24 cell invasion associated with the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, targeting AhR messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in T24 cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) downregulated the mRNA expression of AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9; furthermore, the cells transfected with siRNA for AhR showed decreased invasion activity in comparison with the cells transfected with a non-targeting siRNA. Our results therefore suggest that AhR plays a role in the invasiveness of UC cells and can serve as a marker for the prognosis of upper urinary tract UC.

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is correlated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor prognosis in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunxiao; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Zhaoyue; Qu, Mingqi; Bu, Xingyao

    2015-12-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of key players in regulation of inflammation. Animal experiments have suggested an important role of TLR4 in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In present study, TLR4 is investigated in clinical SAH patients to explore its clinical significance. 30 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and 20 healthy control patients (HC) were enrolled in this prospective study. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3 and 7 after admission. TLR4 expression level on cell surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by flow cytometry and presented as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Patients were clinically assessed every day after admission to monitor the occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Participants were followed up until completion of 3 months after SAH. Functional outcome was defined by modified Rankin score (mRs). Results show that SAH patients presented a significantly higher TLR4 levels on days 1 and 3 post SAH compared to HC; TLR4 levels in SAH patients on day 1 was highest compared with that on days 3 and 7 and in HC. TLR4 of SAH patients on day 7 declined to the level showing no significant difference with that of HC. In patients with Hunt-Hess grades I-III lower TLR4 levels were observed. Patients with DCI showed significantly higher TLR4 levels than those without DCI. High TLR4 levels were statistically significantly associated with poor functional outcome after 3 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that TLR4 level on day 1 was independent predictor for DCI and 3-month poor neurological outcome of aneurysmal SAH patients. In summary, admission TLR4 level on PBMCs (day 1) is an independent risk factor to predict the occurrence of DCI and 3-month poor neurological outcome in aneurysmal SAH patients.

  10. Loss of ARID1A expression predicts poor survival prognosis in gastric cancer: a systematic meta-analysis from 14 studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Wei, Sheng; Zhao, Rongxian; Wu, Yingxing; Qiu, Hong; Xiong, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    The chromatin remodeling gene, AT-rich interactive domain 1A gene (ARID1A), frequently mutates inactively in gastric cancer (GC). However, its prognostic value remains controversial. To address this issue, a comprehensive meta-analysis was performed. Studies published until March 2016 were systematically searched. A total of 15 cohorts from 14 literatures involving 3183 patients were subjected to this meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that ARID1A expression loss predicted poor overall survival (OS) in GC (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.60; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.40–1.81; P < 0.001), with low heterogeneity among these studies (I2 = 21.5%; P = 0.214). Stratification analyses revealed that ARID1A expression loss was associated with poor OS in Asians (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.44–1.89), proportion of proximal disease ≤30% subgroup (HR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.36–2.38) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (+) > 5% subgroup (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.18–2.15). The robust results were suggested by sensitivity analyses and no evidence of significant publication bias was detected. This study demonstrated a significant relationship between deletion of ARID1A expression and poor OS in GC. Moreover, ethnicity, tumor location and EBV infection status might be potential key factors influencing this correlation. PMID:27354232

  11. Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma and promotes tumor metastasis by regulating Snail2-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yongfu; Wang, Binfeng; Zhang, Fabiao; Wang, Aidong; Du, Xuefeng; Hu, Peng; Zhu, Yu; Fang, Zheping

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that aberrant expressions of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) in the progression of HCC. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that CCAT2 was upregulated in HCC cell lines and cancerous tissues compared with normal liver cell line and adjacent normal tissue samples. The level of CCAT2 was positively associated with tumor–node–metastasis stages and vessel invasion. Survival analyses revealed that high CCAT2 expression predicted poor prognostic outcomes, serving as an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients. Patients with high CCAT2 expression had a 1.849-fold increased risk of death compared with those with low CCAT2 expression. Moreover, we also found that knockdown of CCAT2 expression reduced cell migration and invasion in vitro. We further demonstrated that CCAT2 played a key role in enhancing the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the regulation of vimentin, E-cadherin and transcription factor snail2 expression. Taken together, our findings showed that high CCAT2 expression is associated with poor survival in HCC patients. CCAT2 promotes HCC progression by regulating Snail2-induced EMT. CCAT2 may be a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:28280353

  12. Contribution of upregulated dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) in promoting tumoregenicity, metastasis and the prediction of poor prognosis in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhiyuan; Li, Jun; Shen, Qin; Feng, Jian; Liu, Hua; Wang, Wei; Xu, Liqin; Shi, Guanglin; Ye, Xumei; Ge, Min

    2017-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 9 (DPP9) is encoded by DPP9, which belongs to the DPP4 gene family. Proteins encoded by these genes have unique peptidase and extra‐enzymatic functions that have been linked to various diseases including cancers. Here, we describe the expression pattern and biological function of DPP9 in non‐small‐cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The repression of DPP9 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, we explored the role of DPP9 in regulating epithelial‐mesenchymal transition (EMT). The epithelial markers E‐cadherin and MUC1 were significantly increased, while mesenchymal markers vimentin and S100A4 were markedly decreased in DPP9 knockdown cells. The downregulation of DPP9 in the NSCLC cells induced the expression of apoptosis‐associated proteins both in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the protein expression levels of DPP9 by tissue microarray immunohistochemical assay (TMA‐IHC) (n = 217). Further we found mRNA expression levels of DPP9 in 30 pairs of clinical NSCLC tissues were significantly lower than in the adjacent non‐cancerous tissues. Survival analysis showed that the overexpression of DPP9 was a significant independent factor for poor 5‐year overall survival in patients with NSCLC (p = 0.003). Taken together, DPP9 expression correlates with poor overall survival in NSCLC. PMID:27943262

  13. HR+HER2- breast cancers with growth factor receptor-mediated EMT have a poor prognosis and lapatinib downregulates EMT in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Desai, Krisha; Aiyappa, Radhika; Prabhu, Jyothi S; Nair, Madhumathy G; Lawrence, Patrick Varun; Korlimarla, Aruna; Ce, Anupama; Alexander, Annie; Kaluve, Rohini S; Manjunath, Suraj; Correa, Marjorrie; Srinath, B S; Patil, Shekhar; Kalamdani, Anjali; Prasad, Msn; Sridhar, T S

    2017-03-01

    Despite an overall good prognosis, a significant proportion of patients with hormone receptor positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancers develop distant metastases. The metastatic potential of epithelial cells is known to be regulated by tumor-stromal interaction and mediated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Hormone receptor positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative tumors were used to estimate markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and the luminal breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used to examine the interactions between integrins and growth factor receptors in causation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. A total of 140 primary tumors were sub-divided into groups enriched for the markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (snail family transcriptional repressor 2 and integrin β6) versus those with low levels. Within the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition+ tumors, there was a positive correlation between the transcripts of integrin β6 and growth factor receptors-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and epidermal growth factor receptor. In tumors enriched for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, patients with tumors with the highest quartile of growth factor receptor transcripts had a shorter disease-free survival compared to patients with low growth factor receptor expression by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log rank, p = 0.03). Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition was induced in MCF-7 cells by treatment with transforming growth factor beta 1 and confirmed by upregulation of SNAI1 and SNAI2 transcripts, increase of vimentin and integrin β6 protein, and repression of E-cadherin. Treatment of these cells with the dual-specificity tyrosine-kinase inhibitor lapatinib led to downregulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition as indicated by lower levels of SNAI1 and SNAI2 transcripts, integrin αvβ6, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 protein. The results suggest that

  14. Adults with Philadelphia chromosome–like acute lymphoblastic leukemia frequently have IGH-CRLF2 and JAK2 mutations, persistence of minimal residual disease and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Tobias; Schneider, Stephanie; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Neumann, Martin; Hartmann, Luise; Roberts, Kathryn G.; Konstandin, Nikola P.; Greif, Philipp A.; Bräundl, Kathrin; Ksienzyk, Bianka; Huk, Natalia; Schneider, Irene; Zellmeier, Evelyn; Jurinovic, Vindi; Mansmann, Ulrich; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Mullighan, Charles G.; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Spiekermann, Karsten; Hoelzer, Dieter; Brüggemann, Monika; Baldus, Claudia D.; Dreyling, Martin; Gökbuget, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Philadelphia-like B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by distinct genetic alterations and inferior prognosis in children and younger adults. The purpose of this study was a genetic and clinical characterization of Ph-like ALL in adults. Twenty-six (13%) of 207 adult patients (median age: 42 years) with B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL) were classified as having Ph-like ALL using gene expression profiling. The frequency of Ph-like ALL was 27% among 95 BCP-ALL patients negative for BCR-ABL1 and KMT2A-rearrangements. IGH-CRLF2 rearrangements (6/16; P=0.002) and mutations in JAK2 (7/16; P<0.001) were found exclusively in the Ph-like ALL subgroup. Clinical and outcome analyses were restricted to patients treated in German Multicenter Study Group for Adult ALL (GMALL) trials 06/99 and 07/03 (n=107). The complete remission rate was 100% among both Ph-like ALL patients (n=19) and the “remaining BCP-ALL” cases (n=40), i.e. patients negative for BCR-ABL1 and KMT2A-rearrangements and the Ph-like subtype. Significantly fewer Ph-like ALL patients reached molecular complete remission (33% versus 79%; P=0.02) and had a lower probability of continuous complete remission (26% versus 60%; P=0.03) and overall survival (22% versus 64%; P=0.006) at 5 years compared to the remaining BCP-ALL patients. The profile of genetic lesions in adults with Ph-like ALL, including older adults, resembles that of pediatric Ph-like ALL and differs from the profile in the remaining BCP-ALL. Our study is the first to demonstrate that Ph-like ALL is associated with inferior outcomes in intensively treated older adult patients. Ph-like adult ALL should be recognized as a distinct, high-risk entity and further research on improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches is needed. (NCT00199056, NCT00198991) PMID:27561722

  15. Up-Regulation of miR-21 Expression Predicate Advanced Clinicopathological Features and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Shan, Weiyu; Zhang, Yufei; Zhnag, Yufei; Lv, Xuejun; Li, Xuehua; Wei, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small (19-24 nt long) noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a sequence specific manner. An increasing association between miRNA and cancer has been recently reported. Lung cancer is globally responsible for 1.4 million deaths annually and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both women and men. In this study, we investigated the miR-21 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate their value in prognosis of this tumor. Here, we assess miR-21 expression in NSCLC and its clinical significance including survival analysis. The expression of miR-21 in matched normal and tumor tissues of NSCLC was evaluated using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was generated following a logrank test. It was observed that miR-21 expression was up-regulated in NSCLC tissues compared with noncancerous lung tissues (mean ± SD: 6.7 ± 2.3 vs. 3.7 ± 1.5, P < 0.001). The up-regulation of miR-21 in NSCLC cancer tissues was also significantly correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features. We found that the patients with high miR-21 expression have a higher tumor grade (P = 0.027) and are in higher risk of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021). Moreover, the results of Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that NSCLC patients with the high miR-21 expression tend to have shorter overall survival and progression free survival (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis clearly indicated that the high miR-21 expression in biopsy samples may be considered as an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC for decreased survival (RR 3.88; 95%CI, 2.47-6.11). Our data indicate the potential of miR-21 as a novel prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. Large well-designed studies with diverse populations and functional evaluations are warranted to confirm and extend our findings.

  16. High Expression of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yun; Kong, Wen; Dong, Baijun; Huang, Jiwei; Chen, Yonghui; Xue, Wei; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), the rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids from saturated fatty acids, have been gradually recognized as a potential therapeutic target for various malignancies, particularly in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the prognostic value of SCD1 in ccRCC is still unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of SCD1 expression in patients with ccRCC. SCD1 expression in tumor tissues obtained from 359 patients who underwent nephrectomy for ccRCC are retrospectively assessed. During a median follow-up of 63 months (range: 1–144month), 56 patients in total died before the last follow-up in this study. Survival curves were plotted with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Meanwhile, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied to evaluate the prognostic value of SCD1 expression in overall survival (OS) for ccRCC patients. Moreover, SCD1 was enrolled into a newly built nomogram with factors selected by multivariate analysis, and the calibration was built to evaluate the predictive accuracy of nomogram. High SCD1 expression occurred in 61.6% (221/359) of ccRCC patients, which was significantly associated with age (p = 0.030), TNM stage (p = 0.021), pN stage (p = 0.014), Fuhrman grade (p = 0.014) and tumor sizes (p = 0.040). In multivariate analysis, SCD1 expression was confirmed as an adverse independent prognostic factor for OS. The prognostic accuracy of TNM stage, Fuhrman grade and tumor sizes was significantly increased when SCD1 expression was added. The independent prognostic factors, pT stage, pN stage, Fuhrman grade and tumor sizes, as well as SCD1 expression were integrated to establish a predictive nomogram with high predictive accuracy. Calibration curves revealed optimal consistency between observations and prognosis. In conclusion, high SCD1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients

  17. Overexpression of TMPRSS4 in non-small cell lung cancer is associated with poor prognosis in patients with squamous histology

    PubMed Central

    Larzabal, L; Nguewa, P A; Pio, R; Blanco, D; Sanchez, B; Rodríguez, M J; Pajares, M J; Catena, R; Montuenga, L M; Calvo, A

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mortality rates in lung cancer patients have not decreased significantly in recent years, even with the implementation of new therapeutic regimens. One of the main problems is that a large proportion of patients present local or distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The need for identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for a more effective management of lung cancer led us to investigate TMPRSS4, a protease reported to promote tumour growth and metastasis. Material and methods: In all, 34 lung cancer cell lines were used to evaluate the TMPRSS4 expression. Cell migration and clonogenic assays, and an in-vivo lung metastasis model were used for functional analysis of the TMPRSS4 downregulation in H358, H441 and H2170 cell lines. The TMPRSS4 expression analysis in normal and malignant lung tissue samples was performed by qPCR. Five different microarray-based publicly available expression databases were used to validate our results and to study prognosis. Results: The TMPRSS4 knock down in H358, H441 and H2170 cells resulted in a significant reduction in proliferation, clonogenic capacity and invasion. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the lung colonisation and growth was found when mice were injected with TMPRSS4-depleated H358-derived clones, as compared with controls. Expression of TMPRSS4 showed a >30-fold increase (P<0.001) in tumours in comparison with non-malignant samples. Levels in tumours with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology were found to be significantly higher (P<0.001) than those with adenocarcinoma (AC) histology, which was confirmed in data retrieved from the microarrays. Kaplan–Meier curves demonstrated that high levels of TMPRSS4 were significantly associated (P=0.017) with reduced overall survival in the patients with SCC histology, whereas no correlation was found for the AC histology. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that TMPRSS4 has a role in the lung cancer development. The potential use of TMPRSS

  18. Elevated fibrinogen plasma level is not an independent predictor of poor prognosis in a large cohort of Western patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pedrazzani, Corrado; Mantovani, Guido; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Baldiotti, Elisabeth; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Iacono, Calogero; Lippi, Giuseppe; Guglielmi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical significance of the preoperative fibrinogen plasma level as a prognostic marker after surgery for colorectal cancer. METHODS This retrospective study analysed 652 patients undergoing surgery for stage I-IV colorectal cancer between January 2005 and December 2012, at the Division of General Surgery A, University of Verona Hospital Trust, in whom preoperative fibrinogen plasma values were assessed at baseline. Fibrinogen is involved in tumourigenesis as well as tumour progression in several malignancies. Correlations between preoperative plasma fibrinogen values and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses were performed to identify factors associated with overall and tumour-related survival. RESULTS Among the 652 patients, the fibrinogen value was higher than the threshold of 400 mg/dL in 345 patients (53%). The preoperative mean ± SD of fibrinogen was 426.2 ± 23.2 mg/dL (median: 409 mg/dL; range: 143-1045 mg/dL). Preoperative fibrinogen values correlated with age (P = 0.003), completeness of tumour resection, potentially curative vs palliative (P < 0.001), presence of systemic metastasis (P < 0.001), depth of tumour invasion pT (P < 0.001), nodes involvement pN (P = 0.001) and CEA serum level (P < 0.001). The mean fibrinogen value (± SD) was 395.6 ± 120.4 mg/dL in G1 tumours, 424.1 ± 121.4 mg/dL in G2 tumours and 453.4 ± 131.6 mg/dL in G3 tumours (P = 0.045). The overall survival and tumour-related survival were significantly higher in patients with fibrinogen values ≤ 400 mg/dL (P < 0.001). However, hyperfibrinogenemia did not retain statistical significance regarding either overall (P = 0.313) or tumour-related survival (P = 0.355) after controlling for other risk factors in a multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION Preoperative fibrinogen levels correlate with cancer severity but do not help in predicting patient prognosis after colorectal cancer surgery. PMID:28018106

  19. Low miR-143/miR-145 Cluster Levels Induce Activin A Overexpression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas, Which Contributes to Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Bufalino, Andreia; Cervigne, Nilva K.; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Macedo, Carolina Carneiro Soares; Sobral, Lays Martin; Miguel, Marcia Costa; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Lambert, Daniel W.; Salo, Tuula A.; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of activin A is reported in several tumors, but its biological functions in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are unknown. Here, we investigate whether activin A can play a causal role in OSCCs. Activin A expression was assessed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry in OSCC tissues. Low activin A-expressing cells were treated with recombinant activin A and assessed for apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Those phenotypes were also evaluated in high activin A-expressing cells treated with follistatin (an activin A antagonist) or stably expressing shRNA targeting activin A. Transfections of microRNA mimics were performed to determine whether the overexpression of activin A is regulated by miR-143/miR-145 cluster. Activin A was overexpressed in OSCCs in comparison with normal oral mucosa, and high activin A levels were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation and poor survival. High activin A levels promoted multiple properties associated with malignant transformation, including decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT. Both miR-143 and miR-145 were markedly downregulated in OSCC cell lines and in clinical specimens, and inversely correlated to activin A levels. Forced expression of miR-143 and miR-145 in OSCC cells significantly decreased the expression of activin A. Overexpression of activin A in OSCCs, which is controlled by downregulation of miR-143/miR-145 cluster, regulates apoptosis, proliferation and invasiveness, and it is clinically correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival. PMID:26317418

  20. Co-expression of ILT4/HLA-G in human non-small cell lung cancer correlates with poor prognosis and ILT4-HLA-G interaction activates ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwen; Zhao, Jianqiang; Qiu, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Li, Juan; Yang, Dong; Wei, Xiaojuan; Han, Yali; Nie, Siyue; Sun, Yuping

    2016-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common malignant tumor in the world, of which prognosis is generally poor due to insufficient mechanistic understanding. To explore the molecular pathogenesis of NSCLC, the co-expression of immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4) and its ligand human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) in NSCLC tissues and cells were investigated. Here, we detected the expression of ILT4 and HLA-G in 81 tumor specimens from primary NSCLC patients, and we found that co-expression of ILT4/HLA-G was significantly associated with regional lymph node involvement, advanced stages, and the overall survival of patients. In NSCLC cell lines, HLA-G expression increased/decreased accordingly when ILT4 was up-/down-regulated, and ILT4 expression increased in a concentration-dependent manner via the stimulation of HLA-G fusion protein. Interestingly, HLA-G fusion protein could also up-regulate the phospho-ERK1/2 expression, which means the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. All in all, our results indicate that the ILT4-HLA-G interaction might play an important role in NSCLC progression. Identification of ILT4 and HLA-G expression may provide an indicator to predict prognosis and guide prevention and treatment of NSCLC.

  1. Expression of quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 is associated with a highly invasive phenotype and correlates with a poor prognosis in Luminal B breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to form disulfide bonds in proteins. Tumor specific expression of QSOX1 has been reported for numerous tumor types. In this study, we investigate QSOX1 as a marker of breast tumor progression and evaluate the role of QSOX1 as it relates to breast tumor growth and metastasis. Methods Correlation of QSOX1 expression with breast tumor grade, subtype and estrogen receptor (ER) status was gathered through informatic analysis using the "Gene expression based Outcome for Breast cancer Online" (GOBO) web-based tool. Expression of QSOX1 protein in breast tumors tissue microarray (TMA) and in a panel of breast cancer cell lines was used to confirm our informatics analysis. To investigate malignant cell mechanisms for which QSOX1 might play a key role, we suppressed QSOX1 protein expression using short hairpin (sh) RNA in ER+ Luminal A-like MCF7, ER+ Luminal B-like BT474 and ER- Basal-like BT549 breast cancer cell lines. Results GOBO analysis revealed high levels of QSOX1 RNA expression in ER+ subtypes of breast cancer. In addition, Kaplan Meyer analyses revealed QSOX1 RNA as a highly significant predictive marker for both relapse and poor overall survival in Luminal B tumors. We confirmed this finding by evaluation of QSOX1 protein expression in breast tumors and in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Expression of QSOX1 in breast tumors correlates with increasing tumor grade and high Ki-67 expression. Suppression of QSOX1 protein slowed cell proliferation as well as dramatic inhibition of MCF7, BT474 and BT549 breast tumor cells from invading through Matrigel™ in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Inhibition of invasion could be rescued by the exogenous addition of recombinant QSOX1. Gelatin zymography indicated that QSOX1 plays an important role in the function of MMP-9, a key mediator of breast cancer invasive behavior. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that QSOX1 is a novel

  2. The mTOR effectors 4EBP1 and S6K2 are frequently coexpressed, and associated with a poor prognosis and endocrine resistance in breast cancer: a retrospective study including patients from the randomised Stockholm tamoxifen trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction mTOR and its downstream effectors the 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) and the p70 ribosomal S6 kinases (S6K1 and S6K2) are frequently upregulated in breast cancer, and assumed to be driving forces in tumourigenesis, in close connection with oestrogen receptor (ER) networks. Here, we investigated these factors as clinical markers in five different cohorts of breast cancer patients. Methods The prognostic significance of 4EBP1, S6K1 and S6K2 mRNA expression was assessed with real-time PCR in 93 tumours from the treatment randomised Stockholm trials, encompassing postmenopausal patients enrolled between 1976 and 1990. Three publicly available breast cancer cohorts were used to confirm the results. Furthermore, the predictive values of 4EBP1 and p4EBP1_S65 protein expression for both prognosis and endocrine treatment benefit were assessed by immunohistochemical analysis of 912 node-negative breast cancers from the Stockholm trials. Results S6K2 and 4EBP1 mRNA expression levels showed significant correlation and were associated with a poor outcome in all cohorts investigated. 4EBP1 protein was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor, especially in progesterone receptor (PgR)-expressing cancers. 4EBP1 protein expression was also associated with a poor response to endocrine treatment in the ER/PgR positive group. Cross-talk to genomic as well as non-genomic ER/PgR signalling may be involved and the results further support a combination of ER and mTOR signalling targeted therapies. Conclusion This study suggests S6K2 and 4EBP1 as important factors for breast tumourigenesis, interplaying with hormone receptor signalling. We propose S6K2 and 4EBP1 as new potential clinical markers for prognosis and endocrine therapy response in breast cancer. PMID:24131622

  3. The new truncated somatostatin receptor variant sst5TMD4 is associated to poor prognosis in breast cancer and increases malignancy in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Durán-Prado, M; Gahete, M D; Hergueta-Redondo, M; Martínez-Fuentes, A J; Córdoba-Chacón, J; Palacios, J; Gracia-Navarro, F; Moreno-Bueno, G; Malagón, M M; Luque, R M; Castaño, J P

    2012-04-19

    Somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) are present in different types of tumors, where they inhibit key cellular processes such as proliferation and invasion. Although ssts are densely expressed in breast cancer, especially sst2, their role and therapeutic potential remain uncertain. Recently, we identified a new truncated sst5 variant, sst5TMD4, which is related to the abnormal response of certain pituitary tumors to treatment with somatostatin analogs. Here, we investigated the possible role of sst5TMD4 in breast cancer. This study revealed that sst5TMD4 is absent in normal mammary gland, but is abundant in a subset of poorly differentiated human breast tumors, where its expression correlated to that of sst2. Moreover, in the MCF-7 breast cancer model cell, sst5TMD4 expression increased malignancy features such as invasion and proliferation abilities (both in cell cultures and nude mice). This was likely mediated by sst5TMD4-induced increase in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and p-Akt levels, and cyclin D3 and Arp2/3 complex expression, which also led to mesenchymal-like phenotype. Interestingly, sst5TMD4 interacts physically with sst2 and thereby alters its signaling, enabling disruption of sst2 inhibitory feedback and providing a plausible basis for our findings. These results suggest that sst5TMD4 could be involved in the pathophysiology of certain types of breast tumors.

  4. Down-regulation of C12orf59 is associated with a poor prognosis and VHL mutations in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianting; Li, Cailing; Luo, Liya; Xia, Lingling; Li, Xianxin; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Zesong

    2016-01-01

    C12orf59 is newly identified gene in kidney. However, the relation of C12orf59 expression and clinic features is unknown. Here, our study showed that C12orf59 was broadly expressed in normal human tissues with high expression levels in kidney while its expression is beyond detectable in a panel of cancer cell lines. C12orf59 expression in RCC was significantly decreased compared with corresponding adjacent noncancerous tissues (P < 0.01). The decreased C12orf59 expression was correlated with lymph node status (P < 0.05), distant metastases (P < 0.05), poor survival (P < 0.001) (HR 3.00; 95% CI, 1.29–7.53), VHL non-sense mutations or frame-shift mutations (P < 0.01), and UMPP gene non-sense mutations or frame-shift mutations (P = 0.01). Thus, we propose that the decreased C12orf59 expression status is a prognostic biomarker of ccRCC and cooperates with the loss of VHL all the while promoting renal carcinogenesis. PMID:26758419

  5. Down-regulation of C12orf59 is associated with a poor prognosis and VHL mutations in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Zhu, Chuangzhi; Wu, Jianting; Li, Cailing; Luo, Liya; Xia, Lingling; Li, Xianxin; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Zesong

    2016-02-09

    C12orf59 is newly identified gene in kidney. However, the relation of C12orf59 expression and clinic features is unknown. Here, our study showed that C12orf59 was broadly expressed in normal human tissues with high expression levels in kidney while its expression is beyond detectable in a panel of cancer cell lines. C12orf59 expression in RCC was significantly decreased compared with corresponding adjacent noncancerous tissues (P < 0.01). The decreased C12orf59 expression was correlated with lymph node status (P < 0.05), distant metastases (P < 0.05), poor survival (P < 0.001) (HR 3.00; 95% CI, 1.29-7.53), VHL non-sense mutations or frame-shift mutations (P < 0.01), and UMPP gene non-sense mutations or frame-shift mutations (P = 0.01). Thus, we propose that the decreased C12orf59 expression status is a prognostic biomarker of ccRCC and cooperates with the loss of VHL all the while promoting renal carcinogenesis.

  6. High frequency of additional gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with MLL partial tandem duplication: DNMT3A mutation is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsiao-Wen; Liang, D Cherng; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Wu, Jin-Hou; Dunn, Po; Wang, Po-Nan; Lin, Tung-Liang; Shih, Yu-Shu; Liang, Sung-Tzu; Lin, Tung-Huei; Lai, Chen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hui; Shih, Lee-Yung

    2015-10-20

    The mutational profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with partial tandem duplication of mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL-PTD) have not been comprehensively studied. We studied 19 gene mutations for 98 patients with MLL-PTD AML to determine the mutation frequency and clinical correlations. MLL-PTD was screened by reverse-transcriptase PCR and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. The mutational analyses were performed with PCR-based assays followed by direct sequencing. Gene mutations of signaling pathways occurred in 63.3% of patients, with FLT3-ITD (44.9%) and FLT3-TKD (13.3%) being the most frequent. 66% of patients had gene mutations involving epigenetic regulation, and DNMT3A (32.7%), IDH2 (18.4%), TET2 (18.4%), and IDH1 (10.2%) mutations were most common. Genes of transcription pathways and tumor suppressors accounted for 23.5% and 10.2% of patients. RUNX1 mutation occurred in 23.5% of patients, while none had NPM1 or double CEBPA mutation. 90.8% of MLL-PTD AML patients had at least one additional gene mutation. Of 55 MLL-PTD AML patients who received standard chemotherapy, age older than 50 years and DNMT3A mutation were associated with inferior outcome. In conclusion, gene mutations involving DNA methylation and activated signaling pathway were common co-existed gene mutations. DNMT3A mutation was a poor prognostic factor in MLL-PTD AML.

  7. Tumors with unmethylated MLH1 and the CpG island methylator phenotype are associated with a poor prognosis in stage II colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tao; Liu, Yanliang; Li, Kai; Wan, Weiwei; Pappou, Emmanouil P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Kerner, Zachary; Baylin, Stephen B.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Ahuja, Nita

    2016-01-01

    We previously developed a novel tumor subtype classification model for duodenal adenocarcinomas based on a combination of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and MLH1 methylation status. Here, we tested the prognostic value of this model in stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Tumors were assigned to CIMP+/MLH1-unmethylated (MLH1-U), CIMP+/MLH1-methylated (MLH1-M), CIMP−/MLH1-U, or CIMP−/MLH1-M groups. Age, tumor location, lymphovascular invasion, and mucin production differed among the four patient subgroups, and CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors were more likely to have lymphovascular invasion and mucin production. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed differences in both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among the four groups. In a multivariate analysis, CIMP/MLH1 methylation status was predictive of both DFS and OS, and DFS and OS were shortest in CIMP+/MLH1-U stage II CRC patients. These results suggest that tumor subtype classification based on the combination of CIMP and MLH1 methylation status is informative in stage II CRC patients, and that CIMP+/MLH1-U tumors exhibit aggressive features and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. PMID:27880934

  8. Expressions of glia maturation factor-β by tumor cells and endothelia correlate with neovascularization and poor prognosis in human glioma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cong; Su, Xiao-rui; Shi, Yu; Wu, Jin-rong; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xin-li; Cui, You-hong; Ping, Yi-fang; Bian, Xiu-wu

    2016-01-01

    Glia maturation factor-β (GMF-β) has been reported to promote glial differentiation, and act as a negative prognostic indicator in certain cancers. However, its roles in glioma progression remain unclear. Since neurogenesis and vasculogenesis were proved to share some common regulators during gliomagenesis, we aim to explore the potential impact of GMF-β on tumor neovascularization and patient survival in glioma. In this study, we first detected GMF-β expression not only in tumor cells but also in microvascular endothelia by double immunohistochemical staining. Both tumoral and endothelial GMF-β expression levels were positively correlated with tumor grade and microvessel density (MVD), while negatively associated with poor prognoses of the patients. Interestingly, multivariate analysis demonstrated that endothelial GMF-β expression level was the only independent predictor of progression-free and overall survival of glioma patients. The results of in vitro angiogenesis assay showed that GMF-β knockdown significantly inhibited tubulogenesis of human U87 glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, GMF-β knockdown suppressed tumor growth and the formation of human-CD31 positive (glioma cell-derived) microvessels in a mouse orthotopic U87 glioma model. Our results demonstrated that GMF-β is an important player in glioma progression via promoting neovascularization. GMF-β may therefore be a novel prognostic marker as well as a potential therapeutic target for glioma. PMID:26515590

  9. A CD21 low phenotype, with no evidence of autoantibodies to complement proteins, is consistent with a poor prognosis in CLL

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Eva-Maria; Jones, Rachel; Watson, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by differential BCR signaling and autoimmune complications. Complement modulates B-cell function via C3d and CD21 cross-linked to the B-cell receptor (BCR). We hypothesized that CD21 contributes to BCR signaling and participates in the autoimmunity associated with CLL. We analyzed CD21 expression on 106 CLL patient samples and matched serum from 50 patients for the presence of soluble CD21 and autoantibodies to CR2, CR1, MCP and FH. CD21 expression on CLL B-cells was significantly lower than that expressed on B-cells from age-matched controls (P < 0.0001) and was inversely correlated with soluble CD21 (r2 = −0.41). We found no evidence of autoantibody to any complement regulator. Low CD21 expression correlated to prognostic subsets of CLL patients, i.e. cases with unmutated IGHV genes (P = 0.0006), high CD38 (P = 0.02) and high ZAP70 expression (P = 0.0017). Low CD21 expression was inversely correlated to the levels of phosphotyrosine induced in CLL cells following BCR ligation with αIgM (r2=–0.21). Importantly, lower CD21 expression was also predictive for reduced overall survival (P = 0.005; HR = 2.7). In conclusion, we showed that reduced expression of CD21 on CLL B-cells appears functionally relevant and was associated with poor clinical outcomes. PMID:26452134

  10. Baseline Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels for Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Predictor of Poor Prognosis and Subsequent Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Guanqun; Tang Linglong; Mao Yanping; Chen Lei; Li Wenfei; Sun Ying; Liu Lizhi; Li Li; Lin Aihua; Ma Jun

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Cases of NPC (n = 465) that involved treatment with IMRT with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The mean ({+-}SD) and median baseline serum LDH levels for this cohort were 172.77 {+-} 2.28 and 164.00 IU/L, respectively. Levels of LDH were significantly elevated in patients with locoregionally advanced disease (p = 0.016). Elevated LDH levels were identified as a prognostic factor for rates of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), with p values <0.001 in the univariate analysis and p < 0.001, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively, in the multivariate analysis. Correspondingly, the prognostic impact of patient LDH levels was found to be statistically significant for rates of OS, DFS, and DMFS (p = 0.028, 0.024, and 0.020, respectively). For patients who experienced subsequent liver failure after treatment, markedly higher pretreatment serum LDH levels were detected compared with patients experiencing distant metastasis events at other sites (p = 0.032). Conclusions: Elevated baseline LDH levels are associated with clinically advanced disease and are a poor prognosticator for OS, DFS, and DMFS for NPC patients. These results suggest that elevated serum levels of LDH should be considered when evaluating treatment options.

  11. An Elevated Peripheral Blood Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Primary Pulmonary Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Long, Wen; Li, Peng-fei; Lin, Yong-bin; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the data from 74 consecutive patients with pulmonary LELC and investigated the prognostic value of pretreatment monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR). The cut-off value determined by ROC curve for MLR was 0.262. According to this cut-off value, 36 (48.6%) patients had lower MLR value (<0.262) at diagnosis. There was no significant correlation between MLR level and gender, age, smoking history, stage, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level. The 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year OS rate were 86%, 72%, and 61%, respectively; the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year PFS rate were 71%, 63%, and 49%, respectively. In univariate analysis, advanced stage, elevated LDH level, and higher MLR value (> = 0.262) were significantly associated with poor OS and PFS. In a multivariate Cox regression model that included stage, LDH and MLR level, all of these three factors were found to be independent prognostic factors for both PFS and OS. In patients who received radical surgery, MLR level remained significantly correlated with OS and PFS. In conclusion, we firstly demonstrated that pretreatment MLR can be used as a useful independent prognostic marker in patients with pulmonary LELC, and might guide us to optimize the treatment strategies. However, due to the relatively rarity of this disease and the limitation of a retrospective study, further prospective studies performed in multicenter are necessary to validate the prognostic value of MLR in pulmonary LELC.

  12. PRRX2 as a novel TGF-β-induced factor enhances invasion and migration in mammary epithelial cell and correlates with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Juang, Yu-Lin; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chen, Chi-Long; Lien, Huang-Chun

    2016-12-01

    TGF-β and cancer progression share a multifaceted relationship. Despite the knowledge of TGF-β biology in the development of cancer, several factors that mediate the cancer-promoting role of TGF-β continue to be identified. This study aimed to identify and characterise novel factors potentially related to TGF-β-mediated tumour aggression in breast cells. We treated the human mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A with TGF-β and identified TGF-β-dependent upregulation of PRRX2, the gene encoding paired-related homeobox 2 transcription factor. Overexpression of PRRX2 enhanced migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth of MCF10A cells and induced partial epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), as determined by partial fibroblastoid morphology of cells, upregulation of EMT markers and partially disrupted acinar structure in a three-dimensional culture. We further identified PLAT, the gene encoding tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), as the highest differentially expressed gene in PRRX2-overexpressing MCF10A cells, and demonstrated direct binding and transactivation of the PLAT promoter by PRRX2. Furthermore, PLAT knockdown inhibited PRRX2-mediated enhanced migration and invasion, suggesting that tPA may mediate PRRX2-induced migration and invasion. Finally, the significant correlation of PRRX2 expression with poor survival in 118 primary breast tumour samples (P = 0.027) and the increased PRRX2 expression in metaplastic breast carcinoma samples, which is pathogenetically related to EMT, validated the biological importance of PRRX2-enhanced migration and invasion and PRRX2-induced EMT. Thus, our data suggest that upregulation of PRRX2 may be a mechanism contributing to TGF-β-induced invasion and EMT in breast cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Elevated serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor predict a poor prognosis of platinum-based chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Jialan; Hu, Yong; Xu, Xiaoyue; Ni, Jie; Yan, Dali; Liu, Siwen; He, Jieyu; Xue, Jing; Wu, Jianzhong; Feng, Jifeng

    2017-01-01

    Aim This study was designed to investigate the predictive and prognostic values of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients’ peripheral blood samples were collected prior to chemotherapy and after 1 week of the third cycle of combination chemotherapy. Serum VEGF levels were evaluated through Luminex multiplex technique. Between September 2011 and August 2015, a total of 135 consecutive advanced or recurrent histologically verified NSCLC patients were enrolled in the study. Moreover, all the patients received platinum-based combination chemotherapy as a first-line treatment. Results No significant associations were found between pretreatment serum VEGF levels and clinical characteristics, such as sex (P=0.0975), age (P=0.2522), stage (P=0.1407), lymph node metastasis (P=0.6409), tumor location (P=0.3520), differentiated degree (P=0.5608), pathological (histological) type (P=0.4885), and response to treatment (P=0.9859). The VEGF load per platelet (VEGFPLT) levels were not correlated with sex, age, primary tumor site, and pathological type in NSCLC patients (all P>0.05). The median survival time of progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.407 and 5.29 months in the low and high groups, respectively, when using 280 pg/mL VEGF level as the cutoff point (P=0.024). Conclusion In conclusion, the serum VEGF levels were found to be a poor prognostic biomarker for the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in terms of PFS, but it was not shown to be a suitable predictive marker for clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy. PMID:28176920

  14. Analyses of Resected Human Brain Metastases of Breast Cancer Reveal the Association between Up-regulation of Hexokinase 2 and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Diane; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Shreeve, S. Martin; Hua, Emily; Bronder, Julie L.; Weil, Robert J.; Davis, Sean; Stark, Andreas M.; Merino, Maria J.; Kurek, Raffael; Mehdorn, H. Maximilian; Davis, Gary; Steinberg, Seth M.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Aldape, Kenneth; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Brain metastases of breast cancer appear to be increasing in incidence as systemic therapy improves. Metastatic disease in the brain is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We present the first gene expression analysis of laser captured epithelial cells from resected human brain metastases of breast cancer compared to unlinked primary breast tumors. The tumors were matched for histology, TNM stage and hormone receptor status. Most differentially expressed genes were down-regulated in the brain metastases which included, surprisingly, many genes associated with metastasis. Q-PCR analysis confirmed statistically significant differences or strong trends in the expression of six genes: BMP1, PEDF, LAMγ3, SIAH, STHMN3 and TSPD2. Hexokinase 2 (HK2) was also of interest because of its increased expression in brain metastases. HK2 is important in glucose metabolism and apoptosis. In agreement with our microarray results, HK2 levels (both mRNA and protein) were elevated in a brain metastatic derivative (231-BR) of the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 relative to the parental cell line (231-P), in vitro. Knockdown of HK2 expression in 231-BR cells using shRNA reduced cell proliferation when cultures were maintained in glucose limiting conditions. Finally, HK2 expression was analyzed in a cohort of 123 resected brain metastases of breast cancer. High HK2 expression was significantly associated with poor patient survival post-craniotomy (P=0.028). The data suggest that HK2 overexpression is associated with metastasis to the brain in breast cancer and it may be a therapeutic target. PMID:19723875

  15. Vimentin regulates differentiation switch via modulation of keratin 14 levels and their expression together correlates with poor prognosis in oral cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Dmello, Crismita; Sawant, Sharada; Alam, Hunain; Gangadaran, Prakash; Mogre, Saie; Tiwari, Richa; D'Souza, Zinia; Narkar, Manish; Thorat, Rahul; Patil, Komal; Chaukar, Devendra; Kane, Shubhada; Vaidya, Milind

    2017-01-01

    Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein, predominantly expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin, although its aberrant expression is seen in many carcinomas during epithelial mesenchymal transition. In cancer, vimentin expression is associated with the transition from a more differentiated epithelial phenotype to a dedifferentiated state. In view of the perceived role of keratins (Ks) as regulators of differentiation in epithelia, it was important to understand whether vimentin modulates differentiation through the reprogramming of keratins, in transformed cells. To address this, vimentin was stably downregulated in oral cancer derived cells. Further, global keratin profiling was performed after high salt keratin extraction. K5/K14 pair was found to be significantly downregulated, both at protein and mRNA levels upon vimentin downregulation. The previous study from our laboratory has shown a role of the K5/K14 pair in proliferation and differentiation of squamous epithelial cells. Vimentin depleted cells showed an increase in the differentiation state, marked by an increase in the levels of differentiation specific markers K1, involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin while its proliferation status remained unchanged. Rescue experiments with the K5/K14 pair overexpressed in vimentin knockdown background resulted in decreased differentiation state. ΔNp63 emerged as one of the indirect targets of vimentin, through which it modulates the expression levels of K5/K14. Further, immunohistochemistry showed a significant correlation between high vimentin-K14 expression and recurrence/poor survival in oral cancer patients. Thus, in conclusion, vimentin regulates the differentiation switch via modulation of K5/K14 expression. Moreover, vimentin-K14 together may prove to be the novel markers for the prognostication of human oral cancer.

  16. High frequency of additional gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with MLL partial tandem duplication: DNMT3A mutation is associated with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hsiao-Wen; Liang, Der-Cherng; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Wu, Jin-Hou; Dunn, Po; Wang, Po-Nan; Lin, Tung-Liang; Shih, Yu-Shu; Liang, Sung-Tzu; Lin, Tung-Huei; Lai, Chen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hui; Shih, Lee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The mutational profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with partial tandem duplication of mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL-PTD) have not been comprehensively studied. We studied 19 gene mutations for 98 patients with MLL-PTD AML to determine the mutation frequency and clinical correlations. MLL-PTD was screened by reverse-transcriptase PCR and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. The mutational analyses were performed with PCR-based assays followed by direct sequencing. Gene mutations of signaling pathways occurred in 63.3% of patients, with FLT3-ITD (44.9%) and FLT3-TKD (13.3%) being the most frequent. 66% of patients had gene mutations involving epigenetic regulation, and DNMT3A (32.7%), IDH2 (18.4%), TET2 (18.4%), and IDH1 (10.2%) mutations were most common. Genes of transcription pathways and tumor suppressors accounted for 23.5% and 10.2% of patients. RUNX1 mutation occurred in 23.5% of patients, while none had NPM1 or double CEBPA mutation. 90.8% of MLL-PTD AML patients had at least one additional gene mutation. Of 55 MLL-PTD AML patients who received standard chemotherapy, age older than 50 years and DNMT3A mutation were associated with inferior outcome. In conclusion, gene mutations involving DNA methylation and activated signaling pathway were common co-existed gene mutations. DNMT3A mutation was a poor prognostic factor in MLL-PTD AML. PMID:26375248

  17. Increased cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bronchial epithelium of heavy smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma carries a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tsunehiro; Sugio, Kenji; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Iwata, Teruo; Onitsuka, Takamitsu; Isse, Toyohi; Nozoe, Tadahiro; Kagawa, Norio; Yasumoto, Kosei; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Smoking induces mutations via the formation of DNA-adducts in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium and contributes to the development of lung cancer. Benz(a)pyrene and nitrosamine, typical carcinogens in cigarette smoke, undergo metabolic activation by the phase I enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1. The transcriptional regulation of these phase I enzymes is regulated by arylhydrocarbon receptor (AH-R) which binds many well-known carcinogens. To identify a cause and effect relationship, the expression of cytochrome CYP and AH-R in the bronchial epithelium was correlated with the history of cigarette smoking in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although CYP3A+ cells were absent in the bronchial epithelium of all patients, there were many CYP2E1+ cells in heavy (>1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (38.5%). In contra-distinction, there was significantly less number of CYP2E1+ cells in light (less than 1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (15.6%) or non-smokers (10.0%). Similarly, there were more CYP1A1+ (19.2%) and CYP2A6+ cells in heavy (65.4%) smokers as compared to non-smokers. The number of AH-R+ cells was also significantly higher in cases with p53 mutation (62.5%) than those without (12.2%) mutation. Since in patients with early NSCLC, CYP positivity showed a close correlation with a poor survival (p less than 0.01), expression of CYP in bronchial epithelium has a prognostic potential.

  18. Overexpression of miRNA-221 promotes cell proliferation by targeting the apoptotic protease activating factor-1 and indicates a poor prognosis in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Li, Qiang; Huang, He; Li, Yinguang; Li, Li; Hou, Wenhui; You, Zeshan

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding, endogenous RNAs involved in cancer development and progression. MicroRNA-221 (mir-221) has been reported to have both an oncogenic and tumor-suppressive role in human tumors, but the role of miR-221 in ovarian cancer is poorly understood. In the present study, the expression levels of miR-221 and the apoptosis protease activating factor 1 (APAF1) protein in 63 samples of ovarian cancer tissues and the cell lines, IOSE25, A2780, OVCAR3, SKOV3 and 3AO were detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured using Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8); cell migration and invasion were detected using a Transwell assay; cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining, and a luciferase assay was performed to verify a putative target site of miR-221 in the 3′-UTR of APAF1 mRNA. Expression of miR-221 was upregulated in ovarian cancer tissues. Patients with increased miR-221 expression levels had a reduced disease-free survival (P=0.0014) and overall survival (P=0.0058) compared with those with low miR-221 expression. Transfection of SKOV3 and A2780 cell lines with miR-221 inhibitor induced APAF1 protein expression, suppressed cell proliferation and migration and promoted tumor cell apoptosis. In conclusion, the APAF1 gene was confirmed as a direct target of miR-221 and overexpression of APAF1 suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in vitro. These findings indicate that miR-221-APAF1 should be studied further as a potential new diagnostic or prognostic biomarker for ovarian cancer. PMID:28350128

  19. ELMO1 Is Upregulated in AML CD34+ Stem/Progenitor Cells, Mediates Chemotaxis and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Normal Karyotype AML

    PubMed Central

    Capala, Marta E.; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Both normal as well leukemic hematopoietic stem cells critically depend on their microenvironment in the bone marrow for processes such as self-renewal, survival and differentiation, although the exact pathways that are involved remain poorly understood. We performed transcriptome analysis on primitive CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells (n = 46), their more differentiated CD34− leukemic progeny, and normal CD34+ bone marrow cells (n = 31) and focused on differentially expressed genes involved in adhesion and migration. Thus, Engulfment and Motility protein 1 (ELMO1) was identified amongst the top 50 most differentially expressed genes. ELMO1 is a crucial link in the signaling cascade that leads to activation of RAC GTPases and cytoskeleton rearrangements. We confirmed increased ELMO1 expression at the mRNA and protein level in a panel of AML samples and showed that high ELMO1 expression is an independent negative prognostic factor in normal karyotype (NK) AML in three large independent patient cohorts. Downmodulation of ELMO1 in human CB CD34+ cells did not significantly alter expansion, progenitor frequency or differentiation in stromal co-cultures, but did result in a decreased frequency of stem cells in LTC-IC assays. In BCR-ABL-transduced human CB CD34+ cells depletion of ELMO1 resulted in a mild decrease in proliferation, but replating capacity of progenitors was severely impaired. Downregulation of ELMO1 in a panel of primary CD34+ AML cells also resulted in reduced long-term growth in stromal co-cultures in two out of three cases. Pharmacological inhibition of the ELMO1 downstream target RAC resulted in a severely impaired proliferation and survival of leukemic cells. Finally, ELMO1 depletion caused a marked decrease in SDF1-induced chemotaxis of leukemic cells. Taken together, these data show that inhibiting the ELMO1-RAC axis might be an alternative way to target leukemic cells. PMID:25360637

  20. Involvement of Difference in Decrease of Hemoglobin Level in Poor Prognosis of Stage I and II Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Implication in Outcome of Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jin; Tao Yalan; Li Guo; Yi Wei; Xia Yunfei

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the difference in its decrease during treatment on outcome of radiotherapy (RT) alone for patients with Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 572 patients with Stage I-II nasopharyngeal carcinoma with RT alone between January 2001 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient characteristics, tumor variables, and Hb level, including pre-RT Hb, mid-RT Hb, and dynamic change of Hb between pre- and post- RT and its difference in decrease ( White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb) were subjected to univariate and multivariable analysis to identify factors that predict disease-specific survival (DSS), local regional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and metastases-free survival (MFS). Results: The 5-year DSS was poorer in the Hb continuous decrease group than in the Hb noncontinuous decrease group (84% vs. 89%; p = 0.008). There was poorer 5-year DSS in patients with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of >11.5 g/L than in those with White-Up-Pointing-Small-Triangle Hb of {<=}11.5 g/L (82% vs. 89%; p = 0.001), and poorer LRFS (79% vs. 83%; p = 0.035). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that Hb decrease difference with greater than 11.5 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for DSS and LRFS. Conclusions: The difference in decrease of Hb level during the course of radiation treatment appeared as a poor prognostic factor in Stage I and II nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

  1. Vimentin regulates differentiation switch via modulation of keratin 14 levels and their expression together correlates with poor prognosis in oral cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Dmello, Crismita; Sawant, Sharada; Alam, Hunain; Gangadaran, Prakash; Mogre, Saie; Tiwari, Richa; D’Souza, Zinia; Narkar, Manish; Thorat, Rahul; Patil, Komal; Chaukar, Devendra; Kane, Shubhada; Vaidya, Milind

    2017-01-01

    Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein, predominantly expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin, although its aberrant expression is seen in many carcinomas during epithelial mesenchymal transition. In cancer, vimentin expression is associated with the transition from a more differentiated epithelial phenotype to a dedifferentiated state. In view of the perceived role of keratins (Ks) as regulators of differentiation in epithelia, it was important to understand whether vimentin modulates differentiation through the reprogramming of keratins, in transformed cells. To address this, vimentin was stably downregulated in oral cancer derived cells. Further, global keratin profiling was performed after high salt keratin extraction. K5/K14 pair was found to be significantly downregulated, both at protein and mRNA levels upon vimentin downregulation. The previous study from our laboratory has shown a role of the K5/K14 pair in proliferation and differentiation of squamous epithelial cells. Vimentin depleted cells showed an increase in the differentiation state, marked by an increase in the levels of differentiation specific markers K1, involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin while its proliferation status remained unchanged. Rescue experiments with the K5/K14 pair overexpressed in vimentin knockdown background resulted in decreased differentiation state. ΔNp63 emerged as one of the indirect targets of vimentin, through which it modulates the expression levels of K5/K14. Further, immunohistochemistry showed a significant correlation between high vimentin-K14 expression and recurrence/poor survival in oral cancer patients. Thus, in conclusion, vimentin regulates the differentiation switch via modulation of K5/K14 expression. Moreover, vimentin-K14 together may prove to be the novel markers for the prognostication of human oral cancer. PMID:28225793

  2. Microenvironment-Modulated Metastatic CD133+/CXCR4+/EpCAM- Lung Cancer-Initiating Cells Sustain Tumor Dissemination and Correlate with Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giulia; D'Amico, Lucia; Moro, Massimo; Landoni, Elena; Perego, Paola; Miceli, Rosalba; Gatti, Laura; Andriani, Francesca; Wong, Donald; Caserini, Roberto; Tortoreto, Monica; Milione, Massimo; Ferracini, Riccardo; Mariani, Luigi; Pastorino, Ugo; Roato, Ilaria; Sozzi, Gabriella; Roz, Luca

    2015-09-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for lung cancer-related mortality, but little is known about specific determinants of successful dissemination from primary tumors and metastasis initiation. Here, we show that CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cancer-initiating cells (CIC) directly isolated from patient-derived xenografts (PDX) of non-small cell lung cancer are endowed with superior ability to seed and initiate metastasis at distant organs. We additionally report that CXCR4 inhibition successfully prevents the increase of cisplatin-resistant CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) cells in residual tumors and their metastatization. Immunophenotypic analysis of lung tumor cells intravenously injected or spontaneously disseminated to murine lungs demonstrated the survival advantage and increased colonization ability of a specific subset of CD133(+)/CXCR4(+) with reduced expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM(-)), which also shows the greatest in vitro invasive potential. We next prove that recovered disseminated cells from lungs of PDX-bearing mice enriched for CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) CICs are highly tumorigenic and metastatic. Importantly, microenvironment stimuli eliciting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, including signals from cancer-associated fibroblasts, are able to increase the dissemination potential of lung cancer cells through the generation of the CD133(+)/CXCR4(+)/EpCAM(-) subset. These findings also have correlates in patient samples where disseminating CICs are enriched in metastatic lymph nodes (20-fold, P = 0.006) and their detection in primary tumors is correlated with poor clinical outcome (disease-free survival: P = 0.03; overall survival: P = 0.05). Overall, these results highlight the importance of specific cellular subsets in the metastatic process, the need for in-depth characterization of disseminating tumor cells, and the potential of therapeutic strategies targeting both primary tumor and tumor-microenvironment interactions.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 tumor-suppressor protein is a poor indicator of prognosis for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Ginn, P E; Fox, L E; Brower, J C; Gaskin, A; Kurzman, I D; Kubilis, P S

    2000-01-01

    Eighty-three canine cutaneous mast cell tumors were graded histologically and evaluated immunohistochemically for p53 tumor-suppressor protein expression. An avidin-biotin immunohistochemical protocol incorporated a rabbit polyclonal antibody (CM-1) directed against normal and mutant p53 protein. Positive staining was observed in 44.6% (37/83) of tumors and included 50% (12/24) of grade I (well differentiated) tumors, 46.9% (23/49) of grade II (intermediate differentiation) tumors, and 20% (2/10) of grade III (poorly differentiated) tumors. A statistically significantly higher proportion (P < 0.019) of tumors from the head and neck (83.3%, 10/12), stained positive for p53 than tumors from the thorax, back, abdomen, and axilla (39.4%, 13/33), legs (35.7%, 10/28), or prepuce, scrotal, or inguinal areas (44.4%, 4/9). No statistically significant difference between p53 labeling and histologic grade, breed, or tumor size was present. Survival data were available for 53/83 (63.9%) of dogs. Positive reactivity for p53 was observed in 47% (25/53) of tumors within this group, with 57.9% (11/19) of grade I, 43.3% (13/30) of grade II, and 25% (1/4) of grade III tumors labeled. Mean survival time for the 53 dogs was 12.1 months. The median survival time for dogs with grade III tumors or tumors >5 cm was statistically significantly shorter (P < 0.0001) than for dogs with grades I and II or smaller tumors. Although p53 protein abnormalities may play a role in tumor development or behavior in some canine cutaneous mast cell tumors, immunoreactivity was not associated with lack of tumor differentiation, tumor locations previously shown to demonstrate aggressive biological behavior, breed predisposition, or survival times.

  4. High expression of S100A8 gene is associated with drug resistance to etoposide and poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia through influencing the apoptosis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Ming-ying; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Shui-yan; Zhao, Ye; Gu, Wei-ying; Pan, Jian; Cen, Jian-nong; Chen, Zi-xing; Guo, Wen-ge; Chen, Chien-shing; Yan, Wen-hua; Hu, Shao-yan

    2016-01-01

    S100A8 has been increasingly recognized as a biomarker in multiple solid tumors and has played pivotal roles in hematological malignancies. S100A8 is potentially an indicator for poor survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in retrospective studies. However, the mechanisms of S100A8 are diverse in cancers. In this study, we investigated the correlation of S100A8 at the transcription level with clinical parameters in 91 de novo AML patients and explored its mechanisms of chemoresistance to etoposide in vitro. The transcription level of S100A8 was significantly lower at initial and relapse stages of AML samples than at complete remission (P<0.001) and than in the control group (P=0.0078), while no significant difference could be found between initial and relapse stages (P=0.257). Patients with high transcription levels of S100A8 exhibited a shorter overall survival (P=0.0012). HL-60 cells transfected with S100A8 showed resistance to etoposide with a higher level IC50 value and lower apoptosis rate compared with HL-60 cells transfected with empty vector. Thirty-six genes were significantly downregulated and 12 genes were significantly upregulated in S100A8 overexpression group compared with control group in which 360 genes involved in apoptotic genes array were performed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Among them, the caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax were verified by Western blot analysis which indicated that the role of S100A8 in resistance to chemotherapy was closely related with antiapoptosis. In conclusion, critical S100A8 provided useful clinical information in predicting the outcome of AML. The main mechanism of S100A8 which promoted chemoresistance was antiapoptosis. PMID:27540302

  5. AB245. Down-regulation of C12orf59 is associated with a poor prognosis and VHL mutations in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zesong; Xie, Jun; Zhu, Chuangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and prognostic value of C12orf59 in ccRCC. Methods In silico gene expression was performed to analyze C12orf59 mRNA expression. The mRNA and protein expression levels of C12orf59 were assessed by real-time PCR and western blotting in a panel of cancer cell lines and 40 paired primary RCC and corresponding adjacent noncancerous tissues. Immunohistochemistry on additional renal tumor tissues was performed to study the C12orf59 expression and its association with clinico-pathological parameters (n=204), disease outcomes, the VHL gene, the UMPP gene and chromatin remodeling gene mutations (n=86), and HIF1α and HIF2α protein levels (n=86). Results C12orf59 mRNA was broadly expressed in normal human tissues with high expression levels in the kidney, and the C12orf59 protein was located in the cytoplasm. A panel of cancer cell lines lacked detectable C12orf59 expression, and C12orf59 expression was significantly down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compared with corresponding adjacent noncancerous tissues (P<0.01). The loss of C12orf59 was correlated with lymph node status (P<0.05), distant metastases (P<0.05), poor survival (P<0.001) (HR 3.00; 95% CI, 1.29–7.53), VHL non-sense mutations or frame-shift mutations (P<0.01), and UMPP gene non-sense mutations or frame-shift mutations (P=0.01). Conclusions C12orf59 expression was significantly down-regulated in RCC, and C12orf59 may serve as a prognostic biomarker of ccRCC with potential applications as a target for future functional studies. Decreased C12orf59 expression is associated with the loss of VHL and may cooperate with the loss of VHL to promote renal carcinogenesis.

  6. Unrelated transplantation for poor-prognosis adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: long-term outcome analysis and study of the impact of hematopoietic graft source.

    PubMed

    Ferrá, Christelle; Sanz, Jaime; de la Cámara, Rafael; Sanz, Guillermo; Bermúdez, Arancha; Valcárcel, David; Rovira, Montserrat; Serrano, David; Caballero, Dolores; Espigado, Ildefonso; Morgades, Mireia; Heras, Inmaculada; Solano, Carlos; Duarte, Rafael; Barrenetxea, Cristina; García-Noblejas, Ana; Díez-Martin, José L; Iriondo, Arturo; Carreras, Enric; Sierra, Jordi; Sanz, Miguel-Angel; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Adults with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR-ALL) have a poor outcome with standard chemotherapy and usually undergo unrelated stem cell transplantation (SCT) if a matched sibling donor is not available. We analyzed the outcome of adult patients with unrelated SCT for HR-ALL and studied the possible effect of the hematopoietic stem cell source of the transplant. A total of 149 adult patients (median age, 29 years, range, 15-59 years) with HR-ALL underwent unrelated SCT in 13 Spanish institutions between 2000 and 2007. Patients in first complete remission (CR1) at transplantation had at least one adverse prognostic factor (advanced age, adverse cytogenetics, hyperleukocytosis, or slow response to induction therapy). ALL was in CR1 in 81 patients (54%), in second CR (CR2) in 37 patients (25%), in third CR (CR3) in 11 patients (7%), and with overt disease in 20 patients (13%). The hematopoietic source was unrelated cord blood (UCB) in 62 patients and an unrelated donor (UD) in 87 patients. The patients undergoing UCB-SCT and UD-SCT were comparable in terms of the main clinical and biological features of ALL, except for a higher frequency of patients with more overt disease in the UCB-SCT group. There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years between the 2 groups. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was significantly lower in the UCB-SCT group (P = .021). The probability of relapse at 1 year was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-27%) for the UD-SCT group and 27% (95% CI, 14%-40%) for the UCB-SCT group (P = .088), respectively. Only disease status at transplantation (CR1, 41% [95% CI, 18%-64%] vs CR2, 51% [95% CI, 17%-85%] vs advanced disease, 66% [95% CI, 46%-86%]; P = .001) and the absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (74% [95% CI, 46%-100%] vs 33% [95% CI, 17%-49%]; P = .034) were significant factors for relapse. All unrelated transplantation modalities were associated with high

  7. Uveal melanoma: estimating prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2015-02-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  8. DNA methyltransferase 1/3a overexpression in sporadic breast cancer is associated with reduced expression of estrogen receptor-alpha/breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhaojin; Xiao, Qinghuan; Zhao, Lin; Ren, Jie; Bai, Xuefeng; Sun, Mingli; Wu, Huizhe; Liu, Xiaojian; Song, Zhiguo; Yan, Yuanyuan; Mi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Enhua; Jin, Feng; Wei, Minjie

    2015-09-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), including DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, play an important role in the progression of many malignant tumors. However, it remains unclear whether expression of DNMTs is associated with the development of breast cancer. This study aimed to explore the clinical significance of DNMT proteins in sporadic breast cancer. We investigated the expression of DNMT1, 3a, and 3b in 256 breast cancer and 36 breast fibroadenoma, using immunohistochemistry. The expression of DNMT1 and 3a was significantly higher in breast cancer than in fibroadenoma. In breast cancer, the expression of DNMT1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.020), and the expression of DNMT3a and 3b was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stages (P = 0.046 and 0.012, respectively). Overexpression of DNMT1/3a was correlated with promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression of ERα and BRCA1. The expression levels of DNMT1 or DNMT3a were associated with a significantly shorter DFS or OS in a subgroup of breast cancer patients (patients with the age ≤50 years old, ERα-negative status, or HER2-postive status). The expression of DNMT1 or a combined expression of DNMT1 and 3a was associated with poor prognosis in patients who received chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, but not in patients who received chemotherapy alone. These findings suggest that DNMT1 and 3a may be involved in the progression and prognosis of sporadic breast cancer.

  9. Uveal melanoma: Estimating prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms “uvea,” “iris,” “ciliary body,” “choroid,” “melanoma,” “uveal melanoma” and “prognosis,” “metastasis,” “genetic testing,” “gene expression profiling.” Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately. PMID:25827538

  10. Expression and prognostic significance of APAF-1, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in stage II/III colon carcinoma: caspase-8 and caspase-9 is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sträter, Jörn; Herter, Ines; Merkel, Gaby; Hinz, Ulf; Weitz, Jürgen; Möller, Peter

    2010-08-15

    Apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1), caspase-8 and caspase-9 are important factors in the execution of death signals. To study their prognostic influence in colon carcinoma, expression of APAF-1, caspase-8 and caspase-9 was determined by immunohistochemistry in normal colon mucosa (n = 8) and R0-resected stage II/III colon carcinomas (n >or= 124) using a semiquantitative score. Staining results were correlated with disease-free survival by Kaplan-Meier estimates, and multivariate Cox analyses were performed. In normal colon, APAF-1 and caspase-8 are most strongly expressed in the luminal surface epithelium, whereas caspase-9 is expressed all along the crypt axis. In colon carcinomas, there is considerable variability in the expression of these proapoptotic factors, although complete loss of caspase-8 and caspase-9 is rare. APAF-1 expression did not correlate with disease-free survival. Instead, both expression of caspase-9 and high-level expression of caspase-8 in a majority of tumor cells were significantly associated with adverse prognosis (p = 0.004 and p = 0.029, respectively). The influence of caspase-8 expression was mainly seen in patients with stage III colon carcinoma (p = 0.011), whereas the prognostic influence of caspase-9 expression was significant in stage II cases (p = 0.037) and just failed to be significant in stage III tumors (p = 0.0581). After adjusting for confounding factors in a multivariate Cox analysis, the effect of caspase-9 in predicting disease-free survival was confirmed (p = 0.003). Our data suggest that, in colon carcinomas, expression of caspase-8 and caspase-9 is significantly associated with poor survival. Caspase-9 may be an independent prognosticator in colon carcinoma.

  11. Elevated levels of p-Mnk1, p-eIF4E and p-p70S6K proteins are associated with tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weibing; Wang, Weiyuan; Mao, Xinfa; Chu, Shuzhou; Feng, Juan; Xiao, Desheng; Zhou, Jianhua; Fan, Songqing

    2017-02-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are able to invade neighboring and distant areas of the normal brain. Signaling pathway alterations play important role in the development of astrocytomas. Deregulation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) by MAP kinase-interacting kinases (Mnk) on Ser-209 directly or PI3K/mTOR/S6K pathway indirectly has a critical effect on promoting cellular proliferation, malignant transformation and metastasis. We examined and analyzed the correlation between expression of p-Mnk1, p-eIF4E and p-p70S6K proteins and clinicopathological features in 103 astrocytomas and 54 non-tumorous brain tissues. The results indicated that positive percentage of overexpression of p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E proteins in astrocytomas were significantly higher than that of in the non-tumorous brain tissues (P < 0.05). Elevated p-Mnk1 and p-eIF4E and co-overexpressed three proteins were associated with tumor recurrence (P = 0.003, P = 0.006, P = 0.007, respectively). Overexpressed p-eIF4E significantly correlated with the tumor size (P = 0.019). In addition, overexpression of p-eIF4E and three proteins common expression were related to the WHO grade of astrocytomas (P = 0.001, P = 0.044 respectively). Spearman's rank correlation test further showed that the expression of p-Mnk1 was strongly positive correlated with the expression of p-eIF4E in astrocytomas (r = 0.294, P = 0.003). Besides, overexpression of p-eIF4E and co-expression of p-Mnk1, p-eIF4E and p-p70S6K proteins were inversely correlated with overall survival rates of astrocytomas. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further identified that the elevated p-eIF4E expression, three proteins common expression were correlated with unfavorable prognosis of astrocytomas regardless of ages and WHO grades. Taken together, overexpression of p-eIF4E and co-expression of p-Mnk1, p-eIF4E and p-p70S6K proteins could be used as novel independent poor prognostic biomarkers for patients

  12. Down regulation of RNA binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 3, along with up regulation of nuclear HIF1A correlates with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Youliang; Yun, Dapeng; Zhao, Yingjie; Wang, Yuqi; Sun, Ruochuan; Yan, Qiang; Zhang, Shangxin; Lu, Mingdian; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Daru; Li, Yongxiang

    2017-01-03

    Frequent loss of multiple regions in short arm of chromosome 3 is found in various tumors including gastric cancer (GC). RNA binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 3 (RBMS3) is a tumor suppressor gene located in this region and mediates cancer angiogenesis. However, the role of RBMS3 in GC remains unclear.To evaluate whether RBMS3, together with HIF1A, another key regulator of angiogenesis, predicts GC prognosis, the levels of RBMS3 and HIF1A were first examined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot from 27 fresh frozen GC and paired normal gastric tissues and then tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC) from 191 GC and 46 normal controls. Moreover, uni- and multivariate analysis were employed to assess the correlations between their levels and microvessel density (MVD) and clinical prognosis. To further identify RBMS3 function in vitro, cell proliferation assay, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry analysis and endothelial cell tube formation assay were employed.We found that RBMS3 level was decreased, whereas HIF1A was elevated in GC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RBMS3 was an independent prognostic factor and the levels of RBMS3 and HIF1A were associated with GC angiogenesis and histopathological differentiation: patients with lower RBMS3 level and higher nuclear HIF1A expression had poorer prognosis. Besides, gain- and loss-of-function study revealed RBMS3 regulation on G1/S progression, cell proliferation and the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. These findings implicated that RBMS3 and nuclear HIF1A could act as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC.

  13. Down regulation of RNA binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 3, along with up regulation of nuclear HIF1A correlates with poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingjie; Wang, Yuqi; Sun, Ruochuan; Yan, Qiang; Zhang, Shangxin; Lu, Mingdian; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Daru; Li, Yongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Frequent loss of multiple regions in short arm of chromosome 3 is found in various tumors including gastric cancer (GC). RNA binding motif, single-stranded interacting protein 3 (RBMS3) is a tumor suppressor gene located in this region and mediates cancer angiogenesis. However, the role of RBMS3 in GC remains unclear. To evaluate whether RBMS3, together with HIF1A, another key regulator of angiogenesis, predicts GC prognosis, the levels of RBMS3 and HIF1A were first examined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot from 27 fresh frozen GC and paired normal gastric tissues and then tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC) from 191 GC and 46 normal controls. Moreover, uni- and multivariate analysis were employed to assess the correlations between their levels and microvessel density (MVD) and clinical prognosis. To further identify RBMS3 function in vitro, cell proliferation assay, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry analysis and endothelial cell tube formation assay were employed. We found that RBMS3 level was decreased, whereas HIF1A was elevated in GC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RBMS3 was an independent prognostic factor and the levels of RBMS3 and HIF1A were associated with GC angiogenesis and histopathological differentiation: patients with lower RBMS3 level and higher nuclear HIF1A expression had poorer prognosis. Besides, gain- and loss-of-function study revealed RBMS3 regulation on G1/S progression, cell proliferation and the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. These findings implicated that RBMS3 and nuclear HIF1A could act as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. PMID:27902480

  14. The methyltransferase EZH2 is not required for mammary cancer development, although high EZH2 and low H3K27me3 correlate with poor prognosis of ER-positive breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woo Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Young; Chung, Ik-Joo; Park, Min Ho; Yoon, Jung Han; Furth, Priscilla A; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2015-10-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) catalyzes trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and its demethylation is catalyzed by UTX. EZH2 levels are frequently elevated in breast cancer and have been proposed to control gene expression through regulating repressive H3K27me3 marks. However, it is not fully established whether breast cancers with different levels of H3K27me3, EZH2 and UTX exhibit different biological behaviors. Levels of H3K27me3, EZH2 and UTX and their prognostic significance were evaluated in 146 cases of breast cancer. H3K27me3 levels were higher in HER2-negative samples. EZH2 expression was higher in cancers that were LN+, size > 20mm, and with higher tumor grade and stage. Using a Cox regression model, H3K27me3 levels and EZH2 expression were identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival for all the breast cancers studied as well as the ER-positive subgroup. The combination of low H3K27me3 and high EZH2 expression levels were significantly associated with shorter survival. UTX expression was not significantly associated with prognosis and there were no correlations between H3K27me3 levels and EZH2/UTX expression. To determine if EZH2 is required to establish H3K27me3 marks in mammary cancer, Brca1 and Ezh2 were deleted in mammary stem cells in mice. Brca1-deficient mammary cancers with unaltered H3K27me3 levels developed in the absence of EZH2, demonstrating that EZH2 is not a mandatory H3K27 methyltransferase in mammary neoplasia and providing genetic evidence for biological independence between H3K27me3 and EZH2 in this tissue.

  15. Anti-MDA5 antibody is associated with A/SIP and decreased T cells in peripheral blood and predicts poor prognosis of ILD in Chinese patients with dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Dongxue; Shu, Xiaoming; Nakashima, Ran; Wang, Guochun

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine serum anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 prevalence and their clinical associations in Chinese patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Serum anti-MDA5 antibody was detected by ELISA in 113 adult PM/DM patients and in various controls. Flow cytometry was applied to analyze the subgroups of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of PM/DM patients. The serum anti-MDA5-positive rate in the DM patients (22.6%) was significantly higher compared with that in PM patients (0%, P < 0.005), patients with SLE (3.3%, P < 0.05), RA (3.3%, P < 0.05), pSS (0%, P < 0.05), pulmonary infection (0%, P < 0.05) and healthy controls (0%, P < 0.001). The percentage of decreased CD4(+), CD8(+) T cell counts, raised CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in peripheral blood and the incidence of acute/subacute interstitial pneumonia (A/SIP) were significantly higher in anti-MDA5-positive DM group than negative group (all P < 0.05). Additionally, logistic multivariate analysis showed that anti-MDA5 is an independent risk factor for death of ILD in DM (OR = 8.46, 95% CI 1.77-40.36, P = 0.007). In conclusion, in Chinese PM/DM patients, serum anti-MDA5 antibody is mainly presented in DM patients and can be a useful marker for A/SIP in patients with DM. It can predict unfavorable prognosis in DM patients with ILD. Further studies are needed to identify how the abnormal T cells in peripheral blood participated in the generation of the anti-MDA5 antibody.

  16. Phase 2 Study of Concurrent Cetuximab Plus Definitive Thoracic Radiation Therapy Followed by Consolidation Docetaxel Plus Cetuximab in Poor Prognosis or Elderly Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dilling, Thomas J.; Extermann, Martine; Kim, Jongphil; Thompson, Lora M.; Yue, Binglin; Stevens, Craig W.; Antonia, Scott; Gray, Jhanelle; Williams, Charles; Haura, Eric; Pinder-Schenck, Mary; Tanvetyanon, Tawee; Kim, Sungjune; Chiappori, Alberto

    2014-11-15

    Background: Recursive partitioning analysis has shown that Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (PS) ≥2, male sex, and age ≥70 years are prognostic of poor outcome in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) patients. Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) improves survival, but toxicity is a concern in this frail patient cohort. We therefore opened this trial of concurrent definitive thoracic radiation therapy (XRT) and cetuximab, followed by consolidation docetaxel plus cetuximab. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had pathologically proven, unresectable LA-NSCLC (stage IIA-“dry” IIIB). They had ECOG PS 2 or weight loss ≥5% in 3 months or were aged ≥70 years. The primary objective was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary objectives included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR). Results: From May 2008 to November 2010, a total of 32 patients were evaluated in our single-institution, institutional review board–approved prospective clinical trial. Three patients were screen failures and 2 more withdrew consent before treatment, leaving 27 evaluable patients. One was removed because of poor therapy compliance, and 2 were taken off trial because of grade 3 cetuximab-related toxicities but were followed up under intent-to-treat analysis. The median follow-up and OS were 10.5 months. The median PFS was 7.5 months. The ORR was 59.3%. Eight early/sudden deaths were reported. Upon review, 6 patients developed severe pulmonary complications. Conclusions: Patients enrolled in this trial had improved OS compared with poor-PS historical controls (10.5 vs 6.4 months) and comparable OS to good-PS historical controls (10.5 vs 11.9 months) treated with XRT alone. However, pulmonary toxicity is a concern. Consolidative cetuximab/docetaxel, in conjunction with high-dose radiation therapy, is a putative cause.

  17. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  18. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  19. Hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia: a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Vivian; Calado, Rita; Palaré, Maria João; Ferrão, Anabela; Morais, Anabela

    2013-02-13

    A 13-year-old boy presented with spontaneous skin and mucosal bleeds 3 weeks after acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology. Laboratory analyses revealed pancytopenia and bone marrow biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of aplastic anaemia. Other causes of congenital and acquired aplastic anaemia were excluded. He was diagnosed with hepatitis-associated aplastic anaemia. He developed a critical clinical condition, becoming totally dependent on erythrocyte and platelet transfusions, and severe neutropenia, which led to invasive bacterial infection. He died due to sepsis with multiple organ failure 3 months after admission.

  20. Poor Prognostic Outcome in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Dyskinesia and Elevated Platelet Volume.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shousen; Xu, Bingyang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Li, Jun; Hong, Jingfang; Wei, Liangfeng; Zhao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Although about 80% of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have a good prognosis, some patients develop severe complications and a small proportion do not survive. The study included patients who had been diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in our hospital from May 2008 to February 2014. Based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months for outcome, the patients were divided into two groups: good prognosis (mRS score ≤ 2) and poor prognosis (mRS score > 2). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were performed to identify significant prognostic factors for poor outcome. A total of 86 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, 54 males and 32 females, average age 41.3 years (range, 3-83 years), were enrolled. Of these 86 patients, 64 (74.4%) had a good prognosis and 22 (25.6%) a poor prognosis. Univariate analysis revealed that dyskinesia was a significant risk factor (factor with odds ratio >1) for poor prognosis. In multivariate analysis, the risk of poor prognosis in patients with dyskinesia was 23 times higher than for those without dyskinesia (p < 0.001). Thrombosis of the sinus transervus was found to reduce the risk of poor prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Most patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis have a good prognosis but patients with dyskinesia have a poorer prognosis.

  1. [Prognosis in ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Diethelm, U; Schüler, G

    1991-05-21

    Based on the literature we describe the prognosis and natural history of ankylosing spondylitis. The data on mortality are controversial and it seems that only a small group of patient show a decreased survival. It is a chronic disease with most prominent features of pain and increasing stiffness during the first decade. After a course of 40 years 90% of patients have none or only mild disability. Generally quality of life is slightly reduced. Most patients remain engaged in full-time employment, but job adaptations are often unavoidable and vocational counseling seems to be worthwhile.

  2. Prognosis Relevance of Serum Cytokines in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Carolina; Linares, Ana; Alejandre, Maria José; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio J.; Caba, Octavio; Prados, Jose; Aránega, Antonia; Delgado, Juan R.; Irigoyen, Antonio; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Ortuño, Francisco M.; Rojas, Ignacio; Perales, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is extremely low. Although gemcitabine is the standard used chemotherapy for this disease, clinical outcomes do not reflect significant improvements, not even when combined with adjuvant treatments. There is an urgent need for prognosis markers to be found. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential value of serum cytokines to find a profile that can predict the clinical outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer and to establish a practical prognosis index that significantly predicts patients' outcomes. We have conducted an extensive analysis of serum prognosis biomarkers using an antibody array comprising 507 human cytokines. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models were used to analyze prognosis factors. To determine the extent that survival could be predicted based on this index, we used the leave-one-out cross-validation model. The multivariate model showed a better performance and it could represent a novel panel of serum cytokines that correlates to poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. B7-1/CD80, EG-VEGF/PK1, IL-29, NRG1-beta1/HRG1-beta1, and PD-ECGF expressions portend a poor prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer and these cytokines could represent novel therapeutic targets for this disease. PMID:26346854

  3. [Laron syndrome: Presentation, treatment and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Latrech, Hanane; Polak, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Laron syndrome is a rare cause of short stature due to an abnormality of growth hormone receptor (GHR). It is characterized by poor phenotype-genotype correlation and geographic predilection essentially in the Mediterranean rim, the Middle East and Indian subcontinent. This syndrome corresponds to an endogenous and exogenous complete insensitivity of GH and manifests by early hypoglycemia, an extremely severe short stature and dysmorphic features contrasting with high levels of circulating GH. To date, treatment with recombinant IGF1 is the only treatment option that has improved the terrible prognosis in these patients but does not actually realize the conditions for genuine replacement therapy.

  4. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  5. Prognosis in critical care.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Resnic, Frederic S; Matheny, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    Prognostic risk prediction models have been employed in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting since the 1980s and provide health care providers with important information to help inform decisions related to treatment and prognosis, as well as to compare outcomes across institutions. Prognostic models for critical care are among the most widely utilized and tested predictive models in healthcare. In this article, we review and compare mortality prediction models, including the APACHE (1981), SAPS (1984), APACHE-II (1985), MPM (1987), APACHE-III (1991), SAPS-II (1993), and MPM-II (1993). We emphasize the importance of model calibration in this domain. In addition, we present a brief review of the statistical methodology, multiple logistic regression, which underlies most of the models currently used in critical care.

  6. Cervical carcinoma: prognosis in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J M; Blair, V; Hunter, R D

    1987-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of 2870 patients with invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated by radiotherapy from 1971 to 1978 showed that the prognosis for younger patients (defined as either under 35 or under 40) was better than that for older age groups, but young patients presented with earlier disease. When the effect of stage on prognosis was also considered the improved survival of patients under 35 was confirmed, although the result was of only borderline significance. The better survival of younger patients was particularly noticeable for stage IB disease, the corrected five year survival of those under 35 being 93% compared with 79% for those over 35. On the basis of this analysis and a review of previous reports it is concluded that age alone is a poor indicator of prognosis and should not be used as an indication for adjuvant treatment. There is no evidence in this series of an aggressive form of cervical carcinoma in younger patients during the 1970s. PMID:3115418

  7. Prognosis of critical limb ischemia: Major vs. minor amputation comparison.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Kyoichi; Hayashi, Ruka; Okabe, Keisuke; Aramaki-Hattori, Noriko; Kishi, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    Healthcare providers treating wounds have difficulties assessing the prognosis of patients with critical limb ischemia who had been discharged after complete healing of major amputation wounds. The word "major" in "major amputation" gives the impression of "being more severe" than "minor amputation." Therefore, even if wounds are healed after major amputation, they imagine that prognosis after major amputation would be poorer than that after minor amputation. We investigated the prognosis of diabetic nephropathy patients 2 years after amputations. Those patients underwent dialysis as well as amputation following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for their foot wounds. They were ambulatory prior to these surgeries. Among 56 cases of minor amputation, 45 were males and 11 were females, and mortality was 41.1%. The mortality of cases with and without a coronary intervention history was 53.1% and 25.0%, respectively (p = 0.034). Among 10 cases of major amputation, 9 were males and 1 was female, and mortality was 60%. The mortality of cases with and without a coronary intervention history was 75.0% and 0%, respectively. Although we predicted poor prognosis in cases with major amputation, there was no significant difference in mortality 2 years after amputations (p = 0.267). Thus far poor prognosis has been reported for major amputation. It might be due to inclusion of the following patients: patients with wounds proximal to ankle joints, patients with extensive gangrene spreading to the lower legs, patients with septicemia from wound infection and who died around the time of operation, and patients with malnutrition. The results of our present study showed that the outcomes at 2 years postoperatively were similar between patients with major amputations and those with minor amputations, if surgical wounds were able to heal. We should not estimate the prognosis by the level of amputation, rather we should consider the effect of coronary intervention history on

  8. Predictors of Poor Outcome in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV).

    PubMed

    Vega, Luis E; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-12-01

    It is important to recognize factors that might predict poor outcome and prognosis in patients with AAV. The predictors reported in the literature encompass genetic, histopathological, and clinical ones. Genetic studies (genetic predictors) have found genes that are associated with prediction of poor response to treatment, deterioration of renal function, and risk of mortality. Histopathological studies (histopathological predictors) have shown that sclerotic renal lesions are associated with increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and death. Lastly, scores (clinical predictors) obtained with tool as FFS, Maldini risk score, VDI, and emerging new biomarkers could potentially be helpful in assessment of prognosis in the future.

  9. [Vestibular neuritis: treatment and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Reinhard, A; Maire, R

    2013-10-02

    Vestibular neuritis is a sudden unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit of unknown origin without associated hearing loss. It is the second cause of peripheral vertigo after Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV). The etiology remains unclear and some treatments are still controversial. The prognosis is good. The differential diagnosis of the disease mainly includes an acute vertigo of central origin. This article summarizes the management and prognosis of vestibular neuritis.

  10. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  11. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  12. Relationship between major histocompatibility complex class I expression and prognosis in canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Shimada, Terumasa; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Shimizu, Junichiro; Zheng, Cao; Yijyun, Li; Mie, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Akiyoshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Hoshi, Fumio; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate MHC class I expression and prognosis using tumor tissues surgically removed from 9 dogs with mammary gland carcinomas and from 13 dogs with complex carcinomas. We assessed MHC class I expression and its correlation with tumor size, B2M expression, infiltration of lymphocytes, histological grade and prognosis. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections were histologically graded using the Elston and Ellis grading method. MHC class I expression on tumor cells was evaluated using the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method. Loss of MHC class I expression from canine mammary gland carcinomas was significantly correlated with poor prognosis (P<0.05). Loss of MHC class I expression showed no association with poor prognosis in canine mammary gland complex carcinomas, because the data were not balanced. Only 1 of 13 (7.6%) canine mammary gland complex carcinomas showed loss of MHC class I expression. All 13 of these dogs showed good prognosis. Thus, the low frequency of MHC class I expression loss from canine mammary gland complex carcinomas may be associated with good prognosis. Taken together, these results suggest that loss of MHC class I expression may be associated with poor prognosis in canine mammary gland carcinomas.

  13. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  14. The Poor Pay More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folse, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a sociology experiential learning assignment where students learned why people living in poverty can sometimes pay more for products than people with better incomes. Focuses specifically on the rent to own concept. States students achieved the goal of learning how life constraints of poverty can hinder the poor from overcoming their…

  15. Confronting Poor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bruce L.

    Responsible and effective administrative leadership requires confronting those members of the teaching staff who are a negative influence on the institution. Importantly, the absence of expressed appreciation for good work can have a devastating impact on a principal's image if he or she suddenly begins to confront poor performances. Actually, the…

  16. Assessment of prognosis of cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Durand, François; Valla, Dominique

    2008-02-01

    Once patients with cirrhosis experience decompensation, early mortality risk increases sharply. Liver transplantation has transformed the prognosis of decompensated cirrhosis. Child-Pugh score has been the reference for many years for assessing the prognosis of cirrhosis. However, Child-Pugh score has important limitations among which is subjective interpretation of some of its variables, making it difficult to categorize patients according to their own disease severity. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, which was originally designed for assessing the prognosis of cirrhotic patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), is a continuous score relying on three objective variables. Along with TIPS, MELD score proved to be a robust marker of early mortality across a wide spectrum of causes of cirrhosis, even though 10 to 20% of patients are still misclassified. MELD is especially useful for prioritizing candidates for transplantation according to a "sickest first" policy. However, MELD is not a universal prognostic marker of cirrhosis and several MELD exceptions require more specific approaches.

  17. Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome: prognosis and proposal for classification.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Kohno, Yoshinori

    2010-09-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a very rare syndrome characterized by micrognathia and posterior rib gap, with a poor prognosis. To date, only 75 cases have been reported worldwide. The overall survival rate for patients with this disorder has not been reported, and a classification of the patients on the basis of the prognosis is not yet available. The present study analyzed the figures and prognoses of past patients and documented a new case of CCMS. Formerly published case reports and personal communications were used to reveal the prognosis and classification of CCMS. The occurrence ratios of rib gap defects and of missing ribs were examined. Patients were divided into the following three groups according to their life span: lethal type, where the patients died before 1 month; severe type, where the patients lived for 1-12 months; and mild type, where they survived for more than 1 year. A comparison was made of the number of rib gaps, missing ribs, and the rib gap ratio (defined as the number of rib gaps divided by the number of all existing ribs) among these three groups. A significant difference in the number of rib defects between the lethal type and other types was noted. Short life span of severe type patients, compared to mild type, was attributed to their subjection to severe respiratory infection. CCMS can be classified into three categories--lethal, severe, and mild--according to the severity of the symptoms and prognosis.

  18. Prognosis and Progression of ESCC Patients with Perineural Invasion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guanghui; Feng, Fan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Xiao, Shuao; Cai, Lei; Yang, Xuewen; Li, Guocai; Lian, Xiao; Guo, Man; Sun, Li; Yang, Jianjun; Fan, Daiming; Lu, Qun; Zhang, Hongwei

    2017-03-03

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has been recognized as a poor prognostic factor in several malignancies, but the definition and pathogenesis of PNI in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be defined. PNI was evaluated by H&E staining and S100 immunohistochemistry. The predictive value of PNI in the prognosis of ESCC patients was analyzed. PNI was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A total of 54 specimens (17.88%) were defined as PNI-a and 99 specimens (32.78%) as PNI-b. S100 staining was superior to H&E staining for PNI detection (50.66% vs 27.15%, P < 0.001, κ = 0.506). Tumor depth (P = 0.001), tumor stage (P = 0.010), and vascular invasion (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with PNI. PIN-a and PNI-b had significant lower disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival (DSS) than PNI-0 patients, and the prognosis of PNI-b patients was significantly worse than PNI-a patients for DFS (P = 0.009). PNI was an independent predictor for DFS and DSS in ESCC as evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. ESCC cells could metastasize along the nerve in vitro and in vivo, and PNI was a dynamic process. S100 staining significantly improved the accuracy of PNI detection. PNI was associated with local recurrence and poor prognosis of ESCC patients.

  19. Letting the poor speak.

    PubMed

    2000-09-29

    This paper comments on two documents prepared by the Washington-based World Bank: the "World Development Report" and the three-volume study "Voices of the Poor." The author provides a brief overview of these documents then examines their potential impact on the delegates to the annual meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Prague on September 19-28, 2000. The author further examines the implication of the new strategies embraced by the global lenders--"opportunity, empowerment, security." Apart from these strategies, the World Bank sets out other strategies like spreading the benefits of technology, as it calls for the elimination of absolute poverty by 2015. However, the most crucial tack is the one illustrated by the way the reports were made: letting the poor speak and responding to their cries.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and prognosis in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Bo; Ren, Guo-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but studies of the effects of diabetes on the prognosis of women with breast cancer have yielded inconsistent findings. The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the impact of preexisting diabetes on the prognosis in terms of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse-free period (RFP) in women with breast cancer. Methods: We searched the Embase and PubMed databases until June 2016 for cohort or case–control studies assessing the impact of diabetes on the prognosis of women with breast cancer. The pooled multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for OS, DFS, and RFP were used to analyze the impact of diabetes on the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Results: Seventeen studies involving 48,315 women with breast cancer met our predefined inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that the pooled adjusted HR was 1.51 (95% CI 1.34–1.70) for OS and 1.28 (95% CI 1.09–1.50) for DFS in breast cancer patients with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. However, RFP did not differ significantly between patients with and without diabetes (HR 1.42; 95% CI 0.90–2.23). Conclusions: The present meta-analysis suggests that preexisting diabetes is independently associated with poor OS and DFS in female breast cancer patients. However, the impact of diabetes on RFP should be further verified. More prospective studies are warranted to investigate whether appropriate glycemic control with modification of antihyperglycemic agents can improve the prognosis of female breast cancer patients with diabetes. PMID:27930583

  1. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes.

  2. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  3. Mechanical Failure Prognosis Through Oil Debris Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-006 19U MECHANICAL FAILURE PROGNOSIS THROUGH OIL DEBRIS MONITORING Alan Beex"bower Exxon Research and Engineering Company Prepared...PERIOD COVERED Final Report 18 June 1973 to 1 August 197A 4. TITLE (•«id Subl/rl«) MECHANICAL FAILURE PROGNOSIS THROUGH OIL DEBRIS ...Company project entitled "Mechanical Failure Prognosis through Debris Analysis." This study was conducted for the Eustis Directorate, U.S. Army Air

  4. Prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okpala, I E; Olatunji, P O; Okunade, M A; Ogunsanwo, B A; Jeje, O M; Shokunbi, W A; Essien, E M

    1990-12-01

    Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) seen in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, still have low rates of complete remission and relatively short survival. Yet the overall prognosis was expected to have improved because the proportions of adults, males and people of low socio-economic class among the patients have decreased steadily over the past three decades. Possible causes of the persistent poor performance were sought for in 30 new ALL patients seen in the hospital over a period of 2 years and 9 months. Unfavourable prognostic factors, lack of standard cytotoxic drugs, inadequate supportive care and absence of modern facilities for therapy combined to make their disease outcome worse than expected.

  5. Relationship of Circulating CXCR4+ EPC with Prognosis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yunpeng; Luo, Lan Lan; Sun, Jian; Gao, Weiwei; Tian, Ye; Park, Eugene; Baker, Andrew; Chen, Jieli; Jiang, Rongcai; Zhang, Jianning

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the changes of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α)/CXCR4 expression in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the correlation between EPC level and the prognosis of mild TBI. 72 TBI patients (57 mild TBI, 15 moderate TBI patients) and 25 healthy subjects (control) were included. The number of circulating EPCs, CD34+, and CD133+ cells and the percentage of CXCR4+ cells in each cell population at 1,4,7,14,21 days after TBI were counted by flow cytometer. SDF-1α levels in serum were detected by ELISA assay. The patients were divided into poor and good prognosis groups based on Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and Activity of Daily Living Scale at 3 months after TBI. Correlation analysis between each detected index and prognosis of mild TBI was performed. Moderate TBI patients have higher levels of SDF-1α and CXCR4 expression than mild TBI patients (P < 0.05). The percentage of CXCR4+ EPCs at day 7 post-TBI was significantly higher in mild TBI patients with poor prognosis than the ones with good prognosis (P < 0.05). HAMA and HAMD scores in mild TBI patients were significantly lower than moderate TBI patients (P < 0.05) in early term. The percentage of CXCR4+ EPCs at day 7 after TBI was significantly correlated with the prognosis outcome at 3 months. The mobilization of circulating EPCs can be induced in mild TBI. The expression of CXCR4+ in EPCs at 7 days after TBI reflects the short-term prognosis of brain injury, and could be a potential biological marker for prognosis prediction of mild TBI. PMID:28203485

  6. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Children described as poor comprehenders (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this study was to examine morphosyntax in fourth grade PCs and typically developing readers (TDs), using three experimental tasks involving finiteness marking. Participants also completed standardized, norm-referenced assessments of phonological memory, vocabulary, and broader language skills. PCs displayed weakness relative to TDs on all three morphosyntax tasks and on every other assessment of oral language except phonological memory, as indexed by nonword repetition. These findings help to clarify the linguistic profile of PCs, suggesting that their language weaknesses include grammatical weaknesses that cannot be fully explained by semantic factors. Because finiteness markers are usually mastered prior to formal schooling in typical development, we call for future studies to examine whether assessments of morphosyntax could be used for the early identification of children at risk for future reading comprehension difficulty. PMID:27397969

  7. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with vasculogenic mimicry and poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihong; Sun, Baocun; Zhao, Xiulan; Shao, Bing; An, Jindan; Gu, Qiang; Wang, Yong; Dong, Xueyi; Zhang, Yanhui; Qiu, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate erythropoietin (Epo) and erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) expression, its relationship with vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and its prognostic value in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we examined Epo/EpoR expression and VM formation using immunohistochemistry and CD31/PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) double staining on 92 HCC specimens. The correlation between Epo/EpoR expression and VM formation was analyzed using two-tailed Chi-square test and Spearman correlation analysis. Survival curves were generated using Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox regression model to assess the prognostic values. Results showed positive correlation between Epo/EpoR expression and VM formation (P < 0.05). Patients with Epo or EpoR expression exhibited poorer overall survival (OS) than Epo-negative or EpoR-negative patients (P < 0.05). Epo-positive/VM-positive and EpoR-positive/VM-positive patients had the worst OS (P < 0.05). In multivariate survival analysis, age, Epo and EpoR were independent prognostic factors related to OS. These results will provide evidence for further research on HCC microcirculation patterns and also will provide new possible targets for HCC diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Decreased expression of STING predicts poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shushu; Peng, Peike; Tang, Zhaoqing; Zhao, Junjie; Wu, Weicheng; Li, Haojie; Shao, Miaomiao; Li, Lili; Yang, Caiting; Duan, Fangfang; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Li, Can; Wang, Xuefei; Wang, Hongshan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    STING (stimulator of interferon genes) has recently been found to play an important role in host defenses against virus and intracellular bacteria via the regulation of type-I IFN signaling and innate immunity. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori is identified as the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. Thus, we aim to explore the function of STING signaling in the development of gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect STING expression in 217 gastric cancer patients who underwent surgical resection. STING protein expression was remarkably decreased in tumor tissues compared to non-tumor tissues, and low STING staining intensity was positively correlated with tumor size, tumor invasion depth, lymph mode metastasis, TNM stage, and reduced patients’ survival. Multivariate analysis identified STING as an independent prognostic factor, which could improve the predictive accuracy for overall survival when incorporated into TNM staging system. In vitro studies revealed that knock-down of STING promoted colony formation, viability, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, and also led to a defect in cytosolic DNA sensing. Besides, chronic H. pylori infection up-regulated STING expression and activated STING signaling in mice. In conclusion, STING was proposed as a novel independent prognostic factor and potential immunotherapeutic target for gastric cancer. PMID:28176788

  9. Expression of Leptin and Sirtuin-1 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Feng, Helin; Guo, Peng; Wang, Jin; Xu, Jianfa; Xie, Congcong; Gao, Fulu

    2016-04-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a downstream target of Leptin, and its inhibition promotes p53-mediated apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the expression and prognostic significance of Leptin and SIRT1 in osteosarcoma. Leptin and SIRT1 levels in osteosarcoma samples from 89 patients were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The correlations between Leptin and SIRT1 expression with clinical parameters were analyzed by Spearman's test and Pearson's chi-squared test. Prognostic factors were identified by Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. We found that Leptin and SIRT1 expression was low in 23.6% and 20.2%; moderate in 25.8% and 24.7%; and high in 50.5% and 55.1% of patients with osteosarcoma, respectively. Both Leptin and SIRT1 expression were significantly associated with the Enneking stage, distant metastasis and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Leptin expression and SIRT1 expression were significantly correlated and they were significantly associated with shorter overall survival. Among osteosarcoma patients who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, both Leptin and SIRT1 expression were significantly associated with overall survival of osteosarcoma patients in univariate analysis, but only SIRT1 expression was significantly associated with overall survival of osteosarcoma patients in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, Leptin and SIRT1 expressions are significantly associated with shorter overall survival of osteosarcoma patients, and SIRT1 expression is a significant independent prognostic indicator in patients with osteosarcoma.

  10. Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 is a biomarker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, C H; Park, H J; Lee, J R; Kim, H K; Jeon, T Y; Jo, H-J; Kim, D H; Kim, G H; Park, D Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: In a previous study, we reported that serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 (serpinA1) is upregulated in Snail-overexpressing gastric cancer. Although serpinA1 has been studied in several types of cancer, little is known about its roles and mechanisms of action. In this study, we examined the role of serpinA1 in the migration and invasion of gastric cancers and determined its underlying mechanism. Methods: Expression levels were assessed by western blot analyses and real-time PCR. Snail binding to serpinA1 promoter was analysed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The roles of serpinA1 were studied using cell invasion and migration assays. In addition, the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of serpinA1 expression were validated in 400 gastric cancer patients using immunohistochemical analysis. Results: Overexpression of Snail resulted in upregulation of serpinA1 in gastric cancer cell lines, AGS and MKN45, whereas knockdown of Snail inhibited serpinA1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that overexpression of Snail increased Snail recruitment to the serpinA1 promoter. Overexpression of serpinA1 increased the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, whereas knockdown of serpinA1 decreased invasion and migration. Moreover, serpinA1 increased mRNA levels and release of metalloproteinase-8 in gastric cancer cells. Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 was observed in the cytoplasm of tumour cells and the stroma by immunohistochemistry. Enhanced serpinA1 expression was significantly associated with increased tumour size, advanced T stage, perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastases, and shorter overall survival. Conclusions: Serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 1 induces the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells and its expression is associated with the progression of gastric cancer. These results may provide a potential target to prevent invasion and metastasis in gastric cancer. PMID:25211665

  11. Obesity and smoking are factors associated with poor prognosis in patients with bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    Huttunen, Reetta; Laine, Janne; Lumio, Jukka; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    Background Bacteraemia is still a major cause of case fatality in all age groups. Our aim was to identify the major underlying conditions constituting risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemia patients. Methods The study involved 149 patients (79 male and 70 female) with bacteraemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (41 patients), Streptococcus pneumoniae (Str. pneumoniae) (42 patients), β-hemolytic streptococcae (β-hml str.) (23 patients) and Eschericia coli (E. coli) (43 patients). Underlying diseases, alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index (BMI) were registered. Laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and 6 consecutive days and on day 10–14. Case fatality was studied within 30 days after positive blood culture. Associations between underlying conditions and case fatality were studied in univariate analysis and in a multivariate model. Results Nineteen patients (12.8%) died of bacteraemia. We found obesity (p = 0.002, RR 9.8; 95% CI 2.3 to 41.3), smoking (p < 0.001, RR 16.9; 95% CI 2.1 to 133.5), alcohol abuse (p = 0.008, RR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3 to 11.28), COPD (p = 0.01, RR 8.4; 95% CI 1.9 to 37.1) and rheumatoid arthritis (p = 0.045, RR 5.9; 95% CI 1.2 to 28.8) to be significantly associated with case fatality in bacteraemia in univariate model. The median BMI was significantly higher among those who died compared to survivors (33 vs. 26, p = 0.003). Obesity and smoking also remained independent risk factors for case fatality when their effect was studied together in a multivariate model adjusted with the effect of alcohol abuse, age (continuos variable), sex and causative organism. Conclusion Our results indicate that obesity and smoking are prominent risk factors for case fatality in bacteraemic patients. Identification of risk factors underlying fatal outcome in bacteraemia may allow targeting of preventive efforts to individuals likely to derive greatest potential benefit. PMID:17349033

  12. High expression of GFAT1 predicts poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Caiting; Peng, Peike; Li, Lili; Shao, Miaomiao; Zhao, Junjie; Wang, Lan; Duan, Fangfang; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Ran; Jia, Dongwei; Zhang, Mingming; Wu, Weicheng; Li, Can; Rong, Yefei; Zhang, Lei; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal of all types of cancer, with the 5-year survival rate ranging only at 6–7%. The aberrant glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, and as a branch of glucose metabolism, hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) has been reported to play a critical role in the insulin resistance and progression of cancer. Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT1) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP; nevertheless, the prognostic value of GFAT1 in pancreatic cancer remains elusive. In this study, we found that the expression of GFAT1 was increased in pancreatic cancer samples compared to peri-tumor tissues. High expression of GFAT1 was positively associated with lymph node metastasis, pTNM stage and shorter overall survival (OS) in pancreatic cancer patients. GFAT1 was identified as an independent prognosticator for OS, and combining GFAT1 expression with pTNM stage generated a predictive nomogram, which showed better prognostic efficiency for OS in patients with pancreatic cancer. In summary, high GFAT1 expression is identified as an independent predictor of adverse clinical outcome in our small number of pancreatic cancer patients, and the practical prognostic nomogram model may help clinicians in decision making and the design of clinical studies. PMID:27996048

  13. Low extracellular lysyl oxidase expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Xuejian; Chen, Qiwei; Fang, Kun; Wang, Lina; Chen, Feng; Li, Xiancheng; Li, Ziyao; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Yingxi; Yang, Deyong; Song, Xishuang

    2016-01-01

    Remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is induced by lysyl oxidase (LOX), has been demonstrated to accompany tumor progression; however, the association between LOX expression levels and the malignant behavior of prostate cancer (Pca) remains unclear. The present study aimed to analyze the tumor-associated expression profile of LOX in patients with Pca and to evaluate its potential prognostic value. In the form of a retrospective study, the expression patterns of LOX and collagen I were analyzed in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and Pca by immunohistochemical examination. The results demonstrated that, with the initiation and progression of Pca, the expression levels of LOX and collagen I were closely associated with Gleason score and tumor stage. In addition, although LOX was expressed in cancer and non-cancer tissues, the differential expression pattern observed in the ECM of Pca cells may indicate that LOX is an important molecule that affects the progression of this disease. Therefore, LOX expression level in the ECM may function as an independent predictor of Pca. PMID:27899976

  14. Multimodal Cancer Care in Poor Prognosis Cancers: Resection Drives Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Mark A.; Yin, Huiying; Wong, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hospitals with high complex oncologic surgical volume have improved short-term outcomes. However, for long-term outcomes, the influence of other therapies must be considered. We compared effects of resection with other therapies on long-term outcomes across U.S. hospitals. Methods We examined claims in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare dataset for patients with esophageal (EC) and pancreatic (PC) cancers between 2005–2009, with follow-up through 2011, performing multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. We stratified hospitals by volume and compared rates of treatments in the context of survival. Results We studied 905 EC and 3,293 PC patients at 138 and 375 hospitals, respectively. For EC, resection rates were significantly higher (32.9% vs. 9.5%, P<0.001) in the highest versus lowest volume hospitals. Adjusted survival was also statistically significantly better (48.5% vs. 43.1%, P<0.001). For PC, resection rates were also statistically significantly higher (30.1% vs. 12.0%, P<0.001) with higher adjusted survival (21.5% vs. 19.9%, P = 0.01). We did not find variation in rates of other cancer treatments across hospitals. Conclusions A significant association exists between long-term survival and rates of cancer-directed surgery across hospitals, without variation in rates of other therapies. Access to resection appears to be key to reducing variation in long-term survival. PMID:26953166

  15. Downregulation of osteoprotegerin expression in metastatic colorectal carcinoma predicts recurrent metastasis and poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Youn-Wha

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported the downregulation of osteoprotegerin expression in primary colorectal carcinoma and its significant association with aggressive oncogenic behavior, which suggest that this process contributes to colorectal carcinoma development and progression. In this study, we used immunohistochemical staining to evaluate osteoprotegerin expression in 81 colorectal liver metastasis tissue samples and investigated its possible association with the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with colorectal liver metastasis. These tissues exhibited significantly reduced expression of osteoprotegerin compared to primary colorectal carcinomas and normal colorectal mucosa. This reduced expression was significantly associated with the extent of colorectal liver metastasis, including multiplicity of metastatic tumors, involvement of the bilateral hepatic lobes, and higher histological grade. In addition, reduced osteoprotegerin expression was an independent significant predictor of recurrent liver metastasis and prognostic factor for reduced patient survival. These findings suggest that osteoprotegerin expression may be a novel predictor of recurrent liver metastasis and a prognostic biomarker in patients with colorectal liver metastasis. Patients harboring colorectal liver metastasis with reduced osteoprotegerin expression should be carefully monitored after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastasis to enable early detection of potentially resectable metastatic recurrences. PMID:27764814

  16. Hyperdiploidy as a rare event that accompanies poor prognosis markers in CLL.

    PubMed

    González-Gascón Y Marín, Isabel; Martín, Ana África; Hernández-Sanchez, María; Robledo, Cristina; Hermosín, María Lourdes; de Las Heras, Natalia; Lacalle, Laura; Galende, Josefina; de Arriba, Felipe; Rodríguez-Vicente, Ana Eugenia; Hernández, José-Ángel; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María

    2017-02-01

    The presence of chromosomal gains other than trisomy 12 in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is unusual. However, some patients may show gains on several chromosomes simultaneously suggesting a hyperdiploid karyotype.

  17. True Local Recurrences after Breast Conserving Surgery have Poor Prognosis in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarsenov, Dauren; Ilgun, Serkan; Ordu, Cetin; Alco, Gul; Bozdogan, Atilla; Elbuken, Filiz; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Agacayak, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Eralp, Yesim; Dincer, Maktav

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating clinical and histopathologic features of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and their effects on survival after breast conservation therapy. Methods: 1,400 patients who were treated between 1998 and 2007 and had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer (cT1-2/N0-1/M0) were evaluated. Demographic and pathologic parameters, radiologic data, treatment, and follow-up related features of the patients were recorded. Results: 53 patients (3.8%) had IBTR after BCS within a median follow-up of 70 months. The mean age was 45.7 years (range, 27-87 years), and 22 patients (41.5%) were younger than 40 years. 33 patients (62.3%) had true recurrence (TR) and 20 were classified as new primary (NP). The median time to recurrence was shorter in TR group than in NP group (37.0 (6-216) and 47.5 (11-192) months respectively; p = 0.338). Progesterone receptor positivity was significantly higher in the NP group (p = 0.005). The overall 5-year survival rate in the NP group (95.0%) was significantly higher than that of the TR group (74.7%, p < 0.033). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (<40 years), large tumor size (>20 mm), high grade tumor and triple-negative molecular phenotype along with developing TR negatively affected overall survival (hazard ratios were 4.2 (CI 0.98-22.76), 4.6 (CI 1.07-13.03), 4.0 (CI 0.68-46.10), 6.5 (CI 0.03-0.68), and 6.5 (CI 0.02- 0.80) respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the local recurrences after BCS in our study were true recurrences, which resulted in a poorer outcome as compared to new primary tumors. Moreover, younger age (<40), large tumor size (>2 cm), high grade, triple negative phenotype, and having true recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on overall survival in this dataset of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In conjunction with a more intensive follow-up program, the role of adjuvant therapy strategies should be explored further in young patients with large and high-risk tumors to reduce the risk of TR. PMID:27158571

  18. N-terminal truncated carboxypeptidase E expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Meng, Dawei; Li, Li; Tian, Xin; Jia, Yunji; Wang, Hongyue; Yu, Huihui; Sun, Tiemin; Qu, Aibing; Shen, Hui; Bao, Jimin; Zhang, Guirong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality rates. To date, no suitable molecular diagnostic tool to predict disease recurrence and metastasis has been identified. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential of N-terminal truncated carboxypeptidase E (CPEΔN) to predict the recurrence and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. Western blotting revealed the co-expression of CPE and CPEΔN in the surgically collected pathological and pericarcinoma tissues tissues of 62.1% (59/95) lung adenocarcinoma patients. The full length CPE protein was predominantly expressed in pericarcinoma tissues and CPEΔN expression was identified in the pericarcinoma normal tissues of only 5.26% (5/95) patients. The 3-year postoperative recurrence and metastasis rates were significantly higher in patients with positive CPEΔN expression than in patients with negative CPEΔN expression (P=0.009). Furthermore, the overall survival rate of patients with predominant nuclear CPE expression was lower than that of patients with predominant cytoplasmic CPE expression (46.3 vs. 64.7%); however, no statistically significant difference was identified (P=0.125). Thus, the results of the current study indicated that CPEΔN may present a novel molecular biomarker for predicting recurrence and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma, which may aid with stratifying patients by risk and thus, may facilitate individualized therapy. PMID:28101219

  19. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is a novel predictor for poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Yun; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Xudong; Qin, Jin; Wang, Wei; Wu, Han

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) acts as a key metabolic enzyme in the rate-limiting step in serine biosynthesis and plays an important role in metastasis of several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of PHGDH in gastric cancer (GC). Methods The messenger RNA expression of PHGDH was determined in 20 pairs of cancerous and adjacent nontumor tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry of PHGDH was performed on tissue microarray, composed of 482 GC and 64 matched adjacent nontumor tissues acquired from surgery, 20 chronic gastritis, 18 intestinal metaplasia, and 31 low-grade and 66 high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias acquired through gastric endoscopic biopsy. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to perform survival analyses. Results Both PHGDH messenger RNA and protein product exhibited GC tissue-preferred expression, when compared with benign tissues. The high PHGDH expression was significantly correlated with histological type (P=0.011), tumor stage (P=0.014), and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (P<0.001). A negative correlation was found between PHGDH expression and the 5-year survival rate of patients with GC. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that PHGDH was an independent prognostic factor for outcome in GC. Conclusion PHGDH is important in predicting patient outcomes and is a potential target for the development of therapeutic approaches to GC. PMID:27660473

  20. Urinary oncofetal ED-A fibronectin correlates with poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Shanna A; Loomans, Holli A; Ketova, Tatiana; Andl, Claudia D; Clark, Peter E; Zijlstra, Andries

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN) contributes to the structural integrity of tissues as well as the adhesive and migratory functions of cells. While FN is abundantly expressed in adult tissues, the expression of several alternatively spliced FN isoforms is restricted to embryonic development, tissue remodeling and cancer. These FN isoforms, designated ED-A and ED-B, are frequently expressed by cancer cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts and newly forming blood vessels. Using a highly sensitive collagen-based indirect ELISA, we evaluated the correlation of urinary ED-A and ED-B at time of cystectomy with overall survival in patients with high-grade bladder cancer (BCa). Detectable levels of total FN as well as ED-A and ED-B were found in urine from 85, 73 and 51 % of BCa patients, respectively. The presence of urinary ED-A was a significant independent predictor of 2-year overall survival (OS) after adjusting for age, tumor stage, lymph node stage, and urinary creatinine by multivariable Logistic Regression (p = 0.029, OR = 4.26, 95 % CI 1.16-15.71) and improved accuracy by 3.6 %. Furthermore, detection of ED-A in the urine was a significant discriminator of survival specifically in BCa patients with negative lymph node status (Log-Rank, p = 0.006; HR = 5.78, 95 % CI 1.39-24.13). Lastly, multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that urinary ED-A was an independent prognostic indicator of 5-year OS rate for patients with BCa (p = 0.04, HR = 2.20, 95 % CI 1.04-4.69). Together, these data suggest that cancer-derived, alternatively spliced FN isoforms can act as prognostic indicators and that additional studies are warranted to assess the clinical utility of ED-A in BCa.

  1. Loss of RUNX3 expression may contribute to poor prognosis in patients with chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhe; Han, Ya-Xin; Han, Xiao-Rui

    2013-12-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common type of bone cancer. Loss of RUNX3 expression has been demonstrated in many other cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between RUNX3 expression and chondrosarcoma. In this study, we detected RUNX3 expression in the progression of chondrosarcoma. In patient samples, the levels of RUNX3 mRNA and protein were lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Down-regulation of RUNX3 mRNA in tumor tissues was associated with an increase in RUNX3 promoter methylation. Loss of RUNX3 expression was significantly associated with more aggressive chondrosarcoma types and decreased survival time of patients. To examine the effects of exogenous expression of RUNX3 in vitro, chondrosarcoma cells were transfected with the pcDNA3.1-RUNX3 expression vector. Relative to control cells, RUNX3-expressing cells exhibited lower proliferation and higher apoptosis rates as assessed by colony formation and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that RUNX3 acts a tumor suppressor in chondrosarcoma and that RUNX3 promoter methylation may be the molecular mechanism for its decreased expression.

  2. Cool seasons are related to poor prognosis in patients with infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Jung; Chao, Tze-Fan; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Hsu, Tsui-Lieh; Yu, Wen-Chung; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2012-09-01

    Many cardiac diseases demonstrate seasonal variations in the incidence and mortality. This study was designed to investigate whether the mortality of infective endocarditis (IE) was higher in cool seasons and to evaluate the effects of cool climate for IE. We enrolled 100 IE patients with vegetations in our hospital. The temperatures of the IE episodes were defined as the monthly average temperatures of the admission days. The average temperatures in the cool (fall/winter) and warm seasons (spring/summer) were 19.2°C and 27.6°C, respectively. In addition, patients admitted with the diagnosis of IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and the in-hospital mortality rates in cool and warm seasons were compared to validate the findings derived from the data of our hospital. The mortality rate for IE was significantly higher in fall/winter than in spring/summer which presents consistently in the patient population of our hospital (32.7% versus 12.5%, p = 0.017) and from NHIRD (10.4% versus 4.6%, p = 0.019). IE episodes which occurred during cool seasons presented with a higher rate of heart failure (44.2% versus 22.9%, p = 0.025) and D-dimer level (5.5 ± 3.8 versus 2.4 ± 1.8 μg/ml, p = 0.017) at admission than that of warm seasons. These results may reflect the impact of temperatures during the pre-hospitalized period on the disease process. In the multivariate analysis, Staphylococcal infection, left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic dysfunction and temperature were the independent predictors of mortalities in IE patients.

  3. Lymphovascular space invasion portends poor prognosis in low-risk endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Ricardo; Burzawa, Jennifer K.; Tsunoda, Audrey T.; Hosaka, Masayoshi; Frumovitz, Michael; Westin, Shannon N.; Munsell, Mark F.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prognostic significance of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) in patients with early-stage endometrial cancer is not established. We sought to determine if LV