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Sample records for poor verbal fluency

  1. Atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with poor performance in verbal fluency in elderly poststroke women☆

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang-Kun; Xiao, Wei-Min; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie CW; Mok, Vincent CT; Wong, Ka Sing; Ungvari, Gabor S; Tang, Wai Kwong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between atrophy in the prefrontal cortex with executive function and verbal fluency in elderly male and female patients poststroke. Thirty elderly female patients with non-aphasic ischemic stroke aged ≥ 60 years and 30 age-matched non-aphasic male patients with ischemic stroke were recruited. Automatic magnetic resonance imaging segmentation was used to assess the volume of the whole prefrontal cortex, along with its subdivisions: anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The Semantic Verbal Fluency Test was administered at 3 and 15 months poststroke. At 3 months poststroke, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume was significantly correlated with Verbal Fluency Test score in female patients only (partial coefficient = 0.453, P = 0.045), after controlling for age, education, diabetes, neurological deficit, white matter lesions volume, as well as the location and volume of infarcts. At 15 months poststroke, there remained a significant association between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.661, P = 0.001) and between the left prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.573, P = 0.004) in female patients after the same adjustments. These findings indicate that atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contributes to the impairment of verbal fluency in elderly female patients with stroke. Sex differences may be present in the neuropsychological mechanisms of verbal fluency impairment in patients with stroke. PMID:25206675

  2. [Verbal fluency and Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Alberca, R; Salas, D; Pérez-Gil, J A; Lozano, P; Gil-Néciga, E

    1999-01-01

    BASIC: The loss of verbal fluency in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been related to the cognitive and functional impairment caused by the disorder. To determine the value of the different types of verbal fluency examination for the detection of AD. We have compared the results obtained in the study of verbal fluency in 74 patients with probable AD (NINCDS-ARDRA criteria) to a control group of 64 persons of similar age, gender and educational level. Patients were divided in three categories according to the intensity of dementia: very mild (MMSE > 23), mild (MMSE 18-23) and moderate (MMSE 10-17). Semantic and literal verbal fluencies were studied by means of the "set-test", including in the analysis the results in every of four categories and total, the time consumed per category and the sum of all, the number of animal's names and words given in a minute. We also determined the number of animals in every fifteen seconds up to one minute in 66 controls y 97 patients. Results in the different groups were compared using the ANOVA variance and the contrast of means for alpha < or = 0.05. The time consumed in saying the names has a great value in detecting AD, with the same or even better significance than the number of words. It is feasible to shorten the examination and use only one category of names. Our results suggest that counting the names of animals given in the first fifteen seconds does not lower the value of the exam and can also suppress a "roof effect" of the test. A short version of semantic verbal fluency examination could be of potential use in general practice where time consuming exams are difficult to implement.

  3. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca's area volume

    PubMed Central

    Fillman, S G; Weickert, T W; Lenroot, R K; Catts, S V; Bruggemann, J M; Catts, V S; Weickert, C S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca's and Wernicke's areas). IL-1β mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca's area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1β mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia. PMID:26194183

  4. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  5. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  6. What do verbal fluency tasks measure? Predictors of verbal fluency performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Zeshu; Janse, Esther; Visser, Karina; Meyer, Antje S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of verbal ability and executive control to verbal fluency performance in older adults (n = 82). Verbal fluency was assessed in letter and category fluency tasks, and performance on these tasks was related to indicators of vocabulary size, lexical access speed, updating, and inhibition ability. In regression analyses the number of words produced in both fluency tasks was predicted by updating ability, and the speed of the first response was predicted by vocabulary size and, for category fluency only, lexical access speed. These results highlight the hybrid character of both fluency tasks, which may limit their usefulness for research and clinical purposes. PMID:25101034

  7. Similar Verbal Fluency Patterns in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Edmond; Leone-Friedman, Judith; Lee, Grace J.; Woo, Stephanie; Apostolova, Liana G.; Harrell, Shelly; Ringman, John M.; Lu, Po H.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionately greater deficits in semantic relative to phonemic verbal fluency are seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been attributed to neurodegenerative changes in the temporal lobe. Amnestic (AMN) mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often represents incipient AD, is also characterized by early temporal lobe neuropathology, but previous comparisons of verbal fluency between AD and AMN MCI have yielded mixed results. We examined semantic and phonemic verbal fluency performance in 399 individuals (78 AD, 138 AMN MCI, 72 non-amnestic MCI, and 111 cognitively normal controls). Similar verbal fluency patterns were seen in AMN MCI and AD; both groups exhibited disproportionately poorer performance on semantic verbal fluency relative to normal controls. However, relative verbal fluency indices performed more poorly than individual semantic or phonemic verbal fluency indices for discriminating AMN MCI or AD participants from normal controls, suggesting that they are unlikely to provide additional utility for predicting progression from MCI to AD. PMID:23752677

  8. Verbal Fluency: Language or Executive Function Measure?

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas M; Kealey, Tammy; Semla, Matthew; Luu, Hien; Rice, Linda; Basso, Michael R; Roper, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Measures of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency, such as FAS and Animal Fluency (Benton, Hamsher, & Sivan, 1989), are often thought to be measures of executive functioning (EF). However, some studies (Henry & Crawford, 2004a , 2004b , 2004c ) have noted there is also a language component to these tasks. The current exploratory factor-analytic study examined the underlying cognitive structure of verbal fluency. Participants were administered language and EF measures, including the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (FAS version), Animal Fluency, Boston Naming Test (BNT), Vocabulary (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III), Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST, perseverative responses), and Trail-Making Test-Part B (TMT-B). A 2-factor solution was found with the 1st factor, language, having significant loadings for BNT and Vocabulary, while the second factor was labeled EF because of significant loading from the WCST and TMT-B. Surprisingly, FAS and Animal Fluency loaded exclusively on to the language factor and not EF. The current results do not exclude EF as a determinant of verbal fluency, but they do suggest that language processing is the critical component for this task, even without significant aphasic symptoms. Thus, the results indicated that both letter (phonemic) and category (semantic) fluency are related to language, but the relationship to EF is not supported by the results.

  9. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Two Contrasting Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Albert, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF…

  10. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Two Contrasting Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Albert, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF…

  11. Effects of hormonal contraceptives on mental rotation and verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Griksiene, Ramune; Ruksenas, Osvaldas

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive abilities, such as verbal fluency and mental rotation, are most sensitive to changes in sex steroids but poorly studied in the context of hormonal contraceptive usage. Therefore, we investigated the performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency in young (21.5±1.8 years) healthy oral contraceptive (OC) users (23 women) and non-users (20 women) during the follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Salivary 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels were assayed to evaluate hormonal differences between groups and the phases of the menstrual cycle. To assess the effects of progestins having androgenic/anti-androgenic properties, OC users were subdivided into the third and new generation OC users. In addition, positive and negative affects as factors possibly affecting cognitive performance were evaluated. Salivary 17β-estradiol and progesterone levels were significantly lower in hormonal contraception users. Level of salivary testosterone was slightly lower in the OC users group with significant difference only during ovulatory phase. Naturally cycling women performed better on verbal fluency task as compared to OC users. Subjects who used the third generation (androgenic) OCs generated significantly fewer words as compared to new generation (anti-androgenic) OC users and non-users. The third generation OC users demonstrated significantly longer RT in MRT task as compared to non-users. The MRT, verbal fluency and mood parameters did not depend on the phase of menstrual cycle. The parameters of the PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) scales did not differ between OC users and non-users. Our findings show that hormonal contraception has an impact on verbal and spatial abilities. Different performances between users of oral contraceptives with androgenic and anti-androgenic properties suggest an essential role for the progestins contained in OCs on cognitive performance.

  12. A comprehensive analysis of verbal fluency deficit in geriatric schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bowie, C R; Harvey, P D; Moriarty, P J; Parrella, M; White, L; Davis, K L

    2004-03-01

    Deficits in verbal fluency are common in schizophrenia and may provide keys to some of the abnormalities in the semantic system in schizophrenia. While a number of studies have outlined the severity and implications of verbal fluency deficits in younger schizophrenia patients, these findings have not yet been extended to older patients with schizophrenia. In this study, 392 older (age >/= 50) patients with schizophrenia were administered phonological and semantic (i.e., category) fluency examinations, as well as tests of learning, memory, language, and praxic skills, and rated for clinical symptoms and functional status. When compared to normative standards, 82% of the patients were impaired in semantic fluency and 83% were impaired in phonological fluency. Both semantic and phonological fluency impairment were significantly correlated with other cognitive variables, total scores on the functional status measure, and with the social and self-care subscales. Scores were uncorrelated with the severity of psychosis, but were correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. Furthermore, the severity of poverty of speech (a clinical measure of verbal underproductivity) was moderate in magnitude and failed to enter as a predictor of verbal fluency, indicating that impaired fluency scores are not simply an artifact of general underproductivity or mutism. The findings support conclusions from studies with younger schizophrenia patients that suggest that verbal fluency impairment is a consequence of a disorganized semantic system. Verbal fluency impairment remains common and functionally relevant in schizophrenia patients in late life.

  13. Sex differences in clustering and switching in verbal fluency tasks.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Ragland, J Daniel; Brensinger, Colleen M; Bilker, Warren B; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Delazer, Margarete

    2006-07-01

    Sex differences in executive speech tasks, favoring women, have been noted in behavioral studies and functional imaging studies. In the present study, the clustering and switching components of semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tests were examined in 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women. Possible sex differences in the influence of cognitive factors such as speed of information processing, word knowledge, and/or verbal long-term memory on these verbal fluency factors were also assessed. The results showed that women switched more often between categories in the phonemic fluency test, whereas men showed a trend toward a larger cluster size leading to a smaller total number of words generated. Additionally, higher performance on the Digit Symbol test was associated with better performance on the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency test in men, whereas in women, better memory performance was associated with better performance on these verbal fluency tests. Our data indicate that men and women are using different processing strategies for phonemic verbal fluency tests to optimize verbal fluency task performance. In the current study, women adopted a more successful strategy of balancing clustering and switching in the phonemic fluency task.

  14. Semantic verbal fluency in two contrasting languages

    PubMed Central

    PEKKALA, SEIJA; GORAL, MIRA; HYUN, JUNGMOON; OBLER, LORAINE K.; ERKINJUNTTI, TIMO; ALBERT, MARTIN L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF performance in two semantic categories (animals and clothes), in the proportions of words produced within the first half (30 seconds) of the SVF tasks, and in the variety of words produced for the categories. These similarities emerged despite the difference in the mean length of words produced in the two languages (with Finnish words being significantly longer than English words). The few differences found between the groups concerned the types and frequencies of the 10 most common words generated for the categories. It was concluded that culture and language differences do not contribute significantly to variability in SVF performance in healthy elderly people. PMID:19440894

  15. Predicting verbal fluency using Word Reading: Implications for premorbid functioning.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew S; Finch, W Holmes; Drapeau, Christopher; Nogin, Margarita; E Moss, Lauren; Moore, Brittney

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of premorbid general intellectual functioning using word reading tests has a rich history of validation and is a common assessment practice for neuropsychologists. What is less well-researched is the approach used to estimate premorbid functioning of non-intellectual domains, such as executive functions, including verbal fluency. The current study evaluated this relationship with 41 adult college students who completed the Word Reading subtest of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition (WIAT-II) and the Verbal Fluency test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Path analysis indicated that only Letter Fluency (a measure of phonemic fluency) was statistically significantly related to Word Reading and the relationship was somewhat weak. The relationship between Category Fluency (a measure of semantic fluency) and Category Switching (a measure of verbal fluency cognitive set-shifting) to Word Reading was nonsignificant. Participants also completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III), and as expected a strong relationship was found between Word Reading and the Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ). Results of this study strongly suggest that caution be exercised when extrapolating an estimate of premorbid verbal fluency abilities from measures of word reading.

  16. Evaluating lexical characteristics of verbal fluency output in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Juhasz, Barbara J.; Chambers, Destinee; Shesler, Leah W.; Haber, Alix; Kurtz, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Standardized lexical analysis of verbal output has not been applied to verbal fluency tasks in schizophrenia. Performance of individuals with schizophrenia on both a letter (n=139) and semantic (n=137) fluency task was investigated. The lexical characteristics (word frequency, age-of-acquisition, word length, and semantic typicality) of words produced were evaluated and compared to those produced by a healthy control group matched on age, gender, and WAIS-III vocabulary scores (n=20). Overall, individuals with schizophrenia produced fewer words than healthy controls, replicating past research (see Bokat and Goldberg, 2003). Words produced in the semantic fluency task by individuals with schizophrenia were, on average, earlier acquired and more typical of the category. In contrast, no differences in lexical characteristics emerged in the letter fluency task. The results are informative regarding how individuals with schizophrenia access their mental lexicons during the verbal fluency task. PMID:22809852

  17. Personality traits prospectively predict verbal fluency in a lifespan sample.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B

    2011-12-01

    In a community-dwelling sample (N = 4,790; age range 14-94), we examined whether personality traits prospectively predicted performance on a verbal fluency task. Open, extraverted, and emotionally stable participants had better verbal fluency. At the facet level, dispositionally happy and self-disciplined participants retrieved more words; those prone to anxiety and depression and those who were deliberative retrieved fewer words. Education moderated the association between conscientiousness and fluency such that participants with lower education performed better on the fluency task if they were also conscientious. Age was not a moderator at the domain level, indicating that the personality-fluency associations were consistent across the life span. A disposition toward emotional vulnerability and being less open, less happy, and undisciplined may be detrimental to cognitive performance.

  18. Personality Traits Prospectively Predict Verbal Fluency in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H.; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2011-01-01

    In a community-dwelling sample (N=4,790; age range 14–94), we examined whether personality traits prospectively predicted performance on a verbal fluency task. Open, extraverted, and emotionally stable participants had better verbal fluency. At the facet level, dispositionally happy and self-disciplined participants retrieved more words; those prone to anxiety and depression and those who were deliberative retrieved fewer words. Education moderated the association between Conscientiousness and fluency such that participants with lower education performed better on the fluency task if they were also conscientious. Age was not a moderator at the domain level, indicating that the personality-fluency associations were consistent across the lifespan. A disposition towards emotional vulnerability and being less open, less happy, and undisciplined may be detrimental to cognitive performance. PMID:21707179

  19. Aberrant neural mediation of verbal fluency in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Wallace, Gregory L.; Birn, Rasmus; Milleville, Shawn C.; Case, Laura K.; Bandettini, Peter A.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Contrasts of verbal fluency and automatic speech provide an opportunity to evaluate the neural underpinnings of generativity and flexibility in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast brain activity in high functioning ASD (n=17, mean verbal IQ=117) and neurotypical (NT; n=20, mean verbal IQ=112) adolescent and young adult males (12-23 years). Participants responded to three word generation conditions: automatic speech (reciting months), category fluency, and letter fluency. Results: Our paradigm closely mirrored behavioral fluency tasks by requiring overt, free recall word generation while controlling for differences in verbal output between the groups and systematically increasing the task demand. The ASD group showed reduced neural response compared to the NT participants during fluency tasks in multiple regions of left anterior and posterior cortices, and sub-cortical structures. Six of these regions fell in corticostriatal circuits previously linked to repetitive behaviors (Langen, et al, 2011), and activity in two of them (putamen and thalamus) was negatively correlated with autism repetitive behavior symptoms in the ASD group. In addition, response in left inferior frontal gyrus was differentially modulated in the ASD, relative to the NT, group as a function of task demand. Conclusions: These data indicate a specific, atypical brain response in ASD to demanding generativity tasks that may have relevance to repetitive behavior symptoms in ASD as well as to difficulties generating original verbal responses. PMID:24056237

  20. Vocabulary and verbal fluency of bilingual and monolingual college students.

    PubMed

    Portocarrero, José S; Burright, Richard G; Donovick, Peter J

    2007-03-01

    We assessed the English vocabulary and verbal fluency of college students who were either bilinguals who were born abroad and spoke English or monolingual speakers of English. We examined the relationship between age of arrival to the U.S. of bilinguals and their English vocabulary. The bilinguals' performance on English vocabulary was in the average range. However, despite arriving to the U.S. at a relatively young age, and having sufficient command of English to attend a competitive university, the bilinguals had lower receptive and expressive English vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Age of arrival was moderately correlated with English vocabulary scores. The younger the bilingual students were when they arrived to the U.S., the better their English vocabulary. Both groups had similar performance on phonetic fluency. However, the bilingual group performed significantly lower in semantic fluency. This pattern of performance in verbal fluency is consistent with that found in previous studies.

  1. [Spanish verbal fluency. Normative data in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Butman, J; Allegri, R F; Harris, P; Drake, M

    2000-01-01

    Letter and category fluency tasks are used to assess semantic knowledge, retrieval ability, and executive functioning. The original normative data have been obtained mainly from English speaking populations; there are few papers on norms in other languages. The purpose of this study was to collect normative scores in Argentina and to evaluate the effects of sex, age, education and cognitive status on the letter and category fluency tasks, in 266 healthy Spanish-speaking participants (16 to 86 years). Mean education span was 12.8 +/- 4 years. In each subject a neuropsychological battery (Minimental State Exam, Signoret Memory Battery, Boston Naming Test and Trail Making Test) was carried out as well as category fluency (naming animals in one minute) and letter fluency (words beginning with letter "p" in one minute). The sample was arranged into a group of subjects with less than 45 years and further groups up to 10 more years, until 75 years (or more) with three different levels of education. Significant effects were found for age, education, and Minimental State Exam on performance of both fluencies. Mean performance scores are presented for each group to be used in Argentina.

  2. Neuropsychological characteristics of verbal and non-verbal fluency in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Tyburski, Ernest; Sokołowski, Andrzej; Chęć, Magdalena; Pełka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2015-02-01

    This review paper provides analyses confirming correlation between various brain regions activity, particularly its prefrontal portions, and schizophrenia patients' performance in verbal fluency tests. Various factors modifying patients' performance in the aforementioned tasks were singled out and discussed. Systematically we have reviewed the results of non-verbal fluency tests conducted in the schizophrenic patients. The authors also summarizes findings of earlier studies stressing the role of semantic fluency as a predictor of first-episode psychosis. Verbal and non-verbal fluency tests engage complex cognitive processes and executive functions in patients. As a result, the interpretation of their results is often complicated and requires special competences. The tests are popular neuropsychological tools used for assessment of verbal memory, executive functions, visual-spatial abilities and psychomotor speed in patients with mental and neurological disorders. The aim of this paper is to discuss diagnostic tools used for measuring both types of fluency (verbal and non-verbal), test interpretation methods, as well as their usefulness in clinical diagnostics and scientific research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Picture Naming and Verbal Fluency in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…

  4. Picture Naming and Verbal Fluency in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…

  5. Ineffective initiation contributes to deficient verbal and non-verbal fluency in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Krukow, Paweł; Harciarek, Michał; Morylowska-Topolska, Justyna; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna; Jonak, Kamil

    2017-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SCH) show impaired verbal and non-verbal fluency. However, these individuals' fluctuations in words or designs generation efficiency over time, a phenomenon that may significantly affect fluency, have never been studied. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate if individuals with SCH may present with alternations in the dynamics of the information production and its control as well as to test if the potential abnormalities in this regard might affect these patients' overall performance on both verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks. Forty-four patients with SCH and 40 healthy controls (HC) completed both verbal (phonological, semantic) and non-verbal fluency tests. To analyse processing efficiency changes over time, the period in which subjects had to generate words or designs (60 s) has been divided into 15-s sections. In comparison to HCs, individuals with SCH obtained significantly lower total scores for all fluency measures. Furthermore, group differences in the dynamics of the test performance also emerged, with SCH patients having a significantly worse production during the initial 15 s of each fluency task. Additionally, the initial production deficiency seen in patients with SCH has accounted for these individuals' total performance. Moreover, comparisons of errors distribution over time during the phonemic and figural fluency performance also revealed differences, suggesting there was a rapid depletion in maintaining of cognitive control in the SCH sample. Inefficient fluency in SCH may arise from a more general initiation deficits that may partly account for these patients' cognitive problems.

  6. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  7. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  8. Verbal fluency in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Narahyana Bom; Barca, Maria Lage; Engedal, Knut; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Laks, Jerson

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare verbal fluency among Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and major depression and to assess the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the disease severity. METHODS: Patients from an outpatient university center with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease or major depression were studied. Severity was staged using the Hoehn & Yahr scale, the Hamilton Depression scale and the Clinical Dementia Rating for Parkinson's disease, major depression, and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. All subjects were tested with the Mini-Mental State Examination, the digit span test, and the verbal fluency test (animals). We fit four types of regression models for the count variable: Poisson model, negative binomial model, zero-inflated Poisson model, and zero-inflated negative binomial model. RESULTS: The mean digit span and verbal fluency scores were lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (n = 34) than in patients with major depression (n = 52) or Parkinson's disease (n = 17) (p<0.001). The average number of words listed was much lower for Alzheimer's disease patients (7.2 words) compared to the patients presenting with major depression (14.6 words) or Parkinson's disease (15.7 words) (KW test = 32.4; p<0.01). Major depression and Parkinson's disease groups listed 44% (ROM = 1.44) and 48% (ROM = 1.48) more words, respectively, compared to those patients with Alzheimer's disease; these results were independent of age, education, disease severity and attention. Independently of diagnosis, age, and education, severe disease showed a 26% (ROM = 0.74) reduction in the number of words listed when compared to mild cases. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal fluency provides a better characterization of Alzheimer's disease, major depression, and Parkinson's disease, even at later stages. PMID:21655757

  9. [Verbal fluency test--developmental aspects in health and illness].

    PubMed

    Stolarska, Urszula; Kroczka, Sławomir; Gergont, Aleksandra; Steczkowska, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2008-01-01

    The Verbal Fluency Test is one of the easiest method in the neuropsychological evaluation of the frontal and temporal lobes' functioning. The amount of reasearch considering children's performance is still small compared to the adult population. The test lacks polish norms (as well as norms for children in other countries, except for unique cases). it was to present possible methods of quality and quantity analysis of the Verbal Fluency Test, and the statistical interpretation of children's performance, depending on the general result, age and diagnosis. the research was done on a group of 80 children, aged 6-17, including 50 girls and 30 boys, who were hospitalized during the yeras 2007/2008 in the Department of Pediatric Neurology Chair of Pediatric and Adolescent Neurology Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The children were diagnosed with epilepsia (44 children) or headache (36 children). The Verbal Flunecy Test was used in the neuropsychological evaluation among other methods, such as Rey Osterrieth Compex Figure test, Clock test, and intelligence tests WISC-R and WAIS-R(PL). the results confirm the charakter of the method, as a executive rather than memory function measure. The general result was influenced mainly by the ability to switch between specific subcategories. The general result correlated with age and gender, also children with headache performed better than children with epilepsia. Apropriately interpreted, especially considering quality analysis, the Verbal Fluency test is a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis in children, and detection of subtle weakening in the development of certain cognitive abilities. It is crucial to gather appropriate normative data for the population of children in Poland, which would enable the test's use in more general practice, as one of the early detection methods in the diagnosis of developmental disorders.

  10. Verbal fluency, trail making, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance following right frontal lobe tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Patrick S R; Gao, Fu Qiang; Mason, Warren P; Winocur, Gordon; Anderson, Nicole D

    2008-01-01

    Three commonly used clinical tests of frontal-executive function are verbal fluency, the Trail Making Test, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but few lesion studies of regional specificity within the frontal lobe (FL) exist for them. We examined 20 patients with right FL tumor resection, and mapped their damage to explore brain-behavior relations with greater precision. Across tests, the patients performed poorly and they also showed a deficit in switching but not clustering in verbal fluency. Within the right FL, however, we found none of the regional differences reported in studies of mixed-etiology FL patients, possibly due to the gradual neural reorganization that can occur with brain tumors. We discuss the importance of etiology in examining brain-behavior relations.

  11. The effect of Parkinson's disease subgroups on verbal and nonverbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Jaywant, Abhishek; Musto, Giovanni; Neargarder, Sandy; Stavitsky Gilbert, Karina; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) leads to deficits in executive function, including verbal and nonverbal fluency, as a result of compromised frontostriatal circuits. It is unknown whether deficits in verbal and nonverbal fluency in PD are driven by certain subgroups of patients, or how strategy use may facilitate performance. Sixty-five nondemented individuals with PD, including 36 with right-body onset (RPD; 20 with tremor as their initial symptom, 16 nontremor) and 29 with left-body onset (LPD; 14 with tremor as their initial symptom, 15 nontremor), and 52 normal control participants (NC) took part in the study. Verbal fluency was assessed using the FAS and Animals tests. Nonverbal fluency was assessed using the Ruff Figural Fluency Test. Both RPD and LPD were impaired in generating words and in using clustering and switching strategies on phonemic verbal fluency, whereas different patterns of impairment were found on nonverbal fluency depending on the interaction of side of onset and initial motor symptom (tremor vs. nontremor). Strategy use correlated with number of correct responses on verbal fluency in LPD, RPD, and NC. By contrast, on nonverbal fluency, strategy use correlated with correct responses for RPD and LPD, but not for NC. Our findings demonstrate the importance of considering subgroups in PD and analyzing subcomponents of verbal and nonverbal fluency (correct responses, errors, and strategies), which may depend differently on the integrity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex.

  12. Sex differences in lateralization of semantic verbal fluency in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Eichstaedt, Katie E; Soble, Jason R; Kamper, Joel E; Bozorg, Ali M; Benbadis, Selim R; Vale, Fernando L; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2015-02-01

    When differences exist, women tend to outperform men on measures of verbal fluency, possibly due to greater bilateral language representation. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have a higher rate of atypical cortical language representation than the general population, making them a population of interest for the study of language. For the current study, 78 TLE patients (51% male, 51% left temporal focus) underwent pre-surgical neuropsychological evaluations. Retrospective data analyses investigated the impact of seizure laterality and sex on letter and semantic verbal fluency. Results indicated an interaction between sex and laterality for semantic, but not letter, verbal fluency. Males with left TLE exhibited significantly worse semantic fluency than males with right TLE, whereas females' semantic fluency did not differ by seizure focus. These data indicate that females with TLE may indeed engage in more bilateral hemispheric processing of semantic verbal fluency, whereas males may be more reliant on left temporal cortical function for this task.

  13. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  14. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  15. [Names of persons: a verbal fluency test without socioeducational influences].

    PubMed

    Sáez-Zea, C; Carnero-Pardo, C; Gurpegui, M

    2008-01-01

    Semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks are widely used because of their simplicity, brevity and diagnostic accuracy (DA). However, they have the disadvantage of being greatly influenced by socioeducational variables. Our objective is to assess the possible influence of these variables on the fluency test "names of persons" (SVF-np). Cross-sectional study in 226 neurology patients classified in dementia (DSM-IV criteria), cognitive impairment without dementia (GENCyD-SEN criteria) and non-cognitive impairment who responded to a SVF-np test and to the classical test of verbal fluency "names of animals" (SVF-an), evaluating the DA of their results for both dementia and cognitive impairment by calculating and comparing the area under the ROC curve (aROC). In addition, the influence of the socioeducational variables and cognitive state on the results was assessed through multiple linear regression analysis. There were no significant differences between the DA of the SVF-np and SVF-an for dementia (0.88 +/- 0.02 [aROC +/- SD] vs. 0.90 +/- 0.02, respectively) or for cognitive impairment (0.88 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.87 +/- 0.02). The scores of the SVF-an task were associated with age, sex, gender, educational level and cognitive status of the subject. On the contrary, those of the SVF-np task only depended on the cognitive status. The SVF-np task has the same advantages and DA as the SVF-an, but it has the additional advantage of not being influenced by socioeducational variables and not requiring score adjustments or corrections. This independence makes it especially appropriate for use in multicultural populations and those persons with low educational level.

  16. Verbal and Non-verbal Fluency in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia: Phonological Processing or Executive Control Problems?

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Henry, Lucy A; Messer, David J; Zięcik, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    The executive function of fluency describes the ability to generate items according to specific rules. Production of words beginning with a certain letter (phonemic fluency) is impaired in dyslexia, while generation of words belonging to a certain semantic category (semantic fluency) is typically unimpaired. However, in dyslexia, verbal fluency has generally been studied only in terms of overall words produced. Furthermore, performance of adults with dyslexia on non-verbal design fluency tasks has not been explored but would indicate whether deficits could be explained by executive control, rather than phonological processing, difficulties. Phonemic, semantic and design fluency tasks were presented to adults with dyslexia and without dyslexia, using fine-grained performance measures and controlling for IQ. Hierarchical regressions indicated that dyslexia predicted lower phonemic fluency, but not semantic or design fluency. At the fine-grained level, dyslexia predicted a smaller number of switches between subcategories on phonemic fluency, while dyslexia did not predict the size of phonemically related clusters of items. Overall, the results suggested that phonological processing problems were at the root of dyslexia-related fluency deficits; however, executive control difficulties could not be completely ruled out as an alternative explanation. Developments in research methodology, equating executive demands across fluency tasks, may resolve this issue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Semantic and phonemic verbal fluency in Parkinson's disease: Influence of clinical and demographic variables.

    PubMed

    Obeso, Ignacio; Casabona, Enrique; Bringas, Maria Luisa; Alvarez, Lázaro; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Changes of cognitive function in PD have been extensively documented and defined as a 'frontal' type executive dysfunction. One of the main components of this executive dysfunction is the impairment of verbal fluency. The aim of the present study was to assess semantic and phonemic fluency in a large sample of PD patients and to investigate the effect of clinical and sociodemographic variables on verbal fluency in this patient group. Three hundred patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who were consecutive referrals to our clinic and 50 age and education matched healthy controls completed the phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks. Both phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were significantly impaired in PD patients relative to matched controls. Stage of illness, presence of depression, education and age influenced verbal fluency measures. Regression analyses established that global measures of cognitive ability (MMSE) and executive function (FAB) and side of onset of motor symptoms predicted 36-37% of variance of phonemic or semantic verbal fluency measures. Thus, future studies aimed at assessing cognitive functioning in PD patients treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) should adequately take into account several factors (stage of illness, depression, executive functioning) which may potentially influence performance on verbal fluency tasks.

  18. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Parkinson’s Disease: Influence of Clinical and Demographic Variables

    PubMed Central

    Obeso, Ignacio; Casabona, Enrique; Bringas, Maria Luisa; Álvarez, Lázaro; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Changes of cognitive function in PD have been extensively documented and defined as a ‘frontal’ type executive dysfunction. One of the main components of this executive dysfunction is the impairment of verbal fluency. The aim of the present study was to assess semantic and phonemic fluency in a large sample of PD patients and to investigate the effect of clinical and sociodemographic variables on verbal fluency in this patient group. Three hundred patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease who were consecutive referrals to our clinic and 50 age and education matched healthy controls completed the phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks. Both phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were significantly impaired in PD patients relative to matched controls. Stage of illness, presence of depression, education and age influenced verbal fluency measures. Regression analyses established that global measures of cognitive ability (MMSE) and executive function (FAB) and side of onset of motor symptoms predicted 36–37% of variance of phonemic or semantic verbal fluency measures. Thus, future studies aimed at assessing cognitive functioning in PD patients treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) should adequately take into account several factors (stage of illness, depression, executive functioning) which may potentially influence performance on verbal fluency tasks. PMID:22530265

  19. Differential effects of deep brain stimulation on verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Schoenecker, Thomas; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2014-07-01

    We aimed at gaining insights into principles of subcortical lexical processing. Therefore, effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in different target structures on verbal fluency (VF) were tested. VF was assessed with active vs. inactivated DBS in 13 and 14 patients with DBS in the vicinity of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) and, respectively, of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Results were correlated to electrode localizations in postoperative MRI, and compared to those of 12 age-matched healthy controls. Patients' VF performance was generally below normal. However, while activation of DBS in the vicinity of VIM provoked marked VF decline, it induced subtle phonemic VF enhancement in the vicinity of STN. The effects correlated with electrode localizations in left hemispheric stimulation sites. The results show distinct dependencies of VF on DBS in the vicinity of VIM vs. STN. Particular risks for deterioration occur in patients with relatively ventromedial thalamic electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Apathy and Reduced Speed of Processing Underlie Decline in Verbal Fluency following DBS

    PubMed Central

    Foltynie, Tom; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hyam, Jonathan A.; Limousin, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Reduced verbal fluency is a strikingly uniform finding following deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD). The precise cognitive mechanism underlying this reduction remains unclear, but theories have suggested reduced motivation, linguistic skill, and/or executive function. It is of note, however, that previous reports have failed to consider the potential role of any changes in speed of processing. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine verbal fluency changes with a particular focus on the role of cognitive speed. Method. In this study, 28 patients with PD completed measures of verbal fluency, motivation, language, executive functioning, and speed of processing, before and after DBS. Results. As expected, there was a marked decline in verbal fluency but also in a timed test of executive functions and two measures of speed of processing. Verbal fluency decline was associated with markers of linguistic and executive functioning, but not after speed of processing was statistically controlled for. In contrast, greater decline in verbal fluency was associated with higher levels of apathy at baseline, which was not associated with changes in cognitive speed. Discussion. Reduced generativity and processing speed may account for the marked reduction in verbal fluency commonly observed following DBS. PMID:28408788

  1. Exploring depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency with different degrees of internet addiction among Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore depression, self-esteem and verbal fluency functions among normal internet users, mild internet addictions and severe internet addictions. The survey sample consisted of 316 college students, and their internet addiction symptoms, depression and self-esteem symptoms were assessed using the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. From this sample, 16 students with non-addictions, 19 students with mild internet addiction (sub-MIA) and 15 students with severe internet addiction (sub-SIA) were recruited and subjected to the classical verbal fluency tests, including the semantic and phonemic fluency task. The results indicated that severe internet addiction in the survey sample showed the highest tendency towards depressive symptoms and lowest self-esteem scores, and sub-SIA showed poor performance on the semantic fluency task. In conclusion, severe internet addiction was significantly associated with depression, low self-esteem and semantic verbal fluency problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Verbal fluency in elderly bilingual speakers: normative data and preliminary application to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    de Picciotto, J; Friedland, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated verbal fluency abilities in 30 healthy elderly English-Afrikaans bilingual speakers, and 6 bilingual subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Three 1-min semantic verbal fluency tasks (animals) were obtained in the bilingual mode, Afrikaans and English. Results were analysed in terms of total correct, and semantic clusters. There was no significant difference between monolingual and bilingual performance. Some healthy bilingual subjects used code switching as a strategy but with no direct increase in the number of exemplars generated, and there was no relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores. In comparison, subjects with Alzheimer's disease did not make use of code switching strategies, and there was some relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores.

  3. What Causes the Bilingual Disadvantage in Verbal Fluency? The Dual-Task Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Salmon, David P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of bilingualism for verbal fluency by comparing bilinguals to monolinguals, and dominant versus non-dominant-language fluency. In Experiment 1, bilinguals produced fewer correct responses, slower first response times and proportionally delayed retrieval, relative to monolinguals. In Experiment 2, similar results…

  4. Sex differences in verbal fluency: the role of strategies and instructions.

    PubMed

    Scheuringer, Andrea; Wittig, Ramona; Pletzer, Belinda

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in verbal fluency performance and strategies are highly controversial, nevertheless suggesting a slight female advantage at least for phonemic fluency. A tendency of increased clustering of words into phonemic and semantic subcategories in men and increased switching between those categories in women has been suggested. In spatial tasks, it has been demonstrated that changes in instructions favoring a certain cognitive strategy can alter sex differences in performance. Such an approach has, however, not been attempted previously with verbal tasks. In the present investigation, 19 women in their luteal cycle phase and 23 men performed a phonemic and a semantic fluency task with three different instructions, one neutral, one emphasizing the clustering, and one emphasizing the switching of words. While under neutral instructions no sex differences were observed in verbal fluency performance and strategies, sex differences in switching and overall performance were observed in semantic fluency with an instruction requiring a switching strategy. Furthermore, correlation analyses suggested that the importance of strategies for overall performance differed between women and men. While only switching, but not clustering was related to overall verbal fluency performance in all tasks under all instructions, this relationship was driven by women in the phonemic task, but by men in the semantic task. These results highlight the importance of a consistent methodology in sex difference research. Slight variations in instructions may in part explain inconsistencies regarding sex differences in verbal fluency between previous studies.

  5. Plasticity of verbal fluency in older adults: a 90-minute telephone-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Christine; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Martin, Mike

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence for specific age-related deficits in tasks of verbal fluency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate training and transfer effects after 3 weeks of telephone-based verbal fluency training in old age. Participants were assigned to one of three training groups, an active control group, or a no-contact control group. Training consisted of 15 sessions of 6 min each over a period of 3 weeks. For the training tasks, different versions of the verbal fluency task were used, each targeting a specific underlying cognitive process (i.e., processing speed, shifting, or inhibition). To measure transfer effects, a neuropsychological test battery including digit symbol substitution, trail making, go/no-go, digit span, n-back, and a verbal learning and memory test was administered before and after training. Our findings revealed training gains for initial letter fluency training and phonemic switching training, but not for excluded letter fluency training. Moreover, after initial letter fluency training and phonemic switching training, transfer to other verbal fluency tasks was found. In addition, phonemic switching training led to improvement in an untrained short-term memory task. The findings demonstrate that a telephone-based cognitive intervention of overall 90 min significantly improved cognitive performance in healthy older adults above and beyond the improvements in the active control group. The findings provide the basis for cognitive interventions that could easily be integrated into everyday lifestyles and are still targeting specific cognitive functions. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter "k," "f," verbs, "animals," "vehicles," "joy," and "fear." The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.

  7. Picture naming and verbal fluency in children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were compared with 20 children with normal hearing (NH) matched for age and nonverbal IQ. Lexical abilities were examined using two naming tasks: a timed picture-naming task and a phonological and semantic VF naming task. Picture naming taps into lexical access capabilities and the VF task elucidates lexical organization. No group differences were found between children with CIs and children with NH on the timed picture-naming task. Children with CIs generated significantly fewer words than the children with NH on the VF tasks. Larger group differences were found for the phonological VF task compared with the semantic VF task. Limited early linguistic and auditory experiences may affect lexical representations and organization (lexical-semantic connections) in school-age children with hearing loss who use CIs. Further analyses and studies should continue to examine these underlying linguistic deficits. The present results suggest a need to emphasize not only increasing the size of children's vocabularies during therapy, but also expanding and increasing the semantic and phonological richness of their lexical representations.

  8. The semantic organization of the animal category: evidence from semantic verbal fluency and network theory.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Joaquín; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Sepulcre, Jorge; Martincorena, Iñigo; Vélez de Mendizábal, Nieves; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Bejarano, Bartolomé; Ardanza-Trevijano, Sergio; Peraita, Herminia; Wall, Dennis P; Villoslada, Pablo

    2011-05-01

    Semantic memory is the subsystem of human memory that stores knowledge of concepts or meanings, as opposed to life-specific experiences. How humans organize semantic information remains poorly understood. In an effort to better understand this issue, we conducted a verbal fluency experiment on 200 participants with the aim of inferring and representing the conceptual storage structure of the natural category of animals as a network. This was done by formulating a statistical framework for co-occurring concepts that aims to infer significant concept-concept associations and represent them as a graph. The resulting network was analyzed and enriched by means of a missing links recovery criterion based on modularity. Both network models were compared to a thresholded co-occurrence approach. They were evaluated using a random subset of verbal fluency tests and comparing the network outcomes (linked pairs are clustering transitions and disconnected pairs are switching transitions) to the outcomes of two expert human raters. Results show that the network models proposed in this study overcome a thresholded co-occurrence approach, and their outcomes are in high agreement with human evaluations. Finally, the interplay between conceptual structure and retrieval mechanisms is discussed.

  9. Taste perception analysis using a semantic verbal fluency task.

    PubMed

    Ghemulet, Maria; Baskini, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Mouza, Eirini; Proios, Hariklia

    2014-01-01

    A verbal fluency (VF) task is a test used to examine cognitive perception. The main aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between taste perception in the basic taste categories (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) and subjects' taste preferences, using a VF task in healthy and dysphagic subjects. In addition, we correlated the results of the VF task with body mass index (BMI). The hypothesis is that categorical preferences would be consistent with the number of verbal responses. We also hypothesized that higher BMI (>30 kg/m(2)) would correlate with more responses in either some or all four categories. VF tasks were randomly administered. Analysis criteria included number of verbally produced responses, number of clusters, number of switches, number and type of errors, and VF consistency with taste preferences. Sixty Greek-speaking individuals participated in this study. Forty-three healthy subjects were selected with a wide range of ages, sex, and education levels. Seventeen dysphagic patients were then matched with 17 healthy subjects according to age, sex, and BMI. Quantitative one-way analysis of variance (between groups as well as repeated measures), post hoc, and chi-square, and qualitative analyses were performed. In the healthy subjects' group, the differences among the mean number of responses for the four taste categories were statistically significant. When comparing the two matched groups of healthy and dysphagic subjects, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean number of responses in the four basic taste categories. However, for both groups, most responses were generated in the following descending order: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The bitter category presented the majority of errors for both groups. Obese subjects produced a greater mean number of responses for the "sweet," "sour," and "bitter" categories; conversely, underweight subjects produced a larger mean number of responses for the "salty" category

  10. Taste perception analysis using a semantic verbal fluency task

    PubMed Central

    Ghemulet, Maria; Baskini, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Mouza, Eirini; Proios, Hariklia

    2014-01-01

    A verbal fluency (VF) task is a test used to examine cognitive perception. The main aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between taste perception in the basic taste categories (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) and subjects’ taste preferences, using a VF task in healthy and dysphagic subjects. In addition, we correlated the results of the VF task with body mass index (BMI). The hypothesis is that categorical preferences would be consistent with the number of verbal responses. We also hypothesized that higher BMI (>30 kg/m2) would correlate with more responses in either some or all four categories. VF tasks were randomly administered. Analysis criteria included number of verbally produced responses, number of clusters, number of switches, number and type of errors, and VF consistency with taste preferences. Sixty Greek-speaking individuals participated in this study. Forty-three healthy subjects were selected with a wide range of ages, sex, and education levels. Seventeen dysphagic patients were then matched with 17 healthy subjects according to age, sex, and BMI. Quantitative one-way analysis of variance (between groups as well as repeated measures), post hoc, and chi-square, and qualitative analyses were performed. In the healthy subjects’ group, the differences among the mean number of responses for the four taste categories were statistically significant. When comparing the two matched groups of healthy and dysphagic subjects, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean number of responses in the four basic taste categories. However, for both groups, most responses were generated in the following descending order: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The bitter category presented the majority of errors for both groups. Obese subjects produced a greater mean number of responses for the “sweet,” “sour,” and “bitter” categories; conversely, underweight subjects produced a larger mean number of responses for the

  11. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  12. Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Dependent Changes in Cognitive Strategies during Spatial Navigation and Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Scheuringer, Andrea; Pletzer, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Men typically outperform women in spatial navigation tasks, while the advantage of women in verbal fluency is more controversial. Sex differences in cognitive abilities have been related to sex-specific cognitive strategies on the one hand and sex hormone influences on the other hand. However, sex hormone and menstrual cycle influences on cognitive strategies have not been previously investigated. In the present study we assessed cognitive strategy use during spatial navigation and verbal fluency in 51 men and 49 women. In order to evaluate sex hormone influences, all participants completed two test sessions, which were time-locked to the early follicular (low estradiol and progesterone) and mid-luteal cycle phase (high estradiol and progesterone) in women. As hypothesized, men outperformed women in navigation, whereas women outperformed men in phonemic verbal fluency. Furthermore, women switched more often between categories in the phonemic fluency condition, compared to men, indicating sex-specific strategy use. Sex differences in strategy use during navigation did, however, not follow the expected pattern. Menstrual cycle phase, however, did modulate strategy use during navigation as expected, with improved performance with the landmark strategy in the luteal, compared to the follicular phase. No menstrual cycle effects were observed on clustering or switching during verbal fluency. This suggests a modulation of cognitive strategy use during spatial navigation, but not during verbal fluency, by relative hormone increases during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:28367133

  13. Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Dependent Changes in Cognitive Strategies during Spatial Navigation and Verbal Fluency.

    PubMed

    Scheuringer, Andrea; Pletzer, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Men typically outperform women in spatial navigation tasks, while the advantage of women in verbal fluency is more controversial. Sex differences in cognitive abilities have been related to sex-specific cognitive strategies on the one hand and sex hormone influences on the other hand. However, sex hormone and menstrual cycle influences on cognitive strategies have not been previously investigated. In the present study we assessed cognitive strategy use during spatial navigation and verbal fluency in 51 men and 49 women. In order to evaluate sex hormone influences, all participants completed two test sessions, which were time-locked to the early follicular (low estradiol and progesterone) and mid-luteal cycle phase (high estradiol and progesterone) in women. As hypothesized, men outperformed women in navigation, whereas women outperformed men in phonemic verbal fluency. Furthermore, women switched more often between categories in the phonemic fluency condition, compared to men, indicating sex-specific strategy use. Sex differences in strategy use during navigation did, however, not follow the expected pattern. Menstrual cycle phase, however, did modulate strategy use during navigation as expected, with improved performance with the landmark strategy in the luteal, compared to the follicular phase. No menstrual cycle effects were observed on clustering or switching during verbal fluency. This suggests a modulation of cognitive strategy use during spatial navigation, but not during verbal fluency, by relative hormone increases during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

  14. Semantic verbal fluency in elderly Mexican adults: Reference values.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Oliveros, M; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Acosta-Castillo, I; García-Ramírez, N; Rojas de la Torre, G; Sosa-Ortiz, A L

    2015-05-01

    The semantic verbal fluency test (SVF) is sensitive to detecting cognitive decline. It is fast and easy to use in any cultural context; therefore, it is included in most of the neuropsychological assessment protocols. To estimate normative values for the SVF test (animals), in an elderly population aged 65 years and over. 1233 subjects who were healthy, cognitively preserved, residents of two areas (rural and urban) of Mexico were assessed. A neurological and neuropsychological exploration battery was applied, including SVF. The age average was 73+6 and schooling was 4.0+3.9 years, with 59% women. The average of the words generated in the SVF test was 14+5, and a correlation of 0.16 of these scores with age, education, and gender was found (p<.001), this allowed the estimation of the percentiles in accordance with these variables. The most important contribution provided by this study was that the data analysis enabled normative values to be obtained for an elderly Mexican population aged 65 years and over. It was also confirmed, as other neuropsychological assessment studies have done, that the SVF test is influenced by socio-demographic variables, such as age and education, aspects to be considered at the time of obtaining normative values. Finally, it was noted that the average scores obtained were lower than other published reference values, due to the low educational level of our sample. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Verbal fluency tests: Normative data for the Latin American Spanish speaking adult population.

    PubMed

    Olabarrieta-Landa, L; Rivera, D; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Garza, M T; Saracho, C P; Rodríguez, W; Chávez-Oliveros, M; Rábago, B; Leibach, G; Schebela, S; Martínez, C; Luna, M; Longoni, M; Ocampo-Barba, N; Rodríguez, G; Aliaga, A; Esenarro, L; García de la Cadena, C; Perrin, B P; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2015-01-01

    To generate normative data for the Verbal Fluency Tests across 11 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. The sample consisted of 3,977 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and, Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the Verbal Fluency Test as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. The final multiple linear regression models for the letter F explained 8-30% of the variance, 7-32% for letter A, 8-32% for the letter S, and 16-43% for the animal category in Verbal Fluency Test scores. Although t-tests showed significant differences between men and women on the Verbal Fluency Test, they did not have an effect size larger than 0.3. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. This is the first normative multicenter study conducted in Latin America aiming to create norms for the Verbal Fluency Test; this study will have important outcomes for the future of neuropsychology in the region.

  16. Long-term effect of prefrontal lobotomy on verbal fluency in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Stip, Emmanuel; Bigras, Marie-Josée; Mancini-Marïe, Adham; Cosset, Marie-Eve; Black, Deborah; Lecours, André-Roch

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of bilateral prefrontal leukotomy on lexical abilities in schizophrenia subjects. we compared performances of leukotomized (LSP), non-leukotomized schizophrenia patients (NLSP) and normal controls, using a test of verbal fluency. Multiple case and triple comparison design were implemented. i.e., the performance of each LSP was compared to that of NLSP and that of a normal control. The sample consisted of four LSP, four NLSP, and four normal subjects. Subjects were matched in sex, age, handedness, and schooling. In Addition, schizophrenia groups were matched in diagnosis and years of hospitalization. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of generated words and errors produced by subjects were carried out. A deficiency in both groups of schizophrenia was observed, although a better performance in LSP patients was detected. Intact Lexical ability in LSP indicates its poor relation to the frontal lobe.

  17. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of semantic verbal fluency in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jaimes-Bautista, A G; Rodríguez-Camacho, M; Martínez-Juárez, I E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y

    2017-08-29

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) perform poorly on semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks. Completing these tasks successfully involves multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. Therefore, quantitative analysis of SVF (number of correct words in one minute), conducted in most studies, has been found to be insufficient to identify cognitive dysfunction underlying SVF difficulties in TLE. To determine whether a sample of patients with TLE had SVF difficulties compared with a control group (CG), and to identify the cognitive components associated with SVF difficulties using quantitative and qualitative analysis. SVF was evaluated in 25 patients with TLE and 24 healthy controls; the semantic verbal fluency test included 5 semantic categories: animals, fruits, occupations, countries, and verbs. All 5 categories were analysed quantitatively (number of correct words per minute and interval of execution: 0-15, 16-30, 31-45, and 46-60seconds); the categories animals and fruits were also analysed qualitatively (clusters, cluster size, switches, perseverations, and intrusions). Patients generated fewer words for all categories and intervals and fewer clusters and switches for animals and fruits than the CG (P<.01). Differences between groups were not significant in terms of cluster size and number of intrusions and perseverations (P>.05). Our results suggest an association between SVF difficulties in TLE and difficulty activating semantic networks, impaired strategic search, and poor cognitive flexibility. Attention, inhibition, and working memory are preserved in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced Verbal Fluency following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation: A Frontal-Related Cognitive Deficit?

    PubMed Central

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Le Jeune, Florence; Dondaine, Thibaut; Esquevin, Aurore; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Péron, Julie; Haegelen, Claire; Drapier, Sophie; Jannin, Pierre; Lozachmeur, Clément; Argaud, Soizic; Duprez, Joan; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objective The decrease in verbal fluency in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) undergoing subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is usually assumed to reflect a frontal lobe-related cognitive dysfunction, although evidence for this is lacking. Methods To explore its underlying mechanisms, we combined neuropsychological, psychiatric and motor assessments with an examination of brain metabolism using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, in 26 patients with PD, 3 months before and after surgery. We divided these patients into two groups, depending on whether or not they exhibited a postoperative deterioration in either phonemic (10 patients) or semantic (8 patients) fluency. We then compared the STN-DBS groups with and without verbal deterioration on changes in clinical measures and brain metabolism. Results We did not find any neuropsychological change supporting the presence of an executive dysfunction in patients with a deficit in either phonemic or semantic fluency. Similarly, a comparison of patients with or without impaired fluency on brain metabolism failed to highlight any frontal areas involved in cognitive functions. However, greater changes in cognitive slowdown and apathy were observed in patients with a postoperative decrease in verbal fluency. Conclusions These results suggest that frontal lobe-related cognitive dysfunction could play only a minor role in the postoperative impairment of phonemic or semantic fluency, and that cognitive slowdown and apathy could have a more decisive influence. Furthermore, the phonemic and semantic impairments appeared to result from the disturbance of distinct mechanisms. PMID:26448131

  19. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  20. Is the left uncinate fasciculus associated with verbal fluency decline in mild Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed Central

    Kljajevic, Vanja; Dyrba, Martin; Kasper, Elisabeth; Teipel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between verbal fluency deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and deterioration of specific white matter (WM) tracts is currently not well understood. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we investigated a possible association between the left uncinate fasciculus, which has been implicated in word retrieval, and verbal fluency deficit in AD. A comparison of five properties of WM (fractional anisotropy, mode of anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity) in 28 mild AD patients and 26 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls revealed significant group differences in a range of WM tracts. Looking specifically at diffusion parameters’ values for the left uncinate fasciculus and verbal fluency scores in the AD group, we observed a positive trend between the letter fluency scores and mode of anisotropy values (r = 0.36, p = 0.55). Thus, our data suggest more global WM damage in mild AD, which also includes damage to the left uncinate fasciculus. However, damage to this particular tract is not robustly associated with verbal fluency decline at this stage of disease. PMID:28123827

  1. Shall we use non-verbal fluency in schizophrenia? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Romina; Trappeniers, Julie; Lefebvre, Laurent

    2014-05-30

    Over the last few years, numerous studies have attempted to explain fluency impairments in people with schizophrenia, leading to heterogeneous results. This could notably be due to the fact that fluency is often used in its verbal form where semantic dimensions are implied. In order to gain an in-depth understanding of fluency deficits, a non-verbal fluency task - the Five-Point Test (5PT) - was proposed to 24 patients with schizophrenia and to 24 healthy subjects categorized in terms of age, gender and schooling. The 5PT involves producing as many abstract figures as possible within 1min by connecting points with straight lines. All subjects also completed the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) while those with schizophrenia were further assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results show that the 5PT evaluation differentiates patients from healthy subjects with regard to the number of figures produced. Patients׳ results also suggest that the number of figures produced is linked to the "overall executive functioning" and to some inhibition components. Although this study is a first step in the non-verbal efficiency research field, we believe that experimental psychopathology could benefit from the investigations on non-verbal fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Semantic Pattern Analysis for Verbal Fluency Based Assessment of Neurological Disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Ainsworth, Keela C; Brown, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders.

  3. Valence of Affective Verbal Fluency: fMRI Studies on Neural Organization of Emotional Concepts "Joy" and "Fear"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa; Soluch, Pawel; Wolak, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the underlying brain mechanisms of positive and negative emotional verbal fluency. Three verbal fluency tasks (one non-emotional phonemic task, two emotional tasks: "Joy" and "Fear") were used in this study. The results were analyzed for 35 healthy, Polish-speaking, right-handed adults…

  4. Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

  5. Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

  6. Verbal Versus Figural Fluency Tests in Currently Ill and Weight Restored Anorexia Nervosa Patients.

    PubMed

    Heled, Eyal; Hoofien, Dan; Bachar, Eytan; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Fluency tests allow domain-specific assessment of verbal and non-verbal executive functions (EF) comparison and also enable utilizing of both quantitative and qualitative scoring methods. Thirty-five currently ill anorexia nervosa patients (PANs), 33 weight-restored patients (WRAN) and 47 healthy controls (HCs) were administered the word fluency test and the five-point test. Results show that WRANs tended to perseverate more than HCs in the verbal-fluency test. In addition, PANs produced significantly less correct figures and perseverated more than HCs and WRANs; HCs used more strategy methods than PANs and WRANs. Additionally, a positive correlation was found in the HC group between the total number of words in the verbal phonemic test and the number of designs produced and the number of correct designs. No such correlations were found in both anorexia groups. In conclusion, there is a differentiation between verbal and non-verbal EF in PANs and WRANs, showing a deficiency in the non-verbal domain. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the cognitive nature of the disorder.

  7. Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Katharina; Fetz, Karolina; Oetken, Sarah; Habel, Ute; Heim, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits. PMID:25379243

  8. The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients' education than PVF FAS tests.

  9. The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D.; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients’ education than PVF FAS tests. PMID:26426640

  10. Analysis of Verbal Fluency Ability in Amnestic and Non-Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Anderson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of performance on letter and category fluency tests of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Previous research has suggested that organization strategies, including “clustering” (i.e., groups of related words) and “switching” (i.e., shift from one cluster to another), are important for efficient verbal fluency performance. Participants were 25 individuals with single-domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), 49 with multidomain aMCI, 16 with non-amnestic MCI (naMCI), and 90 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performances were analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, cluster size, and switching. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with follow-up tests revealed that the single-domain aMCI group performed comparably with healthy controls on each dependent measure across both fluency tasks. In contrast, the multidomain aMCI group showed performance decrements in total words and switching production compared with healthy controls on both fluency tasks, whereas the naMCI group produced fewer words and switches on letter fluency. Each group generated more words and switches during the first 30-s on both fluency tasks, with the exception of the naMCI group, whose switching on letter fluency did not decrease as the task progressed. As indicated by the single-domain aMCI group's unimpaired performance, our findings demonstrate that verbal fluency performance decreases as domains beyond memory become impaired in MCI. Reduced switching ability, which has been linked to prefrontal executive functioning, contributed the most to the poorer performance of individuals with multidomain MCI and naMCI. PMID:23917346

  11. Variation in verbal fluency: a latent variable analysis of clustering, switching, and overall performance.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A

    2011-03-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have long been used to assess and estimate group and individual differences in executive functioning in both cognitive and neuropsychological research domains. Despite their ubiquity, however, the specific component processes important for success in these tasks have remained elusive. The current work sought to reveal these various components and their respective roles in determining performance in fluency tasks using latent variable analysis. Two types of verbal fluency (semantic and letter) were compared along with several cognitive constructs of interest (working memory capacity, inhibition, vocabulary size, and processing speed) in order to determine which constructs are necessary for performance in these tasks. The results are discussed within the context of a two-stage cyclical search process in which participants first search for higher order categories and then search for specific items within these categories.

  12. The Effects of Divided Attention on Speech Motor, Verbal Fluency, and Manual Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dromey, Christopher; Shim, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate aspects of the "functional distance hypothesis," which predicts that tasks regulated by brain networks in closer anatomic proximity will interfere more with each other than tasks controlled by spatially distant regions. Speech, verbal fluency, and manual motor tasks were examined to ascertain whether…

  13. Verbal Fluency in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Clustering and Switching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Wierda, Marlies; Scheeren, Anke M.; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights differences in cognitive strategies in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders (n = 52) on a verbal fluency task (naming as many words as possible (e.g. animals) within 60 s). The ability to form clusters of words (e.g. farm animals like "cow-horse-goat") or to switch between unrelated…

  14. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  15. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function.

    PubMed

    Julayanont, Parunyou; Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C

    2016-07-01

    The posterior insular cortex-a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions-is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency.

  16. Verbal Fluency in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Clustering and Switching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Wierda, Marlies; Scheeren, Anke M.; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights differences in cognitive strategies in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders (n = 52) on a verbal fluency task (naming as many words as possible (e.g. animals) within 60 s). The ability to form clusters of words (e.g. farm animals like "cow-horse-goat") or to switch between unrelated…

  17. Phonemic verbal fluency and severity of anxiety disorders in young children.

    PubMed

    Toazza, Rudineia; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Jarros, Rafaela Behs; DeSousa, Diogo; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated impaired verbal fluency as being associated with anxiety disorders in adolescents. To replicate and extend previously reported evidence by investigating whether performance in phonemic verbal fluency tasks is related to severity of anxiety symptoms in young children with anxiety disorders. We also aim to investigate whether putative associations are independent from co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Sixty children (6-12 years old) with primary diagnoses of anxiety disorders participated in this study. Severity of symptoms was measured using clinician-based, parent-rated and self-rated validated scales. Verbal fluency was assessed using a simple task that measures the number of words evoked in 1-minute with the letter F, from which we quantified the number of isolated words, number of clusters (groups of similar words) and number of switches (transitions between clusters and/or between isolated words). There was a significant association between the number of clusters and anxiety scores. Further analysis revealed associations were independent from co-occurring ADHD symptoms. We replicate and extend previous findings showing that verbal fluency is consistently associated with severity in anxiety disorders in children. Further studies should explore the potential effect of cognitive training on symptoms of anxiety disorders.

  18. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  19. Long-Term Effect of Prefrontal Lobotomy on Verbal Fluency in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stip, Emmanuel; Bigras, Marie-Josee.; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Cosset, Marie-Eve.; Black, Deborah; Lecours, Andre-Roch

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of bilateral prefrontal leukotomy on lexical abilities in schizophrenia subjects. Method: We compared performances of leukotomized (LSP), non-leukotomized schizophrenia patients (NLSP) and normal controls, using a test of verbal fluency. Multiple case and triple comparison design were…

  20. Long-Term Effect of Prefrontal Lobotomy on Verbal Fluency in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stip, Emmanuel; Bigras, Marie-Josee.; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Cosset, Marie-Eve.; Black, Deborah; Lecours, Andre-Roch

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of bilateral prefrontal leukotomy on lexical abilities in schizophrenia subjects. Method: We compared performances of leukotomized (LSP), non-leukotomized schizophrenia patients (NLSP) and normal controls, using a test of verbal fluency. Multiple case and triple comparison design were…

  1. Spanish Multicenter Normative Studies (NEURONORMA Project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    PubMed

    Peña-Casanova, Jordi; Quiñones-Ubeda, Sonia; Gramunt-Fombuena, Nina; Quintana-Aparicio, María; Aguilar, Miquel; Badenes, Dolors; Cerulla, Noemí; Molinuevo, José Luis; Ruiz, Eva; Robles, Alfredo; Barquero, Maria Sagrario; Antúnez, Carmen; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Frank-García, Anna; Fernández, Manuel; Alfonso, Verónica; Sol, Josep M; Blesa, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish multicenter normative studies (NEURONORMA project), we provide age- and education-adjusted norms for three semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruit and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical tasks (words beginning with P, M, and R), and three excluded letter fluency tasks (excluded A, E, and S). The sample consists of 346 participants who are cognitively normal, community dwelling, and ranging in age from 50 to 94 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to age-adjusted scaled scores. These were further converted into education-adjusted scaled scores by applying regression-based adjustments. The current norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly Spanish people. These data may also be of considerable use for comparisons with other international normative studies. Finally, these norms should help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Analysis of Verbal Fluency Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Clustering, Switching and Semantic Proximities

    PubMed Central

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns. PMID:24687588

  3. Effect of language proficiency and executive control on verbal fluency performance in bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their self-rated English proficiency but differed in levels of receptive and expressive vocabulary. We hypothesized that the difference between the two bilingual groups in vocabulary and between the monolingual and bilingual groups in executive control would lead to differences in performance on the category and letter fluency tests and dissociate the roles of vocabulary knowledge and executive control in verbal production. Bilinguals and monolinguals performed equivalently in category fluency, but the high-vocabulary bilingual group outperformed both monolinguals and low-vocabulary bilinguals in letter fluency. An analysis of the retrieval time-course functions in letter fluency showed dissociable effects of resources available at the initiation of the trial, considered to reflect vocabulary size, and ability to monitor and retrieve new items using a novel phonemic-based word searching strategy, considered to reflect executive control. The difference in slope of the best-fitting curves reflected enhanced executive control for both bilingual groups compared to monolinguals, whereas the difference in the starting point of the logarithmic functions reflected higher levels of vocabulary for high-vocabulary bilinguals and monolinguals compared to low-vocabulary bilinguals. The results are discussed in terms of the contributions of linguistic resources and executive control to verbal performance.

  4. Is semantic verbal fluency impairment explained by executive function deficits in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Berberian, Arthur A; Moraes, Giovanna V; Gadelha, Ary; Brietzke, Elisa; Fonseca, Ana O; Scarpato, Bruno S; Vicente, Marcella O; Seabra, Alessandra G; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Lacerda, Acioly L

    2016-04-19

    To investigate if verbal fluency impairment in schizophrenia reflects executive function deficits or results from degraded semantic store or inefficient search and retrieval strategies. Two groups were compared: 141 individuals with schizophrenia and 119 healthy age and education-matched controls. Both groups performed semantic and phonetic verbal fluency tasks. Performance was evaluated using three scores, based on 1) number of words generated; 2) number of clustered/related words; and 3) switching score. A fourth performance score based on the number of clusters was also measured. SZ individuals produced fewer words than controls. After controlling for the total number of words produced, a difference was observed between the groups in the number of cluster-related words generated in the semantic task. In both groups, the number of words generated in the semantic task was higher than that generated in the phonemic task, although a significant group vs. fluency type interaction showed that subjects with schizophrenia had disproportionate semantic fluency impairment. Working memory was positively associated with increased production of words within clusters and inversely correlated with switching. Semantic fluency impairment may be attributed to an inability (resulting from reduced cognitive control) to distinguish target signal from competing noise and to maintain cues for production of memory probes.

  5. A Normative Study of Lexical Verbal Fluency in an Educationally-Diverse Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Jo; Lee, Cheol Soon; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung; Lee, Kang Soo; Son, Sang Joon; Han, Changsu; Park, Moon Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Tae Hui; Park, Joon Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lexical fluency tests are frequently used to assess language and executive function in clinical practice. We investigated the influences of age, gender, and education on lexical verbal fluency in an educationally-diverse, elderly Korean population and provided its' normative information. Methods We administered the lexical verbal fluency test (LVFT) to 1676 community-dwelling, cognitively normal subjects aged 60 years or over. Results In a stepwise linear regression analysis, education (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506) and age (B=-0.10, SE=0.01, standardized B=-0.15) had significant effects on LVFT scores (p<0.001), but gender did not (B=0.40, SE=0.02, standardized B=0.506, p>0.05). Education explained 28.5% of the total variance in LVFT scores, which was much larger than the variance explained by age (5.42%). Accordingly, we presented normative data of the LVFT stratified by age (60-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ≥80 years) and education (0-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, and ≥13 years). Conclusion The LVFT norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating elderly people and help improve the interpretation of verbal fluency tasks and allow for greater diagnostic accuracy. PMID:24474982

  6. Verbal fluency in Parkinson's disease patients on/off dopamine medication.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Elena; Cuetos, Fernando; Ribacoba, Renée

    2012-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with dopamine depletion in the fronto-striatal network which affects some language aspects such as verb processing. Some experiments have demonstrated that dopamine deficiency plays a role in the normal functioning of the lexico-semantic system. As a result, the verbal fluency task could be a useful tool to assess the function of the semantic system, by examining both the number of words generated and the frequency of use of those words. The aim of this study was to find out how dopamine affects the performance of PD patients using a verbal fluency task, focussing on action-word fluency. A group of 20 PD patients and 20 controls participated in the study. Participants were assessed with four different verbal fluency tasks: phonological, semantic (animal and supermarket words) and action fluency. PD patients were tested twice (on/off medication) and controls only once. For the number of words, there were significant differences between PD patients on and off medication in the phonological and action fluency tasks. Compared to controls, PD off medication produced significantly fewer words in phonological, and actions. Regarding frequency, differences were found between PD patients off medication and controls for the action-word category. Our data showed a specific deficit in PD patients off medication in categories mainly depending on frontal lobe function (phonological and actions) while these differences were restored with dopamine treatment. Moreover, PD patients off medication produced higher frequency verbs than controls, suggesting that dopamine affects the normal functioning within the lexico-semantic network of verbs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for verbal fluency tests.

    PubMed

    Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-01-01

    Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. When a Lot of Knowledge Is a Dangerous Thing: The Debilitating Effects of Plan Complexity on Verbal Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Charles R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents three experiments examining the relationships among plan complexity, access to planned actions, and verbal fluency while pursuing a persuasion goal. Finds that complex planners are less fluent than less complex planners under high access to action alternatives, and that reduced fluency is not induced by decreasing self-confidence. (SR)

  9. Using Automatic Speech Recognition to Assess Spoken Responses to Cognitive Tests of Semantic Verbal Fluency.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Marino, Susan E; Banks, Sarah; Bernick, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive tests of verbal fluency (VF) consist of verbalizing as many words as possible in one minute that either start with a specific letter of the alphabet or belong to a specific semantic category. These tests are widely used in neurological, psychiatric, mental health, and school settings and their validity for clinical applications has been extensively demonstrated. However, VF tests are currently administered and scored manually making them too cumbersome to use, particularly for longitudinal cognitive monitoring in large populations. The objective of the current study was to determine if automatic speech recognition (ASR) could be used for computerized administration and scoring of VF tests. We examined established techniques for constraining language modeling to a predefined vocabulary from a specific semantic category (e.g., animals). We also experimented with post-processing ASR output with confidence scoring, as well as with using speaker adaptation to improve automated VF scoring. Audio responses to a VF task were collected from 38 novice and experienced professional fighters (boxing and mixed martial arts) participating in a longitudinal study of effects of repetitive head trauma on brain function. Word error rate, correlation with manual word count and distance from manual word count were used to compare ASR-based approaches to scoring to each other and to the manually scored reference standard. Our study's results show that responses to the VF task contain a large number of extraneous utterances and noise that lead to relatively poor baseline ASR performance. However, we also found that speaker adaptation combined with confidence scoring significantly improves all three metrics and can enable use of ASR for reliable estimates of the traditional manual VF scores.

  10. Using Automatic Speech Recognition to Assess Spoken Responses to Cognitive Tests of Semantic Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Marino, Susan E.; Banks, Sarah; Bernick, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive tests of verbal fluency (VF) consist of verbalizing as many words as possible in one minute that either start with a specific letter of the alphabet or belong to a specific semantic category. These tests are widely used in neurological, psychiatric, mental health, and school settings and their validity for clinical applications has been extensively demonstrated. However, VF tests are currently administered and scored manually making them too cumbersome to use, particularly for longitudinal cognitive monitoring in large populations. The objective of the current study was to determine if automatic speech recognition (ASR) could be used for computerized administration and scoring of VF tests. We examined established techniques for constraining language modeling to a predefined vocabulary from a specific semantic category (e.g., animals). We also experimented with post-processing ASR output with confidence scoring, as well as with using speaker adaptation to improve automated VF scoring. Audio responses to a VF task were collected from 38 novice and experienced professional fighters (boxing and mixed martial arts) participating in a longitudinal study of effects of repetitive head trauma on brain function. Word error rate, correlation with manual word count and distance from manual word count were used to compare ASR-based approaches to scoring to each other and to the manually scored reference standard. Our study's results show that responses to the VF task contain a large number of extraneous utterances and noise that lead to relatively poor baseline ASR performance. However, we also found that speaker adaptation combined with confidence scoring significantly improves all three metrics and can enable use of ASR for reliable estimates of the traditional manual VF scores. PMID:26622073

  11. Semantic verbal fluency of animals: a normative and predictive study in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Benito-Cuadrado, M M; Esteba-Castillo, S; Böhm, P; Cejudo-Bolívar, J; Peña-Casanova, J

    2002-12-01

    Semantic verbal fluency is a very sensible but rather unspecific tool for the detection of neuropsychological deficits. This test is highly influenced by socio-cultural factors. Normative and predictive data for semantic verbal fluency of animals in a Spanish population are presented. The studied sample (n = 445) was stratified according to age and schooling. Statistical analysis reconfirmed a significant negative correlation (- 5.34) for age, and a significant positive correlation (5.34) for years of formal education. A predictive function for the production of names of animals during 1 min was established based on the subject's age and level of education: F(x) = 23.89 + age (- .144) + education (.39). The neuropsychological value and limitations of normative data and the predictive equation are discussed.

  12. Overcoming duality: the fused bousfieldian function for modeling word production in verbal fluency tasks.

    PubMed

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Fromm, Ortwin; Vonberg, Isabelle; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    Word production is generally assumed to occur as a function of a broadly interconnected language system. In terms of verbal fluency tasks, word production dynamics can be assessed by analyzing respective time courses via curve fitting. Here, a new generalized fitting function is presented by merging the two dichotomous classical Bousfieldian functions into one overarching power function with an adjustable shape parameter. When applied to empirical data from verbal fluency tasks, the error of approximation was significantly reduced while also fulfilling the Bayesian information criterion, suggesting a superior overall application value. Moreover, the approach identified a previously unknown logarithmic time course, providing further evidence of an underlying lexical network structure. In view of theories on lexical access, the corresponding modeling differentiates task-immanent lexical suppression from automatic lexical coactivation. In conclusion, our approach indicates that process dynamics result from an increasing cognitive effort to suppress automatic network functions.

  13. Capturing additional information about the organization of entries in the lexicon from verbal fluency productions.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Kerry; Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Pickett, Erin J; Bosley, Laura V; Gordon, Barry; Schretlen, David J

    2014-01-01

    Troyer and colleagues [Troyer, A. K., Moscovitch, M., & Winocur, G. (1997). Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology, 11(1), 138-146] developed a seminal method to measure clustering and switching behaviors during verbal fluency (VF) productions. We sought to expand the reach of their system by modifying the scoring rules. Compared to the Troyer system, our modifications yield comparable estimates of interrater reliability and similar patterns of correlation with demographic characteristics for both clustering and switching in healthy adults. However, two objective measures of word relatedness (interword interval timing and latent semantic analysis) confirm that our revisions capture additional information about the organization of entries in the lexical network.

  14. Verbal Fluency and Early Memory Decline: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L.; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R.; Hermann, Bruce; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonemic and semantic (category) verbal fluency and cognitive status in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP), a longitudinal cohort enriched for family history of Alzheimer’s disease. Participants were 283 WRAP subjects (age 53.1[6.5] years at baseline); who had completed three waves of assessment, over ∼6 years and met psychometric criteria either for “cognitively healthy” (CH) or for psychometric amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using an approach that did not consider fluency scores. CH and aMCI groups differed significantly on phonemic total scores, category total scores, phonemic switching, and category mean cluster size. These results suggest that measures of both phonemic and semantic fluency yield lower scores in persons with evidence of psychometric aMCI compared with those who are CH. Differences have not previously been reported in a group this young, and provide evidence for the importance of including multiple verbal fluency tests targeting preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26025231

  15. Verbal Fluency and Early Memory Decline: Results from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kimberly Diggle; Koscik, Rebecca L; LaRue, Asenath; Clark, Lindsay R; Hermann, Bruce; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonemic and semantic (category) verbal fluency and cognitive status in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP), a longitudinal cohort enriched for family history of Alzheimer's disease. Participants were 283 WRAP subjects (age 53.1[6.5] years at baseline); who had completed three waves of assessment, over ∼6 years and met psychometric criteria either for "cognitively healthy" (CH) or for psychometric amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using an approach that did not consider fluency scores. CH and aMCI groups differed significantly on phonemic total scores, category total scores, phonemic switching, and category mean cluster size. These results suggest that measures of both phonemic and semantic fluency yield lower scores in persons with evidence of psychometric aMCI compared with those who are CH. Differences have not previously been reported in a group this young, and provide evidence for the importance of including multiple verbal fluency tests targeting preclinical Alzheimer's disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel M; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

    2013-08-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca's region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks.

  17. The effects of second-language acquisition on verbal fluency among elderly israelis.

    PubMed

    Poreh, Amir M; Schweiger, Avraham

    2002-05-01

    The present study investigated the effect of age of second-language acquisition (Hebrew) on verbal fluency in a random sample of 196 elderly Israelis from four distinct ethnic groups. Using conventional statistics, it was shown that phonemic fluency, particularly switching, is associated with education and the age of Hebrew acquisition, while semantic fluency, particularly clustering, is associated with age. Ethnic differences were not significant after controlling for the age of Hebrew acquisition and education. Additional analyses show that the tendency of subjects to use borrowed, non-Hebrew words on the phonemic fluency task was associated with lower total scores on this task and later age of Hebrew acquisition. In contrast, the tendency to use non-Hebrew words on the semantic fluency task was associated with age and higher total scores. These findings are discussed with regard to recent functional imaging studies of bilingual subjects. Such findings indicate that native and second languages form distinct areas of activation in the dominant anterior language area, an area often associated with phonemic processing and switching, whereas an overlap of activation of various languages has been demonstrated within the posterior language areas, those that are often associated with semantic processing.

  18. Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy

    PubMed Central

    Opasso, Patrícia Romano; Barreto, Simone dos Santos; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. Methods: The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters. Results: The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to 15.3, 14.4, 13.9 and 43.5, respectively. Conclusion: Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature. These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation. PMID:27759830

  19. Lexical-Semantic Search Under Different Covert Verbal Fluency Tasks: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqing; Li, Ping; Yang, Qing X; Eslinger, Paul J; Sica, Chris T; Karunanayaka, Prasanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Verbal fluency is a measure of cognitive flexibility and word search strategies that is widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. Despite the wealth of research on identifying and characterizing distinct aspects of verbal fluency, the anatomic and functional substrates of retrieval-related search and post-retrieval control processes still have not been fully elucidated. Methods: Twenty-one native English-speaking, healthy, right-handed, adult volunteers (mean age = 31 years; range = 21-45 years; 9 F) took part in a block-design functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study of free recall, covert word generation tasks when guided by phonemic (P), semantic-category (C), and context-based fill-in-the-blank sentence completion (S) cues. General linear model (GLM), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) were used to further characterize the neural substrate of verbal fluency as a function of retrieval cue type. Results: Common localized activations across P, C, and S tasks occurred in the bilateral superior and left inferior frontal gyrus, left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), and left insula. Differential task activations were centered in the occipital, temporal and parietal regions as well as the thalamus and cerebellum. The context-based fluency task, i.e., the S task, elicited higher differential brain activity in a lateralized frontal-temporal network typically engaged in complex language processing. P and C tasks elicited activation in limited pathways mainly within the left frontal regions. ICA and PPI results of the S task suggested that brain regions distributed across both hemispheres, extending beyond classical language areas, are recruited for lexical-semantic access and retrieval during sentence completion. Conclusion: Study results support the hypothesis of overlapping, as well as distinct, neural networks for covert word generation when guided by

  20. Verbal fluency in children with autism spectrum disorders: clustering and switching strategies.

    PubMed

    Begeer, Sander; Wierda, Marlies; Scheeren, Anke M; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Koot, Hans M; Geurts, Hilde M

    2014-11-01

    This study highlights differences in cognitive strategies in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders (n = 52) on a verbal fluency task (naming as many words as possible (e.g. animals) within 60 s). The ability to form clusters of words (e.g. farm animals like "cow-horse-goat") or to switch between unrelated words (e.g. "snake" and "cat") was analyzed using a coding method that more stringently differentiates between these strategies. Results indicated that children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders switched less frequently, but produced slightly larger clusters than the comparison group, resulting in equal numbers of total words produced. The currently used measures of cognitive flexibility suggest atypical, but possibly equally efficient, fluency styles used by individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

  1. Endogenous oestrogens predict 4-year decline in verbal fluency in postmenopausal women: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    PubMed

    Laughlin, Gail A; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Despite overwhelming biological plausibility, evidence for a protective effect of oestrogen on cognitive function in postmenopausal women is inconsistent. This study examines the association between endogenous oestrogen levels and subsequent 4-year decline in cognitive function test performance in community-dwelling older women. Longitudinal cohort study. Three hundred and forty-three postmenopausal women (median age 70 years). Between 1984 and 1987, serum for measurement of sex hormones was obtained along with relevant covariates. Cognitive function was assessed in 1988-1991 and again in 1992-1996 using the Category Fluency test, the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and Trail Making Test B (Trails B). Women in the highest tertile of oestrone and bioavailable oestradiol had respectively 1.75 (95% CI 1.02, 3.07) and 1.79 (95% CI 1.04, 3.10) higher odds of 4 year decline in Category Fluency, a test of frontal lobe function, compared to those in the lowest tertile, independent of age and education. The 20% of women with highest tertile levels of both oestrone and bioavailable oestradiol had a twofold higher odds of verbal fluency loss (OR = 2.17; 95% CI 1.21, 3.89). Adjustment for testosterone levels or for obesity-related factors associated with high endogenous oestrogens (higher body mass index, waist girth, and triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) did not alter results. Neither oestrogen was associated with change in MMSE or Trails B scores. Higher endogenous oestrogen levels were associated with a greater decline in verbal fluency in postmenopausal women. This association was not explained by elevated androgens or by obesity or obesity-related factors.

  2. Sex differences and autism: brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation.

    PubMed

    Beacher, Felix D C C; Radulescu, Eugenia; Minati, Ludovico; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Walker, Anne; Howard, Dawn; Gray, Marcus A; Harrison, Neil A; Critchley, Hugo D

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1) may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2) alternately reflect sex-specificity in how autism is expressed in males and females. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test these alternate hypotheses. Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS), and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks. All groups performed the tasks equally well. On the verbal fluency task, despite equivalent task-performance, both males and females with AS showed enhanced activation of left occipitoparietal and inferior prefrontal activity compared to controls. During mental rotation, there was a significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction across occipital, temporal, parietal, middle frontal regions, with greater activation in AS males and typical females compared to AS females and typical males. These findings suggest a complex relationship between autism and sex that is differentially expressed in verbal and visuospatial domains.

  3. Sex Differences and Autism: Brain Function during Verbal Fluency and Mental Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Minati, Ludovico; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Walker, Anne; Howard, Dawn; Gray, Marcus A.; Harrison, Neil A.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1) may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2) alternately reflect sex-specificity in how autism is expressed in males and females. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test these alternate hypotheses. Fifteen men and fourteen women with Asperger syndrome (AS), and sixteen typically developing men and sixteen typically developing women underwent fMRI during performance of mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks. All groups performed the tasks equally well. On the verbal fluency task, despite equivalent task-performance, both males and females with AS showed enhanced activation of left occipitoparietal and inferior prefrontal activity compared to controls. During mental rotation, there was a significant diagnosis-by-sex interaction across occipital, temporal, parietal, middle frontal regions, with greater activation in AS males and typical females compared to AS females and typical males. These findings suggest a complex relationship between autism and sex that is differentially expressed in verbal and visuospatial domains. PMID:22701630

  4. A coordinate-based ALE functional MRI meta-analysis of brain activation during verbal fluency tasks in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processing of verbal fluency tasks relies on the coordinated activity of a number of brain areas, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural networks subserving verbal fluency functions have yielded divergent results especially with respect to a parcellation of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency. We conducted a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on brain activation during the processing of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks involving 28 individual studies with 490 healthy volunteers. Results For phonemic as well as for semantic verbal fluency, the most prominent clusters of brain activation were found in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (LIFG/MIFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. BA 44 was only involved in the processing of phonemic verbal fluency tasks, BA 45 and 47 in the processing of phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. Conclusions Our comparison of brain activation during the execution of either phonemic or semantic verbal fluency tasks revealed evidence for spatially different activation in BA 44, but not other regions of the LIFG/LMFG (BA 9, 45, 47) during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency processing. PMID:24456150

  5. A coordinate-based ALE functional MRI meta-analysis of brain activation during verbal fluency tasks in healthy control subjects.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefanie; Sebastian, Alexandra; Lieb, Klaus; Tüscher, Oliver; Tadić, André

    2014-01-24

    The processing of verbal fluency tasks relies on the coordinated activity of a number of brain areas, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural networks subserving verbal fluency functions have yielded divergent results especially with respect to a parcellation of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency. We conducted a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on brain activation during the processing of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks involving 28 individual studies with 490 healthy volunteers. For phonemic as well as for semantic verbal fluency, the most prominent clusters of brain activation were found in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (LIFG/MIFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. BA 44 was only involved in the processing of phonemic verbal fluency tasks, BA 45 and 47 in the processing of phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. Our comparison of brain activation during the execution of either phonemic or semantic verbal fluency tasks revealed evidence for spatially different activation in BA 44, but not other regions of the LIFG/LMFG (BA 9, 45, 47) during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency processing.

  6. Discordant cerebral lateralisation for verbal fluency is not an artefact of attention: evidence from MzHd twins.

    PubMed

    Gurd, Jennifer M; Cowell, Patricia E

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how the brain structure-function relationships between covert and overt verbal fluency in monozygotic handedness discordant (MzHd) twins relates to broader attentional measures. Evidence presented here shows that the structure-function correlation demonstrated between functional cerebral lateralisation and corpus callosum widths 22-39, contiguous with Broca's area and the middle frontal gyri (Gurd et al. in Brain Struct Funct 218:491-509, 2013), is not an artefact of attention. Twenty-five pairs of female MzHd twins performed a verbal switching task titrated for number of switches. The paradigm permits calculation of switch rates and costs. The switch rate and cost varied as a function of number of switches (1, 2, 3). There were no differences in any measure in relation to right-left handedness in twin pairs. This was supported by large and significant within-twin pair correlations. Atypical functional lateralisation of inferior and middle frontal lobes does not appear to be associated with better or worse performance on verbal task-switching. Discordant lateralisation for verbal fluency does not predict behavioural performance profiles in MzHd twins. This evidence is compatible with a view that attentional components of verbal fluency task performance may have significant heritable components. It does not indicate that neural correlates of frontal cerebral laterality for verbal fluency in MzHd twins are significantly accountable for by heritable components.

  7. Effects of age and school type on unconstrained, phonemic, and semantic verbal fluency in children.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Geise Machado; Prando, Mirella Liberatore; Moraes, André Luiz; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Siqueira, Larissa de Souza; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2017-01-01

    Biological and cultural factors have been found to have a significant influence on cognitive development and performance in neuropsychological instruments such as verbal fluency tasks (VFT). Variations of traditional VFT, involving unconstrained word production and increased retrieval times, may provide further data regarding the executive, attentional, mnemonic, and linguistic abilities involved in VFT. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of age and school type on the performance of 6- to 12-year-old children in unconstrained, phonemic, and semantic VFT. The VFT were administered to 460 participants. The effects of age and school type on verbal fluency (VF) performance were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests (p ≤ .05). A repeated-measures analysis was also used to evaluate VF performance over time (p ≤ .05). Main effects of age and school type were identified on all measures (effect sizes ranged from .05 to .32, p ≤ .05). VF scores increased with age and were higher among private school students. The influence of age on VFT may be associated with the development of executive functions. The impact of type of school on VF performance may be explained by the greater availability of cognitive stimulation (semantic knowledge) provided by private schools and families with better socioeconomic levels.

  8. Verbal fluency in patients receiving bilateral versus left-sided deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Rickard L; Lidman, Elin; Häggström, Björn; Hariz, Marwan I; Linder, Jan; Fredricks, Anna; Blomstedt, Patric

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effects of unilateral (left-sided) versus bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on verbal fluency. To do this, 10 Parkinson's disease patients with predominantly bilateral motor symptoms who received bilateral STN DBS were compared with 6 patients suffering from predominantly unilateral symptoms who received STN DBS on the left side only. The results suggest that unilateral STN DBS of the speech dominant hemisphere is associated with significantly less declines in measures of verbal fluency as compared to bilateral stimulation.

  9. Second language as a compensatory resource for maintaining verbal fluency in bilingual immigrants with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, D; Walters, J; Fine, J; Muchnik-Rozanov, Y; Paz, M; Lerner, V; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Y

    2015-08-01

    Due to the large migrations over the past three decades, large numbers of individuals with schizophrenia are learning a second language and being seen in clinics in that second language. We conducted within-subject comparisons to clarify the contribution of clinical, linguistic and bilingual features in the first and second languages of bilinguals with schizophrenia. Ten bilingual Russian(L1) and Hebrew(L2) proficient patients, who developed clinical schizophrenia after achieving proficiency in both languages, were selected from 60 candidates referred for the study; they were resident in Israel 7-32 years with 3-10 years from immigration to diagnosis. Clinical, linguistic and fluency markers were coded in transcripts of clinical interviews. There was a trend toward more verbal productivity in the first language (L1) than the second language (L2). Clinical speech markers associated with thought disorder and cognitive impairment (blocking and topic shift) were similar in both languages. Among linguistic markers of schizophrenia, Incomplete syntax and Speech role reference were significantly more frequent in L2 than L1; Lexical repetition and Unclear reference demonstrated a trend in the same direction. For fluency phenomena, Discourse markers were more prevalent in L1 than L2, and Codeswitching was similar across languages, showing that the patients were attuned to the socio-pragmatics of language use. More frequent linguistic markers of schizophrenia in L2 show more impairment in the syntactic/semantic components of language, reflecting greater thought and cognitive dysfunction. Patients are well able to acquire a second language. Nevertheless, schizophrenia finds expression in that language. Finally, more frequent fluency markers in L1 suggests motivation to maintain fluency, evidenced in particular by codeswitched L2 lexical items, a compensatory resource. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Top-Down Computerized Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study of an Individual with Impairment in Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced. PMID:25949840

  11. Top-down computerized cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a case study of an individual with impairment in verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced.

  12. Phonemic verbal fluency task in adults with high-level literacy.

    PubMed

    Opasso, Patrícia Romano; Barreto, Simone Dos Santos; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2016-01-01

    To establish normative parameters for the F-A-S form of the phonemic verbal fluency test, in a population of Brazilian Portuguese speaking adults with high-level literacy. The sample comprised 40 male and female volunteers aged 19 to 59 years, and at least 8 years of formal education. Volunteers were first submitted to the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing cognitive screening tests, then to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test; in this test, examinees were given 60 seconds to generate as many words as possible beginning with each of the three test letters. The means for number of words beginning the letters F, A and S and for total number of words beginning with either letter generated per minute corresponded to 15.3, 14.4, 13.9 and 43.5, respectively. Reference values obtained from young adults with high levels of literacy submitted to the F-A-S Verbal Phonemic Fluency Test in this study were similar to those reported in the international literature. These reference values can be used for clinical assessment of language disorder and neuropsychological evaluation. Obter parâmetros de normalidade na tarefa de fluência verbal fonêmica, versão F-A-S, em uma população de alto letramento de adultos falantes do português brasileiro. A amostra foi constituída por 40 voluntários, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 19 e 59 anos, e com mais de 8 anos de estudo. Todos os voluntários foram inicialmente submetidos ao Miniexame do Estado Mental e ao Teste do Desenho do Relógio, para fins de rastreio cognitivo, e, então, ao Teste de Fluência Verbal Fonêmica F-A-S. Neste último, os indivíduos foram orientados a produzirem o maior número de palavras que conseguissem, iniciadas com cada uma das três letras ditas pelo examinador, em um intervalo de 60 segundos cada. As médias das palavras produzidas com as letras F-A-S foram as seguintes: "F" = 15,3 palavras por minuto; "A" = 14,4 palavras por minuto; e "S" = 13,9 palavras por minuto. A m

  13. Age and Vascular Burden Determinants of Cortical Hemodynamics Underlying Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Metzger, Florian G.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Korell, Robert; Alboji, Ahmed; Haeussinger, Florian B.; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Suenkel, Ulrike; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aging processes and several vascular burden factors have been shown to increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. While pathological alterations in dementia precede diagnosis by many years, reorganization of brain processing might temporarily delay cognitive decline. We hypothesized that in healthy elderly individuals both age-related neural and vascular factors known to be related to the development of dementia impact functional cortical hemodynamics during increased cognitive demands. Methods Vascular burden factors and cortical functional hemodynamics during verbal fluency were assessed in 1052 non-demented elderly individuals (51 to 83 years; cross-sectional data of the longitudinal TREND study) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The prediction of functional hemodynamic responses by age in multiple regressions and the impact of single and cumulative vascular burden factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and atherosclerosis were investigated. Results Replicating and extending previous findings we could show that increasing age predicted functional hemodynamics to be increased in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex, and decreased in bilateral inferior frontal junction during phonological fluency. Cumulative vascular burden factors, with hypertension in particular, decreased left inferior frontal junction hemodynamic responses during phonological fluency. However, age and vascular burden factors showed no statistical interaction on functional hemodynamics. Conclusion Based on these findings, one might hypothesize that increased fronto-parietal processing may represent age-related compensatory reorganization during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors, such as hypertension, may contribute to regional cerebral hypoperfusion. These neural and vascular hemodynamic determinants should be investigated longitudinally and combined with other markers to advance the prediction of

  14. Age and Vascular Burden Determinants of Cortical Hemodynamics Underlying Verbal Fluency.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Metzger, Florian G; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Korell, Robert; Alboji, Ahmed; Haeussinger, Florian B; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Suenkel, Ulrike; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2015-01-01

    Aging processes and several vascular burden factors have been shown to increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. While pathological alterations in dementia precede diagnosis by many years, reorganization of brain processing might temporarily delay cognitive decline. We hypothesized that in healthy elderly individuals both age-related neural and vascular factors known to be related to the development of dementia impact functional cortical hemodynamics during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors and cortical functional hemodynamics during verbal fluency were assessed in 1052 non-demented elderly individuals (51 to 83 years; cross-sectional data of the longitudinal TREND study) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The prediction of functional hemodynamic responses by age in multiple regressions and the impact of single and cumulative vascular burden factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and atherosclerosis were investigated. Replicating and extending previous findings we could show that increasing age predicted functional hemodynamics to be increased in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex, and decreased in bilateral inferior frontal junction during phonological fluency. Cumulative vascular burden factors, with hypertension in particular, decreased left inferior frontal junction hemodynamic responses during phonological fluency. However, age and vascular burden factors showed no statistical interaction on functional hemodynamics. Based on these findings, one might hypothesize that increased fronto-parietal processing may represent age-related compensatory reorganization during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors, such as hypertension, may contribute to regional cerebral hypoperfusion. These neural and vascular hemodynamic determinants should be investigated longitudinally and combined with other markers to advance the prediction of future cognitive decline and dementia.

  15. Semantic verbal fluency in Alzheimer's disease: approaches beyond the traditional scoring system.

    PubMed

    March, Evrim Gocer; Pattison, Philippa

    2006-05-01

    This study aimed to expand extant Alzheimer's disease (AD) research on cluster size and switching strategies in semantic verbal fluency (SVF). First, it addressed a significant shortcoming in research, that is, the use of a single semantic category (i.e., Animal). Second, it examined subjects of lower education levels, as research to date has primarily focussed on tertiary education. Subjects were 26 mild to moderate AD patients and 26 healthy elderly, 65 years old and over, with less than 12 years of schooling. The study examined the cluster size and switching variables, together with the number of subcategories, in two semantic categories (i.e., Animal and Supermarket). Furthermore, it investigated the error patterns (i.e., repetitions and categorical errors) across three semantic categories (i.e., Animal, Supermarket and Furniture). The findings provide preliminary support for category-specific effects on qualitative aspects of SVF highlighting the need to incorporate multiple semantic categories to research and clinical practice.

  16. Norms from the Georgia Centenarian Study: Measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously presented normative data from a relatively large, population-based sample (n = 244) of centenarians and a reference group of octogenarians (n = 80) for several brief, global neurocognitive tasks adapted for use for older adults with physical and sensory limitations (Miller et al., 2010). Here, we present additional normative data on several domain-specific tasks from these samples from Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study, including measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function. Expected age differences were demonstrated across all cognitive measures, and, consistent with our previous findings, centenarians showed a stronger association between age and performance. Normative tables are presented unweighted as well as population-weighted, and stratified by age and education level. These findings offer a unique contribution to the literature on cognitive aging, as normative performance in this age group is understudied and largely unavailable to clinicians and researchers. PMID:23379531

  17. Norms from the Georgia Centenarian Study: measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Meghan B; Miller, L Stephen; Woodard, John L; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard W

    2013-01-01

    We previously presented normative data from a relatively large, population-based sample (n = 244) of centenarians and a reference group of octogenarians (n = 80) for several brief, global neurocognitive tasks adapted for use for older adults with physical and sensory limitations ( Miller et al., 2010 , Neuropsychological, Development, and Cognition. Section B: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, 17, 575). Here, we present additional normative data on several domain-specific tasks from these samples from Phase III of the Georgia Centenarian Study, including measures of verbal abstract reasoning, fluency, memory, and motor function. Expected age differences were demonstrated across all cognitive measures, and, consistent with our previous findings, centenarians showed a stronger association between age and performance. Normative tables are presented unweighted as well as population-weighted, and stratified by age and education level. These findings offer a unique contribution to the literature on cognitive aging, as normative performance in this age group is understudied and largely unavailable to clinicians and researchers.

  18. Recall strategies for the verbal fluency test in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Marosi-Holczberger, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Yañez-Tellez, G; Chávez-Oliveros, M

    2014-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination. It generates irreversible myelin changes, which in turn give rise to physical and cognitive disorders. The verbal fluency test (VF) has been shown to be a sensitive tool for detecting cognitive impairment in these patients. To compare quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance on semantic and phonological fluency tests between MS patients and healthy controls by analysing total words produced and strategies used (clusters and switching). We evaluated 46 patients with MS and 33 healthy controls using the VF test. The semantic VF task revealed no significant differences between groups; for the phonological task, patients demonstrated reduced word production (F [77]=2.286 P<.001) and poorer use of grouping strategies, resulting in more frequent switching (F [77]=3.808 P<.005). These results support using qualitative analysis for recall strategies, since the technique provides data about which components of the task are affected by brain damage. Clusters depend on the integrity of semantic memory, while switching has to do with developing effective search strategies, cognitive flexibility, and the ability to modify responses. Frontal lobe damage has been reported in MS, and this is consistent with results from the phonological VF test. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Standardization, Clinical Validation, and Typicality Norms of a New Test Assessing Semantic Verbal Fluency.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Davide; Caprara, Alessia; Piccininni, Chiara; Vita, Maria G; Gainotti, Guido; Marra, Camillo

    2016-08-01

    Semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tests are widely used in clinical neuropsychology. We propose the standardization and clinical validation of a new SVF test based on the production of names of birds and articles of furniture (Birds and Articles of Furniture test-BAF). A sample of 268 subjects aged 40 years or more underwent the test. The clinical validation was conducted on subjects affected by amnesic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; N = 106), mild (N = 178), and moderate (N = 114) Alzheimer's disease (AD). The BAF total score was influenced by both age and education, whereas the single scores obtained on BAF were also influenced by gender. The percentage of subjects with pathological score on BAF increased from aMCI (19%) to mild (45.5%) and moderate (71.1%) AD, and receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that the BAF may be highly reliable in distinguishing aMCI and AD patients from healthy subjects. We also provide typicality norms for birds and articles of furniture that could be useful in the assessment of qualitative features of words produced in semantic fluency tests. The BAF test could be a valid and reliable tool in both clinical practice and research on subjects affected by cognitive impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of Self-Monitoring Training on Reading Accuracy and Fluency of Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolic-Vehovec, Svjetlana

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the self-monitoring training on reading accuracy and fluency of second-grade poor readers was examined. The participants were assigned in one experimental and three control groups. The experimental group was reinforced with token-economy for self-correction and fluent reading. One control group practiced reading without feedback, the…

  1. [Verbal fluency: preliminary normative data in a Spanish sample of young adults (20-49 years of age)].

    PubMed

    Buriel, Y; Gramunt, N; Bohm, P; Rodes, E; Pena-Casanova, J

    2004-05-01

    Verbal fluency tests are widely used to study, among other things, executive functions. The aim of this study is to establish pilot normative data of these tests (phonological and semantic fluency) for a healthy young adult Spanish population as well as to analyze the influence of age and years of formal education on test performance. A total of 146 healthy young subjects (43.2 % male and 56.8 % female) were administered the tests. Age varied between 20 and 49 (mean age: 34.21 years) and years of formal education ranged from 8 to 20 (mean: 14.51 years). Phonological fluency tests (words starting with the phoneme F, A and S; words not containing A, E and S) and semantic fluency tests (fruits and vegetables, animals, tools) were administered. Performance within one minute was registered as total as well as by quartiles. Statistical analysis was based on the descriptive analysis of the sample. Influence of the variables age and education on each category was studied by simple regression analysis. The variable formal years of education significantly influenced the scores of all independent variables. Scores were adjusted accordingly. Age was significant for the categories and . Correlation criteria for the variables that test performance were obtained. Preliminary normative data obtained in the present study will be useful for an adequate neuropsychological assessment of young adult patients with regards to verbal fluency measures. Limitations of some of the categories are discussed.

  2. Exploration of hemispheric specialization and lexico-semantic processing in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy with verbal fluency tasks.

    PubMed

    N'Kaoua, B; Lespinet, V; Barsse, A; Rougier, A; Claverie, B

    2001-01-01

    Verbal production has been shown to rely on both hemispheres differentially. To determine how lateralized brain lesions affect the generation of isolated words, we evaluated three subject groups: normal controls (n=22), and patients with right (n=23), and left (n=22) non-operated temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using three verbal fluency tasks (letter, phonetic, semantic). LTLE patients produced fewer words than controls in the phonetic, letter, semantic conditions, whereas RTLE patients were only impaired in the semantic task. Hence, there would be a hemispheric specialization in language where phonetic processing involves mostly the left temporal lobe and semantic aspects of production involve both temporal lobes. And, in order to study disruption of semantic lexicon involved in supermarket fluency (to name things which can be bought in a supermarket), specific indicators Tröster et al., (1998) [Tröster AI, Fields JA, Testa JA, Paul RH, Blanco CR, Hames KA, Salmon DP, Beatty WW. Cortical and subcortical influences on clustering and switching in the performance of verbal fluency Tasks, Neuropsychologia 1998;36:295-304.] were exploited. Our results indicated that TLE groups made fewer category shifts than controls. Also, RTLE patients used labels more frequently and produced fewer exemplars. Results show the specificity of processing according to cue, and suggest that the semantic fluency deficits due to TLE be primarily due to an alteration of the mental lexicon.

  3. Associations between cortical thickness and verbal fluency in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Porter, James N; Collins, Paul F; Muetzel, Ryan L; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2011-04-15

    Neuroimaging studies of normative human brain development indicate that the brain matures at differing rates across time and brain regions, with some areas maturing into young adulthood. In particular, changes in cortical thickness may index maturational progressions from an overabundance of neuropil toward efficiently pruned neural networks. Developmental changes in structural MRI measures have rarely been examined in relation to discrete neuropsychological functions. In this study, healthy right-handed adolescents completed MRI scanning and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT). Associations of task performance and cortical thickness were assessed with cortical-surface-based analyses. Significant correlations between increasing COWAT performances and decreasing cortical thickness were found in left hemisphere language regions, including perisylvian regions surrounding Wernicke's and Broca's areas. Task performance was also correlated with regions associated with effortful verbal processing, working memory, and performance monitoring. Structure-function associations were not significantly different between older and younger subjects. Decreases in cortical thicknesses in regions that comprise the language network likely reflect maturation toward adult-like cortical organization and processing efficiency. The changes in cortical thicknesses that support verbal fluency are apparent by middle childhood, but with regionally separate developmental trajectories for males and females, consistent with other studies of adolescent development.

  4. Digit span and verbal fluency tests in patients with mild cognitive impairment and normal subjects in Thai-community.

    PubMed

    Muangpaisan, Weerasak; Intalapaporn, Somboon; Assantachai, Prasert

    2010-02-01

    Far too little attention has been paid to the difference of Digit Span test and category verbal fluency test (CVFT) between normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. To investigate the difference of Digit Span test and CVFT between normal subjects and patients with MCI and study the influence of age, gender, and education on the task performance. The authors collected data of 77 participants diagnosed with amnestic MCI (from 517 participants screened) and 30 normal subjects aged 50 or over enrolled from communities in Bangkok. The Digit Span test and CVFT (semantic fluency and Controlled word association test for letter fluency) were used to evaluate the subjects. MCI patients had significantly lower digit span score, in both Digits Forward and Digits Backward, poorer performance on semantic fluency for animals and fruits and letter fluency test. The logistic regression model of MCI diagnosis showed that only Digits Backward score was a predictor of MCI diagnosis (OR 0.643 for each increment of 1 digit, p = 0.009, 95% confidence interval 0.462-0.896). The cut-off point of Digit Backward score was 4 and yielded sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 57%. Females had lower scores than males in every test except semantic fluency for fruits. The digit span and semantic fluency scores decreased as age increased but letter fluency increased correspondently with age. The digit span and CVFT scores increased in parallel with the increase of education. MCI patients had poorer performance on the Digit Span and CVFT tests than normal age and education matched subjects. Digits Backward test can predict the MCI diagnosis. Age, gender and education have an impact on the performance of the tests.

  5. The role of language proficiency, cognate status and word frequency in the assessment of Spanish–English bilinguals’ verbal fluency

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Bobb, Susan C.; Marian, Viorica

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessment tools are needed to accurately index performance in bilingual populations. We examine the verbal fluency task to further establish the relative sensitivities of letter and category fluency in assessing bilingual language skills in Spanish-English bilinguals. Method English monolinguals and Spanish-English bilinguals had one minute to name words belonging to a category (e.g., animals) or starting with a letter (e.g., A). Number of words retrieved, proficiency, cognate and frequency effects were examined. Results In their dominant language (English), bilinguals and monolinguals showed similar fluency patterns, generating more words in category than letter tasks. This category advantage disappeared for bilinguals tested in their non-dominant language (Spanish). Further, bilinguals retrieved a higher percentage of cognates (e.g., lagoon-laguna) than monolinguals across tasks and languages. In particular, as proficiency increased in their non-dominant language, bilinguals were more likely to produce cognates (including cognates with lower word frequencies). Conclusion While bilinguals and monolinguals performed largely the same, bilinguals showed fine-grained differences from monolinguals in both their dominant and non-dominant languages. Based on these results, we recommend that clinicians evaluate findings from bilinguals’ verbal fluency tasks with attention to language proficiency, cognate words produced, and relative to normative data that match their clients’ language histories. PMID:27172853

  6. Verbal Fluency over Time as a Measure of Automatic and Controlled Processing in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurks, P. P. M.; Hendriksen, J. G. M.; Vles, J. S. H.; Kalff, A. C.; Feron, F. J. M.; Kroes, M.; van Zeben, T. M. C. B.; Steyaert, J.; Jolles, J.

    2004-01-01

    The performance of ADHD children on semantic category fluency (SCF) versus initial letter fluency (ILF) tasks was examined. For each participant, word production was recorded for each 15-s time slice on each task. Performance on both fluency tasks was compared to test the hypothesis that children with ADHD are characterized by a performance…

  7. Verbal fluency in schizophrenia: does cognitive performance reflect the same underlying mechanisms in patients and healthy controls?

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Natalia; Sánchez, Pedro; Peña, Javier; Elizagárate, Edorta; Yoller, Ana B; Larumbe, Juan; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Casais, Leonardo; Ezcurra, Jesús

    2010-04-01

    Verbal fluency is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, but the association with other cognitive domains remains unclear. Forty-seven patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and 47 controls matched by age, gender, years of education, and vocabulary (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III) were assessed in terms of sociodemographic, clinical, and cognitive variables. Healthy controls performed significantly better than patients with schizophrenia in all cognitive measures. However, the way these cognitive domains were related differed across groups. Semantic fluency (SF) and phonological fluency (PF) were predicted by working memory (WM) in patients with schizophrenia, whereas the predictor in the healthy controls was processing speed (PS). Moreover, after dividing the sample of patients according to their performance on fluency tests, we found that a worse performance on SF or PF was predicted by WM. However, for patients with a better performance on fluency, the pattern was similar to that of healthy controls. Cognition may show a different pattern of interaction in schizophrenia, with less impaired patients showing a closer pattern to healthy controls. Therefore, we suggest that, depending on the severity of cognitive deficits, performance on neuropsychological tests may not reflect the same underlying mechanisms.

  8. Neuroanatomical correlates of verbal fluency in early Alzheimer's disease and normal aging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Aranda, Claudia; Waterloo, Knut; Johnsen, Stein Harald; Eldevik, Petter; Sparr, Sigurd; Wikran, Gry C; Herder, Marit; Vangberg, Torgil Riise

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency (VF) impairments occur early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to a lesser extent also in normal aging. However, the neural underpinnings of these impairments are not fully understood. The present study evaluated whether VF impairments in early AD and normal aging rely upon common or different neuroanatomical correlates. We examined the association between VF performance and brain structure in 18 mild AD patients and 24 healthy elderly. Linear regressions were performed between accuracy and time intervals in VF scores and structural measurements of cerebral gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using MRI. Results showed that semantic VF correlated exclusively with GM in cerebellum, left temporal fusiform cortex, and WM in uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and corpus callosum. Phonemic VF showed unique associations between intervals and WM in left-hemisphere tracts. The association between GM in hippocampus, subcortical structures and semantic accuracy differentiated patients from controls. Results showed that VF impairments are primarily associated with same structural brain changes in AD as in healthy elderly but at exaggerated levels. However, specific VF deficiencies and their underlying neural correlates exist and these clearly differentiate the initial stages of AD.

  9. Verbal fluency tests: Developing a new model of administration and scoring for Spanish language.

    PubMed

    Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Torre, Esther Landa; López-Mugartza, Juan Carlos; Bialystok, Ellen; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-16

    To conduct a literature review of the administration and scoring criteria used in normative studies of verbal fluency tests (VFT), and to propose a new model for the administration and scoring of phonological, semantic, and action VFT for use in Spanish-speakers. A literature search was performed using four databases Dialnet, ProQuest (PsycINFO, PsycArticles), Science Direct (Elsevier), and PubMed and 47 articles met the following criteria: 1) articles which contained normative data of phonological, semantic, or action VFT, 2) published between 2000 and 2015, 3) published in English or Spanish, 4) used healthy population. Of 2087 citations retrieved, 47 eligible studies were reviewed. The majority of the studies have been conducted in the USA, and with English and Spanish speakers. Only 12 studies provided the instruction, and 23 clearly describe the scoring guidelines. Moreover, among the studies that provided these information important discrepancies were found. Therefore, a new administration and scoring guidelines are presented, which may resolve this problem and be utilized in Spanish speaking countries. This review showed that still there is no consensus regarding the administration and scoring of VFT. A new method of administration and scoring is presented that can be use with Spanish-speakers.

  10. [Semantic verbal fluency in Spanish-speaking people: a comparative analysis].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, M; Ostrosky-Solís, F; Fernández, A; Ardila-Ardila, A

    Semantic verbal fluency (SVF) is the most commonly used test in the evaluation of normal and pathological functioning, whether it be clinically or experimentally. Several studies have suggested that the age, schooling and culture of the subject all affect performance in this test. To date no research has been conducted that proves whether there are differences between subjects who speak the same language but who come from different countries. Data from the 'animals' category of the SVF in adult Spanish-speaking subjects and also the influence exerted by culture, age and schooling on the outcomes in this test were both submitted to analysis. The aforementioned variables were compared with the data reported by five research groups. The SVF test yields similar data from one Spanish-speaking country to another, provided that the subjects' age and schooling are taken into account. The differences found in this study may be due to variations in the way the tests are administered and scored rather than any cultural effect. We propose a standardised method of applying the test, so as to allow these variables to be unified in the future. Age and schooling are factors that determine performance in the SVF, although this is not true of culture.

  11. Does instruction in semantic clustering and switching enhance verbal fluency in children?

    PubMed

    Hurks, Petra P M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated (1) test-retest reliabilities of Verbal Fluency (VF) outcome measures (i.e., word productivity, clustering, and switching) and (2) the effects of a brief training on semantic clustering to improve performance on a VF task. A total of 81 children enrolled in grades 3-6 completed a traditional VF task twice. In between task administrations half of the children were given instruction on using semantic clustering and switching to improve their VF, while the other half served as a control group. Test-retest reliability coefficients of the control group (N = 40) were substantial for "word productivity over 60 seconds" (riccs varied between 0.45 and 0.64) but only moderate for "clustering" (0.31) and "switching" (0.31). Next only the older children improved on VF after instruction on semantic clustering; the younger children appeared to understand the instruction but had to use up a great deal of cognitive load trying to implement this new strategy. This paper describes (1) the impact of strategy instruction on performance and (2) the need to analyze, at a process level, multi-factorial tasks, so as to gain a better understanding of their functional components.

  12. Graph analysis of verbal fluency test discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly controls

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laiss; Mota, Natália B.; Copelli, Mauro; Rivero, Thiago; Diniz, Breno Satler; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbal fluency is the ability to produce a satisfying sequence of spoken words during a given time interval. The core of verbal fluency lies in the capacity to manage the executive aspects of language. The standard scores of the semantic verbal fluency test are broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of the elderly, and different analytical methods are likely to extract even more information from the data generated in this test. Graph theory, a mathematical approach to analyze relations between items, represents a promising tool to understand a variety of neuropsychological states. This study reports a graph analysis of data generated by the semantic verbal fluency test by cognitively healthy elderly (NC), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment—subtypes amnestic (aMCI) and amnestic multiple domain (a+mdMCI)—and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequences of words were represented as a speech graph in which every word corresponded to a node and temporal links between words were represented by directed edges. To characterize the structure of the data we calculated 13 speech graph attributes (SGA). The individuals were compared when divided in three (NC—MCI—AD) and four (NC—aMCI—a+mdMCI—AD) groups. When the three groups were compared, significant differences were found in the standard measure of correct words produced, and three SGA: diameter, average shortest path, and network density. SGA sorted the elderly groups with good specificity and sensitivity. When the four groups were compared, the groups differed significantly in network density, except between the two MCI subtypes and NC and aMCI. The diameter of the network and the average shortest path were significantly different between the NC and AD, and between aMCI and AD. SGA sorted the elderly in their groups with good specificity and sensitivity, performing better than the standard score of the task. These findings provide support for a new methodological frame to assess the

  13. Graph analysis of verbal fluency test discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly controls.

    PubMed

    Bertola, Laiss; Mota, Natália B; Copelli, Mauro; Rivero, Thiago; Diniz, Breno Satler; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F

    2014-01-01

    Verbal fluency is the ability to produce a satisfying sequence of spoken words during a given time interval. The core of verbal fluency lies in the capacity to manage the executive aspects of language. The standard scores of the semantic verbal fluency test are broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of the elderly, and different analytical methods are likely to extract even more information from the data generated in this test. Graph theory, a mathematical approach to analyze relations between items, represents a promising tool to understand a variety of neuropsychological states. This study reports a graph analysis of data generated by the semantic verbal fluency test by cognitively healthy elderly (NC), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment-subtypes amnestic (aMCI) and amnestic multiple domain (a+mdMCI)-and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequences of words were represented as a speech graph in which every word corresponded to a node and temporal links between words were represented by directed edges. To characterize the structure of the data we calculated 13 speech graph attributes (SGA). The individuals were compared when divided in three (NC-MCI-AD) and four (NC-aMCI-a+mdMCI-AD) groups. When the three groups were compared, significant differences were found in the standard measure of correct words produced, and three SGA: diameter, average shortest path, and network density. SGA sorted the elderly groups with good specificity and sensitivity. When the four groups were compared, the groups differed significantly in network density, except between the two MCI subtypes and NC and aMCI. The diameter of the network and the average shortest path were significantly different between the NC and AD, and between aMCI and AD. SGA sorted the elderly in their groups with good specificity and sensitivity, performing better than the standard score of the task. These findings provide support for a new methodological frame to assess the strength of

  14. Imitated Prosodic Fluency Predicts Reading Comprehension Ability in Good and Poor High School Readers.

    PubMed

    Breen, Mara; Kaswer, Lianne; Van Dyke, Julie A; Krivokapić, Jelena; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker's production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension.

  15. Imitated Prosodic Fluency Predicts Reading Comprehension Ability in Good and Poor High School Readers

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Mara; Kaswer, Lianne; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Krivokapić, Jelena; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker's production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension. PMID:27486409

  16. Differential verbal fluency deficits in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sari; Laukka, Erika Jonsson; Bäckman, Lars

    2006-04-01

    We examined patterns of early and late word generation in category and letter fluency among persons in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). The sample consisted of 20 preclinical VaD persons, 66 preclinical AD persons, and 267 control persons, sampled from the community. Persons in the preclinical phase of AD and VaD were similarly impaired in letter fluency, although the preclinical VaD group outperformed their AD counterparts in category fluency. This pattern of results is consistent with the notion that category fluency is relatively more dependent on the medial-temporal lobe, whereas letter fluency relies more on frontal regions. The patterns of fluency impairment in preclinical AD and VaD generalized across early and late word retrieval.

  17. Reduced Activity in the Right Inferior Frontal Gyrus in Elderly APOE-E4 Carriers during a Verbal Fluency Task

    PubMed Central

    Katzorke, Andrea; Zeller, Julia B. M.; Müller, Laura D.; Lauer, Martin; Polak, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Apolipoprotein-E4 (APOE-E4) is a major genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The verbal fluency task (VFT), especially the subtask category fluency, has shown to provide a good discrimination between cognitively normal controls and subjects with AD. Interestingly, APOE-E4 seems to have no effect on the behavioral performance during a VFT in healthy elderly. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to reveal possible compensation mechanisms by investigating the effect of APOE-E4 on the hemodynamic response in non-demented elderly during a VFT by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We compared performance and hemodynamic response of high risk APOE-E4/E4, -E3/E4 carriers with neutral APOE-E3/E3 non-demented subjects (N = 288; 70–77 years). No difference in performance was found. APOE-E4/E4, -E3/E4 carriers had a decreased hemodynamic response in the right inferior frontal junction (IFJ) with a corresponding higher response in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG) during category fluency. Performance was correlated with the hemodynamic response in the MFG. We assume a compensation of decreased IFJ brain activation by utilizing the MFG during category fluency and thus resulting in no behavioral differences between APOE-groups during the performance of a VFT. PMID:28220068

  18. Verbal fluency tests: Normative data for Spanish-speaking pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Olabarrieta-Landa, L; Rivera, D; Lara, L; Rute-Pérez, S; Rodriguez-Lorenzana, A; Galarza-Del-Angel, J; Peñalver Guia, A I; Ferrer-Cascales, R; Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Campos Varillas, A I; Ramos-Usuga, D; Chino-Vilca, B; Aguilar Uriarte, M A; Martín-Lobo, P; García de la Cadena, C; Postigo-Alonso, B; Romero-García, I; Rabago Barajas, B V; Irías Escher, M J; Arango-Lasprilla, J C

    2017-09-16

    To generate normative data for the phonological and semantic verbal fluency tests (VFT) in Spanish-speaking pediatric populations. The sample consisted of 4,373 healthy children from nine countries in Latin America (Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico) and Spain. Each participant was administered the VFT as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. Scores for letters F, A, S, and animals and fruit categories were normed using multiple linear regressions and standard deviations of residual values. Age, age2, sex, and mean level of parental education (MLPE) were included as predictors in the analyses. The final multiple linear regression models showed main effects for age on all scores, such that scores increased linearly as a function of age. Age2 had a significant effect in Chile (animals), Cuba (A letter, fruits), Ecuador (animals, fruits), Guatemala (S letter), Honduras (F letter), Mexico (animals, fruits), Paraguay (F letter), Peru (fruits), and Spain (F, S letters, animals, fruits). Models showed an effect for MLPE in Chile (F, A letters, animals, fruits), Ecuador (S letter, animals, fruits), Guatelama (S letter, animals), Honduras (animals), Mexico (F, A, S letters, animals, fruits), Paraguay (A letter, animals, fruits), Puerto Rico (A, S letters, animals), and Spain (all scores). Sex scores were found significant in Chile (animals), Ecuador (A letter, fruits), Guatemala (fruits), Mexico (F letter, fruits), Paraguay (F, A, S letters, fruits), Puerto Rico (F letter, animals, fruits), and Spain (F letter, fruits). This is the largest multi-national Spanish speaking pediatric normative study in the world, and as such it will allow neuropsychologists from these countries to have a more accurate way to interpret the phonological and semantic VFT in pediatric populations.

  19. Higher Endogenous Estrogens Predict Four Year Decline in Verbal Fluency in Postmenopausal Women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, Gail A.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite overwhelming biological plausibility, evidence for a protective effect of estrogen on cognitive function in postmenopausal women is inconsistent. This study examines the association between endogenous estrogen levels and subsequent four-year decline in cognitive function test performance in community-dwelling older women. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study PARTICIPANTS 343 postmenopausal women (median age 70 yrs) MEASUREMENTS Between 1984 and 1987, serum for measurement of sex hormones was obtained along with relevant covariates. Cognitive function was assessed in 1988–91 and again in 1992–96 using the Category Fluency test, the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and Trail Making Test B (Trails B). RESULTS Women in the highest tertile of estrone and bioavailable estradiol had, respectively, 1.75 (95% CI 1.02, 3.07) and 1.79 (95% CI 1.04, 3.10) higher odds of 4 year decline in Category Fluency, a test of frontal lobe function, compared to those in the lowest tertile, independent of age and education. The 20% of women with highest tertile levels of both estrone and bioavailable estradiol had a two-fold higher odds of verbal fluency loss (OR=2.17; 95% CI 1.21, 3.89) Adjustment for testosterone levels or for obesity-related factors associated with high endogenous estrogens (higher BMI, waist girth, and triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol) did not alter results. Neither estrogen was associated with change in MMSE or Trails B scores. CONCLUSIONS Higher endogenous estrogen levels were associated with greater decline in verbal fluency in postmenopausal women. This association was not explained by elevated androgens or by obesity or obesity-related factors. PMID:19508596

  20. Comparable fMRI activity with differential behavioural performance on mental rotation and overt verbal fluency tasks in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Halari, Rozmin; Sharma, Tonmoy; Hines, Melissa; Andrew, Chris; Simmons, Andy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-02-01

    To explicate the neural correlates of sex differences in visuospatial and verbal fluency tasks, we examined behavioural performance and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) regional brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task and a compressed sequence overt verbal fluency task in a group of healthy men (n=9) and women (n=10; tested during the low-oestrogen phase of the menstrual cycle). Men outperformed women on the mental rotation task, and women outperformed men on the verbal fluency task. For the mental rotation task, men and women activated areas in the right superior parietal lobe and the bilateral middle occipital gyrus in association with the rotation condition. In addition, men activated the left middle temporal gyrus and the right angular gyrus. For verbal fluency, men activated areas in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, thalamus, left parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral lingual gyrus, and women activated areas in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and left caudate. Despite observing task related activation in the hypothesised areas in men and women, no areas significantly differentiated the two sexes. Our results demonstrate comparable brain activation in men and women in association with mental rotation and verbal fluency function with differential performance, and provide support for sex differences in brain-behaviour relationships.

  1. Characterizing cognitive performance in a large longitudinal study of aging with computerized semantic indices of verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Pakhomov, Serguei V S; Eberly, Lynn; Knopman, David

    2016-08-01

    A computational approach for estimating several indices of performance on the animal category verbal fluency task was validated, and examined in a large longitudinal study of aging. The performance indices included the traditional verbal fluency score, size of semantic clusters, density of repeated words, as well as measures of semantic and lexical diversity. Change over time in these measures was modeled using mixed effects regression in several groups of participants, including those that remained cognitively normal throughout the study (CN) and those that were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia at some point subsequent to the baseline visit. The results of the study show that, with the exception of mean cluster size, the indices showed significantly greater declines in the MCI and AD dementia groups as compared to CN participants. Examination of associations between the indices and cognitive domains of memory, attention and visuospatial functioning showed that the traditional verbal fluency scores were associated with declines in all three domains, whereas semantic and lexical diversity measures were associated with declines only in the visuospatial domain. Baseline repetition density was associated with declines in memory and visuospatial domains. Examination of lexical and semantic diversity measures in subgroups with high vs. low attention scores (but normal functioning in other domains) showed that the performance of individuals with low attention was influenced more by word frequency rather than strength of semantic relatedness between words. These findings suggest that various automatically semantic indices may be used to examine various aspects of cognitive performance affected by dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with Chronological Age and IQ

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002

  3. Language-specific cortical activation patterns for verbal fluency tasks in Japanese as assessed by multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dan, Haruka; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Oguro, Keiji; Yokota, Hidenori; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, verbal fluency tasks are commonly utilized as a standard paradigm for neuropsychological testing of cognitive and linguistic abilities. The Japanese "letter fluency task" is a mora/letter fluency task based on the phonological and orthographical characteristics of the Japanese language. Whether there are similar activation patterns across languages or a Japanese-specific mora/letter fluency pattern is not certain. We investigated the neural correlates of overt mora/letter and category fluency tasks in healthy Japanese. The category fluency task activated the bilateral fronto-temporal language-related regions with left-superior lateralization, while the mora/letter fluency task led to wider activation including the inferior parietal regions (left and right supramarginal gyrus). Specific bilateral supramarginal activation during the mora/letter fluency task in Japanese was distinct from that of similar letter fluency tasks in syllable-alphabet-based languages: this might be due to the requirement of additional phonological processing and working memory, or due to increased cognitive load in general. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional connectivity during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test: a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Sun, Chia-Wei; Chou, Po-Han; Chuang, Ching-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Verbal fluency tests (VFT) are widely used neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe and have been frequently used in various functional brain mapping studies. There are two versions of VFT based on the type of cue: the letter fluency task (LFT) and the category fluency task (CFT). However, the fundamental aspect of the brain connectivity across spatial regions of the fronto-temporal regions during the VFTs has not been elucidated to date. In this study we hypothesized that different cortical functional connectivity over bilateral fronto-temporal regions can be observed by means of multi-channel fNIRS in the LFT and the CFT respectively. Our results from fNIRS (ETG-4000) showed different patterns of brain functional connectivity consistent with these different cognitive requirements. We demonstrate more brain functional connectivity over frontal and temporal regions during LFT than CFT, and this was in line with previous brain activity studies using fNIRS demonstrating increased frontal and temporal region activation during LFT and CFT and more pronounced frontal activation by the LFT.

  5. Differences in the verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in alcoholics: Short-term vs. long-term abstainers.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Jabłkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Mokros, Łukasz; Koprowicz, Jacek; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in verbal fluency, working memory and executive functions in two subgroups of alcohol-dependent patients, those undergoing short-term abstinence (STA) and those undergoing long-term abstinence (LTA), and to compare the level of cognitive functions in patients after long-term abstinence with healthy subjects. The study group consisted of 106 alcohol-dependent patients (53 immediately after drinking at least 3 days and 53 after at least one-year abstinence). The control group comprised 53 subjects, whose age, sex and education levels matched those of the patients in the experimental group. The dependence intensity was assessed using SADD and MAST scales. The neuropsychological assessment was based on the FAS Test, Stroop Test and TMT A&B Test. The results obtained for alcohol-dependent patients revealed significant disturbances of cognitive functions. Such results indicate the presence of severe frontal cerebral cortex dysfunctions. Frontal cortex dysfunctions affecting the verbal fluency and working memory subsystems and the executive functions also persisted during long-term abstinence periods. No significant correlations between the duration of dependence, quantity of alcohol consumed and efficiency of the working memory and executive functions were observed in alcohol-dependent subjects after short-term or long-term abstinence.

  6. Analysis of neural mechanisms underlying verbal fluency in cytoarchitectonically defined stereotaxic space--the roles of Brodmann areas 44 and 45.

    PubMed

    Amunts, Katrin; Weiss, Peter H; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Pieperhoff, Peter; Eickhoff, Simon; Gurd, Jennifer M; Marshall, John C; Shah, Nadim J; Fink, Gereon R; Zilles, Karl

    2004-05-01

    We investigated neural activations underlying a verbal fluency task and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of Broca's speech region (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45). To do so, we reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) [Brain 125 (2002) 1024] and from a cytoarchitectonic study [J. Comp. Neurol. 412 (1999) 319] and developed a method to combine both data sets. In the fMRI experiment, verbal fluency was investigated in 11 healthy volunteers, who covertly produced words from predefined categories. A factorial design was used with factors verbal class (semantic vs. overlearned fluency) and switching between categories (no vs. yes). fMRI data analysis employed SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping). Cytoarchitectonic maps of areas 44 and 45 were derived from histologic sections of 10 postmortem brains. Both the in vivo fMRI and postmortem MR data were warped to a common reference brain using a new elastic warping tool. Cytoarchitectonic probability maps with stereotaxic information about intersubject variability were calculated for both areas and superimposed on the functional data, which showed the involvement of left hemisphere areas with verbal fluency relative to the baseline. Semantic relative to overlearned fluency showed greater involvement of left area 45 than of 44. Thus, although both areas participate in verbal fluency, they do so differentially. Left area 45 is more involved in semantic aspects of language processing, while area 44 is probably involved in high-level aspects of programming speech production per se. The combination of functional data analysis with a new elastic warping tool and cytoarchitectonic maps opens new perspectives for analyzing the cortical networks involved in language.

  7. Semantic cueing improves category verbal fluency in persons living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Iudicello, Jennifer E; Kellogg, Emily J; Weber, Erica; Smith, Christine; Grant, Igor; Drane, Daniel L; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain highly prevalent in the era of combination antiretroviral therapies, but there are no validated psychological interventions aimed at improving cognitive outcomes. This study sought to determine the potential benefit of semantic cueing on category fluency deficits, which are prevalent in HIV and affect daily functioning. A group of 86 HIV-infected individuals and 87 demographically-matched seronegative participants were administered a standard (i.e., uncued) and a cued category fluency task. Results revealed significant improvements in cued versus uncued performance in HIV, particularly for persons with lower levels of education. The cueing benefit observed may inform rehabilitation efforts aimed at ameliorating HAND.

  8. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  9. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  10. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS-II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS.

  11. Qualitative aspects of verbal fluency in HIV-associated dementia: a deficit in rule-guided lexical-semantic search processes?

    PubMed

    Woods, Steven Paul; Conover, Emily; Rippeth, Julie D; Carey, Catherine L; Gonzalez, Raul; Marcotte, Thomas D; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2004-01-01

    HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is widely considered a "subcortical" dementia that involves a disruption of frontal-basal ganglia circuits. Deficits in verbal fluency are common in HAD; however, the cognitive underpinnings of these deficits are not well understood. To elucidate the cognitive mechanisms underlying the diminished verbal fluency output in HAD, we examined several qualitative aspects of letter fluency in 21 individuals with HAD, 51 nondemented persons with HIV infection (HIV+), and 30 healthy controls (HC) who were comparable for age, education, sex, ethnicity, and estimated premorbid verbal intelligence. The verbal fluency protocols were scored to obtain the total number of correct words, average phonemic cluster size, total number of switches between phonemic clusters, and the proportion of error responses (i.e., intrusions, perseverations, and variants). Consistent with prior research, HAD participants produced significantly fewer total correct words relative to the HC and nondemented HIV+ groups. The HAD group also demonstrated fewer switches and a higher proportion of response errors (especially intrusion errors), but no differences were observed in average cluster size. Findings are interpreted as reflecting a disruption of rule-guided lexical-semantic search strategies in HAD, perhaps mediated by prefrontal-striatal circuit dysfunction, rather than depleted lexical-semantic memory stores.

  12. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  13. [Verbal fluency tasks in a Spanish sample of young adults (20-49 years of age): normative data of clustering and switching strategies].

    PubMed

    Villodre, R; Sánchez-Alfonso, A; Brines, L; Núñez, A B; Chirivella, J; Ferri, J; Noé, E

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish normative data on phonological and semantic verbal fluency tests, measuring total production of words, clusters and switching of words in a healthy young adult Spanish population. We assessed 53 healthy adults between 20-49 years old (32.8 +/- 9.5) with 8-18 years of formal education (9 +/- 3.3 years). The semantic fluency category included: animals, fruits, clothes and the initial letters F, A, S in 1 minute of time. Clustering and switching strategies were examined and scored according to a protocol elaborated ad hoc by the authors. Pearson correlations between number of "clusters", "switching" and total number of words was used and we evaluated the possible influence of age, years of schooling and gender in each one of the categories in 1 minute and in intervals of 15 seconds. The variable years of formal education was the only demographical factor that significantly influenced semantic verbal fluency (r = 0.43; p = 0.04). Switching and clustering were positively correlated with the number of words generated. Clustering was highly correlated with total number of words generated on semantic fluency (r = 0.846; p < 0.01). In contrast, switching was more highly correlated than clustering with total number of words generated on phonemic fluency (r = 0.864; p < 0.01). Rules for scoring switching and clustering in our population are provided. Optimal fluency performance requires some type of balance between clustering and switching strategies and should be taken into account in studies regarding verbal fluency.

  14. A Case Study Using SAFMEDS to Promote Fluency with Skinner's Verbal Behavior Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Fawna; Eshlelman, John

    2010-01-01

    Using a deck of 60 Say All Fast a Minute Every Day Shuffled (SAFMEDS) cards, a learner established a fluent verbal repertoire related to the key terms of Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. This learner was required to see the phrase printed on the front of the card and to say the term printed on the back. Regular timings were recorded…

  15. Developmental changes in frontal lobe function during a verbal fluency task: a multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Tando, Tomoko; Kaga, Yoshimi; Ishii, Sayaka; Aoyagi, Kakuro; Sano, Fumikazu; Kanemura, Hideaki; Sugita, Kanji; Aihara, Masao

    2014-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is commonly used to investigate continuous changes of brain activation and has excellent time resolution. Verbal fluency task (VFT) is widely used as a neuropsychological test of frontal lobe function. The aim of this study was to investigate normal developmental change in frontal lobe function during VFT performance using multi-channel NIRS, specifically focusing on oxygenation hemoglobin (oxyHb) changes. The subjects were 9 adults and 37 childrens who were all healthy right-handed volunteers. Children were divided into four age groups (group A, 6-8 years; group B, 9-11 years; group C, 12-14 years; group D, 15-18 years). The [oxyHb] changes were measured with 22 channels of NIRS during VFT. We defined the frontopolar region as the region of interest for analysis, and calculated the Z-score to compare the data between groups. The task performance changed with age. There were significant differences between group A and other groups. The Z-score of [oxyHb] also significantly increased with age, when comparing adults to groups A and B. The task performances decreased with time in all groups. In contrast, [oxyHb] only continued to increase in the adult group. The verbal retrieval functions begin to mature in early adolescence and continue to grow up to adulthood. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Semantic structure in schizophrenia as assessed by the category fluency test: effect of verbal intelligence and age of onset.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, C; Matsui, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamashita, I; Sumiyoshi, S; Kurachi, M

    2001-12-31

    It has been reported that long-term memory function, including the semantic structure of category, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The present study was performed to determine: (1) whether the deficit in semantic structure in schizophrenia is independent of cultural backgrounds, and (2) the effect of age of onset and verbal intelligence on the degradation of semantic structure in these patients. Fifty-seven Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 33 normal control subjects entered the study. The semantic structure was derived by Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis based on data from the ANIMAL category fluency test. The semantic structure was compared between: (1) schizophrenic patients as a whole vs. normal control subjects; (2) earlier onset (age of onset <20 years) vs. later-onset groups of patients; and (3) high Vocabulary score (score of the Vocabulary subtest from the WAIS-R>7) vs. low Vocabulary score patient groups. Normal control subjects demonstrated the domestic/size dimension in semantic structure, while no such dimension was obtained in patients with schizophrenia. The subgroup comparisons revealed that the later onset or the high Vocabulary score group maintained a relatively intact semantic structure compared with the earlier onset or the low Vocabulary score group, respectively. These findings suggest that the deficit in semantic structure in patients with schizophrenia is commonly observed irrespective of cultural backgrounds, and that age of onset and the level of verbal intelligence are closely related to severity of degradation of the semantic structure in schizophrenia.

  17. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  18. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  19. Computerized Analysis of Verbal Fluency: Normative Data and the Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    In verbal fluency (VF) tests, subjects articulate words in a specified category during a short test period (typically 60 s). Verbal fluency tests are widely used to study language development and to evaluate memory retrieval in neuropsychiatric disorders. Performance is usually measured as the total number of correct words retrieved. Here, we describe the properties of a computerized VF (C-VF) test that tallies correct words and repetitions while providing additional lexical measures of word frequency, syllable count, and typicality. In addition, the C-VF permits (1) the analysis of the rate of responding over time, and (2) the analysis of the semantic relationships between words using a new method, Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA), as well as the established semantic clustering and switching measures developed by Troyer et al. (1997). In Experiment 1, we gathered normative data from 180 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 82 years in semantic (“animals”) and phonemic (letter “F”) conditions. The number of words retrieved in 90 s correlated with education and daily hours of computer-use. The rate of word production declined sharply over time during both tests. In semantic conditions, correct-word scores correlated strongly with the number of ESA and Troyer-defined semantic switches as well as with an ESA-defined semantic organization index (SOI). In phonemic conditions, ESA revealed significant semantic influences in the sequence of words retrieved. In Experiment 2, we examined the test-retest reliability of different measures across three weekly tests in 40 young subjects. Different categories were used for each semantic (“animals”, “parts of the body”, and “foods”) and phonemic (letters “F”, “A”, and “S”) condition. After regressing out the influences of education and computer-use, we found that correct-word z-scores in the first session did not differ from those of the subjects in Experiment 1. Word production was uniformly greater

  20. Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Brain Function during Verbal Fluency Testing in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Po-Han; Lin, Wei-Hao; Lin, Chih-Chien; Hou, Po-Hsun; Li, Wan-Rung; Hung, Chia-Chun; Lin, Ching-Po; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chan, Chin-Hong

    2015-12-10

    A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia (SZ); however, it remains unclear whether this is due to neurotoxic effects of psychosis. The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain function using two verbal fluency tests (VFTs) in patients with first-episode SZ (FES). A total of 28 FES patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) underwent NIRS during VFTs. Group comparisons of cortical activity were made using two-tailed t-tests and the false discovery rate method. We then examined the associations between DUP and hemodynamic changes in each channel to identify any effects of DUP on brain cortical activity. During the letter VFT, the HC group exhibited significantly greater cortical activations over bilateral frontotemporal regions compared to FES patients. However, this distinction was not observed while performing a category version of the VFT. In addition, no associations between DUP and brain cortical activity were observed in the FES group during either VFT. In conclusion, we did not find an association between DUP and frontotemporal cortical activities. This might be because neurodevelopmental disturbances result in neurocognitive deficits long before psychotic symptoms onset.

  1. Hypoactivation of the prefrontal cortex during verbal fluency test in PTSD: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Taneichi, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Akio; Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Yamasue, Hidenori; Sakano, Yuji; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Sadamatsu, Miyuki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Iwanami, Akira; Asukai, Nozomi; Kato, Nobumasa; Kato, Tadafumi

    2003-09-30

    Several studies have suggested that there is frontal dysfunction in subjects with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We investigated the relationship between alterations of the hemodynamic response of the prefrontal cortex during a cognitive task (verbal fluency task; VFT) and memory function measured using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). The subjects were victims of the Tokyo Subway Sarin attack with (n = 8) or without (n = 26) PTSD. Hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex was measured using a 24-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system. Subjects with PTSD had a significantly smaller response of oxygenated hemoglobin and total hemoglobin during the VFT compared with those without PTSD, although there was no significant difference in performance on the VFT. Subjects with PTSD had significantly lower scores on attention and concentration in the WMS-R, which was positively correlated with the increase of total hemoglobin during the VFT. The 'frontal dysfunction' observed in subjects with PTSD may be a secondary phenomenon to reduced attentional capacity.

  2. Differences in the Pulsatile Component of the Skin Hemodynamic Response to Verbal Fluency Tasks in the Forehead and the Fingertip

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have claimed that hemodynamic signals measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the forehead exhibit different patterns during a verbal fluency task (VFT) in various psychiatric disorders, whereas many studies have noted that NIRS signals can reflect task-related changes in skin blood flow. If such a task-related skin hemodynamic response is also observed in the fingertip, a simpler biomarker may be developed. Furthermore, determining the difference in the response pattern may provide physiological insights into the condition. We found that the magnitude of the pulsatile component in skin hemodynamic signals increased on the forehead (p < 0.001 for N = 50, p = 0.073 for N = 8) but decreased on the fingertip (p < 0.001, N = 8) during the VFT, whereas the rate in both areas increased (p < 0.02, N = 8). We also did not find a repetition effect in both the rate and the magnitude on the fingertip, whereas the effect was present in the magnitude (p < 0.02, N = 8) but not in the rate on the forehead. These results suggest that the skin vasomotor system in the forehead could have a different vessel mechanism to psychological tasks compared to the fingertip. PMID:26905432

  3. Spatial distributions of hemoglobin signals from superficial layers in the forehead during a verbal-fluency task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Satoru; Hoshi, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals originate in hemoglobin changes in both the superficial layer of the head and the brain. Under the assumption that the changes in the blood flow in the scalp are spatially homogeneous in the region of interest, a variety of methods for reducing the superficial signals has been proposed. To clarify the spatial distributions of the superficial signals, the superficial signals from the forehead during a verbal-fluency task were investigated by using ten source-detector pairs separated by 5 mm, whereas fNIRS signals were also detected from two source-detector pairs separated by 30 mm. The fNIRS signals strongly correlated with the superficial signals at some channels on the forehead. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the temporal cross-correlation coefficients for two channels of both the NIRS signals, and the analysis results demonstrate spatially heterogeneous distributions and network structures of the superficial signals from within the forehead. The results also show that the assumption stated above is invalid for homogeneous superficial signals from any region of interest of 15-mm diameter or larger on the forehead. They also suggest that the spatially heterogeneous distributions may be attributable to vascular networks, including supraorbital, supratrochlear, and superficial temporal vessels.

  4. A pilot study of verbal fluency in the Zulu speaking population with preliminary application to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sperinck, T L; de Picciotto, J

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the semantic verbal fluency (VF) abilities of non-neurologically impaired (NNI) Zulu speaking subjects in order to obtain normative data for this population. The data were analysed in terms of the total number of words generated in one minute, the number of words generated over four fifteen-second time periods and the strategies employed. Where possible, these results were compared to performance of South African English speaking NNI subjects. The responses of three traumatically brain injured (TBI) Zulu speaking subjects on VF tasks were obtained and compared to the NNI subjects. The NNI subjects performed significantly poorer than the current norms and poorer than the South African English speaking population. The TBI subjects generated fewer words than the NNI subjects. The strategies used by the TBI subjects were similar in type but were less efficiently used than the Zulu speaking NNI subjects. The results of this study are particularly relevant to the clinical role of speech pathologists in the multicultural and multilingual population of South Africa.

  5. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy reveals altered hemispheric laterality in relation to schizotypy during verbal fluency task.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Ozeki, Yuji; Terada, Sumio; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-12-12

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and those with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) show reduced laterality, or relative right hemispheric dominance, during the performance of cognitive activation tasks; however, neuroimaging studies looking at non-clinical schizotypy have been few. We have recently reported that schizotypal traits at a non-clinical level are associated with right prefrontal dominance during a letter version of the verbal fluency task (VFT), but it is unknown whether such relationship between schizotypy and functional laterality would be observed across various cognitive tasks. Here we examined the relationships of schizotypal traits as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in healthy adults with hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal activation during letter and category VFTs, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirty-two participants were divided into high- (n=16) and low- (n=16) SPQ groups by the median split of the total SPQ score. The high-SPQ group, but not low-SPQ group, showed significantly right-greater-than-left asymmetry of prefrontal activation during letter VFT, whereas such pronounced hemispheric asymmetry in relation to schizotypy was not found during category VFT. These results indicate that non-clinical schizotypy is related to right prefrontal preference during the letter version of VFT in particular, suggesting that the association between schizotypal traits and functional laterality may vary depending on cognitive activation tasks.

  6. [Semantic verbal fluency of animals in amnesia-type mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Higes, Ramón; Prados, José M; del Rio, David; Galindo-Fuentes, Marta; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Lozano-Ibanez, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Introduccion y objetivo. El analisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la tarea de fluidez verbal semantica ha permitido observar que las personas con demencia producen menos palabras y en grupos mas pequeños que las personas sin demencia. Sin embargo, en personas con deterioro cognitivo leve de tipo amnesico (DCLa) la investigacion ha mostrado resultados contradictorios respecto a la cantidad y el numero de los agrupamientos semanticos que se realizan. El objetivo de este estudio consistio en aportar nuevos datos para intentar solventar dicha controversia. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron en el estudio 22 personas mayores con diagnostico de DCLa (8 varones y 14 mujeres) y 43 adultos mayores (7 varones y 36 mujeres) con funcionamiento cognitivo normal que sirvieron de grupo control. Todos fueron evaluados en el Centro de Prevencion del Deterioro Cognitivo del Ayuntamiento de Madrid, tras completar la prueba de fluidez verbal de animales ademas de otras pruebas neuropsicologicas. Resultados. Como se esperaba, la produccion de animales fue menor en el grupo DCLa que en el grupo control, pero no se observaron diferencias ni en el tamaño medio de las agrupaciones semanticas ni en el numero de cambios entre dichas agrupaciones. Conclusiones. Los resultados son coherentes con investigaciones previas que sugieren que en el DCLa no solo concurren deficits en la memoria episodica y la memoria operativa, sino tambien en la memoria semantica. Sin embargo, los datos no aclaran el papel de los procesos ejecutivos estrategicos, como parece suceder en la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

  7. Towards a ternary NIRS-BCI: single-trial classification of verbal fluency task, Stroop task and unconstrained rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schudlo, Larissa C.; Chau, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The majority of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have investigated binary classification problems. Limited work has considered differentiation of more than two mental states, or multi-class differentiation of higher-level cognitive tasks using measurements outside of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Improvements in accuracies are needed to deliver effective communication with a multi-class NIRS system. We investigated the feasibility of a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports mental states corresponding to verbal fluency task (VFT) performance, Stroop task performance, and unconstrained rest using prefrontal and parietal measurements. Approach. Prefrontal and parietal NIRS signals were acquired from 11 able-bodied adults during rest and performance of the VFT or Stroop task. Classification was performed offline using bagging with a linear discriminant base classifier trained on a 10 dimensional feature set. Main results. VFT, Stroop task and rest were classified at an average accuracy of 71.7% ± 7.9%. The ternary classification system provided a statistically significant improvement in information transfer rate relative to a binary system controlled by either mental task (0.87 ± 0.35 bits/min versus 0.73 ± 0.24 bits/min). Significance. These results suggest that effective communication can be achieved with a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports VFT, Stroop task and rest via measurements from the frontal and parietal cortices. Further development of such a system is warranted. Accurate ternary classification can enhance communication rates offered by NIRS-BCIs, improving the practicality of this technology.

  8. Towards a ternary NIRS-BCI: single-trial classification of verbal fluency task, Stroop task and unconstrained rest.

    PubMed

    C Schudlo, Larissa; Chau, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The majority of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have investigated binary classification problems. Limited work has considered differentiation of more than two mental states, or multi-class differentiation of higher-level cognitive tasks using measurements outside of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Improvements in accuracies are needed to deliver effective communication with a multi-class NIRS system. We investigated the feasibility of a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports mental states corresponding to verbal fluency task (VFT) performance, Stroop task performance, and unconstrained rest using prefrontal and parietal measurements. Prefrontal and parietal NIRS signals were acquired from 11 able-bodied adults during rest and performance of the VFT or Stroop task. Classification was performed offline using bagging with a linear discriminant base classifier trained on a 10 dimensional feature set. VFT, Stroop task and rest were classified at an average accuracy of 71.7% ± 7.9%. The ternary classification system provided a statistically significant improvement in information transfer rate relative to a binary system controlled by either mental task (0.87 ± 0.35 bits/min versus 0.73 ± 0.24 bits/min). These results suggest that effective communication can be achieved with a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports VFT, Stroop task and rest via measurements from the frontal and parietal cortices. Further development of such a system is warranted. Accurate ternary classification can enhance communication rates offered by NIRS-BCIs, improving the practicality of this technology.

  9. Performance Lapses in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contribute to Poor Reading Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate increased response variability compared with controls, which is thought to be associated with deficits in attention regulation and response control that subsequently affect performance of more cognitively demanding tasks, such as reading. The present study examined response variability during a computerized simple reaction time (RT) task in 67 children. Ex-Gaussian analyses separated the response time distribution into normal (mu and sigma) and exponential (tau) components; the association of each with reading fluency was examined. Children with ADHD had significantly slower, more variable, and more skewed RTs compared with controls. After controlling for ADHD symptom severity, tau (but not mu or mean RT) was significantly associated with reduced reading fluency, but not with single word reading accuracy. These data support the growing evidence that RT variability, but not simply slower mean response speed, is the characteristic of youth with ADHD and that longer response time latencies (tau) may be implicated in the poorer academic performance associated with ADHD. PMID:23838684

  10. Influence of skin blood flow on near-infrared spectroscopy signals measured on the forehead during a verbal fluency task.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko; Shibuya, Satoshi; Iwano, Takayuki; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2011-08-01

    Brain activity during a verbal fluency task (VFT) has been the target of many functional imaging studies. Most studies using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have reported major activation in the frontal pole, but those using PET or fMRI have not. This led us to hypothesize that changes in the NIRS signals measured in the forehead during VFT were due to changes in skin blood flow. To test this hypothesis, we measured NIRS signals and the Doppler tissue blood flow signals in the foreheads of 50 participants. The measurements were performed while each participant produced words during two 60-s periods with an interval of 100 s. In addition to a conventional optode separation distance of 30 mm (FAR channels), we used a short distance--5mm (NEAR channels)--to measure NIRS signals that originated exclusively from surface tissues. The oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) concentration in the FAR and NEAR channels, as well as the Doppler blood flow signal, increased in a similar manner during the two periods of word production; the signal increase in the first period was twice as high as that in the second period. Accordingly, the mean changes in oxyHb concentration in the FAR channels were correlated closely with the changes in the NEAR channels (R(2) = 0.91) and with the integrated Doppler skin blood flow signal (R(2) = 0.94). Furthermore, task-related NIRS responses disappeared when we blocked skin blood flows by pressing a small area that covered a pair of optodes. Additionally, changes in the FAR channel signals were correlated closely with the magnitude of pulsatile waves in the Doppler signal (R(2) = 0.92), but these signals were not highly correlated with the pulse rate (R(2) = 0.43). These results suggest that a major part of the task-related changes in the oxyHb concentration in the forehead is due to task-related changes in the skin blood flow, which is under different autonomic control than heart rate.

  11. Different roles of cytoarchitectonic BA 44 and BA 45 in phonological and semantic verbal fluency as revealed by dynamic causal modelling.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin

    2009-11-15

    The interactions of left cytoarchitectonic BA 44 and BA 45 during semantic and phonological verbal fluency tasks were investigated using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). Three different models were tested, all of which featured BA 44 and BA 45 as top-down driven interconnected nodes projecting to the motor cortex as the final output region. Model #1 represents the hypothesis that BA 45 is involved in lexical retrieval including both semantic and phonological processes, while BA 44 supports other phonological processes. Model #2 reflects the notion of a clear-cut segregation of computational processes sustained by BA 44 (phonological processing) and BA 45 (semantic processing). Model #3 was based on the hypothesis that both BA 44 and BA 45 support semantic and phonological processing. When these models were compared against each other by Bayesian model selection, evidence emerged in favour of the first model, implying that BA 45 supports word retrieval processes whereas BA 44 is involved in processing phonological information during word generation. In a subsequent analysis of the derived model parameters for model #1, all connection strengths were significantly positive except for the inhibitory coupling between BA 44 and BA 45. This inhibition may reflect how the phonological analysis in BA 44 during word generation constrains lexical word retrieval in BA 45. To conclude, DCM provided additional insights into the roles of BA 44 and BA 45 during verbal fluency revealing the involvement of BA 45 in lexical retrieval and the relevance of BA 44 for phonological processing during word generation.

  12. Preservation of the Semantic Verbal Fluency Advantage in a Large Population-Based Sample: Normative Data from the TILDA Study.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roisin M; Coen, Robert F; Kenny, RoseAnne; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that phonemic fluency is more difficult than naming exemplars from a semantic category. Normative data in this regard are scarce, and there is considerable disagreement in the literature regarding the pattern in normal ageing and neurodegenerative conditions. Our objective was to provide normative data for semantic phonemic discrepancy scores from a large sample of older adults. A total of 5780 community-dwelling older adults were included in this prospective, longitudinal study. Discrepancy scores were calculated by subtracting phonemic fluency score from semantic fluency score for each participant. Quantile regression was used to estimate normative values stratified for age. Subjects did better on testing of semantic fluency. The average discrepancy score was 9.18±6.89 words, (range, -20 to 37; n=5780). At the fiftieth percentile, those in their fifth decade produced 10 more "animals" than "letter F" words. Subjects scored one word less per decade, with an average of seven more "animal" words produced by those in their eighth decade. Our study is the first to provide normative data and confirms that, for animal versus letter F fluency, the semantic advantage persists into later life in a population-based sample of community-dwelling older adults. Given that a majority of clinical samples have confirmed a reverse of this pattern in Alzheimer's dementia (i.e., loss of semantic advantage in Alzheimer's disease, yielding a phonemic advantage), our findings support the clinical utility of brief fluency tests and encourage further research into their use in diagnosis and prediction of progression to dementia.

  13. The Differential Contributions of Auditory-Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory on Decoding Skills in Children Who Are Poor Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differential contribution of auditory-verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) on decoding skills in second- and fifth-grade children identified with poor decoding. Thirty-two second-grade students and 22 fifth-grade students completed measures that assessed simple and complex auditory-verbal and visuospatial memory,…

  14. Cognitive component of psychomotor retardation in unipolar and bipolar depression: Is verbal fluency a relevant marker? Impact of repetitive transcranial stimulation.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Ollivier, Véronique; Foyer, Emmanuelle; Bulteau, Samuel; Pichot, Anne; Valriviere, Pierre; Sauvaget, Anne; Deschamps, Thibault

    2017-09-01

    In the literature, psychomotor retardation (PMR) is increasingly highlighted as a relevant marker for depression. Currently, we chose to focus on the fluency capacities as an evaluation of the frontal lobes functioning to reach a better understanding of cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms involved in PMR in depression. The aims of this study were: (i) to explore the cognitive component of PMR through the analysis of verbal fluency (VF) performance in unipolar and bipolar depression; and (ii) to examine whether a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment could improve concomitantly the PMR and VF capacities, as a relevant marker characteristic of the cognitive component of PMR. Fifteen unipolar and 15 bipolar patients were compared to 15 healthy adults. Before treatment, the results showed VF deficits, particularly marked in the bipolar group. The investigation of the interplay between PMR, VF performance, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores showed that the deficits in these various dimensions were not homogeneous. The absence of correlation between the psychomotor retardation scale (the French Retardation Rating Scale for Depression) and VF, and the correlation with MoCA raise the hypothesis of a more global cognitive impairment associated with PMR in the BD group. The repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment had a positive impact on depression, PMR, and fluency scores. Correlations between the Retardation Rating Scale for Depression and VF performances appeared after treatment, showing the cognitive role of psychomotor functioning in depression. Further analyses, including other cognitive measures in an objective evaluation of PMR, are required for a better understanding of these complex relationships. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1981-01-01

    This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving.…

  16. Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1981-01-01

    This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving.…

  17. Combined DTI-fMRI Analysis for a Quantitative Assessment of Connections Between WM Bundles and Their Peripheral Cortical Fields in Verbal Fluency.

    PubMed

    Scaccianoce, Elisa; Laganà, Maria Marcella; Baglio, Francesca; Preti, Maria Giulia; Bergsland, Niels; Cecconi, Pietro; Clerici, Mario; Baselli, Giuseppe; Papadimitriou, George; Makris, Nikos

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are powerful techniques to elucidate the anatomical and functional aspects of brain connectivity. However, integrating these approaches to describe the precise link between structure and function within specific brain circuits remains challenging. In this study, a novel DTI-fMRI integration method is proposed, to provide the topographical characterization and the volumetric assessment of the functional and anatomical connections within the language circuit. In a group of 21 healthy elderly subjects (mean age 68.5 ± 5.8 years), the volume of connection between the cortical activity elicited by a verbal fluency task and the cortico-cortical fiber tracts associated with this function are mapped and quantified. An application of the method to a case study in neuro-rehabilitation context is also presented. Integrating structural and functional data within the same framework, this approach provides an overall view of white and gray matter when studying specific brain circuits.

  18. The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: an fMRI study during verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin; Paulesu, Eraldo; Brambati, Simona; Scifo, Paola; Cappa, Stefano F; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2003-07-01

    We assessed the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on the cerebral correlates of lexical retrieval in high-proficient, early-acquisition bilinguals. Functional MRI was used to study Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired either Spanish or Catalan as a first language in the first years of life. Subjects were exposed to the second language at 3 years of age, and have used both languages in daily life since then. Subjects had a comparable level of proficiency in the comprehension of both languages. Lexical retrieval with the verbal fluency task resulted in the well-established pattern of left hemispheric activation centered on the inferior frontal region. The effect of age of acquisition was assessed by dividing the subjects into two groups, on the basis of the language acquired first (Catalan-born or Spanish-born bilinguals). Functional comparisons indicated that less extensive brain activation was associated with lexical retrieval in the language acquired earlier in life. The two groups were also different in language usage/exposure, as assessed with a specific questionnaire; in particular, the exposure to the second language (Spanish) was less intensive in the case of Catalans. This was reflected in a significant interaction, indicating a more extensive activation in Catalans during production in Spanish. Overall, these results indicate that, during a production task, both age of acquisition and language exposure affect the pattern of brain activation in bilinguals, even if both languages are acquired early and with a comparable level of proficiency.

  19. Functional MRI, resting state fMRI, and DTI for predicting verbal fluency outcome following resective surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Osipowicz, Karol; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini D; Tracy, Joseph I

    2016-04-01

    Predicting cognitive function following resective surgery remains an important clinical goal. Each MRI neuroimaging technique can potentially provide unique and distinct insight into changes that occur in the structural or functional organization of "at-risk" cognitive functions. The authors tested for the singular and combined power of 3 imaging techniques (functional MRI [fMRI], resting state fMRI, diffusion tensor imaging) to predict cognitive outcome following left (dominant) anterior temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy. METHODS; The authors calculated the degree of deviation from normal, determined the rate of change in this measure across the pre- and postsurgical imaging sessions, and then compared these measures for their ability to predict verbal fluency changes following surgery. The data show that the 3 neuroimaging techniques, in a combined model, can reliably predict cognitive outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy for medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. These findings suggest that these 3 imaging modalities can be used effectively, in an additive fashion, to predict functional reorganization and cognitive outcome following anterior temporal lobectomy.

  20. Structural Invariance in the Associations of Naming Speed, Phonological Awareness, and Verbal Reasoning in Good and Poor Readers: A Test of the Double Deficit Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Manis, Franklin R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines associations of multiple measures of naming speed, phonological awareness, and verbal intelligence with word reading in poor readers and good readers. Reveals that for poor readers naming speed and phonological awareness were associated with word reading, but not verbal intelligence--for good readers, phonological awareness and verbal…

  1. Fluency Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the…

  2. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less

    PubMed Central

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children’s language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less. PMID:24634566

  3. Combined Effects of Aging and HIV Infection on Semantic Verbal Fluency: A View of the Cortical Hypothesis Through the Lens of Clustering and Switching

    PubMed Central

    Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Woods, Steven Paul; Deutsch, Reena; Grant, Igor

    2012-01-01

    The profile of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) has classically been characterized as “subcortical”, but questions have arisen as to whether aging with HIV in the antiretroviral therapy era has subtlety shifted the expression of HAND into a more “cortical” disorder (e.g., decay of semantic memory stores). We evaluated this hypothesis by examining semantic fluency and its component processes (i.e., clustering and switching) in 257 individuals across four groups stratified by age (<40 and ≥ 50 years) and HIV serostatus. Jonckheere-Terpstra tests revealed significant monotonic trends for the combined effects of HIV and aging on overall semantic (and letter) fluency and switching, but not cluster size, with greatest deficits evident in the older adults with HIV infection. Within the older HIV-infected cohort, poorer switching was uniquely associated with self-reported declines in instrumental activities of daily living and deficits in learning and executive functions, but not semantic memory. Results suggest that HIV infection and aging may confer adverse additive effects on the executive components of semantic fluency (i.e., switching), rather than a degradation of semantic memory stores (i.e., cluster size), which is a profile that is most consistent with combined frontostriatal neuropathological burden of these two conditions. PMID:22292479

  4. Analysis of Speech Fluency in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been…

  5. Analysis of Speech Fluency in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been…

  6. A Comparison of the Intellectual Abilities of Good and Poor Problem Solvers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    This study examined a selected sample of fourth-grade students who had been previously identified as good or poor problem solvers. The pupils were compared on variables considered as "reference tests" for Verbal, Induction, Numerical, Word Fluency, Memory, Spatial Visualization, and Perceptual Speed abilities. The data were compiled to…

  7. A Comparison of the Intellectual Abilities of Good and Poor Problem Solvers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    This study examined a selected sample of fourth-grade students who had been previously identified as good or poor problem solvers. The pupils were compared on variables considered as "reference tests" for Verbal, Induction, Numerical, Word Fluency, Memory, Spatial Visualization, and Perceptual Speed abilities. The data were compiled to…

  8. Category Size Effects in Semantic and Letter Fluency in Alzheimer's Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Michael; Sailor, Kevin; Cheung, Doris; Kuslansky, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) perform significantly worse than normal controls on verbal fluency tasks. Moreover, some studies have found that AD patients' deficits compared to controls are more severe for semantic fluency (e.g., vegetables) than for letter fluency (e.g. words that begin with F). These…

  9. Regression equations for predicting scores of persons over 65 on the rey auditory verbal learning test, the mini-mental state examination, the trail making test and semantic fluency measures.

    PubMed

    Knight, Robert G; McMahon, Jennifer; Green, Timothy J; Skeaff, C Murray

    2006-09-01

    Scores on neuropsychological tests are often used to detect abnormal changes in cognition in older persons. Accordingly, it is important to have normative data that allow the abnormality of a test score to be determined precisely and accurately. Regression equations that estimate an expected score based on demographic or premorbid factors can be an efficient method of making normative comparisons. Our aim was to compute regression equations with age, gender and estimated premorbid IQ as predictors of scores on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), the Trail Making Test (TMT), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and measures of semantic fluency. All measures were administered to a group of 272 healthy older persons aged between 65 and 90 during the pre-treatment phase of a study evaluating the effect of nutritional supplements on cognition. Premorbid IQ was estimated using the National Ault Reading Test (NART). Stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to determine the weights to be applied to the predictor variables. Age and premorbid IQ were found to be significantly correlated with all test variables; gender correlated significantly with most scores. Regression equations based on the 3 predictor variables explained between 10% and 30% of the variance of the range of test scores. The use of these equations in clinical practice was illustrated. The significant correlations between the predictor variables and test scores justified computing a set of equations for use in interpreting data from older persons. The abnormality of the difference between predicted and obtained scores provides a convenient index of an individual's current level of neuropsychological functioning.

  10. Strategy use on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Eunice; Vik, Peter; Dasher, Nickolas

    2013-01-01

    Although the popularity of including figural fluency tests in cognitive and neuropsychological test batteries has increased in recent years, the spontaneous use of strategies on these measures remains poorly understood. This study addressed three questions pertaining to strategy use on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT): (i) how common is strategy use, (ii) what information does strategy use convey, and (iii) can examinees learn to use strategies. Findings revealed that nearly seven out of 10 healthy college students used a strategy at least once while taking the RFFT. The number of strategies used and the number of figures produced using a strategy had modest correlations with select executive function measures (D-KEFS Tower Test, Sorting, and Letter & Category Verbal Fluency) in hypothesized directions. When strategies were demonstrated for subjects who did not spontaneously use them, those subjects were able to subsequently use strategies. These findings suggest that although common, failure to spontaneously use a strategy is not unusual. Further, strategy use may reflect a cognitive asset, particularly regarding planning, reasoning, and cognitive flexibility.

  11. Linguistic and Cultural Factors Associated with Phonemic Fluency Performance in Bilingual Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are used extensively in clinical settings because of their sensitivity to a wide variety of disorders, including cognitive decline and dementia, and their usefulness in differential diagnoses. However, the effects of bilingualism on neuropsychological assessment, and verbal fluency in particular, are currently not completely…

  12. Semantic Fluency in Aphasia: Clustering and Switching in the Course of 1 Minute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bose, Arpita; Wood, Rosalind; Kiran, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Verbal fluency tasks are included in a broad range of aphasia assessments. It is well documented that people with aphasia (PWA) produce fewer items in these tasks. Successful performance on verbal fluency relies on the integrity of both linguistic and executive control abilities. It remains unclear if limited output in aphasia is…

  13. General Intelligence, Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in Korean Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja

    1994-01-01

    Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)

  14. Genetic Architecture of Verbal Abilities in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of individual differences in general verbal ability, verbal learning and letter and category fluency were examined in two independent samples of 9- and 18-year-old twin pairs and their siblings. In both age groups, we observed strong familial resemblance for general verbal ability and moderate familial resemblance for verbal learning,…

  15. The Family Fluency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a larger study on developing children's reading fluency in the classroom, a program was introduced to help parents understand the importance of fluency and participate in fluency-related activities with children at home. The Family Fluency Program included activities similar to those that the children were doing in school, with some…

  16. The Family Fluency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a larger study on developing children's reading fluency in the classroom, a program was introduced to help parents understand the importance of fluency and participate in fluency-related activities with children at home. The Family Fluency Program included activities similar to those that the children were doing in school, with some…

  17. Spin exercise improves semantic fluency in previously sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Nocera, Joe R; McGregor, Keith M; Hass, Chris J; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest improvements of neurocognitive function among older adults who undergo aerobic exercise training. This study sought to examine the impact of an aerobic exercise intervention on verbal fluency in sedentary older adults. Twenty community-dwelling older adults were recruited and enrolled in either a spin exercise group or a control condition. Participants were evaluated with an estimated V02max test and on measures of letter, category, and switching verbal fluency both before and after a 12-week intervention period. Spin exercise resulted in a significant improvement in category (semantic) verbal fluency when compared with the control group (15% vs. 2% increase, respectively; P = .001). Spin exercise also resulted in a significant improvement in estimated V02max (P = .005). Also important, the spin exercise group demonstrated a high level of adherence (mean adherence = 82.5%). Spin exercise can be an effective mode of aerobic exercise to improve semantic fluency in previously sedentary older adults.

  18. Specialty Board on Fluency Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Your Search Read the Newsletter Who are Board Certified Specialists in Fluency? Board Certified Specialists in ... Board of Fluency and Fluency Disorders. How can Board Certified Specialists in Fluency help? Board Certified Specialists ...

  19. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  20. The differing roles of the frontal cortex in fluency tests

    PubMed Central

    Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Fluency tasks have been widely used to tap the voluntary generation of responses. The anatomical correlates of fluency tasks and their sensitivity and specificity have been hotly debated. However, investigation of the cognitive processes involved in voluntary generation of responses and whether generation is supported by a common, general process (e.g. fluid intelligence) or specific cognitive processes underpinned by particular frontal regions has rarely been addressed. This study investigates a range of verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks in patients with unselected focal frontal (n = 47) and posterior (n = 20) lesions. Patients and controls (n = 35) matched for education, age and sex were administered fluency tasks including word (phonemic/semantic), design, gesture and ideational fluency as well as background cognitive tests. Lesions were analysed by standard anterior/posterior and left/right frontal subdivisions as well as a finer-grained frontal localization method. Thus, patients with right and left lateral lesions were compared to patients with superior medial lesions. The results show that all eight fluency tasks are sensitive to frontal lobe damage although only the phonemic word and design fluency tasks were specific to the frontal region. Superior medial patients were the only group to be impaired on all eight fluency tasks, relative to controls, consistent with an energization deficit. The most marked fluency deficits for lateral patients were along material specific lines (i.e. left—phonemic and right—design). Phonemic word fluency that requires greater selection was most severely impaired following left inferior frontal damage. Overall, our results support the notion that frontal functions comprise a set of specialized cognitive processes, supported by distinct frontal regions. PMID:22669082

  1. The differing roles of the frontal cortex in fluency tests.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gail; Shallice, Tim; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-07-01

    Fluency tasks have been widely used to tap the voluntary generation of responses. The anatomical correlates of fluency tasks and their sensitivity and specificity have been hotly debated. However, investigation of the cognitive processes involved in voluntary generation of responses and whether generation is supported by a common, general process (e.g. fluid intelligence) or specific cognitive processes underpinned by particular frontal regions has rarely been addressed. This study investigates a range of verbal and non-verbal fluency tasks in patients with unselected focal frontal (n=47) and posterior (n=20) lesions. Patients and controls (n=35) matched for education, age and sex were administered fluency tasks including word (phonemic/semantic), design, gesture and ideational fluency as well as background cognitive tests. Lesions were analysed by standard anterior/posterior and left/right frontal subdivisions as well as a finer-grained frontal localization method. Thus, patients with right and left lateral lesions were compared to patients with superior medial lesions. The results show that all eight fluency tasks are sensitive to frontal lobe damage although only the phonemic word and design fluency tasks were specific to the frontal region. Superior medial patients were the only group to be impaired on all eight fluency tasks, relative to controls, consistent with an energization deficit. The most marked fluency deficits for lateral patients were along material specific lines (i.e. left-phonemic and right-design). Phonemic word fluency that requires greater selection was most severely impaired following left inferior frontal damage. Overall, our results support the notion that frontal functions comprise a set of specialized cognitive processes, supported by distinct frontal regions.

  2. Behavioral Fluency: A New Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    1993-01-01

    Discusses fluency-based instruction based on Skinner's research on response rate measures and Precision Teaching. Topics addressed include learning outcomes associated with fluency; fluency and overlearning; implications for instructional design; examples of fluency-based education and training; and strategies for marketing fluency-based…

  3. Distinct functional connectivity of the hippocampus during semantic and phonemic fluency.

    PubMed

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Oren, Noga; Hendler, Talma; Shapira-Lichter, Irit

    2015-03-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are typically used in neuropsychological practice for assessment of language function in a variety of neurological disorders. Recently, it has been shown that the hippocampus, a region thought to be exclusive to the domain of memory, is also involved in tests of semantic fluency. The present study further explores hippocampal contribution to verbal fluency using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and examining mean activity and inter-regional functional connectivity with known task-related brain regions. Given the clear lateralization of brain areas involved in language, lateralization of hippocampal involvement in semantic and phonemic word fluency was also investigated. Different hippocampal recruitment during semantic and phonemic fluency was found: greater change in activity was seen during semantic fluency, as compared with phonemic fluency. This pattern was obtained in the right and the left hippocampus, with no lateralization effects. Functional connectivity analyses corroborate the notion of selective contribution of the hippocampus to semantic fluency. During the semantic fluency task, connectivity levels between the hippocampi and components of the semantic network did not differ from connectivity levels within the semantic network. In contrast, during the phonemic fluency task, the hippocampi were less correlated with components of the phonemic network, as compared to the within phonemic network connectivity. Importantly, hippocampal connectivity with the semantic network was task-dependent and restricted to periods of semantic fluency performance. Altogether, results suggest that the right and the left hippocampus are integral components of the brain network that selectively supports verbal semantic fluency, but not phonemic fluency.

  4. Strategy Effects on Word Searching in Japanese Letter Fluency Tests: Evidence from the NIRS Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kanari, Ayano; Mase, Mitsuhito; Nagano, Yuko; Shirataki, Tatsuaki; Hibino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Strategy effects on word searching in the Japanese letter fluency test were investigated using the Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were given a Japanese letter fluency test and they were classified into two types of strategy users, based on analysis of their recorded verbal responses. One group, AIUEO-order strategy users, employed…

  5. Strategy Effects on Word Searching in Japanese Letter Fluency Tests: Evidence from the NIRS Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kanari, Ayano; Mase, Mitsuhito; Nagano, Yuko; Shirataki, Tatsuaki; Hibino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Strategy effects on word searching in the Japanese letter fluency test were investigated using the Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were given a Japanese letter fluency test and they were classified into two types of strategy users, based on analysis of their recorded verbal responses. One group, AIUEO-order strategy users, employed…

  6. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    PubMed

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  7. Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency of the Subthalamic Nucleus Affects Phonemic and Action Fluency in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Valéria de Carvalho; Rieder, Carlos R M; da Cruz, Aline Nunes; Beber, Bárbara Costa; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to a decline in verbal fluency. The decline can be attributed to surgical effects, but the relative contributions of the stimulation parameters are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the frequency of STN-DBS on the performance of verbal fluency tasks in patients with PD. Methods. Twenty individuals with PD who received bilateral STN-DBS were evaluated. Their performances of verbal fluency tasks (semantic, phonemic, action, and unconstrained fluencies) upon receiving low-frequency (60 Hz) and high-frequency (130 Hz) STN-DBS were assessed. Results. The performances of phonemic and action fluencies were significantly different between low- and high-frequency STN-DBS. Patients showed a decrease in these verbal fluencies for high-frequency STN-DBS. Conclusion. Low-frequency STN-DBS may be less harmful to the verbal fluency of PD patients.

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation Frequency of the Subthalamic Nucleus Affects Phonemic and Action Fluency in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Aline Nunes; Beber, Bárbara Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been linked to a decline in verbal fluency. The decline can be attributed to surgical effects, but the relative contributions of the stimulation parameters are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the frequency of STN-DBS on the performance of verbal fluency tasks in patients with PD. Methods. Twenty individuals with PD who received bilateral STN-DBS were evaluated. Their performances of verbal fluency tasks (semantic, phonemic, action, and unconstrained fluencies) upon receiving low-frequency (60 Hz) and high-frequency (130 Hz) STN-DBS were assessed. Results. The performances of phonemic and action fluencies were significantly different between low- and high-frequency STN-DBS. Patients showed a decrease in these verbal fluencies for high-frequency STN-DBS. Conclusion. Low-frequency STN-DBS may be less harmful to the verbal fluency of PD patients. PMID:28050309

  9. Improving Speaking Fluency for International Teaching Assistants by Increasing Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2011-01-01

    One challenge for many international teaching assistants (ITAs) is improving their spoken English fluency after arrival in the U.S.A. It may be argued that poor fluency, with its hallmarks of slow speech rate, false starts, and particularly pauses that violate phrasal boundaries, account for the failure of many ITAs to be certified by their…

  10. Attentional Regulation in Young Twins with Probable Stuttering, High Nonfluency, and Typical Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Susan; van Beljsterveldt, Catharina Eugenie Maria; Boomsma, Dorret Irene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Using a sample of 20,445 Dutch twins, this study examined the relationship between speech fluency and attentional regulation in children. A secondary objective was to identify etiological overlap between nonfluency and poor attention using fluency-discordant twin pairs. Method: Three fluency groups were created at age 5 using a parent…

  11. Analysis of speech fluency in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F; Giacheti, Célia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been fully addressed in research. In previous studies carried out with a small group of individuals with WS, we reported speech breakdowns during conversational and autobiographical narratives suggestive of language difficulties. In the current study, we characterized the speech fluency profile using an ecologically based measure--a narrative task (story generation) was collected from a group of individuals with WS (n = 30) and typically developing group (n = 39) matched in mental age. Oral narratives were elicited using a picture stimulus--the cookie theft picture from Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Test. All narratives were analyzed according to typology and frequency of fluency breakdowns (non-stuttered and stuttered disfluencies). Oral narratives in WS group differed from typically developing group, mainly due to a significant increase in the frequency of disfluencies, particularly in terms of hesitations, repetitions and pauses. This is the first evidence of disfluencies in WS using an ecologically based task (oral narrative task), suggesting that these speech disfluencies may represent a significant marker of language problems in WS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT): Initial psychometric, validation, and physiological evidence in young adults.

    PubMed

    Abeare, Christopher A; Freund, Sabrina; Kaploun, Kristen; McAuley, Tara; Dumitrescu, Claudiu

    2017-10-01

    The clinical assessment of affective functioning has been slow to incorporate findings from affective neuroscience. Of particular interest in the current study is the assessment of affective word production. In a series of four studies, we examined test-retest and interrater reliability for the Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT), basic construct validity with existing verbal fluency measures, physiological responses across verbal fluency tasks, and a novel scoring method to examine qualitative aspects of participant response sets. Results demonstrated interrater and test-retest reliability values that were comparable to those of other commonly used verbal fluency tests. Construct validity was demonstrated by relations between the EWFT and other verbal fluency tests as well as through physiological evidence that performance on the EWFT is related to greater sympathetic activity than traditional verbal fluency tasks. Lastly, some of the novel scoring metrics related to two self-report measures of emotional functioning. Taken together, our findings provide initial support for the use of the EWFT as a measure of emotion word generation ability in young adults. This measure may prove to be useful in the assessment of affective language production in patient populations.

  13. An Examination of the Relation of Nonsense Word Fluency Initial Status and Gains to Reading Outcomes for Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, Hank; Park, Yonghan; Baker, Scott K.; Smith, Jean L. Mercier; Stoolmiller, Mike; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    A theory-based approach was used to investigate the relations among Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) initial skill status in the fall of first grade, NWF growth across the school year, and end-of-year oral reading fluency and reading comprehension (RC) skill. Hypotheses were anchored to Perfetti's verbal efficiency theory and the role of automaticity…

  14. The relationship between different measures of oral reading fluency and reading comprehension in second-grade students who evidence different oral reading fluency difficulties.

    PubMed

    Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Morris, Robin D; Lovett, Maureen W; Wolf, Maryanne; Kuhn, Melanie; Meisinger, Beth; Schwanenflugel, Paula

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether different measures of oral reading fluency relate differentially to reading comprehension performance in two samples of second-grade students: (a) students who evidenced difficulties with nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, and oral reading fluency of connected text (ORFD), and (b) students who evidenced difficulties only with oral reading fluency of connected text (CTD). Participants (ORFD, n = 146 and CTD, n = 949) were second-grade students who were recruited for participation in different reading intervention studies. Data analyzed were from measures of nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, oral reading fluency of connected text, and reading comprehension that were collected at the pre-intervention time point. Correlational and path analyses indicated that real-word oral reading fluency was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension performance in both samples and across average and poor reading comprehension abilities. Results of this study indicate that real-word oral reading fluency was the strongest predictor of reading comprehension and suggest that real-word oral reading fluency may be an efficient method for identifying potential reading comprehension difficulties.

  15. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  16. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  17. Core deficits and variable differences in Dutch poor readers learning English.

    PubMed

    Van der Leij, Aryan; Morfidi, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    To examine phonological core deficits and variable orthographic competence, Dutch poor readers were investigated as they began instruction in reading in English (at about 14 years of age). A subgroup of poor readers with good orthographic competence in English (Poor/Good) and a subgroup with poor orthographic competence in English (Poor/Poor) were identified. Verbal and reading tasks in Dutch and English were assessed twice within a 10-month interval, and the scores of the two measurements were combined to gain stability. For both subgroups, we found indications that phonological core deficits and variable differences in orthographic competence transferred across the two languages. However, the Poor/Good subgroup did not show the weaknesses in serial rapid naming and semantic fluency of the Poor/Poor subgroup in both languages. Moreover, the Poor/Good readers were relatively good in reading skills and verbal learning in English. They had a specific reading disability at the phonemic level but also had compensatory skills at the level of syllables and words that help them to acquire English as second language. In contrast, the Poor/Poor subgroup had a more general reading disability, most prominently present in L2. The results are discussed in terms of orthographic differences between Dutch and English, the phonological-core variable-differences model, and "subtypes" of dyslexia.

  18. Relationship between the prefrontal function and the severity of the emotional symptoms during a verbal fluency task in patients with major depressive disorder: a multi-channel NIRS study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xu, Bo; Shen, Chenyu; Shi, Lujie; Ma, Xiangyun; Ren, Xiajin; Feng, Kun; Liu, Pozi

    2014-10-03

    Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique in psychiatric research, and it has been wildly used for detecting the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. In order to evaluate the clinical value of NIRS data in the assistant diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), prefrontal cortex (PFC) hemoglobin concentration exchange of 30 MDD patients combined with anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom was detected by NIRS under voice fluency task (VFT), then the relationship between the severity of depressive, anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) with NIRS data in PFC was analyzed. Hypoactivation in lateral and lower PFC of MDD patients was confirmed in this study. Furthermore, Spearman correlation found that oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) exchange in right-lateral PFC was associated with the severity of anxiety, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with severity of depression. Meanwhile, no statistical correlation was observed on the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptom. The results prompted that MDD patients with anxiety and obsession-compulsion symptom showed a PFC hypoactivation state in NIRS. Furthermore, the function of right-lateral PFC was associated with anxiety symptom, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with depression symptom. Different from depression and anxiety, obsession-compulsion may have a different biological character in PFC function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Verbal and visual divergent thinking in aging.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    According to the peak and decline model divergent thinking declines at a specific age (in or after middle age). However, if divergent thinking declines steadily in aging still has to be clarified. In order to explore the age-related changes in verbal and visual divergent thinking, in the present study a sample of 159 participants was divided in five age groups: young adults (18-35 years), middle-aged adults (36-55), young old (56-74), old (75-85) and the oldest-old (86-98). Two divergent thinking tasks were administered: the alternative uses for cardboard boxes, aimed at assessing verbal ideational fluency, flexibility and originality; the completion drawing task, aimed at assessing visual ideational fluency, flexibility and originality. Results showed that after peaking in the young adult group (20-35 years) all components of verbal and visual divergent thinking stabilized in the middle-aged adult group (36-55 years) and then started declining in the young old group (56-75). Interestingly, all components were found to be preserved after declining. Yet, verbal and visual divergent thinking were found at the same extent across age groups, with the exception of visual ideational fluency, that was higher in the young old group, the old group and the oldest-old group than verbal ideational fluency. These results support the idea that divergent thinking does not decline steadily in the elderly. Given that older people can preserve to some extent verbal and visual divergent thinking, these findings have important implications for active aging, that is, divergent thinking might be fostered in aging in order to prevent the cognitive decline.

  20. Examining the relationship between rapid automatized naming and arithmetic fluency in Chinese kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jiaxin; Georgiou, George K; Zhang, Yiyun; Li, Yixun; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-01

    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) has been found to predict mathematics. However, the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how RAN (numeric and non-numeric) predicts a subdomain of mathematics (arithmetic fluency) and (b) to examine what processing skills may account for the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. A total of 160 third-year kindergarten Chinese children (83 boys and 77 girls, mean age=5.11years) were assessed on RAN (colors, objects, digits, and dice), nonverbal IQ, visual-verbal paired associate learning, phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing, approximate number system acuity, and arithmetic fluency (addition and subtraction). The results indicated first that RAN was a significant correlate of arithmetic fluency and the correlations did not vary as a function of type of RAN or arithmetic fluency tasks. In addition, RAN continued to predict addition and subtraction fluency even after controlling for all other processing skills. Taken together, these findings challenge the existing theoretical accounts of the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship and suggest that, similar to reading fluency, multiple processes underlie the RAN-arithmetic fluency relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Michael, J

    1984-11-01

    THE RECENT HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE AREA OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR ARE CONSIDERED IN TERMS OF THREE MAJOR THEMATIC LINES: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  2. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  3. Improving Students' Reading Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Amy

    This report describes a program for improving students' reading fluency in order to become more proficient readers. The targeted population consists of first and second grade students in a growing middle class community located in the Midwest. The lack of fluent reading was documented through teacher observation and the calculation of how many…

  4. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  5. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  6. A Preliminary Study on Sight Word Flash Card Drill: Does It Impact Reading Fluency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla N.; Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Fasko, Jr. Bowling Green State University Abstract The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a tutoring intervention for sight word acquisition and to examine whether progress was matched by improvement in oral reading fluency. Three primary students were selected based upon teachers' referral for poor reading fluency. Flashcards…

  7. Reading Fluency and College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Nageldinger, James; Nigh, Jennifer; Remark, Linda; Kenney, Kristen Srsen; Walsh-Moorman, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Kasim; Nichols, William Dee; Paige, David D.; Rupley, William H.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards suggest that an appropriate goal for secondary education is college and career readiness. Previous research has identified reading fluency as a critical component for proficient reading. One component of fluency is word recognition accuracy and automaticity. The present study attempted to determine the word…

  8. Fluency: It's All about Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This essay describes the struggle to get one second grade reader who was in need of fluency practice to overcome his resistance to rereading familiar texts. This was done through the use of videos which were sent to parents on a weekly basis after the texts had been practiced several time with an eye toward all aspects of fluency--phrasing,…

  9. Reading Fluency and College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Edmondson, Elizabeth; Nageldinger, James; Nigh, Jennifer; Remark, Linda; Kenney, Kristen Srsen; Walsh-Moorman, Elizabeth; Yildirim, Kasim; Nichols, William Dee; Paige, David D.; Rupley, William H.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards suggest that an appropriate goal for secondary education is college and career readiness. Previous research has identified reading fluency as a critical component for proficient reading. One component of fluency is word recognition accuracy and automaticity. The present study attempted to determine the word…

  10. Fluency: It's All about Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    This essay describes the struggle to get one second grade reader who was in need of fluency practice to overcome his resistance to rereading familiar texts. This was done through the use of videos which were sent to parents on a weekly basis after the texts had been practiced several time with an eye toward all aspects of fluency--phrasing,…

  11. Aspects of Fluency in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2007-01-01

    The notion of "fluency" is most often associated with spoken-language phenomena such as stuttering. The present article investigates the relevance of considering fluency in writing. The basic argument for raising this question is empirical--it follows from a focus on difficulties in written and spoken language as manifestations of different…

  12. Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B.; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Processing speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the “processing” speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency, and reduced processing speed—driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed “processing” speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory, but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intra-subject variability. Further, “processing” speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally-mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally-mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus. PMID:21287422

  13. Diagnostic utility of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test in neuropsychological evaluations.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, M G; Heaton, R K; Lehman, R A; Hulihan, D

    1982-12-01

    Previous research has found that verbal associative fluency tasks are sensitive to the presence of cerebral lesions and more sensitive to frontal lobe and left hemisphere lesions than to other focal lesions. The present study investigated the diagnostic utility of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test (TWFT), a test of written verbal fluency, in detecting and localizing cerebral lesions. Using results from 203 brain-damaged and 134 normal subjects, we found that TWFT performance is affected by cerebral damage generally. At the same time, it is more impaired by frontal than by nonfrontal, by left than by right hemisphere, and by left frontal than by right frontal lesions. This test does not discriminate focal frontal from diffuse lesions. Stepwise discriminant function analyses indicated that the TWFT adds to the Halstead-Reitan Battery in discriminating focal frontal from nonfrontal lesions, but not in discriminating left hemisphere from right hemisphere lesions. Only markedly impaired TWFT performances had lateralizing significance.

  14. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  15. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  16. On the (Elusive) Role of Oral Motor-Movements in Fluency-Based Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Klin, Celia M.; Lanska, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the ease with which a stimulus is processed affects many different types of evaluative judgments. Recently, it has been proposed that for verbal stimuli the effect of fluency on such judgments is mediated by the muscles that are involved in speech (Topolinski & Strack, 2009, 2010). Evidence for this claim can be…

  17. Using Kindergarten Number Sense to Predict Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2008-01-01

    Children's number sense in kindergarten was used to predict their calculation fluency in second grade (N = 198). Using block entry regression, usual predictors of age, reading, memory, and verbal and spatial cognition were entered in the first block and number sense measures were added in the second block. Number sense measures contributed a…

  18. Using Kindergarten Number Sense to Predict Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2008-01-01

    Children's number sense in kindergarten was used to predict their calculation fluency in second grade (N = 198). Using block entry regression, usual predictors of age, reading, memory, and verbal and spatial cognition were entered in the first block and number sense measures were added in the second block. Number sense measures contributed a…

  19. The Effects of Backchannels on Fluency in L2 Oral Task Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, James P.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on an experimental study that investigated the effect of different conditions of listener backchannels on the fluency of L2 speakers. Participants were 14 non-advanced Japanese learners of English who each performed three oral tasks in three different backchannel conditions: (1) verbal/nonverbal (V/NV), (2) nonverbal-only…

  20. On the (Elusive) Role of Oral Motor-Movements in Fluency-Based Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Klin, Celia M.; Lanska, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the ease with which a stimulus is processed affects many different types of evaluative judgments. Recently, it has been proposed that for verbal stimuli the effect of fluency on such judgments is mediated by the muscles that are involved in speech (Topolinski & Strack, 2009, 2010). Evidence for this claim can be…

  1. Image Ambiguity and Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

  2. Image ambiguity and fluency.

    PubMed

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the "processing fluency account", suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10 ms, 50 ms, 100 ms, 500 ms, 1000 ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500 ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50 ms to 1000 ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500 ms and 1000 ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process.

  3. False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pikulski, John J.; Chard, David J.

    2005-01-01

    A deep, developmental construct and definition of fluency, in which fluency and reading comprehension have a reciprocal relationship, is explicated and contrasted with superficial approaches to that construct. The historical development of fluency is outlined, along with conclusions of the U.S. National Reading Panel, to explore why fluency has…

  5. Verbal Fluency, Semantics, Context and Symptom Complexes in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Adam P.; Chenery, Helen J.; Dart, Catriona M.; Doan, Binh; Tan, Mildred; Copland, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical-semantic access and retrieval was examined in 15 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia and matched controls. This study extends the literature through the inclusion of multiple examinations of lexical-semantic production within the same patient group and through correlating performance on these tasks with various positive and negative…

  6. Action Verbal Fluency Normative Data for the Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatt, Andrea L.; Fields, Julie A.; Paolo, Anthony M.; Troster, Alexander I.

    2004-01-01

    An emerging body of literature points to the prominent role of the frontal lobes in the retrieval of verbs, whereas production of common and proper nouns arguably is mediated primarily by posterior and anterior temporal regions, respectively. Although the majority of studies examining the neuroanatomic distinctions between verb and noun retrieval…

  7. Copying Fluency and Orthographic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the relationship between stages of orthographic development and writing fluency. Finds that the graphemic output lexicon of beginning readers and writers is not sufficiently detailed to allow a fluent output. (PRA)

  8. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  9. Verbal Mistreatment in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Terry; Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pelger, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Elder mistreatment is expected to rise with the aging of the American population. To date, the association between specific forms of mistreatment and decreased quality of life is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between verbal mistreatment among elderly individuals and depression and quality of life. A sample of 142 older adults (40% male) aged 65 or over was enrolled from a large medical practice and academic dental practice, mean (SD) = 74.88 (6.98) years. Thirty-eight percent of the sample reported verbal mistreatment. Controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and depression, verbal mistreatment was a significant predictor of social functioning (β = −.28, p<.001), mental health (β = −.25, p<.001), and role limitations OR = 3.02, 95% CI [1.34 – 6.77]. The present findings highlight the prevalence of verbal mistreatment in elderly individuals. PMID:24910894

  10. Workplace in fluency management: factoring the workplace into fluency management.

    PubMed

    Cassar, M C; Neilson, M D

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses competency-based standards and guidelines for the involvement of speech-language pathologists in the workplace of clients who stutter. It advocates broadening customary practices in stuttering treatment and suggests that speech-language pathologists should extend their scope of service delivery to the workplace. It presents a sequence for the collaborative involvement of the employer and other workplace members and proposes strategies for evaluating workplace based fluency programs. Issues of fluency management, transfer, maintenance, and efficacy are discussed in the workplace context. Also addressed is workplace communication as well as such factors as stereotypes, discrimination, and resistance to change which may impinge on workplace intervention. It is argued that structured intervention, transfer, and generalization within a collaborative workplace framework facilitates best practice for the fluency clinician and more appropriate outcomes for the diversity of clients who stutter.

  11. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  12. Teacher Knowledge about Reading Fluency and Indicators of Students' Fluency Growth in Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Leite, Walter L.; Kosanovich, Marcia L.; Strout, Meridith Taylor; Fenty, Nicole S.; Wright, Tyran L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the role of teacher knowledge about reading fluency in students' fluency growth. Specifically, the effects of teacher knowledge on fluency with nonsense word reading and oral passage reading were examined. Students' vocabulary was also considered as a predictor of fluency development. Results demonstrated that teacher knowledge…

  13. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  14. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  15. Teacher Knowledge about Reading Fluency and Indicators of Students' Fluency Growth in Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Leite, Walter L.; Kosanovich, Marcia L.; Strout, Meridith Taylor; Fenty, Nicole S.; Wright, Tyran L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the role of teacher knowledge about reading fluency in students' fluency growth. Specifically, the effects of teacher knowledge on fluency with nonsense word reading and oral passage reading were examined. Students' vocabulary was also considered as a predictor of fluency development. Results demonstrated that teacher knowledge…

  16. [Different verbal behavior in children with attention deficit between 7 and 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Pineda, D A; Restrepo, M A; Henao, G C; Gutiérrez-Clellen, V; Sánchez, D

    According to factor brain organization of cognition model, it has been proposed that there are specific a shared underlie factors in the structure of each cognitive functions. To determine if children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) have different verbal abilities than controls, and if verbal behaviors are related to inattention and hyperactive symptoms. 32 children with attention deficit without hyperactivity (ADD/-H), 28 children with attention deficit hyperactivity (ADD/+H), according to DSM-IV criteria and higher than 60-T-Score on an ADHD checklist, and 32 control children were selected. Age, sex, school achievement, and socioeconomic status were controlled. All children had a WISC-R performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) > 80 and were 7-to-12-year old. Verbal test to assess comprehension, inferences, narrative, fluency, analogies and rapid naming were applied. Children from both ADD groups obtained significant lower WISC-R verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ), PIQ, full scale IQ (FSIQ), and phonologic fluency score than controls (ANOVA-Bonferroni's correction p < 0.005). ADD/+H children performed significant lower than controls in narrative and analogies (p < 0.005). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), using FSIQ as covariable, showed that phonologic verbal fluency continued presenting significant differences between control and ADD children. Inattention-hyperactivity checklist scores had significant inverse and mild correlations with inferences, items recalled in a narrative, phonologic verbal fluency, and analogies (r > -0.20, p < 0.05). There were significant and small correlations between inattention score and rapid naming errors, and between Inattention and rapid naming time (r > 0.20, p < 0.05). Our data found different verbal production, fluency and speed in ADD/+H and ADD/-H children. There were shared underlie relations between verbal abilities and behavioral symptoms.

  17. Level of education and category fluency task among Spanish speaking elders: number of words, clustering, and switching strategies.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Monica; Tappen, Ruth; Williams, Christine; Salvatierra, Judy; Zoller, Yaron

    2009-11-01

    It has been well documented that education influences the individual's performance on category fluency tasks but it is still unclear how this effect may differ across the different types of category tasks (i.e., animals, fruits, vegetables and clothing). This study aims (1) to analyze the effect of the level of education on four different types of category fluency tasks among elder Hispanic Americans and (2) to provide normative information on a population with different education levels that was previously screened for neurological and psychiatric conditions. In addition this study examines the semantic strategies used by these individuals to complete the fluency tasks. The sample included 105 healthy Hispanic individuals (age 55-98; 29 males and 76 females) divided into three education groups (<6, 6-11 and >11 years of education). Results showed that after controlling for age and gender, education has a main effect and is a strong predictor of performance in verbal fluency for the categories animals and clothing with increasing educational attainment being associated with higher category fluency scores and with more switches between categories. These findings suggest that the category fruit is less influenced by level of education than the other three semantic categories and may be a more appropriate test across different educational groups. Results from this study provide a reference for clinicians assessing verbal fluency in Spanish speaking populations.

  18. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  19. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  20. Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonneau, François

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be…

  1. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6-8 (N =…

  2. Effects of Generation Mode in fMRI Adaptations of Semantic Fluency: Paced Production and Overt Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basho, Surina; Palmer, Erica D.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2007-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a widely used neuropsychological paradigm. In fMRI implementations, conventional unpaced (self-paced) versions are suboptimal due to uncontrolled timing of responses, and overt responses carry the risk of motion artifact. We investigated the behavioral and neurofunctional effects of response pacing and overt speech in semantic…

  3. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood). Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences. For verbal fluencies, musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset (childhood vs. adulthood) was associated with phonemic, but not semantic, fluency performances (musicians who had started to practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency than non-musicians). Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation. PMID:25346684

  4. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood). Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences. For verbal fluencies, musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset (childhood vs. adulthood) was associated with phonemic, but not semantic, fluency performances (musicians who had started to practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency than non-musicians). Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation.

  5. Fluency: Strategies & Assessments. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jerry L.; Berglund, Roberta L.

    2006-01-01

    This book presents numerous practical strategies and assessment tools teachers can use immediately to strengthen students' fluency skills in regular classrooms and in resource rooms. This new third edition offers: (1) Concise answers to teachers' questions; (2) Evidence-based strategies; (3) Practical activities; (4) Resources to develop students'…

  6. Early Mathematics Fluency with CCSSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matney, Gabriel T.

    2014-01-01

    To develop second-grade students' confidence and ease, this author presents examples of learning tasks (Number of the Day, Word Problem Solving, and Modeling New Mathematical Ideas) that align with Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and that build mathematical fluency to promote students' creative expression of mathematical…

  7. Oral Fluency and Its Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieke, Adolf E.

    It is proposed that a speech-dynamic analysis of oral fluency phenomena serves best to highlight the nondiscrete nature of the sound stream and to capture English syllable structure. Some current concepts and practices in oral testing are criticized, and previously neglected evidence concerning temporal variables in speech, automatic speech…

  8. Early Mathematics Fluency with CCSSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matney, Gabriel T.

    2014-01-01

    To develop second-grade students' confidence and ease, this author presents examples of learning tasks (Number of the Day, Word Problem Solving, and Modeling New Mathematical Ideas) that align with Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and that build mathematical fluency to promote students' creative expression of mathematical…

  9. Information fluency: Where to start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viele, Pat

    2012-09-01

    There are many different definitions of information literacy, but perhaps the best succinct and comprehensive definition is: Information literacy (or fluency) is a set of abilities requiring individuals to "recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information." This skill set will be invaluable throughout life in making informed decisions.

  10. Exploring the Subjective Feeling of Fluency.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael; Leder, Helmut; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    According to the processing fluency theory, higher ease of processing a stimulus leads to higher feelings of fluency and more positive evaluations. However, it is unclear whether feelings of fluency are positive or an unspecific activation and whether feelings of fluency are directly attributed to the stimulus even without much positive feelings. In two experiments, we tested how variations in the ease of processing influenced feelings of fluency and affect, in terms of evaluations (Exp. 1) and physiological responses (Exp. 2). Higher feelings of fluency were associated with more positive stimulus ratings and did not affect stimulus arousal ratings, but perceivers' feelings showed higher felt arousal ratings and left felt valence ratings unaffected. Physiological indices only showed small effects of a subtle positive reaction. These findings show that feelings of fluency can be sources of positive object evaluations, but do not affect one's own positive feelings.

  11. A neuropsychological study of personality: trait openness in relation to intelligence, fluency, and executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Schretlen, David J; van der Hulst, Egberdina-Józefa; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry

    2010-12-01

    Openness is a personality trait that has been linked to intelligence and divergent thinking. DeYoung, Peterson, and Higgins (2005) theorized that trait Openness depends on dopamine function, especially in the prefrontal cortex. We tested their theory in 335 healthy adults by hypothesizing that individual differences in Openness would correlate more strongly with performance on tests of executive function than on tests of intelligence and fluency. However, Openness correlated more strongly with verbal/crystallized intelligence (Gc; r = .44) than with executive functioning (r = .16) and fluency (r = .24). Further, the partial correlation between Openness and Gc increased from r = .26 among young adults to r = .53 among elderly adults. These findings suggest that Openness is more closely associated with the acquisition of broad verbal intellectual skills and knowledge than with executive abilities localized to a specific brain region or neurotransmitter system.

  12. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  13. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  14. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

  15. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word...Fluency is "the facility to produce words that fit one or more structural, phonetic , or orthographic restrictions that are not relevant to the meaning...toxic chemical exposure (Anger, 1984) and closed head injury (Borkowski et al, 1967). Word Fluency reflects mild linguistic deficits in expressive speech

  16. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  17. Understanding the Misunderstanding: An Analysis of the Relationships between Reading Fluency Constructs, Reading Fluency Instruction and Oral Reading Fluency Assessment in the Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbs, Aimee M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…

  18. Understanding the Misunderstanding: An Analysis of the Relationships between Reading Fluency Constructs, Reading Fluency Instruction and Oral Reading Fluency Assessment in the Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbs, Aimee M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…

  19. Category fluency, latent semantic analysis and schizophrenia: a candidate gene approach.

    PubMed

    Nicodemus, Kristin K; Elvevåg, Brita; Foltz, Peter W; Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    Category fluency is a widely used task that relies on multiple neurocognitive processes and is a sensitive assay of cortical dysfunction, including in schizophrenia. The test requires naming of as many words belonging to a certain category (e.g., animals) as possible within a short period of time. The core metrics are the overall number of words produced and the number of errors, namely non-members generated for a target category. We combine a computational linguistic approach with a candidate gene approach to examine the genetic architecture of this traditional fluency measure. In addition to the standard metric of overall word count, we applied a computational approach to semantics, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), to analyse the clustering pattern of the categories generated, as it likely reflects the search in memory for meanings. Also, since fluency performance probably also recruits verbal learning and recall processes, we included two standard measures of this cognitive process: the Wechsler Memory Scale and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). To explore the genetic architecture of traditional and LSA-derived fluency measures we employed a candidate gene approach focused on SNPs with known function that were available from a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia. The selected candidate genes were associated with language and speech, verbal learning and recall processes, and processing speed. A total of 39 coding SNPs were included for analysis in 665 subjects. Given the modest sample size, the results should be regarded as exploratory and preliminary. Nevertheless, the data clearly illustrate how extracting the meaning from participants' responses, by analysing the actual content of words, generates useful and neurocognitively viable metrics. We discuss three replicated SNPs in the genes ZNF804A, DISC1 and KIAA0319, as well as the potential for computational analyses of linguistic and textual data in other genomics tasks. Copyright

  20. Are verbal orders a threat to patient safety?

    PubMed

    Wakefield, D S; Wakefield, B J

    2009-09-01

    The use of verbal orders has been identified as a potential contributor to poor quality and less safe care. As a result, many organisations have encouraged changing the verbal orders process and/or reducing/eliminating verbal orders altogether (Joint Commission (2005), Institute of Medicine (2001), Leapfrog organisation, Institute of Safe Medication Practices). Ironically there is a paucity of research evidence to support the widespread concern over verbal order. This paper describes the very limited existing research on verbal orders, presents a model of verbal order use identifying potential error trigger points and suggests a verbal order research agenda in order to better understand the nature and extent of the potential patient care safety threat posed by verbal orders.

  1. Are verbal orders a threat to patient safety?

    PubMed

    Wakefield, D S; Wakefield, B J

    2009-06-01

    The use of verbal orders has been identified as a potential contributor to poor quality and less safe care. As a result, many organisations have encouraged changing the verbal orders process and/or reducing/eliminating verbal orders altogether (Joint Commission (2005), Institute of Medicine (2001), Leapfrog organisation, Institute of Safe Medication Practices). Ironically there is a paucity of research evidence to support the widespread concern over verbal order. This paper describes the very limited existing research on verbal orders, presents a model of verbal order use identifying potential error trigger points and suggests a verbal order research agenda in order to better understand the nature and extent of the potential patient care safety threat posed by verbal orders.

  2. Phonemic Fluency and Brain Connectivity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-hui; Potter, Guy G.; Diaz, Michele T.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Lad, Eleonora M.; Johnson, Micah A.; Cousins, Scott W.; Zhuang, Jie; Madden, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in developed nations, has been associated with poor performance on tests of phonemic fluency. This pilot study sought to (1) characterize the relationship between phonemic fluency and resting-state functional brain connectivity in AMD patients and (2) determine whether regional connections associated with phonemic fluency in AMD patients were similarly linked to phonemic fluency in healthy participants. Behavior-based connectivity analysis was applied to resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging data from seven patients (mean age=79.9±7.5 years) with bilateral AMD who completed fluency tasks prior to imaging. Phonemic fluency was inversely related to the strength of functional connectivity (FC) among six pairs of brain regions, representing eight nodes: left opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus (which includes Broca's area), left superior temporal gyrus (which includes part of Wernicke's area), inferior parietal lobe (bilaterally), right superior parietal lobe, right supramarginal gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and right precentral gyrus. The FC of these reference links was not related to phonemic fluency among 32 healthy individuals (16 younger adults, mean age=23.5±4.6 years and 16 older adults, mean age=68.3±3.4 years). Compared with healthy individuals, AMD patients exhibited higher mean connectivity within the reference links and within the default mode network, possibly reflecting compensatory changes to support performance in the setting of reduced vision. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phonemic fluency deficits in AMD reflect underlying brain changes that develop in the context of AMD. PMID:25313954

  3. Fluency Patterns in Narratives from Children with Localization Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Mara E.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gaillard, William; Berl, Madison

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between fluency and language demand in children with epilepsy, a group known to demonstrate depressed language skills. Disfluency type and frequencies were analyzed in elicited narratives from 52 children. Half of these children had localization-related epilepsy (CWE), while the others were age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) peers. CWE were found to be significantly more disfluent overall than their matched TD peers during narrative productions, and demonstrated a higher proportion of stutter-like disfluencies, particularly prolongations. The current study adds to an emerging literature that has found depressed language skills and listener perceptions of verbal ability in children with chronic seizure activity, and contributes to the small but growing literature that suggests that disfluency during spoken language tasks may be a subtle marker of expressive language impairment. PMID:23773671

  4. Are semantic and phonological fluency based on the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes? Insights from factor analyses in healthy adults and stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Charlotte S M; Schumacher, Lena V; Römer, Pia; Leonhart, Rainer; Beume, Lena; Martin, Markus; Dressing, Andrea; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2017-05-01

    Verbal fluency for semantic categories and phonological letters is frequently applied to studies of language and executive functions. Despite its popularity, it is still debated whether measures of semantic and phonological fluency reflect the same or distinct sets of cognitive processes. Word generation in the two task variants is believed to involve different types of search processes. Findings from the lesion and neuroimaging literature further suggest a stronger reliance of phonological and semantic fluency on frontal and temporal brain areas, respectively. This evidence for differential cognitive and neural contributions is, however, strongly challenged by findings from factor analyses, which have consistently yielded only one explanatory factor. As all previous factor-analytical approaches were based on very small item sets, this apparent discrepancy may be due to methodological limitations. In this study, we therefore applied a German version of the verbal fluency task with 8 semantic (i.e. categories) and 8 phonological items (i.e. letters). An exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation in N=69 healthy young adults indeed revealed a two-factor solution with markedly different loadings for semantic and phonological items. This pattern was corroborated by a confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of N=174 stroke patients. As results from both samples also revealed a substantial portion of common variance between the semantic and phonological factor, the present data further demonstrate that semantic and phonological verbal fluency are based on clearly distinct but also on shared sets of cognitive processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluency Instruction. Research-Based Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy Ed.; Blachowicz, Camille Ed.; Lems, Kristin Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Because fluency instruction was identified, only recently, as a cornerstone literacy subject--it is still unfamiliar terrain for many teachers. This volume fills a crucial gap by offering a thorough, authoritative examination of what reading fluency is--and how it should be taught. Contributing authors, who include the field's leading authorities,…

  6. Does Retelling Technique Improve Speaking Fluency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachmawaty, Noor; Hermagustiana, Istanti

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on a study on speaking fluency performed by six low level students using retelling technique. The aim of the study is to find out the effect of retelling on the students' speaking fluency and to know the strategies used by those students while retelling a story. The data were the speaking transcripts which were analyzed to see…

  7. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  8. The learned reinterpretation of fluency in amnesia.

    PubMed

    Geurten, Marie; Willems, Sylvie

    2017-07-01

    Fluency is one of many cues that are involved in memory decisions. To date, however, the extent to which fluency-based decisions are preserved in amnesia is not yet clear. In this study, we tested and found differences in how patients with amnesia (n=8) and control participants (n=16) use fluency when making recognition decisions (Experiment 1). Our results suggested that these differences could be due to changes in the readiness with which patients attribute the subjective feeling of fluency to pre-exposure when an alternative explanation is available (i.e., the perceptual quality of the item). Secondly, we explored the hypothesis that changes in attribution processes in patients with amnesia are explained by a decrease in contingency between processing fluency and previous occurrence of stimuli in patients' daily lives, leading them to consider that fluency is not a relevant cue for memory (Experiment 2). Specifically, 42 healthy participants were put either in a condition where the positive contingency between fluent processing and previous encounters with an item was systematically confirmed (classic condition) or in a condition where the classical association between fluency and prior exposure was systematically reversed (reversed condition). Results indicated that participants more readily attribute fluency to the alternative external source than to past experience in the reversed condition than in the classic condition, mimicking the pattern of results shown by participants with amnesia in Experiment 1. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improve Reading Fluency with Parent Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erion, Joel; Ronka, Carol S.

    2004-01-01

    Reading fluency has been identified as one of the necessary components for becoming a strong reader. Instructional techniques designed to improve reading fluency are generally easy to implement. Many parents are eager to assist in the growth of their children's academic skills. This article describes a procedure for improving oral reading fluency…

  10. Doesn't Everybody Need Fluency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    2003-01-01

    Discusses fluency, a combination of quality plus speed that characterizes competent performance that is the true definition of mastery. Suggests the need for including a time dimension in measures to show distinctions between levels of performance, and concludes that performance development programs should address fluency to improve learning and…

  11. The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zugel, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

  12. Fluency Instruction. Research-Based Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy Ed.; Blachowicz, Camille Ed.; Lems, Kristin Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Because fluency instruction was identified, only recently, as a cornerstone literacy subject--it is still unfamiliar terrain for many teachers. This volume fills a crucial gap by offering a thorough, authoritative examination of what reading fluency is--and how it should be taught. Contributing authors, who include the field's leading authorities,…

  13. Teachers as Verbal Perpetrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Weagraff, Pat; Donaldson, Diane

    This paper briefly discusses: violence as a context for verbal abuse; the legacy of student discipline in schools; a model indicating that verbal abuse is learned; data showing teachers do verbally abuse students; and a variety of ways to deal with this problem. Factors inducing teachers to exhibit aggressive behavior are identified and include:…

  14. Examining Visual Verbal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A.

    A few of the relationships between visual and verbal components are explored. Visuals are considered to be things that can be seen, visible things other than printed words that are used in a communication process. The term verbal applies to written or spoken words. The natural tendency for visual and verbal components to be mutually supportive has…

  15. On the (elusive) role of oral motor-movements in fluency-based memory illusions.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Deanne L; Klin, Celia M; Lanska, Meredith

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that the ease with which a stimulus is processed affects many different types of evaluative judgments. Recently, it has been proposed that for verbal stimuli the effect of fluency on such judgments is mediated by the muscles that are involved in speech (Topolinski & Strack, 2009, 2010). Evidence for this claim can be found in studies that have shown that fluency effects are eliminated if such judgments are made while these muscles are otherwise engaged (such as while chewing gum or eating). Additional research has found that oral-motor tasks block familiarity-based responding on recognition memory tasks (Topolinski, 2012). The current study investigated the effect of an oral-motor task on recognition memory. Of particular interest was whether the fluency-blocking effects of an oral-motor task would extend to fluency-based illusions of recognition memory. Although we found robust fluency-based illusions of familiarity, we did not find that the effects were modulated by the nature of the concurrent task (gum-chewing vs. a manual-motor task). Moreover, we found no evidence that oral-motor tasks affected recognition more generally, nor did we find that an oral-motor task modulated affective ratings to repeated stimuli. We were also unable to replicate the finding that an oral-motor task blocks the false fame effect (Topolinski & Strack, 2010). These results call into question the assertion that oral-motor movements mediate fluency effects in recognition memory and other evaluative judgments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. [Model of analysis in two halves for semantic fluency tasks].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Turrado, T; Pascual-Millán, L F; Fernández-Arín, E; Larrodé-Pellicer, P; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Mostacero-Miguel, E

    Semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tasks involve the activation of language, semantic memory, working memory and the executive functions. The second half of the test increases the demands on working memory and search for lexical items, which can make it more difficult than the first half. To conduct a pilot study in order to standardise the two halves of the SVF test ('animals' category) in adults over 50 years of age. Two verbal fluency tasks (semantic and phonological) and the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination with working memory were applied in 122 controls (range: 50-89 years), who were distributed according to age and schooling. There is a significant difference between the two halves of the test adjusted for age and schooling (p < 0.0001). Scoring in the second half showed a higher correlation with age, schooling and working memory than the first half. Performance in the two halves was standardised for three age groups (50-59, 60-79 and 80-89 years) and two levels of schooling (high and low). The number of names in the second half of the SVF test was lower than in the first half in all the groups, which supports the hypothesis of a greater cognitive demand, probably on working memory and the search for lexical items in semantic memory. Having normative values available for the two halves of the SVF test allows simultaneous and independent interpretation of the performance at two levels of intra-task difficulty. This model of analysis complements the traditional assessment and can easily be applied in day-to-day clinical practice.

  17. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-01-16

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  18. Computerized cognitive remediation improves verbal learning and processing speed in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sartory, Gudrun; Zorn, Cornelia; Groetzinger, Gerd; Windgassen, Klaus

    2005-06-15

    Computerized cognitive remediation has resulted in improved executive function in schizophrenia, whereas results with regard to verbal memory were inconsistent. In the present study, 42 inpatients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive remediation group or to a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group. The remediation group received 15 sessions of computerized cognitive training (Cogpack) over a 3-week period. Neurocognitive functions were assessed at the beginning and end of this period. Compared to the control condition, remediation training resulted in improvements in verbal learning, processing speed and executive function (verbal fluency). The results indicate that cognitive remediation may lead to improvements beyond those of executive function.

  19. Testosterone, estradiol, ACTH and musical, spatial and verbal performance.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M; Gupta, D; Wollmann, H

    1992-01-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and ACTH were determined in blood serum of 26 healthy males aged 19.16 and of 25 healthy females aged 18.77 years on average, and results were correlated with test scores of three spatial tests, a verbal fluency measure, and a test measuring general musical ability. In addition, hemispheric lateralization for verbal material and handedness was assessed. While testosterone and estradiol alone were not significantly related to any of the cognitive or musical tests, testosterone/estradiol ratio was significantly negatively correlated with spatial tests, and ACTH was significantly positively correlated with spatial and musical tests. Correlations were stronger in females than in males. The laterality index was significantly negatively correlated with testosterone in males indicating that right hemisphere involvement in verbal processing was associated with high testosterone levels.

  20. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinlin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0–11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance. PMID:26441740

  1. Relation between Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Achievement: The Influence of Fluency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sun, Yuhua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed inconsistent relations between the acuity of the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement. In this paper, we hypothesize that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement is influenced by fluency; that is, the mathematical achievement test covering a greater expanse of mathematical fluency may better reflect the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics skills. We explored three types of mathematical achievement tests utilized in this study: Subtraction, graded, and semester-final examination. The subtraction test was designed to measure the mathematical fluency. The graded test was more fluency-based than the semester-final examination, but both involved the same mathematical knowledge from the class curriculum. A total of 219 fifth graders from primary schools were asked to perform all three tests, then given a numerosity comparison task, a visual form perception task (figure matching), and a series of other tasks to assess general cognitive processes (mental rotation, non-verbal matrix reasoning, and choice reaction time). The findings were consistent with our expectations. The relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement was particularly clearly reflected in the participants' performance on the visual form perception task, which supports the domain-general explanations for the underlying mechanisms of the relation between ANS acuity and math achievement.

  2. Relation between Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Achievement: The Influence of Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Sun, Yuhua; Zhou, Xinlin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed inconsistent relations between the acuity of the Approximate Number System (ANS) and mathematical achievement. In this paper, we hypothesize that the relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement is influenced by fluency; that is, the mathematical achievement test covering a greater expanse of mathematical fluency may better reflect the relation between ANS acuity and mathematics skills. We explored three types of mathematical achievement tests utilized in this study: Subtraction, graded, and semester-final examination. The subtraction test was designed to measure the mathematical fluency. The graded test was more fluency-based than the semester-final examination, but both involved the same mathematical knowledge from the class curriculum. A total of 219 fifth graders from primary schools were asked to perform all three tests, then given a numerosity comparison task, a visual form perception task (figure matching), and a series of other tasks to assess general cognitive processes (mental rotation, non-verbal matrix reasoning, and choice reaction time). The findings were consistent with our expectations. The relation between ANS acuity and mathematical achievement was particularly clearly reflected in the participants’ performance on the visual form perception task, which supports the domain-general explanations for the underlying mechanisms of the relation between ANS acuity and math achievement. PMID:28066291

  3. Functional connectivity in resting state as a phonemic fluency ability measure.

    PubMed

    Miró-Padilla, Anna; Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Ávila, César

    2017-03-01

    There is some evidence that functional connectivity (FC) measures obtained at rest may reflect individual differences in cognitive capabilities. We tested this possibility by using the FAS test as a measure of phonemic fluency. Seed regions of the main brain areas involved in this task were extracted from meta-analysis results (Wagner et al., 2014) and used for pairwise resting-state FC analysis. Ninety-three undergraduates completed the FAS test outside the scanner. A correlation analysis was conducted between the F-A-S scores (behavioral testing) and the pairwise FC pattern of verbal fluency regions of interest. Results showed that the higher FC between the thalamus and the cerebellum, and the lower FCs between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula and between the supplementary motor area and the right insula were associated with better performance on the FAS test. Regression analyses revealed that the first two FCs contributed independently to this better phonemic fluency, reflecting a more general attentional factor (FC between thalamus and cerebellum) and a more specific fluency factor (FC between the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right insula). The results support the Spontaneous Trait Reactivation hypothesis, which explains how resting-state derived measures may reflect individual differences in cognitive abilities.

  4. Fluency Interventions for Developmental Readers: Repeated Readings and Wide Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…

  5. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  6. Increasing Fluency in L2 Writing with Singing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alisaari, Jenni; Heikkola, Leena Maria

    2016-01-01

    Fluency is an essential part of a language learner's skills. Despite various studies on fluency, little is known about the effects of different pedagogical methods on the development of written fluency. In this paper, we examine how different pedagogical methods affect the development of second language learners' written fluency. Participants in…

  7. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  8. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  9. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)-how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development.

  10. Verbal naming test for use with older adults: development and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Yochim, Brian P; Beaudreau, Sherry A; Kaci Fairchild, J; Yutsis, Maya V; Raymond, Neda; Friedman, Leah; Yesavage, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Naming or word-finding tasks are a mainstay of the typical neuropsychological evaluation, particularly with older adults. However, many older adults have significant visual impairment and there are currently no such word-finding tasks developed for use with older visually impaired populations. This study presents a verbal, non-visual measure of word-finding for use in the evaluation of older adults with possible dysnomia. Stimuli were chosen based on their frequency of usage in everyday spoken language. A 60-item scale was created and given to 131 older Veterans. Rasch analyses were conducted and differential item functioning assessed to eliminate poorly-performing items. The final 55-item scale had a coefficient alpha of 0.84 and correlated with the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Naming test, r=0.84, p<.01, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) Category Fluency, r=0.45, p<.01, and the D-KEFS Letter Fluency, r=0.40, p<.01. ROC analyses found the measure to have sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 85% for detecting dysnomia. Patients with dysnomia performed worse on the measure than patients with intact word-finding, t(84)=8.2, p<.001. Patients with no cognitive impairment performed significantly better than patients with mild cognitive impairment, who performed significantly better than patients with dementia. This new measure shows promise in the neuropsychological evaluation of word-finding ability in older adults with or without visual impairment. Future directions include the development of a shorter version and the generation of additional normative data.

  11. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6–8 (N = 1,794). Students who were struggling (n = 704) and typically developing readers (n = 1,028) were randomly assigned to read five 1-min passages from each of 5 Lexile bands (within student range of 550 Lexiles). A series of multilevel analyses showed that student and text characteristics contributed uniquely to oral reading fluency rates. Student characteristics involving sight word reading efficiency and level of decoding ability accounted for more variability than reader type and verbal knowledge, with small, but statistically significant effects of grade and gender. The most significant text feature was passage difficulty level. Interactions involving student text characteristics, especially attributes involving overall ability level and difficulty of the text, were also apparent. These results support views of the development of oral reading fluency that involve interactions of student and text characteristics and highlight the importance of scaling for passage difficulty level in assessing individual differences in oral reading fluency. PMID:24567659

  12. Principal Component Analysis Study of Visual and Verbal Metaphoric Comprehension in Children with Autism and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2012-01-01

    This research extends previous studies regarding the metaphoric competence of autistic and learning disabled children on different measures of visual and verbal non-literal language comprehension, as well as cognitive abilities that include semantic knowledge, executive functions, similarities, and reading fluency. Thirty seven children with…

  13. Belief attribution despite verbal interference.

    PubMed

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Ramus, Franck

    2011-05-01

    False-belief (FB) tasks have been widely used to study the ability of individuals to represent the content of their conspecifics' mental states (theory of mind). However, the cognitive processes involved are still poorly understood, and it remains particularly debated whether language and inner speech are necessary for the attribution of beliefs to other agents. We present a completely nonverbal paradigm consisting of silent animated cartoons in five closely related conditions, systematically teasing apart different aspects of scene analysis and allowing the assessment of the attribution of beliefs, goals, and physical causation. In order to test the role of language in belief attribution, we used verbal shadowing as a dual task to inhibit inner speech. Data on 58 healthy adults indicate that verbal interference decreases overall performance, but has no specific effect on belief attribution. Participants remained able to attribute beliefs despite heavy concurrent demands on their verbal abilities. Our results are most consistent with the hypothesis that belief attribution is independent from inner speech.

  14. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  15. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  16. Improve Your Verbal Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Most teachers are well aware that verbal questioning can aid student learning. Asking questions can stimulate students to think about the content being studied; connect it to prior knowledge consider its meanings and implications; and explore its applications. A common problem with many teachers' use of verbal questioning is a lack of knowledge…

  17. A Comparison of Two Reading Fluency Methods: Repeated Readings to a Fluency Criterion and Interval Sprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers have used the method of repeated readings to build oral reading fluency in students with and without special needs. A new fluency building intervention called interval sprinting uses shorter timing intervals (i.e., sprints) across a passage. This study used an alternating treatment design to compare repeated readings and interval…

  18. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  19. Fluency Idol: Using Pop Culture to Engage Students and Boost Fluency Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calo, Kristine M.; Woolard-Ferguson, Taylor; Koitz, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article shares an oral reading practice that develops children's fluency skills, with a particular emphasis on performance reading and prosody. The authors share their experiences with Fluency Idol! as a way to engage young children by tapping into pop culture. The practice emphasizes repeated readings, feedback, practice, and…

  20. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  1. Visualizing the Verbal and Verbalizing the Visual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Roberts A.

    This paper explores relationships of visual images to verbal elements, beginning with a discussion of visible language as represented by words printed on the page. The visual flexibility inherent in typography is discussed in terms of the appearance of the letters and the denotative and connotative meanings represented by type, typographical…

  2. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508

  3. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  4. [The neurocognitive profile of non-verbal learning disorder].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Nonell, C; Rigau-Ratera, E; Artigas-Pallares, J

    Non-verbal learning disorder is a specific type of learning disorder that is characterised by difficulties in social skills, in visuospatial and visual-constructional capabilities, and in motor skills. To observe the cognitive profile characterising these children. We evaluated the intelligence, memory, visuospatial functions, instrumental and executive functions of 13 children between 8 and 14 years of age diagnosed with non-verbal learning disorder. All the children displayed an overall intelligence quotient within a range considered to be normal, with a marked difference between the verbal and manipulative intelligence quotients. They all had a good verbal memory. In contrast, they had difficulties in any tasks requiring spatial organisation and sequencing. Spontaneous language was fluent and aprosodic, with poor non-verbal communication. Good verbal skills and marked deficits in visuospatial skills are the characteristic pattern that has been described in the literature and this coincides with the observations made in the 13 children under study.

  5. Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xiaoli; Li, Fengying; Qiao, Fuqiang; Guo, Xiuyan; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to establish whether tonal symmetry produces processing fluency. Second, we sought to explore whether symmetry and chunk strength express themselves differently in fluency, as an indication of different mechanisms being involved for sub- and supra-finite state processing. Across two experiments, participants were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry showing a mirror symmetry (an inversion, i.e., a type of cross serial dependency); after this training phase, people completed a four-choice RT task in which they were presented with new artificial poetry. Participants were required to identify the stimulus displayed. We found that symmetry sped up responding to the second half of strings, indicating a fluency effect. Furthermore, there was a dissociation between fluency effects arising from symmetry vs. chunk strength, with stronger fluency effects for symmetry rather than chunks in the second half of strings. Taken together, we conjecture a divide between finite state and supra-finite state mechanisms in learning grammatical sequences. PMID:26869960

  6. Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiaoli; Li, Fengying; Qiao, Fuqiang; Guo, Xiuyan; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to establish whether tonal symmetry produces processing fluency. Second, we sought to explore whether symmetry and chunk strength express themselves differently in fluency, as an indication of different mechanisms being involved for sub- and supra-finite state processing. Across two experiments, participants were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry showing a mirror symmetry (an inversion, i.e., a type of cross serial dependency); after this training phase, people completed a four-choice RT task in which they were presented with new artificial poetry. Participants were required to identify the stimulus displayed. We found that symmetry sped up responding to the second half of strings, indicating a fluency effect. Furthermore, there was a dissociation between fluency effects arising from symmetry vs. chunk strength, with stronger fluency effects for symmetry rather than chunks in the second half of strings. Taken together, we conjecture a divide between finite state and supra-finite state mechanisms in learning grammatical sequences.

  7. Verbal communication among Alzheimer's disease patients, their caregivers, and primary care physicians during primary care office visits.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Schulz, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual's verbal participation in these triadic interactions. To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty-three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver's own verbal participation. Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient's active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits.

  8. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  9. The role of answer fluency and perceptual fluency as metacognitive cues for initiating analytic thinking.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Valerie A; Turner, Jamie A Prowse; Pennycook, Gordon; Ball, Linden J; Brack, Hannah; Ophir, Yael; Ackerman, Rakefet

    2013-08-01

    Although widely studied in other domains, relatively little is known about the metacognitive processes that monitor and control behaviour during reasoning and decision-making. In this paper, we examined the conditions under which two fluency cues are used to monitor initial reasoning: answer fluency, or the speed with which the initial, intuitive answer is produced (Thompson, Prowse Turner, & Pennycook, 2011), and perceptual fluency, or the ease with which problems can be read (Alter, Oppenheimer, Epley, & Eyre, 2007). The first two experiments demonstrated that answer fluency reliably predicted Feeling of Rightness (FOR) judgments to conditional inferences and base rate problems, which subsequently predicted the amount of deliberate processing as measured by thinking time and answer changes; answer fluency also predicted retrospective confidence judgments (Experiment 3b). Moreover, the effect of answer fluency on reasoning was independent from the effect of perceptual fluency, establishing that these are empirically independent constructs. In five experiments with a variety of reasoning problems similar to those of Alter et al. (2007), we found no effect of perceptual fluency on FOR, retrospective confidence or accuracy; however, we did observe that participants spent more time thinking about hard to read stimuli, although this additional time did not result in answer changes. In our final two experiments, we found that perceptual disfluency increased accuracy on the CRT (Frederick, 2005), but only amongst participants of high cognitive ability. As Alter et al.'s samples were gathered from prestigious universities, collectively, the data to this point suggest that perceptual fluency prompts additional processing in general, but this processing may results in higher accuracy only for the most cognitively able. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dissociative semantic breakdown in Alzheimer's disease: evidence from multiple category fluency test.

    PubMed

    Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Hameed, Shahul; Earnest, Arul; Tan, Eng-King

    2013-07-01

    Category-specific semantic dissociation particularly in terms of biological and non-biological dichotomy has been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We re-examine above finding by performing multiple superordinate category verbal fluency test in AD patients. We analyze the baseline neuropsychological assessment performance of food and animal fluency test of AD patients from a tertiary hospital that collected prospectively over 5 years period and correlation was calculated by Kappa test. The analysis is stratified according to literacy level (primary: 0-6 years education and secondary: >6 years education) and disease severity (MMSE score: mild 19-24, moderate 13-18 and severe <13). A total of 296 AD patients were analyzed and only fair to moderate agreement between food and animal category fluency test was found especially in the mild AD cases (primary: kappa 0.42; secondary: kappa 0.40). Kappa agreement level increases when disease progress especially in the secondary education group. Food category, which is a more relevant semantic knowledge to Singapore population, is generally more affected. Higher educated subjects appeared to have less semantic dissociation effect when disease progress. Despite less primed in daily life, biological category of semantic knowledge appears to be affected less during AD process in highly urbanized Singapore society. Brain appears to have special protective mechanism towards living things. However, education level seems have a modulation effect towards the biological protective mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The differential effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mello, Joana

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments contrast the effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth, after participants learn to associate high levels of fluency with falseness (i.e., a reversal of the fluency-truth link). Experiment 1 shows that the interpretation of fluency as a sign of truth is harder to reverse when learning is promoted with repetition rather than with perceptual fluency. Experiment 2 shows that when color contrast and repetition are manipulated orthogonally, the reversal of the truth effect learned with color contrast does not generalize to repetition. These results suggest specificities in the processing experiences generated by different sources of fluency, and that their influences can be separated in contexts that allow the contrast of their distinctive features. We interpret and discuss these results in light of the research addressing the convergence vs. dissociation of the effects elicited by different fluency sources.

  12. Fluency Formula[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Fluency Formula"[TM] is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency for first- through sixth-grade students. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundation for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom.…

  13. The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    What is second language fluency? What is a foreign accent? Is it possible for an adult second language learner to speak fluently with a heavy accent or vice versa? What factors contribute to the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? What acoustic attributes correlate with the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? To answer these…

  14. The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    What is second language fluency? What is a foreign accent? Is it possible for an adult second language learner to speak fluently with a heavy accent or vice versa? What factors contribute to the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? What acoustic attributes correlate with the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? To answer these…

  15. A Synthesis of Fluency Interventions for Secondary Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2008-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers…

  16. The Perception of Fluency in Native and Nonnative Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; Sanders, Ted; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Where native speakers supposedly are fluent by default, nonnative speakers often have to strive hard to achieve a nativelike fluency level. However, disfluencies (such as pauses, fillers, repairs, etc.) occur in both native and nonnative speech and it is as yet unclear how fluency raters weigh the fluency characteristics of native and nonnative…

  17. Oral Fluency: The Neglected Component in the Communicative Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Marian J.; Derwing, Tracey M.; Manimtim, Linda G.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that current instructional ESL resources must be supplemented to facilitate the effective development of learners' oral fluency. We summarize some of the pertinent literature on L2 fluency and report the results of a survey of fluency activities (free production, rehearsal/repetition, consciousness-raising, and use of…

  18. Reading Fluency in the Middle and Secondary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, David D.; Magpuri-Lavell, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the specifics of reading fluency and provide suggestions for identifying when reading is fluent and when it is not. We then discuss the important role that reading fluency plays in the attainment of literacy achievement and briefly review research results that highlight the relationship between fluency and comprehension.…

  19. Fluency in Reading--Thirty-Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, William

    2010-01-01

    Paul Nation's talents and interests extend well beyond vocabulary to include research on speaking, writing, classroom learning and teaching, reading, and fluency. In keeping with Nation's interests in fluency, extensive reading, and reading instruction, I outline current perspectives on reading fluency and its role as a key component of reading…

  20. Brisk and Effective Fluency Instruction for Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Fluency is known as the bridge between phonics and comprehension. Teachers of reading provide high-quality instruction in phonics and decoding strategies, usually in a small-group format, but may be unsure how to insert fluency instruction into the small-group lesson. This article presents key concepts in fluency instruction and a description of…

  1. Potential Applications of Behavioral Fluency for Students With Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubina, Jr., Richard M.; Wolfe, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Curricula for students with autism do not take into account levels of learning such as behavioral fluency. Behavioral fluency addresses accuracy as well as speed of response. We posit that fluency increases the functionality of skills for students with autism and should be systematically programmed into a curriculum. To discuss the application of…

  2. Impairment only on the fluency subtest of the Frontal Assessment Battery after prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Chapados, Catherine; Petrides, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The Frontal Assessment Battery is a set of six subtests that is used widely to assess frontal cortical executive dysfunction. Performance on the Frontal Assessment Battery has been shown to be sensitive to various neurodegenerative diseases, but it has never been shown to be sensitive to damage restricted to the frontal cortex. Thus, despite its wide use, it has never been validated on an appropriate population of patients with frontal lesions. The present study shows that, of the six subtests that comprise the Frontal Assessment Battery, only performance on the verbal fluency subtest (mental flexibility) was specifically sensitive to injury restricted to the frontal cortex. Performance of patients with damage to the dorsal part of the medial frontal region in the language-dominant left hemisphere was impaired. None of these patients was aphasic at the time of testing. The critical region in the dorsomedial frontal cortex includes the supplementary speech zone but is not restricted to it: it extends into the cingulate motor region and the paracingulate cortex as well as the medial prefrontal areas 8 and 9. The results indicate that the Frontal Assessment Battery is not a sensitive measure of prefrontal cortical dysfunction, except for the verbal fluency subtest.

  3. Relations among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (a) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency, (b) silent reading fluency…

  4. Poor Sleep Habits = Poor Grades

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166509.html Poor Sleep Habits = Poor Grades Study of college students finds ... socialize, college life seems geared toward an erratic sleep schedule. But new research suggests that an unpredictable ...

  5. Characteristics of Fluency and Speech in Two Families With High Incidences of Stuttering.

    PubMed

    Stager, Sheila V; Freeman, Frances J; Braun, Allen

    2015-10-01

    This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert identification. Agreement on which individuals were assigned by each of these methods was studied. Multiple measures of fluency and speech production were obtained. Self-reports and descriptions of blocking rather than self-identification as a person who stutters demonstrated the best agreement with expert identification of stuttering. Family identification showed poor agreement with both expert and self-identification of stuttering. Using binary categories of fluent or stuttering, 90% of individuals in 1 family were classified by expert consensus. Only 70% of the other family could be similarly categorized. Experts required 2 other categories, cluttering and other fluency disorders, to fully characterize dysfluency within this family. These 2 families also demonstrated differences in speech production. Some families with high incidence of stuttering may also have high incidence of other fluency disorders and other speech-production difficulties. This finding may have ramifications for genetic studies, including criteria for defining phenotype and collapsing data across multiple families.

  6. Characteristics of Fluency and Speech in Two Families With High Incidences of Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Frances J.; Braun, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Method Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert identification. Agreement on which individuals were assigned by each of these methods was studied. Multiple measures of fluency and speech production were obtained. Results Self-reports and descriptions of blocking rather than self-identification as a person who stutters demonstrated the best agreement with expert identification of stuttering. Family identification showed poor agreement with both expert and self-identification of stuttering. Using binary categories of fluent or stuttering, 90% of individuals in 1 family were classified by expert consensus. Only 70% of the other family could be similarly categorized. Experts required 2 other categories, cluttering and other fluency disorders, to fully characterize dysfluency within this family. These 2 families also demonstrated differences in speech production. Conclusion Some families with high incidence of stuttering may also have high incidence of other fluency disorders and other speech-production difficulties. This finding may have ramifications for genetic studies, including criteria for defining phenotype and collapsing data across multiple families. PMID:26126023

  7. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  8. Using Songs to Strengthen Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of songs with lyrics to increase the reading fluency rates of three middle school students. In the first condition, students heard fluent reading modeled, read regular passages repeatedly and then received feedback on accuracy, phrasing and expression. After that, students received the same intervention, except that…

  9. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  10. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  11. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  12. Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral fluency is that combination of accuracy plus speed of responding that enables competent individuals to function efficiently and effectively in their natural environments. Evolving from the methodology of free-operant conditioning, the practice of precision teaching set the stage for discoveries about relations between behavior frequency and specific outcomes, notably retention and maintenance of performance, endurance or resistance to distraction, and application or transfer of training. The use of frequency aims in instructional programming by Haughton and his associates led to formulation of empirically determined performance frequency ranges that define fluency. Use of fluency-based instructional methods has led to unprecedented gains in educational cost effectiveness, and has the potential for significantly improving education and training in general. This article traces the development of concepts, procedures, and findings associated with fluency and discusses their implications for instructional design and practice. It invites further controlled research and experimental analyses of phenomena that may be significant in the future evolution of educational technology and in the analysis of complex behavior. PMID:22478257

  13. Affect intensity and processing fluency of deterrents.

    PubMed

    Holman, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The theory of emotional intensity (Brehm, 1999) suggests that the intensity of affective states depends on the magnitude of their current deterrents. Our study investigated the role that fluency--the subjective experience of ease of information processing--plays in the emotional intensity modulations as reactions to deterrents. Following an induction phase of good mood, we manipulated both the magnitude of deterrents (using sets of photographs with pre-tested potential to instigate an emotion incompatible with the pre-existent affective state--pity) and their processing fluency (normal vs. enhanced through subliminal priming). Current affective state and perception of deterrents were then measured. In the normal processing conditions, the results revealed the cubic effect predicted by the emotional intensity theory, with the initial affective state being replaced by the one appropriate to the deterrent only in participants exposed to the high magnitude deterrence. In the enhanced fluency conditions the emotional intensity pattern was drastically altered; also, the replacement of the initial affective state occurred at a lower level of deterrence magnitude (moderate instead of high), suggesting the strengthening of deterrence emotional impact by enhanced fluency.

  14. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  15. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  16. Teacher Acceptability of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Sarah Stebbe

    2013-01-01

    Many schools are adopting a Response to Intervention (RTI) model to support and evaluate learning (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of RTI that generally support improved student outcomes (Shinn, 2007). In many schools, teachers collect and use a tool called oral reading fluency for…

  17. Improving Oral Reading Fluency through Readers Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William; Caldwell, Safronia; Beisley, Rene; Sargent, Stephan; Rupley, William

    2013-01-01

    In order for students to learn how to construct meaning from text, teachers must apply instructional strategies that will help readers transition from simple decoding of words to fluent word identification. This article will provide an overview of the literature related to the role of fluency in reading; explain research-based recommendations for…

  18. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  19. Typicality of words produced on a semantic fluency task in amnesic mild cognitive impairment: linguistic analysis and risk of conversion to dementia.

    PubMed

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Marra, Camillo; Spinelli, Pietro; Caprara, Alessia; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Castelli, Diana; Canulli, Serena; Gainotti, Guido; Quaranta, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Semantic and, to a lesser extent, phonological verbal fluency tasks are impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Furthermore, both fluency tasks have been considered as possible markers of conversion from aMCI to AD. Up to recent years, the use of fluency tasks has been limited to word count, but, more recently, linguistic variables, such as word frequency, age of acquisition, familiarity, and typicality, have also been considered. In particular, attention has been focused on typicality of words produced on semantic verbal fluency tasks, because the tendency to produce only the more typical members of various categories points to an impoverishment of semantic memory. The aim of our study was to compare in aMCI, AD, and control subjects a lexical (word frequency) and a lexical-semantic variable (item typicality) in a semantic verbal fluency task, and to evaluate the possible value of these variables in predicting conversion from aMCI to AD during a 2 years follow-up period. We found no difference in mean typicality of words produced by aMCI and AD subjects whereas both groups produced words of higher mean typicality than control subjects. Furthermore, to assess the relationship between typicality values and risk of conversion to AD, the aMCI group was split in two subgroups, including subjects who obtained a mean typicality value lower or higher than the median value of the whole aMCI group. Consistent with our hypothesis, conversion to AD was significantly more frequent in high typicality than in low typicality subjects.

  20. The Effect of Short Vowelization on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan; Kenana, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study facilitates the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) to investigate the effect of short vowels on oral reading fluency (ORF) and silent reading comprehension in Arabic orthography. A total sample of 131 fifth-grade students (89 skilled readers and 42 poor readers) participated in the study. Two kinds of CBM probes were…

  1. Training Reading Fluency in Dysfluent Readers with High Reading Accuracy: Word Specific Effects but Low Transfer to Untrained Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Verena; Ebner, Eva Maria; Wimmer, Heinz; Landerl, Karin

    2004-01-01

    The outcome of a training study attempting to increase German speaking poor readers' reading fluency is reported. The aim of the training was to help children establish orthographic representations for a limited set of training words as well as for high-frequency onset clusters. A sample of 20 dysfluent readers (8 to 11 years) received a …

  2. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the three…

  3. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the three…

  4. The Effect of Short Vowelization on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan; Kenana, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study facilitates the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) to investigate the effect of short vowels on oral reading fluency (ORF) and silent reading comprehension in Arabic orthography. A total sample of 131 fifth-grade students (89 skilled readers and 42 poor readers) participated in the study. Two kinds of CBM probes were…

  5. The Effects of a Reader's Theater Instructional Intervention on Second Grade Students' Reading Fluency and Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 75% of students who are poor readers in third grade continue to be lower achieving readers in ninth grade. The National Reading Panel has identified fluency as a prominent cause of reading comprehension problems which ultimately affect overall reading development. The purpose of this study was to test the theoretical framework of…

  6. Relations Among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y.S.; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models (SEM) with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (1) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency; (2) silent reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers; (3) list reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for average readers than for skilled readers; and (4) listening comprehension predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers. PMID:21747658

  7. A Non-Verbal Analogue to the Verbal Transformation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of non-speech auditory stimuli in eliciting transformations analogous to those reported for speech stimuli to determine if a non-verbal analogue to the verbal transformation effect exists. (DD)

  8. The Relations Among Oral and Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School: Implications for Identification and Instruction of Students With Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among oral and silent reading fluency and reading comprehension for students in Grades 6 to 8 (n = 1,421) and the use of fluency scores to identify middle school students who are at risk for failure on a high-stakes reading test. Results indicated moderate positive relations between measures of fluency and comprehension. Oral reading fluency (ORF) on passages was more strongly related to reading comprehension than ORF on word lists. A group-administered silent reading sentence verification test approximated the classification accuracy of individually administered ORF passages. The correlation between a maze task and comprehension was weaker than has been reported for elementary students. The best predictor of a high-stakes reading comprehension test was the previous year’s administration of the grade-appropriate test; fluency and verbal knowledge measures accounted for only small amounts of unique variance beyond that accounted for by the previous year’s administration. PMID:21637727

  9. Verbal Processing Speed and Executive Functioning in Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to report how verbal rehearsal speed (VRS), a form of covert speech used to maintain verbal information in working memory, and another verbal processing speed measure, perceptual encoding speed, are related to 3 domains of executive function (EF) at risk in cochlear implant (CI) users: verbal working memory, fluency-speed, and inhibition-concentration. Method EF, speech perception, and language outcome measures were obtained from 55 prelingually deaf, long-term CI users and matched controls with normal hearing (NH controls). Correlational analyses were used to assess relations between VRS (articulation rate), perceptual encoding speed (digit and color naming), and the outcomes in each sample. Results CI users displayed slower verbal processing speeds than NH controls. Verbal rehearsal speed was related to 2 EF domains in the NH sample but was unrelated to EF outcomes in CI users. Perceptual encoding speed was related to all EF domains in both groups. Conclusions Verbal rehearsal speed may be less influential for EF quality in CI users than for NH controls, whereas rapid automatized labeling skills and EF are closely related in both groups. CI users may develop processing strategies in EF tasks that differ from the covert speech strategies routinely employed by NH individuals. PMID:25320961

  10. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  11. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  12. From Letter Names to Word Reading: The Nascent Role of Sublexical Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Speece, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    Information processing theory suggests that sublexical fluency skills are important to word reading development, but there are few supportive data. This study investigated if sublexical fluency (letter name fluency, letter sound fluency, and phoneme segmentation fluency) contributed to the development of word reading and spelling in 92…

  13. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  14. Transfer effects across contextual and linguistic boundaries: evidence from poor readers.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, D C; Levy, B A; Dowin, S; Casey, A

    1998-10-01

    We report two experiments that are consistent with two hypotheses about poor, nonfluent readers: (1) fluency gains in text reading skill transfer across contextual and linguistic boundaries and (2) these fluency gains enable higher-order comprehension operations to function in the processing of text. We conclude that unlike the fluent reader, the nonfluent reader does not completely integrate the surface characteristics (words) of the text and the message of the text. Word-level representations remain free to support transfer across various processing episodes. Thus, a variety of reading experiences aimed at promoting word recognition fluency will provide benefits to the developing reader. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. The role of working memory and fluency practice on the reading comprehension of students who are dysfluent readers.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H Lee; O'Connor, Rollanda

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated whether practice in reading fluency had a causal influence on the relationship between working memory (WM) and text comprehension for 155 students in Grades 2 and 4 who were poor or average readers. Dysfluent readers were randomly assigned to repeated reading or continuous reading practice conditions and compared with untreated dysfluent and fluent readers on posttest measures of fluency, word identification, vocabulary, and reading comprehension. Three main findings emerged: (a) The influence of WM on text comprehension was not related to fluency training, (b) dysfluent readers in the continuous-reading condition had higher posttest scores than dysfluent readers in the other conditions on measures of text comprehension but not on vocabulary, and (c) individual differences in WM better predicted posttest comprehension performance than word-attack skills. In general, the results suggested that although continuous reading increased comprehension, fluency practice did not compensate for WM demands. The results were interpreted within a model that viewed reading comprehension processes as competing for a limited supply of WM resources that operate independent of fluency.

  16. Interictal language fluency in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Howell, R A; Saling, M M; Bradley, D C; Berkovic, S F

    1994-09-01

    Mild language production difficulties, particularly in confrontation naming, have been documented previously in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). These difficulties, however, do not seem to be reflected in the conversational speech of these patients. In order to compare speech fluency in patients with left and right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) experimentally, we studied global pause-to-speech ratios in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy, using cases with primary generalized epilepsy (PGE) as controls. We hypothesized that left-sides cases would exhibit longer pause durations than right-sided cases. Speech samples were elicited by asking subjects to describe five different New Yorker cartoons, with three repetitions of each description. Phonation was converted to graphic output, and pauses between 200 ms and 4000 ms were summated and divided by total phonation time. This measure did not discriminate significantly between the groups, although the LTLE group tended to pause longer than the RTLE or PGE groups. Increased variability in pause duration in the LTLE group during cycle 1 suggested that some individuals with LTLE are vulnerable to disruption when planning demands are high. A post hoc correlational analysis showed that variation in fluency was primarily explained by orthographically-based lexical retrieval, suggesting that individual differences in fluency are related to limitations in a high-level capacity relevant to the production of speech. It is unlikely that such limitations are specific to LTLE.

  17. Signals voice biofeedback for speech fluency disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jose Francisco; Fernandez-Ramos, Raquel; Romero-Sanchez, Jorge; Rios, Francisco

    2003-04-01

    The knowledge about mechanisms of voice production as well as the parameters obtaining, allow us to present solutions for coding, transmission and establishment of properties to distinguish between the responsible physiological mechanisms. In this work, we are interested in the evaluation of syllabic Sequences in Continuous Speech. We keep in mind this evaluation is very interesting and useful for Foniatrics and Logopaedia applications focus on the measurement and control of Speech Fluency. Moreover, we are interested in studying and evaluating sequential programming and muscular coordination. In this way, the main objective of our work is focus on the study of production mechanisms, model, evaluation methods and introduction of a reliable algorithm to catalogue and classify the phenomena of rythm and speech fluency. In this paper, we present an algorithm for syllabic analysis based on Short Time Energy concept. Firstly, the algorithm extracts the temporary syllabic intervals of speech and silence, and then compared with normality intervals. Secondly, it proceeds to feedback in real time to the patient luminous and acoustic signals indicating the degree of mismatching with the normality model. This methodology is useful to improve fluency disorder. We present an ASIC microelectronic solution for the syllabic analyser and a portable prototype to be used in a clinic level as much as individualized tool for the patient.

  18. Metaphor comprehension in right brain-damaged patients with visuo-verbal and verbal material: a dissociation (re)considered.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Maria Cristina; Marangolo, Paola; Baldassarri, Francesca

    2004-06-01

    Metaphor comprehension was investigated in 50 right-hemisphere damaged (RHD) patients and 38 control subjects in two experimental conditions: a visuo-verbal and a verbal test. In the visuo-verbal test, subjects had to match a metaphorical sentence with one of four pictures representing the correct metaphorical meaning, the literal meaning, a control metaphor and a control literal meaning. In the verbal test, a metaphorical sentence had to be matched to a correct written metaphorical interpretation, a literal or a control interpretation. On both tests, the number of correct metaphorical responses in the RHD group was lower than in the control group. However, RHD patients performed more poorly in the visuo-verbal than in the verbal condition. Interestingly, when they selected the wrong response, the RHD patients tended to select the literal one only in the visuo-verbal condition. Context does not seem to be responsible for the dissociation between the two tests. The influence of the RHD patients' major visuo-spatial deficits was also checked, to exclude their role in the tendency to be literal with visuo-verbal material. Results are discussed in the perspective of an integration deficit.

  19. Semantic and phonological fluency in children with Down syndrome: atypical organization of language or less efficient retrieval strategies?

    PubMed

    Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J

    2008-07-01

    In this study the verbal fluency procedure was used to investigate the organization of semantic and phonological representations in children with Down syndrome (DS) and typically developing children, matched pairwise for receptive vocabulary age. Productivity was found to be significantly reduced in the DS group in both the semantic and the phonological tasks. However, group differences in the number of clusters as opposed to cluster size suggest that this may reflect less efficient retrieval strategies rather than differences in the organization of linguistic representations. Together the findings point to executive deficits in Down syndrome rather than deviant language processes.

  20. Verbal problem-solving difficulties in autism spectrum disorders and atypical language development.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) adopt less efficient strategies than typically developing (TD) peers on the Twenty Questions Task (TQT), a measure of verbal problem-solving skills. Although problems with the TQT are typically associated with executive dysfunction, they have also been reported in children who are deaf, suggesting a role for atypical language development. To test the contribution of language history to ASD problem solving, TQT performance was compared in children with high-functioning autism (HFA), children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and TD children. The HFA group used significantly less efficient strategies than both AS and TD children. No group differences were evident on tests of question understanding, planning or verbal fluency. Potential explanations for differences in verbal problem-solving skill are discussed with reference to the development of inner speech and use of visual strategies in ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Maturation rate and spatial, verbal, and musical abilities: a seven-year-longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M

    1991-06-01

    We traced spatial, verbal and musical abilities through a seven-year period of adolescence. When we started our study, 60 boys had reached a mean age of 11.72, 60 girls were 11.52 on average. Menarche and mutation served as markers for maturation. We found that early, mid, and late maturers differed on spatial orientation and on tactile-visual discrimination as measured with the Witelson task. No differences between the maturational groups emerged on verbal fluency and on Wing's Standardized Tests of Musical Intelligence. At some stages, sex differences on spatial, verbal, and musical tests emerged, and disappeared at others. The sex differences in performance levels were not associated with a sex-specific relationship between maturation rate and performance levels. We found indications of the usefulness of sex hormone measurement in relation to cognitive and musical development in adolescence.

  2. Verbal reinforcement combinations in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Martin, R B; Moltmann, M L

    1978-10-01

    Investigated the effects of verbal reinforcement paradigms on hospitalized schizophrenics and staff. Positive reinforcement that involved good was found to be relatively ineffective for all groups; furthermore, associating good with the termination of a white noise did not increase its effectiveness for schizophrenics. Verbal punishment was more effective than verbal positive reinforcement for staff, but for schizophrenics only when explicit problem-solving instructions were given. The results suggest that the reduction of deficit is not more likely via verbal punishment; if anything, deficit is increased because of increased staff performance under verbal punishment.

  3. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing verbal autopsy studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsy analyses are widely used for estimating cause-specific mortality rates (CSMR) in the vast majority of the world without high-quality medical death registration. Verbal autopsies -- survey interviews with the caretakers of imminent decedents -- stand in for medical examinations or physical autopsies, which are infeasible or culturally prohibited. Methods and Findings We introduce methods, simulations, and interpretations that can improve the design of automated, data-derived estimates of CSMRs, building on a new approach by King and Lu (2008). Our results generate advice for choosing symptom questions and sample sizes that is easier to satisfy than existing practices. For example, most prior effort has been devoted to searching for symptoms with high sensitivity and specificity, which has rarely if ever succeeded with multiple causes of death. In contrast, our approach makes this search irrelevant because it can produce unbiased estimates even with symptoms that have very low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the new method is optimized for survey questions caretakers can easily answer rather than questions physicians would ask themselves. We also offer an automated method of weeding out biased symptom questions and advice on how to choose the number of causes of death, symptom questions to ask, and observations to collect, among others. Conclusions With the advice offered here, researchers should be able to design verbal autopsy surveys and conduct analyses with greatly reduced statistical biases and research costs. PMID:20573233

  5. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally

  6. Individual differences in verbal creative thinking are reflected in the precuneus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun-Lin; Xu, Ting; Yang, Wen-Jing; Li, Ya-Dan; Sun, Jiang-Zhou; Wang, Kang-Cheng; Beaty, Roger E; Zhang, Qing-Lin; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-08-01

    There have been many structural and functional imaging studies of creative thinking, but combining structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations with respect to creative thinking is still lacking. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations among inter-individual verbal creative thinking and both regional homogeneity and cortical morphology of the brain surface. We related the local functional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity to verbal creative thinking and its dimensions--fluency, originality, and flexibility--by examining these inter-individual differences in a large sample of 268 healthy college students. Results revealed that people with high verbal creative ability and high scores for the three dimensions of creativity exhibited lower regional functional homogeneity in the right precuneus. Both cortical volume and thickness of the right precuneus were positively associated with individual verbal creativity and its dimensions. Moreover, originality was negatively correlated with functional homogeneity in the left superior frontal gyrus and positively correlated with functional homogeneity in the right occipito-temporal gyrus. In contrast, flexibility was positively correlated with functional homogeneity in the left superior and middle occipital gyrus. These findings provide additional evidence of a link between verbal creative thinking and brain structure in the right precuneus--a region involved in internally--focused attention and effective semantic retrieval-and further suggest that local functional homogeneity of verbal creative thinking has neurobiological relevance that is likely based on anatomical substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Some Implications of a Behavioral Analysis of Verbal Behavior for Logic and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Palmer, David C

    2013-01-01

    The evident power and utility of the formal models of logic and mathematics pose a puzzle: Although such models are instances of verbal behavior, they are also essentialistic. But behavioral terms, and indeed all products of selection contingencies, are intrinsically variable and in this respect appear to be incommensurate with essentialism. A distinctive feature of verbal contingencies resolves this puzzle: The control of behavior by the nonverbal environment is often mediated by the verbal behavior of others, and behavior under control of verbal stimuli is blind to the intrinsic variability of the stimulating environment. Thus, words and sentences serve as filters of variability and thereby facilitate essentialistic model building and the formal structures of logic, mathematics, and science. Autoclitic frames, verbal chains interrupted by interchangeable variable terms, are ubiquitous in verbal behavior. Variable terms can be substituted in such frames almost without limit, a feature fundamental to formal models. Consequently, our fluency with autoclitic frames fosters generalization to formal models, which in turn permit deduction and other kinds of logical and mathematical inference.

  8. Some Implications of a Behavioral Analysis of Verbal Behavior for Logic and Mathematics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The evident power and utility of the formal models of logic and mathematics pose a puzzle: Although such models are instances of verbal behavior, they are also essentialistic. But behavioral terms, and indeed all products of selection contingencies, are intrinsically variable and in this respect appear to be incommensurate with essentialism. A distinctive feature of verbal contingencies resolves this puzzle: The control of behavior by the nonverbal environment is often mediated by the verbal behavior of others, and behavior under control of verbal stimuli is blind to the intrinsic variability of the stimulating environment. Thus, words and sentences serve as filters of variability and thereby facilitate essentialistic model building and the formal structures of logic, mathematics, and science. Autoclitic frames, verbal chains interrupted by interchangeable variable terms, are ubiquitous in verbal behavior. Variable terms can be substituted in such frames almost without limit, a feature fundamental to formal models. Consequently, our fluency with autoclitic frames fosters generalization to formal models, which in turn permit deduction and other kinds of logical and mathematical inference. PMID:28018038

  9. Deriving semantic structure from category fluency: clustering techniques and their pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Storms, Gert; Longenecker, Julia; Verheyen, Steven; Weinberger, Daniel R; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Assessing verbal output in category fluency tasks provides a sensitive indicator of cortical dysfunction. The most common metrics are the overall number of words produced and the number of errors. Two main observations have been made about the structure of the output, first that there is a temporal component to it with words being generated in spurts, and second that the clustering pattern may reflect a search for meanings such that the 'clustering' is attributable to the activation of a specific semantic field in memory. A number of sophisticated approaches to examining the structure of this clustering have been developed, and a core theme is that the similarity relations between category members will reveal the mental semantic structure of the category underlying an individual's responses, which can then be visualized by a number of algorithms, such as MDS, hierarchical clustering, ADDTREE, ADCLUS or SVD. Such approaches have been applied to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, and the general conclusion has been that the clinical condition systematically distorts the semantic structure in the patients, as compared to the healthy controls. In the present paper we explore this approach to understanding semantic structure using category fluency data. On the basis of a large pool of patients with schizophrenia (n = 204) and healthy control participants (n = 204), we find that the methods are problematic and unreliable to the extent that it is not possible to conclude that any putative difference reflects a systematic difference between the semantic representations in patients and controls. Moreover, taking into account the unreliability of the methods, we find that the most probable conclusion to be made is that no difference in underlying semantic representation exists. The consequences of these findings to understanding semantic structure, and the use of category fluency data, in cortical dysfunction are discussed.

  10. Deriving semantic structure from category fluency: clustering techniques and their pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Storms, Gert; Longenecker, Julia; Verheyen, Steven; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Elvevåg, Brita

    2013-01-01

    Assessing verbal output in category fluency tasks provides a sensitive indicator of cortical dysfunction. The most common metrics are the overall number of words produced and the number of errors. Two main observations have been made about the structure of the output, first that there is a temporal component to it with words being generated in spurts, and second that the clustering pattern may reflect a search for meanings such that the ‘clustering’ is attributable to the activation of a specific semantic field in memory. A number of sophisticated approaches to examining the structure of this clustering have been developed, and a core theme is that the similarity relations between category members will reveal the mental semantic structure of the category underlying an individual’s responses, which can then be visualized by a number of algorithms, such as MDS, hierarchical clustering, ADDTREE, ADCLUS or SVD. Such approaches have been applied to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, and the general conclusion has been that the clinical condition systematically distorts the semantic structure in the patients, as compared to the healthy controls. In the present paper we explore this approach to understanding semantic structure using category fluency data. On the basis of a large pool of patients with schizophrenia (n=204) and healthy control participants (n=204), we find that the methods are problematic and unreliable to the extent that it is not possible to conclude that any putative difference reflects a systematic difference between the semantic representations in patients and controls. Moreover, taking into account the unreliability of the methods, we find that the most probable conclusion to be made is that no difference in underlying semantic representation exists. The consequences of these findings to understanding semantic structure, and the use of category fluency data, in cortical dysfunction are discussed. PMID:24275165

  11. Impaired retrieval of semantic information in bipolar disorder: a clustering analysis of category-fluency productions.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyongje; Gordon, Barry; Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Ledoux, Kerry; Schretlen, David J

    2013-08-01

    On category-cued verbal fluency tasks, such as animal naming, respondents often report exemplars in semantically related clusters. We (Sung et al., 2012) used this tendency to elucidate sources of semantic dysfunction in adults with schizophrenia (SZ). Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) show cognitive deficits that are similar to but milder than those seen in SZ. Whether this similarity extends to the functioning of the semantic system is unclear. To test the hypothesis that it does, we adapted a clustering technique called singular value decomposition (SVD) to investigate the clustering pattern of semantic retrieval in BD. Two category-fluency tasks (animal and supermarket-item naming) were administered to 98 adult outpatients with BD and 98 healthy adults (NC) who matched the BD group in age, sex, education, and estimated premorbid IQ. Results of clustering analysis showed that patients with BD produced less coherent category clusters than healthy adults. Specifically, patients with BD showed less coherent clusters of low-frequency animal names, but their overall productivity was not more impaired than the NCs'. In the supermarket condition, patients not only showed incoherent clustering of named supermarket items regardless of their frequencies, but also produced smaller numbers of exemplars than NCs did. The semantic system abnormalities shown by adults with BD were similar to those we found previously in persons with SZ, although the group differences were smaller. Overall, these results point to a concept retrieval/access deficit in BD and underscore the importance of analyzing the content of category-fluency productions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Language Non-Selective Syntactic Activation in Early Bilinguals: The Role of Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bilinguals presented with words in one of their languages spontaneously and automatically activate lexical representations from their other language. However, such effects, found in varied experimental contexts, both in behavioural and psychophysiological investigations, have been essentially limited to the…

  13. Language Non-Selective Syntactic Activation in Early Bilinguals: The Role of Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bilinguals presented with words in one of their languages spontaneously and automatically activate lexical representations from their other language. However, such effects, found in varied experimental contexts, both in behavioural and psychophysiological investigations, have been essentially limited to the…

  14. Early Blindness May Be Associated with Changes in Performance on Verbal Fluency Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Claire E.; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of how children who are blind acquire and use language have focused less on cognitive compensations and more on delays in development. Vision is important in the establishment of early communicative patterns, and sighted children regularly use contextual visual information, such as a speaker's gestures and eye gaze, to make sense of speech…

  15. Contribution of NIRS to the Study of Prefrontal Cortex for Verbal Fluency in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Di Sante, Gabriele; Barbeau, Joannie; Maheux, Manon; Lesage, Frederic; Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging is characterized by a number of changes on brain structure and function. Several neuroimaging studies have shown an age-related reduction in hemispheric asymmetry on various cognitive tasks, a phenomenon captured by Cabeza (2002) in the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Although this phenomenon is…

  16. FAS and CFL forms of verbal fluency differ in difficulty: a meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Barry, Danielle; Bates, Marsha E; Labouvie, Erich

    2008-01-01

    The Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) Test is a brief and sensitive measure of executive cognitive dysfunction. There are two commonly used forms of the test, one using the letters F, A, and S, and the other using C, F, and L. This study examines the relative difficulty of the two forms using a meta-analytic approach that includes multiple samples of normal individuals. The effects of age, education, gender composition, exclusion criteria, and age of study are also examined. Results indicate that the CFL form of the test is more difficult and that age, education, and the use of strict exclusion criteria influence performance. Performance is more variable for the FAS form, and age and age of study influence performance variability.

  17. Extralinguistic Communication Compensates for the Loss of Verbal Fluency: A Case Study of Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabat, Steven R.; Cagigas, Xavier E.

    1997-01-01

    The case study of an older woman with Alzheimer's disease shows that while her command of words and syntax had deteriorated, her ability to use other forms of communication had not. Her alternative forms of communication included use of gesture, facial expression, posture, and tone of voice. (MSE)

  18. Contribution of NIRS to the Study of Prefrontal Cortex for Verbal Fluency in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Di Sante, Gabriele; Barbeau, Joannie; Maheux, Manon; Lesage, Frederic; Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging is characterized by a number of changes on brain structure and function. Several neuroimaging studies have shown an age-related reduction in hemispheric asymmetry on various cognitive tasks, a phenomenon captured by Cabeza (2002) in the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Although this phenomenon is…

  19. Can Fluency Be Interpreted as Novelty? Retraining the Interpretation of Fluency in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli that are processed fluently tend to be regarded as more familiar and are more likely to be classified as old on a recognition test compared with less fluent stimuli. Recently it was shown that the standard relationship between fluency and positive recognition judgments can be reversed if participants are trained that previously studied…

  20. Brain Bases of Reading Fluency in Typical Reading and Impaired Fluency in Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Del Tufo, Stephanie N.; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates. PMID:25058010

  1. Perceptual Fluency, Auditory Generation, and Metamemory: Analyzing the Perceptual Fluency Hypothesis in the Auditory Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2014-01-01

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences…

  2. Aligning Theory and Assessment of Reading Fluency: Automaticity, Prosody, and Definitions of Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie R.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, fluent reading has come to be seen as a central component of skilled reading and a driving force in the literacy curriculum. However, much of this focus has centered on a relatively narrow definition of reading fluency, one that emphasizes automatic word recognition. This article attempts to expand this understanding by…

  3. Perceptual Fluency, Auditory Generation, and Metamemory: Analyzing the Perceptual Fluency Hypothesis in the Auditory Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2014-01-01

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences…

  4. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Joanna A; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  5. Can Fluency Be Interpreted as Novelty? Retraining the Interpretation of Fluency in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2012-01-01

    Stimuli that are processed fluently tend to be regarded as more familiar and are more likely to be classified as old on a recognition test compared with less fluent stimuli. Recently it was shown that the standard relationship between fluency and positive recognition judgments can be reversed if participants are trained that previously studied…

  6. Programming for Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Changing Fluency Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Starr E.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Robinson-Ervin, Porsha

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supplemental repeated reading intervention delivered through a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the oral reading fluency (ORF), comprehension, and generalization of second graders who were at risk for reading failure. Six students received the Read Naturally Software Edition (RNSE) treatment…

  7. On the reliability, validity, and cognitive structure of the Thurstone Word Fluency Test.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M J; Stanczak, D E

    2000-04-01

    The Thurstone Word Fluency Test (TWFT) is a widely used neuropsychological instrument. However, data regarding its psychometric properties are lacking. The results of the present study suggest that the TWFT possesses excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability, in addition to good construct validity. However, its criterion validity is limited by its lack of specificity and sensitivity. The present study also suggests that the TWFT is a complex cognitive task, and that successful TWFT performance depends upon a constellation of cognitive abilities, including attention/concentration, psychomotor speed, and memory. Finally, the relationship between verbal IQ and TWFT letter association value was examined. While the TWFT appears to be useful in detecting the presence of cerebral dysfunction, it is of less value in localizing such dysfunction. It is argued that the TWFT should not be used as a neuropsychological screening instrument, but rather, is best used within the context of a thorough neuropsychological examination.

  8. Patterns of brain atrophy associated with episodic memory and semantic fluency decline in aging.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Amandine; Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Le Goff, Melanie; Chanraud, Sandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2017-03-09

    The cerebral substratum of age-related cognitive decline was evaluated in an elderly-cohort followed for 12 years (n=306). Participants, free of dementia, received neuropsychological assessments every two years and an MRI exam at baseline and four years later. Cognitive decline was evaluated on two broadly used tests to detect dementia: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), a verbal episodic memory task, and the Isaacs Set Test (IST), a semantic fluency task. Using voxel-based approach, the relationship between cognitive decline with 1/ baseline grey matter volumes and 2/ grey matter volume loss between the two scans was explored. Baseline volumes analysis revealed that FCSRT and IST declines were both associated with lower volumes of the medial temporal region. Volumes loss analysis confirmed that both declines are related to medial temporal lobe atrophy and revealed that FCSRT decline was specifically associated with atrophy of the posterior cingulate cortex whereas IST decline was specifically related to temporal pole atrophy. These results suggest that cognitive decline across aging is firstly related to structural modifications of the medial temporal lobe, followed by an atrophy in the posterior midline structures for episodic memory and an atrophy of the temporal pole for semantic fluency.

  9. Patterns of brain atrophy associated with episodic memory and semantic fluency decline in aging

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Amandine; Bernard, Charlotte; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Helmer, Catherine; Le Goff, Melanie; Chanraud, Sandra; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Amieva, Hélène; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2017-01-01

    The cerebral substratum of age-related cognitive decline was evaluated in an elderly-cohort followed for 12 years (n=306). Participants, free of dementia, received neuropsychological assessments every two years and an MRI exam at baseline and four years later. Cognitive decline was evaluated on two broadly used tests to detect dementia: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), a verbal episodic memory task, and the Isaacs Set Test (IST), a semantic fluency task. Using voxel-based approach, the relationship between cognitive decline with 1/ baseline grey matter volumes and 2/ grey matter volume loss between the two scans was explored. Baseline volumes analysis revealed that FCSRT and IST declines were both associated with lower volumes of the medial temporal region. Volumes loss analysis confirmed that both declines are related to medial temporal lobe atrophy and revealed that FCSRT decline was specifically associated with atrophy of the posterior cingulate cortex whereas IST decline was specifically related to temporal pole atrophy. These results suggest that cognitive decline across aging is firstly related to structural modifications of the medial temporal lobe, followed by an atrophy in the posterior midline structures for episodic memory and an atrophy of the temporal pole for semantic fluency. PMID:28278492

  10. The relationship between uncinate fasciculus white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, David J; Krafft, Cynthia E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Chi, Lingxi; Rodrigue, Amanda L; Pierce, Jordan E; Allison, Jerry D; Yanasak, Nathan E; Liu, Tianming; Davis, Catherine L; McDowell, Jennifer E

    2014-08-20

    During childhood, verbal learning and memory are important for academic performance. Recent functional MRI studies have reported on the functional correlates of verbal memory proficiency, but few have reported the underlying structural correlates. The present study sought to test the relationship between fronto-temporal white matter integrity and verbal memory proficiency in children. Diffusion weighted images were collected from 17 Black children (age 8-11 years) who also completed the California Verbal Learning Test. To index white matter integrity, fractional anisotropy values were calculated for bilateral uncinate fasciculus. The results revealed that low anisotropy values corresponded to poor verbal memory, whereas high anisotropy values corresponded to significantly better verbal memory scores. These findings suggest that a greater degree of myelination and cohesiveness of axonal fibers in uncinate fasciculus underlie better verbal memory proficiency in children.

  11. A cross-cultural investigation of inhibitory control, generative fluency, and anxiety symptoms in Romanian and Russian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Cheie, Lavinia; Veraksa, Aleksander; Zinchenko, Yuri; Gorovaya, Alexandra; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on the early development of inhibitory control in 5- to 7-year-old children attending kindergarten in two Eastern-European countries, Romania and Russia. These two countries share many aspects of child-rearing and educational practices, previously documented to influence the development of inhibitory control. Using the Lurian-based developmental approach offered by the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment battery, the study aimed to contribute to cross-cultural developmental neuropsychology by exploring (a) early interrelationships between subcomponents of inhibitory control (response suppression and attention control) and generative fluency (verbal and figural) in these two cultures, as well as (b) the predictive value of external factors (culture and maternal education) and individual differences (age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, trait anxiety) on inhibitory control and fluency outcomes in children from both countries. First, findings in both culture samples suggest that even at this young age, the construct of inhibitory control cannot be considered a unitary entity. Second, differences in maternal education were not predictive of either inhibitory control or fluency scores. However, children's attention control performance varied as a function of culture, and the direction of these cultural effects differed by whether the target outcome involved performance accuracy versus efficiency as an output. Findings also confirmed the previously documented intensive developmental improvement in preschoolers' inhibitory control during this period, influencing measures of response suppression and particularly attention control. Finally, the results further stress the importance of individual differences effects in trait anxiety on attention control efficiency across cultures.

  12. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

  13. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  14. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  15. Educator Assessment: Accent as a Measure of Fluency in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Patricia Lavon; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines Arizona's English fluency evaluation initiative, which aims to address the fluency standards for teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) set forth in the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. The authors deploy a sociolinguistic framework to consider what components of teachers' language are being evaluated by the policy,…

  16. Training for Fluency and Generalization of Math Facts Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lynch, Tom Liam; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    As American students struggle with basic mathematical skills, the importance of math fact fluency has gained the attention of educators and researchers. Generalization of math fact fluency is also important for the transfer of skills to other settings and formats, assisting students in the completion of more varied and complicated math tasks. This…

  17. What Research Has to Say about Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.; Farstrup, Alan E., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The editors of "What Research Has to Say about Reading Instruction" present the most recent research on fluency and show how it can be put into practice. A resource for classroom teachers and teacher educators alike, the reader-friendly text offers a range of expert perspectives on the key aspects of fluency such as: (1) history and definitions;…

  18. English Pronunciation and Fluency Development in Mandarin and Slavic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Thomson, Ron I.; Munro, Murray J.

    2006-01-01

    The development of accent and fluency are traced in the speech of 20 Mandarin and 20 Slavic adult immigrants to Canada over a period of 10 months. The participants were enrolled in an ESL program but had no special instruction in either pronunciation or fluency. The immigrants' self-reported exposure to English outside of class was used to…

  19. What do people who stutter want--fluency or freedom?

    PubMed

    Venkatagiri, H S

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the author examined the following questions: What proportion of adult persons who stutter (PWS) choose fluency and what proportion choose to be free from a need to be fluent in managing their stuttering? What demographic and stuttering-related variables influence their choice, and how consistent are they in their choice? A survey instrument administered over the Internet was used to collect the data. Overall, 8% more of the 216 respondents opted for fluency than freedom. A larger proportion of male PWS and PWS under the age of 30 years preferred fluency. Neither nationality nor language background influenced their preference. Those who received no therapy overwhelmingly chose fluency, and a slight majority of those with fewer than 5 years of therapy preferred fluency. Those with more than 5 years of therapy were evenly divided between the 2 choices. Those who preferred freedom were more consistent in their responses across items than were those who opted for fluency. Based on the consistency of responses, 20% and 23% of the sample decisively opted for fluency and freedom, respectively, and 34% in the fluency group and 23% in the freedom group were ambivalent. A majority of PWS appear to benefit from flexible treatment programs with cafeteria-style choices.

  20. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  1. Implementing an Effective Mathematics Fact Fluency Practice Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Stocker, James D., Jr.; Morano, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Proficiency in mathematics involves the seamless synchronization of conceptual understanding, procedural knowledge, computational fluency, and problem solving (NMAP, 2008). Clearly, fluency with mathematics facts is one element embedded within mathematical proficiency and important for students with disabilities to develop. As more and more…

  2. When Two Sources of Fluency Meet One Cognitive Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggev, Niv; Hassin, Ran R.; Maril, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Fluency, the subjective experience of ease associated with information processing, has been shown to affect a host of judgments. Previous research has typically focused on specific factors that affect the use of a single, specific fluency source. In the present study we examine how cognitive mindsets, or processing modes, moderate fluency…

  3. Using Performance Methods to Enhance Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Valadez, Corinne; Gandara, Cori

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-experimental study examined the effects of pairing Rock and Read with Readers Theater and only Rock and Read on second grade students' reading fluency scores. The 51 subjects were pre- and post-tested on five different reading fluency measures. A series of 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVAs revealed statistically significant interaction…

  4. A Strategic Necessity: Building Senior Leadership's Fluency in Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolomitz, Kara; Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the opportunity for senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) to develop an increased digital fluency to meet the needs of various constituencies in the digital age. The authors explore what a digital fluency is, how it might impact SSAOs' leadership potential, and the benefits for their respective divisions.

  5. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  6. Fluency Remediation in Dyslexic Children: Does Age Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation. Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of…

  7. Developing Reading Fluency: A Study of Extensive Reading in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwahori, Yurika

    2008-01-01

    Due to the great interest of practitioners on reading fluency in first language (L1) and second language (L2) English classroom settings, fluency has become a hot topic. A number of studies have suggested that an extensive reading (ER) program can lead to improvement of L2 learners' reading rate; however, studies about high school students are…

  8. Early Predictors of Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.

    2010-01-01

    Calculation fluency weaknesses are a key characteristic of children with mathematics difficulties. The major aim of this dissertation was to uncover early predictors of calculation fluency weaknesses in second graders. Children's performance on number sense tasks in kindergarten along with general cognitive abilities, early literacy skills, and…

  9. Strategic Key Word Instruction: Increasing Fluency in Connected Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Gail; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on fluency in connected text were examined with three third-grade general education participants. Researchers used a multiple base-line design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching increased fluency in connected text written above the participant's instructional level of reading…

  10. The Role of Task Structure in Oral Fluency Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejzenberg, Roseli

    This study sought to develop a description of second language fluency, based on the concept that the microcontext of the testing task and the resulting psycholinguistic demands on speech production affect the nature of the discourse produced so that different tasks have differential impact on an individual's display of fluency. It investigated how…

  11. Training for Fluency and Generalization of Math Facts Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lynch, Tom Liam; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    As American students struggle with basic mathematical skills, the importance of math fact fluency has gained the attention of educators and researchers. Generalization of math fact fluency is also important for the transfer of skills to other settings and formats, assisting students in the completion of more varied and complicated math tasks. This…

  12. Sources of Individual Differences in Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Christine; Deno, Stanley L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the common and distinct contributions of context-free and context reading skill to reading comprehension and the contributions of context-free reading skill and reading comprehension to context fluency. Results support the conclusion that word level processes contribute relatively more to fluency at lower levels while comprehension…

  13. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  14. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  15. Fluency Does Not Express Implicit Knowledge of Artificial Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ryan B.; Dienes, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly held that implicit knowledge expresses itself as fluency. A perceptual clarification task was used to examine the relationship between perceptual processing fluency, subjective familiarity, and grammaticality judgments in a task frequently used to produce implicit knowledge, artificial grammar learning (AGL). Four experiments…

  16. Fluency Training. NetNews . Volume 4, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the past, researchers believed that reading fluency developed as a result of good word recognition skills; however, it is now believed that fluency must be explicitly taught and practiced orally in order to develop. Readers who are not fluent in reading will be less motivated to practice, have more difficulty learning academic content, and…

  17. Perceptions of French Fluency in Second Language Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature in second language (L2) perceived fluency has focused on English as a second language, with a primary reliance on impressions from native-speaker judges, leaving learners' self-perceptions of speech production unexplored. This study investigates the relationship between learners' and judges' perceptions of French fluency under…

  18. Educator Assessment: Accent as a Measure of Fluency in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Patricia Lavon; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines Arizona's English fluency evaluation initiative, which aims to address the fluency standards for teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) set forth in the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. The authors deploy a sociolinguistic framework to consider what components of teachers' language are being evaluated by the policy,…

  19. When Two Sources of Fluency Meet One Cognitive Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggev, Niv; Hassin, Ran R.; Maril, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Fluency, the subjective experience of ease associated with information processing, has been shown to affect a host of judgments. Previous research has typically focused on specific factors that affect the use of a single, specific fluency source. In the present study we examine how cognitive mindsets, or processing modes, moderate fluency…

  20. A Strategic Necessity: Building Senior Leadership's Fluency in Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolomitz, Kara; Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the opportunity for senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) to develop an increased digital fluency to meet the needs of various constituencies in the digital age. The authors explore what a digital fluency is, how it might impact SSAOs' leadership potential, and the benefits for their respective divisions.

  1. How Important Is Reading Skill Fluency for Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Griffith-Ross, Diana A.

    2007-01-01

    Some important approaches to reading instruction and assessment, as well as influential theories of reading, are based on the assumption that reading fluency is necessary for good comprehension. However, this may not always be the case. This article takes another look at the relationship between word reading fluency and comprehension. It also…

  2. Improving Multiplication Fact Fluency by Choosing between Competing Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen C.; Gemmink, Michelle; Broens-Paffen, Marije; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Developing fluency in arithmetic facts is instrumental to mathematics learning. This study compares the effects of two practice conditions on children's fluency in simple multiplication facts. Third and fourth graders in the Netherlands (N = 282) practised in either a conventional "recall" condition where they produced answers to…

  3. Fluency and Its Teaching. Modern Languages in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Marie-Noelle

    This book addresses what kind of analysis of spoken language is appropriate to the assessment and fostering of fluency at the various stages of a student's development. It is easy to define fluency in general terms, but it is difficult to discern what linguistic and paralinguistic options are involved. This book begins by exploring perceptions of…

  4. Modelling Second Language Performance: Integrating Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency, and Lexis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Complexity, accuracy, and fluency have proved useful measures of second language performance. The present article will re-examine these measures themselves, arguing that fluency needs to be rethought if it is to be measured effectively, and that the three general measures need to be supplemented by measures of lexical use. Building upon this…

  5. Using Performance Methods to Enhance Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Valadez, Corinne; Gandara, Cori

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-experimental study examined the effects of pairing Rock and Read with Readers Theater and only Rock and Read on second grade students' reading fluency scores. The 51 subjects were pre- and post-tested on five different reading fluency measures. A series of 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVAs revealed statistically significant interaction…

  6. Embodied Memory Judgments: A Case of Motor Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu-Ju; Gallo, David A.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that perceptual and conceptual fluency can influence episodic memory judgments. Here, the authors asked whether fluency arising from the motor system also impacts recognition memory. Past research has shown that the perception of letters automatically activates motor programs of typing actions in skilled typists. In this study,…

  7. The Relationship between Letter Fluency Measures and Arabic GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated two widely-used early literacy skill's indicators in reflecting growth in first-grade language achievement skills. It compared two curriculum-based assessments of letter knowledge: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) and Letter Sound Fluency (LSF) in the Arabic language. A sample of 125 first-grade students, 100 average readers and…

  8. Early Predictors of Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.

    2010-01-01

    Calculation fluency weaknesses are a key characteristic of children with mathematics difficulties. The major aim of this dissertation was to uncover early predictors of calculation fluency weaknesses in second graders. Children's performance on number sense tasks in kindergarten along with general cognitive abilities, early literacy skills, and…

  9. Human and Automated Assessment of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolaños, Daniel; Cole, Ron A.; Ward, Wayne H.; Tindal, Gerald A.; Hasbrouck, Jan; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive approach to fully automated assessment of children's oral reading fluency (ORF), one of the most informative and frequently administered measures of children's reading ability. Speech recognition and machine learning techniques are described that model the 3 components of oral reading fluency: word accuracy,…

  10. Components of Verbal Intelligence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-30

    is permitted for any purpose of the United States Government. 9 This research Was sponsored by the Personnel and Training Research Programs...FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK UNit ELEMENT NO NO NO IACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Irclude Secu, l Olassfication) NR154-505 "Components of Verbal...a_ _ A , , . Z I l-l S"" -- ’s= -:s~ l - + 6 ’ E =:,. E cEIP d -= 5.,. ’-E ; Ea ,3 8.9.1 -=,o pr ,,v c+ -- + + - , ? + -+ + a; 0 1;- I " ’N Ev E.~4

  11. An analysis of spontaneous conversational speech fluency in children with acquired aphasia.

    PubMed

    Van Dongen, H R; Paquier, P F; Raes, J; Creten, W L

    1994-12-01

    We report on an instrumental analysis of spontaneous conversational speech (SCS) fluency in acquired childhood aphasia (ACA). Tape-recorded SCS samples of 25 children with ACA (clinical judgment: 12 nonfluent and 13 fluent), and of 12 dysarthric and 12 nonaphasic and nondysarthric right hemisphere injured children were analysed in order to: (1) investigate whether a more refined analysis can objectively contribute to the differentiation of patients who were labelled as fluent or nonfluent on the basis of a clinical judgment: (2) verify whether an instrumental analysis of phonation duration does confirm the subjective estimation of verbal rate (i.e. the number of words produced in a unit of time) in groups of children with acquired neurogenic speech/language disorders frequently met in clinical practice. The results are: (1) phonation rate (i.e. the vocalization percentage) seems to represent an adequate variable to distinguish clinically diagnosed nonfluent aphasic children from speech/language impaired children belonging to other clinical groups of acquired neurogenic speech/language disorders; (2) the verbal rate is highly correlated to the phonation rate in all investigated groups except the dysarthric one. We suggest the instrumental method discussed here might contribute to the differential diagnosis between dysarthric and aphasic disturbances in the acute stage of the disease. Concerning the study of ACA, the main issue of the present investigation is that an objective fluency measurement has succeeded in identifying aphasic children who obviously do not fit in with the standard doctrine on ACA, which claims that ACA is invariably nonfluent irrespective of lesion location.

  12. The effect of saccadic training on early reading fluency.

    PubMed

    Leong, Danielle F; Master, Christina L; Messner, Leonard V; Pang, Yi; Smith, Craig; Starling, Amaal J

    2014-08-01

    Eye movements are necessary for the physical act of reading and have been shown to relate to underlying cognitive and visuoattentional processes during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of saccadic training using the King-Devick remediation software on reading fluency. In this prospective, single-blinded, randomized, crossover trial, a cohort of elementary students received standardized reading fluency testing pre- and posttreatment. Treatment consisted of in-school training 20 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. The treatment group had significantly higher reading fluency scores after treatment (P < .001), and posttreatment scores were significantly higher than the control group (P < .005). Saccadic training can significantly improve reading fluency. We hypothesize that this improvement in reading fluency is a result of rigorous practice of eye movements and shifting visuospatial attention, which are vital to the act of reading. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177

  15. Verbal Functions in Psychopathy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Brites, José; Ladera, Valentina; Perea, Victoria; García, Ricardo

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the verbal functions and language skills of male psychopathic individuals (in prison and outside) with non-psychopaths. The purpose was therefore to analyze phonological processing, reading and writing skills, the meaning of words and images, and the understanding of sentences. Ninety individuals with an average age of 38.19 (SD = 7.67) voluntarily participated in this study. The data were collected in different settings: prisons, a private charitable organization, and private clinics and health centers. All participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Revised and the Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia, to assess psychopathy traits and language skills, respectively. Participants were allocated into four different groups: incarcerated psychopathic offenders (n = 13), non-incarcerated psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 13), incarcerated non-psychopathic offenders (n = 25), and non-psychopathic non-offenders living in the community (n = 39). The results showed that the verbal functions and language skills between psychopaths and non-psychopaths are very similar, showing a common profile. The data presented indicate the need for more specific work opportunities for both groups within the correctional setting, with the use of appropriate language and individualized programs as necessary.

  16. It felt fluent, and I liked it: subjective feeling of fluency rather than objective fluency determines liking.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael; Leder, Helmut; Ansorge, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    According to the processing-fluency explanation of aesthetics, more fluently processed stimuli are preferred (R. Reber, N. Schwarz, & P. Winkielman, 2004, Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: Is beauty in the perceiver's processing experience? Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 8, pp. 364-382.). In this view, the subjective feeling of ease of processing is considered important, but this has not been directly tested in perceptual processing. In two experiments, we therefore objectively manipulated fluency (ease of processing) with subliminal perceptual priming (Study 1) and variations in presentation durations (Study 2). We assessed the impact of objective fluency on feelings of fluency and liking, as well as their interdependence. In line with the processing-fluency account, we found that objectively more fluent images were indeed judged as more fluent and were also liked more. Moreover, differences in liking were even stronger when data were analyzed according to felt fluency. These findings demonstrate that perceptual fluency is not only explicitly felt, it can also be reported and is an important determinant of liking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Modeling Elementary Aged Students' Fluency Growth in Written Expression: Predicting Fluency Growth for Girls and Boys in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, Adrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on evidence-based writing intervention practices as well as reliable and valid assessments of elementary-aged students' writing fluency has been lacking compared to other academic areas (i.e., reading). Performance feedback interventions targeting writing fluency are gaining empirical support (Eckert et al., 2006); however, growth…

  18. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  19. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  20. Paracingulate sulcus asymmetry; sex difference, correlation with semantic fluency and change over time in adolescent onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gina M; Mackay, Clare E; Davidson, Margaret E; Iversen, Susan D; Collinson, Simon L; James, Anthony C; Roberts, Neil; Crow, Timothy J

    2010-10-30

    The left paracingulate sulcus (PCS) is longer than the right and the adjacent cortex is activated by the generation of words. In adult patients with chronic schizophrenia the anatomical asymmetry is reduced. In 35 controls and 38 adolescents with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (mean age = 16 years) we found that semantic verbal fluency correlated with leftward PCS asymmetry in controls but not in patients. At intake, PCS length did not differ between patients and controls, but at follow-up (13 controls, 10 patients, mean age = 18 years) PCS asymmetry (comprising both increasing left and decreasing right length) increased significantly, the increase was greater in males than in females, and there was a trend for a diagnosis * sex * side * time interaction such that in controls leftward PCS asymmetry increased, while in patients of both sexes there was convergence toward symmetry. Thus sulcal anatomy develops differentially in the two sexes during adolescence, and the pattern of asymmetric sex-dependent change over time may distinguish patients with psychosis from controls. Greater change in asymmetry during adolescence may explain earlier age of onset in males and greater deficits in verbal fluency.

  1. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  2. Math fluency is etiologically distinct from untimed math performance, decoding fluency, and untimed reading performance: evidence from a twin study.

    PubMed

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the shared environment and genetics influenced the covariance among math fluency, untimed math measures, and reading measures. However, roughly two thirds of the variance in math fluency was independent from untimed math measures and reading, including reading fluency. The majority of this independent variance was the result of genetic factors that were longitudinally stable across two measurement occasions. These results suggest that math fluency, although related to other math measures, may also be a genetically distinct dimension of mathematics performance.

  3. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct From Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence From a Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the shared environment and genetics influenced the covariance among math fluency, untimed math measures, and reading measures. However, roughly two thirds of the variance in math fluency was independent from untimed math measures and reading, including reading fluency. The majority of this independent variance was the result of genetic factors that were longitudinally stable across two measurement occasions. These results suggest that math fluency, although related to other math measures, may also be a genetically distinct dimension of mathematics performance. PMID:21890908

  4. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables.

  5. Cognitive Predictors of Verbal Memory in a Mixed Clinical Pediatric Sample

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Lizabeth L.; Tyner, Callie E.; Heaton, Shelley C.

    2013-01-01

    Verbal memory problems, along with other cognitive difficulties, are common in children diagnosed with neurological and/or psychological disorders. Historically, these “memory problems” have been poorly characterized and often present with a heterogeneous pattern of performance across memory processes, even within a specific diagnostic group. The current study examined archival neuropsychological data from a large mixed clinical pediatric sample in order to understand whether functioning in other cognitive areas (i.e., verbal knowledge, attention, working memory, executive functioning) may explain some of the performance variability seen across verbal memory tasks of the Children’s Memory Scale (CMS). Multivariate analyses revealed that among the cognitive functions examined, only verbal knowledge explained a significant amount of variance in overall verbal memory performance. Further univariate analyses examining the component processes of verbal memory indicated that verbal knowledge is specifically related to encoding, but not the retention or retrieval stages. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in other clinical samples, to examine whether verbal knowledge predicts performance on other verbal memory tasks and to explore whether these findings also hold true for visual memory tasks. Successful replication of the current study findings would indicate that interventions targeting verbal encoding deficits should include efforts to improve verbal knowledge. PMID:25379253

  6. What Do We Mean by Writing Fluency and How Can It Be Validly Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Fluency is an essential component in writing ability and development. Writing fluency research is important to researchers and teachers interested in facilitating students' written text production and in assessing writing. This calls for reaching a better understanding of writing fluency and how it should be measured. Although fluency is the…

  7. One-Minute Fluency Measures: Mixed Messages in Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although they are valid and reliable, one-minute fluency measures are defining and capturing a reduced view of fluency as simply accuracy and rate in oral reading. Thus, they may lead astray our understanding of struggling readers' reading fluency development and instructional needs. Fluency is a complicated construct. The author discusses a…

  8. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  9. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  10. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tense Aspect in Verbal Morphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaberry, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed the development of past tense verbal morphology in Spanish second language acquisition among native English speakers divided into three levels of proficiency. Analysis shows that learners may use a default marker of past tense during the beginning stages of development of verbal morphology, but the choice of the default may be dependent…

  12. Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Michael G.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…

  13. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases

    PubMed Central

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest—but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight

  14. Verbal Memory Abilities in Severe Childhood Psychiatric Disorders and the Influence of Attention and Executive Functions.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Gaudet, Charles E; Dupont-Frechette, Jennifer A; Tellock, Perrin P; Maher, Isolde D; Haisley, Lauren D; Holler, Karen A

    2016-04-28

    Despite prior adult research regarding the influence of executive functions on memory performance, there has been inconsistent prior research on the role of executive functions on memory performance in children, particularly those children with severe psychiatric disorders. A medical chart review was conducted for 76 children (ages 6-12 years) who received a neuropsychological evaluation during children's psychiatric inpatient program hospitalization. A series of hierarchical regression analyses investigated the role of attention/executive and non-executive functions in verbal memory performance (immediate recall, delayed recall, and delayed recognition). Demographic and verbal measures were entered into blocks 1 and 2 for all analyses, followed by attention and executive functions (i.e., attention span, sustained attention, verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and planning/organization). Nearly 15% of the participants displayed memory impairment. Results of regression analyses indicated attention/executive dysfunction severity predicted overall memory performance. Attention span predicted performance on all three memory conditions. Planning/organization accounted for unique variance in immediate recall condition while inhibitory control accounted for unique variance in delayed recall condition. These results indicate that verbal memory problems frequently occur in severe childhood psychiatric disorders. Further, planning/organization deficits may influence immediate recall, while inhibitory control deficits may influence delayed recall. Alternatively, delayed recognition memory may be the most resistant to the negative influence of executive deficits on verbal memory performance in childhood psychiatric disorders.

  15. Clinical evaluation of conversational speech fluency in the acute phase of acquired childhood aphasia: does a fluency/nonfluency dichotomy exist?

    PubMed

    van Dongen, H R; Paquier, P F; Creten, W L; van Borsel, J; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E

    2001-05-01

    Traditional neurologic tenets claim that the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia is nonfluent irrespective of lesion location. In the past 20 years, however, several case studies have shown that fluent aphasic patterns can be observed in children with acquired childhood aphasia. But the question remains open as to whether the pattern of their speech characteristics is similar to the one described in adult aphasics as studies addressing spontaneous speech fluency characteristics in larger series of children with acquired childhood aphasia are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an analysis of spontaneous speech fluency as has previously been performed in adult aphasics by other investigators would also yield two distinct groups of aphasic children and, if so, whether the distribution of the different speech characteristics in both groups would reflect the rank order found in adults, that is, whether nonfluent verbal output characteristics would predominate in one group and fluent features in the other. Audiotaped and videotaped recordings of 24 cooperative children with acute acquired childhood aphasia unselected for age, gender, etiology, and aphasia severity ratings were analyzed according to 10 different speech characteristics. A cluster analysis (two-means clustering) was performed to seek the existence of two distinct groups of aphasic children. Results were confirmed, and exact P values were computed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. A two-means clustering created two distinct classes. Mann-Whitney U-tests ranked the speech characteristics according to their discriminating power between clusters. Comparing this rank order with the one previously found in adults revealed a high correlation (Spearman's rank correlation: r = .915, P < .005), thus indicating that the clusters we found were highly similar to the adult clusters. Thus, the use of the speech variables proposed to evaluate adult aphasic spontaneous speech enabled us to

  16. Bilateral inferior frontal language-related activation correlates with verbal recall in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and typical language distribution.

    PubMed

    Sanjuán, Ana; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; García-Porcar, María; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Forn, Cristina; Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campos, Anabel; Palau, Juan; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Villanueva, Vicente; Avila, César

    2013-03-01

    Language fMRI has been used in the presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patients. Previous studies have demonstrated that left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) patients with atypical language lateralization are at lower risk of postsurgical verbal memory decline, hypothesizing co-occurrence of verbal memory and language reorganization presurgically. Furthermore, it has been proposed that the recruitment of right frontal language-related areas is associated with the preservation of verbal memory performance in these patients. However, less is known about the correlation between these functions specifically in LTLE patients with left language dominance, although they are more prone to postsurgical verbal memory decline. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the relationship between verbal memory scores and frontal language activation is also observed in LTLE patients with typical language dominance. Eighteen healthy controls, 12 right temporal lobe epilepsy patients and 12 LTLE patients with typical language distribution as assessed by an fMRI verbal fluency task were selected. Verbal memory scores were obtained from the patients' neuropsychological presurgical evaluation. Our results showed a positive correlation between verbal recall and activation of bilateral inferior frontal areas in LTLE patients. These results support the hypothesis of a link between language representation in inferior frontal areas and hippocampal functioning, and indicate that both hemispheres are related to the preservation of verbal memory in patients with hippocampal damage and typical language dominance.

  17. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant's ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI.

  18. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  19. Verbal Cues as an Interfering Factor in Verbal Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesher, Perla; Teubal, Eva

    1975-01-01

    Two experiments on the translation of verbal expressions into mathematical expressions are described. The author concludes that the usual way of training students to solve arithmetic word problems is inadequate. (SD)

  20. Elementary Reading Fluency and Comprehension: Do Laptops Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a one-to-one laptop program had an effect on the reading-fluency and comprehension scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students over a half-year period. Pre- and post-test scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM fluency and Maze-CBM comprehension tests were collected for 1,048 students attending six diverse, high-poverty elementary…

  1. Designing persuasive health materials using processing fluency: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2017-06-08

    Health materials to promote health behaviors should be readable and generate favorable evaluations of the message. Processing fluency (the subjective experience of ease with which people process information) has been increasingly studied over the past decade. In this review, we explore effects and instantiations of processing fluency and discuss the implications for designing effective health materials. We searched seven online databases using "processing fluency" as the key word. In addition, we gathered relevant publications using reference snowballing. We included published records that were written in English and applicable to the design of health materials. We found 40 articles that were appropriate for inclusion. Various instantiations of fluency have a uniform effect on human judgment: fluently processed stimuli generate positive judgments (e.g., liking, confidence). Processing fluency is used to predict the effort needed for a given task; accordingly, it has an impact on willingness to undertake the task. Physical perceptual, lexical, syntactic, phonological, retrieval, and imagery fluency were found to be particularly relevant to the design of health materials. Health-care professionals should consider the use of a perceptually fluent design, plain language, numeracy with an appropriate degree of precision, a limited number of key points, and concrete descriptions that make recipients imagine healthy behavior. Such fluently processed materials that are easy to read and understand have enhanced perspicuity and persuasiveness.

  2. The dark side of fluency: Fluent names increase drug dosing.

    PubMed

    Dohle, Simone; Montoya, Amanda K

    2017-09-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that high processing fluency influences a wide range of evaluations and behaviors in a positive way. But can high processing fluency also lead to potentially hazardous medical behavior? In 2 controlled experiments, we demonstrate that increasing the fluency of pharmaceutical drug names increases drug dosage. Experiment 1 shows that drugs with fluent names are perceived as safer than those with disfluent names and this effect increases drug dosage for both synthetically produced and herbal drugs. Experiment 2 demonstrates that people chose a higher dosage for themselves and for a child if the drug bears a fluent (vs. disfluent) name. Using linear regression based mediation analysis, we investigated the underlying mechanisms for the effect of fluency on risk perception in more detail. Contrary to prior research, we find that affect, but not familiarity, mediates the fluency-risk link. Our findings suggest that a drug name's fluency is a powerful driver of dosing behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Verbal Analogies in the ITPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Philip J.; Kunze, Luvern H.

    1973-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the Auditory Association subtest of the revised Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) measures the ability of children to complete verbal analogies. (Author)

  4. Pragmatic disorders of verbal communication.

    PubMed

    Zanini, S; Vorano, L; De Luca, G

    1998-10-01

    Verbal communication impairments frequently follow damage to the right cerebral hemisphere. These deficits are usually underestimated because RHD patients are not routinely referred to speech therapists. The nature of pragmatic disorders in verbal communication in RHD patients still remains to be clarified. In particular, it is still unclear whether these impairments are language-specific or attention-specific (e.g. an attentional deficit with respect to verbal cues only, which hinders the ability to go beyond the literal meaning of sentences), or should to be interpreted as an expression of a wider impairment in processing complex materials. Further research is needed to properly quantify the incidence of verbal communication disorders in RHD patients and to understand how pragmatic competence is organized in the brain.

  5. Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Cynthia K; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. AIMS: This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. METHOD: Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the "Cinderella Story" were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on

  6. Dissociations Between Fluency And Agrammatism In Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Cho, Soojin; Hsu, Chien-Ju; Wieneke, Christina; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Weintraub, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical aphasiology, based on the study of stroke sequelae, fuses speech fluency and grammatical ability. Nonfluent (Broca's) aphasia often is accompanied by agrammatism; whereas in the fluent aphasias grammatical deficits are not typical. The assumption that a similar relationship exists in primary progressive aphasia (PPA) has led to the dichotomization of this syndrome into fluent and nonfluent subtypes. Aims This study compared elements of fluency and grammatical production in the narrative speech of individuals with PPA to determine if they can be dissociated from one another. Method Speech samples from 37 individuals with PPA, clinically assigned to agrammatic (N=11), logopenic (N=20) and semantic (N=6) subtypes, and 13 cognitively healthy control participants telling the “Cinderella Story” were analyzed for fluency (i.e., words per minute (WPM) and mean length of utterance in words (MLU-W)) and grammaticality (i.e., the proportion of grammatically correct sentences, open-to-closed-class word ratio, noun-to-verb ratio, and correct production of verb inflection, noun morphology, and verb argument structure.) Between group differences were analyzed for each variable. Correlational analyses examined the relation between WPM and each grammatical variable, and an off-line measure of sentence production. Outcomes And Results Agrammatic and logopenic groups both had lower scores on the fluency measures and produced significantly fewer grammatical sentences than did semantic and control groups. However, only the agrammatic group evinced significantly impaired production of verb inflection and verb argument structure. In addition, some semantic participants showed abnormal open-to-closed and noun-to-verb ratios in narrative speech. When the sample was divided on the basis of fluency, all the agrammatic participants fell in the nonfluent category. The logopenic participants varied in fluency but those with low fluency showed variable performance on

  7. Verbal learning and memory following pediatric closed-head injury.

    PubMed

    Yeates, K O; Blumenstein, E; Patterson, C M; Delis, D C

    1995-01-01

    In this study, verbal learning and memory following pediatric closed-head injuries (CHI) using the children's version of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Participants included 47 children, ages 5-16 yr, with a history of CHI, and 47 matched, noninjured controls. Children with CHI performed more poorly than controls on the CVLT, although their deficits varied qualitatively as a function of injury severity. Those with mild/moderate injuries performed as well as controls on learning trials, but they recalled proportionally fewer words after a delay (although their recognition was intact). Severely injured children demonstrated deficits in learning, delayed recall, and recognition, compared to controls. The groups did not differ in learning characteristics, but children with severe CHI exhibited more intrusions than controls. Pediatric CHI are associated with specific disturbances in verbal learning and memory similar to those of adults with CHI but different from those of children with other developmental and neurological disorders.

  8. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2.

  9. Verbal memory impairment in COPD: its mechanisms and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Incalzi, R A; Gemma, A; Marra, C; Capparella, O; Fuso, L; Carbonin, P

    1997-12-01

    Identification of mechanisms accounting for verbal memory impairment in patients with severe COPD; assessing the relationship between verbal memory and the overall cognitive performance; verifying if verbal memory impairment affects medication adherence. Case-comparison study. Outpatient Departments of Pneumology and Neurology, Day Hospital of General Surgery. Forty-two COPD ambulatory patients, age 70+/-9.7 years, with hypoxemia and hypercarbia (group A); 27 normal subjects of comparable age and educational level (group B); 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (group C); and 26 older normal subjects (group D). The overall cognitive function and verbal memory were evaluated by the Mental Deterioration Battery and 14 indexes of verbal memory. Defective retrieval and recognition mechanisms distinguished group A from group B. According to discriminant analysis, verbal memory profile of COPD patients was group specific in 38.1% of cases and conformed to that of group B, C, and D in 19%, 16.7%, and 26.2% of cases, respectively. In COPD patients, both immediate and delayed recall, the strongest determinants of the discriminant function, were significantly correlated with the overall cognitive performance (rho=0.64, p=0.001; rho=0.61, p=0.001, respectively). Poor adherence to medication regimen was significantly associated with abnormal delayed recall score (82.3% vs 36% in subjects with normal delayed recall, p<0.008). Decline of verbal memory parallels that of the overall cognitive function in COPD patients and is due to the impairment of both active recall and passive recognition of learned material. It could be an important determinant of the level of medication adherence.

  10. Verbal and spatial processing efficiency in 32 children with sex chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bender, B G; Linden, M G; Robinson, A

    1989-06-01

    Spatial and linguistic processing efficiency was evaluated in sixty 8- to 18-yr-old children, including thirteen 47,XXY boys, eleven 47,XXX girls, six girls with 45,X, two girls with 46,X,Xq-, and 28 chromosomally normal controls. Results indicated that the 47,XXX girls performed significantly below controls on all four cognitive tests. Scores of the X monosomy group were reduced on both spatial tests, one requiring rapid information processing and one without time requirements, which is consistent with previous reports of spatial thinking deficits in these propositae. The X monosomy girls also had difficulty completing the high efficiency but not the low efficiency verbal tests. Scores in the 47,XXY group did not differ from controls on either spatial test or on the low efficiency verbal task. When required to rapidly access verbal information from memory, however, the performance of these boys was significantly impaired. This finding confirms earlier reports of impeded verbal fluency in these propositi. Alteration in capacity to rapidly process information appears to distinguish 47,XXY boys and X monosomy girls from their chromosomally normal peers, and suggests that adaptations in their educational setting should be introduced to allow additional time to learn and complete work.

  11. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children’s Text Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency. PMID:26640452

  12. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients. © 2015 The

  13. Auditory hindsight bias: Fluency misattribution versus memory reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Higham, Philip A; Neil, Greg J; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2017-06-01

    We report 4 experiments investigating auditory hindsight bias-the tendency to overestimate the intelligibility of distorted auditory stimuli after learning their identity. An associative priming manipulation was used to vary the amount of processing fluency independently of prior target knowledge. For hypothetical designs, in which hindsight judgments are made for peers in foresight, we predicted that judgments would be based on processing fluency and that hindsight bias would be greater in the unrelated- compared to related-prime context (differential-fluency hypothesis). Conversely, for memory designs, in which foresight judgments are remembered in hindsight, we predicted that judgments would be based on memory reconstruction and that there would be independent effects of prime relatedness and prior target knowledge (recollection hypothesis). These predictions were confirmed. Specifically, we found support for the differential-fluency hypothesis when a hypothetical design was used in Experiments 1 and 2 (hypothetical group). Conversely, when a memory design was used in Experiments 2 (memory group), 3A, and 3B, we found support for the recollection hypothesis. Together, the results suggest that qualitatively different mechanisms create hindsight bias in the 2 designs. The results are discussed in terms of fluency misattributions, memory reconstruction, anchoring-and-adjustment, sense making, and a multicomponent model of hindsight bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  15. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  16. Verbal behavior: The other reviews.

    PubMed

    Knapp, T J

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary.

  17. Verbal behavior: The other reviews

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Terry J.

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

  18. Sex differences in spatial cognition, computational fluency, and arithmetical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Geary, D C; Saults, S J; Liu, F; Hoard, M K

    2000-12-01

    Alternative explanations for the male advantage in arithmetical reasoning, as measured by the ability to solve complex word problems, include a male advantage in spatial cognition and a male advantage in computational fluency. The current study was designed to test these competing hypotheses. To this end, 113 male and 123 female undergraduates were administered arithmetical computations and arithmetical reasoning tests, along with an IQ test and a test of spatial cognition. There was no sex difference on the IQ test, but males showed significantly higher mean scores on the arithmetical computations, arithmetical reasoning, and spatial cognition measures. A series of structural equation models indicated that individual differences in arithmetical reasoning were related to individual differences in IQ, spatial abilities, and computational fluency. Moreover, the results suggested that the male advantage in arithmetical reasoning is mediated by the male advantages in both computational fluency and spatial cognition.

  19. Fluency and positivity as possible causes of the truth effect.

    PubMed

    Unkelbach, Christian; Bayer, Myriam; Alves, Hans; Koch, Alex; Stahl, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Statements' rated truth increases when people encounter them repeatedly. Processing fluency is a central variable to explain this truth effect. However, people experience processing fluency positively, and these positive experiences might cause the truth effect. Three studies investigated positivity and fluency influences on the truth effect. Study 1 found correlations between elicited positive feelings and rated truth. Study 2 replicated the repetition-based truth effect, but positivity did not influence the effect. Study 3 conveyed positive and negative correlations between positivity and truth in a learning phase. We again replicated the truth effect, but positivity only influenced judgments for easy statements in the learning phase. Thus, across three studies, we found positivity effects on rated truth, but not on the repetition-based truth effect: We conclude that positivity does not explain the standard truth effect, but the role of positive experiences for truth judgments deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.