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Sample records for poor verbal fluency

  1. Atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with poor performance in verbal fluency in elderly poststroke women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Kun; Xiao, Wei-Min; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie Cw; Mok, Vincent Ct; Wong, Ka Sing; Ungvari, Gabor S; Tang, Wai Kwong

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between atrophy in the prefrontal cortex with executive function and verbal fluency in elderly male and female patients poststroke. Thirty elderly female patients with non-aphasic ischemic stroke aged ≥ 60 years and 30 age-matched non-aphasic male patients with ischemic stroke were recruited. Automatic magnetic resonance imaging segmentation was used to assess the volume of the whole prefrontal cortex, along with its subdivisions: anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The Semantic Verbal Fluency Test was administered at 3 and 15 months poststroke. At 3 months poststroke, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume was significantly correlated with Verbal Fluency Test score in female patients only (partial coefficient = 0.453, P = 0.045), after controlling for age, education, diabetes, neurological deficit, white matter lesions volume, as well as the location and volume of infarcts. At 15 months poststroke, there remained a significant association between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.661, P = 0.001) and between the left prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.573, P = 0.004) in female patients after the same adjustments. These findings indicate that atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contributes to the impairment of verbal fluency in elderly female patients with stroke. Sex differences may be present in the neuropsychological mechanisms of verbal fluency impairment in patients with stroke.

  2. Verbal fluency in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Stedal, Kristin; Landrø, Nils Inge; Lask, Bryan

    2013-06-01

    Verbal fluency performance is commonly evaluated in clinical neuropsychology, in particular for assessment of executive functioning. Fluency is usually assessed by the person's ability to produce as many words as possible from a given cue within a specific timeframe. The cues are typically phonemic, e.g. words beginning with a specific letter, or semantic, e.g. words within a given category. Important components underlying fluency performance include clustering (the production of words within subcategories) and switching (the switch between clusters). Previous studies have demonstrated good performance on verbal fluency tasks in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), but have not investigated the underlying components of this performance. The aim of the present study was to compare phonemic fluency performance in patients with AN to healthy controls (HC) and to investigate the use of clustering and switching in the two groups. Fifty-two patients with AN were compared with 37 HC on a phonemic fluency task. The patient group produced more words in total but the results were not significantly different compared to the HC sample. There were no differences between the two groups with regard to clustering, but patients with AN performed significantly more switches. In addition, switching was significantly more related to total output score in the patient sample. In contrast with previous studies of other areas of cognitive flexibility in AN, patients with AN appear to have good verbal set-shifting skills.

  3. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca's area volume.

    PubMed

    Fillman, S G; Weickert, T W; Lenroot, R K; Catts, S V; Bruggemann, J M; Catts, V S; Weickert, C S

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca's and Wernicke's areas). IL-1β mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca's area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1β mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia. PMID:26194183

  4. Elevated peripheral cytokines characterize a subgroup of people with schizophrenia displaying poor verbal fluency and reduced Broca's area volume

    PubMed Central

    Fillman, S G; Weickert, T W; Lenroot, R K; Catts, S V; Bruggemann, J M; Catts, V S; Weickert, C S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on schizophrenia have detected elevated cytokines in both brain and blood, suggesting neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology in some cases. We aimed to determine the extent to which elevated peripheral cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression: (1) characterizes a subgroup of people with schizophrenia and (2) shows a relationship to cognition, brain volume and/or symptoms. Forty-three outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched healthy controls were assessed for peripheral cytokine mRNAs (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-18), intelligence quotient, memory and verbal fluency, symptom severity and cortical brain volumes integral to language (that is, Broca's and Wernicke's areas). IL-1β mRNA levels were 28% increased in schizophrenia compared with controls (t(82)=2.64, P<0.01). Using a two-step clustering procedure, we identified a subgroup of people displaying relatively elevated cytokine mRNA levels (17/43 people with schizophrenia and 9/42 controls). Individuals with schizophrenia in the elevated cytokine subgroup performed significantly worse than the low-cytokine subgroup on verbal fluency (F(1,40)=15.7, P<0.001). There was a 17% volume reduction of the left pars opercularis (POp) (Broca's area) in patients with elevated cytokines compared with patients with lower cytokines (F(1,29)=9.41, P=0.005). Negative linear relationships between IL-1β mRNA levels and both verbal fluency and left POp volume were found in schizophrenia. This study is among the first to link blood biomarkers of inflammation with both cognitive deficits and brain volume reductions in people with schizophrenia, supporting that those with elevated cytokines represent a neurobiologically meaningful subgroup. These findings raise the possibility that targeted anti-inflammatory treatments may ameliorate cognitive and brain morphological abnormalities in some people with schizophrenia. PMID:26194183

  5. Semantic and Phonemic Verbal Fluency in Blinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nejati, Vahid; Asadi, Anoosh

    2010-01-01

    A person who has suffered the total loss of a sensory system has, indirectly, suffered a brain lesion. Semantic and phonologic verbal fluency are used for evaluation of executive function and language. The aim of this study is evaluation and comparison of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency in acquired blinds. We compare 137 blinds and 124…

  6. Similar Verbal Fluency Patterns in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Edmond; Leone-Friedman, Judith; Lee, Grace J.; Woo, Stephanie; Apostolova, Liana G.; Harrell, Shelly; Ringman, John M.; Lu, Po H.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionately greater deficits in semantic relative to phonemic verbal fluency are seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and have been attributed to neurodegenerative changes in the temporal lobe. Amnestic (AMN) mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which often represents incipient AD, is also characterized by early temporal lobe neuropathology, but previous comparisons of verbal fluency between AD and AMN MCI have yielded mixed results. We examined semantic and phonemic verbal fluency performance in 399 individuals (78 AD, 138 AMN MCI, 72 non-amnestic MCI, and 111 cognitively normal controls). Similar verbal fluency patterns were seen in AMN MCI and AD; both groups exhibited disproportionately poorer performance on semantic verbal fluency relative to normal controls. However, relative verbal fluency indices performed more poorly than individual semantic or phonemic verbal fluency indices for discriminating AMN MCI or AD participants from normal controls, suggesting that they are unlikely to provide additional utility for predicting progression from MCI to AD. PMID:23752677

  7. Non-Verbal and Verbal Fluency in Prodromal Huntington's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Robins Wahlin, Tarja-Brita; Luszcz, Mary A.; Wahlin, Åke; Byrne, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines non-verbal (design) and verbal (phonemic and semantic) fluency in prodromal Huntington's disease (HD). An accumulating body of research indicates subtle deficits in cognitive functioning among prodromal mutation carriers for HD. Methods Performance was compared between 32 mutation carriers and 38 non-carriers in order to examine the magnitude of impairment across fluency tasks. The predicted years to onset (PYTO) in mutation carriers was calculated by a regression equation and used to divide the group according to whether onset was predicted as less than 12.75 years (HD+CLOSE; n = 16) or greater than 12.75 years (HD+DISTANT; n = 16). Results The results indicate that both non-verbal and verbal fluency is sensitive to subtle impairment in prodromal HD. HD+CLOSE group produced fewer items in all assessed fluency tasks compared to non-carriers. HD+DISTANT produced fewer drawings than non-carriers in the non-verbal task. PYTO correlated significantly with all measures of non-verbal and verbal fluency. Conclusion The pattern of results indicates that subtle cognitive deficits exist in prodromal HD, and that less structured tasks with high executive demands are the most sensitive in detecting divergence from the normal range of functioning. These selective impairments can be attributed to the early involvement of frontostriatal circuitry and frontal lobes. PMID:26955384

  8. Action verbal fluency in Parkinson's patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Inês Tello; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mario M; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    We compared the performance of 31 non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients to 61 healthy controls in an action verbal fluency task. Semantic and phonemic fluencies, cognitive impairment and behavioural dysfunction were also assessed. The mean disease duration of PD was 9.8 years (standard deviation (SD) = 6.13). There were no age (U = 899.5, p = 0.616), gender(chi-square = 0.00, p = 1.00) or literacy (U = 956, p = 0.96) differences between the two groups. A significant difference was observed between the two groups in the action verbal fluency task (U = 406.5, p < 0.01) that was not found in the other fluency tasks. The education level was the only biographical variable that influenced the action (verb) fluency outcomes, irrespective of disease duration. Our findings suggest a correlation between the disease mechanisms in PD and a specific verb deficit, support the validity of the action (verb) fluency as an executive function measure and suggest that this task provides unique information not captured with traditional executive function tasks. PMID:26083889

  9. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Two Contrasting Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekkala, Seija; Goral, Mira; Hyun, JungMoon; Obler, Loraine K.; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Albert, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF…

  10. Semantic verbal fluency in two contrasting languages

    PubMed Central

    PEKKALA, SEIJA; GORAL, MIRA; HYUN, JUNGMOON; OBLER, LORAINE K.; ERKINJUNTTI, TIMO; ALBERT, MARTIN L.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-linguistic study investigated Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) performance in 30 American English-speaking and 30 Finnish-speaking healthy elderly adults with different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Despite the different backgrounds of the participant groups, remarkable similarities were found between the groups in the overall SVF performance in two semantic categories (animals and clothes), in the proportions of words produced within the first half (30 seconds) of the SVF tasks, and in the variety of words produced for the categories. These similarities emerged despite the difference in the mean length of words produced in the two languages (with Finnish words being significantly longer than English words). The few differences found between the groups concerned the types and frequencies of the 10 most common words generated for the categories. It was concluded that culture and language differences do not contribute significantly to variability in SVF performance in healthy elderly people. PMID:19440894

  11. Personality Traits Prospectively Predict Verbal Fluency in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa H.; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2011-01-01

    In a community-dwelling sample (N=4,790; age range 14–94), we examined whether personality traits prospectively predicted performance on a verbal fluency task. Open, extraverted, and emotionally stable participants had better verbal fluency. At the facet level, dispositionally happy and self-disciplined participants retrieved more words; those prone to anxiety and depression and those who were deliberative retrieved fewer words. Education moderated the association between Conscientiousness and fluency such that participants with lower education performed better on the fluency task if they were also conscientious. Age was not a moderator at the domain level, indicating that the personality-fluency associations were consistent across the lifespan. A disposition towards emotional vulnerability and being less open, less happy, and undisciplined may be detrimental to cognitive performance. PMID:21707179

  12. Processing speed mediates the relationship between verbal memory, verbal fluency, and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Natalia; Peña, Javier; Sánchez, Pedro; Elizagárate, Edorta; Ezcurra, Jesús

    2008-04-01

    Verbal fluency and verbal memory have been reported to be diminished in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits could partially predict functional disability in this pathology. However, processing speed often mediates the relationship among cognitive processes in the disorder. Our goal was to analyse the influence of processing speed as mediator of the relation between verbal fluency-verbal memory and functional disability in chronic schizophrenia. We examined 90 hospitalized patients and 30 healthy controls (matched for gender, age and years of education). The neuropsychological battery included tests for verbal fluency, verbal memory, motor speed and processing speed. Outcome measures included Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS-WHO) and number of hospitalizations (NH). Results confirmed chronicity on clinical symptoms (PANSS total X=48.94+14.97 PANSS negative X=27.81+10.18, PANSS positive X=23.51+10.81) and impairment on functional disability (DAS-WHO X=13.62+4.28). As expected, verbal fluency was severely impaired in patients and significantly predicted functional outcome. Immediate and Delayed Verbal Memory were also severely impaired and predicted functional outcome. However, when processing speed was entered in the regression analyses the significance of verbal fluency and verbal memory decreased significantly. Sobel's equation was significant, suggesting full mediation. Our findings suggest that processing speed may be a central factor in the relation between cognitive symptoms and functional outcome in chronic schizophrenia. PMID:18261885

  13. Picture Naming and Verbal Fluency in Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler-Kashi, Deena; Schwartz, Richard G.; Cleary, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors examined lexical naming in children with cochlear implants (CIs). The goal was to determine whether children with CIs have deficits in lexical access and organization as revealed through reaction time in picture-naming and verbal fluency (VF) experiments. Method: Children with CIs (n = 20, ages 7-10) were…

  14. Verbal Fluency and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Adults with Down Syndrome and Unspecified Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavroussi, Panayiota; Andreou, Georgia; Karagiannopoulou, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine verbal fluency and verbal short-term memory in 12 adults with Down syndrome (DS) and 12 adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) of unspecified origin, matched for receptive vocabulary and chronological age. Participants' performance was assessed on two conditions of a verbal fluency test, namely, semantic…

  15. Reduced writing and reading speed and age-related changes in verbal fluency tasks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Aranda, Claudia

    2003-05-01

    The present study examined the influence of age-related decline in psychomotor speed on verbal fluency tasks. Reading speed, handwriting speed, written fluency, oral fluency, vocabulary, and years of formal education were measured in a sample of healthy volunteers (N=101) ranging in age from 20 to 88 years. Multiple regression analyses revealed that reading and handwriting speed strongly predicted verbal fluency performance. These measures, together with vocabulary skills and mental status, were significant predictors of performance on the fluency tasks. Present results suggest that decrement in verbal fluency performance in the aged may, at least partially, be due to reduced psychomotor speed rather than to decline in linguistic or cognitive functions.

  16. [The verbal fluency test for the diagnosis of dementia].

    PubMed

    Sciarma, T; Finali, G; Mazzi, P; Poli, R; D'Alessandro, P; Piccirilli, M; Piccinin, G L; Agostini, L

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of verbal fluency test, phonological (FF) and semantic (FS) sets, have been administered to four groups of demented patients: 11 with Alzheimer-type dementia (DAT), 13 with multi-infarct dementia (MID), 8 with Parkinson-Dementia (P-D) and 11 with adult chronic hydrocephalus (ICA). Patients were matched for age, educational level and neuropsychological impairment pattern. Further, ten neurologically healty subjects were selected as control group. Control subjects result to be different from all other groups in both FF and FS; moreover, FF test results to be more impaired in ICA than in DAT. Furthermore, FF is more impaired than FS in P-D and ICA patients. On the basis of our results, verbal fluency tests might represent an useful instrument to differentiate demented subjects from non-demented ones and within demented groups to characterize the different neuropsychological pattern of the cortical and subcortical type of cognitive deterioration.

  17. Home-based cognitive monitoring using embedded measures of verbal fluency in a computer word game.

    PubMed

    Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha; Le, Thai

    2008-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a standard neuropsychological test that measures the ease with which a person can produce words. It is commonly used in the diagnosis and characterization of cognitive disorders. In this paper, we describe a method for measuring a proxy for verbal fluency from embedded metrics within a computer word game. We evaluated our ability to monitor verbal fluency metrics over a period of one year in 30 elderly subjects by analyzing their computer game play. We found good correspondence between these computer metrics and the scores from standard verbal fluency assessments.

  18. Effect of Language Proficiency and Executive Control on Verbal Fluency Performance in Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Lin; Luk, Gigi; Bialystok, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    We use a time-course analysis to examine the roles of vocabulary size and executive control in bilinguals' verbal fluency performance. Two groups of bilinguals and a group of monolingual adults were tested in English with verbal fluency subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. The two bilingual groups were equivalent in their…

  19. Limitations in verbal fluency following heavy burdens of early childhood diarrhea in Brazilian shantytown children.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Peter D; Oriá, Reinaldo B; Madhavan, Vandana; Pinkerton, Relana C; Lorntz, Breyette; Lima, Aldo A M; Guerrant, Richard L

    2005-06-01

    The effects of heavy burdens of diarrhea in the first 2 years of life on specific executive control function like verbal fluency are not well understood. In previous studies, we have shown associations of early childhood diarrhea (ECD) with nonverbal intelligence and school functioning. Therefore, we postulated that ECD might affect early neuropsychological development leading to long-term deficits in normal cognitive development. Based on our extensive 14-year prospective cohort studies of early childhood diarrheal illnesses in a Brazilian shantytown community, we examined ECD correlations between specific impairments of higher mental function and executive skills in shantytown children 5-10 years later (now at 6-12) years of age. Specifically we examined whether heavy diarrheal illnesses correlate with reduced performance on selected tests of executive function. Our study, for the first time, suggests a disproportional impairment in semantic but not phonetic fluency in a subset of children with heavy burdens of diarrhea in their first 2 years of life even when controlling for maternal education, breastfeeding, and child schooling. Similar semantic decrements have been associated with impaired recovery from brain injury. These exploratory studies suggest the importance of verbal fluency tests to assess executive functioning in children challenged by poor nutrition and diarrhea in early life. In addition, our unique findings show the potential influences of early childhood diarrhea on language development that is so critical to productive adulthood and potentially set a foundation for new neuropsychological approaches, which assess early burdens of enteric illnesses on childhood development. PMID:16036449

  20. Verbal fluency in elderly bilingual speakers: normative data and preliminary application to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    de Picciotto, J; Friedland, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated verbal fluency abilities in 30 healthy elderly English-Afrikaans bilingual speakers, and 6 bilingual subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Three 1-min semantic verbal fluency tasks (animals) were obtained in the bilingual mode, Afrikaans and English. Results were analysed in terms of total correct, and semantic clusters. There was no significant difference between monolingual and bilingual performance. Some healthy bilingual subjects used code switching as a strategy but with no direct increase in the number of exemplars generated, and there was no relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores. In comparison, subjects with Alzheimer's disease did not make use of code switching strategies, and there was some relationship between age of acquisition, pattern of use and verbal fluency scores.

  1. What Causes the Bilingual Disadvantage in Verbal Fluency? The Dual-Task Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Gollan, Tamar H.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Salmon, David P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the consequences of bilingualism for verbal fluency by comparing bilinguals to monolinguals, and dominant versus non-dominant-language fluency. In Experiment 1, bilinguals produced fewer correct responses, slower first response times and proportionally delayed retrieval, relative to monolinguals. In Experiment 2, similar results…

  2. Verbal fluency in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Georgia; Trott, Kate

    2013-12-01

    It has been increasingly believed that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with lifelong course associated with cognitive difficulties including among others, language production, verbal learning, and verbal fluency. However, research is limited to children and adolescents, and very few researchers have examined the impact of ADHD in adulthood on the cognitive domain. The aim of the present study is to examine the performance of adults, diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, on semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks. It is hypothesized that adults with ADHD will perform worse on both tasks than matched controls. Sixty university students (30 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 30 matched controls) of mean age 20.5 participated in the study. They all completed two verbal fluency tasks. The ADHD group had statistically significant lower scores than the non-ADHD group on the phonemic, but not the semantic task. The study provides some evidence that ADHD in childhood has a negative impact on adults' phonemic verbal fluency. This finding could be probably explained by the fact that phonemic fluency is considered more cognitively demanding and impacting more on the frontal lobe functions, known to be impaired in ADHD, than semantic fluency.

  3. Partly segregated cortico-subcortical pathways support phonologic and semantic verbal fluency: A lesion study.

    PubMed

    Chouiter, Leila; Holmberg, Josefina; Manuel, Aurelie L; Colombo, Françoise; Clarke, Stephanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Spierer, Lucas

    2016-08-01

    Verbal fluency refers to the ability to generate as many words as possible in a limited time interval, without repetition and according to either a phonologic (each word begins with a given letter) or a semantic rule (each word belongs to a given semantic category). While current literature suggests the involvement of left fronto-temporal structures in fluency tasks, whether the same or distinct brain areas are necessary for each type of fluency remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis for an involvement of partly segregated cortico-subcortical structures between phonologic and semantic fluency by examining with a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping approach the effects of brain lesions on fluency scores corrected for age and education level in a group of 191 unselected brain-damaged patients with a first left or right hemispheric lesion. There was a positive correlation between the scores to the two types of fluency, suggesting that common mechanisms underlie the word generation independent of the production rule. The lesion-symptom mapping revealed that lesions to left basal ganglia impaired both types of fluency and that left superior temporal, supramarginal and rolandic operculum lesions selectively impaired phonologic fluency and left middle temporal lesions impaired semantic fluency. Our results corroborate current neurocognitive models of word retrieval and production, and refine the role of cortical-subcortical interaction in lexical search by highlighting the common executive role of basal ganglia in both types of verbal fluency and the preferential involvement of the ventral and dorsal language pathway in semantic and phonologic fluency, respectively.

  4. The effects of literacy and education on the quantitative and qualitative aspects of semantic verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Catarina Gonzalez; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís; Ingvar, Martin; Reis, Alexandra

    2004-04-01

    Semantic verbal fluency tasks are commonly used in neuropsychological assessment. Investigations of the influence of level of literacy have not yielded consistent results in the literature. This prompted us to investigate the ecological relevance of task specifics, in particular, the choice of semantic criteria used. Two groups of literate and illiterate subjects were compared on two verbal fluency tasks using different semantic criteria. The performance on a food criterion (supermarket fluency task), considered more ecologically relevant for the two literacy groups, and an animal criterion (animal fluency task) were compared. The data were analysed using both quantitative and qualitative measures. The quantitative analysis indicated that the two literacy groups performed equally well on the supermarket fluency task. In contrast, results differed significantly during the animal fluency task. The qualitative analyses indicated differences between groups related to the strategies used, especially with respect to the animal fluency task. The overall results suggest that there is not a substantial difference between literate and illiterate subjects related to the fundamental workings of semantic memory. However, there is indication that the content of semantic memory reflects differences in shared cultural background--in other words, formal education--, as indicated by the significant interaction between level of literacy and semantic criterion.

  5. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  6. Basal Ganglia Structures Differentially Contribute to Verbal Fluency: Evidence from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thames, April D.; Foley, Jessica M.; Wright, Matthew J.; Panos, Stella E.; Ettenhofer, Mark; Ramezani, Amir; Streiff, Vanessa; El-Saden, Suzie; Goodwin, Scott; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in executive language functions (i.e., verbal fluency) through their connections with cortical structures. The caudate and putamen receive separate inputs from prefrontal and premotor cortices, and may differentially contribute to verbal fluency performance. We examined BG integrity in relation to…

  7. Semantic Pattern Analysis for Verbal Fluency Based Assessment of Neurological Disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Ainsworth, Keela C; Brown, Tyler C

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary results of semantic pattern analysis of verbal fluency tests used for assessing cognitive psychological and neuropsychological disorders. We posit that recent advances in semantic reasoning and artificial intelligence can be combined to create a standardized computer-aided diagnosis tool to automatically evaluate and interpret verbal fluency tests. Towards that goal, we derive novel semantic similarity (phonetic, phonemic and conceptual) metrics and present the predictive capability of these metrics on a de-identified dataset of participants with and without neurological disorders.

  8. Verbal Versus Figural Fluency Tests in Currently Ill and Weight Restored Anorexia Nervosa Patients.

    PubMed

    Heled, Eyal; Hoofien, Dan; Bachar, Eytan; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Fluency tests allow domain-specific assessment of verbal and non-verbal executive functions (EF) comparison and also enable utilizing of both quantitative and qualitative scoring methods. Thirty-five currently ill anorexia nervosa patients (PANs), 33 weight-restored patients (WRAN) and 47 healthy controls (HCs) were administered the word fluency test and the five-point test. Results show that WRANs tended to perseverate more than HCs in the verbal-fluency test. In addition, PANs produced significantly less correct figures and perseverated more than HCs and WRANs; HCs used more strategy methods than PANs and WRANs. Additionally, a positive correlation was found in the HC group between the total number of words in the verbal phonemic test and the number of designs produced and the number of correct designs. No such correlations were found in both anorexia groups. In conclusion, there is a differentiation between verbal and non-verbal EF in PANs and WRANs, showing a deficiency in the non-verbal domain. These findings may contribute to our understanding of the cognitive nature of the disorder.

  9. Emotional Verbal Fluency: A New Task on Emotion and Executive Function Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Sass, Katharina; Fetz, Karolina; Oetken, Sarah; Habel, Ute; Heim, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The present study introduces “Emotional Verbal Fluency” as a novel (partially computerized) task, which is aimed to investigate the interaction between emotionally loaded words and executive functions. Verbal fluency tasks are thought to measure executive functions but the interaction with emotional aspects is hardly investigated. In the current study, a group of healthy subjects (n = 21, mean age 25 years, 76% females) were asked to generate items that are either part of a semantic category (e.g., plants, toys, vehicles; standard semantic verbal fluency) or can trigger the emotions joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust. The results of the task revealed no differences between performance on semantic and emotional categories, suggesting a comparable task difficulty for healthy subjects. Hence, these first results on the comparison between semantic and emotional verbal fluency seem to highlight that both might be suitable for examining executive functioning. However, an interaction was found between the category type and repetition (first vs. second sequence of the same category) with larger performance decrease for semantic in comparison to emotional categories. Best performance overall was found for the emotional category “joy” suggesting a positivity bias in healthy subjects. To conclude, emotional verbal fluency is a promising approach to investigate emotional components in an executive task, which may stimulate further research, especially in psychiatric patients who suffer from emotional as well as cognitive deficits. PMID:25379243

  10. The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients' education than PVF FAS tests.

  11. The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D.; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients’ education than PVF FAS tests. PMID:26426640

  12. Variation in verbal fluency: a latent variable analysis of clustering, switching, and overall performance.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A

    2011-03-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have long been used to assess and estimate group and individual differences in executive functioning in both cognitive and neuropsychological research domains. Despite their ubiquity, however, the specific component processes important for success in these tasks have remained elusive. The current work sought to reveal these various components and their respective roles in determining performance in fluency tasks using latent variable analysis. Two types of verbal fluency (semantic and letter) were compared along with several cognitive constructs of interest (working memory capacity, inhibition, vocabulary size, and processing speed) in order to determine which constructs are necessary for performance in these tasks. The results are discussed within the context of a two-stage cyclical search process in which participants first search for higher order categories and then search for specific items within these categories.

  13. Variation in verbal fluency: a latent variable analysis of clustering, switching, and overall performance.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, Nash; Spillers, Gregory J; Brewer, Gene A

    2011-03-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have long been used to assess and estimate group and individual differences in executive functioning in both cognitive and neuropsychological research domains. Despite their ubiquity, however, the specific component processes important for success in these tasks have remained elusive. The current work sought to reveal these various components and their respective roles in determining performance in fluency tasks using latent variable analysis. Two types of verbal fluency (semantic and letter) were compared along with several cognitive constructs of interest (working memory capacity, inhibition, vocabulary size, and processing speed) in order to determine which constructs are necessary for performance in these tasks. The results are discussed within the context of a two-stage cyclical search process in which participants first search for higher order categories and then search for specific items within these categories. PMID:20839136

  14. Long-Term Effect of Prefrontal Lobotomy on Verbal Fluency in Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stip, Emmanuel; Bigras, Marie-Josee.; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Cosset, Marie-Eve.; Black, Deborah; Lecours, Andre-Roch

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the long-term effects of bilateral prefrontal leukotomy on lexical abilities in schizophrenia subjects. Method: We compared performances of leukotomized (LSP), non-leukotomized schizophrenia patients (NLSP) and normal controls, using a test of verbal fluency. Multiple case and triple comparison design were…

  15. Differential Prefrontal and Frontotemporal Oxygenation Patterns during Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupak, Sara V.; Badewien, Meike; Dresler, Thomas; Hahn, Tim; Ernst, Lena H.; Herrmann, Martin J.; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Movement artifacts are still considered a problematic issue for imaging research on overt language production. This motion-sensitivity can be overcome by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). In the present study, 50 healthy subjects performed a combined phonemic and semantic overt verbal fluency task while frontal and temporal cortex…

  16. Isolated left posterior insular infarction and convergent roles in verbal fluency, language, memory, and executive function

    PubMed Central

    Ruthirago, Doungporn; DeToledo, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior insular cortex—a complex structure interconnecting various brain regions for different functions—is a rare location for ischemic stroke. We report a patient with isolated left posterior insular infarction who presented with multiple cognitive impairment, including impairment in semantic and phonemic verbal fluency. PMID:27365876

  17. Studying Orientations and Performance on Verbal Fluency Tasks in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that studying orientations are important factors in determining academic performance. The main purpose of this study was to investigate how Greek students' approaches to studying in combination with gender, academic discipline, and professional degree in English affect performance on verbal fluency tasks in English as a…

  18. Verbal Fluency in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Clustering and Switching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; Wierda, Marlies; Scheeren, Anke M.; Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights differences in cognitive strategies in children and adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders (n = 52) on a verbal fluency task (naming as many words as possible (e.g. animals) within 60 s). The ability to form clusters of words (e.g. farm animals like "cow-horse-goat") or to switch between unrelated…

  19. Verbal Fluency as a Rapid Screening Test for Cognitive Impairment in Early Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Torralva, Teresa; Laffaye, Teresa; Báez, Sandra; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Bruno, Diana; Chade, Anabel; Ibañez, Agustin; Manes, Facundo; Gershanik, Oscar; Roca, María

    2015-01-01

    The phonological verbal fluency test can act as a fast screening test to detect cognitive deficits in neurological conditions. In the present study, its utility in the detection of executive deficits in patients with early Parkinson's disease is demonstrated. PMID:26067437

  20. The Effects of Divided Attention on Speech Motor, Verbal Fluency, and Manual Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dromey, Christopher; Shim, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate aspects of the "functional distance hypothesis," which predicts that tasks regulated by brain networks in closer anatomic proximity will interfere more with each other than tasks controlled by spatially distant regions. Speech, verbal fluency, and manual motor tasks were examined to ascertain whether…

  1. Analysis of verbal fluency ability in Alzheimer's disease: the role of clustering, switching and semantic proximities.

    PubMed

    Weakley, Alyssa; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2014-05-01

    The underlying nature of verbal fluency deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated in this study. Participants were 48 individuals with AD and 48 cognitively healthy older adults. Fluency performance on letter and category tasks was analyzed across two 30-s intervals for total words produced, mean cluster size, and total switches. Compared with the control group, AD participants produced fewer words and switches on both fluency tasks and had a reduced category cluster size. The AD group was differentially impaired on category compared with letter fluency and produced more repetitive responses but fewer category exemplars than controls on the category task. A multidimensional scaling approach revealed that AD participants' semantic maps were similar to controls. Overall, the data suggest that executive abilities involving search and retrieval processes and a reduced availability of semantically related words contributed to the AD group's poorer performance despite similar temporal recall and organizational patterns.

  2. Verbal fluency in focal epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Metternich, B; Buschmann, F; Wagner, K; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Kriston, L

    2014-06-01

    Testing of verbal fluency is currently part of standard presurgical neuropsychological assessment for patients with focal epilepsy. However, to date no systematic review has been conducted on semantic (SVF) and phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) in this patient group. The present review compares verbal fluency between healthy control subjects and subgroups of adult presurgical patients with focal epilepsy according to lateralisation and localisation of the dysfunction. PubMed was searched with a comprehensive search string. Abstracts of all studies and full-texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Study quality was assessed by independent raters according to predefined criteria. 39 studies were included. Meta-analyses were performed to compare SVF and PVF across groups of patients with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) as well as healthy controls (HC). Both patients with left- and right sided TLE were impaired on SVF and PVF compared to HC. Patients with left-sided TLE were slightly more impaired than patients with right-sided TLE. Patients with FLE showed a larger impairment in PVF than patients with TLE, whereas on SVF there was no difference between FLE and TLE. For TLE comparisons the study pool seems to have been sufficient, whereas more studies are needed to verify results for FLE. Semantic verbal fluency might not differentiate between FLE and TLE. While verbal fluency impairment was anticipated, especially in left-sided TLE and FLE patients, the impairment in patients with right-sided TLE was larger than expected. Results are discussed with regard to neuropsychological theory and practice.

  3. Verbal fluency in focal epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Metternich, B; Buschmann, F; Wagner, K; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Kriston, L

    2014-06-01

    Testing of verbal fluency is currently part of standard presurgical neuropsychological assessment for patients with focal epilepsy. However, to date no systematic review has been conducted on semantic (SVF) and phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) in this patient group. The present review compares verbal fluency between healthy control subjects and subgroups of adult presurgical patients with focal epilepsy according to lateralisation and localisation of the dysfunction. PubMed was searched with a comprehensive search string. Abstracts of all studies and full-texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Study quality was assessed by independent raters according to predefined criteria. 39 studies were included. Meta-analyses were performed to compare SVF and PVF across groups of patients with temporal (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) as well as healthy controls (HC). Both patients with left- and right sided TLE were impaired on SVF and PVF compared to HC. Patients with left-sided TLE were slightly more impaired than patients with right-sided TLE. Patients with FLE showed a larger impairment in PVF than patients with TLE, whereas on SVF there was no difference between FLE and TLE. For TLE comparisons the study pool seems to have been sufficient, whereas more studies are needed to verify results for FLE. Semantic verbal fluency might not differentiate between FLE and TLE. While verbal fluency impairment was anticipated, especially in left-sided TLE and FLE patients, the impairment in patients with right-sided TLE was larger than expected. Results are discussed with regard to neuropsychological theory and practice. PMID:24667998

  4. Bilingual aphasia: semantic organization, strategy use, and productivity in semantic verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Roberts, P M; Le Dorze, G

    1998-11-01

    A semantic verbal fluency task (Animals, Foods) was administered to 16 aphasic, bilingual adults in French and English. Each subject was tested twice in each language. The two goals of the study were to compare performance across languages and to determine the effect of a deliberate grouping strategy on productivity. All subjects claimed approximately equal prestroke abilities in both languages. The number of words subjects produced was not significantly different in the two languages. Semantic organization across languages was also similar on Test 1. On Test 2, 8 subjects were instructed to group items by subcategory and 8 simply repeated the task. There was no consistent between-group difference in number of correct words or in the semantic organization of responses. Implications for the clinical use of verbal fluency tests and for further research into bilingual lexicosemantic systems are discussed.

  5. Discrepantly poor verbal skills in poor readers: a failure of learning or ability?

    PubMed

    Langdon, D W; Rosenblatt, N; Mellanby, J H

    1998-05-01

    Poor verbal skills in poor readers have long been reported in the literature. There have been many attempts to understand the interaction between poor verbal ability and poor verbal achievement. The methodological problems are considerable, including the measurement of verbal ability, which has been confounded by previous learning. A new reasoning test, the VESPAR, has been designed to measure novel problem solving and thus to be less reliant on acquired verbal skills. One hundred and seventy 14-year-olds completed the VESPAR, the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) and a single-word reading test. Overall, verbal scores were weaker than spatial scores. A subgroup of 38 pupils with particularly marked discrepancies between verbal and non-verbal CAT was identified. The especially discrepant pupils were matched with other non-discrepant pupils from the year group for either verbal or non-verbal CAT. The discrepant group's reading was at the same level as the matched verbal CAT group. However, the primary verbal ability of the discrepancy group, as measured on the VESPAR, was greater than the matched verbal CAT group. This raises the possibility that CAT- but not VESPAR-discrepant pupils may be at particular risk of under-achievement in the verbal domain.

  6. A novel frontal pathway underlies verbal fluency in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel M; Jakobsen, Estrid; Malik, Farah; Martersteck, Adam; Wieneke, Christina; Thompson, Cynthia K; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Weintraub, Sandra; Rogalski, Emily

    2013-08-01

    The frontal aslant tract is a direct pathway connecting Broca's region with the anterior cingulate and pre-supplementary motor area. This tract is left lateralized in right-handed subjects, suggesting a possible role in language. However, there are no previous studies that have reported an involvement of this tract in language disorders. In this study we used diffusion tractography to define the anatomy of the frontal aslant tract in relation to verbal fluency and grammar impairment in primary progressive aphasia. Thirty-five patients with primary progressive aphasia and 29 control subjects were recruited. Tractography was used to obtain indirect indices of microstructural organization of the frontal aslant tract. In addition, tractography analysis of the uncinate fasciculus, a tract associated with semantic processing deficits, was performed. Damage to the frontal aslant tract correlated with performance in verbal fluency as assessed by the Cinderella story test. Conversely, damage to the uncinate fasciculus correlated with deficits in semantic processing as assessed by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Neither tract correlated with grammatical or repetition deficits. Significant group differences were found in the frontal aslant tract of patients with the non-fluent/agrammatic variant and in the uncinate fasciculus of patients with the semantic variant. These findings indicate that degeneration of the frontal aslant tract underlies verbal fluency deficits in primary progressive aphasia and further confirm the role of the uncinate fasciculus in semantic processing. The lack of correlation between damage to the frontal aslant tract and grammar deficits suggests that verbal fluency and grammar processing rely on distinct anatomical networks. PMID:23820597

  7. The effects of focal anterior and posterior brain lesions on verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Stuss, D T; Alexander, M P; Hamer, L; Palumbo, C; Dempster, R; Binns, M; Levine, B; Izukawa, D

    1998-05-01

    Seventy-four patients with focal brain lesions were compared to a neurologically normal control group on tasks of letter-based and category-based list generation. When patients were divided only by right frontal, left frontal, or nonfrontal lesion sites, the pattern of fluency impairments confirmed prior claims. When more precise lesion sites within the frontal lobes were compared between groups classified based on their fluency performance, much more specific brain-behavior relations were uncovered. Damage to the right dorsolateral cortical or connecting striatal regions, the right posterior area, or the medial inferior frontal lobe of either hemisphere did not significantly affect letter-based fluency performance. Superior medial frontal damage, right or left, resulted in moderate impairment. Patients with left dorsolateral and/or striatal lesions were most impaired. Left parietal damage led to performance relatively equivalent to the superior medial and left dorsolateral groups. The same lesion sites produced impairments in category based fluency, but so did lesions of right dorsolateral and inferior medial regions. Task analysis and correlations with other measures revealed that different cognitive processes related to different brain regions underlie performance on verbal fluency tests. PMID:9623001

  8. Brain correlates of verbal fluency in subthreshold psychosis assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Holper, L; Aleksandrowicz, A; Müller, M; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Haker, H; Fallgatter, A J; Hagenmuller, F; Rössler, W; Kawohl, W

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms in the general population has gained increasing interest as a possible precursor of psychotic disorders. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether neurobiological features of subthreshold psychotic symptoms can be detected using verbal fluency tasks and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A large data set was obtained from the Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services (ZInEP). Based on the SCL-90-R subscales 'Paranoid Ideation' and 'Psychoticism' a total sample of 188 subjects was assigned to four groups with different levels of subthreshold psychotic symptoms. All subjects completed a phonemic and semantic verbal fluency task while fNIRS was recorded over the prefrontal and temporal cortices. Results revealed larger hemodynamic (oxy-hemoglobin) responses to the phonemic and semantic conditions compared to the control condition over prefrontal and temporal cortices. Subjects with high subthreshold psychotic symptoms exhibited significantly reduced hemodynamic responses in both conditions compared to the control group. Further, connectivity between prefrontal and temporal cortices revealed significantly weaker patterns in subjects with high subthreshold psychotic symptoms compared to the control group, possibly indicating less incisive network connections associated with subthreshold psychotic symptoms. The present findings provide evidence that subthreshold forms of psychotic symptoms are associated with reduced hemodynamic responses and connectivity in prefrontal and temporal cortices during verbal fluency that can be identified using fNIRS. PMID:26277535

  9. Associations between depressive symptoms and fronto-temporal activities during a verbal fluency task in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Miura, Akihiko; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Though depressive symptoms are common in patients with schizophrenia, they are often left untreated and are associated with a high relapse rate, suicidal ideation, increased mortality, reduced social adjustment, and poor quality of life. The present study aims to elucidate the association between depressive symptoms and fronto-temporal activities during a cognitive task in patients with schizophrenia. The fronto-temporal activities of 41 Japanese patients with schizophrenia was evaluated during a verbal fluency task using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the depression/anxiety component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) five-factor model. The depression/anxiety component of the PANSS five-factor model was negatively correlated with activities of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), right dorsolateral PFC, and left temporal regions. Our findings suggest that reduced fronto-temporal activities on NIRS during a verbal fluency task is related to depressive symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27465466

  10. tDCS Effects on Verbal Fluency: A Response to Vannorsdall et al (2016).

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Pisoni, Alberto; Gallucci, Marcello; Papagno, Costanza

    2016-09-01

    In a prior study (Cattaneo et al, 2011. Neuroscience. 183:64-70), we demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus enhanced verbal fluency in healthy young adults. Although our data are in line with the results of other published studies, another research group recently failed to report anodal tDCS effects on verbal fluency using a paradigm similar to ours (Vannorsdall et al, 2016. Cogn Behav Neurol. 29:11-17). Here we discuss aspects of study design and interpretation of results that should be considered in replications, focusing particularly on homogeneity of procedures. Notwithstanding the possibility that our study may indeed not be replicable, we hypothesize that Vannorsdall et al found an interesting modifier of the tDCS effects on verbal production by introducing a critical methodologic difference from our original study. We demonstrate this difference by presenting the results of an additional experiment. We believe that the sharing of data between research groups and constructive debate on possible differences in results should be encouraged because they help define the boundaries of applicability of an experimental paradigm. This is even more important for research findings that may have clinical implications, as is the case here. PMID:27662449

  11. Can Word Puzzles be Tailored to Improve Different Dimensions of Verbal Fluency? A Report of an Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mike; Spillane, Katie; Cully, James; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; Moret-Tatay, Carmen

    2016-08-17

    Verbal fluency is commonly used as a proxy measure of executive functioning, as it involves cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Previous research has demonstrated that crosswords can be a useful means of improving verbal fluency, results consistent with the cognitive reserve hypothesis; the form of verbal fluency affected has, however, differed across studies. The present study sought to assess the extent to which it was possible to target phonemic (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) separately through word puzzles designed to focus on semantic/thematic and structural clues respectively. Fifty-three university students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: semantic/thematic, structural, or a daily diary control group. They were assessed on PVF and SVF at baseline, and immediately following a four-week intervention. Age, sex, and depression scores were controlled for. A 2 × 3 mixed ANCOVA showed that the structural group improved significantly more in PVF during the intervention period than did the semantic/thematic or control groups, with the improvement linked to improved switching performance. The effect size was large. No significant difference in improvement in SVF emerged, although the effect size was moderate. The findings support the notion that it is possible to improve specific forms of verbal fluency through tailored brief word-puzzle interventions. PMID:27224052

  12. A coordinate-based ALE functional MRI meta-analysis of brain activation during verbal fluency tasks in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The processing of verbal fluency tasks relies on the coordinated activity of a number of brain areas, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes of the left hemisphere. Recent studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the neural networks subserving verbal fluency functions have yielded divergent results especially with respect to a parcellation of the inferior frontal gyrus for phonemic and semantic verbal fluency. We conducted a coordinate-based activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on brain activation during the processing of phonemic and semantic verbal fluency tasks involving 28 individual studies with 490 healthy volunteers. Results For phonemic as well as for semantic verbal fluency, the most prominent clusters of brain activation were found in the left inferior/middle frontal gyrus (LIFG/MIFG) and the anterior cingulate gyrus. BA 44 was only involved in the processing of phonemic verbal fluency tasks, BA 45 and 47 in the processing of phonemic and semantic fluency tasks. Conclusions Our comparison of brain activation during the execution of either phonemic or semantic verbal fluency tasks revealed evidence for spatially different activation in BA 44, but not other regions of the LIFG/LMFG (BA 9, 45, 47) during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency processing. PMID:24456150

  13. Semantic organization, strategy use, and productivity in bilingual semantic verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Roberts, P M; Le Dorze, G

    1997-10-01

    This study of semantic verbal fluency addressed two research questions: (1) What are the between-language similarities and differences in the performance of balanced bilinguals? (2) What is the relationship between productivity and the use of a semantic grouping strategy to organize responses? Forty neurologically normal, bilingual adults were tested twice in each language (French/English), in a 2 (Language) by 2 (Test) by 2 (Group) design. On Test 2, half the 40 subjects were instructed to group items by subcategory, while half simply repeated the test. Results showed (1) many more between-language similarities than differences and (2) no between-group differences in productivity.

  14. Influence of muscle activity on brain oxygenation during verbal fluency assessed with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schecklmann, M; Ehlis, A C; Plichta, M M; Fallgatter, A J

    2010-12-01

    A large part of the literature of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) deals with overt verbal fluency. It has been claimed that fNIRS has a low susceptibility to movement related artefacts as, for example, associated with overt speech. However, so far, no study has investigated this assumption in an experimental design. Therefore, we examined a group of 16 healthy subjects during performance of two verbal fluency tasks (experiment 1: phonological fluency; experiment 2: semantical fluency, paced answers, pronouncing vs. writing). We measured changes of oxygenated (O(2)Hb) and deoxygenated haemoglobin (HHb) over fronto-temporal (brain) areas via fNIRS, while temporalis muscle activity was simultaneously assessed by means of electromyography (EMG). Statistical analyses indicated comparable word production, higher increases of O(2)Hb and higher decreases of HHb over fronto-temporal areas during word fluency in contrast to the control task weekday reciting. This fNIRS pattern indicates fluency related activation and was found for pronouncing and for writing in both experiments. Regarding the EMG data, fluency related activity was only found for pronouncing, not for writing. Thus, muscle activity cannot account for fluency related fNIRS activity during writing. Additionally, correlation analyses showed no systematic associations of fNIRS and EMG signals. In conclusion, we found arguments that fNIRS actually allows for the measurement of brain activity over fronto-temporal areas during verbal fluency. Nonetheless, further studies should evaluate more direct associations between fNIRS and EMG signals by specific experimental manipulations and data analysing approaches that allow dealing fNIRS and EMG raw data simultaneously.

  15. Rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia following perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent clinical studies point to rapid and sustained clinical, cognitive, and behavioral improvement in both Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia following weekly perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF-alpha inhibitor that acts by blocking the binding of this cytokine to its receptors. This outcome is concordant with recent basic science studies suggesting that TNF-alpha functions in vivo as a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in the brain. We hypothesized that perispinal etanercept had the potential to improve verbal function in Alzheimer's disease, so we included several standarized measures of verbal ability to evaluate language skills in a clinical trial of perispinal etanercept for Alzheimer's disease. Methods This was a prospective, single-center, open-label, pilot study, in which 12 patients with mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease were administered etanercept, 25–50 mg, weekly by perispinal administration for six months. Two additional case studies are presented. Results Two-tailed, paired t-tests were conducted comparing baseline performance to 6-month performance on all neuropsychological measures. Test batteries included the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version; Logical Memory I and II(WMS-LM-II) from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Abbreviated; the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (TMT); Boston Naming Test; and letter(FAS) and category verbal fluency. All measures revealed a significant effect except for the Boston Naming Test and the TMT-4, with WMS-LM-II being marginally significant at p = .05. The FAS test for letter fluency was most highly significant with a p < 0.0007. In addition, rapid improvement in verbal fluency and aphasia in two patients with dementia, beginning minutes after perispinal etanercept administration, is documented. Conclusion In combination with the previously reported results of perispinal etanercept in Alzheimer's disease and primary progressive aphasia, these

  16. Top-Down Computerized Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: A Case Study of an Individual with Impairment in Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced. PMID:25949840

  17. Top-down computerized cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a case study of an individual with impairment in verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced.

  18. Top-down computerized cognitive remediation in schizophrenia: a case study of an individual with impairment in verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Masson, Marjolaine; Wykes, Til; Maziade, Michel; Reeder, Clare; Gariépy, Marie-Anne; Roy, Marc-André; Ivers, Hans; Cellard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to assess the specific effect of cognitive remediation for schizophrenia on the pattern of cognitive impairments. Case A is a 33-year-old man with a schizophrenia diagnosis and impairments in visual memory, inhibition, problem solving, and verbal fluency. He was provided with a therapist delivered cognitive remediation program involving practice and strategy which was designed to train attention, memory, executive functioning, visual-perceptual processing, and metacognitive skills. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were administered at baseline and after three months of treatment. At posttest assessment, Case A had improved significantly on targeted (visual memory and problem solving) and nontargeted (verbal fluency) cognitive processes. The results of the current case study suggest that (1) it is possible to improve specific cognitive processes with targeted exercises, as seen by the improvement in visual memory due to training exercises targeting this cognitive domain; (2) cognitive remediation can produce improvements in cognitive processes not targeted during remediation since verbal fluency was improved while there was no training exercise on this specific cognitive process; and (3) including learning strategies in cognitive remediation increases the value of the approach and enhances participant improvement, possibly because strategies using verbalization can lead to improvement in verbal fluency even if it was not practiced. PMID:25949840

  19. Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laiss; Cunha Lima, Maria Luiza; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal's semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls (NC, n = 25), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 25), amnestic multiple domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (a+mdMCI; n = 25) and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 25) Brazilian subjects. The analyses were executed considering three (unifying the MCI subtypes) and four groups. As the data were not normally distributed, we carried out non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to evaluate the differences in performance in the measures of the verbal fluency test among the groups. The comparison demonstrated that the groups differed in the total of correct words produced, number of clusters and switching but the measure of new subcategories was the only with significant difference among the NC and all the clinical groups. The measure of new subcategories is the number of original subcategories inside the higher category of animals that the subject produced, such as farm, domestic, African animals. Our results indicate that semantic memory impairment is a visible and recent deficit that occurs even in non-demented subjects with very MCI and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25071550

  20. Parallel distributed processing and neuropsychology: a neural network model of Wisconsin Card Sorting and verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Parks, R W; Levine, D S; Long, D L; Crockett, D J; Dalton, I E; Weingartner, H; Fedio, P; Coburn, K L; Siler, G; Matthews, J R

    1992-06-01

    Neural networks can be used as a tool in the explanation of neuropsychological data. Using the Hebbian Learning Rule and other such principles as competition and modifiable interlevel feedback, researchers have successfully modeled a widely used neuropsychological test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. One of these models is reviewed here and extended to a qualitative analysis of how verbal fluency might be modeled, which demonstrates the importance of accounting for the attentional components of both tests. Difficulties remain in programming sequential cognitive processes within a parallel distributed processing (PDP) framework and integrating exceedingly complex neuropsychological tests such as Proverbs. PDP neural network methodology offers neuropsychologists co-validation procedures within narrowly defined areas of reliability and validity.

  1. Neural systems supporting lexical search guided by letter and semantic category cues: a self-paced overt response fMRI study of verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Birn, Rasmus M; Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Caravella, Rachel; Jones, Tyler B; Bandettini, Peter A; Martin, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks have been widely used to evaluate language and executive control processes in the human brain. FMRI studies of verbal fluency, however, have used either silent word generation (which provides no behavioral measure) or cued generation of single words in order to contend with speech-related motion artifacts. In this study, we use a recently developed paradigm design to investigate the neural correlates of verbal fluency during overt, free recall, word generation so that performance and brain activity could be evaluated under conditions that more closely mirror standard behavioral test demands. We investigated verbal fluency to both letter and category cues in order to evaluate differential involvement of specific frontal and temporal lobe sites as a function of retrieval cue type, as suggested by previous neuropsychological and neuroimaging investigations. In addition, we incorporated both a task switching manipulation and an automatic speech condition in order to modulate the demand placed on executive functions. We found greater activation in the left hemisphere during category and letter fluency tasks, and greater right hemisphere activation during automatic speech. We also found that letter and category fluency tasks were associated with differential involvement of specific regions of the frontal and temporal lobes. These findings provide converging evidence that letter and category fluency performance is dependent on partially distinct neural circuitry. They also provide strong evidence that verbal fluency can be successfully evaluated in the MR environment using overt, self-paced, responses. PMID:19632335

  2. Improvement of verbal fluency in patients with diffuse brain injury over time

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Ana Luiza; de Paula Guirado, Vinícius Monteiro; Baldivia, Beatriz; Núñes, Monica Domiano; Amorim, Robson Luis Oliveira; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza; de Andrade, Almir Ferreira; Paiva, Wellingson Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background Diffuse axonal injury (DAI), a common cause of neurological sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), is considered one of the most prevalent forms of primary neuronal injury in patients with severe TBI. Cognitive deficits induced by DAI can persist over time, especially following moderate or severe injuries. The aim of the present study was to compare verbal fluency (VF) performance at 6 and 12 months after the trauma in a same group of patients with DAI. Methods Eighteen patients with moderate to severe DAI and 17 healthy volunteers were enrolled. All DAI participants had sustained a TBI at least 6 months prior to the start of the study, were between 18 and 50 years of age, and had at least 4 years of education. The VF test was administered within an extensive neuropsychological test battery. We evaluated the same patients at 6 months (DAI1 group) and 12 months (DAI2 group) and compared the results of neuropsychological tests with a control group of healthy volunteers who were matched to patients for sex, age, and educational level. Results In comparison to controls, the DAI1 group produced significantly fewer words. The DAI2 group produced significantly more semantic words than DAI1 (P<0.05) and demonstrated a trend towards the production of more clusters for letter A (P=0.09) and total words generated in a phonemic test (P=0.09). No significant differences were observed between DAI2 and the control group in the total number of words generated in phonetic FAS or semantic fluency scores. Conclusion The present findings may be useful in the construction of a management plan for long-term TBI rehabilitation that considers the trauma of each patient. Further, our results suggest the VF test is a suitable instrument for the assessment of cognitive difficulties following TBI. PMID:25028551

  3. Prevalence of low scores in children and adolescents on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Koushik, Nikhil S; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; Horton, Arthur MacNeill; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2013-01-01

    It is important to consider the prevalence of low scores when administering a battery of psychological tests. Understanding the prevalence of low scores is important for minimizing false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to expand the literature on base rates for use in children and adolescents. Participants were 408 healthy children and adolescents (M(age) = 13.1 years, SD = 3.7) and 139 children and adolescents (M(age) = 12.4 years, SD = 3.1) diagnosed with a medical, neurological, or learning condition. All participants were administered the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ). The clinical sample performed significantly lower compared with the healthy control participants on three of the five TVCF scores. When all scores were considered simultaneously, 38% of healthy children obtained one or more scores below the 16th percentile and 15% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower. By comparison, significantly higher proportions of children in the clinical sample had low scores below each of the five cutoffs (i.e., 63% had one or more test scores below the 16th percentile and 37% had one or more scores in the 5th percentile or lower). Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the prevalence of low TVCF scores in everyday clinical practice with children and adolescents.

  4. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ren, Xia-Jin; Ma, Xiang-Yun; Sun, Jing-Jing; Feng, Kun; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Xu, Bo; Liu, Po-Zi

    2016-01-01

    Blepharospasm (BSP) has a morbidity of 16 to 133 per million and is characterized by orbicularis oculi spasms. BSP can severely impact daily life. However, to date, its pathophysiology has not been clearly demonstrated. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a portable, non-invasive, and high time resolution apparatus used to measure cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of BSP patients and determine whether BSP alone can be an attributional factor to influence the function of the prefrontal area using a verbal fluency task (VFT) and NIRS. Twenty-three BSP patients (10 males and 13 females) and 13 healthy controls (HC; five males and eight females) matched by gender and education were examined using NIRS. BSP patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of depression and anxiety symptoms. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze differences between the three groups and reduce the influence of different ages and educational levels. Bonferroni was used to process the post hoc test. The bilateral orbitofrontal area (ch36, 39, and 41; P<0.01) exhibited a lower activation in BSP patients without psychiatric symptoms compared with HC. This study is the first report to identify the prefrontal function in BSP using NIRS. Our findings indicate that BSP alone may cause a hypoactive hemodynamic performance in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of psychiatric symptoms. These findings provide evidence to support novel pathophysiological mechanisms of BSP. PMID:26942579

  5. Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chen-Yu; Wang, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ren, Xia-Jin; Ma, Xiang-Yun; Sun, Jing-Jing; Feng, Kun; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Xu, Bo; Liu, Po-Zi

    2016-01-01

    Blepharospasm (BSP) has a morbidity of 16 to 133 per million and is characterized by orbicularis oculi spasms. BSP can severely impact daily life. However, to date, its pathophysiology has not been clearly demonstrated. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a portable, non-invasive, and high time resolution apparatus used to measure cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to investigate the hemodynamic response patterns of BSP patients and determine whether BSP alone can be an attributional factor to influence the function of the prefrontal area using a verbal fluency task (VFT) and NIRS. Twenty-three BSP patients (10 males and 13 females) and 13 healthy controls (HC; five males and eight females) matched by gender and education were examined using NIRS. BSP patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of depression and anxiety symptoms. A covariance analysis was conducted to analyze differences between the three groups and reduce the influence of different ages and educational levels. Bonferroni was used to process the post hoc test. The bilateral orbitofrontal area (ch36, 39, and 41; P<0.01) exhibited a lower activation in BSP patients without psychiatric symptoms compared with HC. This study is the first report to identify the prefrontal function in BSP using NIRS. Our findings indicate that BSP alone may cause a hypoactive hemodynamic performance in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of psychiatric symptoms. These findings provide evidence to support novel pathophysiological mechanisms of BSP. PMID:26942579

  6. Estimation of Skin Blood Flow Artefacts in NIRS Signals During a Verbal Fluency Task.

    PubMed

    Seiyama, Akitoshi; Higaki, Kotona; Takeuchi, Nao; Uehara, Masahiro; Takayama, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify effects of skin (scalp) blood flow on functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a verbal fluency task. In the present study, to estimate the influence of skin blood flow on fNIRS signals, we conducted examinations on 19 healthy volunteers (39.9±13.1 years, 11 male and 8 female subjects). We simultaneously measured the fNIRS signals, skin blood flow (i.e., flow, velocity, and number of red blood cells [RBC]), and pulse wave rates using a multimodal fNIRS system. We found that the effects of skin blood flow, measured by the degree of interference of the flow, velocity, and number of RBCs, and pulse wave rates, on NIRS signals varied considerably across subjects. Further, by using the above physiological parameters, we evaluated application of the independent component analysis algorithm proposed by Molgedey and Schuster (MS-ICA) to remove skin blood flow artefacts from fNIRS signals.

  7. Graph analysis of verbal fluency test discriminate between patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly controls

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laiss; Mota, Natália B.; Copelli, Mauro; Rivero, Thiago; Diniz, Breno Satler; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Verbal fluency is the ability to produce a satisfying sequence of spoken words during a given time interval. The core of verbal fluency lies in the capacity to manage the executive aspects of language. The standard scores of the semantic verbal fluency test are broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of the elderly, and different analytical methods are likely to extract even more information from the data generated in this test. Graph theory, a mathematical approach to analyze relations between items, represents a promising tool to understand a variety of neuropsychological states. This study reports a graph analysis of data generated by the semantic verbal fluency test by cognitively healthy elderly (NC), patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment—subtypes amnestic (aMCI) and amnestic multiple domain (a+mdMCI)—and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequences of words were represented as a speech graph in which every word corresponded to a node and temporal links between words were represented by directed edges. To characterize the structure of the data we calculated 13 speech graph attributes (SGA). The individuals were compared when divided in three (NC—MCI—AD) and four (NC—aMCI—a+mdMCI—AD) groups. When the three groups were compared, significant differences were found in the standard measure of correct words produced, and three SGA: diameter, average shortest path, and network density. SGA sorted the elderly groups with good specificity and sensitivity. When the four groups were compared, the groups differed significantly in network density, except between the two MCI subtypes and NC and aMCI. The diameter of the network and the average shortest path were significantly different between the NC and AD, and between aMCI and AD. SGA sorted the elderly in their groups with good specificity and sensitivity, performing better than the standard score of the task. These findings provide support for a new methodological frame to assess the

  8. Imitated Prosodic Fluency Predicts Reading Comprehension Ability in Good and Poor High School Readers.

    PubMed

    Breen, Mara; Kaswer, Lianne; Van Dyke, Julie A; Krivokapić, Jelena; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker's production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension.

  9. Imitated Prosodic Fluency Predicts Reading Comprehension Ability in Good and Poor High School Readers.

    PubMed

    Breen, Mara; Kaswer, Lianne; Van Dyke, Julie A; Krivokapić, Jelena; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker's production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension. PMID:27486409

  10. Imitated Prosodic Fluency Predicts Reading Comprehension Ability in Good and Poor High School Readers

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Mara; Kaswer, Lianne; Van Dyke, Julie A.; Krivokapić, Jelena; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers' silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs), who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker's production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension. PMID:27486409

  11. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with Chronological Age and IQ

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002

  12. Language-specific cortical activation patterns for verbal fluency tasks in Japanese as assessed by multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dan, Haruka; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Oguro, Keiji; Yokota, Hidenori; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Eiju

    2013-08-01

    In Japan, verbal fluency tasks are commonly utilized as a standard paradigm for neuropsychological testing of cognitive and linguistic abilities. The Japanese "letter fluency task" is a mora/letter fluency task based on the phonological and orthographical characteristics of the Japanese language. Whether there are similar activation patterns across languages or a Japanese-specific mora/letter fluency pattern is not certain. We investigated the neural correlates of overt mora/letter and category fluency tasks in healthy Japanese. The category fluency task activated the bilateral fronto-temporal language-related regions with left-superior lateralization, while the mora/letter fluency task led to wider activation including the inferior parietal regions (left and right supramarginal gyrus). Specific bilateral supramarginal activation during the mora/letter fluency task in Japanese was distinct from that of similar letter fluency tasks in syllable-alphabet-based languages: this might be due to the requirement of additional phonological processing and working memory, or due to increased cognitive load in general.

  13. Functional connectivity during phonemic and semantic verbal fluency test: a multi-channel near infrared spectroscopy study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Sun, Chia-Wei; Chou, Po-Han; Chuang, Ching-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Verbal fluency tests (VFT) are widely used neuropsychological tests of frontal lobe and have been frequently used in various functional brain mapping studies. There are two versions of VFT based on the type of cue: the letter fluency task (LFT) and the category fluency task (CFT). However, the fundamental aspect of the brain connectivity across spatial regions of the fronto-temporal regions during the VFTs has not been elucidated to date. In this study we hypothesized that different cortical functional connectivity over bilateral fronto-temporal regions can be observed by means of multi-channel fNIRS in the LFT and the CFT respectively. Our results from fNIRS (ETG-4000) showed different patterns of brain functional connectivity consistent with these different cognitive requirements. We demonstrate more brain functional connectivity over frontal and temporal regions during LFT than CFT, and this was in line with previous brain activity studies using fNIRS demonstrating increased frontal and temporal region activation during LFT and CFT and more pronounced frontal activation by the LFT.

  14. Influence of Verbal Working Memory Depends on Vocabulary: Oral Reading Fluency in Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Most research on dyslexia to date has focused on early childhood, while comparatively little is known about the nature of dyslexia in adolescence. The current study had two objectives. The first was to investigate the relative contributions of several cognitive and linguistic factors to connected-text oral reading fluency in a sample of…

  15. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  16. Training reading fluency among poor readers of German: many ways to the goal.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Sini; Landerl, Karin; Aro, Mikko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-12-01

    Outcomes of two training programs aimed at improving reading speed for 39 German-speaking poor readers in grades 2 and 4 were evaluated. During a 6-week training period, a specific target for children in a computer group was to improve reading of word-initial consonant clusters by practice in associating an orthographic unit with a corresponding phonological unit. Children in a paired reading group read books with an adult tutor. The results showed that, in reading words in which the computer-trained sublexical items were included, both groups exhibited similar improvement. A post hoc analysis suggested that computer training was associated with better reading skills with respect to the trained sublexical items; however, this improvement did not show large generalization effects to the words with the sublexical items. The paired reading group showed a more rapid gain in global word reading fluency than the computer group. Neither of the groups improved their pseudoword reading. PMID:18777137

  17. A Case Study Using SAFMEDS to Promote Fluency with Skinner's Verbal Behavior Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Fawna; Eshlelman, John

    2010-01-01

    Using a deck of 60 Say All Fast a Minute Every Day Shuffled (SAFMEDS) cards, a learner established a fluent verbal repertoire related to the key terms of Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior. This learner was required to see the phrase printed on the front of the card and to say the term printed on the back. Regular timings were recorded…

  18. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination☆

    PubMed Central

    Raij, Tuukka T.; Riekki, Tapani J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  19. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination.

    PubMed

    Raij, Tuukka T; Riekki, Tapani J J

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  20. The Recall of Verbal Material Accompanying Semantically Well-Integrated and Semantically Poorly-Integrated Sentences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Sheldon

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the recall of verbal material (critical material) accompanying semantically well integrated (SWI) sentences will be superior to the recall of verbal material accompanying semantically poorly integrated (SPI) sentences. This hypothesis was based upon the conclusion derived from previous research…

  1. Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

    2012-01-01

    Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data.

  2. Normative data in women aged 85 and older: verbal fluency, digit span, and the CVLT-II short form.

    PubMed

    Fine, Eric M; Kramer, Joel H; Lui, Li-Yung; Yaffe, Kristine; Study Of Osteoporotic Fractures Sof Research Group

    2012-01-01

    Individuals aged 85 years and above (i.e., the oldest old) represent the fastest growing segment of the US population and are at increased risk of developing dementia. This represents an important challenge for the clinical neuropsychologist, as the extant normative data on neuropsychological measures remain relatively limited for this age group. Therefore the aim of the present study was to characterize the performance effects of age and education in a large, well-characterized sample of women between the ages of 85 and 95 years on the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Short Form (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000), verbal fluency tasks, and the WAIS-III Digit Span Test (Wechsler, 1997 ). In order to minimize the likelihood that women with an incipient neurodegenerative process were included in the final normative sample, we applied regression-based change scores to identify and exclude women who evidenced a statistically significant decline on a global cognitive screening measure over a 20-year interval. The results of our analysis indicate varying influence of age and education on these measures and we provide tables with descriptive statistics stratified by both age and education. Findings from the present normative study are discussed within the context of "robust" longitudinal normative data. PMID:22224509

  3. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  4. Schizotypal thinking and associative processing: a response commonality analysis of verbal fluency.

    PubMed Central

    Duchêne, A; Graves, R E; Brugger, P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether people with high scores for schizotypal thinking generate more uncommon words in a letter fluency task than people with low scores. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University psychology department. PATIENTS: Forty healthy, right-handed students. INTERVENTIONS: Students were administered the Magical Ideation (MI) Scale and a 2-minute letter fluency task in which they named as many nouns as possible beginning with "A" or "F," in any order. OUTCOME MEASURES: Total number of words produced and percentage of unique, rare and common words (as determined by the responses of the whole group); scores on MI scale. RESULTS: Participants with high scores (above the median) on the MI scale generated as many words as those who had low scores. People in both groups also generated a comparable number of unique words (named by only 1 person) and common words (named by 6 or more people). As hypothesized, people with high scores on the MI scale generated more rare words (named by fewer than 6 people) than those with low scores. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the view of a disinhibition of semantic network functioning as the neuropsychological basis of creative thought, magical ideation and thought disorder. PMID:9505061

  5. Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Brain Function during Verbal Fluency Testing in First-Episode Schizophrenia: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Po-Han; Lin, Wei-Hao; Lin, Chih-Chien; Hou, Po-Hsun; Li, Wan-Rung; Hung, Chia-Chun; Lin, Ching-Po; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chan, Chin-Hong

    2015-01-01

    A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia (SZ); however, it remains unclear whether this is due to neurotoxic effects of psychosis. The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate the influence of DUP on brain function using two verbal fluency tests (VFTs) in patients with first-episode SZ (FES). A total of 28 FES patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) underwent NIRS during VFTs. Group comparisons of cortical activity were made using two-tailed t-tests and the false discovery rate method. We then examined the associations between DUP and hemodynamic changes in each channel to identify any effects of DUP on brain cortical activity. During the letter VFT, the HC group exhibited significantly greater cortical activations over bilateral frontotemporal regions compared to FES patients. However, this distinction was not observed while performing a category version of the VFT. In addition, no associations between DUP and brain cortical activity were observed in the FES group during either VFT. In conclusion, we did not find an association between DUP and frontotemporal cortical activities. This might be because neurodevelopmental disturbances result in neurocognitive deficits long before psychotic symptoms onset. PMID:26656662

  6. Evidence of improved immediate verbal memory and diminished category fluency following STN-DBS in Chinese-Cantonese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Venus; Zhu, Cannon X L; Chan, Danny; Lau, Claire; Chan, Anne; Mok, Vincent; Yeung, Jonas; Poon, Wai Sang

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the neuropsychological effects of bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) on subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Chinese-Cantonese patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-seven patients were prospectively recruited from the Movement Disorder Clinic at the Hong Kong Prince of Wales Hospital. Neuropsychological evaluations were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 months following the DBS procedure. Assessment battery included standardized tests on global cognitive function, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, confrontation naming, visuospatial organization, attention and executive functions. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured by two self-reported questionnaires. Results demonstrated diminished performance on a category fluency task that occurred at 6 months post-operatively and persisted at 12-month re-evaluation; 29.6-33.3 % of patients showed reduction of more than 1 SD (standard deviation) at post-operative measure. Conversely, performance on an immediate recall task in a verbal memory test was found to improve significantly at the same time point and persisted through 12 months after surgery; 22.2-25.9 % showed an improvement (≥1 SD). Psychologically, anxiety symptoms were statistically decreased and the significant reduction occurred at 12 months after surgery. Patients who reported a moderate to severe level of anxiety reduced from 51.9 to 18.5 %. Our findings concurred with most evidences on the effects of STN-DBS on verbal fluency; on the other hand, we demonstrated improvement of immediate verbal memory that warranted further investigation. PMID:25708249

  7. Performance of Verbal Fluency as an Endophenotype in Patients with Familial versus Sporadic Schizophrenia and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sugai; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Brown, Matthew R G; Hu, Xun; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    What's the neurocognitive deficit as an endophenotype to familial schizophrenia? Here, we investigate the neurocognitive endophenotype in first-episode patients with familial schizophrenia (FS) and sporadic schizophrenia (SS), and their parents. 98 FS patients and their 105 parents; 190 SS patients and their 207 parents; 195 controls matched with patients, and 190 controls matched with the patients' parents, were assessed with the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC), the immediate and delayed logical memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China (WMS-RC), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Trail Making Test Parts A and B-Modified (TMA, TMB-M), and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-M). The results showed that with age, gender, and education as covariates, after controlling for false discovery rates, the FS group and their parent group performed worse than the SS group and their parent group on VFT. No significant differences were found for other neurocognitive tests between the FS and SS patient groups, and their respective parent groups. Our findings suggest the patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia and their respective parent groups may have a different genetic predisposition in relation to a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:27581658

  8. Spatial distributions of hemoglobin signals from superficial layers in the forehead during a verbal-fluency task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Satoru; Hoshi, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals originate in hemoglobin changes in both the superficial layer of the head and the brain. Under the assumption that the changes in the blood flow in the scalp are spatially homogeneous in the region of interest, a variety of methods for reducing the superficial signals has been proposed. To clarify the spatial distributions of the superficial signals, the superficial signals from the forehead during a verbal-fluency task were investigated by using ten source-detector pairs separated by 5 mm, whereas fNIRS signals were also detected from two source-detector pairs separated by 30 mm. The fNIRS signals strongly correlated with the superficial signals at some channels on the forehead. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the temporal cross-correlation coefficients for two channels of both the NIRS signals, and the analysis results demonstrate spatially heterogeneous distributions and network structures of the superficial signals from within the forehead. The results also show that the assumption stated above is invalid for homogeneous superficial signals from any region of interest of 15-mm diameter or larger on the forehead. They also suggest that the spatially heterogeneous distributions may be attributable to vascular networks, including supraorbital, supratrochlear, and superficial temporal vessels.

  9. Differences in the Pulsatile Component of the Skin Hemodynamic Response to Verbal Fluency Tasks in the Forehead and the Fingertip

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have claimed that hemodynamic signals measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the forehead exhibit different patterns during a verbal fluency task (VFT) in various psychiatric disorders, whereas many studies have noted that NIRS signals can reflect task-related changes in skin blood flow. If such a task-related skin hemodynamic response is also observed in the fingertip, a simpler biomarker may be developed. Furthermore, determining the difference in the response pattern may provide physiological insights into the condition. We found that the magnitude of the pulsatile component in skin hemodynamic signals increased on the forehead (p < 0.001 for N = 50, p = 0.073 for N = 8) but decreased on the fingertip (p < 0.001, N = 8) during the VFT, whereas the rate in both areas increased (p < 0.02, N = 8). We also did not find a repetition effect in both the rate and the magnitude on the fingertip, whereas the effect was present in the magnitude (p < 0.02, N = 8) but not in the rate on the forehead. These results suggest that the skin vasomotor system in the forehead could have a different vessel mechanism to psychological tasks compared to the fingertip. PMID:26905432

  10. Spatial distributions of hemoglobin signals from superficial layers in the forehead during a verbal-fluency task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Satoru; Hoshi, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) signals originate in hemoglobin changes in both the superficial layer of the head and the brain. Under the assumption that the changes in the blood flow in the scalp are spatially homogeneous in the region of interest, a variety of methods for reducing the superficial signals has been proposed. To clarify the spatial distributions of the superficial signals, the superficial signals from the forehead during a verbal-fluency task were investigated by using ten source-detector pairs separated by 5 mm, whereas fNIRS signals were also detected from two source-detector pairs separated by 30 mm. The fNIRS signals strongly correlated with the superficial signals at some channels on the forehead. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the temporal cross-correlation coefficients for two channels of both the NIRS signals, and the analysis results demonstrate spatially heterogeneous distributions and network structures of the superficial signals from within the forehead. The results also show that the assumption stated above is invalid for homogeneous superficial signals from any region of interest of 15-mm diameter or larger on the forehead. They also suggest that the spatially heterogeneous distributions may be attributable to vascular networks, including supraorbital, supratrochlear, and superficial temporal vessels.

  11. Performance of Verbal Fluency as an Endophenotype in Patients with Familial versus Sporadic Schizophrenia and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sugai; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Brown, Matthew R. G.; Hu, Xun; Li, Xinmin; Greenshaw, Andrew J.; Li, Tao

    2016-01-01

    What’s the neurocognitive deficit as an endophenotype to familial schizophrenia? Here, we investigate the neurocognitive endophenotype in first-episode patients with familial schizophrenia (FS) and sporadic schizophrenia (SS), and their parents. 98 FS patients and their 105 parents; 190 SS patients and their 207 parents; 195 controls matched with patients, and 190 controls matched with the patients’ parents, were assessed with the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China (WAIS-RC), the immediate and delayed logical memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China (WMS-RC), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), the Trail Making Test Parts A and B-Modified (TMA, TMB-M), and the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST-M). The results showed that with age, gender, and education as covariates, after controlling for false discovery rates, the FS group and their parent group performed worse than the SS group and their parent group on VFT. No significant differences were found for other neurocognitive tests between the FS and SS patient groups, and their respective parent groups. Our findings suggest the patients with familial and sporadic schizophrenia and their respective parent groups may have a different genetic predisposition in relation to a cognitive endophenotype. PMID:27581658

  12. A pilot study of verbal fluency in the Zulu speaking population with preliminary application to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sperinck, T L; de Picciotto, J

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the semantic verbal fluency (VF) abilities of non-neurologically impaired (NNI) Zulu speaking subjects in order to obtain normative data for this population. The data were analysed in terms of the total number of words generated in one minute, the number of words generated over four fifteen-second time periods and the strategies employed. Where possible, these results were compared to performance of South African English speaking NNI subjects. The responses of three traumatically brain injured (TBI) Zulu speaking subjects on VF tasks were obtained and compared to the NNI subjects. The NNI subjects performed significantly poorer than the current norms and poorer than the South African English speaking population. The TBI subjects generated fewer words than the NNI subjects. The strategies used by the TBI subjects were similar in type but were less efficiently used than the Zulu speaking NNI subjects. The results of this study are particularly relevant to the clinical role of speech pathologists in the multicultural and multilingual population of South Africa.

  13. [Semantic verbal fluency of animals in amnesia-type mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Higes, Ramón; Prados, José M; del Rio, David; Galindo-Fuentes, Marta; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; Lozano-Ibanez, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Introduccion y objetivo. El analisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de la tarea de fluidez verbal semantica ha permitido observar que las personas con demencia producen menos palabras y en grupos mas pequeños que las personas sin demencia. Sin embargo, en personas con deterioro cognitivo leve de tipo amnesico (DCLa) la investigacion ha mostrado resultados contradictorios respecto a la cantidad y el numero de los agrupamientos semanticos que se realizan. El objetivo de este estudio consistio en aportar nuevos datos para intentar solventar dicha controversia. Sujetos y metodos. Participaron en el estudio 22 personas mayores con diagnostico de DCLa (8 varones y 14 mujeres) y 43 adultos mayores (7 varones y 36 mujeres) con funcionamiento cognitivo normal que sirvieron de grupo control. Todos fueron evaluados en el Centro de Prevencion del Deterioro Cognitivo del Ayuntamiento de Madrid, tras completar la prueba de fluidez verbal de animales ademas de otras pruebas neuropsicologicas. Resultados. Como se esperaba, la produccion de animales fue menor en el grupo DCLa que en el grupo control, pero no se observaron diferencias ni en el tamaño medio de las agrupaciones semanticas ni en el numero de cambios entre dichas agrupaciones. Conclusiones. Los resultados son coherentes con investigaciones previas que sugieren que en el DCLa no solo concurren deficits en la memoria episodica y la memoria operativa, sino tambien en la memoria semantica. Sin embargo, los datos no aclaran el papel de los procesos ejecutivos estrategicos, como parece suceder en la enfermedad de Alzheimer.

  14. Towards a ternary NIRS-BCI: single-trial classification of verbal fluency task, Stroop task and unconstrained rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schudlo, Larissa C.; Chau, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The majority of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain-computer interface (BCI) studies have investigated binary classification problems. Limited work has considered differentiation of more than two mental states, or multi-class differentiation of higher-level cognitive tasks using measurements outside of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Improvements in accuracies are needed to deliver effective communication with a multi-class NIRS system. We investigated the feasibility of a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports mental states corresponding to verbal fluency task (VFT) performance, Stroop task performance, and unconstrained rest using prefrontal and parietal measurements. Approach. Prefrontal and parietal NIRS signals were acquired from 11 able-bodied adults during rest and performance of the VFT or Stroop task. Classification was performed offline using bagging with a linear discriminant base classifier trained on a 10 dimensional feature set. Main results. VFT, Stroop task and rest were classified at an average accuracy of 71.7% ± 7.9%. The ternary classification system provided a statistically significant improvement in information transfer rate relative to a binary system controlled by either mental task (0.87 ± 0.35 bits/min versus 0.73 ± 0.24 bits/min). Significance. These results suggest that effective communication can be achieved with a ternary NIRS-BCI that supports VFT, Stroop task and rest via measurements from the frontal and parietal cortices. Further development of such a system is warranted. Accurate ternary classification can enhance communication rates offered by NIRS-BCIs, improving the practicality of this technology.

  15. Performance Lapses in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contribute to Poor Reading Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate increased response variability compared with controls, which is thought to be associated with deficits in attention regulation and response control that subsequently affect performance of more cognitively demanding tasks, such as reading. The present study examined response variability during a computerized simple reaction time (RT) task in 67 children. Ex-Gaussian analyses separated the response time distribution into normal (mu and sigma) and exponential (tau) components; the association of each with reading fluency was examined. Children with ADHD had significantly slower, more variable, and more skewed RTs compared with controls. After controlling for ADHD symptom severity, tau (but not mu or mean RT) was significantly associated with reduced reading fluency, but not with single word reading accuracy. These data support the growing evidence that RT variability, but not simply slower mean response speed, is the characteristic of youth with ADHD and that longer response time latencies (tau) may be implicated in the poorer academic performance associated with ADHD. PMID:23838684

  16. Different roles of cytoarchitectonic BA 44 and BA 45 in phonological and semantic verbal fluency as revealed by dynamic causal modelling.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Eickhoff, Simon B; Amunts, Katrin

    2009-11-15

    The interactions of left cytoarchitectonic BA 44 and BA 45 during semantic and phonological verbal fluency tasks were investigated using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). Three different models were tested, all of which featured BA 44 and BA 45 as top-down driven interconnected nodes projecting to the motor cortex as the final output region. Model #1 represents the hypothesis that BA 45 is involved in lexical retrieval including both semantic and phonological processes, while BA 44 supports other phonological processes. Model #2 reflects the notion of a clear-cut segregation of computational processes sustained by BA 44 (phonological processing) and BA 45 (semantic processing). Model #3 was based on the hypothesis that both BA 44 and BA 45 support semantic and phonological processing. When these models were compared against each other by Bayesian model selection, evidence emerged in favour of the first model, implying that BA 45 supports word retrieval processes whereas BA 44 is involved in processing phonological information during word generation. In a subsequent analysis of the derived model parameters for model #1, all connection strengths were significantly positive except for the inhibitory coupling between BA 44 and BA 45. This inhibition may reflect how the phonological analysis in BA 44 during word generation constrains lexical word retrieval in BA 45. To conclude, DCM provided additional insights into the roles of BA 44 and BA 45 during verbal fluency revealing the involvement of BA 45 in lexical retrieval and the relevance of BA 44 for phonological processing during word generation. PMID:19560543

  17. The Differential Contributions of Auditory-Verbal and Visuospatial Working Memory on Decoding Skills in Children Who Are Poor Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Katie Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differential contribution of auditory-verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) on decoding skills in second- and fifth-grade children identified with poor decoding. Thirty-two second-grade students and 22 fifth-grade students completed measures that assessed simple and complex auditory-verbal and visuospatial memory,…

  18. The role of working memory and verbal fluency in autobiographical memory in early Alzheimer's disease and matched controls.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Maxwell J; Cifelli, Alberto; Garrard, Peter; Caine, Diana; Jones, Fergal W

    2015-11-01

    Retrieval of autobiographical memories (AMs) is important for "sense of self". Previous research and theoretical accounts suggest that working memory (WM) and semantic and phonemic fluency abilities facilitate the hierarchical search for, and reliving of past, personal events in the mind's eye. However, there remains a lack of consensus as to the nature of the relationships between these cognitive functions and the truly episodic aspects of AM. The present study therefore aimed to explore the associations between these variables in a sample with a wide range of cognitive abilities. The study incorporated a between-groups component, and a correlational component with multiple regression. Participants with Alzheimer's disease (n=10) and matched healthy controls (n=10) were assessed on measures of semantic and episodic AM search and retrieval, auditory and spatial WM, and semantic and phonemic fluency. The AD group produced less episodic AM content compared to controls. Semantic fluency predicted episodic AM retrieval independent of age effects but there were no significant relationships between measures of phonemic fluency, WM and episodic AM. The results suggest that the ability to maintain hierarchical search of the semantic knowledge-base is important for truly episodic reliving, and interventions for people with AM impairment might therefore benefit from incorporating structured, individualised external memory-aids to facilitate AM search and retrieval. PMID:26443928

  19. Improving test interpretation for detecting executive dysfunction in adults and older adults: prevalence of low scores on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Lanting, Shawnda C; Horton, Arthur M; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence of low scores on a battery of executive-functioning tests supplements clinical interpretation and can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing deficits in executive functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the base rates of low scores on the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ) in healthy adults (n = 332; M (age) = 33.0 years, SD = 10.5, range = 20-59) and older adults (n = 138; M (age) = 74.9 years, SD = 7.8, range = 60-89) from the TVCF standardization sample. The TVCF consists of four tests of executive functioning (i.e., Category Fluency, Letter Naming, Classification, and Trails C) that provide five age-adjusted T-scores. The prevalence of low scores was examined in the total sample and was stratified by educational level. When the five T-scores were considered simultaneously, having one or more scores that were 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean was found in 28% of healthy adults and 38% of older adults. Education-based differences were also present with more lenient cutoff scores (e.g., 1 SD) but not with more conservative cutoffs. Consistent with the existing literature on other test batteries, at least one low subtest score on the TVCF is common in healthy adults and older adults.

  20. Baseline verbal fluency performance as predictor of state anxiety during a live hand-grenade throwing exercise – A prospective study of Swedish military conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Magnus R; Michel, Per-Olof; Bäckström, Martin; Johanson, Aki

    2007-01-01

    Background We investigated whether individual differences in baseline executive control capacity could predict state anxiety during a potentially life-threatening situation. Methods 19 Swedish military conscripts were assessed during two measurement occasions. During a baseline measurement, data regarding performance on a letter fluency task and state anxiety were assessed. During a second measurement, performed immediately prior to participation in a live hand-grenade throwing exercise, data regarding state anxiety was assessed. All participants were male, right-handed and had fulfilled 12 years of education. Results The level of state anxiety was significantly increased between the two measurement occasions (p < .01). Both the number of words produced (β = -.37; p < .05) and the number of perseveration made (β = .43; p < .05) on the verbal fluency task predicted, while controlling for state anxiety at baseline, the level of experienced state anxiety during the threatening situation. Conclusion Although more research is needed the present finding suggests that individual differences in executive control capacity might be related to emotion regulation ability during acute stressor exposure. PMID:17697315

  1. Intellectual Abilities That Discriminate Good and Poor Problem Solvers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    1981-01-01

    This study compared good and poor fourth-grade problem solvers on a battery of 19 "reference" tests for verbal, induction, numerical, word fluency, memory, perceptual speed, and simple visualization abilities. Results suggest verbal, numerical, and especially induction abilities are important to successful mathematical problem solving. (MP)

  2. Weak central coherence, poor joint attention, and low verbal ability: independent deficits in early autism.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bronwyn; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin

    2003-07-01

    C. Jarrold, W. Butler, E. M. Cottington, and F. Jiminez (2000) proposed that weak central coherence is a primary cognitive deficit in autism and speculated that it may even account for theory of mind impairments. The current study investigated whether weak central coherence could account for deficits in 2 behaviors purported to tap capabilities fundamental to a theory of mind: joint attention and pretend play. Twenty-one children (ages 3-5 years) with autism spectrum disorders were matched to 21 control children on chronological age, nonverbal ability, and gender. Pretend play did not differentiate the groups. Weak central coherence, poor joint attention, and low verbal ability contributed significantly and independently to the prediction of autism group membership, a finding consistent with 3 independent cognitive deficits underlying autism.

  3. Weak central coherence, poor joint attention, and low verbal ability: independent deficits in early autism.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bronwyn; Maybery, Murray; Durkin, Kevin

    2003-07-01

    C. Jarrold, W. Butler, E. M. Cottington, and F. Jiminez (2000) proposed that weak central coherence is a primary cognitive deficit in autism and speculated that it may even account for theory of mind impairments. The current study investigated whether weak central coherence could account for deficits in 2 behaviors purported to tap capabilities fundamental to a theory of mind: joint attention and pretend play. Twenty-one children (ages 3-5 years) with autism spectrum disorders were matched to 21 control children on chronological age, nonverbal ability, and gender. Pretend play did not differentiate the groups. Weak central coherence, poor joint attention, and low verbal ability contributed significantly and independently to the prediction of autism group membership, a finding consistent with 3 independent cognitive deficits underlying autism. PMID:12859119

  4. Normative data for the Animal, Profession and Letter M Naming verbal fluency tests for Dutch speaking participants and the effects of age, education, and sex.

    PubMed

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that performance on verbal fluency tests (VFTs) is influenced by language and/or culture. Consequently, normative VFT data for English-speaking people cannot be used for people for whom English is not their first language. The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the Animal Naming, Profession Naming, and Letter M Naming (four-letter words beginning with the letter M) VFTs for Dutch-speaking populations, based on a large sample (N = 1856) of healthy men and women aged 24-81 years of different educational levels. The results showed that age affected the performance of all VFTs profoundly, but the age effect was not uniform: in the Profession and Letter M Naming VFTs, performance was stable in young adulthood but declined strongly after age 50. In contrast, in the Animal Naming VFT, performance appeared to decline linearly, starting early in life. Furthermore, males had higher scores than females on the Profession Naming VFT, and higher educated participants outperformed their lower educated counterparts on all three VFTs. Regression-based normative data were prepared for the 3 VFTs, and the advantages of using a regression-based normative approach instead of a traditional normative approach are discussed.

  5. The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: an fMRI study during verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Perani, Daniela; Abutalebi, Jubin; Paulesu, Eraldo; Brambati, Simona; Scifo, Paola; Cappa, Stefano F; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2003-07-01

    We assessed the effects of age of acquisition and language exposure on the cerebral correlates of lexical retrieval in high-proficient, early-acquisition bilinguals. Functional MRI was used to study Spanish-Catalan bilinguals who acquired either Spanish or Catalan as a first language in the first years of life. Subjects were exposed to the second language at 3 years of age, and have used both languages in daily life since then. Subjects had a comparable level of proficiency in the comprehension of both languages. Lexical retrieval with the verbal fluency task resulted in the well-established pattern of left hemispheric activation centered on the inferior frontal region. The effect of age of acquisition was assessed by dividing the subjects into two groups, on the basis of the language acquired first (Catalan-born or Spanish-born bilinguals). Functional comparisons indicated that less extensive brain activation was associated with lexical retrieval in the language acquired earlier in life. The two groups were also different in language usage/exposure, as assessed with a specific questionnaire; in particular, the exposure to the second language (Spanish) was less intensive in the case of Catalans. This was reflected in a significant interaction, indicating a more extensive activation in Catalans during production in Spanish. Overall, these results indicate that, during a production task, both age of acquisition and language exposure affect the pattern of brain activation in bilinguals, even if both languages are acquired early and with a comparable level of proficiency.

  6. Fluency Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the…

  7. A Computational Linguistic Measure of Clustering Behavior on Semantic Verbal Fluency Task Predicts Risk of Future Dementia in the Nun Study

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.

    2014-01-01

    Generative semantic verbal fluency (SVF) tests show early and disproportionate decline relative to other abilities in individuals developing Alzheimer’s disease. Optimal performance on SVF tests depends on the efficiency of using clustered organization of semantically related items and the ability to switch between clusters. Traditional approaches to clustering and switching have relied on manual determination of clusters. We evaluated a novel automated computational linguistic approach for quantifying clustering behavior. Our approach is based on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) for computing strength of semantic relatedness between pairs of words produced in response to SVF test. The mean size of semantic clusters (MCS) and semantic chains (MChS) are calculated based on pairwise relatedness values between words. We evaluated the predictive validity of these measures on a set of 239 participants in the Nun Study, a longitudinal study of aging. All were cognitively intact at baseline assessment, measured with the CERAD battery, and were followed in 18 month waves for up to 20 years. The onset of either dementia or memory impairment were used as outcomes in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age and education and censored at follow up waves 5 (6.3 years) and 13 (16.96 years). Higher MCS was associated with 38% reduction in dementia risk at wave 5 and 26% reduction at wave 13, but not with the onset of memory impairment. Higher (+1 SD) MChS was associated with 39% dementia risk reduction at wave 5 but not wave 13, and association with memory impairment was not significant. Higher traditional SVF scores were associated with 22–29% memory impairment and 35–40% dementia risk reduction. SVF scores were not correlated with either MCS or MChS. Our study suggests that an automated approach to measuring clustering behavior can be used to estimate dementia risk in cognitively normal individuals. PMID:23845236

  8. Caregiver-Child Verbal Interactions in Child Care: A Buffer against Poor Language Outcomes when Maternal Language Input is Less.

    PubMed

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary E

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has suggested that high quality child care can buffer young children against poorer cognitive and language outcomes when they are at risk for poorer language and readiness skills. Most of this research measured the quality of parenting and the quality of the child care with global observational measures or rating scales that did not specify the exact maternal or caregiver behaviors that might be causally implicated in the buffering of these children from poor outcomes. The current study examined the actual language by the mother to her child in the home and the verbal interactions between the caregiver and child in the child care setting that might be implicated in the buffering effect of high quality childcare. The sample included 433 rural children from the Family Life Project who were in child care at 36 months of age. Even after controlling for a variety of covariates, including maternal education, income, race, child previous skill, child care type, the overall quality of the home and quality of the child care environment; observed positive caregiver-child verbal interactions in the child care setting interacted with the maternal language complexity and diversity in predicting children's language development. Caregiver-child positive verbal interactions appeared to buffer children from poor language outcomes concurrently and two years later if children came from homes where observed maternal language complexity and diversity during a picture book task was less.

  9. Analysis of Speech Fluency in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Natalia Freitas; Sampaio, Adriana; Goncalves, Oscar F.; Giacheti, Celia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder, often referred as being characterized by dissociation between verbal and non-verbal abilities, although the number of studies disputing this proposal is emerging. Indeed, although they have been traditionally reported as displaying increased speech fluency, this topic has not been…

  10. A Comparison of the Intellectual Abilities of Good and Poor Problem Solvers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ruth Ann

    This study examined a selected sample of fourth-grade students who had been previously identified as good or poor problem solvers. The pupils were compared on variables considered as "reference tests" for Verbal, Induction, Numerical, Word Fluency, Memory, Spatial Visualization, and Perceptual Speed abilities. The data were compiled to indicate…

  11. Global Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald T.

    1999-01-01

    Defines global fluency as a facility with cultural behaviors that help an organization thrive in an ever-changing global business environment; and discusses business culture, global culture, an example of a change effort at a global company, leadership values, company values, and defining global values and practices. (Author/LRW)

  12. Linguistic and Cultural Factors Associated with Phonemic Fluency Performance in Bilingual Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are used extensively in clinical settings because of their sensitivity to a wide variety of disorders, including cognitive decline and dementia, and their usefulness in differential diagnoses. However, the effects of bilingualism on neuropsychological assessment, and verbal fluency in particular, are currently not completely…

  13. Neonatal mortality in India's rural poor: Findings of a household survey and verbal autopsy study in Rajasthan, Bihar and Odisha.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Vishal; Khanna, Rajesh; Jain, Anuradha; Kumar, Ajay M V; Shewade, Hemant D; Majumdar, Suman S

    2015-06-01

    In 2011, Save the Children India launched a project for the disadvantaged population of Rajasthan, Bihar and Odisha. As a baseline activity, neonatal deaths during January-December 2012 were investigated using modified verbal autopsy tool in six sub-district-level administrative units (blocks) adopting 30-cluster sample survey approach. Our study reported a total of 189 neonatal deaths of which 50% occurred at home and 39% happened on Day 1. About half of the deaths occurred in blocks from Bihar. High number of neonatal deaths belonged to households that were below poverty line (64%) and other disadvantaged classes (46%); among mothers who were illiterate (65%), <20 years of age (54%) and during their first-order births (36%). Birth asphyxia was a major cause of neonatal deaths across all blocks. These findings indicate need for easy and early access to transport services, specialized neonatal care and advocacy targeted towards increasing community awareness. PMID:25825343

  14. Word Reading Fluency: A Transfer Appropriate Processing Account of Fluency Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra Lyn; Levy, Betty Ann

    2006-01-01

    Word reading fluency, as indexed by the fast and accurate identification of single words, predicts both general reading ability and reading comprehension. This study compared the effects of context training and isolated word training on subsequent measures of word reading fluency. Good and poor readers were given 12 repetitions of two sets of…

  15. Word Retrieval Ability on Phonemic Fluency in Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    John, Sunila; Rajashekhar, Bellur; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency tasks are simple behavioral measures useful in assessing word retrieval abilities. Among the verbal fluency tasks, the utility of the Phonemic Fluency Task in children has received less attention. As the task is dependent on phonemic characteristics of each language, there is a great need for understanding its developmental trend. The present study, therefore, aims to delineate the performance on phonemic fluency in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children. Verbal fluency performance on 2 tasks of phonemic fluency was tested using a cross-sectional study design among 1,015 school-going Malayalam-speaking typically developing children aged 5 to 15 years old. Performance with respect to word productivity and clustering-switching measures was analyzed. The effect of age, gender, and tasks on the outcome measures were investigated in the present study. Study findings revealed a positive influence of age with no statistically significant gender effects. Children employed both task-discrepant and task-consistent organizational strategies during tasks of phonemic fluency, dependent purely on the Malayalam language. Future research focusing on developmental trends across different languages is vital for enhancing the task's clinical sensitivity and specificity among childhood disorders. PMID:26980155

  16. Assessing Basic Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Gina; Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors share a variety of ways to formatively assess basic fact fluency. The define fluency, raise some issues related to timed testing, and then share a collection of classroom-tested ideas for authentic fact fluency assessment. This article encourages teachers to try a variety of alternative assessments from this sampling,…

  17. Phonological Fluency Strategy of Switching Differentiates Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Messinis, L.; Kosmidis, M. H.; Vlahou, C.; Malegiannaki, A. C.; Gatzounis, G.; Dimisianos, N.; Karra, A.; Kiosseoglou, G.; Gourzis, P.; Papathanasopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls. PMID:23401793

  18. Strategy Effects on Word Searching in Japanese Letter Fluency Tests: Evidence from the NIRS Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatta, Takeshi; Kanari, Ayano; Mase, Mitsuhito; Nagano, Yuko; Shirataki, Tatsuaki; Hibino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Strategy effects on word searching in the Japanese letter fluency test were investigated using the Near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants were given a Japanese letter fluency test and they were classified into two types of strategy users, based on analysis of their recorded verbal responses. One group, AIUEO-order strategy users, employed…

  19. Can verbal working memory training improve reading?

    PubMed

    Banales, Erin; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether poor verbal working memory is associated with poor word reading accuracy because the former causes the latter, or the latter causes the former. To this end, we tested whether (a) verbal working memory training improves poor verbal working memory or poor word reading accuracy, and whether (b) reading training improves poor reading accuracy or verbal working memory in a case series of four children with poor word reading accuracy and verbal working memory. Each child completed 8 weeks of verbal working memory training and 8 weeks of reading training. Verbal working memory training improved verbal working memory in two of the four children, but did not improve their reading accuracy. Similarly, reading training improved word reading accuracy in all children, but did not improve their verbal working memory. These results suggest that the causal links between verbal working memory and reading accuracy may not be as direct as has been assumed.

  20. Improving Speaking Fluency for International Teaching Assistants by Increasing Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2011-01-01

    One challenge for many international teaching assistants (ITAs) is improving their spoken English fluency after arrival in the U.S.A. It may be argued that poor fluency, with its hallmarks of slow speech rate, false starts, and particularly pauses that violate phrasal boundaries, account for the failure of many ITAs to be certified by their…

  1. Improving Oral Reading Fluency with a Peer-Mediated Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L.; Daly, Edward J., III

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an experimentally derived, peer-delivered reading intervention on the oral reading fluency of a first-grade student who had been referred for poor reading fluency. Same-grade peers were trained to lead the target student through a structured intervention protocol based on the results of a brief experimental…

  2. Attentional Regulation in Young Twins with Probable Stuttering, High Nonfluency, and Typical Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Susan; van Beljsterveldt, Catharina Eugenie Maria; Boomsma, Dorret Irene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Using a sample of 20,445 Dutch twins, this study examined the relationship between speech fluency and attentional regulation in children. A secondary objective was to identify etiological overlap between nonfluency and poor attention using fluency-discordant twin pairs. Method: Three fluency groups were created at age 5 using a parent…

  3. Aspects of fluency in writing.

    PubMed

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2007-03-01

    The notion of 'fluency' is most often associated with spoken-language phenomena such as stuttering. The present article investigates the relevance of considering fluency in writing. The basic argument for raising this question is empirical-it follows from a focus on difficulties in written and spoken language as manifestations of different problems which should be investigated separately on the basis of their symptoms. Key-logging instruments provide new possibilities for the study of writing. The obvious use of this new technology is to study writing as it unfolds in real time, instead of focusing only on aspects of the end product. A more sophisticated application is to exploit the key-logging instrument in order to test basic assumptions of contemporary theories of spelling. The present study is a dictation task involving words and non-words, intended to investigate spelling in nine-year-old pupils with regard to their mastery of the doubling of consonants in Norwegian. In this study, we report on differences with regard to temporal measures between a group of strong writers and a group of poor ones. On the basis of these pupils' writing behavior, the relevance of the concept of 'fluency' in writing is highlighted. The interpretation of the results questions basic assumptions of the cognitive hypothesis about spelling; the article concludes by hypothesizing a different conception of spelling.

  4. Conversational Competency Profiles of Adult Males Who Exhibit Fluency Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Carol D.

    The study explored the verbal and nonverbal conversational competency of five adult males who exhibited fluency disorders. Five subject/interactant videotaped conversational interactions were analyzed utilizing an INter-REActive Learning (INREAL) Model analysis format. Descriptive individual and composite profiles resulting from trained raters'…

  5. Reading Fluency and Its Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Maryanne; Katzir-Cohen, Tami

    2001-01-01

    Confronts 3 large lacunae in research on reading fluency: definition, component structure, and theory-based intervention. Presents a developmental- and component-based definition of reading fluency. Discusses how different types of current fluency interventions correspond to particular components in fluency's structure and to particular phases of…

  6. Children's word fluency strategies.

    PubMed

    Tallberg, I M; Carlsson, S; Lieberman, M

    2011-02-01

    Two word fluency tasks, the FAS letter fluency task and the "animal" semantic fluency task, were administered to 130 healthy Swedish-speaking children between 6 and 15 years of age. The main aim was to gather normative data on these word fluency tasks for Swedish-speaking children. Another purpose was to examine the switching and clustering strategies used, along with the occurrence of erroneous responses, in relation to demographic data and number of words retrieved. Both phonological and semantic analyses of switching and clustering were conducted. Higher age was found to be related to a more effective use of phonological and semantic switching and clustering strategies. The reference data resulting from this study may be of clinical value in examinations of children with various diagnoses, including language impairment.

  7. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  8. Relationship between the prefrontal function and the severity of the emotional symptoms during a verbal fluency task in patients with major depressive disorder: a multi-channel NIRS study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomin; Sun, Gaoxiang; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Xu, Bo; Shen, Chenyu; Shi, Lujie; Ma, Xiangyun; Ren, Xiajin; Feng, Kun; Liu, Pozi

    2014-10-01

    Multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive and low-cost functional neuroimaging technique in psychiatric research, and it has been wildly used for detecting the spatiotemporal characteristics of brain activity. In order to evaluate the clinical value of NIRS data in the assistant diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD), prefrontal cortex (PFC) hemoglobin concentration exchange of 30 MDD patients combined with anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom was detected by NIRS under voice fluency task (VFT), then the relationship between the severity of depressive, anxious and obsessive-compulsive symptom assessed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) with NIRS data in PFC was analyzed. Hypoactivation in lateral and lower PFC of MDD patients was confirmed in this study. Furthermore, Spearman correlation found that oxy-hemoglobin concentration ([oxy-Hb]) exchange in right-lateral PFC was associated with the severity of anxiety, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with severity of depression. Meanwhile, no statistical correlation was observed on the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptom. The results prompted that MDD patients with anxiety and obsession-compulsion symptom showed a PFC hypoactivation state in NIRS. Furthermore, the function of right-lateral PFC was associated with anxiety symptom, while bilateral PFC and antero-medial PFC were associated with depression symptom. Different from depression and anxiety, obsession-compulsion may have a different biological character in PFC function.

  9. Verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior. PMID:16812395

  10. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  11. Fluency Variation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim; Martins, Vanessa De Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    The Speech Fluency Profile of fluent adolescent speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were examined with respect to gender and neurolinguistic variations. Speech samples of 130 male and female adolescents, aged between 12;0 and 17;11 years were gathered. They were analysed according to type of speech disruption; speech rate; and frequency of speech…

  12. Differential Impacts of Age of Acquisition on Letter and Semantic Fluency in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sailor, Kevin M.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Sanders, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which the typical age of acquisition (AoA) of words and word frequency have separable influences on verbal production tasks has been strongly debated. To examine the overlap between these factors in verbal fluency tasks, the performance of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients (N=34) and normal elderly controls (N=36) was compared on semantic (e.g., vegetables) and letter (e.g. words that begin with F) fluency tasks. These comparisons revealed that words generated for the semantic fluency task had an earlier AoA while words generated for the letter fluency task had a higher word frequency.. Differences in AoA between AD patients and controls were larger for semantic than letter fluency. These results suggest that AoA has an effect on verbal production that is independent of word frequency and that AoA has a semantic locus. PMID:21851152

  13. Putting the Fun Back into Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…

  14. Working memory influences processing speed and reading fluency in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2011-01-01

    Processing-speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This "slowing" in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the "processing" speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14 years, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency and reduced processing speed-driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed "processing" speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intrasubject variability. Further, "processing" speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus.

  15. Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B.; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Processing speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the “processing” speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency, and reduced processing speed—driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed “processing” speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory, but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intra-subject variability. Further, “processing” speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally-mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally-mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus. PMID:21287422

  16. Aspects of Fluency in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Solheim, Oddny Judith

    2007-01-01

    The notion of "fluency" is most often associated with spoken-language phenomena such as stuttering. The present article investigates the relevance of considering fluency in writing. The basic argument for raising this question is empirical--it follows from a focus on difficulties in written and spoken language as manifestations of different…

  17. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons. Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Derek Hurrell, points out that while it's easy to fall into the impression that the proficiency strand "Fluency" is all about knowing basic number facts in all its many and splendid ways. He add it is easy to overlook, that within Fluency there are requirements that are based in Algebra; Measurement and Geometry; and…

  18. Word retrieval ability on semantic fluency task in typically developing Malayalam-speaking children.

    PubMed

    John, Sunila; Rajashekhar, Bellur

    2014-03-01

    Word-retrieval abilities in children can be assessed using word generation or verbal fluency task. The ability to retrieve is related to the individual's ability to retrieve associated words from the mental lexicon in an organized manner. The present study focuses on the developmental aspects of semantic fluency in 1,015 Malayalam-speaking children in the age range of 5 years to 15 years across both genders. The study revealed a developmental trend in the mean total number of correct word scores, number of clusters generated, and switching scores; however, mean cluster size did not show any statistically significant variation. Further, the scores did not vary across genders. Overall, the study indicated a linear developmental trend during verbal fluency with the increase in complexity of strategy use. PMID:23320414

  19. Using Kindergarten Number Sense to Predict Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2008-01-01

    Children's number sense in kindergarten was used to predict their calculation fluency in second grade (N = 198). Using block entry regression, usual predictors of age, reading, memory, and verbal and spatial cognition were entered in the first block and number sense measures were added in the second block. Number sense measures contributed a…

  20. On the (Elusive) Role of Oral Motor-Movements in Fluency-Based Memory Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Klin, Celia M.; Lanska, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the ease with which a stimulus is processed affects many different types of evaluative judgments. Recently, it has been proposed that for verbal stimuli the effect of fluency on such judgments is mediated by the muscles that are involved in speech (Topolinski & Strack, 2009, 2010). Evidence for this claim can be…

  1. Using kindergarten number sense to predict calculation fluency in second grade.

    PubMed

    Locuniak, Maria N; Jordan, Nancy C

    2008-01-01

    Children's number sense in kindergarten was used to predict their calculation fluency in second grade (N = 198). Using block entry regression, usual predictors of age, reading, memory, and verbal and spatial cognition were entered in the first block and number sense measures were added in the second block. Number sense measures contributed a significant amount of variance over and above the more general predictors (26%-42%). Uniquely predictive subareas were active memory for numbers, number knowledge, and number combinations, with number combinations standing out as the strongest single predictor. Number sense screening in kindergarten, using "at-risk" versus "not-at-risk" criteria, successfully ruled out 84% of the children who did not go on to have calculation fluency difficulties and positively identified 52% of the children who later showed fluency difficulties. The relation of early number skills to later calculation fluency has important implications for math screening and intervention. PMID:18768776

  2. False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. PMID:20438220

  3. Fluency Effects in Recognition Memory: Are Perceptual Fluency and Conceptual Fluency Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2014-01-01

    On a recognition memory test, both perceptual and conceptual fluency can engender a sense of familiarity and elicit recognition memory illusions. To date, perceptual and conceptual fluency have been studied separately but are they interchangeable in terms of their influence on recognition judgments? Five experiments compared the effect of…

  4. Image Ambiguity and Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jakesch, Martina; Leder, Helmut; Forster, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ambiguity is often associated with negative affective responses, and enjoying ambiguity seems restricted to only a few situations, such as experiencing art. Nevertheless, theories of judgment formation, especially the “processing fluency account”, suggest that easy-to-process (non-ambiguous) stimuli are processed faster and are therefore preferred to (ambiguous) stimuli, which are hard to process. In a series of six experiments, we investigated these contrasting approaches by manipulating fluency (presentation duration: 10ms, 50ms, 100ms, 500ms, 1000ms) and testing effects of ambiguity (ambiguous versus non-ambiguous pictures of paintings) on classification performance (Part A; speed and accuracy) and aesthetic appreciation (Part B; liking and interest). As indicated by signal detection analyses, classification accuracy increased with presentation duration (Exp. 1a), but we found no effects of ambiguity on classification speed (Exp. 1b). Fifty percent of the participants were able to successfully classify ambiguous content at a presentation duration of 100 ms, and at 500ms even 75% performed above chance level. Ambiguous artworks were found more interesting (in conditions 50ms to 1000ms) and were preferred over non-ambiguous stimuli at 500ms and 1000ms (Exp. 2a - 2c, 3). Importantly, ambiguous images were nonetheless rated significantly harder to process as non-ambiguous images. These results suggest that ambiguity is an essential ingredient in art appreciation even though or maybe because it is harder to process. PMID:24040172

  5. Remediation of Fluency: Word Specific or Generalised Training Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Inez E.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines whether reading fluency benefits more from repeated reading of a limited set of words or from practicing reading with many different words. A group of 37 reading delayed Dutch children repeatedly read the same 20 words with limited exposure duration, whereas another group of 37 poor readers received the same reading…

  6. Verbal Fluency, Semantics, Context and Symptom Complexes in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Adam P.; Chenery, Helen J.; Dart, Catriona M.; Doan, Binh; Tan, Mildred; Copland, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical-semantic access and retrieval was examined in 15 adults diagnosed with schizophrenia and matched controls. This study extends the literature through the inclusion of multiple examinations of lexical-semantic production within the same patient group and through correlating performance on these tasks with various positive and negative…

  7. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner.

    PubMed

    Geisseler, Olivia; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Bezzola, Ladina; Reuter, Katja; Weller, David; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters - including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load - to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal - but not figural - fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  8. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

    PubMed Central

    Geisseler, Olivia; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Bezzola, Ladina; Reuter, Katja; Weller, David; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology. PMID:26759784

  9. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  10. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region.

    PubMed

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M; Alencar, João C; Fichman, Helenice C; Marques, Priscila D N; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7-10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  11. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  12. Language-dependent performance on the letter fluency task in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Chika; Ertugrul, Aygun; Anil Yağcıoğlu, A Elif; Roy, Ajanta; Jayathilake, Karu; Milby, Alan; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2014-02-01

    Two types of verbal fluency tasks (letter fluency task; LFT, category fluency task; CFT) have been widely used to assess cognitive function in people with psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The task demand of the LFT is considered to vary across languages, as the cognitive process largely relies on sound and writing systems. Specifically, a sound unit for a letter (s) and a manner of association between them are assumed to be related with the performance. In the current study, three analyses have been conducted to examine this issue, using Japanese, Turkish, and English-speaking patients with schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that severity of letter fluency impairment would be in the order of Japanese, Turkish, and English speaking patients according to the inflexibility of a word search. First, performance on the LFT and the CFT was compared among Japanese (N=40), Turkish (N=30), and the US (N=31) patients (Analysis 1). A significant difference was found between the US and other two groups only in the LFT. Second, verbal fluency performance was compared between Japanese and Turkish patients by contrasting the degree of disassociations from normal controls (Japanese: N=20, Turkish: N=30) (Analysis 2). In Japanese patients, performance on the LFT was more severely impaired compared to that on the CFT while the opposite trend was found in the Turkish counterpart, suggesting that letter fluency performance was more degraded in Japanese patients. Finally, Analysis 3 was conducted to examine the relative order of letter fluency impairment among Japanese, Turkish and English-speaking patients. Disassociation in English users with schizophrenia was estimated based on previous meta-analytic reviews. The effect size (ES) for the letter fluency deficit was the largest in the Japanese sample, while the other two groups share similar ESs. The results from the three analyses partially supported the hypothesis for the severity of the letter fluency impairment in

  13. Workplace in fluency management: factoring the workplace into fluency management.

    PubMed

    Cassar, M C; Neilson, M D

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses competency-based standards and guidelines for the involvement of speech-language pathologists in the workplace of clients who stutter. It advocates broadening customary practices in stuttering treatment and suggests that speech-language pathologists should extend their scope of service delivery to the workplace. It presents a sequence for the collaborative involvement of the employer and other workplace members and proposes strategies for evaluating workplace based fluency programs. Issues of fluency management, transfer, maintenance, and efficacy are discussed in the workplace context. Also addressed is workplace communication as well as such factors as stereotypes, discrimination, and resistance to change which may impinge on workplace intervention. It is argued that structured intervention, transfer, and generalization within a collaborative workplace framework facilitates best practice for the fluency clinician and more appropriate outcomes for the diversity of clients who stutter.

  14. Workplace in fluency management: factoring the workplace into fluency management.

    PubMed

    Cassar, M C; Neilson, M D

    1997-01-01

    This article addresses competency-based standards and guidelines for the involvement of speech-language pathologists in the workplace of clients who stutter. It advocates broadening customary practices in stuttering treatment and suggests that speech-language pathologists should extend their scope of service delivery to the workplace. It presents a sequence for the collaborative involvement of the employer and other workplace members and proposes strategies for evaluating workplace based fluency programs. Issues of fluency management, transfer, maintenance, and efficacy are discussed in the workplace context. Also addressed is workplace communication as well as such factors as stereotypes, discrimination, and resistance to change which may impinge on workplace intervention. It is argued that structured intervention, transfer, and generalization within a collaborative workplace framework facilitates best practice for the fluency clinician and more appropriate outcomes for the diversity of clients who stutter. PMID:9434336

  15. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  16. Teacher Knowledge about Reading Fluency and Indicators of Students' Fluency Growth in Reading First Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; Leite, Walter L.; Kosanovich, Marcia L.; Strout, Meridith Taylor; Fenty, Nicole S.; Wright, Tyran L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the role of teacher knowledge about reading fluency in students' fluency growth. Specifically, the effects of teacher knowledge on fluency with nonsense word reading and oral passage reading were examined. Students' vocabulary was also considered as a predictor of fluency development. Results demonstrated that teacher knowledge…

  17. Level of education and category fluency task among Spanish speaking elders: number of words, clustering, and switching strategies.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Monica; Tappen, Ruth; Williams, Christine; Salvatierra, Judy; Zoller, Yaron

    2009-11-01

    It has been well documented that education influences the individual's performance on category fluency tasks but it is still unclear how this effect may differ across the different types of category tasks (i.e., animals, fruits, vegetables and clothing). This study aims (1) to analyze the effect of the level of education on four different types of category fluency tasks among elder Hispanic Americans and (2) to provide normative information on a population with different education levels that was previously screened for neurological and psychiatric conditions. In addition this study examines the semantic strategies used by these individuals to complete the fluency tasks. The sample included 105 healthy Hispanic individuals (age 55-98; 29 males and 76 females) divided into three education groups (<6, 6-11 and >11 years of education). Results showed that after controlling for age and gender, education has a main effect and is a strong predictor of performance in verbal fluency for the categories animals and clothing with increasing educational attainment being associated with higher category fluency scores and with more switches between categories. These findings suggest that the category fruit is less influenced by level of education than the other three semantic categories and may be a more appropriate test across different educational groups. Results from this study provide a reference for clinicians assessing verbal fluency in Spanish speaking populations.

  18. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  19. Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonneau, François

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be…

  20. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  1. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6-8 (N =…

  2. Effects of Generation Mode in fMRI Adaptations of Semantic Fluency: Paced Production and Overt Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basho, Surina; Palmer, Erica D.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Wulfeck, Beverly; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2007-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a widely used neuropsychological paradigm. In fMRI implementations, conventional unpaced (self-paced) versions are suboptimal due to uncontrolled timing of responses, and overt responses carry the risk of motion artifact. We investigated the behavioral and neurofunctional effects of response pacing and overt speech in semantic…

  3. Musical practice and cognitive aging: two cross-sectional studies point to phonemic fluency as a potential candidate for a use-dependent adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Mutlu, Justine; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Because of permanent use-dependent brain plasticity, all lifelong individuals' experiences are believed to influence the cognitive aging quality. In older individuals, both former and current musical practices have been associated with better verbal skills, visual memory, processing speed, and planning function. This work sought for an interaction between musical practice and cognitive aging by comparing musician and non-musician individuals for two lifetime periods (middle and late adulthood). Long-term memory, auditory-verbal short-term memory, processing speed, non-verbal reasoning, and verbal fluencies were assessed. In Study 1, measures of processing speed and auditory-verbal short-term memory were significantly better performed by musicians compared with controls, but both groups displayed the same age-related differences. For verbal fluencies, musicians scored higher than controls and displayed different age effects. In Study 2, we found that lifetime period at training onset (childhood vs. adulthood) was associated with phonemic, but not semantic, fluency performances (musicians who had started to practice in adulthood did not perform better on phonemic fluency than non-musicians). Current frequency of training did not account for musicians' scores on either of these two measures. These patterns of results are discussed by setting the hypothesis of a transformative effect of musical practice against a non-causal explanation. PMID:25346684

  4. The effect of motoric fluency on metamemory.

    PubMed

    Susser, Jonathan A; Mulligan, Neil W

    2015-08-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that certain types of fluency can influence memory predictions, with more fluent processing being associated with greater memory confidence. However, no study has systematically examined whether this pattern extends to the fluency of motoric output. The current study investigated the effect of a motoric-fluency manipulation of hand dominance on judgments of learning (JOLs) and memory performance. Participants predicted better memory for fluently written than nonfluently written stimuli despite no differences in actual recall. A questionnaire-based study suggested that the effect of motoric fluency on predictions was not due to peoples' a priori beliefs about memory. These findings are consistent with other fluency effects on JOLs.

  5. Information fluency: Where to start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viele, Pat

    2012-09-01

    There are many different definitions of information literacy, but perhaps the best succinct and comprehensive definition is: Information literacy (or fluency) is a set of abilities requiring individuals to "recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information." This skill set will be invaluable throughout life in making informed decisions.

  6. Assessment of Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marilyn Sue; Usnick, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This project had two major goals: to determine the usefulness of individually-administered interview process to access elementary students' fluency with basic multiplication facts, and to determine whether a developmental sequence found in Australian mathematics education literature applied to elementary students in the United States. Students in…

  7. Oral Fluency and Its Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieke, Adolf E.

    It is proposed that a speech-dynamic analysis of oral fluency phenomena serves best to highlight the nondiscrete nature of the sound stream and to capture English syllable structure. Some current concepts and practices in oral testing are criticized, and previously neglected evidence concerning temporal variables in speech, automatic speech…

  8. Word Fluency: A Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Matti

    It is suggested that models of human problem solving are useful in the analysis of word fluency (WF) test performance. In problem-solving terms, WF tasks would require the subject to define and clarify the conditions of the task (task acquisition), select and employ appropriate strategies, and monitor one's performance. In modern neuropsychology,…

  9. Early Mathematics Fluency with CCSSM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matney, Gabriel T.

    2014-01-01

    To develop second-grade students' confidence and ease, this author presents examples of learning tasks (Number of the Day, Word Problem Solving, and Modeling New Mathematical Ideas) that align with Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and that build mathematical fluency to promote students' creative expression of mathematical…

  10. The relationship of global form and motion detection to reading fluency.

    PubMed

    Englund, Julia A; Palomares, Melanie

    2012-08-15

    Visual motion processing in typical and atypical readers has suggested aspects of reading and motion processing share a common cortical network rooted in dorsal visual areas. Few studies have examined the relationship between reading performance and visual form processing, which is mediated by ventral cortical areas. We investigated whether reading fluency correlates with coherent motion detection thresholds in typically developing children using random dot kinematograms. As a comparison, we also evaluated the correlation between reading fluency and static form detection thresholds. Results show that both dorsal and ventral visual functions correlated with components of reading fluency, but that they have different developmental characteristics. Motion coherence thresholds correlated with reading rate and accuracy, which both improved with chronological age. Interestingly, when controlling for non-verbal abilities and age, reading accuracy significantly correlated with thresholds for coherent form detection but not coherent motion detection in typically developing children. Dorsal visual functions that mediate motion coherence seem to be related maturation of broad cognitive functions including non-verbal abilities and reading fluency. However, ventral visual functions that mediate form coherence seem to be specifically related to accurate reading in typically developing children. PMID:22776701

  11. Listening Is Behaving Verbally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    2008-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…

  12. Predictors of reading fluency in Italian orthography: evidence from a cross-sectional study of primary school students.

    PubMed

    Tobia, Valentina; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role of linguistic and visuospatial attentional processes in predicting reading fluency in typical Italian readers attending primary school. Tasks were administered to 651 children with reading fluency z scores > -1.5 standard deviation to evaluate their phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), verbal short-term memory, vocabulary, visual search skills, verbal-visual recall, and visual-spatial attention. Hybrid models combining confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis were used to evaluate the data obtained from younger (first and second grade) and older (third-fifth grade) children, respectively. The results showed that phonological awareness and RAN played a significant role among younger children, while also vocabulary, verbal short-term memory, and visuospatial attention were significant factors among older children. PMID:23883297

  13. Some verbal behavior about verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Salzinger, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    Beginning with behavior analysts' tendency to characterize verbal behavior as “mere” verbal behavior, the author reviews his own attempt to employ it to influence both his staff and policies of our government. He then describes its role in psychopathology, its effect on speakers in healing themselves and on engendering creativity. The paper ends by calling to our attention the role of verbal behavior in the construction of behavior analysis. PMID:22478393

  14. The Relationship between Reading Fluency, Writing Fluency, and Reading Comprehension in Suburban Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Mary Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The topic of reading fluency is of great importance in education today. Research has shown a significant positive relationship between reading fluency and reading comprehension. However, little is known about writing fluency and its connection with reading comprehension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between reading…

  15. Understanding the Misunderstanding: An Analysis of the Relationships between Reading Fluency Constructs, Reading Fluency Instruction and Oral Reading Fluency Assessment in the Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbs, Aimee M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the relationships between educator reading fluency constructs, reading fluency instruction and oral reading fluency assessment. Survey responses from sixty-six elementary educators in rural and urban north Georgia were analyzed to reach an understanding of why educators are likely to equate reading fluency with reading fast…

  16. Etiquette of Verbal Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Bruce

    1970-01-01

    Explores role of ambiguity in producing verbal conditioning by using two E types and two S types. Six college students were assigned to "crafty Es. Results revealed that certain types of ambiguity increase verbal compliance. (Author)

  17. Phonemic Fluency and Brain Connectivity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-hui; Potter, Guy G.; Diaz, Michele T.; Chen, Nan-kuei; Lad, Eleonora M.; Johnson, Micah A.; Cousins, Scott W.; Zhuang, Jie; Madden, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of blindness in developed nations, has been associated with poor performance on tests of phonemic fluency. This pilot study sought to (1) characterize the relationship between phonemic fluency and resting-state functional brain connectivity in AMD patients and (2) determine whether regional connections associated with phonemic fluency in AMD patients were similarly linked to phonemic fluency in healthy participants. Behavior-based connectivity analysis was applied to resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging data from seven patients (mean age=79.9±7.5 years) with bilateral AMD who completed fluency tasks prior to imaging. Phonemic fluency was inversely related to the strength of functional connectivity (FC) among six pairs of brain regions, representing eight nodes: left opercular portion of inferior frontal gyrus (which includes Broca's area), left superior temporal gyrus (which includes part of Wernicke's area), inferior parietal lobe (bilaterally), right superior parietal lobe, right supramarginal gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and right precentral gyrus. The FC of these reference links was not related to phonemic fluency among 32 healthy individuals (16 younger adults, mean age=23.5±4.6 years and 16 older adults, mean age=68.3±3.4 years). Compared with healthy individuals, AMD patients exhibited higher mean connectivity within the reference links and within the default mode network, possibly reflecting compensatory changes to support performance in the setting of reduced vision. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that phonemic fluency deficits in AMD reflect underlying brain changes that develop in the context of AMD. PMID:25313954

  18. Computerized cognitive remediation improves verbal learning and processing speed in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sartory, Gudrun; Zorn, Cornelia; Groetzinger, Gerd; Windgassen, Klaus

    2005-06-15

    Computerized cognitive remediation has resulted in improved executive function in schizophrenia, whereas results with regard to verbal memory were inconsistent. In the present study, 42 inpatients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a computerized cognitive remediation group or to a treatment-as-usual (TAU) control group. The remediation group received 15 sessions of computerized cognitive training (Cogpack) over a 3-week period. Neurocognitive functions were assessed at the beginning and end of this period. Compared to the control condition, remediation training resulted in improvements in verbal learning, processing speed and executive function (verbal fluency). The results indicate that cognitive remediation may lead to improvements beyond those of executive function.

  19. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  20. What Aaron Taught Me about Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Max

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the lessons he learned from Aaron, a 12-year old kid who had never been to school, on the importance of crafting systematic fluency lessons. The following are strategies that worked for them: (1) Demonstrate what fluency sounds and feels like; (2) Read aloud to the students at least three times a day from a…

  1. Fluency Instruction. Research-Based Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy Ed.; Blachowicz, Camille Ed.; Lems, Kristin Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Because fluency instruction was identified, only recently, as a cornerstone literacy subject--it is still unfamiliar terrain for many teachers. This volume fills a crucial gap by offering a thorough, authoritative examination of what reading fluency is--and how it should be taught. Contributing authors, who include the field's leading authorities,…

  2. Evaluating the Efficacy of Reading Fluency Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Students with weak reading skills are at risk for school difficulty. Among the indicators of reading difficulty, reading fluency is a strong predictor of overall reading problems. A multiple baseline design across small groups of students was used to evaluate the effects of explicit oral reading fluency instruction. Based on universal screening…

  3. Testosterone, estradiol, ACTH and musical, spatial and verbal performance.

    PubMed

    Hassler, M; Gupta, D; Wollmann, H

    1992-01-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and ACTH were determined in blood serum of 26 healthy males aged 19.16 and of 25 healthy females aged 18.77 years on average, and results were correlated with test scores of three spatial tests, a verbal fluency measure, and a test measuring general musical ability. In addition, hemispheric lateralization for verbal material and handedness was assessed. While testosterone and estradiol alone were not significantly related to any of the cognitive or musical tests, testosterone/estradiol ratio was significantly negatively correlated with spatial tests, and ACTH was significantly positively correlated with spatial and musical tests. Correlations were stronger in females than in males. The laterality index was significantly negatively correlated with testosterone in males indicating that right hemisphere involvement in verbal processing was associated with high testosterone levels.

  4. Visual perception can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and computational fluency

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinlin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Yiyun; Cui, Jiaxin; Chen, Chuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that numerosity processing (e.g., comparison of numbers of dots in two dot arrays) is significantly correlated with arithmetic performance. Researchers have attributed this association to the fact that both tasks share magnitude processing. The current investigation tested an alternative hypothesis, which states that visual perceptual ability (as measured by a figure-matching task) can account for the close relation between numerosity processing and arithmetic performance (computational fluency). Four hundred and twenty four third- to fifth-grade children (220 boys and 204 girls, 8.0–11.0 years old; 120 third graders, 146 fourth graders, and 158 fifth graders) were recruited from two schools (one urban and one suburban) in Beijing, China. Six classes were randomly selected from each school, and all students in each selected class participated in the study. All children were given a series of cognitive and mathematical tests, including numerosity comparison, figure matching, forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrices reasoning, mental rotation, choice reaction time, arithmetic tests and curriculum-based mathematical achievement test. Results showed that figure-matching ability had higher correlations with numerosity processing and computational fluency than did other cognitive factors (e.g., forward verbal working memory, visual tracing, non-verbal matrix reasoning, mental rotation, and choice reaction time). More important, hierarchical multiple regression showed that figure matching ability accounted for the well-established association between numerosity processing and computational fluency. In support of the visual perception hypothesis, the results suggest that visual perceptual ability, rather than magnitude processing, may be the shared component of numerosity processing and arithmetic performance. PMID:26441740

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation over Broca's region improves phonemic and semantic fluency in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Z; Pisoni, A; Papagno, C

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be proficiently used to modulate attentional and cognitive functions. For instance, in the language domain there is evidence that tDCS can fasten picture naming in both healthy individuals and aphasic patients, or improve grammar learning. In this study, we investigated whether tDCS can be used to increase healthy subjects' performance in phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, that are typically used in clinical assessment of language. Ten healthy individuals performed a semantic and a phonemic fluency task following anodal tDCS applied over Broca's region. Each participant underwent a real and a sham tDCS session. Participants were found to produce more words following real anodal tDCS both in the phonemic and in the semantic fluency. Control experiments ascertained that this finding did not depend upon unspecific effects of tDCS over levels of general arousal or attention or upon participants' expectations. These data confirm the efficacy of tDCS in transiently improving language functions by showing that anodal stimulation of Broca's region can enhance verbal fluency. Implications of these results for the treatment of language functions in aphasia are considered.

  6. Story Retell: A Fluency-Based Indicator of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Greg; Good, Roland; Corcoran, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a fluency-based measure of reading comprehension. A part of the Vitals Indicators of Progress (VIP) system, the measure outlined here represents an alternate form to the retell-fluency measure in the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy System (DIBELS). Measures of retell fluency provide an efficient, fluency-based tool…

  7. Fluency Interventions for Developmental Readers: Repeated Readings and Wide Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ari, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…

  8. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  9. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  10. Effectiveness of Corrective Reading on Reading Comprehension and Fluency in At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Barbara Jean Alexander

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest predictors and characteristics of a high school dropout has been poor reading skills. Students with low achievement levels in reading by the end of third grade are at greater risk of becoming a dropout. The study sought to determine whether the Corrective Reading Program impacted reading comprehension and fluency skills of…

  11. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students.

    PubMed

    Barth, Amy E; Tolar, Tammy D; Fletcher, Jack M; Francis, David

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6-8 (N = 1,794). Students who were struggling (n = 704) and typically developing readers (n = 1,028) were randomly assigned to read five 1-min passages from each of 5 Lexile bands (within student range of 550 Lexiles). A series of multilevel analyses showed that student and text characteristics contributed uniquely to oral reading fluency rates. Student characteristics involving sight word reading efficiency and level of decoding ability accounted for more variability than reader type and verbal knowledge, with small, but statistically significant effects of grade and gender. The most significant text feature was passage difficulty level. Interactions involving student text characteristics, especially attributes involving overall ability level and difficulty of the text, were also apparent. These results support views of the development of oral reading fluency that involve interactions of student and text characteristics and highlight the importance of scaling for passage difficulty level in assessing individual differences in oral reading fluency. PMID:24567659

  12. The Effects of Student and Text Characteristics on the Oral Reading Fluency of Middle-Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Amy E.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Francis, David

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of student characteristics (sight word reading efficiency, phonological decoding, verbal knowledge, level of reading ability, grade, gender) and text features (passage difficulty, length, genre, and language and discourse attributes) on the oral reading fluency of a sample of middle-school students in Grades 6–8 (N = 1,794). Students who were struggling (n = 704) and typically developing readers (n = 1,028) were randomly assigned to read five 1-min passages from each of 5 Lexile bands (within student range of 550 Lexiles). A series of multilevel analyses showed that student and text characteristics contributed uniquely to oral reading fluency rates. Student characteristics involving sight word reading efficiency and level of decoding ability accounted for more variability than reader type and verbal knowledge, with small, but statistically significant effects of grade and gender. The most significant text feature was passage difficulty level. Interactions involving student text characteristics, especially attributes involving overall ability level and difficulty of the text, were also apparent. These results support views of the development of oral reading fluency that involve interactions of student and text characteristics and highlight the importance of scaling for passage difficulty level in assessing individual differences in oral reading fluency. PMID:24567659

  13. Principal Component Analysis Study of Visual and Verbal Metaphoric Comprehension in Children with Autism and Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Kasirer, Anat

    2012-01-01

    This research extends previous studies regarding the metaphoric competence of autistic and learning disabled children on different measures of visual and verbal non-literal language comprehension, as well as cognitive abilities that include semantic knowledge, executive functions, similarities, and reading fluency. Thirty seven children with…

  14. Connecting to Develop Computational Fluency with Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2004-01-01

    Students should be encouraged to focus on a big mathematical idea and to look for connections between problems and solution strategies. This unified view suggests that the students are developing computational fluency with fractions.

  15. Fluency and response speed in recognition judgments.

    PubMed

    Poldrack, R A; Logan, G D

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that perceptual fluency can contribute to recognition judgments. In this study, we examined whether fluency in recognition is based upon the speed of preceding operations, as suggested by studies of perceptual fluency. Subjects studied items in both lexical decision and naming tasks, and were then tested on two blocks of lexical decision trials with probe recognition trials. Jacoby's process dissociation procedure was used, and results from this procedure suggested that recognition judgments in the task were based largely upon familiarity. However, the estimated discriminability available from response time distributions was significantly less than the observed recognition discriminability. Simulated memory operating characteristics confirmed this under determination of recognition by response times. The results demonstrate, contrary to previous suggestions, that fluency in recognition is not based upon speed.

  16. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON VERBAL LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF VERBAL LEARNING. APPROXIMATELY 50 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1960 TO 1965. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE CONDITIONING, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, PROBLEM SOLVING, SEMANTIC SATIATION, STIMULUS DURATION, AND VERBAL…

  17. Mechanics of Verbal Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Earl

    1978-01-01

    The major thesis of this research is that there are two types of processes underlying verbal performance. First, there are processes based on knowledge. Second, verbal performance requires the exercise of certain information-free, mechanistic processes, i.e., those that are conducted on the physical representation of a symbol (including whatever…

  18. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  19. Developing Reading Fluency in EFL: How Assisted Repeated Reading and Extensive Reading Affect Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Etsuo; Takayasu-Maass, Miyoko; Gorsuch, Greta J.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive research on reading in a first language has shown the critical role fluency plays in successful reading. Fluency alone, however, does not guarantee successful reading. Cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies and schemata that readers utilize also play important roles in constructing meaning from text. Most research, however,…

  20. Fluency Idol: Using Pop Culture to Engage Students and Boost Fluency Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calo, Kristine M.; Woolard-Ferguson, Taylor; Koitz, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article shares an oral reading practice that develops children's fluency skills, with a particular emphasis on performance reading and prosody. The authors share their experiences with Fluency Idol! as a way to engage young children by tapping into pop culture. The practice emphasizes repeated readings, feedback, practice, and…

  1. A Comparison of Two Reading Fluency Methods: Repeated Readings to a Fluency Criterion and Interval Sprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers have used the method of repeated readings to build oral reading fluency in students with and without special needs. A new fluency building intervention called interval sprinting uses shorter timing intervals (i.e., sprints) across a passage. This study used an alternating treatment design to compare repeated readings and interval…

  2. Putting Fluency on a Fitness Plan: Building Fluency's Meaning-Making Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an historical framework of fluency assessment and instruction, while at the same time advocating for a broader definition of fluency itself. Practical suggestions are made that seek to align reading rate and accuracy, alongside expression and comprehension, with the goal of developing "real" readers.

  3. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency. PMID:26640452

  4. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children's Text Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency.

  5. Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiaoli; Li, Fengying; Qiao, Fuqiang; Guo, Xiuyan; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to establish whether tonal symmetry produces processing fluency. Second, we sought to explore whether symmetry and chunk strength express themselves differently in fluency, as an indication of different mechanisms being involved for sub- and supra-finite state processing. Across two experiments, participants were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry showing a mirror symmetry (an inversion, i.e., a type of cross serial dependency); after this training phase, people completed a four-choice RT task in which they were presented with new artificial poetry. Participants were required to identify the stimulus displayed. We found that symmetry sped up responding to the second half of strings, indicating a fluency effect. Furthermore, there was a dissociation between fluency effects arising from symmetry vs. chunk strength, with stronger fluency effects for symmetry rather than chunks in the second half of strings. Taken together, we conjecture a divide between finite state and supra-finite state mechanisms in learning grammatical sequences.

  6. Fluency Expresses Implicit Knowledge of Tonal Symmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xiaoli; Li, Fengying; Qiao, Fuqiang; Guo, Xiuyan; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to establish whether tonal symmetry produces processing fluency. Second, we sought to explore whether symmetry and chunk strength express themselves differently in fluency, as an indication of different mechanisms being involved for sub- and supra-finite state processing. Across two experiments, participants were asked to listen to and memorize artificial poetry showing a mirror symmetry (an inversion, i.e., a type of cross serial dependency); after this training phase, people completed a four-choice RT task in which they were presented with new artificial poetry. Participants were required to identify the stimulus displayed. We found that symmetry sped up responding to the second half of strings, indicating a fluency effect. Furthermore, there was a dissociation between fluency effects arising from symmetry vs. chunk strength, with stronger fluency effects for symmetry rather than chunks in the second half of strings. Taken together, we conjecture a divide between finite state and supra-finite state mechanisms in learning grammatical sequences. PMID:26869960

  7. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension.

  8. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  9. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Beth A; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  10. Altered Frontal Lateralization Underlies the Category Fluency Deficits in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Michael K.; Sze, Sophia L.; Woo, Jean; Kwok, Timothy; Shum, David H. K.; Yu, Ruby; Chan, Agnes S.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have been consistently found to have category fluency deficits. However, little is known about the neural basis of these deficits. A diversity of neuroimaging studies has revealed left-lateralized prefrontal activations due to verbal processing and control functions during the performance of category fluency tasks. Given the reports of structural and functional abnormalities in the prefrontal cortices in individuals with MCI, it is conceivable that these individuals would also exhibit altered prefrontal activation patterns during a category fluency task. The present study aimed to investigate the prefrontal dynamics during the category fluency task in older adults with MCI by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty-six older adults with MCI were compared with 26 older adults with normal cognition (NC) who were matched in age, gender, handedness, and educational level. All participants performed a category fluency task while the prefrontal dynamics were recorded. The results showed that the MCI group generated fewer unique words, made fewer switches between subcategories, and generated fewer new subcategories than did the NC group. Importantly, the NIRS results showed that the NC group exhibited a left lateralization of frontal activations during the category fluency task, while the MCI group did not exhibit such a lateralization. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the category fluency performance and the extent of lateralization, suggesting that the category fluency deficits in the MCI group could be related to frontal dysfunction. That is, the rightward shift of frontal activations in the MCI group may reflect the presence of cortical reorganization in which the contralateral regions (i.e., the right hemisphere) are recruited to take over the function that is declining in the specialized regions (i.e., the left hemisphere). Our lateralization finding may serve as an objective

  11. The differential effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rita R; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Mello, Joana

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments contrast the effects of fluency due to repetition and fluency due to color contrast on judgments of truth, after participants learn to associate high levels of fluency with falseness (i.e., a reversal of the fluency-truth link). Experiment 1 shows that the interpretation of fluency as a sign of truth is harder to reverse when learning is promoted with repetition rather than with perceptual fluency. Experiment 2 shows that when color contrast and repetition are manipulated orthogonally, the reversal of the truth effect learned with color contrast does not generalize to repetition. These results suggest specificities in the processing experiences generated by different sources of fluency, and that their influences can be separated in contexts that allow the contrast of their distinctive features. We interpret and discuss these results in light of the research addressing the convergence vs. dissociation of the effects elicited by different fluency sources.

  12. A Synthesis of Fluency Interventions for Secondary Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2008-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers…

  13. The Perception of Fluency in Native and Nonnative Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; Sanders, Ted; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Where native speakers supposedly are fluent by default, nonnative speakers often have to strive hard to achieve a nativelike fluency level. However, disfluencies (such as pauses, fillers, repairs, etc.) occur in both native and nonnative speech and it is as yet unclear how fluency raters weigh the fluency characteristics of native and nonnative…

  14. The Evaluation of Second Language Fluency and Foreign Accent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chen-Huei

    2011-01-01

    What is second language fluency? What is a foreign accent? Is it possible for an adult second language learner to speak fluently with a heavy accent or vice versa? What factors contribute to the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? What acoustic attributes correlate with the perception of fluency and a foreign accent? To answer these…

  15. Fluency: A Review of Developmental and Remedial Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie R.; Stahl, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews theory and research relating to fluency instruction and development. Found that fluency instruction is generally effective; assisted approaches seem to be more effective than unassisted approaches; repetitive approaches do not seem to hold a clear advantage over nonrepetitive approaches; and effective fluency instruction moves beyond…

  16. Fluency Formula[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Fluency Formula"[TM] is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote reading fluency for first- through sixth-grade students. The program emphasizes automatic recognition of words, decoding accuracy, and oral expressiveness as the foundation for building reading fluency. A daily 10- to 15-minute lesson is delivered in the classroom. Students…

  17. Relations among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (a) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency, (b) silent reading fluency…

  18. Characteristics of Fluency and Speech in Two Families With High Incidences of Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Frances J.; Braun, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents data from 2 families with high incidence of stuttering, comparing methods of phenotype assignment and exploring the presence of other fluency disorders and corresponding speech characteristics. Method Three methods for assigning phenotype of stuttering were used: self-identification, family identification, and expert identification. Agreement on which individuals were assigned by each of these methods was studied. Multiple measures of fluency and speech production were obtained. Results Self-reports and descriptions of blocking rather than self-identification as a person who stutters demonstrated the best agreement with expert identification of stuttering. Family identification showed poor agreement with both expert and self-identification of stuttering. Using binary categories of fluent or stuttering, 90% of individuals in 1 family were classified by expert consensus. Only 70% of the other family could be similarly categorized. Experts required 2 other categories, cluttering and other fluency disorders, to fully characterize dysfluency within this family. These 2 families also demonstrated differences in speech production. Conclusion Some families with high incidence of stuttering may also have high incidence of other fluency disorders and other speech-production difficulties. This finding may have ramifications for genetic studies, including criteria for defining phenotype and collapsing data across multiple families. PMID:26126023

  19. The Role of Reading Disability Risk and Environmental Protective Factors in Students' Reading Fluency in Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of reading disability (RD) risk and environmental protective factors in reading fluency in grade 4. The sample consisted of 538 Finnish-speaking students. Kindergarten measures included the students' risk for RD based on poor achievement in phonological awareness and letter knowledge as well as information on the…

  20. The Effects of a Reader's Theater Instructional Intervention on Second Grade Students' Reading Fluency and Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane D.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 75% of students who are poor readers in third grade continue to be lower achieving readers in ninth grade. The National Reading Panel has identified fluency as a prominent cause of reading comprehension problems which ultimately affect overall reading development. The purpose of this study was to test the theoretical framework of…

  1. The Effect of Short Vowelization on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan; Kenana, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study facilitates the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) to investigate the effect of short vowels on oral reading fluency (ORF) and silent reading comprehension in Arabic orthography. A total sample of 131 fifth-grade students (89 skilled readers and 42 poor readers) participated in the study. Two kinds of CBM probes were…

  2. Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation.

    PubMed

    Alter, Adam L; Oppenheimer, Daniel M

    2009-08-01

    Processing fluency, or the subjective experience of ease with which people process information, reliably influences people's judgments across a broad range of social dimensions. Experimenters have manipulated processing fluency using a vast array of techniques, which, despite their diversity, produce remarkably similar judgmental consequences. For example, people similarly judge stimuli that are semantically primed (conceptual fluency), visually clear (perceptual fluency), and phonologically simple (linguistic fluency) as more true than their less fluent counterparts. The authors offer the first comprehensive review of such mechanisms and their implications for judgment and decision making. Because every cognition falls along a continuum from effortless to demanding and generates a corresponding fluency experience, the authors argue that fluency is a ubiquitous metacognitive cue in reasoning and social judgment.

  3. A Math Fact Fluency Intervention with Scaffolding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Sharla Nichols; Leach, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a flash card intervention for fluency in basic math facts. The rate of recall of addition facts was assessed for an, 8-year-old third grader who had ADHD. The tutoring program involved a structured flashcard drill with systematic reinforcement. A scaffold was built in to the intervention…

  4. Using Songs to Strengthen Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Pooja; Laud, Leslie E.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of songs with lyrics to increase the reading fluency rates of three middle school students. In the first condition, students heard fluent reading modeled, read regular passages repeatedly and then received feedback on accuracy, phrasing and expression. After that, students received the same intervention, except that…

  5. Assessing Fluency: Are the Criteria Fair?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanage, Indika; Gardner, Rod

    2013-01-01

    In formal assessments of second-language speakers' fluency, the criteria used frequently fail to differentiate between real disfluency and interactionally effective practices, while superficially disfluent, that help with communication and are used by first language speakers. In this study, we focused on pausing, silences and self-repairs in the…

  6. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  7. Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Binder, C

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral fluency is that combination of accuracy plus speed of responding that enables competent individuals to function efficiently and effectively in their natural environments. Evolving from the methodology of free-operant conditioning, the practice of precision teaching set the stage for discoveries about relations between behavior frequency and specific outcomes, notably retention and maintenance of performance, endurance or resistance to distraction, and application or transfer of training. The use of frequency aims in instructional programming by Haughton and his associates led to formulation of empirically determined performance frequency ranges that define fluency. Use of fluency-based instructional methods has led to unprecedented gains in educational cost effectiveness, and has the potential for significantly improving education and training in general. This article traces the development of concepts, procedures, and findings associated with fluency and discusses their implications for instructional design and practice. It invites further controlled research and experimental analyses of phenomena that may be significant in the future evolution of educational technology and in the analysis of complex behavior.

  8. Information Fluency: Critically Examining IT Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reffell, Pete; Whitworth, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Discusses information technology (IT) education in United Kingdom universities and considers the use of IT to foster more critical and foundational faculties. Investigates the potential impact of this approach using the critical theory of Jurgen Habermas and his concept of colonization, and discusses IT and society and computer fluency.…

  9. Achieving Fluency: Special Education and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis

    2011-01-01

    "Achieving Fluency" presents the understandings that all teachers need to play a role in the education of students who struggle: those with disabilities and those who simply lack essential foundational knowledge. This book serves teachers and supervisors by sharing increasingly intensive instructional interventions for struggling students on…

  10. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  11. Teacher Acceptability of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Sarah Stebbe

    2013-01-01

    Many schools are adopting a Response to Intervention (RTI) model to support and evaluate learning (Fuchs & Fuchs, 2006). Universal screening and progress monitoring are two essential components of RTI that generally support improved student outcomes (Shinn, 2007). In many schools, teachers collect and use a tool called oral reading fluency for…

  12. Behavioral fluency: Evolution of a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Behavioral fluency is that combination of accuracy plus speed of responding that enables competent individuals to function efficiently and effectively in their natural environments. Evolving from the methodology of free-operant conditioning, the practice of precision teaching set the stage for discoveries about relations between behavior frequency and specific outcomes, notably retention and maintenance of performance, endurance or resistance to distraction, and application or transfer of training. The use of frequency aims in instructional programming by Haughton and his associates led to formulation of empirically determined performance frequency ranges that define fluency. Use of fluency-based instructional methods has led to unprecedented gains in educational cost effectiveness, and has the potential for significantly improving education and training in general. This article traces the development of concepts, procedures, and findings associated with fluency and discusses their implications for instructional design and practice. It invites further controlled research and experimental analyses of phenomena that may be significant in the future evolution of educational technology and in the analysis of complex behavior. PMID:22478257

  13. Promoting Decimal Number Sense and Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Chris; Jamieson, Spencer; Mills, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The abstract nature of mathematics requires the communication of mathematical ideas through multiple representations, such as words, symbols, pictures, objects, or actions. Building representational fluency involves using mathematical representations flexibly and being able to interpret and translate among these different models and mathematical…

  14. Spoken Language and the Concept of Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari; Lehtonen, Jaakko

    1978-01-01

    Language teaching typically reflects current research, and, until quite recently, grammatical competence (e.g., in the Chomskyan sense) was the major target of linguistic research. Emphasizing the spoken language, the term "fluency," as applied to the foreign language performance of a language learner, is correlated to foreign language…

  15. Understanding design fluency: motor and executive contributions.

    PubMed

    Suchy, Yana; Kraybill, Matthew L; Gidley Larson, Jennifer C

    2010-01-01

    Design Fluency (DF) is typically assumed to assess planning, cognitive flexibility, and fluency in generation of visual patterns, above and beyond contributions from motor speed (Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001; Ruff, 1998). The present study examined these assumptions, as little construct validation research has been done in the past. Sixty one community-dwelling elderly participants were administered the DF, Trail Making, and Letter Fluency tests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), as well as electronically administered measures of motor planning and motor sequence fluency. Hierarchical regressions were used to parse out unique variance contributions to DF performance. The results showed that generation of novel designs (i.e., the first two trials on the D-KEFS DF) relied primarily on motor planning, the ability to generate novel motor actions, and, to a lesser extent, speed of drawing with a writing implement. In contrast, generation of unique designs while switching (i.e., the third trial on the D-KEFS DF) relied primarily on visual scanning and perhaps visual-attentional resources. These findings highlight the wisdom of interpreting the switching trial of the D-KEFS DF separately. Interestingly, cognitive flexibility did not contribute to performance on any of the three D-KEFS DF trials.

  16. An Experimental Analysis of Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin M.; Wickstrom, Katherine F.; Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Brown, Shelaina M.; Schuka, Jeffrey R.; Therrien, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The experimental analysis of academic responding has emerged as one approach to strengthening decisions related to problem analysis and treatment design. This study provided an example of how both brief and extended assessments can be used within a data based, problem solving approach to addressing reading fluency concerns. For six children with…

  17. Relations among Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Skills in Normal Language and Specifically Language-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Administration of verbal and nonverbal measures to 20 normal language and 20 specifically language-impaired children (ages 4-5) indicated that a "qualitative-differences" model of specific language impairment better accounts for the co-occurrence of poor verbal and poor nonverbal cognitive skills in subjects than a "low-normal" model. (Author/JDD)

  18. Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.

  19. Verbal problem-solving difficulties in autism spectrum disorders and atypical language development.

    PubMed

    Alderson-Day, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) adopt less efficient strategies than typically developing (TD) peers on the Twenty Questions Task (TQT), a measure of verbal problem-solving skills. Although problems with the TQT are typically associated with executive dysfunction, they have also been reported in children who are deaf, suggesting a role for atypical language development. To test the contribution of language history to ASD problem solving, TQT performance was compared in children with high-functioning autism (HFA), children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and TD children. The HFA group used significantly less efficient strategies than both AS and TD children. No group differences were evident on tests of question understanding, planning or verbal fluency. Potential explanations for differences in verbal problem-solving skill are discussed with reference to the development of inner speech and use of visual strategies in ASD.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction with Increasing Black and Latino Reading Fluency, as Compared to Asian and White Second-Grade Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Franklin Dickerson

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. FORI incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an academic week. This approach to reading uses scaffolding by expert readers. Results indicate…

  1. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk. PMID:25595115

  2. Mathematics as verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M Jackson

    2015-04-01

    "Behavior which is effective only through the mediation of other persons has so many distinguishing dynamic and topographical properties that a special treatment is justified and indeed demanded" (Skinner, 1957, p. 2). Skinner's demand for a special treatment of verbal behavior can be extended within that field to domains such as music, poetry, drama, and the topic of this paper: mathematics. For centuries, mathematics has been of special concern to philosophers who have continually argued to the present day about what some deem its "special nature." Two interrelated principal questions have been: (1) Are the subjects of mathematical interest pre-existing in some transcendental realm and thus are "discovered" as one might discover a new planet; and (2) Why is mathematics so effective in the practices of science and engineering even though originally such mathematics was "pure" with applications neither contemplated or even desired? I argue that considering the actual practice of mathematics in its history and in the context of acquired verbal behavior one can address at least some of its apparent mysteries. To this end, I discuss some of the structural and functional features of mathematics including verbal operants, rule-and contingency-modulated behavior, relational frames, the shaping of abstraction, and the development of intuition. How is it possible to understand Nature by properly talking about it? Essentially, it is because nature taught us how to talk.

  3. The Relationship between Different Measures of Oral Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Second-Grade Students Who Evidence Different Oral Reading Fluency Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Justin C.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne; Kuhn, Melanie; Meisinger, Beth; Schwanenflugel, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine whether different measures of oral reading fluency relate differentially to reading comprehension performance in two samples of second-grade students: (a) students who evidenced difficulties with nonsense-word oral reading fluency, real-word oral reading fluency, and oral reading fluency of…

  4. Why Verbalization of Non-Verbal Memory Reduces Recognition Accuracy: A Computational Approach to Verbal Overshadowing

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Aya; Ueno, Taiji; Kitagami, Shinji; Kawaguchi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing refers to a phenomenon whereby verbalization of non-verbal stimuli (e.g., facial features) during the maintenance phase (after the target information is no longer available from the sensory inputs) impairs subsequent non-verbal recognition accuracy. Two primary mechanisms have been proposed for verbal overshadowing, namely the recoding interference hypothesis, and the transfer-inappropriate processing shift. The former assumes that verbalization renders non-verbal representations less accurate. In contrast, the latter assumes that verbalization shifts processing operations to a verbal mode and increases the chance of failing to return to non-verbal, face-specific processing operations (i.e., intact, yet inaccessible non-verbal representations). To date, certain psychological phenomena have been advocated as inconsistent with the recoding-interference hypothesis. These include a decline in non-verbal memory performance following verbalization of non-target faces, and occasional failures to detect a significant correlation between the accuracy of verbal descriptions and the non-verbal memory performance. Contrary to these arguments against the recoding interference hypothesis, however, the present computational model instantiated core processing principles of the recoding interference hypothesis to simulate face recognition, and nonetheless successfully reproduced these behavioral phenomena, as well as the standard verbal overshadowing. These results demonstrate the plausibility of the recoding interference hypothesis to account for verbal overshadowing, and suggest there is no need to implement separable mechanisms (e.g., operation-specific representations, different processing principles, etc.). In addition, detailed inspections of the internal processing of the model clarified how verbalization rendered internal representations less accurate and how such representations led to reduced recognition accuracy, thereby offering a computationally

  5. If memory serves, will language? Later verbal accessibility of early memories.

    PubMed

    Bauer, P J; Kroupina, M G; Schwade, J A; Dropik, P L; Wewerka, S S

    1998-01-01

    Of major interest to those concerned with early mnemonic process and function is the question of whether early memories likely encoded without the benefit of language later are accessible to verbal report. In the context of a controlled laboratory study, we examined this question in children who were 16 and 20 months at the time of exposure to specific target events and who subsequently were tested for their memories of the events after a delay of either 6 or 12 months (at 22-32 months) and then again at 3 years. At the first delayed-recall test, children evidenced memory both nonverbally and verbally. Nonverbal mnemonic expression was related to age at the time of test; verbal mnemonic expression was related to verbal fluency at the time of test. At the second delayed-recall test, children evidenced continued accessibility of their early memories. Verbal mnemonic expression was related to previous mnemonic expression, both nonverbal and verbal, each of which contributed unique variance. The relevance of these findings on memory for controlled laboratory events for issues of memory for traumatic experiences is discussed. PMID:9886220

  6. Deriving semantic structure from category fluency: clustering techniques and their pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Storms, Gert; Longenecker, Julia; Verheyen, Steven; Weinberger, Daniel R; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Assessing verbal output in category fluency tasks provides a sensitive indicator of cortical dysfunction. The most common metrics are the overall number of words produced and the number of errors. Two main observations have been made about the structure of the output, first that there is a temporal component to it with words being generated in spurts, and second that the clustering pattern may reflect a search for meanings such that the 'clustering' is attributable to the activation of a specific semantic field in memory. A number of sophisticated approaches to examining the structure of this clustering have been developed, and a core theme is that the similarity relations between category members will reveal the mental semantic structure of the category underlying an individual's responses, which can then be visualized by a number of algorithms, such as MDS, hierarchical clustering, ADDTREE, ADCLUS or SVD. Such approaches have been applied to a variety of neurological and psychiatric populations, and the general conclusion has been that the clinical condition systematically distorts the semantic structure in the patients, as compared to the healthy controls. In the present paper we explore this approach to understanding semantic structure using category fluency data. On the basis of a large pool of patients with schizophrenia (n = 204) and healthy control participants (n = 204), we find that the methods are problematic and unreliable to the extent that it is not possible to conclude that any putative difference reflects a systematic difference between the semantic representations in patients and controls. Moreover, taking into account the unreliability of the methods, we find that the most probable conclusion to be made is that no difference in underlying semantic representation exists. The consequences of these findings to understanding semantic structure, and the use of category fluency data, in cortical dysfunction are discussed.

  7. Contribution of NIRS to the Study of Prefrontal Cortex for Verbal Fluency in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Di Sante, Gabriele; Barbeau, Joannie; Maheux, Manon; Lesage, Frederic; Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging is characterized by a number of changes on brain structure and function. Several neuroimaging studies have shown an age-related reduction in hemispheric asymmetry on various cognitive tasks, a phenomenon captured by Cabeza (2002) in the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Although this phenomenon is…

  8. Language Non-Selective Syntactic Activation in Early Bilinguals: The Role of Verbal Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bilinguals presented with words in one of their languages spontaneously and automatically activate lexical representations from their other language. However, such effects, found in varied experimental contexts, both in behavioural and psychophysiological investigations, have been essentially limited to the…

  9. Extralinguistic Communication Compensates for the Loss of Verbal Fluency: A Case Study of Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabat, Steven R.; Cagigas, Xavier E.

    1997-01-01

    The case study of an older woman with Alzheimer's disease shows that while her command of words and syntax had deteriorated, her ability to use other forms of communication had not. Her alternative forms of communication included use of gesture, facial expression, posture, and tone of voice. (MSE)

  10. Early Blindness May Be Associated with Changes in Performance on Verbal Fluency Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Claire E.; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of how children who are blind acquire and use language have focused less on cognitive compensations and more on delays in development. Vision is important in the establishment of early communicative patterns, and sighted children regularly use contextual visual information, such as a speaker's gestures and eye gaze, to make sense of speech…

  11. Programming for Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency Using Computer-Assisted Instruction and Changing Fluency Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Starr E.; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gibson, Lenwood, Jr.; Robinson-Ervin, Porsha

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supplemental repeated reading intervention delivered through a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on the oral reading fluency (ORF), comprehension, and generalization of second graders who were at risk for reading failure. Six students received the Read Naturally Software Edition (RNSE) treatment…

  12. Brain bases of reading fluency in typical reading and impaired fluency in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Joanna A; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Lymberis, John; Saxler, Patricia K; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Triantafyllou, Christina; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2014-01-01

    Although the neural systems supporting single word reading are well studied, there are limited direct comparisons between typical and dyslexic readers of the neural correlates of reading fluency. Reading fluency deficits are a persistent behavioral marker of dyslexia into adulthood. The current study identified the neural correlates of fluent reading in typical and dyslexic adult readers, using sentences presented in a word-by-word format in which single words were presented sequentially at fixed rates. Sentences were presented at slow, medium, and fast rates, and participants were asked to decide whether each sentence did or did not make sense semantically. As presentation rates increased, participants became less accurate and slower at making judgments, with comprehension accuracy decreasing disproportionately for dyslexic readers. In-scanner performance on the sentence task correlated significantly with standardized clinical measures of both reading fluency and phonological awareness. Both typical readers and readers with dyslexia exhibited widespread, bilateral increases in activation that corresponded to increases in presentation rate. Typical readers exhibited significantly larger gains in activation as a function of faster presentation rates than readers with dyslexia in several areas, including left prefrontal and left superior temporal regions associated with semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations. Group differences were more extensive when behavioral differences between conditions were equated across groups. These findings suggest a brain basis for impaired reading fluency in dyslexia, specifically a failure of brain regions involved in semantic retrieval and semantic and phonological representations to become fully engaged for comprehension at rapid reading rates.

  13. Perceptual Fluency, Auditory Generation, and Metamemory: Analyzing the Perceptual Fluency Hypothesis in the Auditory Modality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besken, Miri; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2014-01-01

    Judgments of learning (JOLs) are sometimes influenced by factors that do not impact actual memory performance. One recent proposal is that perceptual fluency during encoding affects metamemory and is a basis of metacognitive illusions. In the present experiments, participants identified aurally presented words that contained inter-spliced silences…

  14. A cross-cultural investigation of inhibitory control, generative fluency, and anxiety symptoms in Romanian and Russian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Cheie, Lavinia; Veraksa, Aleksander; Zinchenko, Yuri; Gorovaya, Alexandra; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on the early development of inhibitory control in 5- to 7-year-old children attending kindergarten in two Eastern-European countries, Romania and Russia. These two countries share many aspects of child-rearing and educational practices, previously documented to influence the development of inhibitory control. Using the Lurian-based developmental approach offered by the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment battery, the study aimed to contribute to cross-cultural developmental neuropsychology by exploring (a) early interrelationships between subcomponents of inhibitory control (response suppression and attention control) and generative fluency (verbal and figural) in these two cultures, as well as (b) the predictive value of external factors (culture and maternal education) and individual differences (age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, trait anxiety) on inhibitory control and fluency outcomes in children from both countries. First, findings in both culture samples suggest that even at this young age, the construct of inhibitory control cannot be considered a unitary entity. Second, differences in maternal education were not predictive of either inhibitory control or fluency scores. However, children's attention control performance varied as a function of culture, and the direction of these cultural effects differed by whether the target outcome involved performance accuracy versus efficiency as an output. Findings also confirmed the previously documented intensive developmental improvement in preschoolers' inhibitory control during this period, influencing measures of response suppression and particularly attention control. Finally, the results further stress the importance of individual differences effects in trait anxiety on attention control efficiency across cultures. PMID:24479756

  15. A cross-cultural investigation of inhibitory control, generative fluency, and anxiety symptoms in Romanian and Russian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Cheie, Lavinia; Veraksa, Aleksander; Zinchenko, Yuri; Gorovaya, Alexandra; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The current study focused on the early development of inhibitory control in 5- to 7-year-old children attending kindergarten in two Eastern-European countries, Romania and Russia. These two countries share many aspects of child-rearing and educational practices, previously documented to influence the development of inhibitory control. Using the Lurian-based developmental approach offered by the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment battery, the study aimed to contribute to cross-cultural developmental neuropsychology by exploring (a) early interrelationships between subcomponents of inhibitory control (response suppression and attention control) and generative fluency (verbal and figural) in these two cultures, as well as (b) the predictive value of external factors (culture and maternal education) and individual differences (age, gender, nonverbal intelligence, trait anxiety) on inhibitory control and fluency outcomes in children from both countries. First, findings in both culture samples suggest that even at this young age, the construct of inhibitory control cannot be considered a unitary entity. Second, differences in maternal education were not predictive of either inhibitory control or fluency scores. However, children's attention control performance varied as a function of culture, and the direction of these cultural effects differed by whether the target outcome involved performance accuracy versus efficiency as an output. Findings also confirmed the previously documented intensive developmental improvement in preschoolers' inhibitory control during this period, influencing measures of response suppression and particularly attention control. Finally, the results further stress the importance of individual differences effects in trait anxiety on attention control efficiency across cultures.

  16. The effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan E; Bell, Martha Ann

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain-wave activity. Thirty-two 8-year-olds (16 boys) and 32 college students (16 men) had EEG recorded at baseline and while performing four computerized tasks: a two-dimensional (2D) gingerbread man mental rotation, a 2D alphanumeric mental rotation, of three-dimensional (3D) basketball player mental rotation, and lexical decision making. Additionally, participants completed a paper- and pencil water level task and an oral verbal fluency task. On the 2D alphanumeric and 3D basketball player mental rotation tasks, men performed better than boys, but the performance of women and girls did not differ. On the water level task, men performed better than women whereas there was no difference between boys and girls. No sex differences were found on the 2D gingerbread man mental rotation, lexical decision-making, and verbal fluency tasks. EEG analyses indicated that men exhibited left posterior temporal activation during the 2D alphanumeric task and that men and boys both exhibited greater left parietal activation than women and girls during the 2D gingerbread man task. On the 3D basketball player mental rotation task, all participants exhibited greater activation of the right parietal area than the left parietal area. These data give insight into the brain activity and cognitive development changes that occur between childhood and adulthood.

  17. Verbal Conditioning and Therapeutic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapuc, Paul S.; Harmatz, Morton G.

    1970-01-01

    Investigates the generalization of verbal conditioning effects to postconditioning personality and behavioral measures. Results demonstrated conditioning and generalization to some of the personality measures. (Author)

  18. Teaching Reading Fluency to Struggling Readers: Method, Materials, and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Homan, Susan; Biggs, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency has been identified as a key component in reading and in learning to read. Moreover, a significantly large number of students who experience difficulty in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency that appear to contribute to their overall struggles in reading. In this article we explore the nature of effective instruction…

  19. Fluency and Its Teaching. Modern Languages in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Marie-Noelle

    This book addresses what kind of analysis of spoken language is appropriate to the assessment and fostering of fluency at the various stages of a student's development. It is easy to define fluency in general terms, but it is difficult to discern what linguistic and paralinguistic options are involved. This book begins by exploring perceptions of…

  20. Human and Automated Assessment of Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolaños, Daniel; Cole, Ron A.; Ward, Wayne H.; Tindal, Gerald A.; Hasbrouck, Jan; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a comprehensive approach to fully automated assessment of children's oral reading fluency (ORF), one of the most informative and frequently administered measures of children's reading ability. Speech recognition and machine learning techniques are described that model the 3 components of oral reading fluency: word accuracy,…

  1. Relationships of Three Components of Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of 3 levels of reading fluency--the individual word, the syntactic unit, and the whole passage--to reading comprehension among 278 5th graders heterogeneous in reading ability. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that reading fluency at each level related uniquely to performance on a standardized reading…

  2. Educator Assessment: Accent as a Measure of Fluency in Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Patricia Lavon; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines Arizona's English fluency evaluation initiative, which aims to address the fluency standards for teachers of English Language Learners (ELLs) set forth in the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. The authors deploy a sociolinguistic framework to consider what components of teachers' language are being evaluated by the…

  3. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  4. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  5. Laughing through Rereadings: Using Joke Books to Build Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2009-01-01

    The author explores how the use of joke books can promote fluency in young readers. One young girl's fluency improved measurably, and her engagement and motivation to read the particular kind of text involved played a significant role. (Contains 2 tables.)

  6. Improving Multiplication Fact Fluency by Choosing between Competing Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Helen C.; Gemmink, Michelle; Broens-Paffen, Marije; Kirschner, Paul A.; Jolles, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Developing fluency in arithmetic facts is instrumental to mathematics learning. This study compares the effects of two practice conditions on children's fluency in simple multiplication facts. Third and fourth graders in the Netherlands (N = 282) practised in either a conventional "recall" condition where they produced answers to…

  7. Early Predictors of Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locuniak, Maria N.

    2010-01-01

    Calculation fluency weaknesses are a key characteristic of children with mathematics difficulties. The major aim of this dissertation was to uncover early predictors of calculation fluency weaknesses in second graders. Children's performance on number sense tasks in kindergarten along with general cognitive abilities, early literacy skills, and…

  8. When Two Sources of Fluency Meet One Cognitive Mindset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reggev, Niv; Hassin, Ran R.; Maril, Anat

    2012-01-01

    Fluency, the subjective experience of ease associated with information processing, has been shown to affect a host of judgments. Previous research has typically focused on specific factors that affect the use of a single, specific fluency source. In the present study we examine how cognitive mindsets, or processing modes, moderate fluency…

  9. What Research Has to Say about Fluency Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.; Farstrup, Alan E., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The editors of "What Research Has to Say about Reading Instruction" present the most recent research on fluency and show how it can be put into practice. A resource for classroom teachers and teacher educators alike, the reader-friendly text offers a range of expert perspectives on the key aspects of fluency such as: (1) history and definitions;…

  10. Linguistic Skills and Speaking Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Nivja H.; Steinel, Margarita P.; Florijn, Arjen; Schoonen, Rob; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how individual differences in linguistic knowledge and processing skills relate to individual differences in speaking fluency. Speakers of Dutch as a second language ("N" = 179) performed eight speaking tasks, from which several measures of fluency were derived such as measures for pausing, repairing, and speed…

  11. Using Performance Methods to Enhance Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Valadez, Corinne; Gandara, Cori

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-experimental study examined the effects of pairing Rock and Read with Readers Theater and only Rock and Read on second grade students' reading fluency scores. The 51 subjects were pre- and post-tested on five different reading fluency measures. A series of 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVAs revealed statistically significant interaction…

  12. Promoting Gains in Reading Fluency: A Comparison of Three Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVasseur, Valerie Marciarille; Macaruso, Paul; Shankweiler, Donald

    2008-01-01

    On the ground that reading fluency entails appropriate phrasing or prosody as well as facile word recognition, we investigated the effectiveness of text-based and word-based repeated readings procedures for promoting fluency of reading aloud and comprehension in second-grade children. Repeated readings of text printed with spaces between phrases…

  13. Training for Fluency and Generalization of Math Facts Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musti-Rao, Shobana; Lynch, Tom Liam; Plati, Erin

    2015-01-01

    As American students struggle with basic mathematical skills, the importance of math fact fluency has gained the attention of educators and researchers. Generalization of math fact fluency is also important for the transfer of skills to other settings and formats, assisting students in the completion of more varied and complicated math tasks. This…

  14. Fluency Does Not Express Implicit Knowledge of Artificial Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Ryan B.; Dienes, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly held that implicit knowledge expresses itself as fluency. A perceptual clarification task was used to examine the relationship between perceptual processing fluency, subjective familiarity, and grammaticality judgments in a task frequently used to produce implicit knowledge, artificial grammar learning (AGL). Four experiments…

  15. Fluency Training. NetNews . Volume 4, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LDA of Minnesota, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the past, researchers believed that reading fluency developed as a result of good word recognition skills; however, it is now believed that fluency must be explicitly taught and practiced orally in order to develop. Readers who are not fluent in reading will be less motivated to practice, have more difficulty learning academic content, and…

  16. Assessment as a Strategy to Increase Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Maria S.; Munger, Kristen A.; Clonan, Sheila M.

    2012-01-01

    For students with reading disabilities who experience difficulties with oral reading fluency, school-based interventions frequently focus on increasing speed through interventions such as repeated readings of texts. Students may not respond adequately to such "fluency only" interventions if the underlying skills that lead to fluent reading are…

  17. Easy moves: Perceptual fluency facilitates approach-related action.

    PubMed

    Carr, Evan W; Rotteveel, Mark; Winkielman, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that processing fluency impacts preference judgments and physiological reactions indicative of affect. Yet, little is known about how fluency influences motivation-related action. Here, we offer a novel demonstration that fluency facilitates action-tendencies related to approach. Four experiments investigated this action effect, its boundary conditions, and concomitant affective responses. Experiment 1 found faster approach movements (reaction times [RTs] to initiate arm flexion) to perceptually fluent stimuli when participants acted to rapidly classify stimuli as either "good" or "bad." Experiment 2 eliminated this fluency effect on action when participants performed nonaffective classifications ("living" or "nonliving"), even though fluency robustly enhanced liking judgments. Experiment 3 demonstrated that fluency can also facilitate approach action that is not immediate, as long as the delayed action involves affective classification. This experiment also found that fluent stimuli elicit genuine hedonic responses, as reflected in facial electromyography (fEMG) activity over zygomaticus "smiling" muscle. Experiment 4 replicated the physiological (fEMG) evidence for hedonic responses to fluent stimuli, but similar to Experiment 2, we observed no fluency effects on actions involving nonaffective classification. The current studies offer the first evidence that perceptual fluency can facilitate approach-related movements, when such movements are embedded in the context of affective decisions. Generally, these results suggest that variations in processing dynamics can flexibly and implicitly shape action-tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26751628

  18. Strategic Key Word Instruction: Increasing Fluency in Connected Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Gail; Lambert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of preteaching key words on fluency in connected text were examined with three third-grade general education participants. Researchers used a multiple base-line design (i.e., Baseline and Wordlist Intervention) and found that preteaching increased fluency in connected text written above the participant's instructional level of reading…

  19. Modelling Second Language Performance: Integrating Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency, and Lexis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skehan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Complexity, accuracy, and fluency have proved useful measures of second language performance. The present article will re-examine these measures themselves, arguing that fluency needs to be rethought if it is to be measured effectively, and that the three general measures need to be supplemented by measures of lexical use. Building upon this…

  20. A Strategic Necessity: Building Senior Leadership's Fluency in Digital Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolomitz, Kara; Cabellon, Edmund T.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the opportunity for senior student affairs officers (SSAOs) to develop an increased digital fluency to meet the needs of various constituencies in the digital age. The authors explore what a digital fluency is, how it might impact SSAOs' leadership potential, and the benefits for their respective divisions.

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Early Reading and Language Skills in Children with Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne; Taylor, Jo S. H.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor comprehenders have difficulty comprehending connected text, despite having age-appropriate levels of reading accuracy and fluency. We used a longitudinal design to examine earlier reading and language skills in children identified as poor comprehenders in mid-childhood. Method: Two hundred and forty-two children began the study at…

  2. A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein

    2012-01-01

    Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers and measured comprehension and/or fluency outcomes. Findings revealed fluency outcomes were consistently improved following interventions that included listening passage previewing such as listening to an audiotape or adult model of good reading before attempting to read a passage. In addition, there is preliminary evidence that there may be no differential effects between repeated reading interventions and the same amount of non-repetitive reading with older struggling readers for increasing reading speed, word recognition, and comprehension. PMID:22485066

  3. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    PubMed

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices.

  4. Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177

  5. Connected text reading and differences in text reading fluency in adult readers.

    PubMed

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency.

  6. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.C.; Reno, H.W.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  7. Literacy Is "Not" Enough: 21st Century Fluencies for the Digital Age. The 21st Century Fluency Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockett, Lee; Jukes, Ian; Churches, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Educating students to traditional literacy standards is no longer enough. If students are to thrive in their academic and 21st century careers, then independent and creative thinking hold the highest currency. The authors explain in detail how to add these new components of literacy: (1) Solution Fluency; (2) Information Fluency; (3) Creativity…

  8. Modeling Elementary Aged Students' Fluency Growth in Written Expression: Predicting Fluency Growth for Girls and Boys in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckenmiller, Adrea J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on evidence-based writing intervention practices as well as reliable and valid assessments of elementary-aged students' writing fluency has been lacking compared to other academic areas (i.e., reading). Performance feedback interventions targeting writing fluency are gaining empirical support (Eckert et al., 2006); however, growth…

  9. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness. PMID:23778263

  10. Mapping the connectivity underlying multimodal (verbal and non-verbal) semantic processing: a brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Herbet, Guillaume; Duffau, Hugues

    2013-08-01

    Accessing the meaning of words, objects, people and facts is a human ability, made possible thanks to semantic processing. Although studies concerning its cortical organization are proficient, the subcortical connectivity underlying this semantic network received less attention. We used intraoperative direct electrostimulation, which mimics a transient virtual lesion during brain surgery for glioma in eight awaken patients, to map the anatomical white matter substrate subserving the semantic system. Patients performed a picture naming task and a non-verbal semantic association test during the electrical mapping. Direct electrostimulation of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle, a poorly known ventral association pathway which runs throughout the brain, induced in all cases semantic disturbances. These transient disorders were highly reproducible, and concerned verbal as well as non-verbal output. Our results highlight for the first time the essential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fascicle in multimodal (and not only in verbal) semantic processing. On the basis of these original findings, and in the lights of phylogenetic considerations regarding this fascicle, we suggest its possible implication in the monitoring of the human level of consciousness related to semantic memory, namely noetic consciousness.

  11. Math fluency is etiologically distinct from untimed math performance, decoding fluency, and untimed reading performance: evidence from a twin study.

    PubMed

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the shared environment and genetics influenced the covariance among math fluency, untimed math measures, and reading measures. However, roughly two thirds of the variance in math fluency was independent from untimed math measures and reading, including reading fluency. The majority of this independent variance was the result of genetic factors that were longitudinally stable across two measurement occasions. These results suggest that math fluency, although related to other math measures, may also be a genetically distinct dimension of mathematics performance. PMID:21890908

  12. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables. PMID:23666849

  13. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables.

  14. Meaning: A Verbal Behavior Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenkron, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Although the verbal operants that comprise Skinner's account of verbal behavior provide a seemingly complete description of the behavior of the speaker with respect to what is ordinarily called the expression of meanings, it may be shown that the account is intrinsically deficient in describing the receptive behavior of listeners with regard to…

  15. Verbal Patterns in Dyadic Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Joe; Ivie, Robert L.

    Selected aspects of Kenneth Burke's "dramatistic" model of symbolic interaction were operationalized to describe and compare verbal patterns in transactions between five pairs of friends and five pairs of strangers. Based on Altman and Taylor's social penetration theory, it was predicted that interactants would display verbal patterns unique to…

  16. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases

    PubMed Central

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A.; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest—but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight

  17. A preliminary fMRI study of a novel self-paced written fluency task: observation of left-hemispheric activation, and increased frontal activation in late vs. early task phases.

    PubMed

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Das, Sunit; Schweizer, Tom A; Graham, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is of significant interest-but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s). As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consistent with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s) of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05) than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s). Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among these areas, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9) and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32) likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources. Consistent with previous pertinent fMRI literature involving overt and covert verbal responses, these findings highlight the

  18. One-Minute Fluency Measures: Mixed Messages in Assessment and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although they are valid and reliable, one-minute fluency measures are defining and capturing a reduced view of fluency as simply accuracy and rate in oral reading. Thus, they may lead astray our understanding of struggling readers' reading fluency development and instructional needs. Fluency is a complicated construct. The author discusses a…

  19. How Do Utterance Measures Predict Raters' Perceptions of Fluency in French as a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2016-01-01

    While the research literature on second language (L2) fluency is replete with descriptions of fluency and its influence with regard to English as an additional language, little is known about what fluency features influence judgments of fluency in L2 French. This study reports the results of an investigation that analyzed the relationship between…

  20. What Do We Mean by Writing Fluency and How Can It Be Validly Measured?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Fluency is an essential component in writing ability and development. Writing fluency research is important to researchers and teachers interested in facilitating students' written text production and in assessing writing. This calls for reaching a better understanding of writing fluency and how it should be measured. Although fluency is the…

  1. The Effect of Topiramate Plasma Concentration on Linguistic Behavior, Verbal Recall and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marino, S.E.; Pakhomov, S.V.S.; Han, S.; Anderson, K.L.; Ding, M.; Eberly, L.E.; Loring, D.W.; Hawkins-Taylor, C.; Rarick, J.O.; Leppik, I.E.; Cibula, J.E.; Birnbaum, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first study of the effect of topiramate on linguistic behavior and verbal recall using a computational linguistics system for automated language and speech analysis to detect and quantify drug-induced changes in speech recorded during discourse level tasks. Healthy volunteers were administered a single, 100 mg oral dose of topiramate in two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. Subjects’ topiramate plasma levels ranged from 0.23–2.81ug/mL. We found a significant association between topiramate levels and impairment on measures of verbal fluency elicited during a picture description task, correct number of words recalled on a paragraph recall test, and reaction time recorded during a working memory task. Using the tools of clinical pharmacology and computational linguistics, we elucidated the relationship between the determinants of a drug’s disposition as reflected in plasma concentrations and their impact on cognitive functioning as reflected in spoken language discourse. PMID:22658432

  2. A Computerized Test of Design Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Tests of design fluency (DF) assess a participant’s ability to generate geometric patterns and are thought to measure executive functions involving the non-dominant frontal lobe. Here, we describe the properties of a rapidly administered computerized design-fluency (C-DF) test that measures response times, and is automatically scored. In Experiment 1, we found that the number of unique patterns produced over 90 s by 180 control participants (ages 18 to 82 years) correlated with age, education, and daily computer-use. Each line in the continuous 4-line patterns required approximately 1.0 s to draw. The rate of pattern production and the incidence of repeated patterns both increased over the 90 s test. Unique pattern z-scores (corrected for age and computer-use) correlated with the results of other neuropsychological tests performed on the same day. Experiment 2 analyzed C-DF test-retest reliability in 55 participants in three test sessions at weekly intervals and found high z-score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.79). Z-scores in the first session did not differ significantly from those of Experiment 1, but performance improved significantly over repeated tests. Experiment 3 investigated the performance of Experiment 2 participants when instructed to simulate malingering. Z-scores were significantly reduced and pattern repetitions increased, but there was considerable overlap with the performance of the control population. Experiment 4 examined performance in veteran patients tested more than one year after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with mild TBI performed within the normal range, but patients with severe TBI showed reduced z-scores. The C-DF test reliably measures visuospatial pattern generation ability and reveals performance deficits in patients with severe TBI. PMID:27138985

  3. Verbal memory and menopause.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment.

  4. Action fluency in Parkinson's disease: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Matteo; Volpato, Chiara

    2006-04-01

    The impairment in action fluency task present in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has been previously interpreted as an indicator of conversion from PD to PD with dementia or as a grammatical deficit for verbs and ascribed to a frontostriatal loop pathophysiology. In the present study, 20 patients with PD without dementia were longitudinally tested with overall cognitive decline scales and semantic, letter, and action fluency tasks in a 24-month follow-up study. In comparison with healthy age-matched controls, PD patients showed a stable and consistent impairment on action fluency without any sign of cognitive decline. Our findings suggest that action fluency task may be an early sign of impairment of frontostriatal circuits in PD and it cannot be considered an indicator of conversion from PD to PD with dementia.

  5. Verbal memory impairments in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J H; Knee, K; Delis, D C

    2000-01-01

    Although verbal memory deficits are frequently reported in reading disabled children, the specific mechanisms underlying these impairments have yet to be clearly defined. The present study used the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to assess verbal learning in 57 dyslexic children and 114 controls matched for gender, age, and WISC-R Vocabulary score. Three areas of verbal memory were investigated: Recall and recognition, use of learning strategies, and interference effects. The dyslexic group learned the list items more slowly, recalled fewer words on the last learning trial and the delayed trials, and performed less well on the recognition condition. Dyslexics and controls displayed similar vulnerability to interference, but group differences were evident in serial position effects. Taken together, our data suggest that dyslexics have less efficient rehearsal and encoding mechanisms, resulting in deficient encoding of new information, but normal retention and retrieval.

  6. Verbal Interaction in Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John

    1979-01-01

    Using the Flanders model, compares verbal interaction patterns in 16 New York City classrooms to determine if these patterns vary according to the social class and racial composition of the student populations. (BE)

  7. Crossed cerebral lateralization for verbal and visuo-spatial function in a pair of handedness discordant monozygotic twins: MRI and fMRI brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Silke; Keller, Simon; Mackay, Clare; Ebers, George; Marshall, John C; Cherkas, Lynne; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Roberts, Neil; Fink, Gereon R; Gurd, Jennifer M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the nature of hemispheric lateralization for neural processes underlying verbal fluency and visuo-spatial attention, we investigated a single pair of handedness discordant monozygotic (MzHd) twins. Imaging of the brain was undertaken using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with manual performance tasks. The twins were discordant for MRI anatomical asymmetries of the pars triangularis and planum temporale, whose asymmetry was consistent with verbal laterality on fMRI. Thus, the right-handed twin had left lateralized verbal with right lateralized visuo-spatial attention, while the left-handed twin had right lateralized verbal with left lateralized visuo-spatial activation; these data lend further support for to the conclusions of Sommer et al. PMID:18304205

  8. Elementary Reading Fluency and Comprehension: Do Laptops Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether a one-to-one laptop program had an effect on the reading-fluency and comprehension scores of fourth- and fifth-grade students over a half-year period. Pre- and post-test scores on the AIMSweb R-CBM fluency and Maze-CBM comprehension tests were collected for 1,048 students attending six diverse, high-poverty elementary…

  9. THE IMMIGRANT POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEGALMAN, RALPH

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LIVES OF THE POOR IN AMERICA WILL SHOW DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE IMMIGRANT (AND REFUGEE) POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR (NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, LATIN AMERICANS, INDIANS, AND OTHERS). THE IMMIGRANT POOR WERE ACCULTURATED AND ABSORBED INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF AMERICAN LIFE WITHIN THREE GENERATIONS, WHEREAS THE RESIDUAL POOR HAVE BEEN…

  10. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2.

  11. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients.

  12. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients. PMID:26663627

  13. The Role of Reading Fluency in Children’s Text Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a written text requires some higher cognitive abilities that not all children have. Some children have these abilities, since they understand oral texts; however, they have difficulties with written texts, probably due to problems in reading fluency. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of reading fluency are related to reading comprehension. Four expositive texts, two written and two read by the evaluator, were presented to a sample of 103 primary school children (third and sixth grade). Each text was followed by four comprehension questions. From this sample we selected two groups of participants in each grade, 10 with good results in comprehension of oral and written texts, and 10 with good results in oral and poor in written comprehension. These 40 subjects were asked to read aloud a new text while they were recorded. Using Praat software some prosodic parameters were measured, such as pausing and reading rate (number and duration of the pauses and utterances), pitch and intensity changes and duration in declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences and also errors and duration in words by frequency and stress. We compared the results of both groups with ANOVAs. The results showed that children with less reading comprehension made more inappropriate pauses and also intersentential pauses before comma than the other group and made more mistakes in content words; significant differences were also found in the final declination of pitch in declarative sentences and in the F0 range in interrogative ones. These results confirm that reading comprehension problems in children are related to a lack in the development of a good reading fluency. PMID:26640452

  14. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  15. Verbal behavior: The other reviews

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Terry J.

    1992-01-01

    The extensive attention devoted to Noam Chomsky's review of Verbal Behavior by B.F. Skinner has resulted in a neglect of more than a dozen other rewiews of the work. These are surveyed and found to be positive and congenial in tone, with many of the reviewers advancing his/her own analysis of speech and language. The dominant criticism of the book was its disregard of central or implicit processes and its lack of experimental data. An examination of the receptive history of Verbal Behavior offers a more balanced historical account than those which rely excessively on Chomsky's commentary PMID:22477049

  16. Semantic fluency and executive functions as candidate endophenotypes for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia in Han Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maorong; Chen, Jindong; Li, Lehua; Zheng, Yingjun; Wang, Juan; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wu, Renrong; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-09-20

    Neurocognitive deficits are recognized as core features of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of antipsychotic, drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES patients) to their healthy siblings and to healthy controls from the Han Chinese population for exploring potential endophenotypes for the early detection of schizophrenia. A battery of cognitive assessment tools was used to measure seven cognitive domains in matched groups consisting of 56 subjects each. Cognitive tests included the grooved pegboard test (GPT), the category fluency test (CFT), the trail making test A (TMT-A), the Wechsler memory scale-III spatial span test (WMS-III SST), the Hopkins verbal learning test-revised (HVLT-R), the brief visuospatial memory test-revised (BVMT-R), the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), and the Wisconsin card sorting test-64 cards version (WCST-64). The performances of FEP patients were inferior to normal controls on all neuropsychological tests, while siblings were lower than healthy controls in many of the same tasks. Patients' performances were lower than siblings' on all tests except for the CFT, the WMS-III SST backward test, and four subtests of the WCST-64. Our data suggest that FEP patients exhibited pronounced impairment of fine motor skills, speed of processing, attention, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive function, while siblings exhibited deficits intermediate between those of schizophrenic patients and the control group. Semantic fluency function and executive function may be potential endophenotypes for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:21827833

  17. Reading fluency: the whole is more than the parts.

    PubMed

    Katzir, Tami; Kim, Youngsuk; Wolf, Maryanne; O'Brien, Beth; Kennedy, Becky; Lovett, Maureen; Morris, Robin

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic pattern recognition, and rapid letter naming to fluent word and connected-text reading within a dyslexic sample of 123 children in second and third grades. Participants were assessed on a variety of fluency measures and reading subskills. Correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to explore these relationships. The results demonstrate that phonological awareness, rapid letter naming, and orthographic pattern recognition contribute to word-reading skills. Furthermore, rapid naming, orthographic pattern recognition, and word reading fluency moderately predict different dimensions of connected-text reading (i.e., rate, accuracy, and comprehension) whereas phonological awareness contributes only to the comprehension dimension of connected-text reading. The findings support the multidimensional nature of fluency in which the whole is more than its parts.

  18. Repeated Reading as a Method to Improve Reading Fluency for Struggling Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Anne; Murphy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of a seven-week programme of repeated readings on the fluency levels of three struggling adolescent readers. The study focused from a broad conceptualization of fluency which recognizes that practice and assessment should address all components of fluency, i.e., prosody and comprehension, as well as rate and…

  19. Does Growth Rate in Oral Reading Fluency Matter in Predicting Reading Comprehension Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Foorman, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship of growth trajectories of oral reading fluency, vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter-naming fluency, and nonsense word reading fluency from 1st grade to 3rd grade with reading comprehension in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades. Data from 12,536 children who were followed from kindergarten to 3rd grade…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Novice-Level Changes in Fluency and Accuracy in Student Monologues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Robert W., III.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed research concerning the issue fluency, specifically relating to pauses, mean length runs, and fluency rates in Japanese EFL learners, is limited. Furthermore, the issue of tracking fluency gains has often been ignored, misunderstood or minimized in EFL educational research. The present study, which is based on six monologues conducted…

  1. The Effect of Goal-Line Presentation and Goal Selection on First-Grader Subtraction Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Hansen, Brooke; Rowland, Julie E.; Schutte, Greg; Williams, Joey

    2014-01-01

    Math proficiency is related to math calculation fluency. Explicit timing provides repeated practice for math fluency. It is enhanced through goal setting, graphic feedback, and rewards. Self-selected goals have potential to increase performance for math fluency. This study compared the effect of goal lines, and researcher goals versus…

  2. Fluency in Learning to Read for Meaning: Going beyond Repeated Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, William Dee; Rupley, William H.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of fluency development and focus on instructional approaches that are intended to improve fluency that go beyond the most frequently recommended strategy of repeated readings. Repeated reading is the most recognized approach for developing fluency, and although repeated readings have shown…

  3. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Fluency and Accent in L2 Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinget, Anne-France; Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Oral fluency and foreign accent distinguish L2 from L1 speech production. In language testing practices, both fluency and accent are usually assessed by raters. This study investigates what exactly native raters of fluency and accent take into account when judging L2. Our aim is to explore the relationship between objectively measured temporal,…

  4. Effects of Repeated Reading and Listening Passage Preview on Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Kristine D.; Leader-Janssen, Elizabeth M.; Conley, Perry

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined the effectiveness of three fluency interventions (i.e., repeated reading, audio listening passage preview and teacher modeled listening passage preview) with a fifth grade student struggling with fluency skills. When compared to baseline, each intervention increased oral reading fluency by the end of the 7 weeks of…

  5. Increasing Word Recognition with Racially Diverse Second-Grade Students Using Fluency-Oriented Reading Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Franklin Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the effectiveness of 2 fluency-oriented reading programs on improving reading fluency for an ethnically diverse sample of second-grade students. The first approach is Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (S. A. Stahl & K. Heubach, 2005), which incorporates the repeated reading of a grade-level text over the course of an…

  6. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  7. Educational Factors and Experiences in English Language Learner Reading Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Christina J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Reading fluency has been an area of struggle for students. Certain populations of students, such as English language learners (ELLs), have struggled even more so, affecting their overall achievement. Interventions have been implemented and studied regarding the reading fluency of ELLs, yet reading fluency has continued to be problematic in this…

  8. Reading Fluency: More than Automaticity? More than a Concern for the Primary Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy; Rikli, Andrew; Johnston, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency has traditionally been viewed as a goal of reading that is taught and mastered in the elementary grades. In this article we challenge that notion by exploring the role of reading fluency as a contributor to reading proficiency and difficulty among intermediate and middle grade students. We assessed reading fluency development among…

  9. Liberating the Arts: Promoting IT Fluency through the Pedagogy of Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Kenneth Xavier, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Fluency in information technology (IT Fluency) is a component of life-long learning necessary for a Liberal Arts student's post-graduate success in the global and digital economy. While challenging, promoting IT fluency at Liberal Arts colleges can be achieved through the integration of digital storytelling pedagogy in existing humanities…

  10. Silent Reading Fluency Using Underlining: Evidence for an Alternative Method of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing silent reading fluency in classroom environments is challenging. This article reports on a method of assessing silent reading using underlining, an approach that solves many problems other silent reading fluency assessment measures face. This method computationally monitors readers' silent reading fluency by the speed they underline…

  11. Reversing the Truth Effect: Learning the Interpretation of Processing Fluency in Judgments of Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unkelbach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Repeated statements receive higher truth ratings than new statements. Given that repetition leads to greater experienced processing fluency, the author proposes that fluency is used in truth judgments according to its ecological validity. Thus, the truth effect occurs because people learn that fluency and truth tend to be positively correlated.…

  12. Understanding Oral Reading Fluency among Adults with Low Literacy: Dominance Analysis of Contributing Component Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Anthony, Jason L.; Woods, Kari L.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the component skills involved in oral reading fluency. Dominance analysis was applied to assess the relative importance of seven reading-related component skills in the prediction of the oral reading fluency of 272 adult literacy learners. The best predictors of oral reading fluency when text difficulty was…

  13. Targeting Reading Fluency for ESL Students: A Research Based and Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Evangeline Christina; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    Fluency in reading refers to the speed and ease with which we read, according to the Government Partnership for Reading Publications. You might ask, "Why should fluency be taught?" According to "Research-Based Principles for Adult Basic Education Reading Instruction," National Fluency Government Partnership for Reading from 2007 "Students who are…

  14. Judgments of Vocal Quality, Speech Fluency, and Confidence of Southern Black and White Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Ruth Beckey

    Comparative judgments of vocal quality, speech fluency, and confidence of black and white speakers in southern universities were tested to determine the interrelationships of (1) perception of vocal quality and judgment of confidence in the voice, (2) quality and fluency, and (3) speech fluency and judgment of confidence, and to ascertain the…

  15. Facilitating English-Language Learners' Oral Reading Fluency with Digital Pen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Tan, Chia-Chen; Lo, Bey-Jane

    2016-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is an indicator of overall reading competence. Many studies have claimed that repeated reading can promote oral reading fluency. Currently, novel Web- or computer-based reading technologies offer interactive digital materials that promote English oral reading fluency using the repeated reading strategy; however, paper-based…

  16. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency. PMID:25243992

  17. The role of emotional engagement and mood valence in retrieval fluency of mood incongruent autobiographical memory

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Meiran, Nachshon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Retrieval of opposite mood autobiographical memories serves emotion regulation, yet the factors influencing this ability are poorly understood. Methods: Three studies examined the effect of mood valence (sad vs. happy) and degree of emotional engagement on fluency of mood incongruent retrieval by manipulating emotional engagement and examining the effect of emotional film clips on the Fluency of Autobiographical Memory task. Results: Following both sad and happy film clips, participants who received emotionally engaging instructions exhibited a greater recall latency of the first opposite mood memory, and had generated less such memories than those receiving emotionally disengaging instructions (Studies 1 and 2). A happy mood induction resulted in recollection of fewer mood incongruent memories compared to a sad mood induction. Providing emotionally engaging instructions was found to specifically hinder mood incongruent retrieval, without impairing mood congruent retrieval (Study 3). Conclusion: High emotional engagement seems to impair the retrieval of mood incongruent memories. Being in a happy mood may also partially impair such retrieval. Implications regarding emotional regulation are discussed. PMID:24570671

  18. Basic auditory processing is related to familial risk, not to reading fluency: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L

    2015-02-01

    Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency.

  19. The Verbal Noun in Welsh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raney, Roslyn

    The Welsh verbal noun, a form spanning two grammatical categories much as the English "-ing" form does, is examined from the points of view of its dual role in Welsh grammar; its occurrence in the history of the Celtic language family; periphrastic tense constructions with "bod" ("be"), "gwneud" ("do"), and "darfod" ("happen"); periphrastic…

  20. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F. Passos, Maria de Lourdes R.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior. PMID:22478454

  1. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's Verbal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Matos, Maria Amelia; da F Passos, Maria de Lourdes R

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in Verbal Behavior (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal analyses of languages. Formal analyses have been carried out since the invention of writing and fall within the scope of traditional grammar and structural linguistics, particularly in analyses made by the linguist Leonard Bloomfield. The relevance of analytical instruments originated from linguistic studies (which examine and describe the practices of verbal communities) to the analysis of verbal behavior, as proposed by Skinner, relates to the conception of a verbal community as a prerequisite for the acquisition of verbal behavior. A deliberately interdisciplinary approach is advocated in this paper, with the systematic adoption of linguistic analyses and descriptions adding relevant knowledge to the design of experimental research in verbal behavior.

  2. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  3. Reaction time variability associated with reading skills in poor readers with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Denton, Carolyn A; Vaughn, Aaron J; Peugh, James; Willcutt, Erik G

    2014-03-01

    Linkages between neuropsychological functioning (i.e., response inhibition, processing speed, reaction time variability) and word reading have been documented among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with Reading Disorders. However, associations between neuropsychological functioning and other aspects of reading (i.e., fluency, comprehension) have not been well-documented among children with comorbid ADHD and Reading Disorder. Children with ADHD and poor word reading (i.e., ≤25th percentile) completed a stop signal task (SST) and tests of word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Multivariate multiple regression was conducted predicting the reading skills from SST variables [i.e., mean reaction time (MRT), reaction time standard deviation (SDRT), and stop signal reaction time (SSRT)]. SDRT predicted word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. MRT and SSRT were not associated with any reading skill. After including word reading in models predicting reading fluency and reading comprehension, the effects of SDRT were minimized. Reaction time variability (i.e., SDRT) reflects impairments in information processing and failure to maintain executive control. The pattern of results from this study suggest SDRT exerts its effects on reading fluency and reading comprehension through its effect on word reading (i.e., decoding) and that this relation may be related to observed deficits in higher-level elements of reading.

  4. Assessment of Parental and Adolescent Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others

    Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…

  5. Linguistic Sources of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Maria Amelia; Passos, Maria de Lourdes R. da F.

    2006-01-01

    Formal and functional analyses of verbal behavior have been often considered to be divergent and incompatible. Yet, an examination of the history of part of the analytical approach used in "Verbal Behavior" (Skinner, 1957/1992) for the identification and conceptualization of verbal operant units discloses that it corresponds well with formal…

  6. Verbal Response Mode Use by Clients in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, William B.; Sultan, Faye E.

    1979-01-01

    Verbal behavior in transcripts of psychotherapy was coded according to Stile's taxonomy of verbal response modes. Therapists of different theoretical persuasions used different mixtures of verbal techniques. Common elements that make verbal interaction psychologically therapeutic lie in client behavior. (Author)

  7. Cogenerating fluency in urban science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavan, Sarah-Kate

    This critical ethnographic study employed the use of cogenerative dialogue (Roth & Tobin, 2002) as a means to allow participants of a science classroom to reflect on and transform classroom structures while at the same time create opportunities for all stakeholders to develop collective responsibility for teaching and learning. The research was situated in a science classroom in an inner city charter high school that was both a challenging place for the teacher (Jen Beers) and an oppressive place for the students as all struggled to reconcile issues related to power hierarchies and significant differences in social and cultural histories. As a result, cultural misinterpretations and the undervaluing of students' cultural capital served as a foundation for learning. This study examined the various fields and forms of practice that created opportunities for refining teaching practices and at the same time afforded the development of collective responsibility by addressing the roles, identities and agency of all classroom participants. Specifically, I asked the following questions: (1) How can co-generative dialogue can be used to involve all classroom participants in creating a learning community? (2) How does this shape the identities and roles of the participants who were involved? and (3) How do the changed roles and practices lead toward science fluency? The framework of cultural sociology, specifically the dialectical relationship of structure and agency, interaction ritual theory (Collins, 2003) and research on dispositions (Boykin, 1986), provided analytic tools to investigate the practices of the various stakeholders and the classroom structures as well as the historical and cultural contexts surrounding them. Multiple data resources such as field notes, videotape, interviews and artifacts were drawn on from two fields (the science classroom and cogenerative dialogues) to elicit and support findings at micro, meso and macroscopic levels. The major findings of

  8. Action and noun fluency testing to distinguish between Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Delbeuck, Xavier; Debachy, Brigitte; Pasquier, Florence; Moroni, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish whether performance in an action fluency task is of value in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). After collecting normative data on performance in an action fluency task and a conventional animal fluency task in a cohort of French-speaking healthy controls, we assessed AD and DLB patients. Only the action fluency score differed significantly between the two demented groups, with DLB patients performing worse than AD patients. However, a composite action and animal fluency score was found to be more effective for discriminating between these two groups.

  9. Neurophysiological Studies of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Judith M.; Dierks, Thomas; Fisher, Derek J.; Herrmann, Christoph S.; Hubl, Daniela; Kindler, Jochen; Koenig, Thomas; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Spencer, Kevin M.; Strik, Werner; van Lutterveld, Remko

    2012-01-01

    We discuss 3 neurophysiological approaches to study auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). First, we describe “state” (or symptom capture) studies where periods with and without hallucinations are compared “within” a patient. These studies take 2 forms: passive studies, where brain activity during these states is compared, and probe studies, where brain responses to sounds during these states are compared. EEG (electroencephalography) and MEG (magnetoencephalography) data point to frontal and temporal lobe activity, the latter resulting in competition with external sounds for auditory resources. Second, we discuss “trait” studies where EEG and MEG responses to sounds are recorded from patients who hallucinate and those who do not. They suggest a tendency to hallucinate is associated with competition for auditory processing resources. Third, we discuss studies addressing possible mechanisms of AVH, including spontaneous neural activity, abnormal self-monitoring, and dysfunctional interregional communication. While most studies show differences in EEG and MEG responses between patients and controls, far fewer show symptom relationships. We conclude that efforts to understand the pathophysiology of AVH using EEG and MEG have been hindered by poor anatomical resolution of the EEG and MEG measures, poor assessment of symptoms, poor understanding of the phenomenon, poor models of the phenomenon, decoupling of the symptoms from the neurophysiology due to medications and comorbidites, and the possibility that the schizophrenia diagnosis breeds truer than the symptoms it comprises. These problems are common to studies of other psychiatric symptoms and should be considered when attempting to understand the basic neural mechanisms responsible for them. PMID:22368236

  10. Improving the Efficacy of First Grade Reading Screening: An Investigation of Word Identification Fluency with Other Early Literacy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Shapiro, Edward S.; Thoemmes, Felix

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of several early literacy measures that have been used in research and practice for first grade reading screening. A set of measures, Word Identification Fluency (WIF), Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, and Nonsense Word Fluency, were administered as screening measures with 138 first grade…

  11. Effects of Computer-Assisted and Teacher-Led Fluency Instruction on Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenty, Nicole; Mulcahy, Candace; Washburn, Erin

    2015-01-01

    A quasi-experimental pretest/posttest group design was used to determine whether computer-assisted fluency instruction is as effective as print-based, teacher-led fluency instruction in improving fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills in third grade students experiencing delayed fluency development. Fifty participants were randomly assigned…

  12. Fluency heuristic: a model of how the mind exploits a by-product of information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Herzog, Stefan M; Schooler, Lael J; Reimer, Torsten

    2008-09-01

    Boundedly rational heuristics for inference can be surprisingly accurate and frugal for several reasons. They can exploit environmental structures, co-opt complex capacities, and elude effortful search by exploiting information that automatically arrives on the mental stage. The fluency heuristic is a prime example of a heuristic that makes the most of an automatic by-product of retrieval from memory, namely, retrieval fluency. In 4 experiments, the authors show that retrieval fluency can be a proxy for real-world quantities, that people can discriminate between two objects' retrieval fluencies, and that people's inferences are in line with the fluency heuristic (in particular fast inferences) and with experimentally manipulated fluency. The authors conclude that the fluency heuristic may be one tool in the mind's repertoire of strategies that artfully probes memory for encapsulated frequency information that can veridically reflect statistical regularities in the world.

  13. Estimating verbal intelligence in unipolar depression: comparison of word definition and word recognition.

    PubMed

    Suslow, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Depression is known to be associated with deficits in effortful processing and word fluency. Automatic processes, instead, appear largely intact in depressed patients. It was investigated whether active word definition could be a less appropriate method than passive word recognition as a measure of verbal intelligence in depression. The valid assessment of premorbid IQ is important for correct comparison with current cognitive efficiency of depressed individuals, since premorbid IQ serves as baseline or control parameter to estimate the extent and severity of acquired cognitive impairments, both in the clinical and the research context. Two vocabulary tests were administered to 90 patients (31 women) with unipolar depression and 30 control subjects (15 women): a word definition task [the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)] and a word recognition task [the Multiple choice vocabulary test (MWT)]. In the depressed sample, scores of the MWT tended to be higher than WAIS-R scores. For depressed women, the MWT score was significantly higher than the WAIS-R score. In the control sample, no differences between MWT and WAIS-R scores were observed. Our findings indicate that word definition tasks could underestimate verbal intelligence especially in depressed women. For depressed women, it could be more appropriate to administer word recognition than word definition as an estimate of premorbid or verbal intelligence.

  14. Verbal and nonverbal predictors of language-mediated anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2015-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners often anticipate upcoming information. This can draw listeners' overt attention to visually presented objects before the objects are referred to. We investigated to what extent the anticipatory mechanisms involved in such language-mediated attention rely on specific verbal factors and on processes shared with other domains of cognition. Participants listened to sentences ending in a highly predictable word (e.g., "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon") while viewing displays containing three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., a moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., a tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). Language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were observed to targets and to shape competitors. Importantly, looks to the shape competitor were systematically related to individual differences in anticipatory attention, as indexed by a spatial cueing task: Participants whose responses were most strongly facilitated by predictive arrow cues also showed the strongest effects of predictive language input on their eye movements. By contrast, looks to the target were related to individual differences in vocabulary size and verbal fluency. The results suggest that verbal and nonverbal factors contribute to different types of language-mediated eye movements. The findings are consistent with multiple-mechanism accounts of predictive language processing. PMID:25795276

  15. Verbal and nonverbal predictors of language-mediated anticipatory eye movements.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2015-04-01

    During language comprehension, listeners often anticipate upcoming information. This can draw listeners' overt attention to visually presented objects before the objects are referred to. We investigated to what extent the anticipatory mechanisms involved in such language-mediated attention rely on specific verbal factors and on processes shared with other domains of cognition. Participants listened to sentences ending in a highly predictable word (e.g., "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon") while viewing displays containing three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., a moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., a tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). Language-mediated anticipatory eye movements were observed to targets and to shape competitors. Importantly, looks to the shape competitor were systematically related to individual differences in anticipatory attention, as indexed by a spatial cueing task: Participants whose responses were most strongly facilitated by predictive arrow cues also showed the strongest effects of predictive language input on their eye movements. By contrast, looks to the target were related to individual differences in vocabulary size and verbal fluency. The results suggest that verbal and nonverbal factors contribute to different types of language-mediated eye movements. The findings are consistent with multiple-mechanism accounts of predictive language processing.

  16. Oral Reading Fluency Testing: Pitfalls for Children with Speech Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howland, Karole; Scaler Scott, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    As school districts nationwide have moved toward data driven intervention, oral reading fluency measures have become a prevalent means to monitor progress by assessing the degree to which a child is becoming a fast (and therefore fluent) reader. This article reviews results of a survey of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children…

  17. Rethinking Communicative Language Teaching: A Focus on Access to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Although most teachers claim to practise communicative language teaching (CLT), many do not genuinely do so. In this paper, we examine some of the reasons for teachers' resistance to CLT use. We provide a theoretical analysis that focuses on one of the greatest challenges facing CLT methodology-how to promote automatic fluency within this…

  18. Is Earlier Better? Mastery of Reading Fluency in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…

  19. Revamping Professional Development for Technology Integration and Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plair, Sandra Kay

    2008-01-01

    Despite federal legislation and national technology plans, making technology significant in K-12 classrooms has yet to happen. The difficulty lies in veteran teachers who struggle to gain technological fluency. Many identified barriers continue to prevail, not for lack of teachers' trying but because of the overwhelming nature of technology.…

  20. The Complex Nature of Reading Fluency: A Multidimensional View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; Pullen, Paige C.; Lane, Holly B.; Torgesen, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Reading fluency is commonly defined as reading accurately at a quick rate with appropriate prosody--a simple sounding definition. In fact, this definition hides complex processes and skills needed to produce the seemingly effortless performance of a fluent reader. Using both theory and empirical research, the presence and role of underlying…

  1. Reading Fluency Assessment and Instruction: What, Why, and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Roxanne F.; Lane, Holly B.; Pullen, Paige C.

    2005-01-01

    This article explains the elements of reading fluency and ways to assess and teach them. Fluent reading has three elements: accurate reading of connected text, at a conversational rate with appropriate prosody. Word reading accuracy refers to the ability to recognize or decode words correctly. Reading rate refers to both word-level automaticity…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of ESL Learners' Fluency and Comprehensibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…

  3. Measuring Gains in Reading Ability with Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Zumeta, Rebecca; Dupree, Opio; Kent Johnson

    2005-01-01

    This study examined several aspects of Passage Reading Fluency (PRF) including performance variability across passages alternative designs for measuring PRF gain, and effects on PRF level from retesting with the same passages. Participants were 33 students from grades 2 to 10 attending a school for students with learning disabilities. PRF was…

  4. Greater Validity for Oral Reading Fluency: Can Miscues Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the criterion-related validity of oral reading fluency (ORF), number of words read correctly per minute, with 64 regular, remedial, and special education elementary-level students. Comparison with two miscue-based assessment measures did not support modification of traditional ORF but did suggest practical value of selected…

  5. Counting and RAN: Predictors of Arithmetic Calculation and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koponen, Tuire; Salmi, Paula; Eklund, Kenneth; Aro, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether counting and rapid automatized naming (RAN) could operate as significant predictors of both later arithmetic calculation and reading fluency. The authors also took an important step to clarify the cognitive mechanisms underlying these predictive relationships by controlling for the effect of phonological awareness and…

  6. A Comparison of Two Sight Word Reading Fluency Drill Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Maureen; Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Luu, Ken C. T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared the effects of two sight word fluency drills (i.e., reading racetrack and list drills). They used a repeated acquisition design across 8 second-grade students identified as at risk for reading difficulties. More participants performed better when they read words on the reading racetrack than on the list; however, results were…

  7. Measurement of Phonated Intervals during Four Fluency-Inducing Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidow, Jason H.; Bothe, Anne K.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Ye, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Previous investigations of persons who stutter have demonstrated changes in vocalization variables during fluency-inducing conditions (FICs). A series of studies has also shown that a reduction in short intervals of phonation, those from 30 to 200 ms, is associated with decreased stuttering. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to…

  8. Reading Fluency Instruction with Students Who Have Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kathryn Wolff; Rupert, Jenny Hayes; Coleman-Martin, Mari Beth; Mezei, Peter J.; Calhoon, Mary Beth

    2007-01-01

    Although fluency instruction is an essential part of teaching reading, there is limited information on providing this type of instruction with students who have physical disabilities. This article examines three case studies across two students, one with cerebral palsy and the other with both arthrogryposis and spina bifida. In the first study,…

  9. Commentary on New Metrics, Measures, and Uses for Fluency Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Theodore J.; Ardoin, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    Fluency and rate-based assessments, such as curriculum-based measurement, are frequently used to screen and evaluate student progress. The application of such measures are especially prevalent within special education and response to intervention models of prevention and early intervention. Although there is an extensive research and professional…

  10. Addressing Semantics Promotes the Development of Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Inez E.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    In two experimental training studies we examined the hypothesis that an emphasis on the meaning of a word is more effective than merely focusing on the orthography to increase reading fluency. Reading delayed children from Grade 1 (mean age = 7.3 years) and two groups from Grade 2 (mean age = 8.3 and 7.8 years) repeatedly read words while focusing…

  11. Achieving Oral Fluency in French: Principles and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajiboye, Tunde

    1985-01-01

    The principle of oral fluency instruction concerns the teacher's role, which is to monitor the spread, balance, and flow of the conversation. Techniques have to do with the constituents and mode of oral activity, material resources, and the year abroad. (SED)

  12. Specificity and Overlap in Skills Underpinning Reading and Arithmetical Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Daal, Victor; van der Leij, Aryan; Ader, Herman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine unique and common causes of problems in reading and arithmetic fluency. 13- to 14-year-old students were placed into one of five groups: reading disabled (RD, n = 16), arithmetic disabled (AD, n = 34), reading and arithmetic disabled (RAD, n = 17), reading, arithmetic, and listening comprehension disabled…

  13. Computer-Based Fluency Training: A Resource for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaber, Guillermo E.; Malott, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    A behavioral systems analysis approach to higher education was used to design, implement, evaluate, and recycle a computer-based fluency training component of a behavioral instructional system. This component helped 29 students achieve behavior analysis literacy. The computer-based training provided structure, immediate performance feedback, and…

  14. Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

  15. Primary Teachers' Representational Practices: From Competency to Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Stevenson, Michael; Hedberg, John; Gillies, Robyn Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Eighteen primary teachers across three conditions (Representational Fluency, Representational Agency, Comparison) received two days of training around an inquiry unit on plate tectonics replete with representations. The Representational Agency group also received training around the semiotic and material affordances of representations while the…

  16. Teachers Engaging Parents as Tutors to Improve Oral Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupzyk, Sara S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the application of evidence-based tutoring for oral reading fluency (ORF) to a natural setting, using teachers as parent trainers. Measures used to determine the impact of parent tutoring included treatment integrity, student reading outcomes, attitudes towards involvement and reading, and social validity. Six teachers…

  17. Automated Assessment of Speech Fluency for L2 English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Su-Youn

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides an automated scoring method of speech fluency for second language learners of English (L2 learners) based that uses speech recognition technology. Non-standard pronunciation, frequent disfluencies, faulty grammar, and inappropriate lexical choices are crucial characteristics of L2 learners' speech. Due to the ease of…

  18. Reading Fluency Instruction for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Jeremiah J.; Barefoot, Lexie C.; Avrit, Karen J.; Brown, Sasha A.; Black, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The important role of reading fluency in the comprehension and motivation of readers is well documented. Two reading rate intervention programs were compared in a cluster-randomized clinical trial of students who were considered at-risk for reading failure. One program focused instruction at the word level; the second program focused instruction…

  19. Reading Fluency: The Whole Is More than the Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzir, Tami; Kim, Youngsuk; Wolf, Maryanne; O'Brien, Beth; Kennedy, Becky; Lovett, Maureen; Morris, Robin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of phonological awareness, orthographic pattern recognition, and rapid letter naming to fluent word and connected-text reading within a dyslexic sample of 123 children in second and third grades. Participants were assessed on a variety of fluency measures and reading subskills. Correlations and…

  20. Fluency Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy, Ed.; Blachowicz, Camille, Ed.; Lems, Kristin, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This accessible guide brings together well-known authorities to examine what reading fluency is and how it can best be taught. Teachers get a clear, practical roadmap for navigating the often confusing terrain of this crucial aspect of balanced literacy instruction. Innovative approaches to instruction and assessment are described and illustrated…

  1. Through Literacy to Fluency: Reading in the Religious Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medine, Carolyn M. Jones

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a perennial question of the religious studies and, indeed, of most liberal arts classrooms: How do I get my students to read texts thoroughly and with understanding? After briefly reviewing the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) data, I argue that what teachers desire is not just basic literacy, but fluency, which is…

  2. Paired Reading and Related Methods for Improving Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith J.

    2014-01-01

    The initial vignette outlines some of the complexities of the use of Paired Reading (PR) in a real situation. A description of PR is followed by a brief summary of evaluation evidence. A number of related techniques are briefly described and the evidence for them considered. The utility of PR in relation to fluency is then discussed. The…

  3. Fluency Training a Writing Skill: Editing for Concision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermer, Marshall L.; Lopez, Shannon L.; Messling, Paul A., III

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to design and evaluate fluency-based training units to help students eliminate inconcision. Participants first completed a 1.5-hr lesson on writing concisely and then a 5-min test during which they edited sentences containing inconcise text from the training units. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to an…

  4. Evaluation of Secondary School Students' Writing Fluency Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atasoy, Arzu; Temizkan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Developed to evaluate secondary school students' writing fluency skills, this study is descriptive in nature and uses a mixed method approach. During the research, the researcher attempted to identify students' abilities to write in terms of quantity and complexity, on the one hand, and also attempted to identify findings on accuracy, the…

  5. Improv and Ink: Increasing Individual Writing Fluency with Collaborative Improv

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMichele, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how short form/comedic improvisational theater impacts the development of writing fluency. Students in all disciplines need to be able to purposefully write, however by the time students reach high school many have already given up trying to express even their own thoughts in free writing. Two quasi-experimental action…

  6. Incorporating Movement with Fluency Instruction: A Motivation for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peebles, Jodi L.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses two activities--Readers Theatre and Rhythm Walks--that encourage students to "get moving" with fluency instruction. Movement can be a motivating factor for struggling students, as well as a kinesthetic tool for conceptualizing the rhythm and flow of fluent reading while triggering brain function for optimal learning. Also…

  7. Teaching Phonological Accuracy and Communicative Fluency at Thai Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likitrattanaporn, Wannakarn

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the opinions of secondary level Thai teachers who teach English. Their perspectives were collected and compared concerning phonological accuracy practice, communicative fluency activities, authentic teaching techniques and determining appropriate ways to solve the problems of phonological teaching…

  8. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    PubMed

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (p<0.001) also discriminated between the linguistic variants. While a speech fluency profile of European Portuguese speakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  9. There Is More to Fluency than Speed and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Fluency is another concept whose many definitions lead to widely differing practices. It is easy to understand that reading words on a page does not make a person fluent if they don't take away meaning from that reading. Hedrick asks that teachers and administrators examine policies that let speed and accuracy in reading substitute for meaning…

  10. Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Melanie; Rasinski, Timothy; Zimmerman, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text's meaning as…

  11. Verbal Ability, Argument Order, and Attitude Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mozuraitis, Mindaugas; Chambers, Craig G.; Daneman, Meredyth

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the interaction of verbal ability and presentation order on readers’ attitude formation when presented with two-sided arguments. Participants read arguments for and against compulsory voting and genetic engineering, and attitudes were assessed before and after reading the passages. Participants’ verbal ability was measured, combining vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension skill. Results suggested that low verbal-ability participants were more persuaded by the most recent set of arguments whereas high verbal-ability participants formed attitudes independent of presentation order. Contrary to previous literature, individual differences in the personality trait need for cognition did not interact with presentation order. The results suggest that verbal ability is an important moderator of the effect of presentation order when formulating opinions from complex prose. PMID:27703437

  12. New Metrics, Measures, and Uses for Fluency Data: An Introduction to a Special Issue on the Assessment of Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biancarosa, Gina; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this special issue is to synthesize results from recent reading fluency research endeavors, and to link these findings to practical uses of reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) tools. Taken together, the manuscripts presented in this issue discuss measurement work related to new metrics of indexing student reading…

  13. Teachers' and Students' Views of Reading Fluency: Issues of Consequential Validity in Adopting One-Minute Reading Fluency Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, Theresa A.; Shim, Minsuk K.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present results of a survey designed to understand teachers' (n = 77) and students' (n = 875) perceptions of purported negative consequences of using one-minute oral reading fluency (ORF) measures such as the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" (DIBELS) ORF assessment and the "aimsweb Reading…

  14. easyCBM[R] Slope Reliability: Letter Names, Word Reading Fluency, and Passage Reading Fluency. Technical Report #1111

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patarapichayatham, Chalie; Anderson, Daniel; Irvin, P. Shawn; Kamata, Akhito; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Within a response to intervention (RTI) framework, students are administered multiple tests of equivalent difficulty. Changes in students' scores over time are then attributed to changes in learning. In the current study, we evaluated the reliability of score changes (i.e., slope) for the easyCBM[R] letter names, word reading fluency, and passage…

  15. Math Fluency Is Etiologically Distinct from Untimed Math Performance, Decoding Fluency, and Untimed Reading Performance: Evidence from a Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen; Logan, Jessica; Hart, Sara; Vincent, Pamela; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; Plomin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether math fluency was independent from untimed math and from reading using 314 pairs of school-aged twins drawn from the Western Reserve Reading and Math Projects. Twins were assessed through a 90-min home visit at approximately age 10 and were reassessed in their homes approximately 1 year later. Results suggested that the…

  16. Investigation of Nursing Students’ Verbal Communication Quality during Patients’ Education in Zahedan Hospitals: Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Fatemeh; Balouchi, Abbas; Shahsavani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most basic nursing skill is communicating with the patient. Nurses must be able to provide their professional services well for patients while communicating with them therefore examining the professional skills of nursing students as those who make the future nursing community is of great importance. Objective: The aim of this study was Investigation of nursing students’ verbal communication quality during patients’ Education in Zahedan hospitals: southeast of Iran Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 nursing students in two Educational hospitals of Zahedan, Iran from November 2013 through March 2014.sampling method was census. Researcher made checklist was used to gather the data. Statistical tests of frequency distribution, mean, SD and chi-squire were used to analyze the data. Results: Most of the students in the start N=45 (47.4%) and during N=48 (50.5%) of verbal communication with the patients had the good verbal communication but in the end of communication the patients most students N=33 (34.7%) had average verbal communication and N=31 (32.6%) of them had poor verbal communication. Conclusion: Since quality of verbal communication in the end of patient education is poor and good communication between the patient and nurse is the basic component of patient care and its Educational plans should be coordinated with clinical practices and be parallel to it, also effective methods must be used. PMID:27157186

  17. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  18. Stuttering, induced fluency, and natural fluency: a hierarchical series of activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Budde, Kristin S; Barron, Daniel S; Fox, Peter T

    2014-12-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder most likely due to a heritable form of developmental dysmyelination impairing the function of the speech-motor system. Speech-induced brain-activation patterns in persons who stutter (PWS) are anomalous in various ways; the consistency of these aberrant patterns is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we present a hierarchical series of coordinate-based meta-analyses addressing this issue. Two tiers of meta-analyses were performed on a 17-paper dataset (202 PWS; 167 fluent controls). Four large-scale (top-tier) meta-analyses were performed, two for each subject group (PWS and controls). These analyses robustly confirmed the regional effects previously postulated as "neural signatures of stuttering" (Brown, Ingham, Ingham, Laird, & Fox, 2005) and extended this designation to additional regions. Two smaller-scale (lower-tier) meta-analyses refined the interpretation of the large-scale analyses: (1) a between-group contrast targeting differences between PWS and controls (stuttering trait); and (2) a within-group contrast (PWS only) of stuttering with induced fluency (stuttering state).

  19. Stuttering, Induced Fluency, and Natural Fluency: A Hierarchical Series of Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Budde, Kristin S.; Barron, Daniel S.; Fox, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder most likely due to a heritable form of developmental dysmyelination impairing the function of the speech-motor system. Speech-induced brain-activation patterns in persons who stutter (PWS) are anomalous in various ways; the consistency of these aberrant patterns is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, we present a hierarchical series of coordinate-based meta-analyses addressing this issue. Two tiers of meta-analyses were performed on a 17-paper dataset (202 PWS; 167 fluent controls). Four large-scale (top-tier) meta-analyses were performed, two for each subject group (PWS and controls). These analyses robustly confirmed the regional effects previously postulated as “neural signatures of stuttering” (Brown 2005) and extended this designation to additional regions. Two smaller-scale (lower-tier) meta-analyses refined the interpretation of the large-scale analyses: 1) a between-group contrast targeting differences between PWS and controls (stuttering trait); and 2) a within-group contrast (PWS only) of stuttering with induced fluency (stuttering state). PMID:25463820

  20. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a “Bridge” to Reading Comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word reading fluency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Results from multigroup structural equation models showed that text reading fluency was a dissociable construct for both kindergartners and first graders. In addition, a developmental pattern emerged: listening comprehension was not uniquely related to text reading fluency for first graders, but not for kindergartners, over and above word reading fluency. In addition, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension for kindergartners, but not for first graders, after accounting for word reading fluency and listening comprehension. For first graders, listening comprehension dominated the relations. There were no differences in the pattern of relations for skilled and less skilled readers in first grade. Results are discussed from a developmental perspective for reading comprehension component skills including text reading fluency. PMID:25653474

  1. Foetal antiepileptic drug exposure and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of age.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2011-02-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the age of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug exposure is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal exposure. We hypothesize that foetal drug exposure may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and

  2. Foetal antiepileptic drug exposure and verbal versus non-verbal abilities at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled pregnant females with epilepsy on monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study seeks to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin and valproate). This report compares verbal versus non-verbal cognitive outcomes in 216 children who completed testing at the age of three years. Verbal and non-verbal index scores were calculated from the Differential Ability Scales, Preschool Language Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. Verbal abilities were lower than non-verbal in children exposed in utero to each drug. Preconceptional folate use was associated with higher verbal outcomes. Valproate was associated with poorer cognitive outcomes. Performance was negatively associated with valproate dose for both verbal and non-verbal domains and negatively associated with carbamazepine dose for verbal performance. No dose effects were seen for lamotrigine and phenytoin. Since foetal antiepileptic drug exposure is associated with lower verbal than non-verbal abilities, language may be particularly susceptible to foetal exposure. We hypothesize that foetal drug exposure may alter normal cerebral lateralization. Further, a dose-dependent relationship is present for both lower verbal and non-verbal abilities with valproate and for lower verbal abilities with carbamazepine. Preconceptional folate may improve cognitive outcomes. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings, extend the study to other drugs, define the risks associated with drug treatment for seizures in the neonates, and

  3. The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Collette, Fabienne; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal-hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults. PMID:24007209

  4. Accelerating Decoding-Related Skills in Poor Readers Learning a Foreign Language: A Computer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björn, Piia Maria; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2013-01-01

    The results of Fast ForWord® training on English decoding-related skills were examined. Finnish fifth-grade students were identified as having reading fluency problems and poor skills in English as a foreign language learned at school and were randomly assigned to either a training group (TRG) or a control group. The TRG ("n"?=?13)…

  5. Repeated readings and science: Fluency with expository passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated readings to a fluency criterion (RRFC) for seven students with disabilities using science text. The study employed a single subject design, specifically, two multiple probe multiple baselines across subjects, to evaluate the effects of the RRFC intervention. Results indicated that students met criterion (200 or more correct words per minute with 2 or fewer errors) on four consecutive passages. A majority of students displayed accelerations to correct words per minute and decelerations to incorrect words per minute on successive initial, intervention readings suggesting reading transfer. Students' reading scores during posttest and maintenance out performed pre-test and baseline readings provided additional measures of reading transfer. For a relationship to comprehension, students scored higher on oral retell measures after meeting criterion as compared to initial readings. Overall, the research findings suggested that the RRFC intervention improves science reading fluency for students with disabilities, and may also indirectly benefit comprehension.

  6. Variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Duda, Thomas A; Casey, Joseph E; McNevin, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Although graphomotor differences and variability of performance have been observed in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no study has investigated whether this variability manifests in the kinematic graphomotor domain in adults with ADHD. Fourteen ADHD and 20 control participants wrote a novel grapheme and common word on a digitizing tablet 30 times each, with ADHD participants counterbalanced on and off stimulant medication. Variability of graphomotor fluency was significantly greater in ADHD versus control participants only in the novel writing task, both on, F(1,31)=5.988, p=.020, and off stimulant medication, F(1,32)=8.789, p=.006. Results suggest that motor control differences in ADHD are not limited to childhood and extend into adulthood. Given sufficient additional research, variability of kinematic graphomotor fluency may increase the sensitivity/specificity of differential diagnoses and/or represent a biomarker for ADHD.

  7. Verbal Working Memory and Language Production: Common Approaches to the Serial Ordering of Verbal Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Verbal working memory (WM) tasks typically involve the language production architecture for recall; however, language production processes have had a minimal role in theorizing about WM. A framework for understanding verbal WM results is presented here. In this framework, domain-specific mechanisms for serial ordering in verbal WM are provided by…

  8. Interpersonal Interactions in Instrumental Lessons: Teacher/Student Verbal and Non-Verbal Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined verbal and non-verbal teacher/student interpersonal interactions in higher education instrumental music lessons. Twenty-four lessons were videotaped and teacher/student behaviours were analysed using a researcher-designed instrument. The findings indicate predominance of student and teacher joke among the verbal behaviours with…

  9. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  10. Impairments of Speech Fluency in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Gunawardena, Delani; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined connected speech in demented and non-demented patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). We assessed the speech production of 35 patients with Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including non-demented PD patients, patients with PD dementia (PDD), and patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), in a semi-structured narrative speech sample in order to characterize impairments of speech fluency and to determine the factors contributing to reduced speech fluency in these patients. Both demented and non-demented PD patients exhibited reduced speech fluency, characterized by reduced overall speech rate and long pauses between sentences. Reduced speech rate in LBSD correlated with measures of between-utterance pauses, executive functioning, and grammatical comprehension. Regression analyses related non-fluent speech, grammatical difficulty, and executive difficulty to atrophy in frontal brain regions. These findings indicate that multiple factors contribute to slowed speech in LBSD, and this is mediated in part by disease in frontal brain regions. PMID:22099969

  11. Group administration influences design but not written word fluency testing.

    PubMed

    Knepp, Michael M; Krafka, Erin R; Boulton, Ashley N; Myers, Morgan P

    2014-01-01

    Quicker assessments of right and left frontal lobe function, such as the examination of performance on design and language fluency tasks, respectively, lend themselves to a group administration setting. However, the influence of social facilitation factors on a dissociation model in these group settings is not well understood. One hundred college students (71 women) completed design and written word fluency tasks while sitting beside a faster or slower working confederate. Questionnaires related to trait worry, emotion regulation, state depression, anxiety and stress were completed following these tasks. Students in the fast condition produced significantly more unique designs, but there was no condition difference on written word fluency. This finding indicated that performance on a design task, which requires relative right frontal activation, may decrease if the subject is paired with a slow working confederate. High trait worriers demonstrated reduced performance on the design task (as indicated by higher design error ratios) but preserved performance on the word task. This supported a single dissociation in that performance on these tasks indicates compromised right hemisphere function and preserved left hemisphere function, respectively, in high trait worriers.

  12. The neural correlates of reading fluency deficits in children.

    PubMed

    Langer, Nicolas; Benjamin, Christopher; Minas, Jennifer; Gaab, Nadine

    2015-06-01

    Multiple studies have shown that individuals with a reading disability (RD) demonstrate deficits in posterior left-hemispheric brain regions during reading-related tasks. These studies mainly focused on reading sub-skills, and it remains debated whether such dysfunction is apparent during more ecologically valid reading skills, such as reading fluency. In this fMRI study, reading fluency was systematically varied to characterize neural correlates of reading fluency in 30 children with (RD) and without (typical developing children, TYP) a RD. Sentences were presented at constrained, comfortable, and accelerated speeds, which were determined based on individual reading speed. Behaviorally, RD children displayed decreased performance in several reading-related tasks. Using fMRI, we demonstrated that both TYP and RD children display increased activation in several components of the reading network during fluent reading. When required to read at an accelerated speed, RD children exhibited less activation in the fusiform gyrus (FG) compared with the TYP children. A region of interest analysis substantiated differences in the FG and demonstrated a relationship to behavioral reading performance. These results suggest that the FG plays a key role in fluent reading and that it can be modulated by speed. These results and their implications for remediation strategies should be considered in educational practice.

  13. [The association between the GRIN2B gene and verbal fluency and impairment of abstract thinking in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Korovaitseva, G I; Abramova, L I; Lezheiko, T V; Aksenova, E V

    2016-01-01

    Цель исследования. Исследование было направлено на поиск ассоциаций между геном GRIN2B и признаками нарушения мышления и речи при шизофрении, в основе которых может лежать снижение доступа к ментальному лексикону. Материал и методы. В группе из 552 пациентов с расстройствами шизофренического спектра определяли связи между полиморфизмом rs7301328 в гене GRIN2B и семантической вербальной беглостью и пятью симптомами нарушений мышления и речи, входящими в шкалу позитивных и негативных симптомов (PANSS). Результаты и обсуждение. Обнаружена ассоциация гена GRIN2B как с вербальной беглостью (p=0,013), так и нарушением абстрактного мышления (p=0,012). При этом не выявлено опосредующей роли вербальной беглости в ассоциации между геном и нарушением мышления. Результаты позволяют предположить, что ген GRIN2B оказывает модифицирующее действие на лингвистические процессы, обеспечивающие извлечение информации из ментального лексикона на основе семантических признаков, и, кроме того, вносит вклад в вариативность клинически выраженных нарушений абстрактного мышления у больных шизофренией. При этом гетерозиготный генотип может быть протективным относительно развития патологии мышления и речи.

  14. Administering design fluency tests in school-aged children: analyses of design productivity over time, clustering, and switching.

    PubMed

    Hurks, Petra P M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of child-related factors (age, sex, and intellectual abilities) upon design fluency (DF) test scores. A DF test, a semantic verbal fluency (VF) test, and a Block Design test, as a proxy of intelligence, were administered to N = 80 healthy native Dutch-speaking children aged 8.45-12.82 years. Three components of DF performance were examined, i.e., design productivity over time, clustering (i.e., generating designs that share visual-spatial similarities, such as addition, deletion, or rotation), and switching (i.e., shifting between strategies that children use to draw the designs). The relation between DF design productivity over time and age was curvilinear, that is, improvements in test scores were much more pronounced for younger children than for older children. No (curvi)linear age effects were found in DF productivity scores, clustering, and switching. Also, our results did not reveal a relation between intellectual abilities and DF test scores. Furthermore, DF test scores and VF test scores were only partially significant, i.e., only significant positive correlations were found between the productivity scores of the VF test and the DF test. Finally, higher order sex by age interactions were found in all DF test scores, i.e., girls <10.5 years produced more designs, made longer clusters, and switched less than boys. Opposite sex differences were found for children >10.5 years. This illustrates the utility of combining quantitative scoring procedures with in-depth clustering and switching to understand interactions between age and sex during DF tests.

  15. Constructs and Events in Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryling, Mitch J.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior has been the subject of much controversy in recent years. While criticism has historically come from outside the field of behavior analysis, there are now well-articulated arguments against Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior from within the field as well. Recently, advocates of…

  16. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  17. Verbal Interference Suppresses Exact Numerical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael C.; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Piraha (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching…

  18. Visual Cues, Verbal Cues and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentini, Nadia

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses two strategies--visual cues (modeling) and verbal cues (short, accurate phrases) which are related to teaching motor skills in maximizing learning in physical education classes. Both visual and verbal cues are strong influences in facilitating and promoting day-to-day learning. Both strategies reinforce…

  19. Using Concurrent Verbalization to Measure Math Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeth, Cathryn Colley

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated variability in student performance on a concurrent verbalization measure based on a grade-level sample math word problem and sought to determine to what extent the variability in verbalization scores is related to scores on a reliable measure of reading (DIBELS Next) and math (easyCBM) and to student factors (e.g.…

  20. Verbal Mediation and Satiation in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Harold; Smothergill, Daniel

    The study demonstrates: (1) the occurrence of verbal mediation with its facilitory effect, and (2) the interfering effect of verbal satiation on mediational processes in a three-state chaining paradigm. 40 preschool children were randomly assigned to either a control (no satiation) or an experimental (satiation) group. The subjects in the control…

  1. Establishing Vocal Verbalizations in Mute Mongoloid Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddenhagen, Ronald G.

    Behavior modification as an attack upon the problem of mutism in mongoloid children establishes the basis of the text. Case histories of four children in a state institution present the specific strategy of speech therapy using verbal conditioning. Imitation and attending behavior, verbal chaining, phonetic theory, social reinforcement,…

  2. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  3. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency. PMID:19620178

  4. Keeping Timbre in Mind: Working Memory for Complex Sounds that Can't Be Verbalized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubock, Jason L.; Janata, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Properties of auditory working memory for sounds that lack strong semantic associations and are not readily verbalized or sung are poorly understood. We investigated auditory working memory capacity for lists containing 2-6 easily discriminable abstract sounds synthesized within a constrained timbral space, at delays of 1-6 s (Experiment 1), and…

  5. Verbal memory, problem-solving skills and community status in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Revheim, Nadine; Medalia, Alice

    2004-06-01

    Neuropsychological deficits have been associated with poor community functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Previous research suggests that verbal memory capacity is related to functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between verbal memory, problem-solving skills and community functioning, as measured by treatment status (inpatient vs. outpatient) in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Evaluations were done on 162 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, seen in inpatient (n=87) and outpatient settings (n=75). Verbal memory was assessed using narrative recall and list recall measures. Problem-solving skills for independent living were assessed using a social reasoning measure and a daily problem-solving skills measure. Better verbal memory performance was associated with better problem solving for independent living. However, inpatient vs. outpatient status was best determined by problem-solving skills for independent living rather than verbal memory performance. The results reveal the importance of daily problem-solving skills for community status in schizophrenia. Although verbal memory performance is associated with problem-solving skills for independent living, predictive probability of community status does not improve when memory performance is taken into account.

  6. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  7. Verbal interference suppresses exact numerical representation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Fedorenko, Evelina; Lai, Peter; Saxe, Rebecca; Gibson, Edward

    2012-02-01

    Language for number is an important case study of the relationship between language and cognition because the mechanisms of non-verbal numerical cognition are well-understood. When the Pirahã (an Amazonian hunter-gatherer tribe who have no exact number words) are tested in non-verbal numerical tasks, they are able to perform one-to-one matching tasks but make errors in more difficult tasks. Their pattern of errors suggests that they are using analog magnitude estimation, an evolutionarily- and developmentally-conserved mechanism for estimating quantities. Here we show that English-speaking participants rely on the same mechanisms when verbal number representations are unavailable due to verbal interference. Followup experiments demonstrate that the effects of verbal interference are primarily manifest during encoding of quantity information, and-using a new procedure for matching difficulty of interference tasks for individual participants-that the effects are restricted to verbal interference. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that number words are used online to encode, store, and manipulate numerical information. This linguistic strategy complements, rather than altering or replacing, non-verbal representations.

  8. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  9. Employing task arrangements and verbal contingencies to promote verbalizations between retarded children.

    PubMed Central

    Mithaug, D E; Wolfe, M S

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of arranging task events for interdependence, to increase the probability of social responding. During task interdependence, the subjects, participating in dyads and a four-person group, obtained task materials (a puzzle piece) from their partner before completing their task (appropriately placing the puzzle piece). The verbal contingency required a verbal request to precede a subject's receiving a task material from his partner. The verbal contingency yoked with task interdependence made task completion contingent on the appropriate verbalization. The findings from two experiments suggested that task interdependence was sufficient to increase partner-directed verbalizations for three of the four subjects. When the verbal contingency was added, all subjects increased their requests and other verbalizations to partner. Applied to a four-person group, the verbal contingency yoked with varying levels of task interdependence correspondingly affected the pattern and level of group communications. The greater the task interdependence, i.e., the more members each subject depended on to complete his task, the more complex the social network of verbal contacts, and the higher the level of both requests and other verbalizations for the group. PMID:977517

  10. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  11. Improving Reading Fluency and Comprehension among Elementary Students: Evaluation of a School Remedial Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausheer, Robin; Hansen, Alana; Doumas, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a remedial reading program on improving reading fluency and comprehension among elementary school students. Twenty-four students were selected to participate in the 8-month program. Results indicated reading fluency and reading comprehension scores improved significantly across the academic year for both…

  12. Reading Fluency and Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Synthesis of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckner, John L.; Urbach, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The National Reading Panel identified fluency as one of the five essential components of reading. Fluency serves as a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Individuals who are able to read effortlessly and accurately have more capacity to attend to the meaning and, as a result, better understand what they read. The purpose of this…

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of Fluency and Reading Comprehension in Spanish Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of prosodic elements is recognised in most definitions of fluency. Although speed and accuracy have been typically considered the constituents of reading fluency, prosody is emerging as an additional component. The relevance of prosody in comprehension is increasingly recognised in the latest studies. The purpose of this research is…

  14. Repeated Reading for Developing Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: The Case of EFL Learners in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2008-01-01

    Reading in a foreign or second language is often a laborious process, often caused by underdeveloped word recognition skills, among other things, of second and foreign language readers. Developing fluency in L2/FL reading has become an important pedagogical issue in L2 settings and one major component of reading fluency is fast and accurate word…

  15. Developing Reading Fluency and Comprehension Using Repeated Reading: Evidence from Longitudinal Student Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Greta; Taguchi, Etsuo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, interest in reading fluency development in first language, and second and foreign language (L2/FL) settings has increased. Reading fluency, in which readers decode and comprehend at the same time, is critical to successful reading. Fluent readers are accurate and fast in their ability to recognize words, and in their use of…

  16. The Effect of Processing Fluency on Impressions of Familiarity and Liking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, Deanne L.; Lanska, Meredith; Olds, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Processing fluency has been shown to have wide-ranging effects on disparate evaluative judgments, including judgments of liking and familiarity. One account of such effects is the hedonic marking hypothesis (Winkielman, Schwarz, Fazendeiro, & Reber, 2003), which posits that fluency is directly linked to affective preferences via a positive…

  17. Keep Up the Good Work! Part III: Using Multimedia To Build Reading Fluency and Enjoyment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses building fluency in reading and writing and teaching students to read and write for pleasure. Highlights include multimedia storyboards; bilingual instruction; writing programs for building fluency; CD-ROM storyboards; student-created storyboards; and an annotated bibliography of CD-ROM storyboards, poetry collections, and composing…

  18. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Evidence for Fluency-Based Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leynes, P. Andrew; Zish, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of perceptual fluency on recognition memory. Words were studied using a shallow encoding task to decrease the contribution of recollection on recognition. Fluency was manipulated by blurring half of the test probes. Clarity varied randomly across trials in one experiment and was grouped into two blocks…

  19. Increasing Reading Fluency Performance of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanway Kalis, Tara M.

    2012-01-01

    Reading fluency has been identified as one of the essential skills students must develop in order to learn to read. Fluency is also a critical factor in reading comprehension (National Reading Panel [NRP], 2000). Many students, however, lack the ability to read age-appropriate materials fluently, including students with emotional and behavioral…

  20. Oral Reading Fluency Development for Children with Emotional Disturbance or Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov

    2014-01-01

    This study used a large statewide database to examine the oral reading fluency development of second- and third-grade students with emotional disturbance or learning disabilities and their general education peers. Oral reading fluency measures were administered to 185,367 students without disabilities (general education), 2,146 students identified…

  1. Effects of a Mathematics Fluency Program on Mathematics Performance of Students with Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Todd; Hirn, Regina G.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of a fluency-building mathematics program called Great Leaps Math on fluency of basic addition mathematics facts zero to nine and word problem solving using a multiple probe design across participants. Three elementary students with challenging behaviors and mathematics difficulty participated in the…

  2. Assessing for Generalized Improvements in Reading Comprehension by Intervening to Improve Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neddenriep, Christine E.; Fritz, Abigail M.; Carrier, Miranda E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between reading fluency and comprehension was evaluated in five 4th-grade students. These students were identified as being at risk of not meeting yearly goals in reading fluency and comprehension based on fall benchmark assessment data. A brief intervention assessment was used to determine which intervention components would be…

  3. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  4. How the Brain's Performance during Mathematics and Reading Fluency Tests Compare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how participants' levels of hemoglobin as they performed mathematics fluency and reading fluency (reading comprehension) compare. We used Optical Topography (OT, helmet type brain-scanning system, also known as Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or fNIRS) to measure levels of brain activity. A central…

  5. Investigating the Comparative Effectiveness of Fluency Building Techniques during Peer Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Acting as a tutor can increase a student's academic skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effectiveness of two types of reading fluency building strategies--echo reading and error correction--for the fluency improvement of tutors. Forty lower performing readers were trained in echo reading and error correction. Then,…

  6. Considering the Context and Texts for Fluency: Performance, Readers Theater, and Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase; Nageldinger, James

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the importance of teaching reading fluency and all of its components, including automaticity and prosody. The authors explain how teachers can create a context for reading fluency instruction by engaging students in reading performance activities. To support the instructional contexts, the authors suggest particular…

  7. Building Mathematical Fluency for Students with Disabilities or Students At-Risk for Mathematics Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Strozier, Shaunita D.; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    It is incredibly important for students who are at-risk for mathematics failure or who have a disability which hinders mathematical performance to improve in their mathematical achievement. One way to improve mathematical achievement is through building fluency in mathematics. Fluency in mathematics is the ability to solve problems automatically…

  8. Relationship between Second Grade Oral Reading Fluency and Third Grade Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Samantha Kane; Schoeneberger, Jason; Tingle, Lynne; Algozzine, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Oral reading fluency is a critical feature and outcome of early literacy instruction and it has amassed great attention as a powerful predictor of success at all levels of schooling. We examined relationships between second grade oral reading fluency scores and third grade end-of-grade reading achievement scores for students (N = 9562) in a large…

  9. Voice and Fluency Changes as a Function of Speech Task and Deep Brain Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Rogers, Tiffany; Godier, Violette; Tagliati, Michele; Sidtis, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Speaking, which naturally occurs in different modes or "tasks" such as conversation and repetition, relies on intact basal ganglia nuclei. Recent studies suggest that voice and fluency parameters are differentially affected by speech task. In this study, the authors examine the effects of subcortical functionality on voice and fluency,…

  10. Oral Reading Fluency Assessment: Issues of Construct, Criterion, and Consequential Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.; Smith, Antony T.; Reece, Anne M.; Li, Min; Wixson, Karen K.; Newman, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated multiple models for assessing oral reading fluency, including 1-minute oral reading measures that produce scores reported as words correct per minute (wcpm). We compared a measure of wcpm with measures of the individual and combined indicators of oral reading fluency (rate, accuracy, prosody, and comprehension) to examine…

  11. When Does Modality Matter? Perceptual versus Conceptual Fluency-Based Illusions in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jeremy K.; Lloyd, Marianne E.; Westerman, Deanne L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has shown that illusions of recognition memory based on enhanced perceptual fluency are sensitive to the perceptual match between the study and test phases of an experiment. The results of the current study strengthen that conclusion, as they show that participants will not interpret enhanced perceptual fluency as a sign of…

  12. Fluency Transfer: Differential Gains in Reading Speed and Accuracy Following Isolated Word and Context Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra Lyn; Levy, Betty Ann

    2005-01-01

    While fluent reading is recognized as a primary goal of educational instruction, the methods that best promote the development of fluency remain unclear. Two experiments are reported that examined increases in reading fluency of a novel passage following two types of training. In the context training condition, children learned to read a set of…

  13. The Plateau of Oral Reading Fluency Growth: A Preliminary Investigation. Research Brief 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patarapichayatham, Chalie; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Sáez, Leilani

    2013-01-01

    The use of oral reading fluency (ORF) as a predominant measurement tool for identifying struggling readers has grown exponentially over the past 30 years. ORF growth using curriculum-based measures (CBM) has also become an important practical and empirical issue influencing the field. Although fluency scores have shown to be reliable predictors of…

  14. Alternative Text Types to Improve Reading Fluency for Competent to Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Rupley, William H.; Pagie, David D.; Nichols, William Dee

    2016-01-01

    This article offers instructional suggestions and strategies based on research and theoretical literature for developing reading fluency through the use of rhyming poetry and other texts beyond the narrative and informational texts that have been traditionally used for reading instruction. Readers' lack of fluency in reading can be a monumental…

  15. Insights into Fluency Instruction: Short- and Long-Term Effects of Two Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kuhn, Melanie R.; Morris, Robin D.; Morrow, Lesley Mandel; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Woo, Deborah Gee; Quirk, Matthew; Sevcik, Rose

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine short- and long-term effects of two instructional approaches designed to improve the reading fluency of second-grade children: Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (or FORI; Stahl & Heubach, 2005) and a wide reading approach (Kuhn et al., 2006). By the end of second grade, children in the wide reading…

  16. Examining the Impact of Feedback and Repeated Readings on Oral Reading Fluency: Let's Not Forget Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Morena, Laura S.; Binder, Katherine S.; Foster, Tori E.

    2013-01-01

    Although extensive research supports repeated readings (RR) as an intervention for improving reading fluency, it largely ignores reading prosody, which is a key component of reading fluency. The current study extends the RR literature by examining the impact of RR on prosody and whether the content of directions and feedback might impact what…

  17. Reader's Theater: An Alternative Tool to Develop Reading Fluency among Thai EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekwilai, Panya

    2014-01-01

    Fluency in reading is critical for becoming a successful reader and strongly correlates with reading comprehension. Fluency in reading refers to appropriate reading speed, accurate word recognition, appropriate phrasing, and appropriate expression when reading orally. Reader's Theater (RT) is a reading instructional method that requires readers to…

  18. The Component Skills Underlying Reading Fluency in Adolescent Readers: A Latent Variable Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Amy Elizabeth; Catts, Hugh W.; Anthony, Jason L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the component skills underlying reading fluency in a heterogeneous sample of 527 eighth grade students. Based on a hypothetical measurement model and successive testing of nested models, structural equation modeling revealed that naming speed, decoding, and language were uniquely associated with reading fluency. These…

  19. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  20. A Musical Approach to Reading Fluency: An Experimental Study in First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leguizamon, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between Kodaly-based music instruction and reading fluency in first-grade classrooms. Reading fluency and overall reading achievement were measured for 109 participants at mid-point in the academic year pre- and post treatment. Tests were carried out to…

  1. Potential of Text-Based Internet Chats for Improving Oral Fluency in a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on the positive effects of Internet chats in the second language classroom, to the best of my knowledge no studies to date have examined the effect of text-based chats on oral fluency development. This exploratory study addressed the above question by examining the oral fluency development of 34 English…

  2. The Role of Input, Interaction and Output in the Development of Oral Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a research in the second Language acquisition (SLA) with its focus on the role of input, interaction and output in the development of oral fluency in the EFL context from both a theoretical point of view and a case study. Two instruments were used: tests of oral fluency and face-to-face interviews. The findings showed that non-native…

  3. Phase Transitions in Development of Writing Fluency from a Complex Dynamic Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baba, Kyoko; Nitta, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    This study explored patterns in L2 writing development by focusing on one of the linguistic features of texts (fluency) from a complex dynamic systems perspective. It investigated whether two English-as-a-foreign-language university students would experience discontinuous change (phase transition) in their writing fluency through repetition of a…

  4. Does Foreign Language Writing Benefit from Increased Lexical Fluency? Evidence from a Classroom Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Amos; Oostdam, Ron; van Schooten, Erik

    2011-01-01

    We report a classroom experiment directed at increasing lexical fluency in writing. Participants were 107 Dutch students in bilingual (EFL) education (Grades 10 and 11). According to current theories of writing such fluency allows writers to devote more attention to higher order aspects of text production, such as idea generation, selection and…

  5. Is Oral/Text Reading Fluency a "Bridge" to Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Park, Chea Hyeong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated developmental relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, and text reading fluency to reading comprehension in a relatively transparent language, Korean. A total of 98 kindergartners and 170 first graders in Korea were assessed on a series of tasks involving listening comprehension, word…

  6. An Investigation into Multi-Level Components of Online Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion of the results of a cross-sectional examination of linguistic variables that are predicted to influence L2 reading fluency. This study is part of a larger, longitudinal mixed-methods study into reading fluency development using online Timed Reading (TR) with participants from a mid-to-high level private university…

  7. The Effects of Read Naturally on Reading Fluency and Comprehension for Students of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Tricia E.

    2011-01-01

    The achievement gap in reading between students of low versus high socioeconomic status (SES) is detrimental to students of low SES who struggle with basic reading skills such as fluency and comprehension. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the systematic use of Read Naturally, a repeated reading fluency-based program, significantly…

  8. Comparing Mathematics Interventions: Does Initial Level of Fluency Predict Intervention Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codding, Robin S.; Shiyko, Mariya; Russo, Maria; Birch, Sarah; Fanning, Erica; Jaspen, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    A paucity of research has directly compared empirically supported interventions to examine their effectiveness among students with different mathematics fluency skills. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two empirically supported interventions and a control condition on the mathematics fluency of 98 second and third grade…

  9. Using an Intelligent Tutor and Math Fluency Training to Improve Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Royer, James M.; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2011-01-01

    This article integrates research in intelligent tutors with psychology studies of memory and math fluency (the speed to retrieve or calculate answers to basic math operations). It describes the impact of computer software designed to improve either strategic behavior or math fluency. Both competencies are key to improved performance and both…

  10. Using Experimental Analysis to Determine Interventions for Reading Fluency and Recalls of Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of experimental analysis for determining a best intervention program for improving oral reading fluency for students with learning disabilities. Following a two-session baseline condition, four treatments to increase reading fluency (repeated reading, listening passage preview, repeated reading with easier…

  11. Comparing the Efficiency of Repeated Reading and Listening-While-Reading to Improve Fluency and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Marsicano, Richard; Schmitt, Ara J.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Musti-Rao, Shobana

    2015-01-01

    An alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of two reading fluency interventions on the oral reading fluency and maze accuracy of four fourth-grade students. Also, by taking into account time spent in intervention, the efficiency of the two interventions was compared. In the adult-mediated repeated reading (RR) condition,…

  12. Separation of encoding fluency and item difficulty effects on judgements of learning.

    PubMed

    Undorf, Monika; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    The fluency of information encoding has frequently been discussed as a major determinant of predicted memory performance indicated by judgements of learning (JOLs). Previous studies established encoding fluency effects on JOLs. However, it is largely unknown whether fluency takes effect above and beyond the effects of item difficulty. We therefore tested whether encoding fluency still affects JOLs when numerous additional cues indicating the difficulty of an item are available as well. In three experiments, participants made JOLs for another participant while observing his or her self-paced study phase. However, study times were swapped in one experimental condition, so that items with short study times (indicating high fluency) were presented for long durations, whereas items with long study times (indicating low fluency) were presented for short durations. Results showed that both item difficulty and encoding fluency affected JOLs. Thus, encoding fluency in itself is indeed an important cue for JOLs that does not become redundant when difficulty information is available in addition. This observation lends considerable support to the ease-of-processing hypothesis.

  13. Identity Priming Consistently Affects Perceptual Fluency but Only Affects Metamemory When Primes Are Obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susser, Jonathan A.; Jin, Andy; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual fluency manipulations influence metamemory judgments, with more fluently perceived information judged as more memorable. However, it is not always clear whether this influence is driven by actual experienced processing fluency or by beliefs about memory. The current study used an identity-priming paradigm--in which words are preceded by…

  14. Note on the Scoring of Foreign Language Speaking and Writing Fluency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    The problem of determining relative weights for quantity and quality in scoring foreign language speaking and writing fluency tests is studied. French speaking and writing fluency tests were administered to students of French in several schools in England. Data from these tests was analyzed to support the suggestion that scoring formulas should…

  15. Within-Year Oral Reading Fluency with CBM: A Comparison of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nese, Joseph F. T.; Biancarosa, Gina; Anderson, Daniel; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the type of growth model that best fit within-year growth in oral reading fluency and between-student differences in growth. Participants were 2,465 students in grades 3-5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses modeled curriculum-based measurement (CBM) oral reading fluency benchmark measures in fall, winter, and spring…

  16. Effects of a Fluency-Building Program on the Reading Performance of Low-Achieving Second and Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Brian K.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Begeny, John C.; Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; DiGennaro, Florence D.; Montarello, Staci A.; Arbolino, Lauren A.; Reed, Derek D.; Fiese, Barbara H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a fluency-based reading program with 15 second and third grade students and 15 matched controls. Gains in oral reading fluency on untrained CBM probes were evaluated using a matched-pairs group-comparison design, whereas immediate and two-day retention gains in oral reading fluency on trained passages were…

  17. A Rose in Any Other Font Would Not Smell as Sweet: Effects of Perceptual Fluency on Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M.; Frank, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Fluency--the ease with which people process information--is a central piece of information we take into account when we make judgments about the world. Prior research has shown that fluency affects judgments in a wide variety of domains, including frequency, familiarity, and confidence. In this paper, we present evidence that fluency also plays a…

  18. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  19. Examining the impact of feedback and repeated readings on oral reading fluency: let's not forget prosody.

    PubMed

    Ardoin, Scott P; Morena, Laura S; Binder, Katherine S; Foster, Tori E

    2013-12-01

    Although extensive research supports repeated readings (RR) as an intervention for improving reading fluency, it largely ignores reading prosody, which is a key component of reading fluency. The current study extends the RR literature by examining the impact of RR on prosody and whether the content of directions and feedback might impact what components of fluency are improved. Elementary students (N = 76) were randomly assigned to either a rate- or prosody-focused RR intervention. The study differs from existing RR research in that (a) students were average as opposed to struggling students, (b) prosody was evaluated, and (c) measures of prosody were objective as opposed to subjective. Results support previous research suggesting that RR improves fluency but indicate that the nature of the instruction and performance feedback provided to students influences the components of reading fluency (i.e., rate or prosody) that are improved.

  20. Intuitive (in)coherence judgments are guided by processing fluency, mood and affect.

    PubMed

    Sweklej, Joanna; Balas, Robert; Pochwatko, Grzegorz; Godlewska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Recently proposed accounts of intuitive judgments of semantic coherence assume that processing fluency results in a positive affective response leading to successful assessment of semantic coherence. The present paper investigates whether processing fluency may indicate semantic incoherence as well. In two studies, we employ a new paradigm in which participants have to detect an incoherent item among semantically coherent words. In Study 1, we show participants accurately indicating an incoherent item despite not being able to provide an accurate solution to coherent words. Further, this effect is modified by affective valence of solution words that are not retrieved from memory. Study 2 replicates those results and extend them by showing that mood moderates incoherence judgments independently of affective valence of solutions. The results support processing fluency account of intuitive semantic coherence judgments and show that it is not fluency per se but fluency variations that drive judgments.

  1. Generalization of verbal conditioning to verbal and nonverbal behavior: group therapy with chronic psychiatric patients1

    PubMed Central

    Tracey, Dorothy A.; Briddell, Dan W.; Wilson, G. Terence

    1974-01-01

    Twelve chronic hospitalized female patients received token reinforcement contingent on two separate classes of verbalizations: (a) positive statements about optional activities available in the hospital setting, and (b) positive statements about people. Cross-class generalization of reinforced verbal responses about activities to overt behavior was tested by actual participation in activities; within-class generalization of verbal responses about people to verbalizations in another stimulus setting was assessed in a structured interview situation. A multiple baseline design with contingency reversals was employed to demonstrate experimental control of both classes of verbalizations in the group sessions. Positive statements about activities generalized to actual participation in activities, while generalization of positive statements about people to verbalization in the extragroup setting did not occur. PMID:4465377

  2. Verbal Conditioning of Value-Related Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliston, Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    The results clearly indicate support for the general hypothesis of differential verbal conditioning effects as a function of the interaction between value related content and the S's personal value orientation. (Author)

  3. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  4. Novice motor performance: better not to verbalize.

    PubMed

    Chauvel, Guillaume; Maquestiaux, François; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André; Hartley, Alan A

    2013-02-01

    Offline verbalization about a new motor experience is often assumed to positively influence subsequent performance. Here, we evaluated this presumed positive influence and whether it originates from declarative or from procedural knowledge using the explicit/implicit motor-learning paradigm. To this end, 80 nongolfers learned to perform a golf-putting task with high error rates (i.e., explicit motor learning), and thus relied on declarative knowledge, or low error rates (i.e., implicit motor learning), and thus relied on procedural knowledge. Afterward, they either put their memories of the previous motor experience into words or completed an irrelevant verbal task. Finally, they performed the putting task again. Verbalization did not improve novice motor performance: Putting was impaired, overall, and especially so for high-error learners. We conclude that declarative knowledge is altered by verbalization, whereas procedural knowledge is not. PMID:23073721

  5. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  6. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  7. Virtual annotation: Verbal communication in virtual reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinden, Jouke C.; Bolter, Jay David; Vandermast, Charles

    A system that was developed to explore communication in virtual reality and which offers a simple and powerful method to embed verbal communication in simulations and visualizers by means of voice annotation is described. The prototype demonstrates that the addition of verbal communication opens up a range of new uses for virtual environments. A similar voice annotation facility is easily added to existing visualizers and simulations, and it enables reading, writing and communicating.

  8. Effects of processing fluency on comparative performance judgments.

    PubMed

    Reber, Rolf; Meier, Beat; Ruch-Monachon, Marie-Antoinette; Tiberini, Mara

    2006-11-01

    Research has shown that performance predictions are biased by the impact of processing fluency. However, existing data are inconclusive with regard to comparative judgments of performance. In five experiments, participants in an easy condition gave more favorable comparative judgments than participants in a difficult condition. Participants judged their performance more favorably if they named colors of non-color words rather than non-matching color words (Experiment 1), if they had to generate six words of a category rather than 12 words (Experiment 2), if they had to run in place for 15 s rather than 2 min (Experiment 3), but the latter result holds only true if participants were not active in sports (Experiment 4). When 67% of the items in a recognition test were old words, participants thought that their recognition performance was better than when 33% of the items were old words, although recognition performance did not differ between groups (Experiment 5). We discuss this result in the light of recent theories about effects of processing fluency on judgments.

  9. Verbal Overshadowing and Face Recognition in Young and Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinlen, Thomas J.; Adams-Price, Carolyn E.; Henley, Tracy B.

    2007-01-01

    Verbal overshadowing has been found to disrupt recognition accuracy when hard-to-describe stimuli are used. The current study replicates previous research on verbal overshadowing with younger people and extends this research into an older population to examine the possible link between verbal expertise and verbal overshadowing. It was hypothesized…

  10. Task-dependent and polarity-specific effects of prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation on cortical activation during word fluency.

    PubMed

    Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Haeussinger, Florian B; Gastel, Alex; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Plewnia, Christian

    2016-10-15

    Targeted modulation of cortical functions by non-invasive brain stimulation is widely used for the investigation of the neurophysiological signatures of executive functions and put forward as a potential specific treatment for its disorders. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms, we performed two experiments involving 46 subjects that performed a semantic and a phonological verbal fluency task (VFT) as well as a simple speech-production task after application of 1mA anodal or cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Brain activation was measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during task performance. Neither preceding anodal nor cathodal tDCS was found to modulate VFT performance of either difficulty. However, preconditioning with anodal tDCS increased brain activity during the VFT whereas a trendwise decrease of activation was found after cathodal stimulation. Notably, this difference was not found with simple speech production. These findings support the notion of a polarity-specific malleability of neuronal network activity underlying speech production by tDCS. Most importantly, the task-specificity of the modulatory effect observed after the end of stimulation demonstrates lasting neurophysiological effects of tDCS that are reflected in modifications of cortical excitability by challenging cognitive tasks. PMID:26748077

  11. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  12. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-08-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  13. Time course of regional brain activity accompanying auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Ralph E.; Pittman, Brian; Constable, R. Todd; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Hampson, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations remains poorly understood. Aims To characterise the time course of regional brain activity leading to auditory verbal hallucinations. Method During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 11 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder signalled auditory verbal hallucination events by pressing a button. To control for effects of motor behaviour, regional activity associated with hallucination events was scaled against corresponding activity arising from random button-presses produced by 10 patients who did not experience hallucinations. Results Immediately prior to the hallucinations, motor-adjusted activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus was significantly greater than corresponding activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus. In contrast, motor-adjusted activity in a right posterior temporal region overshadowed corresponding activity in the left homologous temporal region. Robustly elevated motor-adjusted activity in the left temporal region associated with auditory verbal hallucinations was also detected, but only subsequent to hallucination events. At the earliest time shift studied, the correlation between left inferior frontal gyrus and right temporal activity was significantly higher for the hallucination group compared with non-hallucinating patients. Conclusions Findings suggest that heightened functional coupling between the left inferior frontal gyrus and right temporal regions leads to coactivation in these speech processing regions that is hallucinogenic. Delayed left temporal activation may reflect impaired corollary discharge contributing to source misattribution of resulting verbal images. PMID:21972276

  14. Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…

  15. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  16. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior" in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  17. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Scholarship Published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior": 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Nosik, Melissa R.; Lechago, Sarah A.; Phillips, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This annotated bibliography summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of "The Analysis of Verbal Behavior," the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Seventeen such articles were published in 2014 and are annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Scholarship Published Outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior: 2014.

    PubMed

    Carr, James E; Nosik, Melissa R; Lechago, Sarah A; Phillips, Lauren

    2015-06-01

    This annotated bibliography summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Seventeen such articles were published in 2014 and are annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  19. An Annotated Bibliography of Verbal Behavior Articles Published Outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior: 2015.

    PubMed

    Lechago, Sarah A; Phillips, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    An annotated bibliography is provided that summarizes journal articles on verbal behavior published outside of The Analysis of Verbal Behavior in 2015, the primary journal for scholarship in this area. Thirty such articles were identified and annotated as a resource for practitioners, researchers, and educators.

  20. Verbal Knowledge, Working Memory, and Processing Speed as Predictors of Verbal Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rast, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at modeling individual differences in a verbal learning task by means of a latent structured growth curve approach based on an exponential function that yielded 3 parameters: initial recall, learning rate, and asymptotic performance. Three cognitive variables--speed of information processing, verbal knowledge, working…