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Sample records for popular herbal remedy

  1. Drug interactions in African herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Herbal usage remains popular as an alternative or complementary form of treatment, especially in Africa. However, the misconception that herbal remedies are safe due to their "natural" origins jeopardizes human safety, as many different interactions can occur with concomitant use with other pharmaceuticals on top of potential inherent toxicity. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly polymorphic, and pose a problem for pharmaceutical drug tailoring to meet an individual's specific metabolic activity. The influence of herbal remedies further complicates this. The plants included in this review have been mainly researched for determining their effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters. Usage of herbal remedies, such as Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens and Harpagophytum procumbensis popular in Africa. The literature suggests that there is a potential for drug-herb interactions, which could occur through alterations in metabolism and transportation of drugs. Research has primarily been conducted in vitro, whereas in vivo data are lacking. Research concerning the effect of African herbals on drug metabolism should also be approached, as specific plants are especially popular in conjunction with certain treatments. Although these interactions can be beneficial, the harm they pose is just as great. PMID:21756221

  2. A guide to herbal remedies

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects. Here are some examples: Kava is an herb used for anxiety, insomnia, symptoms of menopause, and ... about specific herbal supplements: NIH MedlinePlus database of herbs and supplements -- www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/ ...

  3. Uranium concentrations in South African herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Vanessa; Stewart, Michael J; Chimuka, Luke; Cukrowska, Ewa

    2005-12-01

    South Africa contains some of the world's largest mineral deposits, which include uranium. Uranium is mined as a by-product of gold production. The uranium content of the surface soil and groundwater in South Africa has been measured and shows marked variation, depending on location. Herbal remedies are collected by traditional healers from many sites, some of which may be contaminated. Thirty herbal remedies were analyzed using a sensitive adsorptive stripping voltammetry method. Eight samples had levels below the limit of detection, but in five the levels were greatly elevated, showing concentrations above 40,000 ppb. The mean uranium concentration of the remainder of the specimens was of the order of 15,000 ppb. We have attempted to put these data into context by comparison with other studies of absorption of uranium by the oral route.

  4. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  5. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  6. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.

  7. Herbal remedy clinical trials in the media: a comparison with the coverage of conventional pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Bubela, Tania; Boon, Heather; Caulfield, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Background This study systematically compares newspaper coverage of clinical trials for herbal remedies, a popular type of complementary and alternative medicine, with clinical trials for pharmaceuticals using a comparative content analysis. This is a timely inquiry given the recognized importance of the popular press as a source of health information, the complex and significant role of complementary and alternative medicine in individual health-care decisions, and the trend toward evidence-based research for some complementary and alternative medical therapies. We searched PubMed for clinical trials, Lexis/Nexis for newspaper articles in the UK, US, Australia/New Zealand, and Factiva for Canadian newspaper articles from 1995 to 2005. We used a coding frame to analyze and compare 48 pharmaceutical and 57 herbal remedy clinical trials as well as 201 pharmaceutical and 352 herbal remedy newspaper articles. Results Herbal remedy clinical trials had similar Jadad scores to pharmaceutical trials but were significantly smaller and of shorter duration. The trials were mostly studies from Western countries and published in high-ranking journals. The majority of pharmaceutical (64%) and herbal remedy (53%) clinical trials had private sector funding involvement. A minority declared further author conflicts of interest. Newspaper coverage of herbal remedy clinical trials was more negative than for pharmaceutical trials; a result only partly explained by the greater proportion of herbal remedy clinical trials reporting negative results (P = 0.0201; χ2 = 7.8129; degrees of freedom = 2). Errors of omission were common in newspaper coverage, with little reporting of dose, sample size, location, and duration of the trial, methods, trial funding, and conflicts of interest. There was an under-reporting of risks, especially for herbal remedies. Conclusion Our finding of negative coverage of herbal remedy trials is contrary to the positive trends in most published research based

  8. Use of herbal remedies among patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Roozbeh, Jamshid; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence, types, and associated factors for the use of herbal remedies in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred participants were selected by stratified sampling and were systematically interviewed. One hundred and twenty-six patients (63%) had used herbal remedies some time since their initiation of dialysis treatment. The users of herbal remedies had a significantly older age than nonusers, but no other significant differences were observed. The most prevalent complaints that led to herbal remedies use were gastroenterological complaints, flushing, and excessive thirst. Cichorium intybus, Borage officinalis, Mentha longifolia, and Matricaria recutita were the most prevalently used herbs in our patients. More study should be done on safety and efficacy of these herbs for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24241097

  9. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  10. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials. PMID:24946435

  11. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials.

  12. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

  13. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... counter remedies. Over-the-counter refers to medicines, herbs, or supplements you can buy without a prescription. ... memory loss, and mood problems. Supplements with the herb Acacia rigidula labeled on the packaging often contain ...

  14. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançlı, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  15. Perceived efficacy of herbal remedies by users accessing primary healthcare in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Yuri N; Morton-Gittens, Jamie; Basdeo, Luke; Blades, Alexander; Francis, Marie-Joanna; Gomes, Natalie; Janjua, Meer; Singh, Adelle

    2007-01-01

    Background The increasing global popularity of herbal remedies requires further investigation to determine the probable factors driving this burgeoning phenomenon. We propose that the users' perception of efficacy is an important factor and assessed the perceived efficacy of herbal remedies by users accessing primary health facilities throughout Trinidad. Additionally, we determined how these users rated herbal remedies compared to conventional allopathic medicines as being less, equally or more efficacious. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken at 16 randomly selected primary healthcare facilities throughout Trinidad during June-August 2005. A de novo, pilot-tested questionnaire was interviewer-administered to confirmed herbal users (previous or current). Stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to determine the influence of predictor variables on perceived efficacy and comparative efficacy with conventional medicines. Results 265 herbal users entered the study and cited over 100 herbs for the promotion of health/wellness and the management of specific health concerns. Garlic was the most popular herb (in 48.3% of the sample) and was used for the common cold, cough, fever, as 'blood cleansers' and carminatives. It was also used in 20% of hypertension patients. 230 users (86.8%) indicated that herbs were efficacious and perceived that they had equal or greater efficacy than conventional allopathic medicines. Gender, ethnicity, income and years of formal education did not influence patients' perception of herb efficacy; however, age did (p = 0.036). Concomitant use of herbs and allopathic medicines was relatively high at 30%; and most users did not inform their attending physician. Conclusion Most users perceived that herbs were efficacious, and in some instances, more efficacious than conventional medicines. We suggest that this perception may be a major contributing factor influencing the sustained and increasing popularity of herbs

  16. Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.

    PubMed

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

    2014-02-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ∼50% inhibition at a 1 ∶ 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ∼ 50% inhibition at a 1 ∶ 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

  17. A Manual of Cherokee Herbal Remedies: History, Information, Identification, Medicinal Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Patricia D.

    This thesis reports on the research of 25 plants, used as herbal remedies since the 1800s by the author's Native American ancestors (the Day family) and the Cherokee tribe. The plants were identified in four state parks in southwestern Indiana. Information sources included the research literature, articles on Cherokee herbal remedies, and…

  18. Acute renal failure following the use of herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Otieno, L S; McLigeyo, S O; Luta, M

    1991-12-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) complicated the use of traditional herbal remedies in six adult patients seen at Kenyatta National Hospital in a 2-year period (August 1984 to August 1986). This comprised 10.9% of all the cases of ARF and 24% of the cases of ARF due to medical causes. All the patients were oliguric and the period of oliguria in the four patients who survived ranged between 19-57 days (mean 26.3 days). Five of the patients had evidence of fluid overload. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were elevated in all the patients. The serum sodium was normal in all, while the serum potassium was elevated in 2 cases. Identity of the herbal medication was unknown in all the cases. The indication was abdominal pain in 4 cases, infertility and abdominal pain in one and prophylaxis against witchcraft in the other. All the patients were started on haemodialysis, two of them having had periods of peritoneal dialysis for 12 and 16 days. Two patients died. Of the four surviving patients, follow up has been carried out for 8, 6, 5 and 4 months. At four months follow up the creatinine clearance in the 4 surviving patients have been 54, 63, 51 and 43 ml/min.

  19. A Cases of Near-fatal Anaphylaxis: Parsley "Over-use" as an Herbal Remedy.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevket; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2014-12-01

    The use of herbal products in patients with allergic diseases is a special problem and still controversial. But, many people often use herbs to maintain good health. The patients use self-prescribed remedies as medications but do not inform their physicians about herbal use. Unfortunately, some herbal self-medications may have unexpected effects and interactions which may lead to fatal complications. In this report, we describe a female patient who suffered near-fatal anaphylaxis to parsley.

  20. HERBAL REMEDIES OF STREET VENDORS FOR SOME URINO-GENITAL DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajiv K

    1992-01-01

    The herbal vendors are the mobile tribal medicinement seen on the busy streets of many Indian cities selling crude medicinal plants and their products. They prescribe herbal treatment for several diseases, a skill they inherited from their forefathers through several generations of experience. They claim to have specific herbal remedies for the complete cure of some urino – genital disorders such as dysuria, hematuria, syphilis and gonorrhea. Cocculus villosus, pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania Somnifera, Asparagus racemosus and Curculigo orchoides are the herbal drugs of choice used in the treatment. PMID:22556586

  1. Management of insomnia: a place for traditional herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    (1) Insomnia should be treated first with non drug measures; this has traditionally involved the use of herbal remedies. (2) About 20 plants are approved in France in the production of medications 'traditionally used' for minor sleep disturbances. Virtually nothing is known of their efficacy or potential dangers. (3) Most of these plants are suspected of toxicity and should therefore be avoided, especially in view of their unproven efficacy. (4) Littleleaf linden, vervain, melissa and orange flower have no demonstrated efficacy but are safe and can therefore be used. Similarly, there are no scientific grounds for rejecting preparations based on hawthorn or passiflora. (5) Available data suggest that valerian extracts have a modest impact on subjective sleep quality; they are nevertheless more effective than a placebo. Valerian products that do not contain valepotriates have no apparent adverse effects. It is best to avoid high-titre alcoholic extracts and powdered valerian root, and to select aqueous extracts and low-titre hydro-alcoholic preparations.

  2. Community pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkharfy, K M

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing trend towards consumption of complementary and alternative herbal products in many parts of the world. A cross-sectional sample of 115 community pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was visited and information on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies was collected using a structured questionnaire. All pharmacists acknowledged dispensing herbal products through their pharmacies. Ginseng was the most widely used product (47%), followed by ginkgo (23%), valerian (17%) and S.t John's wort (3.5%). In general, pharmacists had poor awareness about potential herb-drug interactions. While 56% of participating pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of herbal remedies, 30% considered them to be harmless. Community pharmacists need to be better informed about herbal products. PMID:21218728

  3. Indian herbal remedies for diabetes as a cause of lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Keen, R W; Deacon, A C; Delves, H T; Moreton, J A; Frost, P G

    1994-02-01

    Herbal remedies from the Indian subcontinent have been found to have high concentrations of heavy metals and unsupervised treatment may result in toxicity. We report the case of an Indian patient with hepatitis who was found to have lead poisoning where the source was traced to ethnic remedies he had been taking for diabetes. PMID:8170881

  4. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  5. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  6. Data on heavy metals and selected anions in the Persian popular herbal distillates.

    PubMed

    Keshtkar, Mozhgan; Dobaradaran, Sina; Soleimani, Farshid; Karbasdehi, Vahid Noroozi; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Mirahmadi, Roghayeh; Ghasemi, Fatemeh Faraji

    2016-09-01

    In this data article, we determined the concentration levels of heavy metals including Pb, Co, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Cu as well as selected anions including [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in the most used and popular herbal distillates in Iran. It is well known that heavy metals may pose a serious health hazard due to their bioaccumulation throughout the trophic chain ("Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in Bushehr Port, Iran" (Dobaradaran et al., 2013) [1]; "Comparative investigation of heavy metal, trace, and macro element contents in commercially valuable fish species harvested off from the Persian Gulf" (Abadi et al., 2015) [2]) as well as some other environmental pollutions, "Assessment of sediment quality based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in heavily industrialized area of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf: concentrations, spatial distributions, and sediment bioavailability/toxicity" (Arfaeinia et al., 2016) [3]. The concentration levels of heavy metals and anions in herbal distillates samples were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS, Varian AA240, Australia) and a spectrophotometer (M501 Single Beam Scanning UV/VIS, UK) respectively. PMID:27274526

  7. Low potency homeopathic remedies and allopathic herbal medicines: is there an overlap?

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezső; Boros, Klára; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance.

  8. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded.

  9. Involvement of liver in diabetes mellitus: herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Thent, Z C; Das, S

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is considered as one of the major complications in oxidative stress disorders like diabetes mellitus (DM). DM presents with deterioration in carbohydrate metabolism which is characterized with chronic hyperglycemia. The organ which involves in glucose or carbohydrate metabolism and is most likely to be affected is the liver. Deterioration in liver architecture and metabolism in DM, are considered as common findings. In the present review both biochemical and histological changes occurring in diabetic liver are conferred in detail. To counteract the oxidative stress disorders and its untoward complications, antioxidant or herbs have emerged as alternative medicine. The present review focuses on several herbs with antioxidant properties towards diabetic liver disease such as Liquorice, Pelargonium gravenolens, Momordica charantia, Propolis from bee hives, Dihar, Curcuma Longa, Tinospora cordifolia, Kangen-karyu, Parsley, Chard, Green tea Catechins and Piper sarmentosum (P.s). The herbs or the compounds present in herbs have potential to improve the liver metabolism and maintain the integrity of liver tissue in DM. The review also opens the door for effective use of herbal products for complications involved in the diabetic liver disease. PMID:25203338

  10. Herbal plants and plant preparations as remedial approach for viral diseases.

    PubMed

    Ganjhu, Rajesh Kumar; Mudgal, Piya Paul; Maity, Hindol; Dowarha, Deepu; Devadiga, Santhosha; Nag, Snehlata; Arunkumar, Govindakarnavar

    2015-12-01

    Herbal plants, plant preparations and phytoconstituents have proved useful in attenuating infectious conditions and were the only remedies available, till the advent of antibiotics (many being of plant origin themselves). Among infectious diseases, viral diseases in particular, remain the leading cause of death in humans globally. A variety of phytoconstituents derived from medicinal herbs have been extensively studied for antiviral activity. Based on this rationale, an online search was performed, which helped to identify a large number of plant species harboring antiviral molecules. These herbal sources have been reported individually or in combinations across a large number of citations studied. Activities against rabies virus, Human immunodeficiency virus, Chandipura virus, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Enterovirus, Influenza A/H1N1 and other influenza viruses were discovered during the literature search. This review includes all such plant species exhibiting antiviral properties. The review also encompasses composition and methodologies of preparing various antiviral formulations around the globe. An elaborate section on the formulations filed for patent registration, along with non-patented formulations, has also been included in this article. To conclude, herbal sources provide researchers enormous scope to explore and bring out viable alternatives against viral diseases, considering non-availability of suitable drug candidates and increasing resistance to existing drug molecules for many emerging and re-emerging viral diseases. PMID:26645032

  11. A gap between acceptance and knowledge of herbal remedies by physicians: The need for educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Yuri N; Williams, Arlene F; Khan, Kristi; Bernard, Tricia; Bhola, Savrina; Fortuné, Maurice; Medupe, Oneil; Nagee, Kerry; Seaforth, Compton E

    2005-01-01

    Background The unprecedented global increase in the use of herbal remedies is set to continue apace well into the foreseeable future. This raises important public health concerns, especially as it relates to safety issues including adverse effects and herb-drug interactions. Most Western-trained physicians are ignorant of the risks and benefits of this healthcare modality and assessment of acceptance and knowledge would identify appropriate intervention strategies to improve physician-patient communication in this area. Methods A cross-sectional survey was done using an interviewer-administered pilot tested de novo questionnaire at six public hospitals in Trinidad between May–July 2004. The questionnaire utilized weighed questions to quantify acceptance (maximum score = 14 points) and knowledge (maximum score = 52 points). Acceptance and knowledge scores were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Results Of 192 physicians interviewed, most (60.4%) believed that herbal remedies were beneficial to health. Respondents had relatively high acceptance levels (mean = 5.69 ± 0.29 points or 40% of total possible score) and poor knowledge (mean = 7.77 ± 0.56 points or 15% of total possible score). Seventy-eight physicians (40.6%) admitted having used herbs in the past, and 60 of these (76.9%) were satisfied with the outcome. Although 52 physicians (27.1%) recommended the use of herbs to their patients only 29 (15.1%) were able to identify at least one known herb-drug interaction. Conclusion The use of herbal remedies is relatively high in Trinidad, as throughout the world, and most patients self-medicate with or without the knowledge of their attending physician. Surprisingly, we demonstrated relatively high acceptance levels and use of herbs among physicians in Trinidad. This interesting scenario of high acceptance levels and poor knowledge creates a situation that demands urgent intervention. We recommend educational intervention to narrow the gap between

  12. A Critical Approach to Evaluating Clinical Efficacy, Adverse Events and Drug Interactions of Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Hoon-Kim, Sung; Radhakrishnan, Rajan; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent the uppermost ladders in the hierarchy of evidence. Systematic reviews/meta-analyses suggest preliminary or satisfactory clinical evidence for agnus castus (Vitex agnus castus) for premenstrual complaints, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) for hypertension, feverfew (Tanacetum partenium) for migraine prevention, ginger (Zingiber officinalis) for pregnancy-induced nausea, ginseng (Panax ginseng) for improving fasting glucose levels as well as phytoestrogens and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the relief of some symptoms in menopause. However, firm conclusions of efficacy cannot be generally drawn. On the other hand, inconclusive evidence of efficacy or contradictory results have been reported for Aloe vera in the treatment of psoriasis, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in cystitis prevention, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) for tinnitus and intermittent claudication, echinacea (Echinacea spp.) for the prevention of common cold and pomegranate (Punica granatum) for the prevention/treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A critical evaluation of the clinical data regarding the adverse effects has shown that herbal remedies are generally better tolerated than synthetic medications. Nevertheless, potentially serious adverse events, including herb-drug interactions, have been described. This suggests the need to be vigilant when using herbal remedies, particularly in specific conditions, such as during pregnancy and in the paediatric population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887532

  13. Herbal remedy in the treatment of malaria: cross sectional survey of residents of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Idowu, E T; Mafe, M A; Otubanjo, O A; Adeneye, A K

    2006-06-01

    Semi structured questionnaires. designed to capture information on the type. composition, method of preparation. dosage, mode of administration. and frequency of use of herbal preparations in malaria treatment, were administered to 1,593 adults of the 3 main ethnic groups and a forth group comprising other smaller ethnic groups designated as "others", all resident in Lagos metropolis in a cross sectional survey. The 1,593 respondents were made up of 892 males and 701 females and their ages ranged from 19 to 60 years. A high percentage in all the ethnic groups especially the Yorubas admitted to the use of herbs in treating malaria [Yoruba (69%), Hausa (47%). others (32%) and Igbo (30%)1. Effectiveness of herbs in treating malaria episodes featured as the major factor for their use. as claimed by the majority (>50%) of the respondents in each of the ethnic groups, while cost consideration was the next most important factor. Other factors mentioned included the absence of side effect in herbal use. to avoid the itchy side effect and ineffectiveness of chloroquine and some other anti-malarials. An appreciable percentage across the ethnic groups had no idea of the constituents of the herbal remedies they use for treating their malaria episodes since they buy these from traditional herbalists. Varied combinations of these herbs in combination with different types of fruits and other substances are claimed to be used, the main ones of which are Azardiracha indica and pineapple. A large majority of respondents in all the ethnic groups claimed to use the same herbs for the treatment and prevention of malaria and great improvement is experienced after use [Hausas (90%). Igbos (83%). Yorubas (77%) and the others (88%)]. There is usually no specific dose or dose regimen. however a high proportion in all the ethnic groups use herbal preparation thrice a day and a few of the respondents take unspecified measures at arbitrary intervals. The lack of standards in the use of these

  14. [Amborum Special F and ASFO--2 glucocorticoid-containing herbal remedies].

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, A; Schafroth, U; Paky, A; Galeazzi, R L

    1989-06-01

    Amborum Special F and ASFO are two names of a herbal remedy which is adulterated with the glucocorticoid betamethasone. Patients with asthma, rheumatic and chronic diseases import the drug direct from Burbank, California, USA. Its impressive antiasthmatic effect is reported in two patients. While under therapy the first patient developed Cushing's syndrome and the second showed suppression of adrenal cortisol production. The manufacturer, who claims that the drug contains no "western medicine" and in particular no cortisone, is unscrupulous enough to recommend it for children under two years of age. We have observed that a marked glucocorticoid effect and marked glucocorticoid side effects are achieved with small doses of betamethasone. A review of the literature and the two cases reported here suggest that the equivalence doses given in textbooks and tables of glucocorticoid equipotency are incorrect for betamethasone. Betamethasone is a more potent glucocorticoid than hitherto reported.

  15. Mass spectrometric analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in products labeled as botanical dietary supplements or herbal remedies: a review.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-11-01

    The increased availability and use of botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies among consumers has been accompanied by an increased frequency of adulteration of these products with synthetic pharmaceuticals. Unscrupulous producers may add drugs and analogues of various classes, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, weight loss, hypoglycemic, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory agents, or anabolic steroids, to develop or intensify biological effects of dietary supplements or herbal remedies. The presence of such adulterated products in the marketplace is a worldwide problem and their consumption poses health risks to consumers. Analytical methods that allow rapid and reliable testing of dietary supplements for the presence of synthetic drugs are needed to address such fraudulent practices. Mass spectrometry (MS) and hyphenated techniques such as liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have become primary tools in this endeavor. The present review critically assesses the role and summarizes the applications of MS in the analysis of pharmaceutical adulterants in botanical dietary supplements and herbal remedies. The uses of MS techniques in detection, confirmation, and quantification of known pharmaceutical adulterants as well as in screening for and structure elucidation of unexpected adulterants and novel designer drugs are discussed. PMID:25270866

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term. PMID:22619927

  17. The Effect of Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Herbal Remedy PADMA 28 on Immunological Angiogenesis and Granulocytes Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopiński, Piotr; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Sławomir; Kocik, Janusz; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    PADMA 28 is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, angioprotecting, and wound healing properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of this remedy on immunological angiogenesis and granulocytes metabolic activity in Balb/c mice. Mice were fed daily, for seven days, with 5.8 mg of PADMA (calculated from recommended human daily dose) or 0.085 mg (dose in the range of active doses of other herbal extracts studied by us previously). Results. Highly significant increase of newly formed blood vessels number in ex vivo cutaneous lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis test (LIA) after grafting of Balb/c splenocytes from both dosage groups to F1 hybrids (Balb/c × C3H); increase of blood lymphocytes and granulocytes number only in mice fed with lower dose of remedy; and significant suppression of metabolic activity (chemiluminescence test) of blood granulocytes in mice fed with higher dose of PADMA. Conclusion. PADMA 28 behaves as a good stimulator of physiological angiogenesis, but for this purpose it should be used in substantially lower doses than recommended by producers for avoiding the deterioration of granulocyte function. PMID:23864768

  18. Studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus).

    PubMed

    Doan, D D; Nguyen, N H; Doan, H K; Nguyen, T L; Phan, T S; van Dau, N; Grabe, M; Johansson, R; Lindgren, G; Stjernström, N E

    1992-06-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used in Vietnam alongside modern drugs. We assessed the diuretic effect of four traditional Vietnamese herbal remedies from Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus, all claimed to produce an increase of diuresis. No influence was recorded for the 12- and 24-h urine output or on the sodium excretion for any of the drugs when tested under standardized conditions in a placebo controlled double-blind crossover model. The present study indicates the need for critical review of the present recommendations regarding therapy with plant materials in countries relying on empiric traditions. PMID:1434681

  19. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  20. Use of Network Centrality Measures to Explain Individual Levels of Herbal Remedy Cultural Competence among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Common herbal remedy knowledge varies and is transmitted among individuals who are connected through a social network. Thus, social relationships have the potential to account for some of the variation in knowledge. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA) and social network analysis (SNA) were used together to study the association between intracultural variation in botanical remedy knowledge and social relationships in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. CCA, a theory of culture as agreement, was used to assess the competence of individuals in a domain of herbal remedies by measuring individual competence scores within that domain. There was a weak but positive association between these competence scores and network centrality scores. This association disappeared when age was included in the model. People in Tabi, who have higher competence in herbal remedies tend to be older and more centrally located in the herbal remedy inquiry network. The larger implication of the application of CCA and SNA for understanding the acquisition and transmission of cultural knowledge is also explored. PMID:21909235

  1. New Finding of an Anti-TB Compound in the Genus Marsypopetalum (Annonaceae) from a Traditional Herbal Remedy of Laos

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Bethany G.; Sydara, Kongmany; Newsome, Andrew; Hwang, Chang Hwa; Lankin, David C.; Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; Ree, Richard; Graham, James G.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Bouamanivong, Somsanith; Souliya, Onevilay; Pauli, Guido F.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Soejarto, Djaja Djendoel

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance There is widespread use of traditional herbal remedies in the Lao PDR (Laos). It is common practice to treat many diseases with local plants. This research project documented and analysed some of these traditional remedies used to treat symptoms of tuberculosis (TB). Materials and methods This research was executed by interviewing healers about plants used traditionally to treat the symptoms of TB. Samples of some of the plants were collected, and extracts of 77 species were submitted to various in vitro assays in order to determine the amount of growth inhibition of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb), as opposed to other microbes and mammalian Vero cells. Results Interviews took place with 58 contemporary healers in 5 different provinces about plants currently used, giving a list of 341 plants. Bioassay-guided fractionation was performed on Marsypopetalum modestum (Pierre) B. Xue & R.M.K. Saunders (Annonaceae), leading to the isolation of dipyrithione, an anti-mycobacterial compound isolated for the first time from the genus Marsypopetalum through this research. Conclusions This research has helped to increase awareness of Laos’ rich diversity of medicinal plants and will hopefully provide incentive to preserve the undeveloped forested areas that remain, which still hold a wealth of medical information for future discoveries. PMID:24333958

  2. Herbal Remedies Used by Selected Migrant Farmworkers in El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poss, Jane; Pierce, Rebecca; Prieto, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the use of complementary and alternative medicine among the approximately 1.6 million migrant farmworkers in the United States. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of medicinal plants and natural remedies among a convenience sample of 100 migrant farmworkers living temporarily in a migrant worker center in El…

  3. Traditional Herbal Remedies for Burn Wound Healing in Canon of Avicenna

    PubMed Central

    Aliasl, Jale; Khoshzaban, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Burns are a worldwide problem. The incidence of severe burns has been higher than the combined incidence of tuberculosis and HIV infections. Throughout history there have been many different treatments prescribed for burns. The Canon is the masterpiece of Avicenna’s medical books. The Canon includes a description of 785 simple drugs. Avicenna believed in burn treatment, which follows two goals. The first goal is prevention of blistering and the second goal is treatment of the burn wound after it has created blisters, cold drugs are suitable for the first goal and dry drugs with moderate in cold and hot qualities are better for second goal, this study reviewed remedies for burn wounds in Canon.

  4. Ethnoveterinary herbal remedies used by farmers in four north-eastern Swiss cantons (St. Gallen, Thurgau, Appenzell Innerrhoden and Appenzell Ausserrhoden)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few ethnoveterinary surveys have been conducted in central Europe. However, traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants might be an option for future concepts in treatment of livestock diseases. Therefore the aim of this study was to document and analyse the traditional knowledge and use of homemade herbal remedies for livestock by farmers in four Swiss cantons. Methods Research was conducted in 2012. Fifty farmers on 38 farms were interviewed with the aid of semistructured interviews. Detailed information about the plants used and their mode of preparation were documented as well as dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with the treatment. Results In total, 490 homemade remedies were collected. Out of these, 315 homemade remedies contained only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedies, HSHR), which are presented in this paper. Seventy six species from 44 botanical families were mentioned. The most HSHR were quoted for the families of Asteraceae, Polygonaceae and Urticaceae. The plant species with the highest number of HSHRs were Matricaria recutita L., Calendula officinalis L., Rumex obtusifolius L. and Urtica dioica L. For each HSHR, one to eight different applications were enumerated. A total of 428 applications were documented, the majority of which were used to treat cattle. The main applications were in treatment of skin afflictions and sores, followed by gastrointestinal disorders and metabolic dysfunctions. Topical administration was most frequently used, followed by oral administration. In nearly half of the cases the knowledge on preparing and using herbal remedies was from forefathers and relatives. More than one third of the applications were used more than ten times during the last five years, and in about sixty percent of the cases, the last application was during the last year preceding the interviews. Conclusions Traditional knowledge of

  5. Pathway-focused bioassays and transcriptome analysis contribute to a better activity monitoring of complex herbal remedies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptome analysis in combination with pathway-focused bioassays is suggested to be a helpful approach for gaining deeper insights into the complex mechanisms of action of herbal multicomponent preparations in living cells. The polyherbalism based concept of Tibetan and Ayurvedic medicine considers therapeutic efficacy through multi-target effects. A polyherbal Indo-Tibetan preparation, Padma 28, approved by the Swiss drug authorities (Swissmedic Nr. 58436), was applied to a more detailed dissection of mechanism of action in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Cell-free and cell-based assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity. Genome-wide expression profiling was done by applying Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Affymetrix arrays. Pathway- and network-oriented analysis elucidated the affected biological processes. The results were validated using reporter gene assays and quantitative real-time PCR. Results To reveal the direct radical scavenging effects of the ethanolic extract of the Indo-Tibetan polyherbal remedy Padma 28, an in vitro oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) was employed, which resulted in a peroxyl-radical scavenging activity of 2006 ± 235 μmol TE/g. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of Padma 28 was analysed in living HepG2 cells, by measuring its scavenging potential against radical induced ROS. This formulation showed a considerable antioxidant capacity by significantly reducing ROS levels in a dose-dependent manner. Integrated transcriptome analysis revealed a major influence on phase I and phase II detoxification and the oxidative stress response. Selected target genes, such as heme oxygenase 1, were validated in qPCR experiments. Network analysis showed 18 interrelated networks involved in important biological functions such as drug and bio-molecule metabolism, molecular transport and cellular communication. Some molecules are part of signaling cascades that are active during development and morphogenesis or

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopiński, P.; Bałan, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopińska-Różewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect. PMID:23935247

  7. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M.; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  8. A natural herbal remedy modulates angiogenic activity of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Radomska-Leśniewska, Dorota M; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula; Jóźwiak, Jarosław; Sobiecka, Małgorzata; Bałan, Barbara Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease with abnormally high angiogenic activity of inflammatory cells. Reumaherb preparation consisting of three herbs: Echinacea purpurea, Harpagophytum procumbens, and Filipendula ulmaria, and it exerts anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic activity and stimulates regenerative and immunological processes. The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of Reumaherb on immunological angiogenesis induced by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells collected from six patients with sarcoidosis and grafted into Balb/c mice skin. After grafting, the animals were fed for three days with 0.6 or 1.2 mg of Reumaherb (calculated from recommended human daily dose) daily, suspended in 40 µl of water, or 40 µl of water alone (control group). A significant reduction of newly formed blood vessels was obtained in four cases for 1.2 mg and in three cases for 0.6 mg daily dose of this remedy. Thus, we hypothesise that Reumaherb promotes anti-angiogenic activity and may potentially be used in diseases associated with excessive blood vessel formation. PMID:27095919

  9. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Effects on Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    1999-01-01

    More than 500 plant species, used alone or in combination, are documented in Chinese traditional medicine to have activity against helminth and micro-invertebrate pests of humans. We subjected 153 candidate medicines or their plant sources to multilevel screening for effectiveness against plant-parasitic nematodes. For extracts effective in preliminary screens, we determined time-course and concentration-response relationships. Seventy-three of the aqueous extracts of medicines or their plant sources killed either Meloidogyne javanica juveniles or Pratylenchus vulnus (mixed stages), or both, within a 24-hour exposure period. Of 64 remedies reported as antihelminthics, 36 were effective; of 21 classi- fied as purgatives, 13 killed the nematodes; of 29 indicated as generally effective against pests, 13 killed the nematodes. Sources of extracts effective against one or both species of plant-parasitic nematodes are either the whole plant or vegetative, storage or reproductive components of the plants. Effective plants include both annuals and perennials, range from grasses and herbs to woody trees, and represent 46 plant families. PMID:19270895

  10. Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients. PMID:18227931

  11. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  12. Potential role of herbal remedies in stem cell therapy: proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Udalamaththa, Vindya Lankika; Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2016-08-11

    Stem cell therapy has revolutionized modern clinical therapy with the potential of stem cells to differentiate into many different cell types which may help to replace different cell lines of an organism. Innumerous trials are carried out to merge new scientific knowledge and techniques with traditional herbal extracts that may result in less toxic, affordable, and highly available natural alternative therapeutics. Currently, mesenchyamal stromal cell (MSC) lines are treated with individual and mixtures of crude herbal extracts, as well as with purified compounds from herbal extracts, to investigate the mechanisms and effects of these on stem cell growth and differentiation. Human MSCs (hMSCs) possess multilineage, i.e., osteogenic, neurogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic, differentiation abilities. The proliferative and differentiation properties of hMSCs treated with herbal extracts have shown promise in diseases such as osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and other tissue degenerative disorders. Well characterized herbal extracts that result in increased rates of tissue regeneration may be used in both stem cell therapy and tissue engineering for replacement therapy, where the use of scaffolds and vesicles with enhanced attaching and proliferative properties could be highly advantageous in the latter. Although the clinical application of herbal extracts is still in progress due to the variability and complexity of bioactive constituents, standardized herbal preparations will strengthen their application in the clinical context. We have critically reviewed the proliferative and differentiation effects of individual herbal extracts on hMSCs mainly derived from bone marrow and elaborated on the plausible underlying mechanisms of action. To be fruitfully used in reparative and regenerative therapy, future directions in this area of study should (i) make use of hMSCs derived from different non-traditional sources, including medical waste material

  13. Potential role of herbal remedies in stem cell therapy: proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Udalamaththa, Vindya Lankika; Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has revolutionized modern clinical therapy with the potential of stem cells to differentiate into many different cell types which may help to replace different cell lines of an organism. Innumerous trials are carried out to merge new scientific knowledge and techniques with traditional herbal extracts that may result in less toxic, affordable, and highly available natural alternative therapeutics. Currently, mesenchyamal stromal cell (MSC) lines are treated with individual and mixtures of crude herbal extracts, as well as with purified compounds from herbal extracts, to investigate the mechanisms and effects of these on stem cell growth and differentiation. Human MSCs (hMSCs) possess multilineage, i.e., osteogenic, neurogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic, differentiation abilities. The proliferative and differentiation properties of hMSCs treated with herbal extracts have shown promise in diseases such as osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and other tissue degenerative disorders. Well characterized herbal extracts that result in increased rates of tissue regeneration may be used in both stem cell therapy and tissue engineering for replacement therapy, where the use of scaffolds and vesicles with enhanced attaching and proliferative properties could be highly advantageous in the latter. Although the clinical application of herbal extracts is still in progress due to the variability and complexity of bioactive constituents, standardized herbal preparations will strengthen their application in the clinical context. We have critically reviewed the proliferative and differentiation effects of individual herbal extracts on hMSCs mainly derived from bone marrow and elaborated on the plausible underlying mechanisms of action. To be fruitfully used in reparative and regenerative therapy, future directions in this area of study should (i) make use of hMSCs derived from different non-traditional sources, including medical waste material

  14. Apoptosis induced by the Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2

    PubMed Central

    Jenny, Marcel; Schwaiger, Wolfgang; Bernhard, David; Wrulich, Oliver A; Cosaceanu, Daria; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ueberall, Florian

    2005-01-01

    The Tibetan herbal remedy PADMA 28 revealed promising results to support treatment of atherosclerosis, Charot syndrome (intermittent claudication), chronic active hepatitis and infection of the respiratory tract. The remedy was confirmed to be closely linked with anti- and pro-oxidative properties in vitro. In this study, apoptogenic and survival effects of PADMA 28 were investigated in the T cell-derived lymphocytic leukaemia cell line CEM-C7H2. PADMA 28 led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation accompanied by the accumulation of CEM-C7H2 cells in subG1 phase, fragmentation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear body formation. Treatment with PADMA 28 rescued to some extent cells over-expressing Bcl-2 from apoptosis. This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of PADMA 28 may be via interference with Bcl-2 triggered survival pathways. PMID:16138918

  15. Inhibitory Effect on β -Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Juckmeta, Thana; Thongdeeying, Pakakrong; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. PMID:25580152

  16. Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products

    PubMed Central

    Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

  17. Studies on antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of herbal remedies used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, V; Gouws, M C; Gulumian, M; Elgorashi, E E; van Staden, J

    2006-01-01

    Crude water and ethanolic extracts of five herbal remedies reported in the literature for traditional treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and/or prostatitis were investigated for their effect on hydroxyl scavenging activity, antibacterial activity and their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis. Both the water and ethanol extracts of Hypoxis hemerocallidea and Epilobium parviflorum inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli. All 10 extracts scavenged the hydroxyl radical but with various potencies (32-93%). Ethanolic extracts were the most active in inhibiting COX-1 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis. The ethanolic extract of Epilobium parviflorum showed inhibitory effects on both the COX-1 and -2 catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis, inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and exerted antioxidant activity. Although these results support the traditional use of Epilobium parviflorum for treatment of prostatitis and BPH, further investigation is required, for this promising plant. PMID:16122891

  18. Use of Herbal Products and Potential Interactions in Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tachjian, Ara; Maria, Viqar; Jahangir, Arshad

    2010-01-01

    More than 15 million people in the United States consume herbal remedies or high-dose vitamins. The number of visits to providers of complementary and alternative medicine exceeds those to primary care physicians, for annual out-of-pocket costs of $30 billion. Use of herbal products forms the bulk of treatments, particularly by elderly persons who also consume multiple prescription medications for comorbid conditions, which increases the risk of adverse herb-drug-disease interactions. Despite the paucity of scientific evidence supporting the safety or efficacy of herbal products, their widespread promotion in the popular media and the unsubstantiated health care claims about their efficacy drive consumer demand. In this review, we highlight commonly used herbs and their interactions with cardiovascular drugs. We also discuss health-related issues of herbal products and suggest ways to improve their safety to better protect the public from untoward effects. PMID:20152556

  19. Anti-Microbial Evaluation of a Herbal Dental Remedy Stem Bark of Nuclea latifolia-Family Rubiaceae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, Falodun; Igwe, A.; Osahon, Obasuyi

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Nuclea latifolia used as a dentrifice by the local populace. The crude powdered sample was evaluated for the chemical and antimicrobial effects. The methanolic and chloroform extracts were subjected to different organisms of clinical isolates Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus varidans, Staphylococcus aerues, Penicillum nonatum, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) were also obtained. The results of the study revealed significant antibacterial effect of the extracts. The study thus justifies the ethno medicinal use of the plant as a dental remedy.

  20. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

  1. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies.

  2. Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Wider, Barbara; Shang, Hongcai; Li, Xuemei; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of herbal medicines has risen worldwide. This increase in usage renders safety issues important. Many adverse events of herbal medicines can be attributed to the poor quality of the raw materials or the finished products. Different types of herbal medicines are associated with different problems. Quality issues of herbal medicines can be classified into two categories: external and internal. In this review, external issues including contamination (e.g. toxic metals, pesticides residues and microbes), adulteration and misidentification are detailed. Complexity and non-uniformity of the ingredients in herbal medicines are the internal issues affecting the quality of herbal medicines. Solutions to the raised problems are discussed. The rigorous implementation of Good Agricultural and Collection Practices (GACP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) would undoubtedly reduce the risk of external issues. Through the use of modern analytical methods and pharmaceutical techniques, previously unsolved internal issues have become solvable. Standard herbal products can be manufactured from the standard herbal extracts.

  3. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Juckmeta, Thana; Thongdeeying, Pakakrong; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. PMID:25580152

  4. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  5. A reappraisal of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah; Da-Costa-Rocha, Ines; Lawrence, M Jayne; Cable, Colin; Heinrich, Michael

    Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly popular, and encompasses a number of systems and therapies based on diverse theories and practices, such as homoeopathy, traditional herbalism, reiki, ayurvedic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. While many are based on metaphysical concepts for which there is no sound evidence, for herbal medicines there is a rational, scientific basis and increasing clinical evidence. This article suggests herbal medicines should no longer be considered part of CAM, but instead sit alongside conventional medicines. PMID:23155905

  6. Herbal medicine in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2011-02-01

    Herbal medicines are popular, self-prescribed treatments for rheumatic conditions. A recent US survey suggested that approximately 90% of arthritic patients use alternative therapies such as herbal medicines. This article provides a brief overview of the evidence on herbal medicines for 4 common rheumatic conditions: back pain, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    An herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are ... go through the testing that drugs do. Some herbs, such as comfrey and ephedra, can cause serious ...

  8. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview

    PubMed Central

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  9. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview.

    PubMed

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  10. Herbal and dietary supplements for treatment of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Bloch, Richard M; Antonacci, Diana J

    2007-08-15

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine has increased over the past decade. A variety of studies have suggested that this use is greater in persons with symptoms or diagnoses of anxiety and depression. Data support the effectiveness of some popular herbal remedies and dietary supplements; in some of these products, particularly kava, the potential for benefit seems greater than that for harm with short-term use in patients with mild to moderate anxiety. Inositol has been found to have modest effects in patients with panic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Physicians should not encourage the use of St. John's wort, valerian, Sympathyl, or passionflower for the treatment of anxiety based on small or inconsistent effects in small studies. Although the evidence varies depending on the supplement and the anxiety disorder, physicians can collaborate with patients in developing dietary supplement strategies that minimize risks and maximize benefits. PMID:17853630

  11. Mother/offspring co-administration of the traditional herbal remedy yokukansan during the nursing period influences grooming and cerebellar serotonin levels in a rat model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-04-01

    Neurodevelopmental impairment in the serotonergic system may be involved in autism spectrum disorder. Yokukansan is a traditional herbal remedy for restlessness and agitation in children, and mother-infant co-administration (MICA) to both the child and the nursing mother is one of the recommended treatment approaches. Recent studies have revealed the neuropharmacological properties of Yokukansan (YKS), including its 5-HT1A (serotonin) receptor agonistic effects. We investigated the influence of YKS treatment on behavior in a novel environment and on brain monoamine metabolism during the nursing period in an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders, prenatally BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine)-treated rats (BrdU-rats). YKS treatment did not influence locomotor activity in BrdU-rats but reduced grooming in open-field tests. YKS treatment without MICA disrupted the correlation between locomotor behaviors and rearing and altered levels of serotonin and its metabolite in the cerebellum. These effects were not observed in the group receiving YKS treatment with MICA. These data indicate a direct pharmacological effect of YKS on the development of grooming behavior and profound effects on cerebellar serotonin metabolism, which is thought to be influenced by nursing conditions.

  12. Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine.

  13. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  14. African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy

    2005-01-01

    In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053

  15. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs.

  16. Herbal drugs against cardiovascular disease: traditional medicine and modern development.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingjun; Zhou, Xiuwen; Li, Na; Sun, Miao; Lv, Juanxiu; Xu, Zhice

    2015-09-01

    Herbal products have been used as conventional medicines for thousands of years, particularly in Eastern countries. Thousands of clinical and experimental investigations have focused on the effects and mechanisms-of-action of herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Considering the history of clinical practice and the great potentials of herb medicine and/or its ingredients, a review on this topic would be helpful. This article discusses possible effects of herbal remedies in the prevention and treatment of CVDs. Crucially, we also summarize some underlying pharmacological mechanisms for herb products in cardiovascular regulations, which might provide interesting information for further understanding the effects of herbal medicines, and boost the prospect of new herbal products against CVDs. PMID:25956424

  17. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented. PMID:27652207

  18. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer "cure".

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-08-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to "cure" cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, "wonder cures" are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a "miracle" where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a "cure" for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  19. Acute liver injury associated with the use of herbal preparations containing glucosamine: three case studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aileen; Dillon, John

    2009-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines is becoming increasingly popular in Western society. As a result the number of reported adverse reactions is increasing. Glucosamine is a herbal remedy commonly used to ease joint pain in osteoarthritis, and only two previous reports of hepatotoxicity have been published in the scientific literature. The present report describes three patients who developed acute liver injury following exposure to glucosamine; one patient made a complete recovery on cessation of ingestion, the second developed chronic hepatitis and the third died following progression to fulminant hepatic failure. A diagnosis of glucosamine-induced hepatotoxicity was made based on the temporal relationship between onset of liver injury and glucosamine ingestion, exclusion of all other potential aetiologies and, in the two surviving cases, improvement in condition on withdrawal of the supplement. PMID:21887162

  20. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  1. An Herbal Nasal Drop Enhanced Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Agnes S.; Cheung, Mei-chun; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; Shi, Dejian

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the neuro-electrophysiological activity of the brain associated with the application of a herbal remedy developed by a Shaolin monk based upon the Chan healing principle of clearing the orifices (i.e., the nasal cavities). A repeated-measures design was used. Fourteen normal adults were administered herbal remedy and saline solution intranasally on separate sessions. Two intervals of eyes-closed resting EEG data were obtained individually before and after each administration. Results showed that only the herbal remedy but not the saline solution induced elevation in cordance, an index correlated with cerebral perfusion, in the anterior brain region. In addition, the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as examined by the LORETA analysis, was also increased after the application of the herbal remedy but not saline solution. The present study provided some preliminary evidence suggesting that the herbal nasal drop enhanced the activity of the frontal lobe and ACC. Implications for the potential clinical application of the herbal remedy to treat patients with frontal lobe disorders were discussed. PMID:19996154

  2. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  3. Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Stickel, F; Schuppan, D

    2007-04-01

    Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular and their use is widespread. Licensing regulations and pharmacovigilance regarding herbal products are still incomplete and clearcut proof of their efficacy in liver diseases is sparse. Nevertheless, a number of herbals show promising activity including silymarin for antifibrotic treatment, phyllantus amarus in chronic hepatitis B, glycyrrhizin to treat chronic viral hepatitis, and a number of herbal combinations from China and Japan that deserve testing in appropriate studies. Apart from therapeutic properties, reports are accumulating about liver injury after the intake of herbals, including those advertised for liver diseases. Acute and/or chronic liver damage occurred after ingestion of some Chinese herbs, herbals that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, germander, greater celandine, kava, atractylis gummifera, callilepsis laureola, senna alkaloids, chaparral and many others. Since the evidence supporting the use of botanicals to treat chronic liver diseases is insufficient and only few of them are well standardised and free of potential serious side effects, most of these medications are not recommended outside clinical trials. Particularly with regard to the latter, adequately powered randomised-controlled clinical trials with well-selected end points are needed to assess the role of herbal therapy for liver diseases. PMID:17331820

  4. Interactions between Transporters and Herbal Medicines/Drugs: A Focus on Hepatoprotective Compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Li, Quansheng; He, Xin; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines and drugs are available in the clinic as potent hepatoprotective agents for the treatment of commonly occurring liver diseases. Recently, herbal medicines such as silymarin and curcumin have gained more attention and popularity for the treatment of various liver diseases because of their safety and efficacy profiles. Some of them are related to transporters for drug disposition processes, therapeutic efficacy and/or adverse drug reactions. Currently, herbal medicines and diet supplements made from natural products are widely used in patients who are being treated with conventional prescription medicines, which are related to an increasing risk of herbal-drug interactions (HDIs) and/or drug-drug interactions (DDIs). The purpose of present review is to summarize the contemporary knowledge of transporter-mediated HDIs or DDIs for herbal medicines/drugs focusing on hepatoprotective compounds. Several herbal medicines/drugs are discussed in detail in this review.

  5. Rhabdomyolysis in response to weight-loss herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Mansi, Ishak A; Huang, Jian

    2004-06-01

    The authors report rhabdomyolysis following the ingestion of weight-loss herbal medicine in an otherwise healthy 54-year-old woman. Three hours after ingestion of the herbal medicine, the patient suffered chest pain that continued for 2 hours and resolved gradually. Laboratory investigation showed the presence of rhabdomyolysis with peak serum creatine kinase (CK) of 1028 IU/L, which gradually decreased and normalized after the herbal medicine was discontinued. The pharmacological effects of the active ingredients of the herbal medicine, ma huang (ephedrine), guarana (active alkaloid caffeine), chitosan, Gymnena sylvestre, Garcinia cambogia (50% hydroxycitric acid), and chromium, are discussed, and similar case reports are reviewed. The elevation of CK in this case is of concern, as it may denote that muscle breakdown may be one of the mechanisms of weight loss in these herbal remedies. Further studies are needed to investigate their effects on muscle bulk or CK. Physicians should be aware of the potential side effects of many herbal medicines. It may be advisable to measure serum CK enzyme for patients who admit using weight-loss herbs. PMID:15201651

  6. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  7. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  8. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  9. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.

  10. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  11. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  12. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  13. Pancreatitis in a woman taking an herbal supplement.

    PubMed

    Lesser, David; Hillesheim, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A healthy woman developed pancreatitis after starting a popular herbal supplement designed to boost female libido. Following cessation of the herbal supplement, her enzymes quickly normalized. The patient had no risk factors for pancreatitis and anatomic obstruction was later ruled out. The contents of the supplement and their history of side effects are reviewed. As several of the ingredients are estrogenic in nature, this may have contributed to the patient's reaction. Physicians should remember to take a careful history regarding the usage of supplements and alternative medicines. PMID:17269527

  14. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  15. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  16. Intersection of inflammation and herbal medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developments. This paper sets the scene by providing a brief introduction to ethnopharmacology, Ayurvedic medicine, and nutrigenomics before discussing the scientific and mechanistic rationale for targeting inflammatory signalling pathways in OA by use of herbal medicines. Special attention is drawn to the conceptual and practical difficulties associated with translating data from in-vitro experiments to in-vivo studies. Issues relating to the low bioavailability of active ingredients in herbal medicines are discussed, as also is the need for large-scale, randomized clinical trials. PMID:22987043

  17. Resources for Popular Culture in Ancient, Medieval and Renaissance Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Fred E. H.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that there are few readily accessible resources for teachers who wish to include popular culture in their ancient, medieval, or renaissance history lessons. Goes on to partially remedy this situation by providing a review of print sources of information on popular culture. Also mentions useful films and artifacts. (DSK)

  18. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer “cure”

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to “cure” cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, “wonder cures” are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a “miracle” where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a “cure” for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented.

  19. Chaparral ingestion. The broadening spectrum of liver injury caused by herbal medications.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D W; Rosenthal, G; Hart, J; Sirota, R; Baker, A L

    1995-02-01

    Unconventional medical practices, including the use of herbal remedies, are prevalent in the United States. Chaparral is an herbal preparation made from a desert shrub and used for its antioxidant properties. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman who took chaparral for 10 months and developed severe hepatitis for which no other cause could be found. Despite aggressive supportive therapy, the patient deteriorated and required orthotopic liver transplantation. She is now well, more than 1 year after her transplant. This case suggests that chaparral can cause serious liver injury and fulminant hepatic failure. Herbal medications should be considered as potential causes of liver toxicity.

  20. THERMAL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal remediation is being proposed by Region I for remediation of the overburden soil and groundwater at the Solvent Recovery Services New England Superfund site. This presentation at the public meeting will acquaint area residents with thermal remediation. The two types of ...

  1. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds. PMID:25808157

  2. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chávez, N

    2001-09-01

    The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint). PMID:12141849

  3. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds.

  4. Chemical and biological assessment of Angelica herbal decoction: comparison of different preparations during historical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Du, Crystal Ying-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-08-15

    The commonly used Angelica herbal decoction today is Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), which is a dietary supplement in treating menopausal irregularity in women, i.e. to nourish "Qi" and to enrich "Blood". According to historical record, many herbal decoctions were also named DBT, but the most popular formulation of DBT was written in Jin dynasty (1247 AD) of China, which contained Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) with a weight ratio of 5:1. However, at least two other Angelica herbal decoctions recorded as DBT were prescribed in Song (1155 AD) and Qing dynasties (1687 AD). Although AR and ASR are still the major components in the DBT herbal decoctions, they are slightly varied in the herb composition. In order to reveal the efficiency of different Angelica herbal decoctions, the chemical and biological properties of three DBT herbal extracts were compared. Significantly, the highest amounts of AR-derived astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, calycosin and formononetin and ASR-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT described in 1247 AD: this preparation showed stronger activities in osteogenic, estrogenic and erythropoetic effects than the other two DBT. The current results supported the difference of three DBT in chemical and biological properties, which could be a result of different herbal combinations. For the first time, this study supports the popularity of DBT described in 1247 AD.

  5. Popularity Contagion among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

  6. Popular Music Performance Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginocchio, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the creation and content of a high school course on popular music performance. Describes how the teacher decided on aspects of the course, such as student background, transcription exercises, the student report on a popular music artist, and opportunities for performance. Reflects on what the teacher learned from the experience. (CMK)

  7. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  8. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  9. DNA barcoding detects contamination and substitution in North American herbal products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbal products available to consumers in the marketplace may be contaminated or substituted with alternative plant species and fillers that are not listed on the labels. According to the World Health Organization, the adulteration of herbal products is a threat to consumer safety. Our research aimed to investigate herbal product integrity and authenticity with the goal of protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination. Methods We used DNA barcoding to conduct a blind test of the authenticity for (i) 44 herbal products representing 12 companies and 30 different species of herbs, and (ii) 50 leaf samples collected from 42 herbal species. Our laboratory also assembled the first standard reference material (SRM) herbal barcode library from 100 herbal species of known provenance that were used to identify the unknown herbal products and leaf samples. Results We recovered DNA barcodes from most herbal products (91%) and all leaf samples (100%), with 95% species resolution using a tiered approach (rbcL + ITS2). Most (59%) of the products tested contained DNA barcodes from plant species not listed on the labels. Although we were able to authenticate almost half (48%) of the products, one-third of these also contained contaminants and or fillers not listed on the label. Product substitution occurred in 30/44 of the products tested and only 2/12 companies had products without any substitution, contamination or fillers. Some of the contaminants we found pose serious health risks to consumers. Conclusions Most of the herbal products tested were of poor quality, including considerable product substitution, contamination and use of fillers. These activities dilute the effectiveness of otherwise useful remedies, lowering the perceived value of all related products because of a lack of consumer confidence in them. We suggest that the herbal industry should embrace DNA barcoding for authenticating herbal products through

  10. Preclinical Models for Investigation of Herbal Medicines in Liver Diseases: Update and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hor-Yue; San-Marina, Serban; Wang, Ning; Hong, Ming; Li, Sha; Li, Lei; Cheung, Fan; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease results from a dynamic pathological process associated with cellular and genetic alterations, which may progress stepwise to liver dysfunction. Commonly, liver disease begins with hepatocyte injury, followed by persistent episodes of cellular regeneration, inflammation, and hepatocyte death that may ultimately lead to nonreversible liver failure. For centuries, herbal remedies have been used for a variety of liver diseases and recent studies have identified the active compounds that may interact with liver disease-associated targets. Further study on the herbal remedies may lead to the formulation of next generation medicines with hepatoprotective, antifibrotic, and anticancer properties. Still, the pharmacological actions of vast majority of herbal remedies remain unknown; thus, extensive preclinical studies are important. In this review, we summarize progress made over the last five years of the most commonly used preclinical models of liver diseases that are used to screen for curative herbal medicines for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and liver. We also summarize the proposed mechanisms associated with the observed liver-protective, antifibrotic, and anticancer actions of several promising herbal medicines and discuss the challenges faced in this research field. PMID:26941826

  11. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  12. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  13. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these

  14. Hair Growth: Focus on Herbal Therapeutic Agent.

    PubMed

    Patel, Satish; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, Vinod K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview on plants identified to possess hair growth activity in various ethno-botanical studies and surveys of tradition medicinal plants. It also highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies from 1926 till-date and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. There are various causes for hair loss and the phenomenon is still not fully understood. The treatments offered include both natural or synthetic products to treat the condition of hair loss (alopecia), nonetheless natural products are continuously gaining popularity mainly due to their fewer side effects and better formulation strategies for natural product extracts. Plants have been widely used for hair growth promotion since ancient times as reported in Ayurveda, Chinese and Unani systems of medicine. This review covers information about different herbs and herbal formulation that are believed to be able to reduce the rate of hair loss and at the same time stimulate new hair growth. A focus is placed on their mechanism of action and the review also covers various isolated phytoconstituents possessing hair growth promoting effect. PMID:26058803

  15. The Mouthwash War - Chlorhexidine vs. Herbal Mouth Rinses: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sajjid; Wadgave, Umesh; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Ravi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are often prescribed in dentistry for prevention and treatment of several oral conditions. In the recent times the use of naturally occurring products what is otherwise known as grandmothers remedy are used on a large scale. This has now called for a newer age of mouth washes but is the new age mouth washes at par with the gold standard or even better than them this study investigates. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two broad categories of mouth washes namely chlorhexidine and herbal mouth washes. Materials and Methods Eleven randomized control studies were pooled in for the meta-analysis. The search was done from the Pub Med Central listed studies with the use keywords with Boolean operators (chlorhexidine, herbal, mouth wash, randomized control trials). The fixed effects model was used for analysis. Results This meta-analysis brings to light, the fact that a wide range of newer herbal products are now available. As with a plethora of herbal mouthwashes available it is the need of the hour to validate their potential use and recommendation. This study found that only two studies favor the use of herbal products and four studies favor the use of chlorhexidine, of the 11 studies that were analyzed. Conclusion More studies are required under well controlled circumstances to prove that herbal products can equate or replace the ‘gold standard’ chlorhexidine. Herbal products are heterogeneous in nature, their use should be advised only with more scientific proof. PMID:27437366

  16. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  17. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  18. [Artichoke--herbal drug].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Woźniak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

  19. Concerning Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, John P.

    1977-01-01

    The author argues that the key to teaching remedial mathematics is to persuade students to believe that they will advance intellectually by learning mathematics, and that this advance will increase the possibilities open to them. (SD)

  20. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biloba, Ginseng, Hoodia, Kava, St. John’s Wort, and Valerian. Herbal products are available as tablets, liquids, granules, ... with other medications that prolong effects of anesthesia. Valerian Increased sedative effects.

  1. Herbal product use in non-HIV and HIV-positive Hispanic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, José O.; González-Stuart, Armando; Ortiz, Melchor; Rodríguez, José C.; Anaya, Jaime P.; Meza, Armando

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the prevalence of herbal product use by a sample of Mexican-American patients in the El Paso, TX region. Even though medicinal plants are popularly assumed to be a safe and natural alternative to conventional medications, some herbal products may pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Currently, there are few studies related to herbal use by Mexican Americans and none in HIV patients living on the U.S./México border. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in hospitals and clinics throughout the El Paso region area. A semistructured interview was conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. A 45-item bilingual questionnaire was used to collect the information. RESULTS: A total of 439 non-HIV patients as well as 35 patients afflicted with HIV participated in the study. Seventy-nine percent (347/439) of non-HIV and 71% (25/35) of HIV patients reported using herbal products. The percentages of herbal use among the two groups did not show any statistically significant differences (p=0.29), and both groups reflected that herbal products are commonly used. CONCLUSIONS: The use of herbal products was very common among non-HIV (79%) and HIV-positive (71%) Mexican-Americans patients in the El Paso region. PMID:16396061

  2. A screening for antimicrobial activities of Caribbean herbal remedies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The TRAMIL program aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, which is a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. The antibacterial activity was examined for thirteen plant species from several genera that were identified as a result of TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys or were reported in ethnobotanical accounts from Puerto Rico. The aim of this study was to validate the traditional use of these plant species for the treatment of bacterial infections, such as conjunctivitis, fever, otitis media and furuncles. Methods An agar disc diffusion assay was used to examine five bacterial strains that are associated with the reported infections, including Staphylococcus saprophyticus (ATCC 15305), S. aureus (ATCC 6341), Escherichia coli (ATCC 4157), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 8142), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7700) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 6896), as well as the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC 752). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined for each of the extracts that showed inhibitory activity. Results The decoctions of Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tapeinochilus ananassae, and Syzygium jambos, as well as the juice of Gossypium barbadense, showed > 20% growth inhibition against several bacteria relative to the positive control, which was the antibiotic Streptomycin. Extracts with the best antimicrobial activities were S. jambos that showed MIC = 31 μg/mL and MBC = 1.0 mg/mL against P. vulgaris and T. ananassae that showed MIC = 15 μg/mL against S. aureus. Conclusion This report confirms the traditional use of P. calomelanos for the treatment of kidney infections that are associated with stones, as well as the antimicrobial and bactericidal effects of T. ananassae against P. vulgaris and S. saprophyticus and the effects of S. jambos against S. aureus and S. saprophyticus. PMID:23731467

  3. "Herbal remedy is natural and safe"--truth or myth?

    PubMed

    Meeran, Mohammed; Murali, A; Balakrishnan, R; Narasimhan, Denesh

    2013-11-01

    Neem oil is often used externally as a traditional medicine in India. Its ingestion, even in small doses produces toxic effects like severe metabolic acidosis, seizures, renal failure and encephalopathy. Management is supportive and prognosis is generally good but fatalities may occur. Herein we report an unusual case of neem oil toxicity in a previously normal adult. PMID:24974507

  4. Computer aided design of medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients - An R&D approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siontorou, Christina G.

    2012-12-01

    Herbal products have gained increasing popularity in the last decades, and are now broadly used to treat illness and improve health. Notwithstanding the public opinion, both, safety and efficacy, are major sources of dispute among the scientific community, mainly due to lack of (or scarcity or scattered) conclusive data linking a herbal constituent to pharmacological action in vivo, in a way that benefit overrides risk. This paper presents a methodological framework for addressing natural medicine in a systematic and holistic way with a view to providing medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients.

  5. A review of the clinical and toxicological aspects of 'traditional' (herbal) medicines adulterated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Emma; Braithwaite, Robin

    2005-07-01

    The popularity of traditional remedies has greatly increased in westernised countries over recent years. Although many of these remedies are used safely, there have recently been an increasing number of case reports being published of heavy metal poisoning after the use of traditional remedies, in particular, Indian Ayurvedic remedies. This study reviews the data on published cases, along with the history of Ayurvedic medicine in an attempt to provide an insight into why heavy metals, in particular lead, mercury and arsenic are added in such large concentrations to these remedies.

  6. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  7. Comparison of the in vitro Effect of Chemical and Herbal Mouthwashes on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Somayeh; Sabokbar, Azar; Riazipour, Majid; Saffari, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the recent decades research has focused to find scientific evidence for the effects of herbal medicines. Researchers are interested in herbal remedies for medication and aim to substitute herbal material instead of chemical formula with limited side effects for human being. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to compare the in vitro effect of herbal and chemical mouthwashes against Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this research, we used a standard strain of C. albicans, PTCC 5027. The suspension was made by a fresh culture of C. albicans (24 hours) and the optical density (turbidity equating to a McFarland standard of 0.5) was read at 530 nm. The C. albicans suspension was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar plate. Next, two wells were filled with mouthwashes and after incubation at 30ºC for 24 hours, the inhibition zone was measured. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of mouthwashes were determined. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, independent T-tests and one-sided variance analysis (ANOVA-one way). Results: Based on these findings on agar diffusion with (P = 0.764), MIC and MFC tests (P = 0.879), there were no significant differences between the antifungal effect of herbal and chemical mouthwashes. Conclusions: This study showed that, chemical mouthwashes acted better than herbal mouthwashes and among different chemical mouthwashes, Oral B was most effective. PMID:25741429

  8. Elites and popular nationalism.

    PubMed

    Whitmeyer, Joseph M

    2002-09-01

    Much current theory concerning nationalism holds that elites commonly create or cause popular nationalism. In part, that thesis may be due to an overwhelming emphasis in research on nationalism on positive cases: cases where nationalism has appeared, ignoring cases where it has not. In this article, I challenge the thesis by showing numerous historical cases in which elites have promoted nationalisms that ordinary people have not adopted, or in which ordinary people have adopted a nationalism before it was taken up by elites. Even if elites do not create popular nationalism, however, they can and do shape its expression in a variety of ways, such as organizing it, providing relevant information, or providing opportunity or incentive for it. I show this through historical examples.

  9. Use of herbals as galactagogues.

    PubMed

    Zapantis, Antonia; Steinberg, Jennifer G; Schilit, Lea

    2012-04-01

    With a substantial number of women using herbal products to augment their milk production, this article will review available literature illustrating efficacy and adverse effects of using these products. Embase, PubMed, and EBSCO (all databases) were searched from inception to June 2011 using terms such as ‘‘galactagogue,’’ ‘‘galactogogue,’’ ‘‘herbal,’’ and ‘‘botanical’’ and the search was subsequently narrowed to specific herbals by name. Additional articles were obtained from article reference lists. Supplemental information was obtained with Natural Standard. All abstracts retrieved were evaluated for relevance and germane articles were included. Numerous lactation-stimulating herbals have been identified in the literature with varying degrees of evidence,mostly anecdotal. Use of torbangun, milk thistle, and fenugreek may correlate with increased milk supply. Evidence regarding adverse effects, pharmacodynamic properties, and pharmacokinetic effects remains scarce. Despite the fact that postpartum women may turn to herbal galactagogues, scant clinical evidence exists to justify their effectiveness. Further clinical trials are needed in order to substantiate these findings.

  10. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  11. Reimagining Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Stephen J.; Williams, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the College Board's Community College Advisory Panel--a group of college presidents that advises the organization's membership on community college issues--asked these authors to write a paper describing effective remedial education programs. They never wrote the paper. The problem was not the lack of dedicated faculty and staff working…

  12. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  13. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  14. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  15. Adverse drug reactions to herbal and synthetic expectorants.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Sieder, C; März, R

    1995-01-01

    Our knowledge relating to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of phytomedicines is highly fragmentary. The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of ADRs following medication with herbal or synthetic expectorants. In a multicentre, comparative post-marketing surveillance study of more than 3000 patients with acute bronchitis, about half were treated with a herbal remedy (SinupretR) and the other half with various other expectorants. In ascending order of incidence, ADRs were noted during mono-medication of SinupretR (0.8%), Ambroxol (1.0%) and acetylcysteine (4.3%). When concomitant drugs were used, this rank order was unchanged but incidence rates were markedly increased (3.4, 6.5 and 8.2%, respectively). The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal symptoms. It is concluded that expectorants are associated with ADRs in roughly 1-5% of cases undergoing single drug treatment and in 3-10% when more than one medication is being used. Amongst the expectorants used in this study, the herbal preparation SinupretR is associated with the lowest incidence of ADRs.

  16. Evaluation of commercial herbal shampoos.

    PubMed

    Mainkar, A R; Jolly, C I

    2000-10-01

    Selecting the evaluation parameters of a shampoo is a challenging task, simply because of the multitude of both subjective and instrumental test methodologies available for this purpose. The present paper focuses on the evaluation of herbal shampoos using some of these parameters. Commonly used test protocols for foam test, detergency, etc. are discussed. The commercial herbal shampoos are evaluated on the basis of these tests. The results of these tests also give an idea about what standards should be met by a shampoo formulated in the laboratory to be comparable with the commercial shampoos.

  17. Popular perceptions of Galileo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, Dava

    2010-01-01

    Among the most persistent popular misperceptions of Galileo is the image of an irreligious scientist who opposed the Catholic Church and was therefore convicted of heresy-was even excommunicated, according to some accounts, and denied Christian burial. In fact, Galileo considered himself a good Catholic. He accepted the Bible as the true word of God on matters pertaining to salvation, but insisted Scripture did not teach astronomy. Emboldened by his discovery of the Medicean Moons, he took a stand on Biblical exegesis that has since become the official Church position.

  18. Popular knowledge and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Although few things are as common as yawning, it has traditionally held little interest for researchers and enquiring minds of all disciplines. Yawning is a recognized behavior in almost all vertebrates, present throughout life, which often procures a sense of well-being for the yawner. Modern science is still searching for a complete explanation of the mechanisms and purpose of yawning, with debate about its usefulness as a stimulatory mechanism still ongoing. In this paper, we offer an overview of the popular beliefs and myths seen within Arabic, Western and Indian cultures.

  19. Integrative physicians and an herbal cancer “cure”

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shoshana Keren; Samuels, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Oncologists are frequently asked about herbal remedies claiming to “cure” cancer, or at least delay its progression. While complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) should be aimed primarily at improving quality-of-life (QOL) related concerns, “wonder cures” are part of an alternative health belief model providing hope for a “miracle” where conventional treatment has failed. We describe a physician with extensive small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) undergoing chemotherapy, with significant toxicities and impaired daily function. He had come for an integrative physician (IP) consultation, provided by a medical doctor dually trained in CIM and supportive cancer care, taking place in a conventional supportive cancer care service. We describe the IP consultation in general and regarding an herbal remedy which was being promoted as a “cure” for cancer. The subsequent patient-tailored CIM treatment process, in which patients receive evidence-based guidance on treatments which address QOL-related concerns, are presented. PMID:27652207

  20. Heavy metals in traditional Indian remedies.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2002-02-01

    The growing popularity of traditional Indian remedies necessitates a critical evaluation of risks associated with their use. This systematic review aims at summarising all available data relating to the heavy metal content in such remedies. Computerised literature searches were carried out to identify all articles with original data on this subject. Fifteen case reports and six case series were found. Their collective results suggest that heavy metals, particularly lead, have been a regular constituent of traditional Indian remedies. This has repeatedly caused serious harm to patients taking such remedies. The incidence of heavy metal contamination is not known, but one study shows that 64% of samples collected in India contained significant amounts of lead (64% mercury, 41% arsenic and 9% cadmium). These findings should alert us to the possibility of heavy metal content in traditional Indian remedies and motivate us to consider means of protecting consumers from such risks.

  1. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  2. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment.

  3. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  4. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  5. Self-reported Use and Attitudes Regarding Herbal Medicine Safety During Pregnancy in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sattari, Mohammadreza; Dilmaghanizadeh, Maryam; Hamishehkar, Hadi; Mashayekhi, Simin Ozar

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the vast use of herbal medicines in the world, little is known about their use in pregnancy and the attitudes of pregnant women regarding their safety during pregnancy. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the use and attitudes of pregnant women toward herbal medicine use in pregnancy in Iran. Materials and Methods A questionnaire was completed by 400 women selected by convenience sampling from postnatal and prenatal wards of two hospitals. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 13.5. Chi2 test was used to analyze the data. Results The median age was 26.4 (± 5.2) years and the mean number of pregnancies was 1.9 (± 0.98). The use of herbal remedies during pregnancy was positive in 22.3% of patients. They took herbal medicines recommended by their physician (46.1%), through self-medication (44.9%), or with the advice of family members or friends (9%). Additionally, 39.8% believed that it was safe to use herbal remedies during pregnancy, 32.3% believed that it was harmful for both mother and fetus, and 22% did not know whether it was safe or not. Conclusions Herbal medicine use was not high among our subjects but was significantly affected by age. The level of education, place of living, and number of pregnancies significantly affected the attitudes of the subjects. Women with higher education mostly relied on their own information, whereas those with lower education relied on physician advice. Further educational programs are required to increase the information for this group of susceptible individuals. PMID:24624153

  6. Popular Education: Building from Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto; Fischman, Gustavo

    1994-01-01

    Two popular education projects--El Refugio de Los Angeles for Latino immigrants and native popular education in Buenos Aires--demonstrate how, while developing literacy skills, participants engaged in political and social analysis of their living conditions. (SK)

  7. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  8. HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

  9. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  10. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are β-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma

  11. Traditional herbal medicine for the control of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Na-Bangchang, Kesara; Karbwang, Juntra

    2014-06-01

    Throughout history, traditional herbal medicine has afforded a rich repository of remedies with diverse chemical structures and bioactivities against several health disorders. A common issue of herbal medicine is the limitation of information on their pharmacological activities and their active constituents. Traditionally, the use of herbal medicine has been based on empirical treatment and passed on from generation to generation with information available only in local journals. This prevents several herbal medicines from being developed to their full potential. The presentation will focus on research and development of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC. (AL: family Compositae) as a potential chemotherapeutic for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), the bile duct cancer commonly found in Southeast Asia. The dried rhizome of AL is a medicinal plant used in Chinese ("Cang Zhu"), Japan ("So-jutsu") and Thai ("Khod-Kha-Mao") traditional medicine for its various pharmacological properties including anticancer, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial activities, activities on central nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. The major constituents in the essential oils from AL rhizome are β-eudesmol, hinesol and atractylon. Preliminary investigation has demonstrated its promising anti-CCA activity both in vitro and animal (Opisthorchis viverrini/dimethylnitrosamine-induced CCA in hamsters and CCA-xenografted nude mice) models with high selectivity index comparing with the standard drug, 5-fluorouracil. It also showed virtually no toxicity with only minimal CNS effects on locomotor activity at the maximum dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight. Studies are underway to identify active constituent(s) which contribute to anti-CCA activity as well as its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The main research interest of my research group is the discovery and development of traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of two important tropical diseases, cholangiocarcinoma

  12. Authentication of the botanical origin of Western herbal products using Cimicifuga and Vitex products as examples.

    PubMed

    Masada, Sayaka

    2016-07-01

    Various herbal medicines have been developed and used in various parts of the world for thousands of years. Although locally grown indigenous plants were originally used for traditional herbal preparations, Western herbal products are now becoming popular in Japan with the increasing interest in health. At the same time, there are growing concerns about the substitution of ingredients and adulteration of herbal products, highlighting the need for the authentication of the origin of plants used in herbal products. This review describes studies on Cimicifuga and Vitex products developed in Europe and Japan, focusing on establishing analytical methods to evaluate the origins of material plants and finished products. These methods include a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system method. A genome-based authentication method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based authentication for black cohosh products, and the identification of two characteristic diterpenes of agnus castus fruit and a shrub chaste tree fruit-specific triterpene derivative are also described. PMID:27188194

  13. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines : a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilised. Other important challenges arise from the current regulatory framework for herbal medicines in the UK. In the UK at present, the Committee on Safety of Medicines/Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's (CSM/MHRA) 'yellow card' scheme for adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting is the main method of monitoring the safety of herbal medicines. Despite recent initiatives to stimulate reporting of suspected ADRs associated with herbal medicines, such as extending the scheme to unlicensed herbal products, and including community pharmacists as recognised reporters, numbers of herbal ADR reports received by the CSM/MHRA remain relatively low. Under-reporting, an inevitable and important limitation of spontaneous reporting schemes, is likely to be significant for herbal medicines, since users typically do not seek professional advice about their use of such products, or report if they experience adverse effects. The herbal sector in the UK has initiated various spontaneous reporting schemes, based on the yellow card scheme, but targeted mainly at herbal-medicine practitioners. It is important that these schemes have a link with the CSM/MHRA so that potential signals are not missed. Several other tools used in pharmacovigilance of conventional medicines, such as prescription-event monitoring, and the use of computerised health-record databases, currently are of no use for evaluating the safety of herbal and other non-prescription medicines. Proposed European Union

  14. Popular Culture and Democratic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    A literature review explores how scholars have approached the study of popular culture--as text or lived experience. Examines the concepts of youth culture, individual agency, and cultural citizenship. Argues that the importance of popular culture lies in its role as a site for democratic practice. (Contains 88 reference notes.) (SK)

  15. Popular Music: An Ongoing Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses tendencies to force popular music into existing school music program formats, rather than include it as a form with its own musical integrity and authenticity. Urges music teachers not to dismiss popular music or turn it into elevator music. (CH)

  16. New Dimensions in Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel B., Ed.

    This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

  17. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  18. Evaluation of mercury contamination in Smilax myosotiflora herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi-Hoon; Lee, Kheng-Leng

    2007-01-01

    The DCA (Drug Control Authority) of Malaysia implemented phase 3 registration of traditional medicines in January 1992 with special emphasis on the quality, efficacy, and safety of all dosage forms of these medicines. For this reason, a total of 100 herbal products containing Smilax myosotiflora were purchased in the Malaysian market and analyzed for mercury content, as mercury is a recognized reproductive toxicant. The products were analyzed using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. It was found that 89% of the above products do not exceed 0.5 ppm of mercury. Heavy metal poisoning such as mercury has been associated with traditional medicines. Therefore, it is important that doctors and health care practitioners are aware of these risks and finding ways to minimize them, including questions pertaining to the use of these remedies during the routine taking of a patient's history.

  19. Spices, herbal xenobiotics and the stomach: Friends or foes?

    PubMed Central

    Mofleh, Ibrahim Abdulkarim Al

    2010-01-01

    Spices and herbal remedies have been used since ancient times to treat a variety of disorders. It has been experimentally demonstrated that spices, herbs, and their extracts possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, lipid-lowering, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, antimutagenic and anticancer activities, besides their gastroprotective and anti-ulcer activities. Despite a number of reports on the toxicity of herbs and spices, they are generally accepted as safer alternatives to conventional therapy against gastric ulcers. To this end, it is also believed, that excessive consumption of spices may favor the pathogenesis of gastric and duodenal ulcer and some studies have substantiated this common perception. Based on various in vivo experiments and clinical studies, on the effects of spices and herbs on gastric ulcers, it has indeed been shown that certain spices do possess remarkable anti-ulcer properties mediated by antisecretory, cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-Helicobacter pylori effects and mechanisms regulated by nitric oxide, prostaglandins, non-protein sulfhydryl molecules and epidermal growth factor expression. Accordingly, their consumption may attenuate and help prevent peptic ulcer disease. In the present review, the beneficial effects of spices and herbal nutritive components on the gastric mucosa are discussed against the paradigm of their deleterious potential. PMID:20533590

  20. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  1. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  2. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  3. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  4. [The herbals and floristic albums of Eliza Orzeszkowa].

    PubMed

    Kuźnicka, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    In many of her literary works, the writer and columnist Eliza Orzeszkowa (1841-1910), who was twice nominated for the Nobel Prize in literature (1905, 1909), depicted the life of the Polish society in the eastern lands of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the 19th century. A great lover of nature, Orzeszkowa appreciated the botanical knowledge of the local rural population in the vicinities of Grodno. She combined attempts to master that knowledge with her other great passion, that of investigating folk culture, and was always ready to listen to what women who were village herbalists had to tell her about medicinal plants, and about the customs and legends connected with the medical practices based on herbal remedies. She then passed on the information to botanists for scientific verification. Orzeszkowa's naturalist and ethnographic fascinations led her to write a cycle of articles on "The people and flowers on the Niemen river", published in 1888-1891 in the ethnographic-tourist magazine "Wisła". This collection of articles has been analysed not only by historians of literature, but also, since 1985, by historians of science. The first analysis was conducted at the Section for the History of Pharmacy of the Institute of the History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences. This yielded Ewa Kamińska's study: Ziołoznawstwo i ziołolecznictwo w publikacjach etnograficznych Elizy Orzeszkowej [The knowledge of herbs and medicine based on herbal remedies in the ethnographic publications of Eliza Orzeszkowa] published as part of the Institute's Historia leków naturalnych [History of natural medicines], ed. Barbara Kuźnicka, vol. I: Zródła do dziejów etnofarmacji polskiej [Sources for the history of Polish ethnopharmacy], Warszawa 1996, pp.25-88. The subject-matter of the publication aroused much interest among historians of pharmacy from Poznań. The first sign of that interest could be seen in the article by Jan Majewski and S

  5. [Popular education in health and nutrition: literature review].

    PubMed

    Mueses De Molina, C

    1993-01-01

    This literature review of popular education in health and nutrition is intended to provide the necessary theoretical framework for proposals and programs for human resource development in food and nutrition. The work contains a summary of the objectives, purposes, and methodology of popular education in general, a discussion of applications of popular education techniques to health and nutrition education, and a description of some projects based on popular education. Popular education was developed in Latin America by Paulo Freire and others as a response to political domination. Its basic objective was to make the oppressed masses aware of their condition and able to struggle for the transformation of society. Popular education views community participation, development of consciousness, and integration with social and economic activity as fundamental attributes. Participation should be developed through community organizations and should continue for the duration of the educational intervention. The right of all persons to participate in a plane of equality should be recognized. Community or popular education should be conceived as a process of permanent education that will continue throughout the lifetime of individuals and groups. Popular education is directed toward population sectors excluded from participation in employment, family, community, mass communications, education, and leisure activities. Such population sectors are concentrated in the urban periphery and in rural areas. Abandonment of traditional educational techniques and assumption of an active role by community members are elements in development of the methodology of popular education. Steps in the methodology include investigation of possible themes, selection of themes to serve as points of departure, definition of the problem, and action programs. Popular education in nutrition and health begins by asking what problems need to be remedied. The entire process of training and education in

  6. Global herbal medicine: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

    2003-04-01

    Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry.

  7. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the

  8. Antimicrobial effects of herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans and normal oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is associated with dental caries. A cariogenic biofilm, in particular, has been studied extensively for its role in the formation of dental caries. Herbal extracts such as Cudrania tricuspidata, Sophora flavescens, Ginkgo biloba, and Betula Schmidtii have been used as a folk remedy for treating diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against normal oral streptococci, planktonic and biofilm of S. mutans. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and S. mutans were cultivated with brain heart infusion broth and susceptibility assay for the herbal extracts was performed according to the protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Also, S. mutans biofilm was formed on a polystyrene 12-well plate and 8-well chamber glass slip using BHI broth containing 2% sucrose and 1% mannose after conditioning the plate and the glass slip with unstimulated saliva. The biofilm was treated with the herbal extracts in various concentrations and inoculated on Mitis-Salivarius bacitracin agar plate for enumeration of viable S. mutans by counting colony forming units. Planktonic S. mutans showed susceptibility to all of the extracts and S. mutans biofilm exhibited the highest level of sensitivity for the extracts of S. flavescens. The normal oral streptococci exhibited a weak susceptibility in comparison to S. mutans. S. oralis, however, was resistant to all of the extracts. In conclusion, the extract of S. flavescens may be a potential candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  9. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

  10. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  11. Perioperative Use of Herbal, Complementary, and Over the Counter Medicines in Plastic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Declan; Oakey, Steve; Ramakrishnan, Venkat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Over the last 50 years, there has been a surge of interest by both the public and medical practitioners in therapies and disciplines that are not considered part of mainstream medical care. The title given to these is complementary and alternative medicine. Of all these branches, our interest is the increasing use of herbal medicines, traditional medicines (such as Chinese or Indian), homeopathy and “dietary supplements,” and the influence they may have on our practice. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and reasons for use of complementary and alternative medicines, the current regulations, and proposed policy changes affecting the licensing of these products. In addition, we highlight some of the problems that have been experienced with herbal and traditional medicines. Methods: A prospective analysis of herbal and over the counter medicines used by elective plastic surgery patients. Results: Of 100 elective plastic surgery patients undergoing procedures at St Andrew's Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery, 44% of patients were taking a dietary supplement, herbal, or homeopathic remedy. In none of the patients was this documented in the notes by either the surgeon or anesthetist. Conclusions: We recommend that clear documentation of the use of nonprescribed medicines becomes part of standard practice and, furthermore, that patients stop all such medications 2 weeks prior to surgery until the efficacy, interactions, and safety profiles are clearly established. PMID:21625528

  12. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    PubMed

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  13. Popular Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Traditional and innovative elements such as bells and music with quick pacing accented by a voice that students could recognize is used to effortlessly bring students to the classroom. Popular culture is shown to work well using classroom examples.

  14. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions.

  15. Characterization of Satureja khuzestanica leaf as a herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Malmir, Maryam; Serrano, Rita; Reza Gohari, Ahmad; Silva, Olga

    2014-10-01

    Dried leaves of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad are a popular herbal medicine and dental anesthetic among the nomadic inhabitants of southwestern Iran. The present study establishes criteria for identification of S. khuzestanica dried whole, fragmented and powdered leaves for specification as a herbal substance using macroscopic and microscopic characterization. Quantitative microscopy techniques were also considered. Macroscopically leaves exhibit a grayish-green color, are broadly ovate in shape with an acute apex, attenuate base, and ciliate margin and have a surface covered by an indumentum of glandular and non-glandular trichomes. Microscopically leaves have an isobilateral amphistomatic structure containing peltate glandular trichomes consisting of a multiseriate stalk (five cells) and an enlarged secretory head composed of 12 cells, capitate glandular trichomes of variable morphology together with two types of non-glandular trichomes. Oval-shaped hygromorphic diacytic stomata with an adaxial stomatal index of 13.54, collateral vascular bundles consisting of xylem, and three layers of sclerenchymatous tissue close to phloem together with cluster, prismatic and raphide calcium oxalate crystals were also identified as useful pharmacognostic parameters for identification of S. khuzestanica dried leaves.

  16. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  17. Effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on prolongation of cardiac allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Uchiyama, M; Zhang, Q; Harada, T; Otsuka, K; Shimokawa, T; Niimi, M

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for over 3,000 years in Asian as alternative therapy for their variety effects and have recently become popular in Europe and the United States. In the last 30 years, Japanese herbal medicines were widely used for treatment of diseases after been recognized officially by Japanese government. In this study, we investigated the effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. CBA mice (H2(k)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (H2(b)) heart and received oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of the 34 kinds of herbal medicines from the day of transplantation until 7 days afterward. Naïve CBA mice rejected B6 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST], 7 days). CBA transplant recipients given 2 g/kg/d of Sairei-to (TJ-114) and Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23) had prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival indefinitely (both MSTs > 100 days). Moreover, CBA transplant recipients given Seisinrensiin (TJ-111), Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), Rikkunshito (TJ-43), Maobushisaishinto (TJ-127), Ninjin-yoei-to (TJ-108), Ryokan-kyomi-shinge-nin-to (TJ-119), Inchingorei-san (TJ-117), Hochuekkito (TJ-41), Kihi-to (TJ-65), and Sinbu-to (TJ-30) had also prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival significantly (MSTs of 28, 22, 16, 14, 14, 13, 12, 9.5, 9 and 9 days, respectively). However, none of other 22 kinds of herbal medicines could prolong the allograft survival. Furthermore, oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of Daikenchuto (TJ-100) induced sudden death (within 1 minute) in CBA mice. In conclusion, 12 kinds of Japanese herbal medicines prolonged allograft survival and one showed toxic effect in mice.

  18. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  19. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available.

  20. Herbal medicines--what do clinicians know?

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    In 1986, DTB published an article called Herbal medicines - safe and effective?, which discussed some of the issues around the availability, safety and efficacy of such treatments.1 We highlighted how the failure of orthodox medicines to cure, and anxiety about their potentially serious unwanted effects, had led some people to turn to herbal medicines for treatment for chronic and disabling conditions often in the belief, that natural medicines must be intrinsically safe. The article concluded by discussing the potential problems associated with herbal medicines and the role that doctors should play in asking about patients' use of such products. Revisiting these themes, here we present an overview of the results of an online survey conducted among DTB readers to explore four key issues: What do healthcare professionals know about herbal medicines? What challenges (if any) does patients' use of herbal medicines raise for healthcare professionals? What awareness do healthcare professionals have about the regulatory arrangements for herbal medicines? What sources of information (if any) do healthcare professionals use to inform themselves about herbal medicines? PMID:20392781

  1. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health. PMID:21132119

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel diseases: what is the future in the field of herbal medicine?

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Daniela; Fiorino, Gionata; Genua, Marco; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio

    2014-09-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine is wide-spread not only in Eastern countries, but also in the Western world. Despite the increasing evidence on the harmful effects induced by several naturopathic/homeopathic products, patients seem to appreciate these remedies, in particular because they consider them to be absolutely safe. This same phenomenon is common among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. As a result there is a significant request for scientific data to evaluate both the efficacy and safety of these remedies, and to support the use of such medications as adjuvant treatments to biological and synthetic drugs. We aimed to review the current evidence on efficacy and safety of some natural products that are believed to be effective in inflammatory bowel disease. Further perspectives for the clinical use of herbal products and strategies for improving knowledge about herbal products in IBD are also discussed.

  3. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

  4. Preparation of hydrogels for atopic dermatitis containing natural herbal extracts by gamma-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; An, Sung-Jun; Kim, Hae-Kyoung; Kim, Yun-Hye; Youn, Min-Ho; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a familial and chronic inflammatory pruritic skin disease that affects a large number of children and adults in industrialized countries. It is known that one of the prominent features of AD and chronic pruritus is partially due to the histamine released from mast cell. In this work, hydrogel patches with natural herbal extracts were prepared by "freezing and thawing", and a gamma irradiation. It showed eminent healing results as a consequence of long-term moisturizing effects and natural herbal extracts on atopic wounds. Besides its non-toxicity and human harmlessness, it can be easily attached to or detached from the skin without any trace and help patients to feel refreshment when attached. Based on this work, the hydrogel patches we made can be potentially used as an alternative remedy for not only pruritus in AD, but other dermatitis.

  5. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  6. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  7. Popular Culture and the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Ken, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    This issue of the "Arizona English Bulletin" contains 38 articles related to popular culture and the teaching of English. The articles discuss such topics as language in the popular arts, establishing a popular culture library, defining sexism in popular culture, detective literature and its uses in the traditional classroom, popular literature as…

  8. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects from Herbal Drugs Reported in Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Jun, Seung Ah; Hong, Sung Shin; Ahn, Yo Chan; Lee, Dong Soo; Son, Chang Gue

    2016-09-01

    Herbal drugs have become a popular form of healthcare, raising concerns about their safety. This study aimed to characterize the adverse effects of herbal drugs through a systematic review of results reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Using eight electronic databases including PubMed, the Cochrane library and six Korean medical databases, the frequency of reported toxicity was recorded based on drug composition and indication. Among 4957 potentially relevant articles, 242 papers comprised of 244 studies met our inclusion criteria; these included 111 studies of a single herb and 133 of multiple herbs. These studies accounted for a total 15 441 participants (male = 5590; female = 9851; 7383 for single and 8058 for multiple herb studies). There were 480 cases (3.1%) of adverse events (344 for single, 136 for multiple herb studies; p < 0.01). A total of 259 cases reported blood test abnormalities, including five cases of abnormality in hepatic functional enzymes. The most frequently reported adverse event was digestive symptoms (44.3%), followed by nervous system symptoms (17.3%) and behaviors such as loss of appetite (16.3%). This is the first systematic review of adverse effects of herbal drugs among clinical studies, and the results indicate that herbal drugs are relatively safe. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27196988

  9. Rational quality assessment procedure for less-investigated herbal medicines: Case of a Congolese antimalarial drug with an analytical report.

    PubMed

    Tshitenge, Dieudonné Tshitenge; Ioset, Karine Ndjoko; Lami, José Nzunzu; Ndelo-di-Phanzu, Josaphat; Mufusama, Jean-Pierre Koy Sita; Bringmann, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Herbal medicines are the most globally used type of medical drugs. Their high cultural acceptability is due to the experienced safety and efficiency over centuries of use. Many of them are still phytochemically less-investigated, and are used without standardization or quality control. Choosing SIROP KILMA, an authorized Congolese antimalarial phytomedicine, as a model case, our study describes an interdisciplinary approach for a rational quality assessment of herbal drugs in general. It combines an authentication step of the herbal remedy prior to any fingerprinting, the isolation of the major constituents, the development and validation of an HPLC-DAD analytical method with internal markers, and the application of the method to several batches of the herbal medicine (here KILMA) thus permitting the establishment of a quantitative fingerprint. From the constitutive plants of KILMA, acteoside, isoacteoside, stachannin A, and pectolinarigenin-7-O-glucoside were isolated, and acteoside was used as the prime marker for the validation of an analytical method. This study contributes to the efforts of the WHO for the establishment of standards enabling the analytical evaluation of herbal materials. Moreover, the paper describes the first phytochemical and analytical report on a marketed Congolese phytomedicine.

  10. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  11. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  12. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  13. Reinventing Remedial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Remedial education, although widely used and disguised with other names, was rarely talked about for it could tarnish a school's reputation if widely discussed. Today, more and more colleges and universities are ditching the old stigma associated with remedial education, reinventing their remedial education and retention programs and, in the…

  14. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving reuptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  15. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving reuptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine.

  16. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  17. Duct Remediation Program: Remediation operations and implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, T.d.; Davis, M.M.; Karas, T.M.

    1992-11-01

    Plutonium holdup material has accumulated in the process ventilation duct systems at Rocky Flats. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) measurements identified ducts containing this material. The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board and the Department of Energy established the criteria for remediation of these ducts. A remediation team was assembled and a program plan created. This program plan included activities such as fissile material accumulation identification, criticality safety assessments, radiation dose determinations, facility safety evaluations, prevention of future accumulation, and removal of holdup material. Several operational considerations had to be evaluated in determining completion of remediation.

  18. Popular Education in Solidarity Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…

  19. Women's Perspective on Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Research Newsletter, 1989

    1989-01-01

    A Swedish project was designed to address the question, "What contribution is popular education making today toward the emergence of a more democratic society?" The 2-year project involved adult education associations and folk high schools. The project had three tasks: (1) to chart equality of opportunity and to show where women are located in…

  20. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  1. In Defense of Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Steven R.

    In his book "The Closing of the American Mind," Allan Bloom criticizes popular music for the "emptiness of its values." It has only one appeal, says Bloom, "a barbaric appeal, to sexual desire--not love, not eros, but sexual desire, undeveloped and untutored." However, to say "rock music is this or that" is a proposition that quickly crumbles…

  2. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  3. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, J E; Roufogalis, B D; Chrubasik, S

    2007-07-01

    Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in Europe. In order to get information on the evidence of effectiveness of oral herbal medicines in the treatment of pain in the joints or lower back, OVID(MEDLINE), PUBMED and COCHRANE COLLABORATION LIBRARY were searched back to 1985 for systematic reviews. The level of evidence of effectiveness was defined as strong - at least two confirmatory studies demonstrating a clinical relevant effect, moderate - one confirmatory study with a clinical relevant effect and/or multiple exploratory studies of good quality; otherwise the evidence was insufficient or conflicting in the case of inconsistent findings. Fifteen systematic reviews were identified. The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing > 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract. Further rigorous studies are required to confirm the usefulness of herbal medicines in the treatment of osteoarthritic complaints and chronic low back pain in order to enable acceptance of the herbal medicines into the treatment guidelines. PMID:17444576

  4. A rapid and low-cost approach to evaluate the allergenicity of herbal injection using HPLC analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Li; Peng, Guoping; Li, Cunyu; Jiang, Baoping; Xu, Haokun; Ding, Ning; Zheng, Yunfeng; Leng, John Q.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have ever been thought harmless, but it is obviously not true. Many adverse reports emerged with the development of their popular application in the world. Allergic reactions, especially serious immediate hypersensitivity, frequently occurred when herbal injections were used in clinic and made this ever prevailing agent nearly disappear in China. The aim of this study is to establish a rapid and economical method for the prediction of the allergenicity of herbal injections. Ovalbumin (OVA) and four other herbal injections, in which two of them were well known for their allergenicity, were selected to sensitize and stimulate the animals. Serotonin in the animal serum was detected with HPLC to reflect the anaphylactic response and compared with the other cytokines which could mediate the anaphylaxis, including histamine, IgE and β-hexosaminidase. The results suggest that serotonin can be detected quickly and has good correlation with the other allergy-related cytokines. It is a promising way for predicting the allergenicity of the herbal injections and those complicated natural products. PMID:23587872

  5. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, J E; Roufogalis, B D; Chrubasik, S

    2007-07-01

    Treatment with herbal medicines is very popular in Europe. In order to get information on the evidence of effectiveness of oral herbal medicines in the treatment of pain in the joints or lower back, OVID(MEDLINE), PUBMED and COCHRANE COLLABORATION LIBRARY were searched back to 1985 for systematic reviews. The level of evidence of effectiveness was defined as strong - at least two confirmatory studies demonstrating a clinical relevant effect, moderate - one confirmatory study with a clinical relevant effect and/or multiple exploratory studies of good quality; otherwise the evidence was insufficient or conflicting in the case of inconsistent findings. Fifteen systematic reviews were identified. The evidence of effectiveness was strong for a proprietary unsaponifiable avocado soybean fraction and Harpagophytum preparations containing > 50 mg harpagoside in the daily dosage, moderate for ginger and a proprietary rose hip and seed powder, insufficient for Boswellia serrata gum resin and other herbal preparations and inconsistent for a proprietary willow bark extract. Further rigorous studies are required to confirm the usefulness of herbal medicines in the treatment of osteoarthritic complaints and chronic low back pain in order to enable acceptance of the herbal medicines into the treatment guidelines.

  6. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  7. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention

  8. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention.

  9. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products. PMID:19826971

  10. Monitoring of herbal mixtures potentially containing synthetic cannabinoids as psychoactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Dresen, Sebastian; Ferreirós, Nerea; Pütz, Michael; Westphal, Folker; Zimmermann, Ralf; Auwärter, Volker

    2010-10-01

    Herbal mixtures like 'Spice' with potentially bioactive ingredients were available in many European countries since 2004 and are still widely used as a substitute for cannabis, although merchandized as 'herbal incense'. After gaining a high degree of popularity in 2008, big quantities of these drugs were sold. In December 2008, synthetic cannabinoids were identified in the mixtures which were not declared as ingredients: the C(8) homolog of the non-classical cannabinoid CP-47,497 (CP-47,497-C8) and a cannabimimetic aminoalkylindole called JWH-018. In February 2009, a few weeks after the German legislation put these compounds and further pharmacologically active homologs of CP-47,497 under control, another cannabinoid appeared in 'incense' products: the aminoalkylindole JWH-073. In this paper, the results of monitoring of commercially available 'incense' products from June 2008 to September 2009 are presented. In this period of time, more than 140 samples of herbal mixtures were analyzed for bioactive ingredients and synthetic cannabimimetic substances in particular. The results show that the composition of many products changed repeatedly over time as a reaction to prohibition and prosecution of resellers. Therefore neither the reseller nor the consumer of these mixtures can predict the actual content of the 'incense' products. As long as there is no possibility of generic definitions in the controlled substances legislation, further designer cannabinoids will appear on the market as soon as the next legal step has been taken. This is affirmed by the recent identification of the aminoalkylindoles JWH-250 and JWH-398. As further cannabinoids can be expected to occur in the near future, a continuous monitoring of these herbal mixtures is required. The identification of the synthetic opioid O-desmethyltramadol in a herbal mixture declared to contain 'kratom' proves that the concept of selling apparently natural products spiked with potentially dangerous synthetic

  11. DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Botanicals in Herbal Medicine and Dietary Supplements: Strengths and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Iffat; Gafner, Stefan; Techen, Natascha; Murch, Susan J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-01

    In the past decades, the use of traditional medicine has increased globally, leading to a booming herbal medicine and dietary supplement industry. The increased popularity of herbal products has led to a rise in demand for botanical raw materials. Accurate identification of medicinal herbs is a legal requirement in most countries and prerequisite for delivering a quality product that meets consumer expectations. Traditional identification methods include botanical taxonomy, macroscopic and microscopic examination, and chemical methods. Advances in the identification of biological species using DNA-based techniques have led to the development of a DNA marker-based platform for authentication of plant materials. DNA barcoding, in particular, has been proposed as a means to identify herbal ingredients and to detect adulteration. However, general barcoding techniques using universal primers have been shown to provide mixed results with regard to data accuracy. Further technological advances such as mini-barcodes, digital polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing provide additional tools for the authentication of herbs, and may be successful in identifying processed ingredients used in finished herbal products. This review gives an overview on the strengths and limitations of DNA barcoding techniques for botanical ingredient identification. Based on the available information, we do not recommend the use of universal primers for DNA barcoding of processed plant material as a sole means of species identification, but suggest an approach combining DNA-based methods using genus- or species-specific primers, chemical analysis, and microscopic and macroscopic methods for the successful authentication of botanical ingredients used in the herbal dietary supplement industry. PMID:27392246

  12. DNA Barcoding for the Identification of Botanicals in Herbal Medicine and Dietary Supplements: Strengths and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Iffat; Gafner, Stefan; Techen, Natascha; Murch, Susan J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-09-01

    In the past decades, the use of traditional medicine has increased globally, leading to a booming herbal medicine and dietary supplement industry. The increased popularity of herbal products has led to a rise in demand for botanical raw materials. Accurate identification of medicinal herbs is a legal requirement in most countries and prerequisite for delivering a quality product that meets consumer expectations. Traditional identification methods include botanical taxonomy, macroscopic and microscopic examination, and chemical methods. Advances in the identification of biological species using DNA-based techniques have led to the development of a DNA marker-based platform for authentication of plant materials. DNA barcoding, in particular, has been proposed as a means to identify herbal ingredients and to detect adulteration. However, general barcoding techniques using universal primers have been shown to provide mixed results with regard to data accuracy. Further technological advances such as mini-barcodes, digital polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing provide additional tools for the authentication of herbs, and may be successful in identifying processed ingredients used in finished herbal products. This review gives an overview on the strengths and limitations of DNA barcoding techniques for botanical ingredient identification. Based on the available information, we do not recommend the use of universal primers for DNA barcoding of processed plant material as a sole means of species identification, but suggest an approach combining DNA-based methods using genus- or species-specific primers, chemical analysis, and microscopic and macroscopic methods for the successful authentication of botanical ingredients used in the herbal dietary supplement industry.

  13. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated.

  14. [Amphibians in Spanish popular medicine and the pharmacopoeia of Pliny and Dioscorides].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, José Ramón; González, José Antonio

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a list of medical remedies based on the use of amphibians in Spanish popular medicine and in the classical world. It provides an overview of bibliography relative to folklore studies, ethnographic work and research on social or medical anthropology. It documents a total of 113 remedies and the use of nine species of amphibians, two from the family of caudates (urodeles) and seven anurans. Most of these remedies are based on the popular "preconception" about the influence of amphibians and healing by transmitting an illness to a living creature. The traditional use of certain threatened species is emphasized, an issue to bear in mind in decision-making in the field of conservation biology and environmental education.

  15. Popular democracy and waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community does not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow.

  16. Herbal pharmacology and medical therapy in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1975-12-01

    A scientific delegation visited the People's Republic of China for the purpose of assessing the current status of herbal pharmacology and medicine there. China is attempting to wed traditional and Western medicine so as to take advantage of the potential contributions of both. This wedding seems possible at the empiric level despite theoretical contradictions. Traditional remedies are widely prescribed, but the actual impact of such medication on disease is difficult to assess, because of the failure of the Chinese up until now to evaluate such remedies by modern clinical trial methodology. All Western drugs are readily available in China, and indeed are manufactured for export as well as for use within the country. The current chinese approach to the patient-doctor relation, and some novel ideas with regard to both medical and surgical therapy pose provocative questions for Western physicians.

  17. Herbal pharmacology and medical therapy in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Lasagna, L

    1975-12-01

    A scientific delegation visited the People's Republic of China for the purpose of assessing the current status of herbal pharmacology and medicine there. China is attempting to wed traditional and Western medicine so as to take advantage of the potential contributions of both. This wedding seems possible at the empiric level despite theoretical contradictions. Traditional remedies are widely prescribed, but the actual impact of such medication on disease is difficult to assess, because of the failure of the Chinese up until now to evaluate such remedies by modern clinical trial methodology. All Western drugs are readily available in China, and indeed are manufactured for export as well as for use within the country. The current chinese approach to the patient-doctor relation, and some novel ideas with regard to both medical and surgical therapy pose provocative questions for Western physicians. PMID:1200537

  18. Essential concepts and vocabulary in herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Alan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Western-trained scientists and physicians can better understand herbal medicine if they learn the basic terminologies and essential concepts used by herbal practitioners around the globe to describe how herbs work on the body. Specific and general chemical actions, pharmacokinetics, and plant constituents (such as carotenoids and flavonoids) can all be used to understand how herbs work. Other important tools for understanding herbal medicine include organoleptic methods (personal sensory based information), such as heating and cooling effects, tastes, and physically felt actions. Tissue affinity is also an important method, one aspect of which is tissue-specific antioxidant effects. In addition, broad concepts from the Oriental traditions--such as the Chinese Yin and Yang, and the Ayurvedic Vata, Pitta, and Kapha--can and have been effectively used to organize and focus understanding and guide treatment. PMID:22436100

  19. Herbal Medicines as Adjuvants for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Calway, Tyler; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, many patients, including cancer patients, concurrently take prescription drugs and herbal supplements. Co-administration of prescription medicines and herbal supplements may have negative outcomes via pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. However, multiple constituents in botanicals may also yield beneficial pharmacological activities. Botanicals could possess effective anticancer compounds that may be used as adjuvants to existing chemotherapy to improve efficacy and/or reduce drug-induced toxicity. Herbal medicines, such as ginseng, potentiated the effects of chemotherapeutic agents via synergistic activities, supported by cell cycle evaluations, apoptotic observations, and computer-based docking analysis. Since botanicals are nearly always administrated orally, the role of intestinal microbiota in metabolizing ginseng constituents is presented. Controlled clinical studies are warranted to verify the clinical utility of the botanicals in cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22809022

  20. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used.

  1. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  2. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs.

    PubMed

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  3. Assessing the risks and benefits of herbal medicine: an overview of scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Barrett, B; Kiefer, D; Rabago, D

    1999-07-01

    The use of herbal medicine is widespread and growing, with as many as 3 in 10 Americans using botanical remedies in a given year. Because many herbal medicines have significant pharmacological activity, and thus potential adverse effects and drug interactions, healthcare professionals must be familiar with this therapeutic modality. This article summarizes the history and current use of plant-based medicine and highlights the evidence of the risks and benefits associated with 6 plants: echinacea, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, St John's wort, and valerian. Therapies outside the medical mainstream tend to suffer from a dearth of research and critical evaluation. Critics and supporters alike note the conceptual and practical difficulties in studying many complementary and alternative therapies such as acupuncture, homeopathy, and meditation. Herbal medicine, however, lends itself well to standard evaluation methods. This article summarizes and evaluates evidence from randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. We present the results of meta-analyses and subsequent randomized controlled trials for garlic and St John's wort; a comprehensive critical review and subsequent randomized controlled trials for ginkgo; and summaries of all identified randomized controlled trials for echinacea, ginger, and valerian.

  4. Herbalism, home gardens, and hybridization: Wõthïhã medicine and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Heckler, S L

    2007-03-01

    Using the example of the Wõthïhã of the Manapiare River Valley, Amazonas State, Venezuela, I challenge the image of the indigenous Amazonian as an expert in herbalism. I argue that the observed absence of medicinal plant use in early Wõthïhã ethnography, rather than reflecting researcher oversight, reflects the centrality of shamanism. According to Wõthïhã shamanic cosmology, herbal medicines, while useful to relieve symptoms and treat minor injuries, fail to address the underlying cause of illness. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, I find that as the role and influence of shamanism have dramatically decreased, the Wõthïhã have turned elsewhere for medical treatment. Biomedical remedies have shown to be effective, thereby encouraging an acceptance of symptom-specific treatments. Biomedicine's patchy availability, however, has encouraged the Wõthïhã to look beyond biomedicine. Several folk healing traditions are being incorporated by the Wõthïhã, each with its own herbal tradition.

  5. Transient Universe: Popular, Not so Popular & Knowable Unknowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bildsten, L.; Fryer, C.; Kulkarni, S.

    2006-03-01

    MOTIVATION & PURPOSE: This informal two day workshop is intended to bring together astronomers who monitor the sky for transient phenomena - a field which is poised to take off in the optical band, thanks to the exponential growth in the availability of giga pixel detectors, rapid computing and communication. For somewhat similar technological reasons, decimeter and decameter radio astronomy is also poised to grow in this area. The workshop will focus on astronomical opportunities with ongoing searches and discuss the possibilities with planned facilities in the near term. We hope to rapidly review the status of 'popular' sources (e.g. GRB afterglows, Supernovae, Machos), less popular events (e.g. Novae, geysers and gushers) and then move onto 'odd' but not hopelessly rare events. The spirit is to anticipate some of the discoveries by extending the astrophysical parameter space of known (or knowable) classes of transients. This workshop is part of the ongoing KITP Program "The Supernova Gamma Ray Burst Connection" and has received funding Los Alamos National Laboratory. We will follow the well honed KITP tradition of having fewer talks at the expense of long discussions. All talks will be recorded (per KITP tradition) and made available on the web for enjoyment, education and posterity. In lieu of a traditional poster sessions with old-fashioned easels we offer the Virtual Presence (organized by J. Bloom).

  6. Treatment of ruminal indigestion according to popular belief in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brag, S; Hansen, H J

    1994-06-01

    For hundreds of years, the Swedish peasantry were able to cure diseases of animals by using various popular remedies. In this context, ruminal indigestion is a disease of special interest to veterinary history. Long before research had demonstrated the importance for rumination of the ruminal microflora and microfauna, the Swedish peasantry used to administer living ruminal microorganisms from a healthy cow or sheep to an animal suffering from ruminal indigestion. This was performed by giving the diseased animal a cud obtained from the healthy animal. According to some beliefs, the cud was a living being. Those cherishing this belief therefore thought it wise to take only part of the cud so as not to harm the involuntary donor. Another common treatment of ruminal indigestion was based on the thought that the cow had lost the ability to chew. The authors describe the frequent use of chewing of various substances as a remedy. In the available literature, some forty different remedies have been described either alone or used in combination with the above principles.

  7. Designing Clinical Remediation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Susan C.

    1989-01-01

    Elements and considerations in the provision of effective remediation for optometry students not achieving in clinical competence are discussed. Remediation of technical, cognitive, and noncognitive skills are included. A course in professional communication offered by the Pennsylvania College of Optometry is described. (MSE)

  8. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. PMID:26467627

  9. Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

  10. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  11. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe.

  12. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  13. Preventing remediation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Remediation, the design and construction of a remedy, typically represents the most significant portion of the cleanup process. The cost may be 5 to 10 times the cost of earlier investigation and feasibility efforts. Furthermore, the risks associated with remediation activities and their ability to meet ultimate cleanup goals and objectives are far greater than those associated with earlier efforts. Often times there are unrealistic expectations interjected throughout the design and construction process in the remediation field. The simple fact that most problems are buried, and one cannot see all that is below the ground surface provides sufficient uncertainty to result in problems. There are three key points during the remediation process which provide opportunities to prevent and avoid problems. These are: (1) during design; (2) during procurement and contracting; and (3) during construction. This paper examines actions which the author has found or believes will assist in providing a formula for success.

  14. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C.; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076–0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292–0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  15. Preparation of Herbal Tea as Infusion or by Maceration at Room Temperature Using Mistletoe Tea as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Sebastian; Beffert, Markus; Hoppe, Katharina; Nadberezny, Dominik; Frank, Bruno; Scheffler, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Herbal tea can be prepared by infusion or maceration at room temperature resulting in different compositions of extractable constituents, which possibly influences the mode of action or safety profile. Knowledge on this topic is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences between infusion and maceration as recommended preparation methods for the preparation of herbal mistletoe tea, a traditional remedy against cardiovascular diseases. No active substances are known but analytical marker substances such as proteins, triterpenoids, phenylpropane derivatives and flavonoids can be quantified within the herb and the different herbal tea preparations. Whereas phenylpropane derivatives were completely extracted by infusion and maceration, neither method dissolved viscotoxins. 43% of mistletoe lectins were extracted by maceration, whereas by infusion they are inactivated by thermal degradation. By contrast, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid are present in higher concentrations in infusates compared with macerates, but even infusion extracted less than 2%. Infusion extracted 43% of flavonoid-like substances and maceration only 31%. In conclusion this study determines some differences between both extraction methods on the profile of solved substances. The relevance of it should be determined in studies dealing with the efficacy of herbal mistletoe tea. PMID:21617779

  16. Preparation of herbal tea as infusion or by maceration at room temperature using mistletoe tea as an example.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Sebastian; Beffert, Markus; Hoppe, Katharina; Nadberezny, Dominik; Frank, Bruno; Scheffler, Armin

    2011-03-01

    Herbal tea can be prepared by infusion or maceration at room temperature resulting in different compositions of extractable constituents, which possibly influences the mode of action or safety profile. Knowledge on this topic is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the substantial differences between infusion and maceration as recommended preparation methods for the preparation of herbal mistletoe tea, a traditional remedy against cardiovascular diseases. No active substances are known but analytical marker substances such as proteins, triterpenoids, phenylpropane derivatives and flavonoids can be quantified within the herb and the different herbal tea preparations. Whereas phenylpropane derivatives were completely extracted by infusion and maceration, neither method dissolved viscotoxins. 43% of mistletoe lectins were extracted by maceration, whereas by infusion they are inactivated by thermal degradation. By contrast, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid are present in higher concentrations in infusates compared with macerates, but even infusion extracted less than 2%. Infusion extracted 43% of flavonoid-like substances and maceration only 31%. In conclusion this study determines some differences between both extraction methods on the profile of solved substances. The relevance of it should be determined in studies dealing with the efficacy of herbal mistletoe tea. PMID:21617779

  17. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings

  18. [Pain management with herbal antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Sigrun; Pollak, S

    2002-01-01

    Herbal antirheumatics are indicated in painful inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. Their mechanism of action is broader than that of synthetic antirheumatics. Particular preparations from Devils's Claw with 50 to 100 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage as well as a particular willow bark extract with 120 to 240 mg salicin in the daily dosage proved efficacy in a number of clinical studies including confirmatory ones. Exploratory studies indicate that these herbal antirheumatics were not inferior to the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib when treating acute exacerbations of chronic low back pain. For the proprietary nettle root extract IDS23 promising in vitro/in vivo results indicate an anti-inflammatory effect, however there are only 2 open uncontrolled clinical studies available and the proof of efficacy is still missing. Safety data in order to recommend use during pregnancy and lactation are only available for the herbal combination product Phytodolor prepared from aspen, ash and goldenrod. In principle, blackcurrent leaf with not less than 1.5% flavonoids may be an appropriate antirheumatic. Likewise, the seed oils of blackcurrent, evening primrose and borage offering at least 1 to 3 g gammalinolenic acid/day are recommendable. In case superiority versus placebo has been established, proprietary herbal antirheumatics should be administered before the conventional analgesics due to the lower incidence of adverse events. PMID:12017748

  19. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

  20. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers.

  1. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

  2. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  3. HERBAL FOLK MEDICINES OF JALGAON DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA)

    PubMed Central

    Fawar, Shubhangi; Patil, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Fifty plants belonging to 33 angiospermic families used by aborigines and rurals for different human ailments hitherto unreported from Jalgaon district. Maharashtra, India are communicated. Further scientific evaluation on pharmacological and clinical lines is needed for these widely employed herbal medicines. PMID:22557036

  4. [A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property].

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui; Zhang, Bing

    2012-11-01

    Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT. PMID:23158937

  5. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  6. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  7. History of America: A Popular Music Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    The study of popular music can be an effective method of examining social and cultural life. Popular music emphasizes the variety of human existence, goals, outlooks, and biases. A pervading theme in popular American music between 1959 and 1984 has been the theme of "America." Over 200 songs reflect personal, social, and political concerns about…

  8. Mass Media and the Popular Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissover, Fredric; Birch, David C.

    This anthology consists of journalistic essays on each of these popular arts: advertising, journalism, cartoons, radio and television, photography and motion pictures, popular literature, popular music, and public education. Examples of most of the art forms are also included. The book is aimed at junior college students. Its purpose is to…

  9. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…

  10. Popular Music Pedagogy: Peer Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebler, Don

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of popular music as a content area in music education is not uncommon. The musicological study of popular music is well established in higher education, and even the practice of popular music is becoming more common in both secondary education and the post-compulsory sector. However, when this occurs, it is likely to be taught in…

  11. Popular Culture and the New Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishwick, Marshall W.

    This paper discusses the concept of popular culture, relating it to new journalism as a phenomenon which reflects the popular images of society. Style is the essential element of popular culture so that the kind of writing presently known as new journalism is the ultimate example of the philosophy that style is supreme. But the style of the best…

  12. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are pervasive, severe, and largely independent of the positive and negative symptoms of the illness. These deficits are increasingly considered to be core features of schizophrenia with evidence that the extent of cognitive impairment is the most salient predictor of daily functioning. Unfortunately, current schizophrenia treatment has been limited in addressing the cognitive deficits of the illness. Alterations in neuroplasticity are hypothesized to underpin these cognitive deficits, though preserved neuroplasticity may offer an avenue towards cognitive remediation. Key neuroplastic principles to consider in designing remediation interventions include ensuring sufficient intensity and duration of remediation programs, "bottom-up" training that proceeds from simple to complex cognitive processes, and individual tailoring of remediation regimens. We discuss several cognitive remediation programs, including cognitive enhancement therapy, which embrace these principles to target neurocognitive and social cognitive improvements and which havebeen demonstrated to be effective in schizophrenia. Future directions in cognitive remediation research include potential synergy with pharmacologic treatment, non-invasive stimulation techniques, and psychosocial interventions, identification of patient characteristics that predict outcome with cognitive remediation, and increasing the access to these interventions in front-line settings. PMID:23430145

  13. The use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding: a population-based survey in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Main concerns for lactating women about medications include the safety of their breastfed infants and the potential effects of medication on quantity and quality of breast milk. While medicine treatments include conventional and complementary medicines, most studies to date have focused on evaluating the safety aspect of conventional medicines. Despite increasing popularity of herbal medicines, there are currently limited data available on the pattern of use and safety of these medicines during breastfeeding. This study aimed to identify the pattern of use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia, and to identify aspects which require further clinical research. Methods This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire validated through two pilot studies. Participants were 18 years or older, breastfeeding or had breastfed in the past 12 months. Participants were recruited from various community and health centres, and through advertising in newspapers. Simple descriptive statistics were used to summarise the demographic profile and attitudes of respondents, using the SPSS statistical software. Results A total of 304 questionnaires from eligible participants were returned (27.2% response rate) and analysed. Amongst the respondents, 59.9% took at least one herb for medicinal purposes during breastfeeding, whilst 24.3% reported the use of at least one herb to increase breast milk supply. Most commonly used herbs were fenugreek (18.4%), ginger (11.8%), dong quai (7.9%), chamomile (7.2%), garlic (6.6%) and blessed thistle (5.9%). The majority of participants (70.1%) believed that there was a lack of information resources, whilst 43.4% perceived herbal medicines to be safer than conventional medicines. Only 28.6% of users notified their doctor of their decision to use herbal medicine(s) during breastfeeding; 71.6% had previously refused or avoided conventional medicine treatments due to concerns regarding safety of

  14. Unconventional cancer remedies.

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, K J; Stewart, D E; Lippert, G P

    1988-01-01

    Unproven and disproven remedies continue to abound for illnesses for which conventional treatment is only partially effective. This is particularly true with cancer, for which up to 50% of patients may be receiving unorthodox therapy. This article examines unconventional cancer remedies, their adverse effects, their common factors and the basis for their appeal, as well as what motivates and characterizes patients who choose these treatments. Also discussed is an approach that may be used by the conventional physician for patients who are likely to seek unorthodox treatment. This approach will help patients make the best decision about their treatment and protect them from the hazards of unconventional remedies. PMID:3285984

  15. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  16. Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, E; Inkielewicz, I; Czarnowski, W; Szefer, P

    2008-03-01

    The fluoride content in infusions of commercially available black, green, oolong, pu-erh and white teas was determined by ion-selective electrode. Herbal infusions as well as instant tea and ready-to-drink tea beverages were also examined. It is found that brewing time (5, 10 and 30 min) does increase the fluoride content, which in infusions of black tea (5 min brewing) was higher than that in the other types of tea, with contents ranging between 0.32 and 4.54 mg/l for black tea to 0.37-0.54 mg/l for white tea and with even lower values for herbal tea infusions of 0.02-0.09 mg/l. On the basis of the results obtained, the daily intake of fluoride provided from tea and herbal beverages was estimated for an adult person and for children in comparison with the Polish SAI (Safe and Adequate Daily Intake) of fluoride which is strictly attributable to ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake). The fluoride intake resulted from the regular consumption of black tea infusions was raised as compared to the other types of teas as well as herbal teas. For adult and children tea drinkers consuming five cups of black tea per day the intake of fluoride will be in the range of 8.0-303% and 12-303% of the SAI, respectively. People are often exposed to multiple sources of fluoride, such as in food, water, air and excessive use of toothpaste. The control of tea quality is important to protect human against too high uptake of this element from black tea, which is the most popular beverage. Excessive intake of fluoride with black tea, especially in the regions with its high level in the drinking water, increases the risk of dental fluorosis in children during the years of tooth development. The long-term exposure to large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially skeletal fluorosis (WHO, 1984).

  17. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  18. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin. PMID:27258404

  19. Fingerprints, Pharmaceutical and Radical Scavenging Activity Evaluation of an Alzheimer-Targeted Herbal Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Dabaghian, Farid; Khademian, Sedigheh; Azadi, Amir; Zarshenas, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer disease is characterized by progressive loss of memory and deterioration of cognitive functions. It is predicted that about 75.63 million people would suffer from dementia by 2030. Apart from conventional remedies, the application of herbal medicines is on the rise. There are numerous natural medicaments reported in the traditional manuscript of Persian medicine. Accordingly, in the present study, the intended remedy was selected and an appropriate pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical evaluations were performed. Methods: By searching through the traditional pharmaceutical manuscripts such as Qarabadeen-e-Salehi, Qarabadeen-e-Azam, Qarabadeen-e-Ghaderi and Canon of Medicine, a simple but proven compound remedy (frankincense and black pepper) was selected. A floating tablet was designed and formulated from those herbal components. Related pharmaceutical assessments such as weight variation, hardness, friability, and disintegration tests as well as pharmacognostical evaluations such as microscopic characterization, TLC, GC/MS, FT/IR fingerprints, and radical scavenging activity assessment (DPPH) were performed. Results: The resulting formulation, as a floating tablet, included 60% of frankincense gum and 15% of black pepper along with appropriate pharmaceutical ingredients (weight variation: 0.219±0.004 g, hardness: 6.50±0.67, friability: 0.45%, disintegration time >30 min). Microscopic characterization demonstrated stone cells, calcium oxalate crystals, sclereids of endocarp and pitted cells of mesocarp of pepper fruits as well as oil drops of frankincense gum. TLC fingerprinting showed classes of secondary metabolites related to both components. GC/MS analysis revealed Acetyl acetate and trans-Caryophyllene as the main constituent. Moderate radical scavenging activity (IC50 >100 µg/ml) was calculated for the methanol extract of tablets. Conclusion: Carrying out and validating a GC method for

  20. Systematic review of herbals as potential anti-inflammatory agents: Recent advances, current clinical status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Sarwar; Swain, Suryakanta; Hasan, Hameed; Barkat, M Abul; Hussain, Md Sarfaraz

    2011-01-01

    Many synthetic drugs reported to be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders are of least interest now a days due to their potential side effects and serious adverse effects and as they are found to be highly unsafe for human assistance. Since the last few decades, herbal drugs have regained their popularity in treatment against several human ailments. Herbals containing anti-inflammatory activity (AIA) are topics of immense interest due to the absence of several problems in them, which are associated with synthetic preparations. The primary objective of this review is to provide a deep overview of the recently explored anti-inflammatory agents belonging to various classes of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, polyphenolic compounds, and also the compounds isolated from plants of marine origin, algae and fungi. Also, it enlists a distended view on potential interactions between herbals and synthetic preparations, related adverse effects and clinical trials done on herbals for exploring their AIA. The basic aim of this review is to give updated knowledge regarding plants which will be valuable for the scientists working in the field of anti-inflammatory natural chemistry. PMID:22279370

  1. Toward Predicting Popularity of Social Marketing Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi

    Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.

  2. Characterizing popularity dynamics of online videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Liao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Online popularity has a major impact on videos, music, news and other contexts in online systems. Characterizing online popularity dynamics is nature to explain the observed properties in terms of the already acquired popularity of each individual. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the popularity dynamics in two online video-provided websites, namely MovieLens and Netflix. The two collected data sets contain over 100 million records and even span a decade. We characterize that the popularity dynamics of online videos evolve over time, and find that the dynamics of the online video popularity can be characterized by the burst behaviors, typically occurring in the early life span of a video, and later restricting to the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism.

  3. Remediation of lead and cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K; Osman, Khaled A; Gouda, Neama Abdel-Razeek

    2016-01-01

    The research was designated to study the ability of plants to bio-accumulate, translocate and remove the heavy metals, lead and cadmium from contaminated soil. The herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum was investigated as a bio-accumulator plant for these metals. The translocation of these heavy metals in the herbal plant was compared considering root to shoot transport and redistribution of metals in the root and shoot system. The trace metal contents from root and shoot parts were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The results showed that the percent of lead and cadmium transferred to ryegrass plant were averaged as 51.39, and 74.57%, respectively, while those remained in the soil were averaged as 48.61 and 25.43% following 60 days of treatment. The soil-plant transfer index in root and shoot system of ryegrass was found to be 0.32 and 0.20 for lead, and 0.50 and 0.25 for cadmium. These findings indicated that the herbal plant ryegrass, Lolium multiflorum is a good accumulator for cadmium than lead. The soil-plant transfer factor (the conc. of heavy metal in plant to the conc. in soil) indicated that the mechanism of soil remedy using the investigated plant is phytoextraction where the amounts of heavy metals transferred by plant roots into the above ground portions were higher than that remained in the soil. The method offers green technology solution for the contamination problem since it is effective technology with minimal impact on the environment and can be easily used for soil remedy.

  4. [Seguro popular: achievements and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Chertorivski-Woldenberg, Salomón

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare systems are organized following one of two basic models: social security systems, which link access to health services to labor status, and national health systems, which grant access to health as a citizen's right. Mexico adopted, since the institutionalization of social security and healthcare services in 1943, a mixed system. Social security institutions covered the salaried workers and public assistance was granted to the remaining of the population. At the beginning of the XXI century the Mexican health system entered a crisis as the conditions to expand health coverage through social security were not met and public assistance services were insufficient. In order to address these developments, the Healthcare Social Protection System was founded (2004) as a mechanism to effectively guarantee every person's right to health as established after the constitutional amendment of article fourth in 1983. Seguro Popular is the mechanism that through federal and states' contributions seeks to financially protect the population without access to social security's health services, and thus prevent impoverishment due to out of pocket and catastrophic health expenditures.

  5. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  6. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  7. Collective poisoning with hallucinogenous herbal tea.

    PubMed

    Balíková, Marie

    2002-08-14

    An incident wherein more than 30 people were poisoned with a herbal infusion during a meditation session is described. The clinical features observed were hallucinations, aggression, agitation, amnesia, mydriasis, dry skin, tachycardia, hyperthermia, hypotension, collapse, coma and respiratory depression. All patients recovered, although mechanical ventilation was required in some instances. A portion of the herbal infusion was found to contain atropine (hyoscyamine), scopolamine (hyoscine), harmine, and other alkaloids. The estimated ingested doses (free bases) were atropine 4 mg, harmine 27 mg, and scopolamine 78 mg. The mean concentrations in 21 serum samples obtained approximately 6h after ingestion of the infusion were atropine 5 ng/ml, harmine 8 ng/ml, and scopolamine 13 ng/ml.

  8. The Role of Popularity Goal in Early Adolescents' Behaviors and Popularity Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…

  9. The quest for a herbal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R R

    1993-01-01

    An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a

  10. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used. PMID:24934061

  11. Effect of a Tibetan herbal mixture on microvascular endothelial function, heart rate variability and biomarkers of inflammation, clotting and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniela; Lambrecht, Julia; Radtke, Thomas; Wilhelm, Matthias; Saner, Hugo

    2015-08-01

    In this 6-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind study, we investigated the effects of a natural herbal remedy based on a recipe from Tibet (Padma® 28), on microvascular endothelial function, heart rate variability and biomarkers of inflammation, clotting and coagulation in 80 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients (age 66 ± 8 years) on guideline-based medication for secondary prevention. We found no significant effects of Padma 28 and conclude that the addition of Padma 28 to guideline-based secondary prevention treatment of CAD did not lead to significant effects on important surrogate markers in elderly male CAD patients. PMID:25208904

  12. Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

  13. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  14. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action.

  15. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action. PMID:25394361

  16. Remediation; An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1988-09-01

    The U.SD. government began committing the nation legally and financially in the last decade to the ultimate remediation of virtually all of the hazardous wastes that were produced in the past and remain to threaten human health and the environment, all that continue to be generated, and all that will be created in the future. Whether engendered by acts of God or human industry, the laws and regulations mandate, hazardous wastes and the threats they pose will be removed or rendered harmless. As mobilization for tackling the monumental task implied by those commitments has progressed, key concepts have changed in meaning. The remedy of remediation once literally meant burying our hazardous waste problems in landfills, for example, a solution now officially defined as the least desirable-although still commonly chosen - course of action. The process of identifying hazardous substances and determining in what quantities they constitute health and environmental hazards continues apace. As measurement technologies become increasingly precise and capable to detecting more 9s to the right of the decimal point, acceptable levels of emissions into the air and concentrations in the ground or water are reduced. This article is intended as a sketch of where the national commitment of remediation currently stands, with examples of implications for both generators of hazardous wastes and those who have entered-or seek to enter-the rapidly growing business of remediation.

  17. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    SciTech Connect

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  18. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  19. Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union.

    PubMed

    Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed. PMID:19204891

  20. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  1. Living-History Villages as Popular Entertainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the furor created when Walt Disney Studios announced plans to develop a "historic amusement park" near the Manassas (Virginia) National Battlefield Park. Maintains that the public debate over the popular understanding of history reflects an ongoing tension between academic historians and the purveyors of popular history. (CFR)

  2. Using Popular Music to Teach Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jim

    1990-01-01

    Shows how studying sources of popular music and instruments help students understand historical patterns of immigration and geography. Presents lessons and materials for exploring origins of popular musical instruments and music that developed in the United States from other cultures. Includes several related classroom activities, recommended…

  3. Using Popular Culture to Teach Quantitative Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillyard, Cinnamon

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…

  4. Teaching Personality Theories Using Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leck, Kira

    2006-01-01

    Previously, psychology instructors have used popular music to illustrate psychological concepts in the classroom. In this study, students enrolled in a personality theories class heard 13 popular songs that demonstrated various concepts. Students then selected and analyzed their own songs that contained elements of personality theories. Test…

  5. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  6. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  7. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  8. Effects of herbal medicine on human uterine tumor-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohh, Mi Hyang; Kim, Seong Jin; Han, Jong Kwon; Pak, Sok Cheon; Chee, Kew-mahn

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine neoplasms associated with significant morbidity. Herbal formulas capable of restoring yin-yang balance by dispersing blood stasis may be useful for managing fibroid symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, the antitumor properties of three herbs viz., Trogopterus xanthipes Milen-Edwards, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, and Ulmus davidiana Planch were evaluated in nude mice injected intravenously with human malignant myomas. Tumor fragments were xenografted subcutaneously through a flank incision in female mice. The mice entered the study for 8 weeks when their tumors reached the threshold volume (260 mm3). The mice were randomly allocated to receive subcutaneous injections of normal saline (Group 1; negative control), P. lactiflora Pallas (Group 2), U. davidiana Planch (Group 3), T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards (Group 4), and intravenous injections of paclitaxel (Group 5; positive control). The weight and tumor volume were measured, followed by histopathology. Results: A few cases of abdominal distention and death were observed in the negative control group. Furthermore, a considerable enlargement of the liver and spleen was observed in the negative control group at autopsy with a gradual increase in body weight during the experiment. The mean tumor volume which increased in negative control mice reduced in mice treated with herbal remedies or paclitaxel from day 14 onwards (P < 0.05). The degree of necrosis and apoptosis induction from herbal treatments was similar to that of paclitaxel. Conclusion: Collectively, three herbs viz., T. xanthipes Milen-Edwards, P. lactiflora Pallas, and U. davidiana Planch were able to induce necrosis and apoptosis of uterine leiomyoma cells, proving antitumor properties against uterine fibroids. PMID:27757274

  9. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  10. Assessment of the embryotoxicity of four Chinese herbal extracts using the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Yan; Cao, Fen-Fang; Su, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Qi-Hao; Dai, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Ya-Dong; Zheng, Qing; Xu, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala, Radix Isatidis, Coptis chinensis and Flos Genkwa are common herbal remedies used by pregnant woman in China. In this study, their potential embryotoxicity was assessed using the embryonic stem cell test (EST) and a prediction model. The potential embryotoxicity of the herbs was based on three endpoints: the concentrations of the compounds that inhibited the proliferation of 50% of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (IC50ES), the concentrations that inhibited 50% of 3T3 cells (IC503T3), and the concentrations that inhibited the differentiation of 50% of ESCs (ID50ES). The results revealed that Rhizoma Atractylodes macrocephala and Radix Isatidis are non-embryotoxic compounds. Coptis chinensis extracts appeared to demonstrated weak embryotoxicity, and Flos Genkwa exhibited strong embryotoxicity. These results may be useful in guiding the clinical use of these herbs and in expanding the application of the EST to the field of traditional Chinese medicine.

  11. New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

  12. Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Stefano; Capasso, Francesco

    2002-11-01

    Propolis is one of the few natural remedies that has maintained its popularity over a long period of time. The pharmacologically active molecules in the propolis are flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters. These components have multiple effects on bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, propolis and its components have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Moreover, propolis has been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, clinical studies to substantiate these claims are required.

  13. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  14. Metabolomic analysis of complex chinese remedies: examples of induced nephrotoxicity in the mouse from a series of remedies containing aristolochic Acid.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Dong-Ming; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Wang, San-Yuan; Tsai, I-Lin; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Wei-Chu, Li; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Tseng, Y Jane

    2013-01-01

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy is caused by aristolochic acid (AA) and AA-containing herbs. In traditional Chinese medicine, a principle called "Jun-Chen-Zou-Shi" may be utilized to construct a remedial herbal formula that attempts to mitigate the toxicity of the main ingredient. This study used Bu-Fei-A-Jiao-Tang (BFAJT) to test if the compound remedy based on a principle of "Jun-Chen-Zou-Shi" can decrease the toxicity of AA-containing herbs. We compared the three toxicities of AA standard, Madouling (an Aristolochia herb), and a herbal formula BFAJT. AA standard was given for BALB/c mice at a dose of 5 mg/kg bw/day or 7.5 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. Madouling and BFAJT were given at an equivalence of AA 0.5 mg/kg bw/day for 21 days. Nephrotoxicity was evaluated by metabolomics and histopathology. The urinary metabolomics profiles were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The spectral data was analyzed with partial least squares discriminant analysis, and the significant differential metabolites between groups were identified. The result showed different degrees of acute renal tubular injuries, and metabolomics analysis found that the kidney injuries were focused in proximal renal tubules. Both metabolomics and pathological studies revealed that AA standard, Madouling, and BFAJT were all nephrotoxicants. The compositions of the compound remedy did not diminish the nephrotoxicity caused by AA. PMID:23606874

  15. Herbal supplements for health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Susan D; Curry, Kim; Yoon, Saun-Joo

    2016-10-20

    This three-part series is designed to provide clinicians with a working knowledge of using herbal supplements for health and disease states. Common herbal preparations used for health promotion or disease prevention will be featured in this part of the series.

  16. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  17. Diagnosis of public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Ely Eduardo Saranz; Bandeira, Mary Anne Medeiros; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2011-07-01

    The present study is aimed to diagnose the current public programs focused on herbal medicines in Brazil by means of in loco visits to 10 programs selected by means of questionnaires sent to 124 municipalities that count on herbal medicine services. The main purpose of the implementation of program programs is related to the development of medicinal herbs. 70% of them are intended for the production of herbal medicines and 50% are aimed to ensure the access of the population to medicinal plants and or herbal medicines. The initiative of the implementation of these programs was related to the managers (60%). The difficulties in this implementation were due to the lack of funding (100%) of the programs. In 60% of the programs, the physicians did not adhere to herbal medicine services due to the lack of knowledge of the subject. Training courses were proposed (80%) to increase the adhesion of prescribers to the system. Some municipalities use information obtained from patients to assess the therapeutic efficiency of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. Of the programs underway, cultivation of medicinal plants was observed in 90% and 78% of them adopt quality control. In most programs, this control is not performed in accordance with the legal requirements. The programs focused on medicinal plants and herbal medicines implemented in Brazil face some chronic problems of infrastructure, management, operational capacity and self-sustainability, which can be directly related to the absence of a national policy on medicinal plants and herbal medicines.

  18. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  19. COST OF MTBE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Widespread contamination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in ground water has raised concerns about the increased cost of remediation of MTBE releases compared to BTEX-only sites. To evaluate these cost, cost information for 311 sites was furnished by U.S. EPA Office of Undergr...

  20. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  1. Effects of selenium and zinc status in biological samples of hepatitis C patient after herbal and pharmaceutical supplements.

    PubMed

    Kolachi, Nida F; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Naveed G; Mughal, Moeena A; Khan, Sumaira

    2013-05-01

    The use of natural remedies and pharmacological mineral supplements for liver disease treatment has a long history. In present study, the levels of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) were determined in biological samples (serum and whole blood) of female hepatitis C patients (n = 132), age ranged 30-45 years, before and after 30 days treatment with herbal/pharmaceutical supplements. For comparative study, 128 age-matched female subjects, residing in the same residential areas and have socioeconomic status, were selected as referents. The Se and Zn in supplements, blood, and sera were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was observed that Zn and Se in blood and serum samples of viral hepatitis C (HCV) patients were reduced in the range of 28.6-39 % and 24-36 %, respectively, as compared to those of referents. After herbal/pharmaceutical supplementations, 20.6-25.0 and 9.15-13.2 % of Zn and 10.6-12.1 and 19.6-21.4 % of Se were enhanced in sera and blood samples of HCV patients, respectively. The resulted data indicated that the levels of Se and Zn in addition to some biochemical parameters were improved in HCV patients after herbal/pharmaceutical supplementation. The effects of both supplements were not significantly different (p > 0.05).

  2. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh

    2007-01-01

    Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations. PMID:18928138

  3. The practitioner's perspective: introduction to Ayurvedic herbalism.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh

    2007-01-01

    Ayurveda, the indigenous holistic healing system of India, is a holistic approach to health and lifestyle management that incorporates diet, exercise, life activity routines, psychotherapeutic practices, massage and botanical medicine. Ayurveda focuses on prevention, applying techniques of self-care to restore health balance quickly and effectively. Ayurveda is one of the four large, long-practiced ethnic herbal medicine systems with large extant literatures (along with Western, Chinese and Unani). It affords valuable clinical insights in its own right. Acquiring a basis in Ayurveda will enhance access to south Asian herbs and indigenous medicinal preparations.

  4. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  5. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  6. [Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].

    PubMed

    Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

    2007-01-01

    The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model.

  7. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult. PMID:25778835

  8. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult.

  9. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    PubMed

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. PMID:27615702

  10. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. PMID:26613625

  11. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  12. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    PubMed

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice.

  13. Revitalizing Ernst Mach's Popular Scientific Lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euler, Manfred

    2007-06-01

    Compared to Ernst Mach's influence on the conceptual development of physics, his efforts to popularize science and his reflections on science literacy are known to a much lesser degree. The approach and the impact of Mach's popular scientific lectures are discussed in view of today's problems of understanding science. The key issues of Mach's popular scientific lectures, reconsidered in the light of contemporary science, still hold a high potential in fascinating a general audience. Moreover, Mach's grand theme, the relation of the physical to the psychical, is suited to contribute to a dialogue between different knowledge cultures, e.g. science and humanities.

  14. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  15. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  16. Herbal treatment for osteoporosis: a current review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ping-Chung; Siu, Wing-Sum

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is an aging problem. The declining bone mineral density (BMD) enhances the chances of fractures during minor falls. Effective pharmaceuticals are available for a rapid improvement of BMD. However, hormonal treatment gives serious complications, and bisphosphonates may lead to odd fractures of long bones, resulting from excessive rigidity of the cortical components. Many medicinal herbs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, known as kidney tonics, have been tested for their effects on bone metabolism in the laboratory and clinically. Three of these, viz. Herba epimedii (, Yín Yáng Huò), Fructus ligustri lucidi (, Nǚ Zhēn Zi), and Fructus psoraleae (, Bǔ Gǔ Zhī) were chosen to form a herbal formula, ELP. ELP was tested on in vitro platforms and was shown to have both osteoblastic and anti- osteoclastic action. ELP tested on ovariectomized rats also showed BMD protection. ELP was then put on a placebo- controlled randomized clinical trial. BMD protection was obvious among those women with the onset of menopause beyond 10 years (P < 0.05). A general protective trend was observed among all women under trial (P > 0.05). Although a thorough literature review on the herbal treatment effects did not give convincing answers to the use of Chinese herbs in osteoporosis, our study supports more research and trials in this area, while we are looking for safe and effective agents to keep the bone metabolism in a balanced state. PMID:24716161

  17. Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture. How do patients who consult family physicians use these therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L. K.; Jue, P.; Lam, A.; Yeung, W.; Cham-Wah, Y.; Birtwhistle, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how a population of Chinese patients consulting family physicians in Vancouver use traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), specifically Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture. DESIGN: Bilingual survey (English and Chinese). SETTING: Four family practices with predominantly Chinese patients in metropolitan Vancouver. PARTICIPANTS: The 932 patients or family members who visited one of the practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic characteristics; frequency and reason for visiting a family physician, Chinese herbalist, or acupuncturist; choice of practitioner if affected by one of 16 common conditions. RESULTS: The study population was mostly Chinese and immigrant to Canada. Chinese herbal medicine was currently used by 28% (262/930) of respondents (more than one visit in the last year), and another 18% (172/930) were past users. Acupuncture was currently used by 7% (64/927) and had been used in the past by another 8% (71/927). Use of Chinese herbal medicine varied significantly (P < .01) according to age, sex, immigrant status, and ethnicity. Acupuncture use varied significantly only by age. The main reasons for consulting Chinese herbalists were infection (41%, 157/382), respiratory problems (11%, 42/382), and rheumatologic problems (10%, 38/382), whereas acupuncturists were consulted almost exclusively for rheumatologic problems (80%, 45/56). CONCLUSIONS: Using TCM in conjunction with visiting family physicians was very popular among this predominantly Chinese study population. Patients with acute conditions, such as influenza, consulted both their family physicians and Chinese herbalists in quick succession. On the other hand, those suffering from more chronic conditions, such as rheumatologic diseases, were more likely to start using TCM after repeated visits to their family physicians. Images p1011-a PMID:9612586

  18. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions.

    PubMed

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Kuo, Tien-Fen; Wu, Yueh-Chen; Yang, Wen-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  19. Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora, S. glandiflora, M. charantia, S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215

  20. Herbal Remedies for Coccidiosis Control: A Review of Plants, Compounds, and Anticoccidial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Coccidiosis is the bane of the poultry industry causing considerable economic loss. Eimeria species are known as protozoan parasites to cause morbidity and death in poultry. In addition to anticoccidial chemicals and vaccines, natural products are emerging as an alternative and complementary way to control avian coccidiosis. In this review, we update recent advances in the use of anticoccidial phytoextracts and phytocompounds, which cover 32 plants and 40 phytocompounds, following a database search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Four plant products commercially available for coccidiosis are included and discussed. We also highlight the chemical and biological properties of the plants and compounds as related to coccidiosis control. Emphasis is placed on the modes of action of the anticoccidial plants and compounds such as interference with the life cycle of Eimeria, regulation of host immunity to Eimeria, growth regulation of gut bacteria, and/or multiple mechanisms. Biological actions, mechanisms, and prophylactic/therapeutic potential of the compounds and extracts of plant origin in coccidiosis are summarized and discussed. PMID:27429634

  1. Artemisinin and the antimalarial endoperoxides: from herbal remedy to targeted chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Meshnick, S R; Taylor, T E; Kamchonwongpaisan, S

    1996-01-01

    Artemisinin and its derivatives are endoperoxide-containing compounds which represent a promising new class of antimalarial drugs. In the presence of intraparasitic iron, these drugs are converted into free radicals and other electrophilic intermediates which then alkylate specific malaria target proteins. Combinations of available derivatives and other antimalarial agents show promise both as first-line agents and in the treatment of severe disease. PMID:8801435

  2. Remediation technologies for contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, L.M.

    1995-09-01

    Although soil and groundwater remediation has been conducted for many years, sediment remediation is still in its infancy. Regulatory agencies are now beginning to identify areas where contaminated sediments exist and evaluate their environmental impact. As these evaluations are completed, the projects must shift focus to how these sediments can be remediated. Also as the criteria for aquatic disposal of dredged sediments become more stringent, remediation technologies must be developed to address contaminated sediments generated by maintenance dredging.This report describes the various issues and possible technologies for sediment remediation.

  3. The availability and validity of safety information of over the counter herbal products for use in diabetes in Sri Lanka: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Medagama, Arjuna Bandara; Widanapahirana, Heshan; Prasanga, Tharindu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: There is an increase of over-the-counter (OTC) herbal products for use in diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety information provided with OTC herbal remedies intended for diabetic patients in Sri Lanka and to assess the completeness of the information provided. Methods: Inclusion criteria consisted of OTC herbal remedies meant for use in diabetes. They were bought from local Sri Lankan supermarkets and non-ayurvedic pharmacies and product information regarding the risk of hypoglycemia, precautions for use, adverse events, dose, and interactions were assessed using a scoring system. The accuracy of the information was then compared against published data. Results: 11 products fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Five products contained a single constituent and five contained more than one. None had complete and accurate safety information according to our criteria. None specifically warned against the risk of hypoglycemia. 9 out of 11 products (81.8%) carried ≤3 items of the five essential factual information we expected. Hypoglycemic coma, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatotoxicity, carcinogenesis, and interactions causing elevated drug levels of Carbamazepine were some of the safety information that was missing. Conclusions: Key safety information was absent in most products. Regulation of sale, provision of key safety information and adverse event reporting should be a priority. PMID:26649230

  4. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise. PMID:26790314

  5. Evaluation of Efficacy of Herbal Intrauterine Infusion Uterofix Liquid in Treatment of Various Reproductive Disorders in Cows: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Satinder; Choudhary, Adarsh; Maini, Shivi; Ravikanth, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3–5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results: Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Conclusion: Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows. SUMMARY Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion

  6. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  7. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic) Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  8. The placebo effect in popular culture.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Mary Faith

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the placebo effect in popular culture, especially as it pertains to the work of authors Patrick O'Brian and Sinclair Lewis. The beloved physician as placebo, and the clinician scientist as villain are themes that respectively inform the novels, The Hundred Days and Arrowsmith. Excerpts from the novels, and from film show how the placebo effect, and the randomized clinical trial, have emerged into popular culture, and evolved over time.

  9. Inhibitory effect of the herbal antidepressant St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on rat gastric motility.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A

    2008-02-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is a highly popular and effective herbal antidepressant that clinically interacts with a number of conventional drugs. Because alterations in gastric emptying can cause pharmacokinetic interactions, in the present study we evaluated the effect of a standardized extract prepared from the flowering tops of Hypericum perforatum (SJW extract) on rat gastric motility. Orally administered SJW extract delayed gastric emptying in vivo. In vitro studies showed that SJW extract was significantly more active in inhibiting acetylcholine (or prostaglandin E2)-induced contractions than electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions. The effect of SJW extract on EFS-induced contractions was unaffected by drugs that inhibit intrinsic inhibitory nerves or by tachykinin antagonists, but it was reduced by the 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist methysergide. The inhibitory effect of SJW extract on acetylcholine-induced contractions was reduced by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid, but not by the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine or by methysergide. Among the chemical constituents of SJW extract tested, hyperforin and, to a lesser extent, the flavonoids kaempferol and quercitrin, inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions. It is concluded that SJW has a direct inhibitory effect on smooth muscle and could also possibly modulate gastric neurotransmission. If extended to humans, the inhibitory effect of SJW extract on gastric emptying in vivo could contribute, at least in part, to the clinical pharmacokinetic interactions between conventional medicines and this herbal antidepressant. PMID:18172613

  10. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  11. Remediating munitions contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, P.J.; Comfort, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    The former Nebraska Ordnance Plant (NOP) at Mead, NE was a military loading, assembling, and packing facility that produced bombs, boosters and shells during World War II and the Korean War (1942-1945, 1950-1956). Ordnances were loaded with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), amatol (TNT and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}), tritonal (TNT and Al) and Composition B (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine [RDX] and TNT). Process waste waters were discharged into wash pits and drainage ditches. Soils within and surrounding these areas are contaminated with TNT, RDX and related compounds. A continuous core to 300 cm depth obtained from an NOP drainage ditch revealed high concentrations of TNT in the soil profile and substantial amounts of monoamino reduction products, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT). Surface soil contained TNT in excess of 5000 mg kg{sup -1} and is believed to contain solid phase TNT. This is supported by measuring soil solution concentrations at various soil to solution ratios (1:2 to 1:9) and obtaining similar TNT concentrations (43 and 80 mg L{sup -1}). Remediating munitions-contaminated soil at the NOP and elsewhere is of vital interest since many of the contaminants are carcinogenic, mutagenic or otherwise toxic to humans and the environment. Incineration, the most demonstrated remediation technology for munitions-containing soils, is costly and often unacceptable to the public. Chemical and biological remediation offer potentially cost-effective and more environmentally acceptable alternatives. Our research objectives are to: (a) characterize the processes affecting the transport and fate of munitions in highly contaminated soil; (b) identify effective chemical and biological treatments to degrade and detoxify residues; and (c) integrate these approaches for effective and practical remediation of soil contaminated with TNT, RDX, and other munitions residues.

  12. [Empacho: An historical review of popular Chilean childhood disease (1674-2014)].

    PubMed

    Campos Navarro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    "Empacho" (abdominal pain and bloating), "mal de ojo" (evil eye), "los aires" (illnesses said to be caught by catching draughts), "el susto" or "espanto" (fright or panic), are the principal and most well-known popular Latin American illnesses. As regards empacho, the medical, historical and ethnographic information is extensive and detailed, since there documents recording it from the 16th century until recent times (2014), and in the case of Chile since 1674. For this review, 109 source documents from libraries in Chile, including some foreign ones, were consulted. It was found that the illness is known all over the country. It is a digestive system disorder caused by over-eating and the ingestion of products difficult to digest or indigestible, which cause problems in gastrointestinal transit. The most significant clinical data are gastralgia, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, fever, and other discomforts. The illness is treated at home, and if necessary, popular specialists are employed, with a visit to a qualified doctor being exceptional. There are many complex and combined treatments, which go from herbal products to ritual elements, not forgetting the so-called "quebradura del empacho". This review summary of empacho in Chile should enable the paediatrician to enter the world of popular knowledge and practices with the aim of improving the care of child patients and their families. It should also lead to the serious and systematic study of this nosological condition that will continue to exist in the future. PMID:26455698

  13. [Empacho: An historical review of popular Chilean childhood disease (1674-2014)].

    PubMed

    Campos Navarro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    "Empacho" (abdominal pain and bloating), "mal de ojo" (evil eye), "los aires" (illnesses said to be caught by catching draughts), "el susto" or "espanto" (fright or panic), are the principal and most well-known popular Latin American illnesses. As regards empacho, the medical, historical and ethnographic information is extensive and detailed, since there documents recording it from the 16th century until recent times (2014), and in the case of Chile since 1674. For this review, 109 source documents from libraries in Chile, including some foreign ones, were consulted. It was found that the illness is known all over the country. It is a digestive system disorder caused by over-eating and the ingestion of products difficult to digest or indigestible, which cause problems in gastrointestinal transit. The most significant clinical data are gastralgia, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, fever, and other discomforts. The illness is treated at home, and if necessary, popular specialists are employed, with a visit to a qualified doctor being exceptional. There are many complex and combined treatments, which go from herbal products to ritual elements, not forgetting the so-called "quebradura del empacho". This review summary of empacho in Chile should enable the paediatrician to enter the world of popular knowledge and practices with the aim of improving the care of child patients and their families. It should also lead to the serious and systematic study of this nosological condition that will continue to exist in the future.

  14. Remediating MGP brownfields

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-05-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example.

  15. Remedial Action Assessment System

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  16. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety.

  17. Chemical Adulterants in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Calahan, Jacob; Howard, Dylan; Almalki, Ahmad J; Gupta, Mahabir P; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Many herbal medicinal products have been found to contain synthetic prescription drugs as chemical adulterants. This has become evident by the number of toxicity cases and adverse reactions reported in which casualties were reported via analytical techniques that detected the presence of chemical adulterants in them, which could be responsible for their toxicity. The adulteration of herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs continues to be a serious problem for regulatory agencies. This review provides up to date information on cases of toxicity, major chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products, and current analytical techniques used for their detection. PMID:27054916

  18. [Toxic hepatitis due to the use of Ruta herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Rabaev, Elena; Zeller, Lior; Biton, Amnon; Barski, Leonid

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, the use of herbal medicine by the general population is increasing. There are many known side effects resulting from these treatments. Despite the known side effects, physicians tend to neglect the anamnesis details regarding this issue and research budgets of these drugs are relatively low compared with conventional medicine, thus causing a lack of updated information. In this case report, we present an example of toxic hepatitis due to use of Ruta herbal medicine, an unfamiliar side effect of the common herbal medicine Ruta.

  19. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  20. [Exploration on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoqing

    2010-03-01

    For exploration on the academic thought on processing of Chinese herbal medicine the basic theory and methods, textual research of the scientific of Zhang Zhongiing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was summarized, and the historical significance on academic thought of Zhang Zhongjing on processing of Chinese herbal medicine was analyzed. Regarded Zhang Zhongjing is the ancestor of processing of Chinese herbal medicine to lay the theoretical foundation on processing of Chinese herbal medicine for later.

  1. Impact of herbal medicines on physical impairment.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, C; Black, A; Müller-Ladner, U; Chrubasik, S

    2008-06-01

    The usefulness of recording physical impairment during intervention studies in chronic low back patients has been questioned. A re-analysis of all of our studies investigating aqueous extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens and a proprietary ethanolic Salix extract for chronic non-specific low back pain revealed that the "physical impairment" component of the Arhus low back pain index changed very little during treatment despite appreciable changes in the other two components, "pain" and "disability", over time. For comparison, we also extracted data from the literature on the topical use of capsaicin, which showed the same thing. There may be little to lose from omitting the time-consuming assessments of "physical impairment" in studies of the (primarily analgesic) effectiveness of herbal preparations. PMID:17964131

  2. Hepatotoxicity induced by herbal and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Lucena, M Isabel

    2014-05-01

    Herbals and dietary supplements (HDS) can cause hepatotoxicity. Regulation of HDS varies across the globe. In the United States, it is defined by a law that is now two decades old. More recent regulatory approaches in Europe still do not require testing for premarket safety. The true incidence of hepatotoxicity from HDS is unknown. The presentation is most often with a hepatocellular enzyme pattern, and the outcomes can be severe, leading to transplantation in some circumstances. The diagnosis of hepatotoxicity due to HDS is made in the same way as for drugs. However, patients often must be coaxed into revealing a history of use. No causality assessment approach is perfectly suited for hepatotoxicity from HDS, but the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is most used. Future endeavors must focus on defining epidemiology, establishing an accepted nomenclature, and identifying culprit ingredients, predisposing host factors, and useful biomarkers for injury.

  3. Immunostimulatory Lipid Nanoparticles from Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Tal H.; Takaoka, Anna; de la Rica, Roberto; Matsui, Hiroshi; Smeureanu, Gabriela; Drain, Charles M.; Kawamura, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility is an important issue in biological characterization of drug candidates and natural products. It is not uncommon to encounter cases in which supposedly the same sample exhibits very different biological activities. During our characterization of macrophage-stimulatory lipids from herbal medicine, it was found that the potency of these lipids could vary substantially from experiment to experiment. Further analysis of this reproducibility issue led to the discovery of solvent-dependent nanoparticle formation by these lipids. While larger nanoparticles (approximately 100 nm) of these lipids showed modest macrophage-stimulatory activity, smaller nanoparticles (<10 nm) of the same lipids exhibited substantially higher potency. Thus, the study revealed an unexpected link between nanoparticle formation and macrophage-stimulatory activity of plant lipids. Although nanoparticles have been extensively studied in the context of vehicles for drug delivery, our finding indicates that drugs themselves can form nanoassemblies, and their biological properties may be altered by the way they assemble. PMID:24495243

  4. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Katrin M; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  5. Kampo Medicine: Evaluation of the Pharmacological Activity of 121 Herbal Drugs on GABAA and 5-HT3A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Katrin M.; Herbrechter, Robin; Ziemba, Paul M.; Lepke, Peter; Beltrán, Leopoldo; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Kampo medicine is a form of Japanese phytotherapy originating from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). During the last several decades, much attention has been paid to the pharmacological effects of these medical plants and their constituents. However, in many cases, a systematic screening of Kampo remedies to determine pharmacologically relevant targets is still lacking. In this study, a broad screening of Kampo remedies was performed to look for pharmacologically relevant 5-HT3A and GABAA receptor ligands. Several of the Kampo remedies are currently used for symptoms such as nausea, emesis, gastrointestinal motility disorders, anxiety, restlessness, or insomnia. Therefore, the pharmacological effects of 121 herbal drugs from Kampo medicine were analyzed as ethanol tinctures on heterologously expressed 5-HT3A and GABAA receptors, due to the involvement of these receptors in such pathophysiological processes. The tinctures of Lindera aggregata (radix) and Leonurus japonicus (herba) were the most effective inhibitory compounds on the 5-HT3A receptor. Further investigation of known ingredients in these compounds led to the identification of leonurine from Leonurus as a new natural 5-HT3A receptor antagonist. Several potentiating herbs (e.g., Magnolia officinalis (cortex), Syzygium aromaticum (flos), and Panax ginseng (radix)) were also identified for the GABAA receptor, which are all traditionally used for their sedative or anxiolytic effects. A variety of tinctures with antagonistic effects Salvia miltiorrhiza (radix) were also detected. Therefore, this study reveals new insights into the pharmacological action of a broad spectrum of herbal drugs from Kampo, allowing for a better understanding of their physiological effects and clinical applications. PMID:27524967

  6. Pseudoaldosteronism due to the concurrent use of two herbal medicines containing glycyrrhizin: interaction of glycyrrhizin with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Iida, Rinako; Otsuka, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Kei; Kuriyama, Satoru; Hosoya, Tatsuo

    2006-06-01

    A 77-year-old man with a history of hypertension and hyperuricemia was admitted to our hospital complaining of limb weakness, persistent constipation, and worsening hypertension. He had been taking a Chinese herbal remedy for allergic rhinitis for the past 10 years, together with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I; enalapril, 20 mg daily). After the dosage of enalapril had been reduced to 10 mg daily about 1(1/2) years before the current admission, he had developed persistent constipation. Therefore, he had started taking another traditional Chinese herbal remedy, a laxative, for the constipation, about 4 months prior to this hospitalization. Laboratory data on admission demonstrated marked metabolic alkalosis with severe hypokalemia associated with urinary wasting of potassium and chloride. A diagnosis of pseudoaldosteronism was made based upon his past history of exposure to various traditional Chinese medicines containing glycyrrhizin. Discontinuation of the Chinese remedies and supplementation of potassium successfully normalized the electrolyte imbalance and relieved all symptoms within a short time. The present case describes the occurrence of pseudoaldosteronism induced by a patient taking two traditional Chinese herbs, both containing glycyrrhizin, resulting in an overdose of this causative chemical agent. The development of pseudoaldosteronism appeared to be of particular interest with regard to the interaction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system with glycyrrhizin, in which an ACE-I retarded the development of pseudoaldosteronism.

  7. Integrated in-situ remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Fustos, V.; Lieberman, P.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents an integrated approach to ex-situ and in-situ remediation. A sequence of processes, used successfully in their own right, but used synergistically in this approach, have achieved short-term, economic remediation. In addition the range of contaminants that can be treated is extended. The Process uses ozone, compressed oxygen, water vapor, heat, bioaugmentation and vapor extraction to remediate lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  8. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  9. Electrokinetic remediation prefield test methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodko, Dalibor (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Methods for determining the parameters critical in designing an electrokinetic soil remediation process including electrode well spacing, operating current/voltage, electroosmotic flow rate, electrode well wall design, and amount of buffering or neutralizing solution needed in the electrode wells at operating conditions are disclosed These methods are preferably performed prior to initiating a full scale electrokinetic remediation process in order to obtain efficient remediation of the contaminants.

  10. Evolution of popularity in given names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mi Jin; Jo, Woo Seong; Yi, Il Gu; Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2016-02-01

    An individual's identity in a human society is specified by his or her name. Differently from family names, usually inherited from fathers, a given name for a child is often chosen at the parents' disposal. However, their decision cannot be made in a vacuum but affected by social conventions and trends. Furthermore, such social pressure changes in time, as new names gain popularity while some other names are gradually forgotten. In this paper, we investigate how popularity of given names has evolved over the last century by using datasets collected in Korea, the province of Quebec in Canada, and the United States. In each of these countries, the average popularity of given names exhibits typical patterns of rise and fall with a time scale of about one generation. We also observe that notable changes of diversity in given names signal major social changes.

  11. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  12. International monitoring of adverse health effects associated with herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Farah, M H; Edwards, R; Lindquist, M; Leon, C; Shaw, D

    2000-03-01

    Herbal medicines are used in health care around the world and may increase in importance. There is much uncertainty, however, with regard to their composition, efficacy and safety. There is substantial evidence that herbal medicines can cause serious adverse reactions, but more data are needed as regard their nature, frequency and preventability. In this respect the Uppsala Monitoring Centre of the World Health Organization can play a crucial role. Better reporting of adverse reactions to herbal medicines is needed, in particular with regard to the precise identity and composition of these products. A consistent use by producers, regulators and reporters of the international Latin binomial nomenclature and the use of the new Herbal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification are recommended. Copyright (c) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19025809

  13. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice.

  14. Study and application of herbal disinfectants in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao-Bin

    2004-12-01

    Disinfection means killing or removing pathogenic microorganisms in media to realize a harmless process. A disinfectant, which is also referred to as a disinfection medicine in relevant regulations, is the medicine used to kill microorganisms for the purpose of disinfection. The disinfectants prepared from plants (including traditional Chinese herbal medicines) and the extracts thereof are called herbal disinfectants. China has a long history of using herbal disinfectants. As early as in 533 A.D., the use of Cornel to sterilize well water was recorded in Necessary Techniques for Qi People by Jia Enxie of the Beiwei Dynasty. During the Dragon Boat Festival, people often use fumigants made of traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Chinese Atractylodes, Argy Wormwood Leaf and Red Arsenic Sulfide to smoke their houses, so as to ward off plagues and drive away evils. In fact this is now a kind of disinfection practice. PMID:15745254

  15. POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hakim Mohammed

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

  16. [Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].

    PubMed

    Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

    2014-12-01

    Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years.

  17. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  18. Saxton soil remediation project

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described.

  19. Rehabbing for remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Banton, D.; Anderson, R. )

    1994-03-01

    This article examines how rehabilitating contaminated city water wells in Moses Lake, Wash. took care of the problem for less than half the price of conventional remediation techniques. Wells located in similar hydrogeology, often found in the Western and Plains states, may benefit from this approach. Moses Lake is located on the Columbia Plateau in central Washington. The wells are between 700 and 800 ft deep, cased through 100--200 ft of alluvium, and completed open holes stretch across multiple basalt flows of the Wanapum formation of the Columbia River basalt group.

  20. Avoiding costly remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Scheels, R.H.

    1997-10-01

    Some oil and gas pipeline operations require equipment with hydraulic or oil circulation systems. These are subject to oil leaks or spills due to equipment malfunctions as well as normal operation. The potential liability and actual remediation and shutdown costs helped create the need for more environmentally friendly hydraulic fluids. Mobil has developed readily biodegradable, virtually nontoxic hydraulic fluids, Mobil EAL 224H and Mobil EAL Syndrajoc Series oils (EAL stands for Environmental Awareness Lubricants). The first is vegetable oil-based, while the others are formulated from high viscosity-index synthetic ester base stocks. Both use virtually nontoxic additive packages. These hydraulic fluids are described.

  1. Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Florencia; Dluhy, Robert G

    2011-06-01

    Glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is a hereditary form of primary hyperaldosteronism and the most common monogenic cause of hypertension. A chimeric gene duplication leads to ectopic aldosterone synthase activity in the cortisol-producing zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, under the regulation of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Hypertension typically develops in childhood, and may be refractory to standard therapies. Hypokalemia is uncommon in the absence of treatment with diuretics. The discovery of the genetic basis of the disorder has permitted the development of accurate diagnostic testing. Glucocorticoid suppression of ACTH is the mainstay of treatment; alternative treatments include mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists.

  2. Books and the popularization of science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses best-selling science books, the characteristics of the audience for popular science books, and the role of books within science popularization and science education. Best-selling science books have been rare, but generally readable. Regional books, also important sources of scientific information, aim at much smaller, far more price-sensitive audiences. Many successful regional, nontechnical science books are readable, heavily illustrated, and in some cases, cross-disciplinary. To increase the attentive audience for scientific information, improvement in science education is necessary, and the most efficacious role for scientific institutions may be the production of materials that can be easily incorporated into school curricula. ?? 1991 Springer.

  3. Darwin and the popularization of evolution.

    PubMed

    Lightman, Bernard

    2010-03-20

    Evolution was popularized from 1860 to 1900 in the USA and Britain in a wide variety of media. Here I investigate traditional texts associated with the intellectual elite, including philosophical or scientific monographs, sermons, and published lectures. Evolution was rarely popularized in ways that reflected Darwin's major contribution to biology, his theory of natural selection. This meant that the reading audience more often encountered an alternative to Darwin's naturalistic, non-directional and non-progressive evolutionary perspective. There were at least four different versions of evolution circulating in the period from 1860 to 1900, and only one conformed to Darwin's vision.

  4. [Use of herbal medicine for cancer treatment-related toxicities].

    PubMed

    Samuels, Noah; Morag, Ofir; Maimon, Yair

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment-related toxicities often require dose reductions and delays. Herbal medicine use is prevalent among cancer patients. Though evidence is lacking regarding benefits in treatment outcomes and immunity, a large body of evidence supports the use of herbals for reducing treatment-induced toxicities. We present three cases where herbal medicine provided relief from side effects of anti-cancer treatment, enabling the completion of treatment protocols. In the first case, a 79 year-old female patient with metastatic breast cancer developed flushing and excessive sweating from Tamoxifen treatment. Herbal medicine reduced symptoms significantly, enabling the continuation of treatment with partial disease resolution. In the second case, a 69 year-old male with esophageal cancer terminated treatment on the adjuvant treatment protocol because of severe nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, peripheral neuropathy and fatigue. Herbal medicine reduced symptom severity and chemotherapy was reinstituted. In the third case, a 58 year-old female patient with advanced metastatic colon cancer was referred by her oncologist for treatment with herbal medicine for alleviation of fatigue and weakness, flushing and palpitations, mouth ulcers and dyspnea. Despite significant symptom reduction, with completion of treatment regimens, her disease progressed and she subsequently succumbed to the disease. In summary, the above cases illustrate potential benefits of herbal medicine in the reduction of cancer treatment-related symptoms, enabling patients to complete their anti-cancer treatment regimen. Further research examining the efficacy and safety of herbal compounds is needed, in light of potential toxicity and negative interactions with conventional treatment.

  5. Plants as De-Worming Agents of Livestock in the Nordic Countries: Historical Perspective, Popular Beliefs and Prospects for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Waller, PJ; Bernes, G; Thamsborg, SM; Sukura, A; Richter, SH; Ingebrigtsen, K; Höglund, J

    2001-01-01

    Preparations derived from plants were the original therapeutic interventions used by man to control diseases (including parasites), both within humans and livestock. Development of herbal products depended upon local botanical flora with the result that different remedies tended to develop in different parts of the world. Nevertheless, in some instances, the same or related plants were used over wide geographic regions, which also was the result of communication and/or the importation of plant material of high repute. Thus, the Nordic countries have an ancient, rich and diverse history of plant derived anthelmintic medications for human and animal use. Although some of the more commonly used herbal de-wormers were derived from imported plants, or their products, many are from endemic plants or those that thrive in the Scandinavian environment. With the advent of the modern chemotherapeutic era, and the discovery, development and marketing of a seemingly unlimited variety of highly efficacious, safe synthetic chemicals with very wide spectra of activities, herbal remedies virtually disappeared from the consciousness – at least in the Western world. This attitude is now rapidly changing. There is a widespread resurgence in natural product medication, driven by major threats posed by multi-resistant pest, or disease, organisms and the diminishing public perceptions that synthetic chemicals are the panacea to health and disease control. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account of the depth of historical Nordic information available on herbal de-wormers, with emphasis on livestock and to provide some insights on potentially rewarding areas of "re-discovery" and scientific evaluation in this field. PMID:11455900

  6. Game-Based Remedial Instruction in Mastery Learning for Upper-Primary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Liu, Eric Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yu-Liang; Liou, Pey-Yan; Chang, Maiga; Wu, Cheng-Hong; Yuan, Shyan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to…

  7. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  8. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  9. A renaissance in herbal medicine identification: from morphology to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Pang, Xiaohui; Song, Jingyuan; Shi, Linchun; Yao, Hui; Han, Jianping; Leon, Christine

    2014-11-15

    Numerous adverse reactions have arisen following the use of inaccurately identified medicinal plant ingredients, resulting in conditions such as aristolochic acid nephropathy and herb-induced poisoning. This problem has prompted increased global concern over the safety of herbal medicines. DNA barcoding, a technique aiming at detecting species-specific differences in a short region of DNA, provides a powerful new tool for addressing this problem. A preliminary system for DNA barcoding herbal materials has been established based on a two-locus combination of ITS2+psbA-trnH barcodes. There are 78,847 sequences belonging to 23,262 species in the system, which include more than 95% of crude herbal drugs in pharmacopeia, such as those of China, Japan, Korea, India, USA, and Europe. The system has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine enterprises. This review summarizes recent key advances in the DNA barcoding of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution towards safe and efficacious herbal medicines.

  10. Pragmatism and Popular Culture: Shusterman, Popular Art, and the Challenge of Visuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snaevarr, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Richard Shusterman's defense of popular culture and intends to show that the entertainment industry has a dark side which Shusterman tends to ignore. Richard Shusterman is a pragmatist aesthetician who promotes art as an integral part of the ever-changing stream of life, believing that popular culture provides…

  11. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  12. "One-shot" analysis of PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues in counterfeit herbal natural products using an LC-DAD-QTOF system.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Claudio; Pivato, Antonio; Bogialli, Sara; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    A highly selective and robust method for simultaneous screening and confirmation of target and non-target phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor analogues within a single chromatographic run in counterfeit herbal products was developed. The protocol, based on an easy and rapid extraction with a water/acetonitrile 1 % formic acid solution, followed by sonication and centrifugation, exploits an LC-diode array detector-quadrupole-time-of-flight (DAD-QTOF) system. The extraction method was optimized both at high concentrations and at trace levels. These two situations are typically encountered in pharmaceutical formulations and herbal food supplements. Carryover effects, never reported before and occurring mainly for vardenafil, were overcome using a polymer-based column. An in-house validation was carried out using five blanks of different bulk matrices spiked with seven standard analytes, namely yohimbine, sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, homosildenafil, pseudovardenafil and hydroxyhomovardenafil. Reliable quantitation was possible using a conventional standard solution for all the pharmaceutical and herbal samples considered, as matrix effects were eliminated. Accuracy ranged from 80.9 to 108.1 % with overall relative standard deviation (RSD) <11 % (N = 15), measured at 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/g. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained ensured the determination of cross contaminations at nanogram per gram levels. A database with 82 PDE-5 inhibitor analogues was implemented for automatic non-target analysis. Among the 26 samples of dietary supplements and herbal remedies bulk marketed for erectile dysfunctions, three samples were found to be contaminated with both registered and unregistered synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors, i.e. yohimbine, sildenafil, dimethylsildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil or thiomethisosildenafil. The occurrence of such contaminations, both at trace levels and at pharmaceutical dosage, indicates the illicit use of synthetic PDE-5 analogues

  13. "One-shot" analysis of PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues in counterfeit herbal natural products using an LC-DAD-QTOF system.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Claudio; Pivato, Antonio; Bogialli, Sara; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    A highly selective and robust method for simultaneous screening and confirmation of target and non-target phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor analogues within a single chromatographic run in counterfeit herbal products was developed. The protocol, based on an easy and rapid extraction with a water/acetonitrile 1 % formic acid solution, followed by sonication and centrifugation, exploits an LC-diode array detector-quadrupole-time-of-flight (DAD-QTOF) system. The extraction method was optimized both at high concentrations and at trace levels. These two situations are typically encountered in pharmaceutical formulations and herbal food supplements. Carryover effects, never reported before and occurring mainly for vardenafil, were overcome using a polymer-based column. An in-house validation was carried out using five blanks of different bulk matrices spiked with seven standard analytes, namely yohimbine, sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, homosildenafil, pseudovardenafil and hydroxyhomovardenafil. Reliable quantitation was possible using a conventional standard solution for all the pharmaceutical and herbal samples considered, as matrix effects were eliminated. Accuracy ranged from 80.9 to 108.1 % with overall relative standard deviation (RSD) <11 % (N = 15), measured at 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/g. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained ensured the determination of cross contaminations at nanogram per gram levels. A database with 82 PDE-5 inhibitor analogues was implemented for automatic non-target analysis. Among the 26 samples of dietary supplements and herbal remedies bulk marketed for erectile dysfunctions, three samples were found to be contaminated with both registered and unregistered synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors, i.e. yohimbine, sildenafil, dimethylsildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil or thiomethisosildenafil. The occurrence of such contaminations, both at trace levels and at pharmaceutical dosage, indicates the illicit use of synthetic PDE-5 analogues

  14. Managing soil remediation problems.

    PubMed

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  15. Soil Remediation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Manlapig, D. M.; Williamsws

    2002-04-01

    Soils contaminated with petroleum by-products can now be effectively remediated using a variety of technologies. Among these are in-situ bioremediation, land farming, and landfill/replacing of soil. The range of efficiencies and cost effectiveness of these technologies has been well documented. Exsorbet Plus is showing promise as an in-situ bioremediation agent. It is made of naturally grown Spaghnum Peat Moss which has been activated for encapsulation and blended with nitrogen-rich fertilizer. In its initial field test in Caracas, Venezuela, it was able to remediate crude oil-contaminated soil in 90 days at less than half of the cost of competing technologies. Waste Solutions, Corp and the US Department of Energy signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to test Exsorbet Plus at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center near Casper, Wyoming. As part of the test, soil contaminated with crude oil was treated with Exsorbet Plus to aid the in-situ bioremediation process. Quantitative total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) measurements were acquired comparing the performance of Exsorbet Plus with an adjacent plot undergoing unaided in-situ bioremediation.

  16. Home Assessment and Remediation.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Charles S; Horner, W Elliott; Kennedy, Kevin; Grimes, Carl; Miller, J David

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of the relationship of fungi to asthma in indoor air is very old and well documented. There is substantial evidence that mold and dampness exacerbate asthma in sensitized individuals. Many governmental and nongovernmental organizations around the world have issued guidelines to the effect that the elimination of moisture intrusion and the removal of moldy items from living space can improve respiratory health. The process of home assessment for moisture and mold presence is discussed along with factors that can be used to guide fungal exposure reduction efforts. An approach to the assessment process itself is outlined, and common causes of moisture and mold damage are described. Points that should be included in a report resulting from a home assessment and rudimentary elements of report interpretation are discussed. Emphasis is that interpretation of sampling for moisture and fungal presence should be provided by the person performing the assessment. We conclude that multifaceted remediation contributes to fungal allergen avoidance. The use of an indoor environmental professional to generate evaluation reports and remediation activities can be a valuable contribution to an overall allergen avoidance strategy.

  17. The Guide to Teaching with Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    Popular music is often characterized as a short work with a prominent melody and simple chordal accompaniment. Yet, teaching with pop music in the era of standards-based curriculum can present challenges. These standards offer teachers a blueprint for teaching music performance, composition, improvisation, and the relationship of music to other…

  18. Using Popular Media to Build Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, Barbara P.

    2007-01-01

    When an adult student from China says he learned English from listening to the radio or a literacy teacher mentions that she is reading a book recommended on "Oprah", they are illustrating how popular media are used for informal adult learning. This chapter examines some of the issues and implications surrounding how a sector of adult learners,…

  19. Popular Education and the "Party Line"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughton, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Popular education, by which is meant adult education within and in support of radical social movements, has become a major topic in academic adult education in recent times. This paper criticises the lack of attention paid in most of this writing to the history, theory and practice of revolutionary parties in the communist and socialist tradition.…

  20. Lyrical Commentaries: Learning from Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1991-01-01

    Depicts ways popular song lyrics can stimulate discussion either in music, social studies, humanities, or language arts classes. Considers lyrics' ability to explain social, cultural, and political phenomena. Provides a chronological outline from 1962 correlating political events, personalities, songs, and the artists. songs. Identifies uses of…

  1. Forecasting Popularity of Videos Using Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela; Liu, Jiangchuan; Li, Haitao

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic online prediction method (Social-Forecast) that is capable to accurately forecast the popularity of videos promoted by social media. Social-Forecast explicitly considers the dynamically changing and evolving propagation patterns of videos in social media when making popularity forecasts, thereby being situation and context aware. Social-Forecast aims to maximize the forecast reward, which is defined as a tradeoff between the popularity prediction accuracy and the timeliness with which a prediction is issued. The forecasting is performed online and requires no training phase or a priori knowledge. We analytically bound the prediction performance loss of Social-Forecast as compared to that obtained by an omniscient oracle and prove that the bound is sublinear in the number of video arrivals, thereby guaranteeing its short-term performance as well as its asymptotic convergence to the optimal performance. In addition, we conduct extensive experiments using real-world data traces collected from the videos shared in RenRen, one of the largest online social networks in China. These experiments show that our proposed method outperforms existing view-based approaches for popularity prediction (which are not context-aware) by more than 30% in terms of prediction rewards.

  2. The Nature of Science in Popular Nonfiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Barbara; Menasco, Jackie; Vannette, Trenda

    2008-01-01

    To help make science relevant to student's everyday lives, the authors required their 10th-grade summer school students to read selections from a popular nonfiction science book. By doing so, they were able to promote literacy and provide an authentic portrayal of the nature of science in a way that was fun and interesting for their students. This…

  3. Student Voice and the Perils of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean; Fielding, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this article we suggest that the current popularity of student voice can lead to surface compliance--to a quick response that focuses on "how to do it" rather than a reflective review of "why we might want to do it". We look at the links between student consultation and participation and the legacy of the progressive democratic tradition in our…

  4. Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity that…

  5. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  6. Bolivian Currents: Popular Participation and Indigenous Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Mary Jo

    1997-01-01

    Describes the effects on indigenous communities of Bolivia's recent Popular Participation Laws, which relocated political and financial decision making to the municipal level; community efforts toward cultural maintenance and nonformal agricultural education; the activism of indigenous university students; and the dual discrimination suffered by…

  7. Shakespeare Cereals: A Popular Culture Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiff, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Offers an exercise involving popular culture to help students experience the contemporary power of Shakespeare. Explains that after reading a Shakespeare play, students develop new cereal brands based upon the work's plot, characters, or themes, afterward naming, designing, creating, and displaying the cereal package. Combines literary analysis,…

  8. Is Being Popular a Risky Proposition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeux, Lara; Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between social preference, perceived popularity, and risk behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and sexual activity) were examined in a sample of high school students. Social preference did not predict any of the risk behaviors assessed, although the interaction between gender and social preference was predictive of sexual…

  9. What Is Popular Music Studies? Some Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Popular Music Studies (PMS) is now taught in over 20 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK and numerous others across the world. This article outlines the constituent parts of PMS in the UK and questions its status as a discipline in its own right. It concludes by arguing that, having established itself, PMS will need to deal with two key…

  10. Communicacion Popular: The Language of Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert A.

    "Communcacion popular" is an attempt by the peasant classes in Latin America to set up communication channels, independent of the hierarchy of intermediaries, that link them to the ruling elite. This language of liberation is self-reliant and defiant, coloring every aspect of its participants' lives. Its channels of communication are horizontal,…

  11. Popularity and user diversity of online objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Hua; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Han, Jingti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The popularity has been widely used to describe the object property of online user-object bipartite networks regardless of the user characteristics. In this paper, we introduce a measurement namely user diversity to measure diversity of users who select or rate one type of objects by using the information entropy. We empirically calculate the user diversity of objects with specific degree for both MovieLens and Diggs data sets. The results indicate that more types of users select normal-degree objects than those who select large-degree and small-degree objects. Furthermore, small-degree objects are usually selected by large-degree users while large-degree objects are usually selected by small-degree users. Moreover, we define 15% objects of smallest degrees as unpopular objects and 10% ones of largest degrees as popular objects. The timestamp is introduced to help further analyze the evolution of user diversity of popular objects and unpopular objects. The dynamic analysis shows that as objects become popular gradually, they are more likely accepted by small-degree users but lose attention among the large-degree users.

  12. Predicting Bullying: Maladjustment, Social Skills and Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postigo, Silvia; Gonzalez, Remedios; Mateu, Carmen; Montoya, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent bullying, research has characterised the adolescents involved in terms of their social skills, maladjustment and popularity. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the relationships between these variables and how these relationships predict bullying involvement. Moreover, the literature has focused on pure bullies…

  13. Caveat Lector: Reviewing Popular Social Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Vivian Scott

    1981-01-01

    Discusses problems with reviews and criticisms of popular social science books: the quality and background of reviewers, the difficulty of distinguishing between fact and opinion, and the scarcity of competent reviewers. Analyzes reviews of Robert Ardrey's "African Genesis" and "The Territorial Imperative," Konrad Lorenz's "On Aggression," and…

  14. Popular Financial Reports: Accountability through Readability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard T.; Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses colleges' use of popular financial reporting to make their annual financial reports more readable to citizens and legislators and to make their reports useful marketing and recruitment tools. Highlights research about financial reports and performance reporting conducted by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board. Describes the…

  15. Popular Literature: Its Compatibility with the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This special journal issue contains nine articles on the subject of using popular literature in the classroom. Subjects covered in the articles include (1) using vernacular supernatural literature to teach the skills of literary analysis, (2) teaching Agatha Christie's "Curtain," (3) pairing the classics with detective fiction, (4) using fantasy…

  16. Teaching Theory through Popular Culture Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a pedagogical approach to teaching theory to pre-service teachers. This approach involves articulating academic texts that introduce theoretical ideas and tools with carefully selected popular culture texts that can be taken up to illustrate the elements of a particular theory. Examples of the theories…

  17. Popular Culture in Mainland Chinese Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2006-01-01

    The policy and practice of school education in mainland China have changed in response to the political and economic reformations and opening-up of the late 1970s. This paper argues that, despite the introduction and emphasis on popular culture in some areas of school education, traditional Chinese culture and values continue to consolidate the…

  18. Gender and Cultural Consecration in Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmutz, Vaughn; Faupel, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the gendered nature of cultural legitimacy and consecration in popular music. We explore two related questions. First, which factors affect the likelihood that female performers achieve consecrated status? Second, how are those decisions discursively legitimated? Using a mixed-methods research design, we find that in both…

  19. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  20. Using Popular Children's Films in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

  1. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  2. Memory for Frequency of Hearing Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, James R.; And Others

    This experiment was designed to better understand the effects of individual differences, intent to learn, and stimulus familiarity on frequency judgment accuracy. Half of the participants in the study heard popular songs, and the other half listened to unfamiliar songs. Participants were subdivided into three more groups, introducing the "intent…

  3. American Popular Music 1950-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

  4. UWP 011: Popular Science and Technology Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrault, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    UWP 011: Popular Science & Technology Writing is a sophomore-level course designed as an introduction to rhetoric of science at UC Davis, a science-focused land-grant university. The course fulfills the general education requirements for written literacy and for topical breadth in arts and humanities. The catalog describes the course as…

  5. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  6. Interpersonal Needs of Remedial Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Judith

    A study sought to determine the effects of reading deficiency on the interpersonal relationship needs of regular and remedial readers as composite groups and on elementary and secondary school remedial and regular readers as age groups. Elementary and secondary school students were randomly selected and tested on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests…

  7. Innovative Technologies for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, Kurt D.; Cápiro, Natalie L.

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TRADITIONAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1980s) * RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1990s-2000s) * CURRENT TRENDS IN CHLORINATED SOLVENT REMEDIATION (2010s) * CLOSING THOUGHTS * REFERENCES

  8. Interaction between warfarin and Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Yan Ting; Ang, Xiang Ling; Zhong, Xi Ming; Khoo, Kei Siong

    2015-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human body is divided into Yin and Yang. Diseases occur when the Yin and Yang balance is disrupted. Different herbs are used to restore this balance, achieving the goal of treatment. However, inherent difficulties in designing experimental trials have left much of TCM yet to be substantiated by science. Despite that, TCM not only remains a popular form of medical treatment among the Chinese, but is also gaining popularity in the West. This phenomenon has brought along with it increasing reports on herb-drug interactions, beckoning the attention of Western physicians, who will find it increasingly difficult to ignore the impact of TCM on Western therapies. This paper aims to facilitate the education of Western physicians on common Chinese herbs and raise awareness about potential interactions between these herbs and warfarin, a drug that is especially susceptible to herb-drug interactions due to its narrow therapeutic range. PMID:25640094

  9. Types of headache and those remedies in traditional persian medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Petramfar, Peyman; Firoozabadi, Ali; Moein, Mahmood Reza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    The history of headache, as a common neurological complication, goes back to almost 9000 years ago. Many ancient civilizations present references to headaches and the coherent treatment strategies. Accordingly, several documents comprising headache complications embodying precise medical information stem from Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) that can provide useful opportunities for more comprehensive treatment. We conducted a survey on headache through original important pharmacopeias and other important medical manuscripts of TPM which were written during 9th to 19th centuries and have derived all headache categories and herbal remedies. An extensive search of scientific data banks, such as Medline and Scopus, has also been exercised to find results relating to the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and analgesic effects of denoted medicinal herbs. The concept of headache and treatments in TPM covers over 20 various types of headache and more than 160 different medicinal plants administered for oral, topical, and nasal application according to 1000 years of the subject documents. Nearly, 60% of remarked medicinal herbs have related anti-inflammatory or analgesic effects and some current headache types have similarities and conformities to those of traditional types. Beside historical approaches, there are many possible and available strategies that can lead to development of new and effective headache treatment from medicinal plants so that this study can provide beneficial information on clinical remedies based on centuries of experience in the field of headache which can stand as a new candidate for further investigations. PMID:23922452

  10. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  11. Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Embun Naim

    1983-12-01

    Rahwana and Kursani, 2 brands of jamu, a traditional Malay herbal medicine, were investigated for antifertility properties in rats and mice. The findings suggest that jamu has an antifertility effect in both these rodents. This effect appears to be dose dependent and in addition the stage at which it was fed also appears to be crucial for the effect to manifest. Rahwana is effective when fed on day 4 of gestation. However jamu Kursani does not appear to be dose dependent and is effective when fed on days 1 and 4 of gestation. Jamu Rahwana does not alter the LH or estrogen levels in rats. Therefore, the induction of the antifertility effect is suggested to be by means other than hormonal. It is felt that jamu either inhibits the implantation of the zygote or causes resorption of the fetus. Whether any antifertility effect exists in women using jamu remain to be clarified. The mechanism of action, its reliability and effectiveness as a contraceptive, the side effects, if any, pharmacology of the active ingredient and other relevant investigations need to be carried out before it can be recommended for human use. The study does indicate that jamu has potential as an antifertility agent and could be effectively used in fertility regulation. PMID:12313336

  12. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program.

  13. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  14. DDE remediation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  15. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G

    2011-04-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis.

  16. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G

    2011-04-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis. PMID:21163602

  17. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades, complementary and alternative medications have increasingly become a part of everyday treatment. With the rising cost of prescription medications and their production of unwanted side effects, patients are exploring herbal and other natural remedies for the management and treatment of psychological conditions. Psychological disorders are one of the most frequent conditions seen by clinicians, and often require a long-term regimen of prescription medications. Approximately 6.8 million Americans suffer from generalized anxiety disorder. Many also suffer from the spectrum of behavioural and physical side effects that often accompany its treatment. It is not surprising that there is universal interest in finding effective natural anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) treatments with a lower risk of adverse effects or withdrawal. Methods An electronic and manual search was performed through MEDLINE/PubMed and EBSCO. Articles were not discriminated by date of publication. Available clinical studies published in English that used human participants and examined the anxiolytic potential of dietary and herbal supplements were included. Data were extracted and compiled into tables that included the study design, sample population, intervention, control, length of treatment, outcomes, direction of evidence, and reported adverse events. Results A total of 24 studies that investigated five different CAM monotherapies and eight different combination treatments and involved 2619 participants met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 21 randomized controlled trials and three open-label, uncontrolled observational studies. Most studies involved patients who had been diagnosed with either an anxiety disorder or depression (n = 1786). However, eight studies used healthy volunteers (n = 877) who had normal levels of anxiety, were undergoing surgery, tested at the upper limit of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale, had adverse

  18. An examination of antibacterial and antifungal properties of constituents described in traditional Ulster cures and remedies

    PubMed Central

    Woods-Panzaru, Simon; Nelson, David; McCollum, Graham; Ballard, Linda M; Millar, B Cherie; Maeda, Yasunori; Goldsmith, Colin E; Rooney, Paul J; Loughrey, Anne; Rao, Juluri R; Moore, John E

    2009-01-01

    Traditional herbal cures and remedies have played an important historical role in the treatment of a variety of illnesses and diseases in Northern Ireland for the last three hundred years. Recently, these have been reviewed in the publication by Linda Ballard from the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum at Cultra, Co. Down, which details the variety of local plants used and for what purpose. From this publication and another related publication, we note the description of several plant species that consistently appear in traditional cures and remedies, particularly used to treat infections and infectious diseases. Unfortunately, although these plants have strong associations with the local historical evidence base, there are very limited and mainly no formal publications in the medical/scientific evidence base, examining their scientific background and clinical efficacy. PMID:19252724

  19. Lights, Camera, Action: Integrating Popular Film in the Health Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Keri S.; Pleban, Francis T.; Wood, Ralph J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits as well as the important considerations that should be taken into account in integrating popular films in health education classes. Use of popular films in the classroom, termed "cinema education," is becoming increasingly popular in teaching health education. As a matter of convenience, popular films are easy…

  20. Focus: Popular Culture, Censorship, Religion in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Donald, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    This issue of "Kansas English" contains four articles related to popular culture, censorship, and religion. "Popular Culture Studies: A Complement to the Humanities" by Michael Marsden, focuses on the relationship between popular culture studies and the humanities, including English. "Popular Couture: La Vie En Blue" by Richard Martin, examines…

  1. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  2. Marriage and Retirement: Advice to Couples in Popular Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbert, Ellen M.; And Others

    Though academic research has shown retirement to be viewed by retirees as a satisfying time in life, popular opinion holds that retirement is a difficult adjustment for a couple. This study was undertaken to find out more about one source of popular opinion, the popular press. All popular books and magazine articles on the topic of marriage and…

  3. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

    PubMed

    Henrique, Márcio Couto

    2009-01-01

    This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

  4. Dark victory: cancer and popular Hollywood film.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Susan E

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural representations of cancer in popular Hollywood films released between 1930 and 1970. These cinematic treatments were not representative of the types of cancer that increasingly afflicted Americans, nor were filmmakers and studios concerned with realistic representations of the disease, its treatment, and its outcomes. As in the "epidemic entertainments" of the early twentieth century that portrayed diseases as cultural commodities, popular filmmakers selectively projected some cancers rather than others, favoring those that were less offensive and more photogenic. Although the characters became weak and died, they did so without gross transformations of their bodies. This paper argues that such representations nonetheless informed American attitudes about cancer and the role of medical research in overcoming the disease.

  5. The Popularity of P&P

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2006-01-01

    "Principles and Practices" (P&P), a real estate pre-licensing class, is one of the most popular courses in adult education, because it can literally be the key to the dual American dreams: striking it rich and owning a home. One of the things that makes the P&P class unique is that it is taught in so many different venues. The classes are often…

  6. Nebulous networks: Virginia Woolf and popular astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Holly Grace

    This study investigates Virginia Woolf's fascination with advances in astronomy and telescopic technologies of the 1920s and 30s. Grounded in the cultural studies of science, and the work of theorists such as Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, the dissertation reconstructs the complex interconnections between Woolf's fiction and prose writing and an explosive popular interest in astronomy and cosmology. Woolf's aesthetic and political practices were shaped by emerging visualization technologies ranging from astronomical telescopes to the hand-held camera. While her writing provides a focus for this investigation, the dissertation offers close readings of fiction and essays by multiple British authors and science writers in the context of these converging phenomena. As a result of glimpsing tiny worlds through her own telescope, Virginia Woolf formulated a global aesthetic and a global politics. Gazing at the moon and stars reminded her that earth is a planet in space, and that earth's inhabitants must rely on this small, fragile globe for their future survival. The opening chapter establishes the cultural context for the study. In 1923, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble determined that the Andromeda galaxy was located far beyond the limits of the Milky Way, then believed to comprise the entire universe. Hubble's radical reconfiguration of the universe contributed to a pervasive sense, in the modern period, of a decentering and re-scaling of humans in the universe. In the chapters that follow, the dissertation offers readings of Woolf's novels and short fiction in relation to her fascination with astronomy and explores how the wildly popular British cosmologist and science writer, Sir James jeans, had a shaping effect on popular culture and on Woolf's narrative practices and pacifist politics. Despite his oblique connections to what became Bloomsbury, jeans and his popular science texts were to play a considerable role in Woolf's formulation of a global aesthetic.

  7. Pueraria lobata (Kudzu root) hangover remedies and acetaldehyde-associated neoplasm risk.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Neil R

    2007-11-01

    Recent introduction of several commercial Kudzu root (Pueraria lobata) containing hangover remedies has occurred in western countries. The available data is reviewed to assess if there are any potential concerns in relationship to the development of neoplasm if these products are used chronically. The herb Pueraria has two components that are used as traditional therapies; Pueraria lobata, the root based herb and Pueraria flos, the flower based herb. Both of these herbal components have different traditional claims and constituents. Pueraria flos, which enhances acetaldehyde removal, is the traditional hangover remedy. Conversely, Pueraria lobata is a known inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and increases acetaldehyde. Pueraria lobata is being investigated for use as an aversion therapy for alcoholics due to these characteristics. Pueraria lobata is not a traditional hangover therapy yet has been accepted as the registered active component in many of these hangover products. The risk of development of acetaldehyde pathology, including neoplasms, is associated with genetic polymorphism with enhanced alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or reduced ALDH activity leading to increased acetaldehyde levels in the tissues. The chronic usage of Pueraria lobata at times of high ethanol consumption, such as in hangover remedies, may predispose subjects to an increased risk of acetaldehyde-related neoplasm and pathology. The guidelines for Disulfiram, an ALDH2 inhibitor, provide a set of guidelines for use with the herb Pueraria lobata. Pueraria lobata appears to be an inappropriate herb for use in herbal hangover remedies as it is an inhibitor of ALDH2. The recommendations for its use should be similar to those for the ALDH2 inhibitor, Disulfiram.

  8. Cooperation and popularity in spatial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Jin, Zhen; Wang, Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Selection of the competition opponent is crucial for the evolution of cooperation in evolutionary games. In this work, we introduce a simple rule, incorporating individual popularity via the single parameter α, to study how the selection of the potential strategy sources influences individual behavior traits. For positive α players with high popularity will be considered more likely, while for negative α the opposite holds. Setting α equal to zero returns the frequently adopted random selection of the opponent. We find that positive α (namely, adopting the strategy from a more popular player) promotes the emergence of cooperation, which is robust against different interaction networks and game classes. The essence of this boosting effect can be attributed to the fact: increasing α accelerates the microscopic organization of cooperator clusters to resist the exploitation of defectors. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the introduction of a new mechanism alters the impact of uncertainty by strategy adoption on the evolution of cooperation. We thus present a viable method of understanding the ubiquitous cooperative behaviors in nature and hope that it will inspire further studies to resolve social dilemmas.

  9. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  10. Does herbal medicine reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Rino, Yasushi; Yukawa, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Many herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may therefore suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, treatment with a single-tablet regimen containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who did not respond to prior interferon-based treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C are expected to receive this treatment worldwide. However, many patients have hepatitis-like fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A strategy to prevent the development of HCC in this subgroup of patients is urgently required. Whether herbal medicines can suppress the development of HCC remains to be established. However, herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may inhibit the development of HCC. Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of HCC are therefore warranted. The current lack of knowledge and of educational programs is a barrier to increasing the use of potentially effective herbal medicines and performing prospective clinical trials. PMID:26457019

  11. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  12. PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect on human diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenshu; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate a broad range of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. A variety of naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines were identified as ligands of PXR and CAR. Recently, accumulative evidences have revealed the PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect against multiple human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholestatic liver disease, and jaundice. The current review summarized the recent progress in identifying the expanding libraries of herbal medicine as ligands for PXR and CAR. Moreover, the potential for herbal medicines as promising therapeutic agents which were mainly regulated through PXR/CAR signaling pathways was also discussed. The discovery of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR, and their PXR- and CAR-mediated effect on human diseases will provide a basis for rational drug design, and eventually be explored as a novel therapeutic approach against human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie.

  13. Does herbal medicine reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Rino, Yasushi; Yukawa, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoto

    2015-10-01

    Many herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may therefore suppress the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, treatment with a single-tablet regimen containing ledipasvir and sofosbuvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection who did not respond to prior interferon-based treatment. Patients with chronic hepatitis C are expected to receive this treatment worldwide. However, many patients have hepatitis-like fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. A strategy to prevent the development of HCC in this subgroup of patients is urgently required. Whether herbal medicines can suppress the development of HCC remains to be established. However, herbal medicines are effective anti-inflammatory agents and may inhibit the development of HCC. Clinical trials exploring the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the prevention and treatment of HCC are therefore warranted. The current lack of knowledge and of educational programs is a barrier to increasing the use of potentially effective herbal medicines and performing prospective clinical trials.

  14. Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Randall W., Comp.

    An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It provides instruction on the use of the card catalog, suggested subject heading search terms, and…

  15. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100

  16. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100

  17. Chinese Herbal Products for Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hung, I-Ling; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Lin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Tseng, Ying-Jung; Kuo, Chun-En; Hu, Wen-Long; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been described in ancient medicine systems as treatments for various stroke-associated ailments. This study is aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and combinations of CHPs for ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHPs for ischemic stroke were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of ischemic stroke made during 2000-2010 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to the pattern of co-prescriptions. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess demographic and risk factors that are correlated with CHP use. The dataset of inpatient claims data contained information on 15,896 subjects who experienced ischemic stroke from 2000 to 2010. There was an average of 5.82 CHPs in a single prescription for subjects with ischemic stroke. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) (40.32%) was by far the most frequently prescribed formula CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two-formula-CHP was BYHWT with Shu-jin-huo-xue-tang (SJHXT) (4.40%). Dan Shen (16.50%) was the most commonly used single CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Shi Chang Pua with Yuan Zhi (4.79%). We found that BYHWT and Dan Shen were the most frequently prescribed formula and single CHP for ischemic stroke, respectively. These results provide information about individualized therapy and may contribute to further pharmacologic experiments and clinical trials. PMID:26477801

  18. Yokukan-san: a review of the evidence for use of this Kampo herbal formula in dementia and psychiatric conditions

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi; Ueda, Keigo; Han, Cheolsun; Hirasaki, Yoshiro; Namiki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Japanese traditional herbal medicine (Kampo) has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It was introduced to Japan in the middle of the sixth century and has evolved over the past 1,400 years after combining with Japan’s original folk remedies. While it retains some similarities to TCM, Kampo has evolved in Japan, resulting in a system of medicine that has many differences from TCM. Kampo medicine is considered to be very safe; in Japan, Kampo herbal formulas are manufactured by licensed pharmaceutical companies, prescribed by Western-trained medical doctors (usually as a freeze-dried extract), and have quality control standards similar to those of prescription drugs. The present study examined Yokukan-san (Yi-Gan San in TCM), a Kampo formula that has been used empirically in Japan for more than 400 years. Accumulating clinical trials have demonstrated Yokukan-san’s efficacy in treating patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, which has resulted in the Japanese Society of Neurology listing it in the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Dementia 2010. Efficacy in other diseases and conditions, such as sleep disorders, tardive dyskinesia, aggression, and impulsivity has also been reported. This article reviews both clinical and basic studies of Yokukan-san, with the goal of clarifying its clinical indications. PMID:25246794

  19. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  20. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  1. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life.

  2. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

  3. Y-12 Plant Remedial Action technology logic diagram. Volume I: Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Program addresses remediation of the contaminated groundwater, surface water and soil in the following areas located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Chestnut Ridge, Bear Creek Valley, the Upper and Lower East Fork Popular Creek Watersheds, CAPCA 1, which includes several areas in which remediation has been completed, and CAPCA 2, which includes dense nonaqueous phase liquid wells and a storage facility. There are many facilities within these areas that are contaminated by uranium, mercury, organics, and other materials. This Technology Logic Diagram identifies possible remediation technologies that can be applied to the soil, water, and contaminants for characterization, treatment, and waste management technology options are supplemented by identification of possible robotics or automation technologies. These would facilitate the cleanup effort by improving safety, of remediation, improving the final remediation product, or decreasing the remediation cost. The Technology Logic Diagram was prepared by a diverse group of more than 35 scientists and engineers from across the Oak Ridge Reservation. Most are specialists in the areas of their contributions. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  4. Remediation of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Ariza, C.H.

    1997-07-01

    At least three types of zones of contamination exist whenever there is a chemical release. The impact of Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (NAPL) on soils and groundwater, together with the ultimate transport and migration of constituent chemicals in their dissolved or sorbed states, had led environmentalists to develop several techniques for cleaning a contaminated soil. Zone 1 represents the unsaturated zone which could be contaminated to retention capacity by both Dense Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (DNAPL) and Light Non-Aqueous-Phase Liquids (LNAPL). Zone 2 represents residual DNAPL or LNAPL contamination found below the groundwater table in the saturated zone. Zone 3 is represented by either the presence of NAPL dissolved in the aqueous phase, volatilized in the unsaturated zone or sorbed to either saturated or unsaturated soils. Cleanup of petroleum contaminated soils is presented in this paper. Among several techniques developed for this purpose, in-situ biological remediation is discussed in detail as a technique that does not involve excavation, thus, the costs and disruption of excavating soil are eliminated.

  5. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  6. A Framework for Remediating Number Combination Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a framework for the remediation of number combination (NC) deficits. Research on the remediation of NC deficits is summarized, and research program studies are used to illustrate the 3 approaches to remediation. The Framework comprises a 2-stage system of remediation. The less intensive stage implementing 1 of 3…

  7. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-03-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures. PMID:26999208

  8. Simalikalactone D is responsible for the antimalarial properties of an Amazonian traditional remedy made with Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae).

    PubMed

    Bertani, S; Houël, E; Stien, D; Chevolot, L; Jullian, V; Garavito, G; Bourdy, G; Deharo, E

    2006-11-01

    French Guiana (North-East Amazonia) records high malaria incidence rates. The traditional antimalarial remedy most widespread there is a simple tea made out from Quassia amara L. leaves (Simaroubaceae). This herbal tea displays an excellent antimalarial activity both in vitro and in vivo. A known quassinoid, simalikalactone D (SkD), was identified as the active compound, with an IC(50) value of 10nM against FcB1 Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain in vitro. Lastly, it inhibits 50% of Plasmodium yoelii yoelii rodent malaria parasite at 3.7 mg/kg/day in vivo by oral route. These findings confirm the traditional use of this herbal tea.

  9. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated.

  10. Intestinal parasitosis in Nalout popularity, western Libya.

    PubMed

    Al Kilani, M K; Dahesh, S M; El Taweel, H A

    2008-04-01

    This paper studied gastrointestinal parasitosis in Nalout popularity. A hospital based study was done on a total of 800 stool samples from a private laboratory in Tigi city. The results showed an overall rate of 29.6%. Of these patients, 7.59% had double or triple parasitic infections. Children were more infected than adults. The parasites in a descending order were Entamoeba histolytica (21%), Enterobius vermicularis (7.5%), Giardia lamblia (2.5%), Balantidium coli (0.38%), and Hymenolepis nana (0.38%) A Sudanese immigrant employee had Strongyloides stercoralis larva in stool culture. PMID:19143135

  11. Health awareness and popularity of alternative medicines among people of Jamnagar town: A cross - sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Bijoya; Biswas, Prasanta Chatterjee; Pancholi, Jigisha

    2012-01-01

    By 2020, it is predicted that non-communicable diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Indian traditional medicine system with the concept of personalized therapy in Ayurveda has the potential to offer remedies to these challenging health issues. Integration of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, the three Indian systems of medicine (ISM), along with homoeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine to ensure health for all citizens across the country is the new Mantra of the Union health ministry. To tap the potentials of our indigenous medicine systems and other popular systems of medicine it is important to assess the awareness among people and make efforts to popularize them. The present study was therefore carried out to assess the awareness among 200 respondents with the help of a multiple choice questionnaire by the interview method. Convenience sampling technique was employed. The awareness about lifestyle, diet, oil consumption needs more vigorous attention as observed in this study. The most popular choice was found to be groundnut oil. Around 4% of the participants used more than one medium of cooking. Forty-two percent of the participants observed fast regularly. Twenty-three percent of the participants did not include any form of exercise in their daily routine while walking was the most popular form of exercise performed by 43%. By using multiple comparisons it was observed that the difference between i) Allopathy- Homeopathy, ii) Allopathy - Ayurvedic and iii) Ayurvedic- Homeopathy as 15.5263, 7.1053 and 8.4211, respectively, are significant at α = 0.05. A larger sample size encompassing various economic strata could be a better index of popularity of various alternative medicine systems existing in different sections of our society. PMID:23049181

  12. The Popularization of Astronomy in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, J.-L.

    1996-12-01

    In Canada, astronomy has a longer history than most other sciences. The European settlers had to master the rudiments of astronomical practice, while the natural setting promoted geophysical observations of all kinds. In the nineteenth century, astronomy was part of natural theology and a resource for timekeepers and cartographers, but was increasingly pursued for its own sake by laymen. The creation of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada marks a turning point. Though it appeared to unite professionals and amateurs, it became early on a conduit for the knowledge of the former to flow to the latter, supplementing the purely academic stream. It followed upon the success of new publications meant to acquaint readers with the facts of astronomy, for the hitherto unsuspected pleasures they might bring. In fact, some Canadian works of this kind reached a wide audience, in Canada and abroad, and the post-WWII period saw an almost complete disjunction between the formerly utilitarian aspects of popularization a nd the catering to interested laypeople, distinct from the professionals. By 1976, the transformation was complete. The science mastered by explorers and appealed to by believers had become both a field for professional investigations and a widely popularized corpus of star lore

  13. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Materials and Methods: High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. Results: The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. Conclusion: The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. SUMMARY We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily

  14. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  15. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  16. Greco-arab and islamic herbal-derived anticancer modalities: from tradition to molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980-1037), Rhazes (965-915), Al Zahrawi (936-1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218-1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

  17. Maya medicine in the biological gaze: bioprospecting research as herbal fetishism.

    PubMed

    Nigh, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    The relationship of human societies to territory and natural resources is being drastically altered by a series of global agreements concerning trade, intellectual property, and the conservation and use of genetic resources. Through a characteristic style of collective appropriation of their tropical ecosystems, Maya societies have created local institutions for governing access to their common resources. However, new mechanisms of global governance require access to Maya biodiversity for world commercial interests. The Chiapas Highland Maya already face this prospect in the International Cooperative Biodiversity Group drug discovery project, which proposes to use Maya medical knowledge to screen plants for potential pharmaceuticals. The ethnobiological focus of the project emphasizes the naturalistic aspects of Maya medicine, primarily the use of herbal remedies. This biological gaze decontextualizes the situated knowledge of Maya healers, ignoring the cultural context in which they create and apply that knowledge. The search for raw materials for the production of universal medical technology results in symbolic violence to the cultural logic of Maya peoples. Only the full recognition of Maya peoples' collective rights to territory and respect for their local common-resource institutions will provide ultimate protection for their cultural and natural patrimony.

  18. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  19. Maya medicine in the biological gaze: bioprospecting research as herbal fetishism.

    PubMed

    Nigh, Ronald

    2002-06-01

    The relationship of human societies to territory and natural resources is being drastically altered by a series of global agreements concerning trade, intellectual property, and the conservation and use of genetic resources. Through a characteristic style of collective appropriation of their tropical ecosystems, Maya societies have created local institutions for governing access to their common resources. However, new mechanisms of global governance require access to Maya biodiversity for world commercial interests. The Chiapas Highland Maya already face this prospect in the International Cooperative Biodiversity Group drug discovery project, which proposes to use Maya medical knowledge to screen plants for potential pharmaceuticals. The ethnobiological focus of the project emphasizes the naturalistic aspects of Maya medicine, primarily the use of herbal remedies. This biological gaze decontextualizes the situated knowledge of Maya healers, ignoring the cultural context in which they create and apply that knowledge. The search for raw materials for the production of universal medical technology results in symbolic violence to the cultural logic of Maya peoples. Only the full recognition of Maya peoples' collective rights to territory and respect for their local common-resource institutions will provide ultimate protection for their cultural and natural patrimony. PMID:12152634

  20. The Effect of Ouhyul Herbal Acupuncture Point Injections on Shoulder Pain after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu-Ri; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi; Park, Joo-Young

    2013-01-01

    An effective and safe remedy for shoulder pain is needed as shoulder pain is a common complication of stroke and restricts recovery of patients. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Ouhyul herbal acupuncture point injection (O-API) on shoulder pain in patients with stroke. Twenty-four participants with shoulder pain after stroke were recruited and randomized to the O-API and control groups. Treatment was conducted for 2 weeks three times per week. We evaluated the effects of treatment with a numerical rating scale (NRS), painless passive range of motion (PROM) of external shoulder rotation, and the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMMA) at baseline, each week, and 1 week after the final treatment. All measures were similar between the O-API and control groups at baseline. The O-API group showed significant improvement on the NRS compared with that in the control group after 2 weeks of treatment, and the treatment effect was maintained until the follow-up period. PROM decreased significantly in both groups, but the reduction was maintained only in the O-API group. No significant difference was observed on the FMMA between the two groups. O-API resulted in significant improvement in shoulder pain after stroke, and its effect was maintained after termination of treatment without any severe side effects. PMID:23843875

  1. Greco-Arab and Islamic Herbal-Derived Anticancer Modalities: From Tradition to Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaid, Hilal; Silbermann, Michael; Ben-Arye, Eran; Saad, Bashar

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of cancer is increasing in the developed countries and even more so in developing countries parallel to the increase in life expectancy. In recent years, clinicians and researchers advocate the need to include supportive and palliative care since the establishment of the diagnosis and throughout the duration of treatment, with the goal of improving patients' quality of life. This patient-centered approach in supportive care is also shared by various traditional and complementary medicine approaches. Traditional Arab-Islamic medicine offers a variety of therapeutic modalities that include herbal, nutritional, and spiritual approaches. Physicians and scholars, such as Avicenna (980–1037), Rhazes (965–915), Al Zahrawi (936–1013), and Ibn al Nafis (1218–1288) referred to cancer etiology in various medicinal texts and suggested both preventive and therapeutic remedies to alleviate suffering. This review presents research data related to the anticancer activities of herbs used in Arab-Islamic medicine and allude to their potential role in improving the quality of life of cancer patients. PMID:22203868

  2. Cardiovascular Disease Chemogenomics Knowledgebase-guided Target Identification and Drug Synergy Mechanism Study of an Herbal Formula

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai; Ma, Shifan; Feng, Zhiwei; Wang, Dongyao; Li, Chengjian; Cao, Yan; Chen, Xiaofei; Liu, Aijun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Junping; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng; Wang, Lirong; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy is a popular treatment for various diseases in the clinic. Among the successful cases, Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) formulae can achieve synergistic effects in therapeutics and antagonistic effects in toxicity. However, characterizing the underlying molecular synergisms for the combination of drugs remains a challenging task due to high experimental expenses and complication of multicomponent herbal medicines. To understand the rationale of combination therapy, we investigated Sini Decoction, a well-known TCM consisting of three herbs, as a model. We applied our established diseases-specific chemogenomics databases and our systems pharmacology approach TargetHunter to explore synergistic mechanisms of Sini Decoction in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. (1) We constructed a cardiovascular diseases-specific chemogenomics database, including drugs, target proteins, chemicals, and associated pathways. (2) Using our implemented chemoinformatics tools, we mapped out the interaction networks between active ingredients of Sini Decoction and their targets. (3) We also in silico predicted and experimentally confirmed that the side effects can be alleviated by the combination of the components. Overall, our results demonstrated that our cardiovascular disease-specific database was successfully applied for systems pharmacology analysis of a complicated herbal formula in predicting molecular synergetic mechanisms, and led to better understanding of a combinational therapy. PMID:27678063

  3. Arsenic poisoning from anti-asthmatic herbal preparations.

    PubMed

    Tay, C H; Seah, C S

    1975-09-13

    Arsenic poisoning, a disease of the past, was recently found in 74 patients in Singapore over a 15-month period. Most victims (70%) had a chronic form of poisoning and 64% of the cases were caused by a local anti-asthmatic herbal preparation containing 12,000 ppm of inorganic arsenic sulphide. The other patients were poisoned by six other brands of herbal preparations used for the treatment of asthma and a variety of other illnesses. Subsequent investigations revealed another 22 other brands of Chinese herbal preparations containing high concentrations of inorganic arsenic ranging from 25 to 107,000 ppm, of which most were imported. Nearly 40% of the patients had taken the medicine for less than six months, but the others had a longer history of exposure ranging from one to 15 years. Systemic involvement was confined mainly to the skin (91%), nervous system (51%), gastrointestinal system (23%) and blood (23%). Malignancy of the skin was present in six patients, and of the visceral samples, toxicological confirmation was found in half of the cases investigated. There was no correlation between the clinical status of the patients and their tissue arsenic content. The importance of arsenic poisoning by herbal preparations is discussed, as there are no known reports of their association.

  4. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  5. Anti-hygroscopic effect of dextrans in herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Tong, Henry H Y; Wong, Sammas Y S; Law, Marcus W L; Chu, Kevin K W; Chow, Albert H L

    2008-11-01

    Equilibrium moisture sorptions of two dried aqueous herbal extracts and their mixtures with dextrans of various molecular weights were investigated as a function of relative humidity at ambient temperature, and the data were analyzed by both the Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equations. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry, and their dependence on the moisture contents of the extracts was analyzed by the linear, Fox and expanded Gordon-Taylor mathematical models. All dextran-extract mixtures exhibited single T(g) values, indicating that they existed as single homogeneous phases. The BET equation was found adequate for description of the moisture sorption isotherms for all samples. The dextrans appeared to reduce the hygroscopicity of the herbal extracts solely by a dilution effect. The observed increase in T(g) and accompanying decrease in tackiness of the herbal extracts in the presence of dextrans may be explained by the ability of dextrans to restrict the molecular mobility of simple sugars and to counteract the plasticizing effect of water in the extracts. The expanded Gordon-Taylor equation has proved useful in predicting the T(g) of hygroscopic amorphous herbal mixtures. PMID:18706495

  6. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  7. Anti-hygroscopic effect of dextrans in herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Tong, Henry H Y; Wong, Sammas Y S; Law, Marcus W L; Chu, Kevin K W; Chow, Albert H L

    2008-11-01

    Equilibrium moisture sorptions of two dried aqueous herbal extracts and their mixtures with dextrans of various molecular weights were investigated as a function of relative humidity at ambient temperature, and the data were analyzed by both the Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equations. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry, and their dependence on the moisture contents of the extracts was analyzed by the linear, Fox and expanded Gordon-Taylor mathematical models. All dextran-extract mixtures exhibited single T(g) values, indicating that they existed as single homogeneous phases. The BET equation was found adequate for description of the moisture sorption isotherms for all samples. The dextrans appeared to reduce the hygroscopicity of the herbal extracts solely by a dilution effect. The observed increase in T(g) and accompanying decrease in tackiness of the herbal extracts in the presence of dextrans may be explained by the ability of dextrans to restrict the molecular mobility of simple sugars and to counteract the plasticizing effect of water in the extracts. The expanded Gordon-Taylor equation has proved useful in predicting the T(g) of hygroscopic amorphous herbal mixtures.

  8. IN PURSUIT OF NEW HERBAL SOURCES FOR INDIAN MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajan, V. V.; Balachandran, Indu

    1987-01-01

    Due to destruction of forest wealth and natural flora the sources of herbal medicine are becoming increasingly rare. So, it is high time to discover alternative sources of such drugs among plant species that are already available in large numbers. As a first installment of the series the medicinal properties of a few members of the family Phytolaccaceae are discussed here. PMID:22557586

  9. Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, J.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jeeva, J. Sathiya; Jeddy, Nadeem; Dhakshininamoorthy, Subhashini; Muthu Meenakshi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus. PMID:26538932

  10. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  11. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  12. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Chikezie, Paul C; Ogbuji, Agomuo C

    2016-04-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  13. Pilot study investigating the ability of an herbal composite to alleviate clinical signs of respiratory dysfunction in horses with recurrent airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Wendy; Charch, Armen; Brewer, Dyanne; Clarke, Andrew F.

    2007-01-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), known previously as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a debilitating respiratory condition that significantly contributes to lost training days and illness in racehorses. Herbs are becoming increasingly popular for the prophylaxis or treatment of the clinical signs of RAO despite a paucity of research on efficacy and safety. We evaluated the ability of an herbal composite containing garlic, white horehound, boneset, aniseed, fennel, licorice, thyme, and hyssop to reduce the clinical signs of RAO, hypothesizing that the product would safely reduce signs and would improve the inflammatory cell profile within the lungs. The composite was fed to 6 horses with symptomatic RAO for 21 d in a crossover manner. Ventigraphs were used to record respiratory rate and intrapleural pressure; the proportion of inflammatory cells in fluid aspirated from the trachea was determined. Blood biochemical and hematologic screening was conducted to identify possible adverse effects. Treatment with the composite did not result in statistically significant changes in any of the parameters evaluated. A trend to a decrease in respiratory rate (P = 0.1) and an increase in the proportion of macrophages (P = 0.1) was observed in the horses receiving the herbal composite compared with placebo. These data indicate a potential for the herbal composite to safely reduce the elevated respiratory rate in horses with RAO. Future research with a greater number of horses is warranted to further characterize the effect of this product on horses with RAO. PMID:17479778

  14. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  15. Hanford Groundwater Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, B.; Thompson, K. M.; Wilde, R.; Ford, B.; Gerber, M.

    2006-07-01

    united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource. (authors)

  16. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  17. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  18. Unexplained Infertility Treated with Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myungja; Shin, Sangseop; Choi, Eunmi; Kwon, Sukyung; Wee, Hyosun; Nam, Bonghyun; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim We aim to determine the safety and effectiveness of a standard therapeutic package of Korean medicine for the treatment of unexplained infertility in a cross-section of women who sought treatment at an integrative hospital in Seoul, Korea. Background Infertility affects more than 1.2 million women in the United States alone. Treatment options for infertility vary, yet the barriers of invasiveness, cost, and access inhibit treatment use for many women. Alternative medical approaches exist for this indication, and sustain certain popularity. Therefore, we systematically studied a standard therapeutic package of Korean medicine to treat unexplained infertility in women. Methods Female participants included in this observational study met inclusion criteria before receiving a set of treatments including herbal medicine, acupuncture, and moxibustion. A study physician screened each patient in accordance with inclusion criteria, provided study information, and after the patients consented, performed the baseline assessment. Assessments included age, the history of assisted reproductive technology, and duration of infertility. The key outcome measure included the number who achieved pregnancy and any neo-natal morbidity and mortality at follow-up stage for those who got pregnant. Any other adverse events including aggravation of existing symptoms, and the number of dropouts, were recorded. Treatments were supposed to be completed after 6 menstrual cycles between February 2005 and April 2006. Results One hundred and four (104) women with unexplained infertility were included in this observational study. Participant mean age was 32 years (SD: 2.7), with a range between 26 and 41 years. The median duration of infertility after diagnosis was 33.5 weeks (interquartile range: 20.8–50.3). In total, 41 participants (39.4%) had undergone a mean number of 1.4 (SD: 2.2) assisted reproductive technology treatments prior to joining the study. The number of patients

  19. Cognitive remediation and vocational rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGurk, Susan R; Wykes, Til

    2008-01-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) who are striving to improve their work prospects are often hindered in work endeavors because of difficulties with cognitive skills, such as paying attention or concentrating, learning and remembering information, responding in a reasonable amount of time to environmental demands, and planning ahead and solving problems. In addition to limiting work functioning, cognitive impairments are obstacles to receiving the full benefits of vocational rehabilitation, including supported employment. Efforts to improve cognition in people with SMI, or cognitive remediation, have produced modest but consistent gains in a variety of cognitive domains. More recent efforts have focused on combining cognitive remediation with vocational rehabilitation in order to improve work functioning. Initial results from four published studies of combined cognitive remediation and vocational programs are encouraging, indicating improvements in both cognitive and work functioning. The approaches to cognitive remediation used in these studies vary considerably, as do the characteristics of participants, the vocational rehabilitation models, and the methods of combining cognitive and vocational therapies. The differences in key components of programs combining cognitive remediation and vocational rehabilitation indicate the need to replicate findings, and raise important questions about what aspects of the programs are associated with improvements in work.

  20. Contribution to the popularization of the astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markishki, Pencho

    The purpose of this report is the representation of a WEB-book, related to astronomy, astro-photography, optics and some additional areas that have direct practice for the amateur astronomers. The popularization of astronomy worldwide is the purpose of many amateur astronomers. It is interesting and maybe fascinated, requires often innovative solutions from the hobby star observers. Today it is possible to share the science information by different methods, using the modern information technologies - a possibility used by the amateur astronomers too. In Internet existing currently thousands of WEB- sites, related to astronomy, completed training programs developed by amateur astronomers are included. They are addressed often to the schools, to the hobby beginners or to the wide audience.

  1. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  2. Popularizing Space Education in Indian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalagi, Amrut

    Indians have many mythological stories about many constellations and stars. Hindu months are based on MOON and 27 stars on Zodiac. They are very important for many Indians in ritual, religious functions. By prompting them to identify their birth star, really makes them elevated. Similarly conveying them the importance of star gazing with respect to their day today life makes them to take interest and active participation in Space Activities. Space activities should be driven by public; their requirements; their dreams and imaginations. Their active participation definitely gives valuable inputs to space scientists. Hence, there is a need of involving common man or public mass by appropriate motivation by organising sky gazing sessions, exhibitions, workshops, etc. In this connection, even if the some organisation are able to attract a small percent of qualified engineers/scientists,, enthusiastic students, it would result in the creation of a sizable pool of talent in space sciences,which may well determine the future mankind on this planet. Some simple motivation acts have made the people to take interest in space. we have been using certain methodologies to popularize space science - 1] Conducting theory sessions on basics of star gazing and conveying importance of sky gazing with respect to day-today life. 2] Organising seminars, workshops, lectures and other academic/popular science activities with special reference to space science 3] Projects - a] Cubsat Missions b] Automatic Weather Station Facility c] Model making d] Creating and simulating space models and rover making competitions. The 50 year's of Exploration has left tremendous impact on many society's working towards space education and exploration.

  3. The Role of Attractiveness and Aggression in High School Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch, Casey; Hyde, Allen; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of physical attractiveness and aggression on popularity among high school students. Previous work has found positive relationships between aggression and popularity and physical attractiveness and popularity. The current study goes beyond this work by examining the interactive effects of physical attractiveness and…

  4. Popularity in Early Adolescence: Prosocial and Antisocial Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine early adolescents' stereotypical descriptions of two types of youth who are seen as popular by their peers. Participants were 13- to 14-year-old early adolescents (N = 287). The results indicated that early adolescents distinguished two types of popular peers: a "populistic" (popular but not necessarily…

  5. Teaching Popular Music in Finland: What's Up, What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the history and current situation of popular music pedagogy in Finland. While popular music is widely accepted in the curriculum, there are differences in its application in the comprehensive schools and music institutions. Popular styles were first introduced into Finnish music education by secondary school music teachers;…

  6. Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Jim, Ed.; Martin, Ian, Ed.; Shaw, Mae, Ed.

    The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Colin Kirkwood); "Introductory Essay: Popular Education and Social Movements in Scotland Today" (Ian Martin); "Popular Education and the Struggle for Democracy" (Jim Crowther); "Social Movements and the Politics of Educational Change" (Lindsay Paterson); "Learning from Popular Education in Latin…

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxins in herbal medicine distributed in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Ofori, Jack A; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of aflatoxins in herbal medicines distributed in South Korea. A total of 700 herbal medicine samples (10 samples each for 70 types of herbal medicine) were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), and levels of total aflatoxins were quantified and confirmed by liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The levels of recovery of the methods were 84.30 to 102.68% (ELISA for AFB(1)) and 72.17 to 90.92% (LC-MS/MS for total aflatoxins). Fifty-eight (8.29%) of 700 samples were AFB(1) positive by ELISA, and 17 (2.43%) of them were finally confirmed as positive for total aflatoxins by LC-MS/MS. Total aflatoxin levels in the herbal medicines were from 4.51 to 108.42 μg/kg. Among the 17 samples, the AFB(1) content of 6 samples (11.95 to 73.27 μg/kg) and the total aflatoxin content of 10 (12.12 to 108.42 μg/kg) samples exceeded the legal limits set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration for AFB(1) (10 μg/kg) and by the European Commission for total aflatoxins (10 μg/kg), respectively. These results demonstrate the risk to consumers of herbal medicine contamination by aflatoxins and encourage further studies to investigate the transfer rate of mycotoxins to decoction, which is the final product for consumption.

  8. Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications. PMID:25780657

  9. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  10. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  11. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  12. Research issues for thermal remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.L.; Heron, G.

    1998-06-01

    In order to optimize thermal remediation techniques, all of the effects of the heat on the subsurface system must be understood and taken into consideration during the remediation. Research is needed to provide a better understanding of the effects of temperature on capillarity in soils. This should include laboratory data on the effect of temperature on capillarity in soils. This should include laboratory data on the effect of temperature on displacement pressures which is needed to determine the potential for downward movement of DNAPLS.

  13. The Peer Ecology of Popularity: The Network Embeddedness of a Child's Friend Predicts the Child's Subsequent Popularity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabongui, Amir Georges; Bukowski, William M.; Newcomb, Andrew F.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework to guide understanding of the peer network. Uses this network approach to study changes in younger adolescents' popularity over a six-month period. Reports that changes in popularity are related to the child's initial level of aggression, observable prominence, and the popularity of the child's best friend.…

  14. Proliferative effect of Hachimijiogan, a Japanese herbal medicine, in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Takashi; Tsuiji, Kenji; Li, Bin; Tadakawa, Mari; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hachimijiogan (HJG), Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan in Chinese, is one of the most popular herbal medicines in Japanese Kampo. HJG is often prescribed for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Muscle atrophy plays an important role in aging-related disabilities such as sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of HJG on skeletal muscle. Methods Cells of murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12 were used as an in vitro model of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The effect of HJG on C2C12 cell proliferation and differentiation was assessed. We counted the number of myotubes morphologically to assess the degree of differentiation. Results HJG treatment (200 μg/mL) for 3 days significantly increased C2C12 cell number by 1.23-fold compared with that of the control. HJG promoted the proliferation of C2C12 cells through activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway without affecting the Akt signaling pathway. HJG did not affect the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Conclusion HJG had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation. These findings may provide a useful intervention for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:25709418

  15. The representation of epilepsy in popular music.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2008-01-01

    Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics of musicians from a wide variety of musical genres, from hip-hop to rhythm and blues. Many of the ancient associations of epilepsy with madness, horror, and lunacy can be found in these lyrics. However, the language of epilepsy has also been appropriated by some musical artists to represent a state of sexual ecstasy and dance euphoria. The references to these states as "epilepsy" or a "seizure" in numerous songs suggest that this shorthand is widely recognized within some subcultures. Although epilepsy has frequently been associated with female sexual availability in other creative art forms, this novel use of the language of epilepsy represents a contemporary departure in the artistic application of epilepsy-related images and associations in the 21st century. PMID:17980673

  16. Re/Mediating Adolescent Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John, Ed.; Luke, Allan, Ed.

    Suggesting that teaching in New Times requires that educators read and re/mediate the social relations, the cultural knowledges, and the relationships of power between adolescents and their social, biological, and semiotic universes, this collection of essays offers new ways of seeing and talking about adolescents and their literacies. Most of the…

  17. Using specialized adsorbents for remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Hochmuth, D.P.; Grant, A.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes two remediation case studies in which specialized adsorbents were used. In one case, the adsorbents were used to treat effluent from a soil vapor extraction system. In the other case, the adsorbents were used to treat air from a groundwater air stripper. The specialized adsorbents effectively removed volatile organic compounds from each air stream.

  18. Cooperative Learning for Remedial Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiers, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Offers cooperative learning instructional techniques for teaching the historical novel "The Root Cellar" in a remedial reading classroom. Recommends cooperative learning as a means through which the student can succeed academically while developing interpersonal skills. Suggests that the lesson can be adapted to match the ability level of…

  19. Toxic Remediation System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1996-07-23

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  20. Remediation Technology for Contaminated Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation is the most commonly selected technology for remediation of ground water at Superfund sites in the USA. The next most common technology is Chemical treatment, followed by Air Sparging, and followed by Permeable Reactive Barriers. This presentation reviews the the...