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Sample records for popular music studies

  1. What Is Popular Music Studies? Some Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloonan, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Popular Music Studies (PMS) is now taught in over 20 higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK and numerous others across the world. This article outlines the constituent parts of PMS in the UK and questions its status as a discipline in its own right. It concludes by arguing that, having established itself, PMS will need to deal with two key…

  2. Music Education through Popular Music Festivals: A Study of the "OM Music Festival" in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Most people think of the teaching and learning of music as taking place in formal, institutional contexts like schools and universities. This study looks at the transmission of music teaching and learning that takes place in a more informal, musical environment, namely at a "popular music festival." In particular, it discusses the OM music…

  3. Popular Music as a Learning Tool in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litevich, John A., Jr.

    This teaching guide reflects the belief that popular music is an effective tool for teachers to use in presenting social studies lessons to students. Titles of songs representative of popular music from 1955 to 1982 are listed by subject matter and suggest a possible lesson to be used in teaching that particular issue. Subject areas listed…

  4. The Message in the Music: Popular Culture and Teaching in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cameron; McCormack, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Because music can evoke deep personal meanings, social studies educators often use songs to emphasize larger historical moments. Since music is a vital component of youth popular culture, preferred over even movies and television (Rideout, Roberts, and Foehr 2005), a teacher's understanding and application of popular music can be a powerful tool…

  5. Popular Music Performance Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginocchio, John

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the creation and content of a high school course on popular music performance. Describes how the teacher decided on aspects of the course, such as student background, transcription exercises, the student report on a popular music artist, and opportunities for performance. Reflects on what the teacher learned from the experience. (CMK)

  6. Popular Music Pedagogy: Peer Learning in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebler, Don

    2008-01-01

    The inclusion of popular music as a content area in music education is not uncommon. The musicological study of popular music is well established in higher education, and even the practice of popular music is becoming more common in both secondary education and the post-compulsory sector. However, when this occurs, it is likely to be taught in…

  7. Popular Music: An Ongoing Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutietta, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Addresses tendencies to force popular music into existing school music program formats, rather than include it as a form with its own musical integrity and authenticity. Urges music teachers not to dismiss popular music or turn it into elevator music. (CH)

  8. History of America: A Popular Music Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George W.

    The study of popular music can be an effective method of examining social and cultural life. Popular music emphasizes the variety of human existence, goals, outlooks, and biases. A pervading theme in popular American music between 1959 and 1984 has been the theme of "America." Over 200 songs reflect personal, social, and political concerns about…

  9. Using Popular Music to Teach Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jim

    1990-01-01

    Shows how studying sources of popular music and instruments help students understand historical patterns of immigration and geography. Presents lessons and materials for exploring origins of popular musical instruments and music that developed in the United States from other cultures. Includes several related classroom activities, recommended…

  10. Exploring the Outcomes of Rock and Popular Music Instruction in High School Guitar Class: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifried, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the impact of rock and popular teenage music on public school music education programs. "Frankstown Secondary School" is a large suburban public school offering a guitar program that includes a strong popular music component. Subjects in this study were selected from students enrolled in…

  11. Preservice Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Popular Music in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, D. Gregory; Gooding, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators' attitudes toward popular music in the music classroom. On a survey instrument designed by the investigators, participants ("N" = 82) rated (a) the effectiveness of popular music in addressing the National Standards for Music Education, (b) the appropriateness of…

  12. Popular Music in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Peter G.; Roberts, Donald F.

    This paper examines young adolescents' involvement with popular music and the health implications of that involvement. Initial discussion explores three central concepts: music media, adolescence, and mass media effects. A summary of research on music media in adolescence is offereed in two sections discussing exposure to, and gratifications and…

  13. The effect of music video exposure on students' perceived clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F; Mori-Inoue, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of video exposure on music therapy students' perceptions of clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy. Fifty-one participants were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to a popular song in either audio-only or music video format. Participants were asked to indicate clinical applications; specifically, participants chose: (a) possible population(s), (b) most appropriate population(s), (c) possible age range(s), (d) most appropriate age ranges, (e) possible goal area(s) and (f) most appropriate goal area. Data for each of these categories were compiled and analyzed, with no significant differences found in the choices made by the audio-only and video groups. Three items, (a) selection of the bereavement population, (b) selection of bereavement as the most appropriate population and (c) selection of the age ranges of pre teen/mature adult, were additionally selected for further analysis due to their relationship to the video content. Analysis results revealed a significant difference between the video and audio-only groups for the selection of these specific items, with the video group's selections more closely aligned to the video content. Results of this pilot study suggest that music video exposure to popular music can impact how students choose to implement popular songs in the field of music therapy.

  14. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  15. In Defense of Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Steven R.

    In his book "The Closing of the American Mind," Allan Bloom criticizes popular music for the "emptiness of its values." It has only one appeal, says Bloom, "a barbaric appeal, to sexual desire--not love, not eros, but sexual desire, undeveloped and untutored." However, to say "rock music is this or that" is a proposition that quickly crumbles…

  16. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  17. Teaching Personality Theories Using Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leck, Kira

    2006-01-01

    Previously, psychology instructors have used popular music to illustrate psychological concepts in the classroom. In this study, students enrolled in a personality theories class heard 13 popular songs that demonstrated various concepts. Students then selected and analyzed their own songs that contained elements of personality theories. Test…

  18. Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Donald F.; Henriksen, Lisa; Christenson, Peter G.

    This study examines the frequency and nature of substance use in the most popular movie rentals and songs of 1996 and 1997. The intent was to determine the accuracy of public perceptions about extensive substance use in media popular among youth. Because teenagers are major consumers of movies and music, there is concern about the potential for…

  19. Women's Studies and Popular Music: Using Audio Resources in Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    Because the field of popular music has produced rich resources of social commentary on women, it offers ample instructional materials for the critical examination of women's life styles in a pluralistic society. Additionally, by adding a "voice" to the traditional classroom content, this medium arouses student enthusiasm and interest which many…

  20. Lyrical Commentaries: Learning from Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1991-01-01

    Depicts ways popular song lyrics can stimulate discussion either in music, social studies, humanities, or language arts classes. Considers lyrics' ability to explain social, cultural, and political phenomena. Provides a chronological outline from 1962 correlating political events, personalities, songs, and the artists. songs. Identifies uses of…

  1. American Popular Music 1950-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and discusses some of the chief resources in the study of post-World War II mainstream popular music. In addition to indicating major areas of research, it can serve as a guide to collection development in the discipline.

  2. The Guide to Teaching with Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators National Conference, Reston, VA.

    Popular music is often characterized as a short work with a prominent melody and simple chordal accompaniment. Yet, teaching with pop music in the era of standards-based curriculum can present challenges. These standards offer teachers a blueprint for teaching music performance, composition, improvisation, and the relationship of music to other…

  3. Multicultural and Popular Music Content in an American Music Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jui-Ching; Humphreys, Jere T.

    2009-01-01

    The teaching of multicultural music, and to a lesser extent popular music, has been the stated goal of music education policy makers for many decades. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to estimate the amount and percentage of time music education majors in a university teacher education program spent on 13 styles of music in history,…

  4. Genre Complexes in Popular Music.

    PubMed

    Silver, Daniel; Lee, Monica; Childress, C Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical "complexes," which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured-i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered. PMID:27203852

  5. Genre Complexes in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Childress, C. Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical “complexes,” which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured—i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered. PMID:27203852

  6. Bridging the Gap: Popular Music and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Carlos Xavier, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This versatile and insightful book discusses trends and issues related to popular music in the classroom. Topics covered include the definition of popular music, the "us versus them" dilemma, teacher education, effective teaching methods, and choosing quality repertoire. Fourth in the Northwestern University Music Education Leadership series.…

  7. "Sounds Good to Me": Canadian Children's Perceptions of Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Francis-Murray, Nancy; Pollon, Dawn E.; Elliott, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the role of age and socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to children's popular musical preferences. As part of a larger, multi-method, longitudinal study on children's and adolescents self-views and media preference, the present study investigated the popular music section of a self-report questionnaire. Data…

  8. Popular Music, Television, and Generational Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Although previous generations have by no means been disloyal to the popular music of their youth, the tenacious attachment of the Baby Boomers to the music of the 1960s seems unprecedented. Three main reasons account for this constantly widening musical reclamation project. First, the Baby Boomers have a clearer sense of generational identity that…

  9. Understanding and Developing Black Popular Music Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, James Briggs

    1983-01-01

    Enumerates types of black popular music (work songs, spirituals, gospel music, blues, race records, rock and roll, soul, funk, disco, Caribbean, and African) and discusses collection development (current, retrospective, monographs, periodicals, sheet music, motion picture film, photographs, oral history), cataloging, and preservation. A 229-item…

  10. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility. PMID:26467627

  11. Popular Music and Classical Musicians: Strategies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, popular music has become a growing area of music study and is increasingly accepted in schools and universities around the world. Despite this general enthusiasm, classically trained music teachers bring a certain hesitation to this art form, perhaps because too few have had formal hands-on experience with it. This article…

  12. Classical Music as Popular Music: Adolescents' Recognition of Western Art Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which "popular" classical repertoire is familiar and predictable to adolescents. Specifically, the study sought to examine (1) if students had heard the music before, (2) where they had heard the music before, and (3) if they could "name that tune". Participants (N = 668) for this study were middle school…

  13. Space activities and global popular music culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  14. The sociology of popular music, interdisciplinarity and aesthetic autonomy.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Lee

    2011-03-01

    This paper considers the impact of interdisciplinarity upon sociological research, focusing on one particular case: the academic study of popular music. 'Popular music studies' is an area of research characterized by interdisciplinarity and, in keeping with broader intellectual trends, this approach is assumed to offer significant advantages. As such, popular music studies is broadly typical of contemporary intellectual and governmental attitudes regarding the best way to research specific topics. Such interdisciplinarity, however, has potential costs and this paper highlights one of the most significant: an over-emphasis upon shared substantive interests and subsequent undervaluation of shared epistemological understandings. The end result is a form of 'ghettoization' within sociology itself, with residents of any particular ghetto displaying little awareness of developments in neighbouring ghettos. Reporting from one such ghetto, this paper considers some of the ways in which the sociology of popular music has been limited by its positioning within an interdisciplinary environment and suggests two strategies for developing a more fully-realized sociology of popular music. First, based on the assumption that a sociological understanding of popular music shares much in common with a sociological understanding of everything else, this paper calls for increased intradisciplinary research between sociologists of varying specialisms. The second strategy, however, involves a reconceptualization of the disciplinary limits of sociology, as it argues that a sociology of popular music needs to accept musical specificity as part of its remit. Such acceptance has thus far been limited not only by an interdisciplinary context but also by the long-standing sociological scepticism toward the analysis of aesthetic objects. As such, this paper offers an intervention into wider debates concerning the remit of sociological enquiry, and whether it is ever appropriate for sociological

  15. Popular Music in Malaysia: Education from the outside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Shahanum Mohamad

    2006-01-01

    The musical preference of most Malaysian young people, their knowledge of music in general and popular music in particular are shaped through informal music education. Factors that contribute to this include the wide dissemination of popular music, the status of music in the school curriculum, and the perception of most Malaysians towards music.…

  16. Teaching Popular Music in Finland: What's Up, What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakeva, Lauri

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the history and current situation of popular music pedagogy in Finland. While popular music is widely accepted in the curriculum, there are differences in its application in the comprehensive schools and music institutions. Popular styles were first introduced into Finnish music education by secondary school music teachers;…

  17. Popular Music and School Music Education: Chinese Students' Preferences and Dilemmas in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah; Ho, Wai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study investigates Chinese students' popular music preferences in daily life and to what extent and in what ways they prefer learning popular music in school in Shanghai, China. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 1,730 secondary students (aged 12-17) and interviews with 60 students from 10 secondary schools, between…

  18. Popular Music Pedagogy: Band Rehearsals at British Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There has been little published pedagogical research on popular music group rehearsing. This study explores the perceptions of tutors and student pop/rock bands about the rehearsals in which they were involved as a part of their university music course. The participants were 10 tutors and 16 bands from eight British tertiary institutions. Analysis…

  19. Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

  20. Censorship of Popular Music: An Analysis of Lyrical Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Kathleen S.

    This study analyzes the lyrical content of popular music recordings, cited as censored from 1986 through 1995, in order to examine characteristics of the recordings that were found to be objectionable and the frequency with which the objections occurred. Out of 60 articles from the music trade magazines, "Billboard" and "Rolling Stone," 77…

  1. A Conspicuous Gap in Cultural Studies: Popular Music in the English Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippling, Jim

    2013-01-01

    For the author, the key analytic question about a popular song is not "What does it mean?" or "What hidden or coded meaning does it express?" but "What does its popularity tell us about the cultural moment when it resonated with its public?" How did the song "create its audience," so to speak? Obviously, a 1973 hit song, if it could time-travel,…

  2. The representation of epilepsy in popular music.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2008-01-01

    Much can be learned about the contemporary stereotypes associated with epilepsy by studying the representation of the disorder in paintings, literature, and movies. Popular music is arguably the most accessible and ubiquitous of the creative art forms, touching most of us on a daily basis. Reviewed here are the ways in which epilepsy and seizures are used in the lyrics of musicians from a wide variety of musical genres, from hip-hop to rhythm and blues. Many of the ancient associations of epilepsy with madness, horror, and lunacy can be found in these lyrics. However, the language of epilepsy has also been appropriated by some musical artists to represent a state of sexual ecstasy and dance euphoria. The references to these states as "epilepsy" or a "seizure" in numerous songs suggest that this shorthand is widely recognized within some subcultures. Although epilepsy has frequently been associated with female sexual availability in other creative art forms, this novel use of the language of epilepsy represents a contemporary departure in the artistic application of epilepsy-related images and associations in the 21st century. PMID:17980673

  3. Gender and Cultural Consecration in Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmutz, Vaughn; Faupel, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the gendered nature of cultural legitimacy and consecration in popular music. We explore two related questions. First, which factors affect the likelihood that female performers achieve consecrated status? Second, how are those decisions discursively legitimated? Using a mixed-methods research design, we find that in both…

  4. Composing, Songwriting, and Producing: Informing Popular Music Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2013-01-01

    In forwarding comprehensive popular music pedagogies, music educators might acknowledge and address expanded notions of composition in popular music that include processes of recording, engineering, mixing, and producing along with the technologies, techniques, and ways of being musical that encompass these processes. This article advances a…

  5. Music Education Curriculum and Social Change: A Study of Popular Music in Secondary Schools in Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese society over the last two decades, modernisation and globalisation, together with the transition to a market economy, have created new imperatives and challenges for the school music curriculum. As a result, the 2011 reform of the Curriculum Standards for Primary Education and Junior Secondary Education marks the first time that the…

  6. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps.

  7. Cascading reminiscence bumps in popular music.

    PubMed

    Krumhansl, Carol Lynne; Zupnick, Justin Adam

    2013-10-01

    Autobiographical memories are disproportionately recalled for events in late adolescence and early adulthood, a phenomenon called the reminiscence bump. Previous studies on music have found autobiographical memories and life-long preferences for music from this period. In the present study, we probed young adults' personal memories associated with top hits over 5-and-a-half decades, as well as the context of their memories and their recognition of, preference for, quality judgments of, and emotional reactions to that music. All these measures showed the typical increase for music released during the two decades of their lives. Unexpectedly, we found that the same measures peaked for the music of participants' parents' generation. This finding points to the impact of music in childhood and suggests that these results reflect the prevalence of music in the home environment. An earlier peak occurred for 1960s music, which may be explained by its quality or by its transmission through two generations. We refer to this pattern of musical cultural transmission over generations as cascading reminiscence bumps. PMID:24006129

  8. Preferences of elderly music listeners residing in nursing homes for art music, traditional jazz, popular music of today, and country music.

    PubMed

    Jonas, J L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate seniors' comparative music preference for four generic styles including art music, country music, popular music of today, and traditional jazz. The study also attempted to identify certain variables that have an effect on preference. Sixty-three subjects with a mean age of 82.5 from four nursing homes in the South Central Michigan area participated in the study. An interview and musical preference test were administered to the subjects individually. The listening test consisted of 16 music selections, four from each style. The seniors judged how much they liked the selections on a scale from 1 to 5, with 5 indicating greatest preference. Results indicated that country music style was preferred the most, followed by traditional jazz, art music, and lastly popular music. Variables that were found to affect preference were education level, community size in which the seniors grew up, and music training outside the school setting.

  9. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  10. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  11. Queering Informal Pedagogy: Sexuality and Popular Music in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores how students' perceptions of sexual identity affect how they participate in popular music processes used in school. Seventeen high school students were invited to form five single-gendered and mixed-gendered rock bands. The data collected included fieldnotes and audio recordings of observed rehearsals and…

  12. India's Music: Popular Film Songs in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    Indian film industry is the largest film industry in the world, with an output roughly three times that of Hollywood. This popular world music could easily be an exciting part of a multicultural music education curriculum. This music not only exposes students to an entirely new musical genre and cultural industry, but can also change their…

  13. The evolution of popular music: USA 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mauch, Matthias; MacCallum, Robert M.; Levy, Mark; Leroi, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    In modern societies, cultural change seems ceaseless. The flux of fashion is especially obvious for popular music. While much has been written about the origin and evolution of pop, most claims about its history are anecdotal rather than scientific in nature. To rectify this, we investigate the US Billboard Hot 100 between 1960 and 2010. Using music information retrieval and text-mining tools, we analyse the musical properties of approximately 17 000 recordings that appeared in the charts and demonstrate quantitative trends in their harmonic and timbral properties. We then use these properties to produce an audio-based classification of musical styles and study the evolution of musical diversity and disparity, testing, and rejecting, several classical theories of cultural change. Finally, we investigate whether pop musical evolution has been gradual or punctuated. We show that, although pop music has evolved continuously, it did so with particular rapidity during three stylistic ‘revolutions’ around 1964, 1983 and 1991. We conclude by discussing how our study points the way to a quantitative science of cultural change. PMID:26064663

  14. The evolution of popular music: USA 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Mauch, Matthias; MacCallum, Robert M; Levy, Mark; Leroi, Armand M

    2015-05-01

    In modern societies, cultural change seems ceaseless. The flux of fashion is especially obvious for popular music. While much has been written about the origin and evolution of pop, most claims about its history are anecdotal rather than scientific in nature. To rectify this, we investigate the US Billboard Hot 100 between 1960 and 2010. Using music information retrieval and text-mining tools, we analyse the musical properties of approximately 17 000 recordings that appeared in the charts and demonstrate quantitative trends in their harmonic and timbral properties. We then use these properties to produce an audio-based classification of musical styles and study the evolution of musical diversity and disparity, testing, and rejecting, several classical theories of cultural change. Finally, we investigate whether pop musical evolution has been gradual or punctuated. We show that, although pop music has evolved continuously, it did so with particular rapidity during three stylistic 'revolutions' around 1964, 1983 and 1991. We conclude by discussing how our study points the way to a quantitative science of cultural change. PMID:26064663

  15. Popular Music Education in and for Itself, and for "Other" Music: Current Research in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    This article considers some ways in which the school classroom enters into, changes and complicates musical meanings, focusing particularly on the role of popular music and how it relates to classical music. I suggest that in bringing popular music into the curriculum, educators have largely ignored the informal learning practices of popular…

  16. Freedom, Constraint, or Both? Readings on Popular Music and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorck, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how notions of freedom are linked to popular music practices in previous research literature. The author discusses how two competing discourses depict popular music practices on the one hand as "freedom," and on the other hand as "constraint," and how these ideas relate to gender. She also argues that unproblematized…

  17. Popular Music in a 21st Century Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Carlos Xavier

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the author shares his thoughts regarding the future role of popular music in music education at a moment when there seems to be greater receptiveness to this idea than ever before. What is the reason for this increased receptiveness? It may be that music educators have sensed that a new playing field has evolved. There is now some…

  18. East Meets West: Learning-Practices and Attitudes Towards Music-Making of Popular Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Annie O.

    2014-01-01

    Learning-practices of popular musicians are a prominent theme in Western music education literature; however, there appears to be a shortage of such literature in Asian countries. With the aim of comparing East and West, a qualitative study was conducted to investigate the learning-practices and involvement in music of Hong Kong popular musicians.…

  19. Memory for Frequency of Hearing Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, James R.; And Others

    This experiment was designed to better understand the effects of individual differences, intent to learn, and stimulus familiarity on frequency judgment accuracy. Half of the participants in the study heard popular songs, and the other half listened to unfamiliar songs. Participants were subdivided into three more groups, introducing the "intent…

  20. Popular Music: A Selected Bibliography of Materials in the California State University, Sacramento Library. Second Edition. Bibliographic Series No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donna Ridley, Comp.

    Over 700 reference materials, songbooks, and recordings on pop, rock, country, folk, blues, and soul music from the 1950s to the present are listed. The bibliography was compiled because the study of popular music is becoming increasingly important to disciplines such as history, communications, and popular culture as well as music. Entries are…

  1. Towards an Epistemology of Authenticity in Higher Popular Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Tom; Smith, Gareth Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Popular music education is becoming firmly established as an academic field, in the UK and internationally. In order to help ensure that scholarship and practice within the field develop in reflexive and ethical ways appropriate to particular traditions, musics, people and institutional contexts, the authors advocate a discursive and iterative…

  2. Popular Music: Resistance to New Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the impact of new wave music on a major component of the U.S. record-buying public--college students. Concludes that several obstacles (mood, history, confusion, life-style, social function, emotional discomfort, and frivolity) stand in the way of new wave music as a major cultural force. (PD)

  3. The Emotional Use of Popular Music by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Alan; Hakanen, Ernest A.

    1991-01-01

    Follows up on some recent calls for study of music as a mass medium. Finds that music serves as a powerful communication medium, speaking directly to the emotions (excitement, happiness, love) of high school students. Finds that women were somewhat more likely to associate emotions with music and to use music for mood management. (PRA)

  4. Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrà, Joan; Corral, Álvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll.

    2012-07-01

    Popular music is a key cultural expression that has captured listeners' attention for ages. Many of the structural regularities underlying musical discourse are yet to be discovered and, accordingly, their historical evolution remains formally unknown. Here we unveil a number of patterns and metrics characterizing the generic usage of primary musical facets such as pitch, timbre, and loudness in contemporary western popular music. Many of these patterns and metrics have been consistently stable for a period of more than fifty years. However, we prove important changes or trends related to the restriction of pitch transitions, the homogenization of the timbral palette, and the growing loudness levels. This suggests that our perception of the new would be rooted on these changing characteristics. Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness.

  5. Measuring the Evolution of Contemporary Western Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Serrà, Joan; Corral, Álvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll.

    2012-01-01

    Popular music is a key cultural expression that has captured listeners' attention for ages. Many of the structural regularities underlying musical discourse are yet to be discovered and, accordingly, their historical evolution remains formally unknown. Here we unveil a number of patterns and metrics characterizing the generic usage of primary musical facets such as pitch, timbre, and loudness in contemporary western popular music. Many of these patterns and metrics have been consistently stable for a period of more than fifty years. However, we prove important changes or trends related to the restriction of pitch transitions, the homogenization of the timbral palette, and the growing loudness levels. This suggests that our perception of the new would be rooted on these changing characteristics. Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness. PMID:22837813

  6. Measuring the evolution of contemporary western popular music.

    PubMed

    Serrà, Joan; Corral, Alvaro; Boguñá, Marián; Haro, Martín; Arcos, Josep Ll

    2012-01-01

    Popular music is a key cultural expression that has captured listeners' attention for ages. Many of the structural regularities underlying musical discourse are yet to be discovered and, accordingly, their historical evolution remains formally unknown. Here we unveil a number of patterns and metrics characterizing the generic usage of primary musical facets such as pitch, timbre, and loudness in contemporary western popular music. Many of these patterns and metrics have been consistently stable for a period of more than fifty years. However, we prove important changes or trends related to the restriction of pitch transitions, the homogenization of the timbral palette, and the growing loudness levels. This suggests that our perception of the new would be rooted on these changing characteristics. Hence, an old tune could perfectly sound novel and fashionable, provided that it consisted of common harmonic progressions, changed the instrumentation, and increased the average loudness. PMID:22837813

  7. Exoskeletons: Generating Content for Popular Music in 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Casey Ann

    2016-01-01

    People all over the world are engaging with popular music, particularly through social media platforms, where views are often in the billions and climbing. Sacks (2007), a world-renowned neurologist, coined the term "earworms" to refer to songs that play repetitively in one's head for no apparent reason, sometimes for days, even years,…

  8. Enhancing the Popular Music Ensemble Workshop and Maximising Student Potential through the Integration of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ensemble work is a key part of any performance-based popular music course and involves students replicating existing music or playing "covers". The creative process in popular music is a collaborative one and the ensemble workshop can be utilised to facilitate active learning and develop musical creativity within a group setting. This is…

  9. Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Nuzzo, Erin; Rice, Kristen R.; Sargent, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The average US adolescent is exposed to 34 references to alcohol in popular music daily. Although brand recognition is an independent, potent risk factor for alcohol outcomes among adolescents, alcohol brand appearances in popular music have not been systematically assessed. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and contextual elements associated with alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music. Design Qualitative content analysis. Setting We used Billboard Magazine to identify songs to which US adolescents were most exposed in 2005-2007. For each of the 793 songs, two trained coders independently analyzed the lyrics of each song for references to alcohol and alcohol brand appearances. Subsequent in-depth assessments utilised Atlas.ti to determine contextual factors associated with each of the alcohol brand appearances. Measurements Our final code book contained 27 relevant codes representing 6 categories: alcohol types, consequences, emotional states, activities, status, and objects. Findings Average inter-rater reliability was high (κ=0.80), and all differences were easily adjudicated. Of the 793 songs in our sample, 169 (21.3%) explicitly referred to alcohol, and of those, 41 (24.3%) contained an alcohol brand appearance. Consequences associated with alcohol were more often positive than negative (41.5% vs. 17.1%, P<.001). Alcohol brand appearances were commonly associated with wealth (63.4%), sex (58.5%), luxury objects (51.2%), partying (48.8%), other drugs (43.9%), and vehicles (39.0%). Conclusions One-in-five songs sampled from U.S. popular music had explicit references to alcohol, and one quarter of these mentioned a specific alcohol brand. These alcohol brand appearances are commonly associated with a luxury lifestyle characterised by wealth, sex, partying, and other drugs. PMID:22011113

  10. Students' Experiences with Popular Music: The Case of Beijing, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the establishment of a socialist market economy has quickened the pace of China's economic development; at the same time, increased modernization and globalization have influenced, to varying degrees, the development of music and music education. With reference to 12 secondary schools in Beijing, this empirical study examines…

  11. Laws of Scattering Applied to Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that examined Top 40 singles chart data to determine whether the frequency distribution of artist productivity fit either of two laws of scatter (Lotka Law of Scientific Productivity or Bradford Law of Scatter). Possible reasons for the lack of statistical significance found between the theoretical and observed distributions are…

  12. Potential hazard of hearing damage to students in undergraduate popular music courses.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in university courses related to popular and commercial music, with a commensurate increase in the number of students studying these courses. Students of popular music subjects are frequently involved in the use of electronically amplified sound for rehearsal and recording, in addition to the "normal" noise exposure commonly associated with young people. The combination of these two elements suggests a higher than average noise exposure hazard for these students. To date, the majority of noise studies on students have focused on exposure from personal music players and on classical, orchestral, and marching band musicians. One hundred students across a range of university popular music courses were surveyed using a 30-point questionnaire regarding their musical habits both within and external to their university courses. This was followed by noise dosimetry of studios/recording spaces and music venues popular with students. Questionnaire responses showed 76% of subjects reported having experienced symptoms associated with hearing loss, while only 18% reported using hearing protection devices. Rehearsals averaged 11.5 hrs/wk, with a mean duration 2 hrs 13 mins and mean level of 98 dB LAEQ. Ninety-four percent of subjects reported attending concerts or nightclubs at least once per week, and measured exposure in two of these venues ranged from 98 to 112 dB LAEQ with a mean of 98.9 dB LAEQ over a 4.5-hr period. Results suggested an extremely high hazard of excessive noise exposure among this group from both their social and study-based music activities.

  13. Finding Materials on American Popular Culture in the MSU Libraries: Popular Music, Television, Comics, Popular Fiction, Movies. How to Find Series No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Randall W., Comp.

    An introduction to popular culture materials in the Michigan State University Libraries, this combination library guide and bibliography presents finding tools for popular fiction, comic materials, popular music, movies, and television programming. It provides instruction on the use of the card catalog, suggested subject heading search terms, and…

  14. The Canon or the Kids: Teachers and the Recontextualisation of Classical and Popular Music in the Secondary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on some of the findings from case studies conducted with six secondary school music teachers in New Zealand. The purpose of the study was to investigate and explain the ways in which teachers manage the relationship between classical and popular music in their elective classroom programs, utilizing a theoretical framework…

  15. Popular Music: A Selected Bibliography of Materials in the California State University, Sacramento Library. Bibliographic Series No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donna Ridley, Comp.

    The bibliography lists over 400 works in the California State University Library, Sacramento, on pop, rock, country, folk, blues, and soul music from 1950 to the present. Books, periodicals, and non-book materials noted in the bibliography are appropriate for history, communication studies, and popular culture studies as well as for music. Items…

  16. Exposure to Cannabis in Popular Music and Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Douglas, Erika L.; Kraemer, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cannabis use is frequently referenced in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is independently associated with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. Methods We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large U.S. urban high schools. We estimated participants’ exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists’ songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 day) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Results Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 40 cannabis references per day (standard deviation = 104). Twelve percent (N = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (N=286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. Conclusions This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents. PMID:20039860

  17. The Learning of Popular Music: A Pedagogical Model for Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Neal

    2004-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of an integrated curriculum on the learning of popular music, the Sting Curriculum was designed for senior secondary students of mixed ability. This nine-week program was presented to a sample of students aged between 16 and 18 years in urban Sydney (Australia). This article draws on some of the results from this…

  18. Neural Mechanisms of the Influence of Popularity on Adolescent Ratings of Music

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Capra, C. Monica; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12–17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-second clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants’ likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants’ rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change one’s evaluation of a song was positively correlated with activation in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate, two regions that are associated with physiological arousal and negative affective states. Sensitivity to popularity was linked to lower activation levels in the middle temporal gyrus, suggesting a lower depth of musical semantic processing. Our results suggest that a principal mechanism whereby popularity ratings affect consumer choice is through the anxiety generated by the mismatch between one’s own preferences and others’. This mismatch anxiety motivates people to switch their choices in the direction of the consensus. Our data suggest that this is a major force behind the conformity observed in music tastes in some teenagers. PMID:19879365

  19. Neural mechanisms of the influence of popularity on adolescent ratings of music.

    PubMed

    Berns, Gregory S; Capra, C Monica; Moore, Sara; Noussair, Charles

    2010-02-01

    It is well-known that social influences affect consumption decisions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with social influence with regard to a common consumer good: music. Our study population was adolescents, age 12-17. Music is a common purchase in this age group, and it is widely believed that adolescent behavior is influenced by perceptions of popularity in their reference group. Using 15-s clips of songs from MySpace.com, we obtained behavioral measures of preferences and neurobiological responses to the songs. The data were gathered with, and without, the overall popularity of the song revealed. Song popularity had a significant effect on the participants' likability ratings of the songs. fMRI results showed a strong correlation between the participants' rating and activity in the caudate nucleus, a region previously implicated in reward-driven actions. The tendency to change one's evaluation of a song was positively correlated with activation in the anterior insula and anterior cingulate, two regions that are associated with physiological arousal and negative affective states. Sensitivity to popularity was linked to lower activation levels in the middle temporal gyrus, suggesting a lower depth of musical semantic processing. Our results suggest that a principal mechanism whereby popularity ratings affect consumer choice is through the anxiety generated by the mismatch between one's own preferences and others'. This mismatch anxiety motivates people to switch their choices in the direction of the consensus. Our data suggest that this is a major force behind the conformity observed in music tastes in some teenagers.

  20. Drawing a Line in Water: Constructing the School Censorship Frame in Popular Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Alexis Anja

    2015-01-01

    The apparent ideological tensions between popular musics and formal school contexts raise significant issues regarding teachers' popular repertoire selection processes. Such decision-making may be seen to take place within a school censorship frame, through which certain musics and their accompanying values are promoted, whilst others are…

  1. Alcohol brand references in U.S. popular music, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Johnson, Renee M; Tyagi, Keshav; Power, Kathryn; Lohsen, Mark C; Ayers, Amanda J; Jernigan, David H

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and context of alcohol brand references in popular music. Billboard Magazine year-end charts from 2009 to 2011 were used to identify the most popular songs in four genres: Urban, Pop, Country, and Rock. Of the 720 songs, 23% included an alcohol mention, and 6.4% included an alcohol brand mention. Songs classified as Urban had the highest percentage of alcohol mentions and alcohol brand mentions. The context associated with alcohol brand mentions was almost uniformly positive or neutral. Public health efforts may be necessary to reduce youth exposure to these positive messages about alcohol use. PMID:23971875

  2. Alcohol brand references in U.S. popular music, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Johnson, Renee M; Tyagi, Keshav; Power, Kathryn; Lohsen, Mark C; Ayers, Amanda J; Jernigan, David H

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and context of alcohol brand references in popular music. Billboard Magazine year-end charts from 2009 to 2011 were used to identify the most popular songs in four genres: Urban, Pop, Country, and Rock. Of the 720 songs, 23% included an alcohol mention, and 6.4% included an alcohol brand mention. Songs classified as Urban had the highest percentage of alcohol mentions and alcohol brand mentions. The context associated with alcohol brand mentions was almost uniformly positive or neutral. Public health efforts may be necessary to reduce youth exposure to these positive messages about alcohol use.

  3. Alcohol Brand References in U.S. Popular Music, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Johnson, Renee M.; Tyagi, Keshav; Power, Kathryn; Lohsen, Mark C.; Ayers, Amanda J.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and context of alcohol brand references in popular music. Billboard Magazine year-end charts from 2009–2011 were used to identify the most popular songs in four genres: Urban, Pop, Country, and Rock. Of the 720 songs, 23% included an alcohol mention, and 6.4% included an alcohol brand mention. Songs classified as Urban had the highest percentage of alcohol mentions and alcohol brand mentions. The context associated with alcohol brand mentions was almost uniformly positive or neutral. Public health efforts may be necessary to reduce youth exposure to these positive messages about alcohol use. PMID:23971875

  4. Recognizing Middle School Students' Taste for Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Susan Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Discusses establishing relevance in music education by accounting for students' music preferences. Presents a strategy for building middle school students' vocabulary of music terms that is relevant to their musical tastes and respectful of their aesthetic capabilities. Considers the benefits of this strategy. Includes a list of sample songs and…

  5. Old age in America represented in nineteenth and twentieth century popular sheet music.

    PubMed

    Cohen, E S; Kruschwitz, A L

    1990-06-01

    This paper examines American popular sheet music published between 1830 and 1980 as a source for understanding popular perceptions and feelings about aging and old age. From a private collection of over 300 pieces of sheet music related to aging, two forms of representation of popular sentiments are reviewed: cover art and lyrics. A substantial majority present negative rather than positive views of aging and old age. PMID:2191901

  6. Popular Music and Communication Research: An Editorial Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Steven H.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses music as a form of communication in terms of national vs. international music, youth culture, market forces, controversy over the impact of lyrics, uses and gratifications, and future research. (PD)

  7. Cultural Autonomy and Popular Music: A Survey of Jamaican Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, Marlene

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Jamaican music, especially "reggae," in terms of national identity, autonomy, and public policy. Reports a survey that shows that the majority of Jamaican youth identify with "reggae" and find music vital to their existence, but that the upper classes prefer foreign over local music. (PD)

  8. Popular Music in School: Remixing the Issues--For It to Be Authentic, We Must Teach Popular Music in a Way that Is True to the Processes of Vernacular Music Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last forty years, popular music in America has consistently shown great variety, originality, and evolution. While American music has clearly flourished and evolved over the last several decades, it is difficult to say the same for American music education. Although there are important reasons to preserve long-standing traditions of…

  9. Discovering the Theorist in Tupac: How to Engage Your Students with Popular Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenning, Emily

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces creative pedagogical techniques for exploring theory in the undergraduate classroom. Using criminal justice and criminological theories as a primary example, it describes a technique that professors from any theory-driven discipline can use to engage students through popular music, from hip-hop to musical theater in order to…

  10. Old Age in America Represented in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Popular Sheet Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elias S.; Krushwitz, Anna L.

    1990-01-01

    Examined American popular sheet music published between 1830 and 1980 as source for understanding perceptions and feelings about aging and old age. From over 300 pieces of relevant sheet music, cover art and lyrics are reviewed. A substantial majority presented negative rather than positive views of aging and old age. (Author/NB)

  11. The Ghost of "Emo:" Searching for Mental Health Themes in a Popular Music Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Timothy D.; Smith-Adcock, Sondra; Glynn, Virginia R.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "Emo" has gained attention among counselors who work with teens in school settings. Emo has been associated with music and popular media has linked it to mental health concerns, but scholarly sources have not converged regarding what sort of music it is, or what it means for adolescents' wellness. The authors devise…

  12. Popular Music in American Teacher Education: A Glimpse into a Secondary Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon G.; Blair, Deborah V.

    2011-01-01

    Popular music is pervasive in our culture and in the lives of our students. Its inclusion in music education curricula requires authentic approaches through collaborative informal learning processes. It has been our experience that college students may be notation dependent and while they may recognize and utilize informal processes outside the…

  13. An Examination of Essential Popular Music Compact Disc Holdings at the Cleveland Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Blane

    In the 1970s and early 1980s, a few library researchers and scholars made a case for the importance of public libraries' acquisition of popular music, particularly rock music sound recordings. Their arguments were based on the anticipated historical and cultural importance of obtaining and maintaining a collection of these materials. Little new…

  14. Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sarah; Homan, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Popular music is increasingly being viewed by local, state and national governments as a useful form of creative activity for at-risk youth both within and outside young offender institutions. This paper examines a music programme operating for a group of predominantly black youth within one North American detention centre, and considers the range…

  15. Popular Music in Your Program: Growing with the Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzmich, John, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Profiles a successful music course that provided instruction on the electric guitar, drums, and bass guitar, and helped expand the instrumental music program at Evergreen High School in Golden, Colorado. Highlights students' motivation and self-teaching, and the rock band competition that the course spawned. Includes an annotated list of…

  16. Empirical analysis of individual popularity and activity on an online music service system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-Bo; Han, Ding-Yi

    2008-10-01

    Quantitative understanding of human behaviors supplies basic comprehension of the dynamics of many socio-economic systems. Based on the log data of an online music service system, we investigate the statistical characteristics of individual activity and popularity, and find that the distributions of both of them follow a stretched exponential form which interpolates between exponential and power law distribution. We also study the human dynamics on the online system and find that the distribution of interevent time between two consecutive listenings of music shows the fat tail feature. Besides, with the reduction of user activity the fat tail becomes more and more irregular, indicating different behavior patterns for users with diverse activities. The research results may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of collective behaviors in socio-economic systems.

  17. Hunger, food and drink in Brazilian popular music: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Vasconcelos, Mariana Perrelli; de Vasconcelos, Iris Helena Guedes

    2015-01-01

    The article reflects on how the themes of hunger, consumption of soft drinks and consumption of beans and rice are addressed in Brazilian popular music. We investigate the years of military dictatorship (1964-1985). The focus of the analysis is on the so-called protest song, a musical genre characterized by aesthetic, cultural, political, ideological and social criticism to military rule. The study of the ideology and philosophy of language of Mikhail Bakhtin is the theoretical reference; especially his concepts of "ideological sign" and "word." Analysis reveals that the protest song portrayed elements of the economic, political and social contexts and led to the diffusion of healthy or unhealthy eating habits or ideologies, contributing to the construction of the Brazilian dietary identity. PMID:26331641

  18. From Musical Detectives to DJs: Expanding Aural Skills and Analysis through Engaging Popular Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2015-01-01

    Many music educators address aural skills and analysis by drawing on strategies designed for the realm of Western classical music. Focusing solely on aural skills and analysis within paradigms of Western music can limit students' musical learning and engagement to particular ways of knowing music. To diversify and broaden the types of aural skills…

  19. Handedness and "Open-Earedness": Strong Right-Handers Are Less Likely to Prefer Less Popular Musical Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that strong right-handedness is associated with decreased cognitive flexibility and decreased tendencies to update beliefs, arising from decreased interhemispheric interaction. In the current study, strong right-handedness was associated with decreased overall liking of less popular musical genres (with the specific genres of…

  20. In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Johanna F A; Ingre, Michael; Fors, Carina; Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran; Taillard, Jacques; Philip, Pierre; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2 cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n = 8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness.

  1. Participatory Assessment and the Construction of Professional Identity in Folk and Popular Music Programs in Finnish and Australian Music Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partti, Heidi; Westerlund, Heidi; Lebler, Don

    2015-01-01

    Assessment in music is of considerable importance in the context of higher music education, with major projects focusing on assessment principles and practices in a number of locations, including the European community and Australia. This instrumental case study explores assessment practices in two higher music education contexts, namely within…

  2. Popular song and lyrics synchronization and its application to music information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Gao, Sheng; Zhu, Yongwei; Sun, Qibin

    2006-01-01

    An automatic synchronization system of the popular song and its lyrics is presented in the paper. The system includes two main components: a) automatically detecting vocal/non-vocal in the audio signal and b) automatically aligning the acoustic signal of the song with its lyric using speech recognition techniques and positioning the boundaries of the lyrics in its acoustic realization at the multiple levels simultaneously (e.g. the word / syllable level and phrase level). The GMM models and a set of HMM-based acoustic model units are carefully designed and trained for the detection and alignment. To eliminate the severe mismatch due to the diversity of musical signal and sparse training data available, the unsupervised adaptation technique such as maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) is exploited for tailoring the models to the real environment, which improves robustness of the synchronization system. To further reduce the effect of the missed non-vocal music on alignment, a novel grammar net is build to direct the alignment. As we know, this is the first automatic synchronization system only based on the low-level acoustic feature such as MFCC. We evaluate the system on a Chinese song dataset collecting from 3 popular singers. We obtain 76.1% for the boundary accuracy at the syllable level (BAS) and 81.5% for the boundary accuracy at the phrase level (BAP) using fully automatic vocal/non-vocal detection and alignment. The synchronization system has many applications such as multi-modality (audio and textual) content-based popular song browsing and retrieval. Through the study, we would like to open up the discussion of some challenging problems when developing a robust synchronization system for largescale database.

  3. Baseball, Popular Music, and Twentieth-Century American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee; Walker, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that using popular recordings that feature baseball imagery is an innovative way to introduce students to the pluralistic nature of U.S. life. Outlines a variety of themes that use baseball history to develop concepts about social change, cultural values, and individual achievement. Lists audio recordings that have baseball themes. (DB)

  4. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  5. Informal in Formal: The Relationship of Informal and Formal Learning in Popular and Jazz Music Master Workshops in Conservatoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkkula, Esa

    2016-01-01

    The present article will examine informal learning in popular and jazz music education in Finland and evaluate it as a part of formal upper secondary vocational musicians' training, which is typically teacher directed. It is not necessarily the best model of working in popular and jazz music learning, which has traditionally benefitted from…

  6. Contemporary and Historical Contexts in Popular Music: Theory and Implementation of an Intermediate Level Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Bernd

    1991-01-01

    Delineates curricular, empirical, and pedagogical frameworks of content and media-based approaches to teaching German. Specifically, the historical and contemporary dimension of popular music lyrics as a barometer of society are highlighted, and classroom procedures for presenting them are suggested. (23 references) (GLR)

  7. Using Popular Music to Teach the Geography of the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Sarah L.; Post, Chris W.

    2014-01-01

    The introductory level course Geography of the U.S. and Canada requires students to grasp large amounts of complex material, oftentimes using a lecture-based pedagogical approach. This article outlines two ways that popular music can be successfully used in the geography classroom. First, songs are used to review key concepts and characteristics…

  8. Female Representation in Gikuyu Popular Music: A Catalyst for Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maina, Faith

    The females portrayed in the Gikuyu popular music of Kenya are almost always evil. Women are often viewed as prostitutes who see their sexuality as a commodity to be exchanged for material goods. After the unsuspecting males have delivered the goods, the women are more often than not betrayed. These portraits create a hostile and toxic environment…

  9. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  10. Spirituality and Synagogue Music: A Case Study of Two Synagogue Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shansky, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Participation in community music ensembles is an important and popular form of music education--with members of ensembles that perform within religious services having the opportunity of experiencing a possible extra dimension of a spiritual experience. Thus the intent of this study was to survey adult choir and band members at Temple Emeth in…

  11. Popular Music Helps Students Focus on Important Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James R.

    2007-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing middle school social studies educators is creating powerful lessons that engage young adolescents in acquiring knowledge, stimulate critical thinking skills, inspire passionate interest in social studies and social issues, encourage active participation in civic life, and provide them with opportunities to…

  12. Oral History, Popular Music, and American Railroads, 1920-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee

    1983-01-01

    Sound recordings can be used by social studies teachers to demonstrate shifting public images about railroads in the United States since the end of World War I. Included is a selected list of recordings containing train-related images and railroad-information themes and illustrations from 1920 to 1980. (RM)

  13. Content Analysis of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Dalton, Madeline A.; Carroll, Mary V.; Agarwal, Aaron A.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To perform a comprehensive content analysis of substance use in contemporary popular music. Design We analyzed the 279 most popular songs of 2005 according to Billboard magazine. Two coders working independently used a standardized data collection instrument to code portrayals of substance use. Outcome Measures Presence and explicit use of substances and motivations for, associations with, and consequences of substance use. Results Of the 279 songs, 93 (33.3%) portrayed substance use, with an average of 35.2 substance references per song-hour. Portrayal of substance use varied significantly (P<.001) by genre, with 1 or more references in 3 of 35 pop songs (9%), 9 of 66 rock songs (14%), 11 of 55 R&B/hip-hop songs (20%), 22 of 61 country songs (36%), and 48 of 62 rap songs (77%). While only 2.9% of the 279 songs portrayed tobacco use, 23.7% depicted alcohol use, 13.6% depicted marijuana use, and 11.5% depicted other or unspecified substance use. In the 93 songs with substance use, it was most often motivated by peer/social pressure (45 [48%]) or sex (28 [30%]); use was commonly associated with partying (50 [54%]), sex (43 [46%]), violence (27 [29%]), and/or humor (22 [24%]). Only 4 songs (4%) contained explicit antiuse messages, and none portrayed substance refusal. Most songs with substance use (63 [68%]) portrayed more positive than negative consequences; these positive consequences were most commonly social, sexual, financial, or emotional. Conclusions The average adolescent is exposed to approximately 84 references to explicit substance use daily in popular songs, and this exposure varies widely by musical genre. The substance use depicted in popular music is frequently motivated by peer acceptance and sex, and it has highly positive associations and consequences. PMID:18250243

  14. Relations between Study and Employment: Music Graduates in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latorre, Ileana S.; Lorenzo, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    Higher education programs in Puerto Rico include undergraduate degrees in music, music education, composition, popular music, jazz and Caribbean music, and, most recently, a master’s degree in music education. However, little is known about what music graduates do after concluding college. Do they work in music-related areas? Are they satisfied…

  15. A Tutor in Your Back Pocket: Reflections on the Use of iPods and Podcasting in An Undergraduate Popular Music Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Steve; Dale, Crispin; Spencer, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This article reports upon a research project undertaken at the University of Wolverhampton where iPods and podcasting were used as a delivery and assessment mechanism within an undergraduate Popular Music degree programme. A sample drawn from students studying the programme was interviewed to explore their engagement with the technology and the…

  16. Music Program of Study: Educational Program Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston.

    The West Virginia music study program is a public school K-12 curriculum sequence. This program is divided into the four principal areas of: (1) general classroom music; (2) string instrumental music; (3) wind and percussion instrumental music; and (4) choral music. The general classroom music program is an early and middle childhood sequence of…

  17. Music and Environmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Kate; Freedman, Bill

    2004-01-01

    The use of music in environmental education (EE) can help to inform students through ideas incorporated in musical lyrics, while also enhancing interest in environmental topics. Music can also enhance perceptions of the value of the natural world, especially when nature itself is recognized as being musical. This article discusses historical and…

  18. Music, K-12. Program of Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    This program of studies defines the K-12 instructional program in music developed by the Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia. The guide contains a general rationale for teaching music, program flow chart, and descriptions of programs in general music, vocal music, and instrumental music. Each general program description includes requisites for…

  19. Whats the Rap about Ecstasy? Popular Music Lyrics and Drug Trends among American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sarah; Bermudez, Rey; Schensul, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Trends in ecstasy use in America during the past decade were reflected in mainstream, American rap-music lyrics between 1996 and 2003. Drawing on communication and cultural studies theory, this article provides a content analysis of 69 rap songs mentioning the club drug ecstasy. The songs are coded according to whether they contain positive, mixed…

  20. Critiques of Studies Dealing With Music and Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter-Dyson, Rosamund; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Critiques eight studies dealing with music and music education. Among the titles are "The Clarinet in Twentieth-Century Dutch Chamber Music,""The Effect of Movement-Based Instruction on the Aural Perception Skills of First and Third-Graders," and "Functional Performance Anxiety Modifications in Adult Pianists." (GEA)

  1. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  2. Pop and World Music in Dutch Music Education: Two Cases of Authentic Learning in Music Teacher Education and Secondary Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evelein, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Popular and world music play an important role in Dutch music education. This article examines two case studies that illustrate authentic music learning environments in which these types of music are prominently used. The first case follows a student during her training at the Rotterdam Academy for Music Education, in which her own musical and…

  3. Young People and Popular Music in East Germany: Focus on a Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Points out a great preference for Western-style rock music among young people (ages 14-25) in East Germany despite social, political, and cultural differences, suggesting the global nature of music as communication. (PD)

  4. Contemporary-Music Studies Bloom in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the Beijing Contemporary Music Institute where more than 3,000 undergraduates study music and dance. In a country where most music departments and conservatories are dedicated to teaching classical Chinese and Western music, the institute is breaking new ground. The college, which opened in 1993 with just 100…

  5. A Course of Study for Guitar I (Music I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Twenty lessons for beginning guitar instruction at the junior high or secondary level are presented. The course of study suggests a harmonic approach to teaching guitar. It focuses upon teaching students how to accompany folk, traditional, and popular music in a variety of styles. General outcomes include proper tuning of guitar, playing chords in…

  6. Genomics approaches to study musical aptitude.

    PubMed

    Oikkonen, Jaana; Järvelä, Irma

    2014-11-01

    Although music and other forms of art can develop in diverse directions, they are linked to the genetic profiles of populations. Hearing music is a strong environmental trigger that serves as an excellent model to study the crosstalk between genes and the environment. We propose that the ability to enjoy and practice music requires musical aptitude, which is a common and innate trait facilitating the enjoyment and practice of music. The innate drive for music can only have arisen by exposure to music, and it develops with motivation and training in musically rich environments. Recent genomic approaches have shown that the genes responsible for inner ear development, auditory pathways and neurocognitive processes may underlay musical aptitude. It is expected that genomic approaches can be applied to musical traits and will reveal new biological mechanisms that affect human evolution, brain function, and civilisation.

  7. Idea Bank: Popular Culture and Video Games as Tools for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyher, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The field of music is constantly evolving, and technology is advancing at an unprecedented rate. To increase student interest in what is taught in the music classroom, lessons must invite eager participation. This is accomplished by being innovative with lessons--choosing to incorporate concepts that entice and please students while still…

  8. Colliding Perspectives? Music Curriculum as Cultural Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar-Hall, Peter

    2005-01-01

    One way of seeing music education is to think of it as the study of music as a series of sounds and silences. This model has dominated North American conservatories and many universities (2) and found its way into classroom practice. Another way of seeing music education is to define it as cultural studies--that is, a subject concerned with…

  9. The effects of music genre on young people's alcohol consumption: an experimental observational study.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Poelen, Evelien A P; Spijkerman, Renske; Ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether exposure to specific music genres in a social drinking setting leads to differences in drinking levels. An observational experimental design was used in which we invited peer groups of young adults into a bar lab, a lab which is furnished like an ordinary, small pub. Between two tasks, people had a break of 50 minutes in which they could order nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. During the break, participants were exposed to a specific music genre: popular, hard rock, rap, or classical music. Those groups who were exposed to classical music drank significantly more alcohol than those who were exposed to other music genres. This pattern is quite robust and does not depend on participants' sex or age, drinking habits, own music preference, and relative importance of music in participant's lives. The study's limitations are mentioned.

  10. Music as a Classroom Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, Lynne; Olson, Myrna R.; Zurkowski, Joyce K.

    1999-01-01

    A study examined the effect of music on lunchroom noise level and on the behaviors of children requiring intervention. When classical music was played, the noise level dropped an average of six decibels. Popular music decreased the noise level by 10 decibels. Both types of music decreased behavioral interventions. (CR)

  11. The Use of Music Technology across the Curriculum in Music Education Settings: Case Studies of Two Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremata, Radio

    2010-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the uses of music technology in music education programs in two universities. The purpose of this study was to discover the ways in which music technology was used in two schools of music across the entire music curriculum for music education students. This study detailed the ways in which music technology was…

  12. Multicultural Music Represented in Current Elementary Music Textbooks: A Comparative Study of Two Published Music Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating music textbook series is limited and has primarily focused on series no longer in publication, on two grade levels, and/or on limited cultures. The purpose of this study is to examine what countries are and have been represented in current music textbook series. Additional questions in the study pertain to frequency and…

  13. Course of Study for Electronic Music I. An Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The booklet is a guide for music teachers and administrators who wish to incorporate electronic music into the junior or senior high curriculum. It defines program objectives and suggests goals, teaching strategies, materials, and equipment. Reasons for teaching electronic music include its popularity with the younger generation, its capability to…

  14. Tuning in While Growing Up: Messages Adolescents Receive from Popular Music Regarding Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott Glass, J.; Curtis, Russ; Thomas, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Music has long been important to adolescents. It is one way they can express themselves and find a voice to represent the special circumstances they experience as young people. It is also known that love and romance are an important part of the adolescent experience (Paul & White, 1990). So, what messages do adolescents learn about…

  15. Sexual Socialisation in Life Orientation Manuals versus Popular Music: Responsibilisation versus Pleasure, Tension and Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Catriona; Moodley, Dale; Young, Lisa Saville

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two forms of sexual socialisation to which learners are exposed: the sexuality education components of the Life Orientation (LO) manuals and the lyrical content and videos of popular songs. We performed a textual analysis of the sexual subject positions made available in, first, the LO manuals used in Grade 10 classes and,…

  16. A Descriptive Study of Music Teacher Educators' Beliefs about Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Carla E.; Richerme, Lauren Kapalka

    2016-01-01

    While policies at all levels affect music educators, and music education researchers have called for increased attention to policy issues, few have explored preservice music teacher educators' beliefs about policy. This study examined music teacher educators' (N = 81) familiarity with and attitudes toward contemporary education and music education…

  17. Bach and Rock in the Music Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponick, F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the use of popular music in music education, addressing issues such as defining popular music, approaches for using popular music in the classroom, and whether the National Standards for Music Education can be attained using popular music. Lists resources for teaching popular music. (CMK)

  18. Intergenerational Music Making: A Phenomenological Study of Three Older Australians Making Music with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three older Australians' active engagement in music making with children was examined in this phenomenological study. Intergenerational music engagement was explored, focusing on the perspectives of the older Australians engaged in these musical interactions and, in particular, perceived benefits in being part of these musical interactions. Data…

  19. A Descriptive Study of the Argentine Music Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratzer, Dina; Sima, Marta

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study which examined the professional status of music teachers in Argentina. Describes various areas of concern for Argentine music teachers including general training, the workplace, teacher training and musical activities. (RKM)

  20. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  1. Musical and Verbal Interventions in Music Therapy: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Amir

    1999-01-01

    In clinical work, our main task as music therapists is to make interventions: we give our clients guidance, encouragement, and support; we offer interpretations; we play with and for them. Most of the interventions are either musical or verbal. As a music therapy clinician, supervisor, and educator, I wanted to explore the following questions: (a) How do music therapists define musical and verbal interventions? (b) When does a music therapist intervene musically and when does the therapist intervene verbally? (c) When and why do music therapists suggest to their clients exploring an issue musically or verbally? (d) Do musical and verbal interventions serve the same purpose or different purposes? (d) How is the decision about the type of intervention made? and, (e) is there a difference between the power and meaning of musical interventions versus verbal interventions for both the therapist and the client?

  2. Case Studies in Environmental Adult and Popular Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E., Ed.; Follen, Shirley, Ed.

    Following an introduction by Darlene E. Clover and Rene Karottki, this booklet provides 16 case studies about nonformal environmental adult education: "Environment and Development in Argentina: Innovative Experiences in Adult Learning" (Raul A. Montenegro); "Learning for Environmental Action: Environmental Adult and Popular Education in Canada"…

  3. Popular Culture Studies and the Politics of Educational "Crisis."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    The conservative position on the crisis in the humanities is fundamentally antidemocratic and poses a danger to popular culture studies. This can be demonstrated by taking issue with conservatives' usage of the terms "crisis" and "politics." A crisis is an urgent problem, but by labeling something a crisis which is not, attention is distracted…

  4. The Jake Walk Blues. A toxicologic tragedy mirrored in American popular music.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J P; Tulloss, T C

    1976-12-01

    In 1930 thousands of cases of muscle pain, weakness of upper and lower extremities, and minimal sensory impairment occurred in the United States. The illness was caused by the consumption of an adulterated Jamaica ginger extract ("Jake"), an illicit beverage then popularly used in the southern and midwestern United States to circumvent prohibition statutes. The additive tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate caused severe, only partially reversible damage to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous tissue. Victims with resultant gait impairment, sometimes permanent, were said to have the "Jake Leg" or "Jake Walk." Twelve commercial phonographic recordings made between 1928 and 1934 by southern rural artists, white and black, refer to Jake or Jake-induced infirmity. These reveal preepidemic cultural familiarity with Jake, and the later, postepidemic performances reflect a whimsical, even cynical, cultural attitude that those with "Jake Leg" were suffering the wages of sin and should not be regarded as objects of pity or sympathy.

  5. The Jake Walk Blues. A toxicologic tragedy mirrored in American popular music.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J P; Tulloss, T C

    1976-12-01

    In 1930 thousands of cases of muscle pain, weakness of upper and lower extremities, and minimal sensory impairment occurred in the United States. The illness was caused by the consumption of an adulterated Jamaica ginger extract ("Jake"), an illicit beverage then popularly used in the southern and midwestern United States to circumvent prohibition statutes. The additive tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate caused severe, only partially reversible damage to the spinal cord and peripheral nervous tissue. Victims with resultant gait impairment, sometimes permanent, were said to have the "Jake Leg" or "Jake Walk." Twelve commercial phonographic recordings made between 1928 and 1934 by southern rural artists, white and black, refer to Jake or Jake-induced infirmity. These reveal preepidemic cultural familiarity with Jake, and the later, postepidemic performances reflect a whimsical, even cynical, cultural attitude that those with "Jake Leg" were suffering the wages of sin and should not be regarded as objects of pity or sympathy. PMID:793467

  6. Contemporary Practices in Southern Baptist Church Music: A Collective Case Study of Worship, Ministry Design and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Leslie Myers

    2013-01-01

    The widespread popular music-based modern worship movement begun in the 1960's brought the styles and sounds of popular music into worship as churches sought to increase cultural connection in their worship. The worship transformation brought significant challenges. Church musicians trained in traditional skills had to adapt and incorporate skills…

  7. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  8. Music in the Social Studies: Resources from the Vietnam Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, George; Vocke, David E.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the way that popular music depicted the anti-war sentiment during the Vietnam war era, as opposed to country western music which defended government action. Advocates supplementing textbook readings with song lyrics, and suggests a slide presentation to help integrate the two media. Lists three tables with songs organized around specific…

  9. Foreign Language Pronunciation Skills and Musical Aptitude: A Study of Finnish Adults with Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovanov, Riia; Pietila, Paivi; Tervaniemi, Mari; Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine second language production and discrimination skills in the light of musical aptitude. Our study was conducted in university settings in south-western Finland. English was used as a model for the second language due to its popularity among young adults. There were three types of tests used in this study: a…

  10. Transformative Learning through Music: Case Studies from Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Nan; Veblen, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we consider meaningful, emancipatory, and affirming music-making in Brazil through the lens of five case studies. Each illustrates aspects of transformative theory through music-making in music education as advanced by Mezirow, Freire, and contemporary Brazilian music educators.

  11. Using Music as a Background for Reading: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulliken, Colleen N.; Henk, William A.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a study during which intermediate level students were exposed to three auditory backgrounds while reading (no music, classical music, and rock music), and their subsequent comprehension performance was measured. Concludes that the auditory background during reading may affect comprehension and that, for most students, rock music should…

  12. Music: A Frequently Missing Component in American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Daniel A.

    The American Studies curriculum in institutions of higher education has traditionally neglected music. Many programs do not include music as a component, and often there is not a single course on U.S. music taught in the music department. The apparent lack of interest on the part of musicologists reflects an attitude that tends to denigrate the…

  13. Investigating Trainee Music Teachers' Beliefs on Musical Abilities and Learning: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasutti, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study investigating trainee teachers' beliefs about music abilities and learning. The study employed two questionnaires: the "Music abilities beliefs questionnaire" (MABQ) and the "Music learning beliefs questionnaire" (MLBQ) which were specially designed to reveal the beliefs of trainee teachers of primary and secondary…

  14. What science are you singing? A study of the science image in the mainstream music of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ju; Allgaier, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Previous research showed that pop music bands in the Western world have sometimes included science imagery in their lyrics. Their songs could potentially be helpful facilitators for science communication and public engagement purposes. However, so far no systematic research has been conducted for investigating science in popular music in Eastern cultures. This study explores whether science has been regarded as an element in the creation of popular mainstream music, and examines the content and quantity of distribution through an analysis of mainstream music lyrics, to reflect on the conditions of the absorption of science into popular culture. The results indicate that expressions related to astronomy and space science feature very prominently. Most of the lyrics are connected to emotional states and mood expressions and they are only very rarely related to actual issues of science. The implications for science communication and further research are discussed in the final section.

  15. What science are you singing? A study of the science image in the mainstream music of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ju; Allgaier, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Previous research showed that pop music bands in the Western world have sometimes included science imagery in their lyrics. Their songs could potentially be helpful facilitators for science communication and public engagement purposes. However, so far no systematic research has been conducted for investigating science in popular music in Eastern cultures. This study explores whether science has been regarded as an element in the creation of popular mainstream music, and examines the content and quantity of distribution through an analysis of mainstream music lyrics, to reflect on the conditions of the absorption of science into popular culture. The results indicate that expressions related to astronomy and space science feature very prominently. Most of the lyrics are connected to emotional states and mood expressions and they are only very rarely related to actual issues of science. The implications for science communication and further research are discussed in the final section. PMID:25052908

  16. Fluctuations of hi-hat timing and dynamics in a virtuoso drum track of a popular music recording.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Otto; Virtanen, Tuomas; Zollner, Manfred; Hennig, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Long-range correlated temporal fluctuations in the beats of musical rhythms are an inevitable consequence of human action. According to recent studies, such fluctuations also lead to a favored listening experience. The scaling laws of amplitude variations in rhythms, however, are widely unknown. Here we use highly sensitive onset detection and time series analysis to study the amplitude and temporal fluctuations of Jeff Porcaro's one-handed hi-hat pattern in "I Keep Forgettin'"-one of the most renowned 16th note patterns in modern drumming. We show that fluctuations of hi-hat amplitudes and interbeat intervals (times between hits) have clear long-range correlations and short-range anticorrelations separated by a characteristic time scale. In addition, we detect subtle features in Porcaro's drumming such as small drifts in the 16th note pulse and non-trivial periodic two-bar patterns in both hi-hat amplitudes and intervals. Through this investigation we introduce a step towards statistical studies of the 20th and 21st century music recordings in the framework of complex systems. Our analysis has direct applications to the development of drum machines and to drumming pedagogy. PMID:26039256

  17. Fluctuations of Hi-Hat Timing and Dynamics in a Virtuoso Drum Track of a Popular Music Recording

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Otto; Virtanen, Tuomas; Zollner, Manfred; Hennig, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Long-range correlated temporal fluctuations in the beats of musical rhythms are an inevitable consequence of human action. According to recent studies, such fluctuations also lead to a favored listening experience. The scaling laws of amplitude variations in rhythms, however, are widely unknown. Here we use highly sensitive onset detection and time series analysis to study the amplitude and temporal fluctuations of Jeff Porcaro’s one-handed hi-hat pattern in “I Keep Forgettin’”—one of the most renowned 16th note patterns in modern drumming. We show that fluctuations of hi-hat amplitudes and interbeat intervals (times between hits) have clear long-range correlations and short-range anticorrelations separated by a characteristic time scale. In addition, we detect subtle features in Porcaro’s drumming such as small drifts in the 16th note pulse and non-trivial periodic two-bar patterns in both hi-hat amplitudes and intervals. Through this investigation we introduce a step towards statistical studies of the 20th and 21st century music recordings in the framework of complex systems. Our analysis has direct applications to the development of drum machines and to drumming pedagogy. PMID:26039256

  18. Learning through Immersive Study: Contextualizing Music in the Elementary Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifai, Ayah

    2016-01-01

    Music educators are part of a team charged with nurturing the development of the whole child. This includes instilling in students cognitive keys to essential life values that will be drawn on through adulthood. To help music educators attain this goal, this article encourages the inclusion of contexualized music units--immersive studies of…

  19. Music and Arts Schools--Extra-Curricular Music Education in Sweden: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimonen, Marja

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on music education for children and adolescents offered by music and arts schools receiving public financial support (from the municipality or the state) and that are "independent" of the comprehensive and secondary school. For these purposes, then, "extra-curricular" music education will be understood as "voluntary" instruction…

  20. Brain organization for music processing.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Zatorre, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Research on how the brain processes music is emerging as a rich and stimulating area of investigation of perception, memory, emotion, and performance. Results emanating from both lesion studies and neuroimaging techniques are reviewed and integrated for each of these musical functions. We focus our attention on the common core of musical abilities shared by musicians and nonmusicians alike. Hence, the effect of musical training on brain plasticity is examined in a separate section, after a review of the available data regarding music playing and reading skills that are typically cultivated by musicians. Finally, we address a currently debated issue regarding the putative existence of music-specific neural networks. Unfortunately, due to scarcity of research on the macrostructure of music organization and on cultural differences, the musical material under focus is at the level of the musical phrase, as typically used in Western popular music.

  1. Effects of Listening to Heavy Metal Music on College Women: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becknell, Milton E.; Firmin, Michael W.; Hwang, Chi-en; Fleetwood, David M.; Tate, Kristie L.; Schwab, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    College students are typically very identified with popular music and spend many hours listening to their music of preference. To investigate the effects of heavy metal music, we compared the responses of 18 female undergraduate college students to a baseline silence condition (A) and a heavy metal music condition (B). Dependent measures included:…

  2. Musical activity and emotional competence – a twin study

    PubMed Central

    Theorell, Töres P.; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Mosing, Miriam A.; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that musical activities may contribute to the prevention of alexithymia. We tested whether musical creative achievement and musical practice are associated with lower alexithymia. 8000 Swedish twins aged 27–54 were studied. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Musical achievement was rated on a 7-graded scale. Participants estimated number of hours of music practice during different ages throughout life. A total life estimation of number of accumulated hours was made. They were also asked about ensemble playing. In addition, twin modelling was used to explore the genetic architecture of the relation between musical practice and alexithymia. Alexithymia was negatively associated with (i) musical creative achievement, (ii) having played a musical instrument as compared to never having played, and – for the subsample of participants that had played an instrument – (iii) total hours of musical training (r = -0.12 in men and -0.10 in women). Ensemble playing added significant variance. Twin modelling showed that alexithymia had a moderate heritability of 36% and that the association with musical practice could be explained by shared genetic influences. Associations between musical training and alexithymia remained significant when controlling for education, depression, and intelligence. Musical achievement and musical practice are associated with lower levels of alexithymia in both men and women. Musical engagement thus appears to be associated with higher emotional competence, although effect sizes are small. The association between musical training and alexithymia appears to be entirely genetically mediated, suggesting genetic pleiotropy. PMID:25076933

  3. Can music serve as a "cultural immunogen"? An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Ruud, Even

    2013-08-07

    The aim of this study is to explore how people in contemporary society may apply music in their everyday life to improve their health and well-being. Through a series of qualitative interviews, informants gave their narratives about how music had become a part of their health practice. Six narratives concerning this type of everyday musical self-care are presented, and the following questions are sought to be answered: What kinds of musical practices do people apply in order to regulate their health and promote their sense of well-being? What kind of generative health mechanism can we observe or theorize when people use music to enhance their well-being? What kinds of rituals, contextual circumstances and personal health beliefs are operating in these situations? The findings suggests that some people may sing, participate in a choir, dance to music, compose songs, play precomposed music, or play in a band as part of a reflexive strategy to improve their health and well-being. Further analysis also identified six generative factors that may contribute to the immunogen functions of music: A pragmatic concept of music, music as a social and emotional resource, music as a supportive self object, musical competency, rituals, and locus of control. These findings may have implication for the field of music therapy as it will fill the gap between the clinical use of music done by professional music therapists and the everyday "musicking" performed by people outside the institutional practice.

  4. Reflections on D.A. Masolo's "Presencing the Past and Remembering the Present: Social Features of Popular Music in Kenya"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akrofi, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In their introduction of "Music and the Racial Imagination," co-editors Ronald Radano and Philip Bohlman assert that although music is "saturated with racial stuff", "musicology--in its historical, structural-analytical, and ethnographic expressions--has sought to deny the racial dimension." Much as the author agrees with them, he also thinks that…

  5. Improving Music Mood Classification Using Lyrics, Audio and Social Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    The affective aspect of music (popularly known as music mood) is a newly emerging metadata type and access point to music information, but it has not been well studied in information science. There has yet to be developed a suitable set of mood categories that can reflect the reality of music listening and can be well adopted in the Music…

  6. Variance fluctuations in nonstationary time series: a comparative study of music genres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Heather D.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; De Martins, Allan M.; da Silva, P. C.; Viswanathan, G. M.

    2004-05-01

    An important problem in physics concerns the analysis of audio time series generated by transduced acoustic phenomena. Here, we develop a new method to quantify the scaling properties of the local variance of nonstationary time series. We apply this technique to analyze audio signals obtained from selected genres of music. We find quantitative differences in the correlation properties of high art music, popular music, and dance music. We discuss the relevance of these objective findings in relation to the subjective experience of music.

  7. Who Should Study Music Education? A Vocational Personality Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevik, Beste; Perkmen, Serkan; Alkan, Mahir; Shelley, Mack

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to examine the utility and usefulness of Holland's Theory of Personalities in Work Environments to understand the match between personality and the desire for music education. The participants included 99 pre-service music teachers in Turkey. The findings revealed that the pre-service music teachers…

  8. Teaching Ambition: A Case Study of High School Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draves, Tami

    2012-01-01

    Music teacher socialisation (MTS) has received increased attention in music education research, but few researchers have explored MTS with students during their primary socialisation, or pre-college, years. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to examine the perspectives of high school music students who plan to pursue a music…

  9. Objective Measurements in Assessing a Black Music Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Frederick J.

    1990-01-01

    A study of 80 eighth grade students investigated whether incorporation of a African-American music program would have special benefits for African-American students, music-experienced students, or high-musical-ability students. African-American students, taught material consistent with their heritage, performed better than whites. It is concluded…

  10. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  11. Implications of Programmed Instruction for a World Study of Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, James C.

    Programed instruction can be applied fruitfully in teaching about music within and outside Western culture. The content of such study could include cognitive material, such as the social role of music in various cultures, the history of music, the visual identification of instruments, and perhaps notational skills; performance skills, dealing with…

  12. A Case Study of Teaching Musical Expression to Young Performers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, Brenda; Strand, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    What does it mean to teach musical expression to child performers? Is it teaching how to interpret a piece of music "correctly," or is there more involved? In this case study, we explored the beliefs and practices of five teachers who specialized in teaching children to perform in a variety of musical performance areas, including violin, cello,…

  13. Engaging in Music to Enhance Self-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how the performance of music both instigated and enhanced the author's self-study of his work as a lecturer of music education. Through performing Bach's C major prelude from "The Well-Tempered Clavier" and improvising on piano the author was able to identify problems in one of his music education classes and rectify these…

  14. Pedagogical Challenges in Folk Music Teaching in Higher Education: A Case Study of Hua'er Music in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the pedagogical conventions of formal music education. Whilst several recent studies have tended to define these non-classical-music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk music that was recently introduced…

  15. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music.

  16. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners’ experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360ms and 410-460ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561

  17. Iconic Meaning in Music: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Liman; Huang, Ping; Luo, Qiuling; Huang, Hong; Mo, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been extensive research on the processing of the emotional meaning of music, little is known about other aspects of listeners' experience of music. The present study investigated the neural correlates of the iconic meaning of music. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded while a group of 20 music majors and a group of 20 non-music majors performed a lexical decision task in the context of implicit musical iconic meaning priming. ERP analysis revealed a significant N400 effect of congruency in time window 260-510 ms following the onset of the target word only in the group of music majors. Time-course analysis using 50 ms windows indicated significant N400 effects both within the time window 410-460 ms and 460-510 ms for music majors, whereas only a partial N400 effect during time window 410-460 ms was observed for non-music majors. There was also a trend for the N400 effects in the music major group to be stronger than those in the non-major group in the sub-windows of 310-360 ms and 410-460 ms. Especially in the sub-window of 410-460 ms, the topographical map of the difference waveforms between congruent and incongruent conditions revealed different N400 distribution between groups; the effect was concentrated in bilateral frontal areas for music majors, but in central-parietal areas for non-music majors. These results imply probable neural mechanism differences underlying automatic iconic meaning priming of music. Our findings suggest that processing of the iconic meaning of music can be accomplished automatically and that musical training may facilitate the understanding of the iconic meaning of music. PMID:26161561

  18. Rockin' around the Clock: An Exploratory Study of Music Teachers' Personal Listening Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Virginia Wayman

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the personal music listening choices of music teachers. Specifically, in which formats do teachers listen to music for personal pleasure, how do they obtain the music they choose, and how frequently do they choose to listen to certain genres of music. Using an online survey, music teachers answered questions about their…

  19. Toddler Diary: A Study of Development and Learning through Music in the Second Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Louie

    2001-01-01

    This case study traces responses of one child to a program of music experiences implemented in the toddler playroom of a day care center for 10 months. The program used three types of music experience: free music play, sociable music experiences, and music incorporated into caregiving routines. Findings highlight how music activities can enhance a…

  20. Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP): a theoretically based approach for teaching HIV prevention to adolescents through an exploration of popular music.

    PubMed

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann

    2010-05-01

    Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue-student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness.

  1. Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP): A Theoretically Based Approach for Teaching HIV Prevention to Adolescents through an Exploration of Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue–student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness. PMID:20195778

  2. Undergraduate Instrumental Music Education Majors' Approaches to Score Study in Various Musical Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jeremy S.

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on the author's doctoral dissertation, "A Basic Interpretive Analysis of Undergraduate Instrumental Music Education Majors' Approaches to Score Study in Varying Musical Contexts" (Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, August 2004). The purpose of the study was to provide a holistic description of procedures and reflections…

  3. Apparent Time Passage and Music Preference by Music and Nonmusic Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmquist, Jane E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines how popular music preference in listening exercises influences apparent time passage in a study involving 80 University of Texas, Austin, music and nonmusic major undergraduate students. Shows no significant relationship between music preference and apparent time passage. Finds no significant differences attributable to level of music…

  4. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  5. University-Community Engagement: A Case Study Using Popular Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagan, Robert; Rossiter, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of popular theatre (PT) as a pedagogical tool around which a community service learning (CSL) senior undergraduate course was oriented, specifically assessing the university student learning experience from this work relative to PT processes and CSL objectives. Design/methodology/approach:…

  6. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abante, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  7. Study & Analysis of various Protocols in popular Web Browsers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bharat; Baghel, Harish Singh; Patil, Manoj; Singh, Pramod

    2012-08-01

    The web browsers are the application software that are used to access information from the World Wide Web. With the increasing popularity of the web browsers, the modern web browsers are designed to contain more features as compared to the existing web browsers. For the transferring of information through these browsers, various protocols have been implemented on these modern web browsers to make these browsers more efficient. Different protocols used in different layers have different functions and by increasing the efficiency of these protocols we can make the working of browsers more efficient.

  8. Studying Emotional Expression in Music Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrielsson, Alf

    1999-01-01

    Explores the importance of emotional expression in music performance. Performers played music to express different emotions and then listening tests were conducted in order to determine whether the intended expressions were perceived. Presents and discusses the results. (CMK)

  9. Rock and Roll Will Never Die: Using Music to Engage Students in the Study of Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soper, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Popular music is ubiquitous in the lives of our students, music is used by politicians at virtually every one of their campaign events, and musicians are increasingly active in politics, but music has never been considered as a pedagogical tool in teaching political science classes. This article describes the use of music in an introduction to…

  10. Motivation to Study Music in Australian Schools: The Impact of Music Learning, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Gary E.; Osborne, Margaret S.; Barrett, Margaret S.; Davidson, Jane W.; Faulkner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study extends an eight-country mapping exercise (McPherson & O'Neill, 2010; see "Research Studies in Music Education" issues 2010-2011) to include students' motivation to study music within the Australian context. It sought to determine whether music learners (students learning an instrument or voice), might be more motivated to…

  11. The Effects of Music Composition as a Classroom Activity on Engagement in Music Education and Academic and Music Achievement: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogenes, Michel; van Oers, Bert; Diekstra, René F. W.; Sklad, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to contribute to the understanding of the effects of music education, in particular music composition as a classroom activity for fifth- and sixth-graders. The intervention (experimental condition) focused on a three-step-model for music composition, based on the Cultural Historical Activity Theory of education, and has been…

  12. Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability. PMID:24348454

  13. Gender and Music Composition: A Study of Music, and the Gendering of Meanings.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Desmond C; Himonides, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    In this study claims that music communicates gendered meanings are considered, and relevant literature is reviewed. We first discuss the nature of meaning in music, and how it is constructed and construed. Examples of statements of gendering in the literature are cited, and the problems identified by writers who have questioned their validity are considered. We examine the concepts underlying terminology that has been used in inconsistent and contradictory ways. Three hypotheses are posed, and tested by means of two listening tasks. Results are presented that indicate that gendering is not inherent in musical structures, but is contributed to the perceptual event by the listener.

  14. Gender and Music Composition: A Study of Music, and the Gendering of Meanings

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Desmond C.; Himonides, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    In this study claims that music communicates gendered meanings are considered, and relevant literature is reviewed. We first discuss the nature of meaning in music, and how it is constructed and construed. Examples of statements of gendering in the literature are cited, and the problems identified by writers who have questioned their validity are considered. We examine the concepts underlying terminology that has been used in inconsistent and contradictory ways. Three hypotheses are posed, and tested by means of two listening tasks. Results are presented that indicate that gendering is not inherent in musical structures, but is contributed to the perceptual event by the listener. PMID:27065903

  15. "Let's Talk about Race": Exploring Racial Stereotypes Using Popular Culture in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, David Jason

    2014-01-01

    Imagery and sounds from television, film, music, the Internet, and other media bombard American youth; dictating to them how they should act, think, or what they should believe. They often do not realize that they find much of their identity and belief systems in messages put forth to them by popular culture (Du Gay 1997; Hall 1997). Young people…

  16. Neural correlates of emotional responses to music: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Malik, Asad; Hwang, Faustina; Roesch, Etienne; Weaver, James; Kirke, Alexis; Williams, Duncan; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2014-06-24

    This paper presents an EEG study into the neural correlates of music-induced emotions. We presented participants with a large dataset containing musical pieces in different styles, and asked them to report on their induced emotional responses. We found neural correlates of music-induced emotion in a number of frequencies over the pre-frontal cortex. Additionally, we found a set of patterns of functional connectivity, defined by inter-channel coherence measures, to be significantly different between groups of music-induced emotional responses.

  17. A comparative phylogenetic study of genetics and folk music.

    PubMed

    Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva

    2012-04-01

    Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (<0.05) with a probability of 82%. It was observed that there is a significant correlation between population genetics and folk music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.

  18. Integrating Art and Music into Social Studies Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The author truly believes that the marginalization of social studies is not only harming the profession, it is jeopardizing the democracy. But if social studies is in jeopardy, consider the colleagues in the arts and music. Art and music programs have been reduced or eliminated in thousands of schools throughout the nation. Marginalizing art and…

  19. Music Technology-Mediated Teaching and Learning Approach for Music Education: A Case Study from an Elementary School in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunjin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to show how music technology mediated (or music software mediated) music teaching and learning can provide an effective pedagogy in music education. It also seeks to demonstrate that music technology mediated teaching is in accordance with socio-educational trends for both postmodern values and IT mediated learning. The new…

  20. Popular Education in Brazil. A Report on the LASG/WEA 1985 Study Visit to Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workers Educational Association, Sunderland (England). Northern District.

    The 11 "themes" in this report describe the three-week study visit of 11 adult education workers from Northern England to Brazil. The report describes contacts with Brazilian colleagues in workers' and popular education and in related support services and trade and popular organizations they serve. "Organization of the Visit" (Victor Cadaxa)…

  1. Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on…

  2. Dyslexia and Learning Musical Notation: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaarsma, B. S.; Ruijssenaars, A. J. J. M.; Van den Broeck, W.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the effects of a new intervention paradigm on learning musical notation for five Dutch students with dyslexia and four typical students. Results found that the dyslexic children needed more time to learn musical notation, made more mistakes, and produced more "third transpositions." Implications for teaching are outlined.…

  3. Music Makes the World Go Round: The Impact of Musical Training on Non-musical Cognitive Functions-A Review.

    PubMed

    Benz, Sarah; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Musical training is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree musical experience generalizes to cognitive functions unrelated to music abilities in healthy humans. In general, it seems that musical training is associated with enhancing effects, even if sometimes only restricted to the auditory domain, on various cognitive functions spanning from executive control to creativity. We conclude that musical engagement may be a useful cognitive training to promote cognitive enhancement, but more research using longitudinal studies and taking into account individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. PMID:26779111

  4. Music Makes the World Go Round: The Impact of Musical Training on Non-musical Cognitive Functions—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Sarah; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2016-01-01

    Musical training is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree musical experience generalizes to cognitive functions unrelated to music abilities in healthy humans. In general, it seems that musical training is associated with enhancing effects, even if sometimes only restricted to the auditory domain, on various cognitive functions spanning from executive control to creativity. We conclude that musical engagement may be a useful cognitive training to promote cognitive enhancement, but more research using longitudinal studies and taking into account individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits. PMID:26779111

  5. Popular Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Traditional and innovative elements such as bells and music with quick pacing accented by a voice that students could recognize is used to effortlessly bring students to the classroom. Popular culture is shown to work well using classroom examples.

  6. The Perceived Impact of Playing Music while Studying: Age and Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsopoulou, Anastasia; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Rating scale questionnaires were administered to 600 students in three age groups, 12-13, 15-16 and 20-21 from Japan, the UK, Greece and the USA. The questionnaires explored the extent of playing music while studying, the kinds of tasks when music was played, the perceived effects of music on studying, the characteristics and types of music played…

  7. Learn with the Classics: Using Music To Study Smart at Any Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Ole; Marsh, Marcy; Harvey, Arthur

    This book, accompanied by a musical CD-ROM, provides information on how to enhance learning through music at any age. Sections include: (1) "Let Music Prime Your Brain For Learning," which teaches how important it is to prime the brain for learning through music; (2) "Study Smart," which demonstrates highly effective studying techniques devised by…

  8. A Study of Children's Musical Preference: A Data Mining Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Boo, Yee Ling; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    Musical preference has long been a research interest in the field of music education, and studies consistently confirm the importance of musical preference in one's musical learning experiences. However, only a limited number of studies have been focussed on the field of early childhood education (e.g., Hargreaves, North, & Tarrant, 2006;…

  9. Idaho Elementary Music Course of Study K-8. A Guide for Excellence in Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Gale E.

    This guide outlines content requirements needed to satisfy K-8 proficiency expectations in music in Idaho. Local school districts are to produce an instructional guide based upon the defined course of study. The brief outlines are in skeletal form allowing local autonomy in teaching the course of study. This publication includes basic goals and…

  10. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  11. Music: Artistic Performance or a Therapeutic Tool? A Study on Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersson, Gunnar; Nystrom, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze and describe how musicians who are also music therapy students separate music as artistic performance from music as a therapeutic tool. The data consist of 18 written reflections from music therapy students that were analyzed according to a phenomenographic method. The findings are presented as four…

  12. Beliefs of Applied Studio Faculty on Desirable Traits of Prospective Music Education Majors: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royston, Natalie Steele; Springer, D. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the beliefs of applied music faculty on desirable traits of prospective music education majors. Researcher-designed surveys were sent electronically to applied music faculty at 12 National Association of Schools of Music-accredited institutions randomly selected from each of the four major divisions…

  13. Using the Musical Score to Perform: A Study with Spanish Flute Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin, Cristina; Echeverria, Ma Puy Perez; Hallam, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Musical scores constitute a key element in the development of expertise in musicians from western tonal traditions, since they act as a mediator between the performer and the music itself. Our aim was to study the role of musical scores in instrumental performance practice by analysing the process of learning a new piece of music, as well as the…

  14. The "Accafellows:" Exploring the Music Making and Culture of a Collegiate a Cappella Ensemble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paparo, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growth in number and popularity of collegiate a cappella ensembles in the USA over the past 20 years, few researchers have studied these self-governed, student-run, popular music ensembles. This ethnographic case study examined the music making and culture of the "Accafellows", an all-male a cappella group at a mid-western…

  15. Recombinative Generalization: An Exploratory Study in Musical Reading

    PubMed Central

    Perez, William Ferreira; de Rose, Julio C

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to extend the findings of recombinative generalization research in alphabetical reading and spelling to the context of musical reading. One participant was taught to respond discriminatively to six two-note sequences, choosing the corresponding notation on the staff in the presence of each sequence. When novel three- and four-note sequences were presented, she selected the corresponding notation. These results suggest the generality of previous research to the context of musical teaching. PMID:22477462

  16. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  17. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statement--Impact of music, music lyrics, and music videos on children and youth.

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Music plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents. Popular music is present almost everywhere, and it is easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies, allowing adolescents to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends. Parents often are unaware of the lyrics to which their children are listening because of the increasing use of downloaded music and headphones. Research on popular music has explored its effects on schoolwork, social interactions, mood and affect, and particularly behavior. The effect that popular music has on children's and adolescents' behavior and emotions is of paramount concern. Lyrics have become more explicit in their references to drugs, sex, and violence over the years, particularly in certain genres. A teenager's preference for certain types of music could be correlated or associated with certain behaviors. As with popular music, the perception and the effect of music-video messages are important, because research has reported that exposure to violence, sexual messages, sexual stereotypes, and use of substances of abuse in music videos might produce significant changes in behaviors and attitudes of young viewers. Pediatricians and parents should be aware of this information. Furthermore, with the evidence portrayed in these studies, it is essential for pediatricians and parents to take a stand regarding music lyrics. PMID:19841124

  18. From the American Academy of Pediatrics: Policy statement--Impact of music, music lyrics, and music videos on children and youth.

    PubMed

    2009-11-01

    Music plays an important role in the socialization of children and adolescents. Popular music is present almost everywhere, and it is easily available through the radio, various recordings, the Internet, and new technologies, allowing adolescents to hear it in diverse settings and situations, alone or shared with friends. Parents often are unaware of the lyrics to which their children are listening because of the increasing use of downloaded music and headphones. Research on popular music has explored its effects on schoolwork, social interactions, mood and affect, and particularly behavior. The effect that popular music has on children's and adolescents' behavior and emotions is of paramount concern. Lyrics have become more explicit in their references to drugs, sex, and violence over the years, particularly in certain genres. A teenager's preference for certain types of music could be correlated or associated with certain behaviors. As with popular music, the perception and the effect of music-video messages are important, because research has reported that exposure to violence, sexual messages, sexual stereotypes, and use of substances of abuse in music videos might produce significant changes in behaviors and attitudes of young viewers. Pediatricians and parents should be aware of this information. Furthermore, with the evidence portrayed in these studies, it is essential for pediatricians and parents to take a stand regarding music lyrics.

  19. Contemporary Challenges in Learning and Teaching Folk Music in a Higher Education Context: A Case Study of Hua'er Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the conventions of formal music education. Whilst many recent studies have tended to define these non-classical music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk transmission music appears to be much more complex…

  20. Youth, Musical Education and Media: Singularities of Learning Mediated by Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Jusamara

    2011-01-01

    The place of popular and multifunctional media in the musical life of young people has been addressed in several studies. Music can aid in understanding youth cultures through the identification of musical preferences: inform about new lifestyles, fashions, ways of acting, work as motivation for personal dreams and aspirations, and build…

  1. Theory with a Capital T: Cultural Studies' Assault on Popular Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, James

    2010-01-01

    Mainstream cultural studies, it seems, is unwilling to take art of any kind seriously, whether popular or classic. Richard Posner is not far wrong in suggesting that the aim of cultural studies "is to knock literature off its pedestal and find vehicles easier than literary works for making political points." To respond fully to literature and art…

  2. Either/or Rules: Social Studies Teachers' Talk about Media and Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangram, Jefery A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how 15 secondary social studies teachers made meaning of media and popular culture, and how those perspectives informed their relationships with their students. Using data from a 3-year qualitative study in which multiple in-depth interviews were conducted, this article also analyzes the discourses that circulated in the…

  3. Using Popular Culture to Teach the Community College Business Curriculum: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passero, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed a need for comprehensive quantitative empirical studies to determine the effectiveness of using popular culture media as a teaching technique. A quasi-experimental design was implemented to examine whether a group of community college students taking a first-semester introduction to business course who were exposed to a…

  4. Music, Grades 7-9. Secondary Schools Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    Five course titles are included in this music guide for use in grades 7-9: General Music 1, an introduction to music and musical instruments; General Music 2, a survey of types of music; History of Popular Music; Music--Guitar; and Basic Keyboard. The major objective of each course is predicated on student and teacher observation of the students'…

  5. Defining popular iconic metaphor.

    PubMed

    Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.

  6. Social and Emotional Dynamics of College Students with Musical Intelligence and Musical Training: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Galang, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Music has been in its formal existence for so many years now and it has also been utilized to enhance, relax and help man's meditation. This study focused on how music can or may influence an individual. The researchers investigated and described the influence of Howard Gardner's theory on Multiple Intelligence (specifically, musical…

  7. An Empirical Study on Teaching Urban Young Children Music and English by Contrastive Elements of Music and Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ling-Yu Liza

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to teach urban young children music concepts and English by composing creative music and songs with contrast elements. The subjects were seven urban young children aged from three to four in a Taiwan kindergarten. The duration was twenty-four weeks, with two sessions per week. The teaching contents included Hello Song,…

  8. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  9. Can music serve as a “cultural immunogen”? An explorative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how people in contemporary society may apply music in their everyday life to improve their health and well-being. Through a series of qualitative interviews, informants gave their narratives about how music had become a part of their health practice. Six narratives concerning this type of everyday musical self-care are presented, and the following questions are sought to be answered: What kinds of musical practices do people apply in order to regulate their health and promote their sense of well-being? What kind of generative health mechanism can we observe or theorize when people use music to enhance their well-being? What kinds of rituals, contextual circumstances and personal health beliefs are operating in these situations? The findings suggests that some people may sing, participate in a choir, dance to music, compose songs, play precomposed music, or play in a band as part of a reflexive strategy to improve their health and well-being. Further analysis also identified six generative factors that may contribute to the immunogen functions of music: A pragmatic concept of music, music as a social and emotional resource, music as a supportive self object, musical competency, rituals, and locus of control. These findings may have implication for the field of music therapy as it will fill the gap between the clinical use of music done by professional music therapists and the everyday “musicking” performed by people outside the institutional practice. PMID:23930988

  10. Correlation between work concentration level and background music: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yi-Nuo; Huang, Rong-Hwa; Chiang, Han-Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for office workers {to listen to music} while executing daily routines at their desks. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between work concentration level and background music. This research would first follow examples in previous researches, and then explore the influence of background music on participants' scores on attention tests. We hope to gain a preliminary understanding of the possible influence of background music on people's focus and concentration when doing work. Thirty-two college students were separated into three controlled groups; all were given the attention test. Group [a] listened to background music while being tested for 10 minutes; group [b] had no background music at all; and group [c] listened to the music for 10 minutes prior to the attention test. The test was conducted in a "noise free" environment. The means and error rates for each group were then calculated. The findings showed that, in comparison with "no music at all", those who listened to music prior to testing obtained higher scores in attentiveness (most probably a supplemental effect of the music), whereas those who listened to music during attention test showed extremely high level of variation in attention test scoring. Background music does affect people's job-site behavior. In fact, all three test conditions - no background music at all, background music before the work shift, and background music during work - have affected worker performance on different levels.

  11. Music as a method of coping with cancer: A qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness. Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients. Conclusions: A patient's situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of music that can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method. PMID:23805166

  12. Musical Narratives: A Study of a Young Child's Identity Work in and through Music-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of infants' and young children's early musical engagement as singers, song-makers, and music-makers has provided some insight into children's early vocal and musical development. Recent research has highlighted the vital role of interactive vocalization or "communicative musicality" in infants' general development, including…

  13. Historical Work in Mass Communication Studies: Literacy, Libraries, and Popular Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglesby, Pamela

    Recent work in both the history of education and the influence of popular culture suggests that libraries can be studied as sites where the public is taught--through a variety of mechanisms--important lessons about communication, knowledge and society. Researchers have addressed the interpretive question of whether literacy is tied to progress and…

  14. A Study of Prospective Turkish Science Teachers' Knowledge at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcin, Emine Selcen; Turkmen, Lutfullah

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge level of popular biotechnological issues of prospective Turkish science teachers. A questionnaire was administered during 2005-2006 academic year to 194 students in the Department of Science Education of a university in Turkey. The questionnaire covered six biotechnological issues such as…

  15. Professionalization and the Null Curriculum: The Case of the Popular Eugenics Movement and American Educational Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Steven

    1987-01-01

    Presents an essay review of three recent books on eugenics, a once popular quasiscientific and politically conservative social movement devoted to the improvement of humankind through programs of selective breeding and marriage restriction. States that educators must study and come to grips with the meaning of this movement in order to appreciate…

  16. Instrument-Making as Music-Making: An Ethnographic Study of "Shakuhachi" Students' Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Instrument-making is a powerful way to teach and learn music, especially world music. This case study looks at adult music learners whose engagement in music involves instrument-making and the long lasting practice of music. A case in point is Japanese and North American practitioners of Japanese bamboo flutes, especially the end-blown…

  17. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  18. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    PubMed Central

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions

  19. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  20. Health awareness and popularity of alternative medicines among people of Jamnagar town: A cross - sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Bijoya; Biswas, Prasanta Chatterjee; Pancholi, Jigisha

    2012-01-01

    By 2020, it is predicted that non-communicable diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Indian traditional medicine system with the concept of personalized therapy in Ayurveda has the potential to offer remedies to these challenging health issues. Integration of Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani, the three Indian systems of medicine (ISM), along with homoeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine to ensure health for all citizens across the country is the new Mantra of the Union health ministry. To tap the potentials of our indigenous medicine systems and other popular systems of medicine it is important to assess the awareness among people and make efforts to popularize them. The present study was therefore carried out to assess the awareness among 200 respondents with the help of a multiple choice questionnaire by the interview method. Convenience sampling technique was employed. The awareness about lifestyle, diet, oil consumption needs more vigorous attention as observed in this study. The most popular choice was found to be groundnut oil. Around 4% of the participants used more than one medium of cooking. Forty-two percent of the participants observed fast regularly. Twenty-three percent of the participants did not include any form of exercise in their daily routine while walking was the most popular form of exercise performed by 43%. By using multiple comparisons it was observed that the difference between i) Allopathy- Homeopathy, ii) Allopathy - Ayurvedic and iii) Ayurvedic- Homeopathy as 15.5263, 7.1053 and 8.4211, respectively, are significant at α = 0.05. A larger sample size encompassing various economic strata could be a better index of popularity of various alternative medicine systems existing in different sections of our society. PMID:23049181

  1. Preparing Students for the 21st Century through the Study of World Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy Christine

    2014-01-01

    This column provides examples of activities that general music teachers might use to weave global awareness into web-based lessons to promote the development of information literacy, media literacy, and communication literacy through the study of world music.

  2. A Survey of Studies of Brain Activities Associated with Music Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Iku

    Music, to many of us, is an indispensable ingredient of life for some unknown reason. Recently, it has become a quite popular research target for a number of reasons. Like language, it is learned from childhood either passively or actively. Unlike language, it cannot convey any precisely defined meaning but nevertheless can move us and make us happy. Unlike language only a small percentage of people can become truely proficient even in listening. In this survey paper, we look at how music has attracted many researchers who are endeavoring to find out how music attracts so many people from professionals to laymen.

  3. Mass Media and the Popular Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissover, Fredric; Birch, David C.

    This anthology consists of journalistic essays on each of these popular arts: advertising, journalism, cartoons, radio and television, photography and motion pictures, popular literature, popular music, and public education. Examples of most of the art forms are also included. The book is aimed at junior college students. Its purpose is to…

  4. Listening to Audiences: A Brief Rationale and History of Audience Research in Popular Media Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiappa, Edward; Wessels, Emanuelle

    2007-01-01

    Popular media may be described as television, film, radio, and print media primarily offered for the purpose of entertainment. Such popular media have been the object of critical analysis for decades, both for academic scholars and popular pundits. Our focus is not on quantitative or experimental research concerning popular media effects, but…

  5. The Effect of Background Music on Bullying: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziv, Naomi; Dolev, Einat

    2013-01-01

    School bullying is a source of growing concern. A number of intervention programs emphasize the importance of a positive school climate in preventing bullying behavior. The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine whether calming background music, through its effect on arousal and mood, could create a pleasant atmosphere and reduce bullying…

  6. Developing Music Teacher Identities: An International Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Julie; Kerchner, Jody L.; Arostegui, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates pre-service music teacher's (PSMT) perceptions of their professional identities. University-level education students in the United States America (USA), Spain and Australia were all asked interview questions based on general themes relevant to teacher identity development, and their responses were subjected to content…

  7. [The influence of music on pictorial expression of young women--a comparative study of different music styles].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Maugendre, M; Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    Questing one's personal identity and developing a coherent representation of oneself, the other and the world are major tasks in adolescence. Research showed that a satisfactory resolution of the crisis of adolescence can be favoured by psychological counselling based on artistic mediations. The objective of this study consisted in exploring the effect of music on the pictorial expression of a non clinical sample of female adolescents (N=157) aged from 17 to 28 years. We analysed free drawings realised by the test group with the help of a rating scale constructed in a phenomenological and structural perspective (Schiltz, 2006). The adolescents painted under musical induction. We proposed three different styles of music, i.e. baroque music (Georg Friedrich Händel and Johann Sebastian Bach), classical music (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven) and polish ethnical music (Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa-Warsaw Village Band). By using non parametric inferential and multi dimensional statistics, we could show that structural characteristics of music styles lead to differences in formal and content variables on the rating scales for the pictures. The results of our exploratory study open some tracks for future research. It would be pertinent to enlarge the population to other categories of age and to investigate the influence of gender.

  8. [The influence of music on pictorial expression of young women--a comparative study of different music styles].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Maugendre, M; Brytek-Matera, A

    2010-01-01

    Questing one's personal identity and developing a coherent representation of oneself, the other and the world are major tasks in adolescence. Research showed that a satisfactory resolution of the crisis of adolescence can be favoured by psychological counselling based on artistic mediations. The objective of this study consisted in exploring the effect of music on the pictorial expression of a non clinical sample of female adolescents (N=157) aged from 17 to 28 years. We analysed free drawings realised by the test group with the help of a rating scale constructed in a phenomenological and structural perspective (Schiltz, 2006). The adolescents painted under musical induction. We proposed three different styles of music, i.e. baroque music (Georg Friedrich Händel and Johann Sebastian Bach), classical music (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven) and polish ethnical music (Kapela ze Wsi Warszawa-Warsaw Village Band). By using non parametric inferential and multi dimensional statistics, we could show that structural characteristics of music styles lead to differences in formal and content variables on the rating scales for the pictures. The results of our exploratory study open some tracks for future research. It would be pertinent to enlarge the population to other categories of age and to investigate the influence of gender. PMID:20653187

  9. The importance of music for people with dementia: the perspectives of people with dementia, family carers, staff and music therapists

    PubMed Central

    McDermot, Orii; Orrell, Martin; Ridder, Hanne Mette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite the popularity of music-based interventions in dementia care, there is a limited knowledge of how and why people with dementia find music beneficial for their well-being. A qualitative study was conducted to develop further insights into the musical experiences of people with dementia and explore the meaning of music in their lives. Method Separate focus groups and interviews with (1) care home residents with dementia and their families, (2) day hospital clients with dementia, (3) care home staff, and (4) music therapists, were conducted. The findings of the thematic analysis were investigated further in the light of psychosocial factors with the aim of developing a theoretical model on music in dementia. Results Six key themes were identified. The accessibility of music for people at all stages of dementia, close links between music, personal identity and life events, the importance of relationship-building through music making were particularly highlighted as valuable. The psychosocial model of music in dementia was developed. The model revealed the importance of music to support the personal psychology of people with dementia and the social psychology of the care home environment. Conclusion The effects of music go beyond the reduction of behavioural and psychological symptoms. Individual preference of music is preserved throughout the process of dementia. Sustaining musical and interpersonal connectedness would help value who the person is and maintain the quality of their life. PMID:24410398

  10. Smartphones reveal angler behavior: A case study of a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papenfuss, Jason T.; Phelps, Nicholas; Fulton, David C.; Venturelli, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Successfully managing fisheries and controlling the spread of invasive species depends on the ability to describe and predict angler behavior. However, finite resources restrict conventional survey approaches and tend to produce retrospective data that are limited in time or space and rely on intentions or attitudes rather than actual behavior. In this study, we used three years of angler data from a popular mobile fishing application in Alberta, Canada, to determine province-wide, seasonal patterns of (1) lake popularity that were consistent with conventional data and (2) anthropogenic lake connectivity that has not been widely described in North America. Our proof-of-concept analyses showed that mobile apps can be an inexpensive source of high-resolution, real-time data for managing fisheries and invasive species. We also identified key challenges that underscore the need for further research and development in this new frontier that combines big data with increased stakeholder interaction and cooperation.

  11. A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE PERCEPTION OF MUSICAL PROCESSES AND THE ENJOYMENT OF MUSIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUERKSEN, GEORGE L.

    STUDENT RECOGNITION OF THEMES IN MUSIC THAT WERE REPEATED OR ALTERED THROUGHOUT 14 MUSICAL ITEMS WAS MEASURED BY USE OF AN AUDIOVISUAL TESTING DEVICE. AFFECTIVE RESPONSE TO THE THEMES WAS INDICATED, USING A SEVEN-POINT SCALE OF LIKE-DISLIKE. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN THE MEASURED RECOGNITION AND SUCH ITEMS AS MUSICAL EXPERIENCE, ACADEMIC APTITUDE, AND…

  12. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  13. Affinity for Music: A Study of the Role of Emotion in Musical Instrument Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    StGeorge, Jennifer; Holbrook, Allyson; Cantwell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    For many people, the appeal of music lies in its connection to human emotions. A significant body of research has explored the emotions that are experienced through either the formal structure of music or through its symbolic messages. Yet in the instrumental music education field, this emotional connection is rarely examined. In this article, it…

  14. Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…

  15. Individualizing Elementary General Music Instruction: Case Studies of Assessment and Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Elementary general music teachers typically teach hundreds of students every week. Each child has individual learning needs due to a variety of factors, such as prior experiences with music, music aptitude, learning style, and personality. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore ways that experienced teachers used assessments to…

  16. A Case Study of Diverse Multimodal Influences on Music Improvisation Using Visual Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    This case study employed multimodal methods and visual analysis to explore how a young multilingual student used music improvisation to form a speech rap. This student, recently arrived in Australia from Ethiopia, created piano music that was central to his music identity and that simultaneously, through dialogue with his mother, enhanced his…

  17. Influences on Career Choice among Music Education Audition Candidates: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickels, David A.; Councill, Kimberly H.; Fredrickson, William E.; Hairston, Michelle J.; Porter, Ann M.; Schmidt, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to survey prospective undergraduate music education majors to learn what motivated them to aspire to a career in music education. Respondents were candidates auditioning, but not yet accepted, for music teacher preparation programs at four institutions (N = 228). Findings corroborate prior research that suggests…

  18. Silent Illumination: A Study on Chan (Zen) Meditation, Anxiety, and Musical Performance Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Peter; Chang, Joanne; Zemon, Vance; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Chan (Zen) meditation on musical performance anxiety and musical performance quality. Nineteen participants were recruited from music conservatories and randomly assigned to either an eight-week meditation group or a wait-list control group. After the intervention, all participants performed in a public…

  19. A Comparative Case Study of Music Interactions between Mothers and Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrn, Michelle D.; Hourigan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the music interactions between mothers and young infants. Research questions included: (1) What type of musical interactions took place in the mother/infant relationship? and (2) What importance did mothers place on musical interactions within the family structure? Data included interviews, observations,…

  20. High School Music Programmes as Potential Sites for Communities of Practice--A Canadian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Countryman, June

    2009-01-01

    My exploration of the nature of the high school music experience was undertaken with 33 young adults who had graduated from high school one to six years previous to the data collection. All of these participants had been involved in their school music programmes and 30 had not continued formal music study following graduation. One might predict…

  1. School-University Partnerships: A Means for the Inclusion of Policy Studies in Music Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    The need for music educators to become more actively involved in policy issues, including analysis, design, implementation, and research, is critical to the future of music education. Bridging the gap between policy and practice requires a collaborative effort among music professionals. This article explores the inclusive use of policy studies in…

  2. A Comparative Study of Music Education in Shanghai and Taipei: Westernization and Nationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wai-Chung, Ho

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the music taught and its associated cultural values in Shanghai and Taipei primary and secondary schools. Both owe their cultural ascendancy to traditional Chinese music and western musicology. How do the music education systems of these two Chinese communities reflect their respective public cultures and political ideologies?…

  3. A Study of the Effectiveness of Music Appreciation TV Programs for Young Children in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi-Yin Bonnie

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary report of a small-scale research examining the effectiveness of a series of Music Appreciation segments of "Pre-school: Learn to Fly"--a locally designed and produced early childhood TV program in Hong Kong. Four aspects of young children's musical development were studied: 1) musical exposure; 2) attention span;…

  4. Moving with music for stroke rehabilitation: a sonification feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Daniel S; Rhode, Sönke; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-03-01

    Gross-motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficacious and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present a novel musical sonification therapy especially designed to retrain gross-motor functions. Four stroke patients were included in a clinical pre-post feasibility study and were trained with our sonification training. Patients' upper-extremity functions and their psychological states were assessed before and after training. The four patients were subdivided into two groups, with both groups receiving 9 days of musical sonification therapy (music group, MG) or a sham sonification training (control group, CG). The only difference between these training protocols was that, in the CG, no sound was played back. During the training the patients initially explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements, and at the end of the training the patients played simple melodies by moving their arms. The two patients in the MG improved in nearly all motor function tests after the training. They also reported in the stroke impact scale, which assesses well-being, memory, thinking, and social participation, to be less impaired by the stroke. The two patients in the CG did benefit less from the movement training. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for impairments after stroke. PMID:25773619

  5. Moving with music for stroke rehabilitation: a sonification feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Daniel S; Rhode, Sönke; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-03-01

    Gross-motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficacious and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present a novel musical sonification therapy especially designed to retrain gross-motor functions. Four stroke patients were included in a clinical pre-post feasibility study and were trained with our sonification training. Patients' upper-extremity functions and their psychological states were assessed before and after training. The four patients were subdivided into two groups, with both groups receiving 9 days of musical sonification therapy (music group, MG) or a sham sonification training (control group, CG). The only difference between these training protocols was that, in the CG, no sound was played back. During the training the patients initially explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements, and at the end of the training the patients played simple melodies by moving their arms. The two patients in the MG improved in nearly all motor function tests after the training. They also reported in the stroke impact scale, which assesses well-being, memory, thinking, and social participation, to be less impaired by the stroke. The two patients in the CG did benefit less from the movement training. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for impairments after stroke.

  6. Learning How to Be a Research-Minded Teacher: Four Instrumental Music Education Students Investigate Good Music Teaching through Case Study Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindberg, Laura K.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence, both in general education and music education, points to the significance of inquiry as a part of teacher preparation. The purpose of this case study was to investigate the ways in which an introductory research project would help preservice music educators understand good "music teaching" and to discover the extent…

  7. Music to Their Ears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McParland, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Music can be a powerful force in the language arts classroom and an important vehicle for teachers who want to lead students into literature. The paper discusses the power of popular music to first attract students, notes how to use other musical genres, describes guided listening, and explains important parallels between poetry and song. (SM)

  8. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  9. Pop Music's Middle Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Surveys important music styles that preceded the emergence of rock and roll in the 1950s. Included are swing, bebop, rhythm and blues, country-western, gospel, and urban folk music. Lists of selected readings and recordings are appended. Part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  10. Musical Futures in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanneret, Neryl

    2010-01-01

    Musical Futures is a music learning program that was established in the United Kingdom in 2003. It aims to make secondary classroom music more relevant to young people through engaging them in the informal learning practices of real world musicians, recognising that the way in which popular musicians learn is quite different from the pedagogy of…

  11. Music perception.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Diana

    2007-05-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between music perception as it is studied in the laboratory and as it occurs in the real world. We first examine general principles by which listeners group musical tones into perceptual configurations, and how these principles are implemented in music composition and performance. We then show that, for certain types of configuration, the music as it is perceived can differ substantially from the music that is notated in the score, or as might be imagined from reading the score. Furthermore, there are striking differences between listeners in the perception of certain musical passages. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. The influence of music on mood and performance while driving.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben L J M; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2012-01-01

    Mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a popular activity. However, little is known about the impact of music listening while driving on physiological state and driving performance. In the present experiment, it was investigated whether individually selected music can induce mood and maintain moods during a simulated drive. In addition, effects of positive, negative, and no music on driving behaviour and physiological measures were assessed for normal and high cognitive demanding rides. Subjective mood ratings indicated that music successfully maintained mood while driving. Narrow lane width drives increased task demand as shown in effort ratings and increased swerving. Furthermore, respiration rate was lower during music listening compared to rides without music, while no effects of music were found on heart rate. Overall, the current study demonstrates that music listening in car influences the experienced mood while driving, which in turn can impact driving behaviour. PRACTITIONERS SUMMARY: Even though it is a popular activity, little is known about the impact of music while driving on physiological state and performance. We examined whether music can induce moods during high and low simulated drives. The current study demonstrates that in car music listening influences mood which in turn can impact driving behaviour. The current study shows that listening to music can positively impact mood while driving, which can be used to affect state and safe behaviour. Additionally, driving performance in high demand situations is not negatively affected by music.

  13. Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing 14 subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music + noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish stimulus-evoked hemodynamics, the difference between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response for a given stimulus was used. The right-hemispheric lateralization in music processing was about 75% (instead of continuous music, only music segments were heard). If the stimuli were only noises, the lateralization was about 65%. But, if the music was mixed with noises, the right-hemispheric lateralization has increased. Particularly, if the noise was a little bit lower than the music (i.e., music level 10~15%, noise level 10%), the entire subjects showed the right-hemispheric lateralization: This is due to the subjects' effort to hear the music in the presence of noises. However, too much noise has reduced the subjects' discerning efforts. PMID:25538583

  14. Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing 14 subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music + noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish stimulus-evoked hemodynamics, the difference between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response for a given stimulus was used. The right-hemispheric lateralization in music processing was about 75% (instead of continuous music, only music segments were heard). If the stimuli were only noises, the lateralization was about 65%. But, if the music was mixed with noises, the right-hemispheric lateralization has increased. Particularly, if the noise was a little bit lower than the music (i.e., music level 10~15%, noise level 10%), the entire subjects showed the right-hemispheric lateralization: This is due to the subjects' effort to hear the music in the presence of noises. However, too much noise has reduced the subjects' discerning efforts.

  15. Lateralization of music processing with noises in the auditory cortex: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Hendrik; Hong, Melissa Jiyoun; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2014-01-01

    The present study is to determine the effects of background noise on the hemispheric lateralization in music processing by exposing 14 subjects to four different auditory environments: music segments only, noise segments only, music + noise segments, and the entire music interfered by noise segments. The hemodynamic responses in both hemispheres caused by the perception of music in 10 different conditions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. As a feature to distinguish stimulus-evoked hemodynamics, the difference between the mean and the minimum value of the hemodynamic response for a given stimulus was used. The right-hemispheric lateralization in music processing was about 75% (instead of continuous music, only music segments were heard). If the stimuli were only noises, the lateralization was about 65%. But, if the music was mixed with noises, the right-hemispheric lateralization has increased. Particularly, if the noise was a little bit lower than the music (i.e., music level 10~15%, noise level 10%), the entire subjects showed the right-hemispheric lateralization: This is due to the subjects' effort to hear the music in the presence of noises. However, too much noise has reduced the subjects' discerning efforts. PMID:25538583

  16. Music-Based Training for Pediatric CI Recipients: A Systematic Analysis of Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of music-based training to enhance speech and language development in children with normal hearing and some forms of communication disorders, including pediatric CI users. The use of music training for CI users may initially seem incongruous given that signal processing for CIs presents a degraded version of pitch and timbre, both key elements in music. Furthermore, empirical data of systematic studies of music training, particularly in relation to transfer to speech skills are limited. This study describes the rationale for music training of CI users, describes key features of published studies of music training with CI users, and highlights some developmental and logistical issues that should be taken into account when interpreting or planning studies of music training and speech outcomes with pediatric CI recipients. PMID:27246744

  17. Music-based training for pediatric CI recipients: A systematic analysis of published studies.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, K

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of music-based training to enhance speech and language development in children with normal hearing and some forms of communication disorders, including pediatric CI users. The use of music training for CI users may initially seem incongruous given that signal processing for CIs presents a degraded version of pitch and timbre, both key elements in music. Furthermore, empirical data of systematic studies of music training, particularly in relation to transfer to speech skills are limited. This study describes the rationale for music training of CI users, describes key features of published studies of music training with CI users, and highlights some developmental and logistical issues that should be taken into account when interpreting or planning studies of music training and speech outcomes with pediatric CI recipients. PMID:27246744

  18. The Role Of Women In Popular Education In Bolivia: A Case Study Of The "Oficina Juridica Para La Mujer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollins, Judith M.; Hansman, Catherine A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the Education Office of the "Oficina Juridica Para la Mujer" [Women's Legal Office] , a community-based popular education organization in Cochabamba, Bolivia, works with women to address personal, legal, and policy issues through local leadership training and popular education methodology. We investigate the marginalization…

  19. Attitudes of Select Music Performance Faculty toward Students Teaching Private Lessons after Graduation: A USA Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, William E.; Moore, Christopher; Gavin, Russell

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to pilot test an adjusted version of a questionnaire, used in earlier studies with college music students, to determine opinions of college music faculty on the topic of private lesson teaching. Full-time tenure-track college music faculty, with primary appointments in applied music at two universities in the United…

  20. A Unit of Study on the Music of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Alicia K.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a unit for elementary students that focuses on the music of the ancient culture of China during the Tang dynasty. Provides background information on Chinese society, music in ancient China, the relationship between music and poetry and other related arts. Offers two lesson plans with accompanying music and a list of resources. (CMK)

  1. A longitudinal study on children's music training experience and academic development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning. PMID:25068398

  2. A longitudinal study on children's music training experience and academic development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-07-28

    This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning.

  3. Prevention of adolescents' music-induced hearing loss due to discotheque attendance: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, I; Brug, J; Van der Ploeg, C P B; Raat, H

    2009-12-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular leisure activities of young people. Only a few minutes exposure to the sound levels played in discotheques can cause permanent hearing loss. Since little is known about what constitutes effective prevention strategies, we explored the opinions and ideas of 30 experts in a qualitative study consisting of a three-round web-based Delphi study. The main parties involved in the prevention of music-induced hearing loss due to discotheque attendance are as follows: the adolescents themselves, followed by the government, discotheque owners, decorators of discotheques and disk jockeys (DJs). None of the identified protective behaviors of adolescents was considered to be feasible. Five environmental interventions were identified as being both relevant and feasible; of these, the most important were that loudspeakers must be placed further away from the visitors and that discotheques have attractive, low-volume and clearly indicated 'chill-out rooms'. Effective prevention strategies to avoid music-induced hearing loss among adolescents due to discotheque attendance need to be taken primarily by discotheque owners and disk jockeys.

  4. Empathy manipulation impacts music-induced emotions: a psychophysiological study on opera.

    PubMed

    Miu, Andrei C; Balteş, Felicia Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntarily empathizing with a musical performer (i.e., cognitive empathy) on music-induced emotions and their underlying physiological activity. N = 56 participants watched video-clips of two operatic compositions performed in concerts, with low or high empathy instructions. Heart rate and heart rate variability, skin conductance level (SCL), and respiration rate (RR) were measured during music listening, and music-induced emotions were quantified using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale immediately after music listening. Listening to the aria with sad content in a high empathy condition facilitated the emotion of nostalgia and decreased SCL, in comparison to the low empathy condition. Listening to the song with happy content in a high empathy condition also facilitated the emotion of power and increased RR, in comparison to the low empathy condition. To our knowledge, this study offers the first experimental evidence that cognitive empathy influences emotion psychophysiology during music listening.

  5. Empathy Manipulation Impacts Music-Induced Emotions: A Psychophysiological Study on Opera

    PubMed Central

    Miu, Andrei C.; Balteş, Felicia Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of voluntarily empathizing with a musical performer (i.e., cognitive empathy) on music-induced emotions and their underlying physiological activity. N = 56 participants watched video-clips of two operatic compositions performed in concerts, with low or high empathy instructions. Heart rate and heart rate variability, skin conductance level (SCL), and respiration rate (RR) were measured during music listening, and music-induced emotions were quantified using the Geneva Emotional Music Scale immediately after music listening. Listening to the aria with sad content in a high empathy condition facilitated the emotion of nostalgia and decreased SCL, in comparison to the low empathy condition. Listening to the song with happy content in a high empathy condition also facilitated the emotion of power and increased RR, in comparison to the low empathy condition. To our knowledge, this study offers the first experimental evidence that cognitive empathy influences emotion psychophysiology during music listening. PMID:22292000

  6. The Changing Social Structure of Music in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, O. P.

    1982-01-01

    Recent contact with harmonic and popular music has radically changed traditional forms of Indian music. The impact of Western music on classical styles, the social role of folk and popular music, and aspects of the social structure of music are discussed. (AM)

  7. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning. PMID:26254996

  8. Conveying the concept of movement in music: An event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linshu; Jiang, Cunmei; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yufang

    2015-10-01

    This study on event-related brain potential investigated whether music can convey the concept of movement. Using a semantic priming paradigm, natural musical excerpts were presented to non-musicians, followed by semantically congruent or incongruent pictures that depicted objects either in motion or at rest. The priming effects were tested in object decision and implicit recognition tasks to distinguish the effects of automatic conceptual activation from response competition. Results showed that in both tasks, pictures that were incongruent to preceding musical excerpts elicited larger N400 than congruent pictures, suggesting that music can prime the representations of movement concepts. Results of the multiple regression analysis showed that movement expression could be well predicted by specific acoustic and musical features, indicating the associations between music per se and the processing of iconic musical meaning.

  9. Discrimination of stress in speech and music: a mismatch negativity (MMN) study.

    PubMed

    Peter, Varghese; McArthur, Genevieve; Thompson, William Forde

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if duration-related stress in speech and music is processed in a similar way in the brain. To this end, we tested 20 adults for their abstract mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials to two duration-related stress patterns: stress on the first syllable or note (long-short), and stress on the second syllable or note (short-long). A significant MMN was elicited for both speech and music except for the short-long speech stimulus. The long-short stimuli elicited larger MMN amplitudes for speech and music compared to short-long stimuli. An extra negativity-the late discriminative negativity (LDN)-was observed only for music. The larger MMN amplitude for long-short stimuli might be due to the familiarity of the stress pattern in speech and music. The presence of LDN for music may reflect greater long-term memory transfer for music stimuli.

  10. Whose Music? Music Education and Cultural Issues: Debates about What Music to Study Can Raise Questions Related to the Very Purpose of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Any music teacher who has planned a holiday concert knows about the politics underlying the selection of appropriate music. Some students do not sing carols or cite lyrics that refer to fictional characters such as elves, goblins, or Harry Potter. Still others do not sing the national anthem. To these students or their parents, such songs…

  11. An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: listener, music, and situation.

    PubMed

    Juslin, Patrik N; Liljeström, Simon; Västfjäll, Daniel; Barradas, Gonçalo; Silva, Ana

    2008-10-01

    The Experience Sampling Method was used to explore emotions to music as they naturally occurred in everyday life, with a focus on the prevalence of different musical emotions and how such emotions are related to various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. Thirty-two college students, 20 to 31 years old, carried a palmtop that emitted a sound signal seven times per day at random intervals for 2 weeks. When signaled, participants were required to complete a questionnaire on the palmtop. Results showed that music occurred in 37% of the episodes, and in 64% of the music episodes, the participants reported that the music affected how they felt. Comparisons showed that happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more frequent in episodes with musical emotions, whereas anger-irritation, boredom-indifference, and anxiety-fear were more frequent in episodes with nonmusical emotions. The prevalence of specific musical emotions correlated with personality measures and also varied depending on the situation (e.g., current activity, other people present), thus highlighting the need to use representative samples of situations to obtain valid estimates of prevalence. PMID:18837617

  12. Music Teachers--in Training and at Work: A Longitudinal Study of Music Teachers in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladh, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author makes a short presentation of an ongoing longitudinal research project in Sweden. However, he wants to focus on the theoretical perspective he has found fruitful for his understanding of music teachers' professional socialisation, and on the question whether the music teacher must also be a musician in order to possess…

  13. Cultural and Educational Dimensions Reflected in Books Popularizing Scientific Knowledge--A Case Study: "The Sky", a 19th Century Book Popularizing Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkia, Krystallia; Botouropoulou, Iphigenia

    2005-01-01

    The present work is concerned with one of the most successful books popularizing astronomy of the last half of the 19th century, published in France under the title "L' Astronomie Populaire". The book was translated into Greek and was the first book, out of 100, which was published in order to be a part of a popular library meant to educate the…

  14. Opening the Doors to Diverse Traditions of Music Making: Multicultural Music Education at the University Level--By Studying Music from Other Cultures, a Group of Music Education Students Gained Ideas for Introducing Multicultural Music to Their Own Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that there are two realities in music education: (1) Lack of multicultural perspectives in U.S. teacher training institutions; and (2) Heavy concentration on the Western classical music tradition. She also states that many music students are being trained in vacuum, resulting in music educators seemingly not…

  15. An Analysis of the Academic Achievement of the Students Who Listen to Music While Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umzdas, Serpil

    2015-01-01

    This study's aim is to examine the correlation between the study type, the type and quality of the music students listen to while studying as well as their educational level. The participants of the study are 481 students on a scale of different ages listening to music while studying. The data of the study were collected through a survey…

  16. Study on Brain Dynamics by Non Linear Analysis of Music Induced EEG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Archi; Sanyal, Shankha; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Guhathakurta, Tarit; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak; Ghose, Partha

    2016-02-01

    Music has been proven to be a valuable tool for the understanding of human cognition, human emotion, and their underlying brain mechanisms. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of Hindustani music on brain activity during normal relaxing conditions using electroencephalography (EEG). Ten male healthy subjects without special musical education participated in the study. EEG signals were acquired at the frontal (F3/F4) lobes of the brain while listening to music at three experimental conditions (rest, with music and without music). Frequency analysis was done for the alpha, theta and gamma brain rhythms. The finding shows that arousal based activities were enhanced while listening to Hindustani music of contrasting emotions (romantic/sorrow) for all the subjects in case of alpha frequency bands while no significant changes were observed in gamma and theta frequency ranges. It has been observed that when the music stimulus is removed, arousal activities as evident from alpha brain rhythms remain for some time, showing residual arousal. This is analogous to the conventional 'Hysteresis' loop where the system retains some 'memory' of the former state. This is corroborated in the non linear analysis (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) of the alpha rhythms as manifested in values of fractal dimension. After an input of music conveying contrast emotions, withdrawal of music shows more retention as evidenced by the values of fractal dimension.

  17. Star Power and the Schools: Studying Popular Films' Portrayal of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, W. Reed; Peltier, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    Popular film impacts the work of educators and education in a variety of ways. In this article, the authors examine popular films' portrayals of education and K-12 schooling and higher education instructors from a variety of perspectives. The authors also investigate how education provides a platform for the examination of contemporary cultural…

  18. Discovering the Unequal Interest in Popular Online Educational Games and Its Implications: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Meilan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing scholarly interest in educational computer games, research on popular online educational games is rare. Little is known about which online educational games are popular and to what extent, what kind of users are more interested in these games and how interest in the games is related to academic performance. To fill this gap,…

  19. Teaching for Social Change--Mission "Possible"? Cultural Studies Approaches to Teaching Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Marlia

    It is an open question whether popular culture courses are effective sites in which to instill the kinds of critical media literacies that might contribute to students acting in support of social justice in their everyday lives. A course called "The Uses of Popular Culture" focuses on contemporary multicultural American society to understand the…

  20. A descriptive study of Myers-Briggs personality types of professional music educators and music therapists with comparisons to undergraduate majors.

    PubMed

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine personality types and demographic characteristics of professional music educators and music therapists. The researchers also sought to determine if personality types of professionals were consistent with undergraduate majors in those fields and personal characteristics as suggested by The Music Education National Conference (MENC) and the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). The research of Steele and Young (2008) found strong similarities and some differences between undergraduate music education and music therapy students. The possibility that basic types extend across the life span may strengthen understanding of job satisfaction, stress, burn out and other factors affecting retention. Participants were a voluntary convenience sample of 253 music educators (n=110) and music therapists (n=143). The highest preference for music educators was Extrovert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (ENFJ) and the highest preference for music therapists was Introvert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (INFJ). The difference in the collective type of each group was their "outlook on life", which was either Extrovert or Introvert. However, both groups were the same in their secondary type functions of "NFJ". A comparison of findings with the Steele and Young (2008) study suggested small changes in personality type over time. Caution must be exercised in generalizing findings; however this descriptive investigation may serve as the basis for future studies, which should help foster a stable work force in these professions. PMID:21866713

  1. A descriptive study of Myers-Briggs personality types of professional music educators and music therapists with comparisons to undergraduate majors.

    PubMed

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine personality types and demographic characteristics of professional music educators and music therapists. The researchers also sought to determine if personality types of professionals were consistent with undergraduate majors in those fields and personal characteristics as suggested by The Music Education National Conference (MENC) and the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). The research of Steele and Young (2008) found strong similarities and some differences between undergraduate music education and music therapy students. The possibility that basic types extend across the life span may strengthen understanding of job satisfaction, stress, burn out and other factors affecting retention. Participants were a voluntary convenience sample of 253 music educators (n=110) and music therapists (n=143). The highest preference for music educators was Extrovert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (ENFJ) and the highest preference for music therapists was Introvert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (INFJ). The difference in the collective type of each group was their "outlook on life", which was either Extrovert or Introvert. However, both groups were the same in their secondary type functions of "NFJ". A comparison of findings with the Steele and Young (2008) study suggested small changes in personality type over time. Caution must be exercised in generalizing findings; however this descriptive investigation may serve as the basis for future studies, which should help foster a stable work force in these professions.

  2. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  3. Music, memory and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  4. Music-Games: A Case Study of Their Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Gianna G.; Paisley, Anna M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Music-games present a highly pervasive new platform to create, perform, appreciate and transmit music through peer and online communities (e.g., Peppler, Downton, Lindsay, & Hay, 2011). While learners are increasingly engaged with such digital music participation outside the classroom, evidence indicates learners are increasingly disengaged…

  5. The Music Curriculum as Lived Experience: Children's "Natural" Music-Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucy

    2005-01-01

    Music educators in many countries have attempted to close the gap between two musical worlds: that of pupils' musical culture outside school and that of the classroom. However, while the former musical world, represented by various popular musics, now makes up a major part of curriculum content, the informal learning practices of the musicians who…

  6. Style in Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  7. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.

  8. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock. PMID:26966963

  9. [Music therapy and "brain music": state of the art, problems and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Radchenko, G S

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on the problem of interaction between music and the brain is reviewed and summarized. Mechanisms and effects of two most popular music therapy applications are picked out, including music listening and music making. Special attention is paid to relatively new line of investigations that is called "music of the brain" and deals with transformation of bioelectric processes of human organism into music. Unresolved questions of music therapy are identified and some promising lines of future investigations are delineated.

  10. [Music therapy and "brain music": state of the art, problems and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Fedotchev, A I; Radchenko, G S

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on the problem of interaction between music and the brain is reviewed and summarized. Mechanisms and effects of two most popular music therapy applications are picked out, including music listening and music making. Special attention is paid to relatively new line of investigations that is called "music of the brain" and deals with transformation of bioelectric processes of human organism into music. Unresolved questions of music therapy are identified and some promising lines of future investigations are delineated. PMID:25438561

  11. [Music therapy and "brain music": state of the art, problems and perspectives].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature on the problem of interaction between music and the brain is reviewed and summarized. Mechanisms and effects of two most popular music therapy applications are picked out, including music listening and music making. Special attention is paid to relatively new line of investigations that is called "music of the brain" and deals with transformation of bioelectric processes of human organism into music. Unresolved questions of music therapy are identified and some promising lines of future investigations are delineated. PMID:25508092

  12. [Functional changes in the central nervous system during music perception (study of positive emotions)].

    PubMed

    Zakharova, N N; Avdeev, V M

    1982-01-01

    Music as a factor of creating a certain emotional state, may be used for studying neurophysiological bases of human positive emotions. Investigations of conservatory students and people without special musical education have shown that music exerts complex influences on the CNS, manifested in changes of a number of neurophysiological reactions attesting changes in the flow of excitations in the cortico-thalamic and cortico-limbic circles. Listening to music is accompanied with a partial replacement of the dominating alpha-rhythm by activity in the frequency range of beta-, theta- and delta-waves and with a change of some vegetative reactions. It was possible to define some qualitative differences in the action of music on the CNS depending on the interpretation of the composition as well as the presence or absence of musical education of the listeners.

  13. Eye Movements and Reading Comprehension While Listening to Preferred and Non-Preferred Study Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Roger; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Mossberg, Frans; Lindgren, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    In the present study 24 university students read four different texts in four conditions: (1) while listening to music they preferred to listen to while studying; (2) while listening to music they did not prefer to listen to while studying; (3) while listening to a recording of noise from a cafe; and finally (4) in silence. After each text they…

  14. Popularity Contagion among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…

  15. A Dissonant Duet: Discussions of Music Making and Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rhoda

    2004-01-01

    The literature in the field of music teacher education describes a tension between the music making and the music teaching in the professional lives of music educators. Yet how do music educators themselves think about their work? This study is an investigation of how six elementary general music teachers who are also performers speak about their…

  16. Audiovisual interactions in music reading. A reaction times and event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Schön, Daniele; Besson, Mireille

    2003-11-01

    The general aim of this experiment was to investigate the processes involved in reading musical notation and to study the relationship between written music and its auditory representation. Our main interest was to determine if musicians can develop expectancies for plausible or implausible auditory events on the sole basis of the visual score. Results showed that musicians can clearly expect auditory endings on the basis of visual information. These findings enliven the discussion on the question of whether music reading is actually music perception.

  17. Formal Music Education Not Only Enhances Musical Skills, but Also Conceptions of Teaching and Learning: A Study with Woodwind Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Cristina; Scheuer, Nora; Pérez-Echeverría, María-Puy

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies conceptions of woodwind students regarding learning and teaching music, within the framework of implicit theories. It analyzes whether there are differences related to participants' instruction level, and whether it is possible to identify profiles according to their conceptions. Sixty-eight students from three different…

  18. Is Music "Colorful"? A Study of the Effects of Age and Musical Literacy on Children's Notational Color Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkoshi, Rivka

    2004-01-01

    This eight-year study represents a pioneering effort to investigate color expression in children's graphic notations at two stages of development: "Pre-literate" (age: 7.0-8.5), before students received school music instruction, and "Post-literate" (age: 14.0-15.5), three years after students acquired Standard Notation in school, and to consider…

  19. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  20. Gaining Insight into Cultural Geography through the Study of Musical Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Alexander K.

    2010-01-01

    At present, the need for an understanding of both physical and cultural geography is increasingly urgent in America's schools. The present study explores using music as focus for the exploration of geography. Not only is music strongly linked to culture and environment but also its study provides an experiential understanding of a given culture in…

  1. A Qualitative Study of Undergraduate Instrumentalists Teaching Elementary General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield-Adams, Maggie Beth

    2012-01-01

    The central purpose of this multiple-case study was to describe the professional identities of six general music teachers who identified as instrumentalists as undergraduates. The study builds upon research addressing why students choose music education (Bergee, et al., 2001; Bright, 2006; Gillespie & Hamann, 1999; Lee, 2003; Madsen &…

  2. Linking Different Cultures by Computers: A Study of Computer-Assisted Music Notation Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Steve Shihong; Dennis, J. Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the feasibility of using computers to teach music notation systems to Chinese students, as well as to help Western educators study Chinese music and its number notation system. Topics discussed include students' learning sequences; HyperCard software; hypermedia and graphic hypertext indexing; and the…

  3. Questioning Assumptions. Vivienne: A Case Study of e-Learning in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the capacity of e-learning to deliver positive outcomes in Music education to pre-service teachers, through the experience of Vivienne, a geographically distant, pre-service teacher studying a four year Bachelor of Education degree. The widely reported characteristics of pre-service teachers studying Music education within…

  4. Listen to the Fans: Elementary School Teachers Can Pique Students' Interest in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deVries, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines how fandom for popular music can he used to enhance students' music experiences in and out of the classroom. Examples are given from the author's own teaching in elementary school and from an ongoing study he has been conducting with preservice teachers undertaking teaching practicum experiences in schools where there is a…

  5. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients. PMID:24339807

  6. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer's patients.

  7. Music improves verbal memory encoding while decreasing prefrontal cortex activity: an fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreri, Laura; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien; Muthalib, Makii; Bigand, Emmanuel; Bugaiska, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    Listening to music engages the whole brain, thus stimulating cognitive performance in a range of non-purely musical activities such as language and memory tasks. This article addresses an ongoing debate on the link between music and memory for words. While evidence on healthy and clinical populations suggests that music listening can improve verbal memory in a variety of situations, it is still unclear what specific memory process is affected and how. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that music specifically benefits the encoding part of verbal memory tasks, by providing a richer context for encoding and therefore less demand on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-two healthy young adults were subjected to functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging of their bilateral DLPFC while encoding words in the presence of either a music or a silent background. Behavioral data confirmed the facilitating effect of music background during encoding on subsequent item recognition. fNIRS results revealed significantly greater activation of the left hemisphere during encoding (in line with the HERA model of memory lateralization) and a sustained, bilateral decrease of activity in the DLPFC in the music condition compared to silence. These findings suggest that music modulates the role played by the DLPFC during verbal encoding, and open perspectives for applications to clinical populations with prefrontal impairments, such as elderly adults or Alzheimer’s patients. PMID:24339807

  8. Learning Tunes: Pop Music in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, David Cooper

    2011-01-01

    Popular music can be a rich and engaging teaching tool. Children often intuitively gain complex layers of experiential meaning more readily from music than other forms of plot-driven media where their narrow focus on literal interpretation and plot recitation can bring thoughtful conversation to a halt. However, integrating popular music in the…

  9. Mentoring Music Educators in Gospel Music Pedagogy in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Patrice Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, gospel music has become increasingly popular in the United States. The popularity is making it appealing to perform in public schools. However, many choral and general music educators did not experience the tradition during their formative years and/or have not received training or background in its instruction. …

  10. A Use Study of the Card Catalogs in the University of Illinois Music Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drone, Jeanette M.

    1984-01-01

    A multifaceted card catalog use study was conducted at University of Illinois Music Library to determine hourly rate of use at sound recording and book/music catalogs; time spent at catalogs; who uses catalogs and why; difficulties users encounter; success rate of users' searches; recommendations for designing online catalog. (16 references)…

  11. Preservice Music Teacher Perceptions of Mentoring Young Composers: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Elizabeth A.; Rosen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Case study techniques were used to investigate perceptions of undergraduate music majors participating as teacher/mentors for elementary students in a university sponsored music composition program. Data included teacher interviews and observation of teacher training and composition mentoring sessions. Teacher perceptions were categorized as…

  12. The Responses of Preschoolers with Cochlear Implants to Musical Activities: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraer-Joiner, Lyn E.; Chen-Hafteck, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the musical experiences of preschool cochlear implant users. Research objectives were to examine: (1) musical, social and emotional responses to activities; and (2) whether length of experience with the implant influenced responses. Participants were three prelingually deafened children, age 4,…

  13. Local Music Collections: Strategies for Digital Access, Presentation, and Preservation--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doi, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Music Collection (SMC) is a local music collection held at the University of Saskatchewan. This case study examines a project to digitize and present this unique special collection in the online environment. The project aims to facilitate access to the collection, preserve the collection and promote scholarship and interest in the…

  14. Enhancing Literacy in the Second Grade: Five Related Studies Using the Register Music/Reading Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Cassidy, Jane W.; Flowers, Patricia J.; Register, Dena; Sims, Wendy; Standley, Jayne M.; Menard, Elizabeth; Swedberg, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of these five related studies was to ascertain the effects of a music curriculum designed to enhance reading skills of second-grade students. The dependent variables were subtest scores on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test administered pre and post the music/reading intervention. Results showed that the total test gain scores of…

  15. Successful Strategies of Individuals with Dyslexia in the Field of Music: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Kent Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many of the symptoms of dyslexia--such as difficulties with decoding written symbols, phonemic awareness, physical coordination, and readable handwriting--may adversely affect music learning. Despite challenges, some individuals with dyslexia succeed in music. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of five professional musicians…

  16. Music Composition in the High School Curriculum: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Student and teacher perceptions regarding composition instruction were investigated using case study techniques in two high school music programs: a general music program providing accelerated instruction to gifted musicians in small classes and a typical performance-based band program. Students in both programs participated in a composition…

  17. Emerging Musicality during the Pre-School Years: A Case Study of One Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of communication in early infancy and childhood have highlighted the significance of rhythm, sound and music for emotional and social development. There is, however, little detailed empirical data on the emergence of naturalistic music-related behaviour by children in the early years. The aim of this work is to examine instances of…

  18. Music Performance Teachers' Conceptions about Learning and Instruction: A Descriptive Study of Spanish Piano Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Alfredo; Echeverria, Ma Del Puy Perez; Pozo, J. Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    There has been little research into the conceptions music performance teachers have about learning and instruction, by either psychological or educational researchers. The main aim of this study was to describe the conceptions of 45 Spanish piano teachers from music conservatories, by analysing their differences according to the variable "Years of…

  19. Student and Instructor Behaviors in Online Music Lessons: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document behaviors of applied music teachers and students, as they occurred in online lessons with instructional delivery facilitated through desktop videoconferencing. The author examined the use of desktop videoconferencing in the delivery of applied music instruction to six middle school-aged band students…

  20. Creativity in the Elementary Music Classroom: A Study of Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Andrea N.; Burke, Brigid M.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored essential elements to be considered when teaching US students to develop and define creativity in the general elementary (students aged 5-11 years) music classroom. This case study focused on answering the following research questions: 1) What are students' perceptions of creativity? 2) How can music educators…

  1. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca’s Area: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M.; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca’s area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca’s area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains—music and language—might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca’s area. PMID:26536026

  2. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area.

  3. Music and Language Syntax Interact in Broca's Area: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Richard; Willems, Roel M; Casasanto, Daniel; Patel, Aniruddh D; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental music and language are both syntactic systems, employing complex, hierarchically-structured sequences built using implicit structural norms. This organization allows listeners to understand the role of individual words or tones in the context of an unfolding sentence or melody. Previous studies suggest that the brain mechanisms of syntactic processing may be partly shared between music and language. However, functional neuroimaging evidence for anatomical overlap of brain activity involved in linguistic and musical syntactic processing has been lacking. In the present study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in conjunction with an interference paradigm based on sung sentences. We show that the processing demands of musical syntax (harmony) and language syntax interact in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus (without leading to music and language main effects). A language main effect in Broca's area only emerged in the complex music harmony condition, suggesting that (with our stimuli and tasks) a language effect only becomes visible under conditions of increased demands on shared neural resources. In contrast to previous studies, our design allows us to rule out that the observed neural interaction is due to: (1) general attention mechanisms, as a psychoacoustic auditory anomaly behaved unlike the harmonic manipulation, (2) error processing, as the language and the music stimuli contained no structural errors. The current results thus suggest that two different cognitive domains-music and language-might draw on the same high level syntactic integration resources in Broca's area. PMID:26536026

  4. "I Did It My Way!" A Case Study of Resistance to Coloniality in Music Learning and Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosabal-Coto, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss a case study of how a music teacher in a postcolonial context has addressed and resisted colonialist practices in education/socialization processes. The case study addresses preliminary findings from a broader ethnography on the social organization of music learning from the standpoint of music teachers. The ethnography…

  5. Associations between motor timing, music practice, and intelligence studied in a large sample of twins.

    PubMed

    Ullén, Fredrik; Mosing, Miriam A; Madison, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Music performance depends critically on precise processing of time. A common model behavior in studies of motor timing is isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), that is, hand/finger movements with a regular beat. ISIP accuracy is related to both music practice and intelligence. Here we present a study of these associations in a large twin cohort, demonstrating that the effects of music practice and intelligence on motor timing are additive, with no significant multiplicative (interaction) effect. Furthermore, the association between music practice and motor timing was analyzed with the use of a co-twin control design using intrapair differences. These analyses revealed that the phenotypic association disappeared when all genetic and common environmental factors were controlled. This suggests that the observed association may not reflect a causal effect of music practice on ISIP performance but rather reflect common influences (e.g., genetic effects) on both outcomes. The relevance of these findings for models of practice and expert performance is discussed.

  6. Teaching Health Literacy Using Popular Television Programming: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Brian A.; Wickett, Dustin J.; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Zickmund, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teaching of health and medical concepts in the K-12 curriculum may help improve health literacy. Purpose: The purpose of this project was to determine acceptability and preliminary efficacy of pilot implementation of a health literacy curriculum using brief clips from a popular television program. Methods: Participants included 55…

  7. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends.

  8. Feminist Popular Education in Transnational Debates: Building Pedagogies of Possibility. Comparative Feminist Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manicom, Linzi, Ed.; Walters, Shirley, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book is a collection of grounded accounts by feminist popular educators reflecting critically on processes of collective learning and self- and social transformation in various geopolitical settings. Engaging contemporary feminist political issues and theory, contributors explore emerging pedagogical practices. This book contains the…

  9. Dog Movie Stars and Dog Breed Popularity: A Case Study in Media Influence on Choice

    PubMed Central

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend—a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. PMID:25208271

  10. [Application of studies on popular words in the systematization of ancient medical books].

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Lai, W

    2000-07-01

    Based on the arrangement of Renho Temple edition of Taisu (Extremely Plain), as an example, it can be seen that by correcting the wrong popular words in ancient medical books, the causes of mistakes of ancient editions and solution for annotations of difficult terms of ancient words in the medical books are of significance.

  11. Dog movie stars and dog breed popularity: a case study in media influence on choice.

    PubMed

    Ghirlanda, Stefano; Acerbi, Alberto; Herzog, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Fashions and fads are important phenomena that influence many individual choices. They are ubiquitous in human societies, and have recently been used as a source of data to test models of cultural dynamics. Although a few statistical regularities have been observed in fashion cycles, their empirical characterization is still incomplete. Here we consider the impact of mass media on popular culture, showing that the release of movies featuring dogs is often associated with an increase in the popularity of featured breeds, for up to 10 years after movie release. We also find that a movie's impact on breed popularity correlates with the estimated number of viewers during the movie's opening weekend--a proxy of the movie's reach among the general public. Movies' influence on breed popularity was strongest in the early 20th century, and has declined since. We reach these conclusions through a new, widely applicable method to measure the cultural impact of events, capable of disentangling the event's effect from ongoing cultural trends. PMID:25208271

  12. Finding the Kool Mixx: how Brown & Williamson used music marketing to sell cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, Navid; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the history of Kool's music‐themed promotions and analyse the role that music played in the promotion of the brand. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, legal documents, and promotional materials. Results Brown & Williamson started Kool sponsorship of musical events in 1975 with Kool Jazz concerts. Music was considered to be an effective marketing tool because: (1) music helped consumers make emotional connections with the brand; (2) music concerts were effective for targeted marketing; (3) music tied together an integrated marketing campaign; and (4) music had potential to appeal widely to a young audience. Brown & Williamson's first music campaigns successfully targeted young African‐American male audiences. Subsequent campaigns were less effective, exploring different types of music to achieve a broader young adult appeal. Conclusions This case study suggests Brown & Williamson used music most successfully for targeted marketing, but they failed to develop a wider audience using music because their attempts lacked consistency with the Kool brand's established identity. The 2004 “Kool Mixx” campaign both returned to Brown & Williamson's historic practice targeting young African‐American males, and also exploited a musical genre with much more potential to bring Kool more universal appeal, as hip‐hop music is increasingly popular among diverse audiences. Tobacco control efforts led by African‐American community activists to oppose these marketing strategies should continue; expanding these coalitions to include the hip‐hop community may further increase their effectiveness. PMID:16998169

  13. Inclusive Pedagogies in Music Education: A Comparative Study of Music Teachers' Perspectives from Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnard, Pamela; Dillon, Steve; Rusinek, Gabriel; Saether, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the increasing importance of developing inclusive pedagogies in music education, this article offers diverse ways of promoting positive learning experiences and reaching learners who are most at risk of exclusion. The findings reported in this article arise out of a wider comparative research project investigating the pedagogies of…

  14. Variability in prefrontal hemodynamic response during exposure to repeated self-selected music excerpts, a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Saba; Schudlo, Larissa; Chau, Tom; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Music-induced brain activity modulations in areas involved in emotion regulation may be useful in achieving therapeutic outcomes. Clinical applications of music may involve prolonged or repeated exposures to music. However, the variability of the observed brain activity patterns in repeated exposures to music is not well understood. We hypothesized that multiple exposures to the same music would elicit more consistent activity patterns than exposure to different music. In this study, the temporal and spatial variability of cerebral prefrontal hemodynamic response was investigated across multiple exposures to self-selected musical excerpts in 10 healthy adults. The hemodynamic changes were measured using prefrontal cortex near infrared spectroscopy and represented by instantaneous phase values. Based on spatial and temporal characteristics of these observed hemodynamic changes, we defined a consistency index to represent variability across these domains. The consistency index across repeated exposures to the same piece of music was compared to the consistency index corresponding to prefrontal activity from randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts. Consistency indexes were significantly different for identical versus non-identical musical excerpts when comparing a subset of repetitions. When all four exposures were compared, no significant difference was observed between the consistency indexes of randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts and the consistency index corresponding to repetitions of the same musical excerpts. This observation suggests the existence of only partial consistency between repeated exposures to the same musical excerpt, which may stem from the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating other cognitive and emotional processes.

  15. Variability in Prefrontal Hemodynamic Response during Exposure to Repeated Self-Selected Music Excerpts, a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Moghimi, Saba; Schudlo, Larissa; Chau, Tom; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Music-induced brain activity modulations in areas involved in emotion regulation may be useful in achieving therapeutic outcomes. Clinical applications of music may involve prolonged or repeated exposures to music. However, the variability of the observed brain activity patterns in repeated exposures to music is not well understood. We hypothesized that multiple exposures to the same music would elicit more consistent activity patterns than exposure to different music. In this study, the temporal and spatial variability of cerebral prefrontal hemodynamic response was investigated across multiple exposures to self-selected musical excerpts in 10 healthy adults. The hemodynamic changes were measured using prefrontal cortex near infrared spectroscopy and represented by instantaneous phase values. Based on spatial and temporal characteristics of these observed hemodynamic changes, we defined a consistency index to represent variability across these domains. The consistency index across repeated exposures to the same piece of music was compared to the consistency index corresponding to prefrontal activity from randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts. Consistency indexes were significantly different for identical versus non-identical musical excerpts when comparing a subset of repetitions. When all four exposures were compared, no significant difference was observed between the consistency indexes of randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts and the consistency index corresponding to repetitions of the same musical excerpts. This observation suggests the existence of only partial consistency between repeated exposures to the same musical excerpt, which may stem from the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating other cognitive and emotional processes. PMID:25837268

  16. Variability in prefrontal hemodynamic response during exposure to repeated self-selected music excerpts, a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Saba; Schudlo, Larissa; Chau, Tom; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Music-induced brain activity modulations in areas involved in emotion regulation may be useful in achieving therapeutic outcomes. Clinical applications of music may involve prolonged or repeated exposures to music. However, the variability of the observed brain activity patterns in repeated exposures to music is not well understood. We hypothesized that multiple exposures to the same music would elicit more consistent activity patterns than exposure to different music. In this study, the temporal and spatial variability of cerebral prefrontal hemodynamic response was investigated across multiple exposures to self-selected musical excerpts in 10 healthy adults. The hemodynamic changes were measured using prefrontal cortex near infrared spectroscopy and represented by instantaneous phase values. Based on spatial and temporal characteristics of these observed hemodynamic changes, we defined a consistency index to represent variability across these domains. The consistency index across repeated exposures to the same piece of music was compared to the consistency index corresponding to prefrontal activity from randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts. Consistency indexes were significantly different for identical versus non-identical musical excerpts when comparing a subset of repetitions. When all four exposures were compared, no significant difference was observed between the consistency indexes of randomly matched non-identical musical excerpts and the consistency index corresponding to repetitions of the same musical excerpts. This observation suggests the existence of only partial consistency between repeated exposures to the same musical excerpt, which may stem from the role of the prefrontal cortex in regulating other cognitive and emotional processes. PMID:25837268

  17. Music Training and Working Memory: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Elyse M.; Coch, Donna

    2011-01-01

    While previous research has suggested that music training is associated with improvements in various cognitive and linguistic skills, the mechanisms mediating or underlying these associations are mostly unknown. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that previous music training is related to improved working memory. Using event-related potentials…

  18. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed. PMID:27774073

  19. Music therapy.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M; Chlan, L

    1999-01-01

    Nurses have used music as an intervention for many years. A sizeable number of investigations to determine the efficacy of music in managing pain, in decreasing anxiety and aggressive behaviors, and in improving performance and well-being have been conducted by nurses and other health professionals. Nursing and non-nursing research reports published between the years 1980-1997 were reviewed. Great variation existed in the type of musical selection used, the dose of the intervention (number of sessions and length exposure), the populations studied, and the methodologies used. Overall, music was found to be effective in producing positive outcomes.

  20. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study

    PubMed Central

    Woloszyn, Michael R.; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities. PMID:22956988

  1. Memory for facial expression is influenced by the background music playing during study.

    PubMed

    Woloszyn, Michael R; Ewert, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the emotional quality of study-phase background music on subsequent recall for happy and sad facial expressions was investigated. Undergraduates (N = 48) viewed a series of line drawings depicting a happy or sad child in a variety of environments that were each accompanied by happy or sad music. Although memory for faces was very accurate, emotionally incongruent background music biased subsequent memory for facial expressions, increasing the likelihood that happy faces were recalled as sad when sad music was previously heard, and that sad faces were recalled as happy when happy music was previously heard. Overall, the results indicated that when recalling a scene, the emotional tone is set by an integration of stimulus features from several modalities.

  2. The influence of background music on recognition processes of Chinese characters: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Huang, Yizhou; Wang, Zhongning; Wu, Guangning

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, we employed RSS (rapid stream stimulation) paradigm to study the recognition processes of Chinese characters in background music. Real Chinese characters (upright or rotated) were used as target stimuli, while pseudo-words were used as background stimuli. Subjects were required to detect real characters while listening to Mozart's Sonata K. 448 and in silence. Both behavioral results and ERP results supported that Mozart's music mainly served as a distracter in the recognition processes of real Chinese characters in the experiment. The modulation of Mozart's music on RP (recognition potential) was different across different orientations of Chinese characters; in particular, the modulation of RP elicited by upright Chinese characters was more significant, suggesting that the music factor and orientation factor interact to affect the RP component. In brief, the simultaneous playing of Mozart's music did not improve subjects' performance in the detection of real Chinese characters.

  3. A Comparative Study of Turkish Elementary and Science Education Major Students' Knowledge Levels at the Popular Biotechnological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Lutfullah; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of popular biotechnological issues of Turkish science and elementary teacher candidates. A questionnaire was administered during 2006-2007 school term to 336 students pursuing their education in the departments of science and elementary education in two Turkish universities. The…

  4. Same-Gender and Cross-Gender Likeability: Associations with Popularity and Status Enhancement--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of popularity, substance use, athletic abilities, physical attractiveness, and physical and relational aggression with likeability by same-gender and cross-gender peers among early adolescents (N = 3,312; M age = 13.60, with 92.7% of the participants in the 12-14 age range). Data collection consisted of peer…

  5. Hip Hop Therapy: An Exploratory Study of a Rap Music Intervention with At-Risk and Delinquent Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory study of the therapeutic potential of "Hip-Hop" therapy, an "innovative synergy of rap music, bibliotherapy, and music therapy." Finds that the quantitative and qualitative results partially supported the hypothesis that under a specific set of conditions rap music would improve the therapeutic experience and outcomes for…

  6. Music Preferences and Family Language Background: A Computer-Supported Study of Children's Listening Behavior in the Context of Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Turkish migrants are the largest national group in Germany. Nevertheless, neither in music psychology research nor in intercultural research can empirical data on the music preferences of Turkish-German primary schoolchildren in the migrational context be found. This study thus examined the music preference responses of children with Turkish…

  7. A Case Study Exploring the Use of GarageBand[TM] and an Electronic Bulletin Board in Preservice Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vratulis, Vetta; Morton, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research study is an exploration of the merit and shortcomings of using a combination of the music software GarageBand[TM] and an electronic bulletin board to facilitate musical and peer learning in a 3-month elementary music methods curriculum and instruction course. A pedagogical objective of this assignment was to increase the…

  8. Beyond the Cover Version: Encouraging Student Performers to Produce Original Interpretations of Popular Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana

    2006-01-01

    David Brackett's notion of musical codes, discussed in his book "Interpreting popular music" (2000), offers tertiary music students an opportunity to think about interpretation and performing, about what is conveyed through performing, and connections with extra-musical factors. This article discusses comments made by a class of tertiary music…

  9. Characterizing popularity dynamics of online videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Liao, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Online popularity has a major impact on videos, music, news and other contexts in online systems. Characterizing online popularity dynamics is nature to explain the observed properties in terms of the already acquired popularity of each individual. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the popularity dynamics in two online video-provided websites, namely MovieLens and Netflix. The two collected data sets contain over 100 million records and even span a decade. We characterize that the popularity dynamics of online videos evolve over time, and find that the dynamics of the online video popularity can be characterized by the burst behaviors, typically occurring in the early life span of a video, and later restricting to the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism.

  10. The genetics of music accomplishment: evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, David Z; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-02-01

    Theories of skilled performance that emphasize training history, such as K. Anders Ericsson and colleagues' deliberate-practice theory, have received a great deal of recent attention in both the scientific literature and the popular press. Twin studies, however, have demonstrated evidence for moderate-to-strong genetic influences on skilled performance. Focusing on musical accomplishment in a sample of over 800 pairs of twins, we found evidence for gene-environment correlation, in the form of a genetic effect on music practice. However, only about one quarter of the genetic effect on music accomplishment was explained by this genetic effect on music practice, suggesting that genetically influenced factors other than practice contribute to individual differences in music accomplishment. We also found evidence for gene-environment interaction, such that genetic effects on music accomplishment were most pronounced among those engaging in music practice, suggesting that genetic potentials for skilled performance are most fully expressed and fostered by practice.

  11. The genetics of music accomplishment: evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, David Z; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-02-01

    Theories of skilled performance that emphasize training history, such as K. Anders Ericsson and colleagues' deliberate-practice theory, have received a great deal of recent attention in both the scientific literature and the popular press. Twin studies, however, have demonstrated evidence for moderate-to-strong genetic influences on skilled performance. Focusing on musical accomplishment in a sample of over 800 pairs of twins, we found evidence for gene-environment correlation, in the form of a genetic effect on music practice. However, only about one quarter of the genetic effect on music accomplishment was explained by this genetic effect on music practice, suggesting that genetically influenced factors other than practice contribute to individual differences in music accomplishment. We also found evidence for gene-environment interaction, such that genetic effects on music accomplishment were most pronounced among those engaging in music practice, suggesting that genetic potentials for skilled performance are most fully expressed and fostered by practice. PMID:24957535

  12. Studying synchronization to a musical beat in nonhuman animals.

    PubMed

    Patel, Aniruddh D; Iversen, John R; Bregman, Micah R; Schulz, Irena

    2009-07-01

    The recent discovery of spontaneous synchronization to music in a nonhuman animal (the sulphur-crested cockatoo Cacatua galerita eleonora) raises several questions. How does this behavior differ from nonmusical synchronization abilities in other species, such as synchronized frog calls or firefly flashes? What significance does the behavior have for debates over the evolution of human music? What kinds of animals can synchronize to musical rhythms, and what are the key methodological issues for research in this area? This paper addresses these questions and proposes some refinements to the "vocal learning and rhythmic synchronization hypothesis." PMID:19673824

  13. The Nature of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Music, as language, is a universal human trait. Throughout human history and across all cultures, individuals have produced and enjoyed music. Despite its ubiquity, music is rarely studied as a basic and distinct cognitive faculty. However, recent evidence suggests that music might well be distinct from other cognitive functions, in being…

  14. A pilot study: the effects of music therapy interventions on middle school students' ESL skills.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Roy; Scott, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music therapy techniques on the story retelling and speaking skills of English as a Second Language (ESL) middle school students. Thirty-four middle school students of Hispanic heritage, ages 10-12, in high and low-functioning groups participated in the study for 12 weeks. Pretest to posttest data yielded significant differences on the story retelling skills between the experimental and control groups. Chi Square comparisons on English speaking skills also yielded significant results over 3 months of music therapy intervention. A variety of music therapy techniques were used including music and movement, active music listening, group chanting and singing, musical games, rhythmic training, music and sign language, and lyric analysis and rewrite activities as supplemental activities to the ESL goals and objectives. Comparisons of individual subjects' scores indicated that all of the students in the experimental groups scored higher than the control groups on story retelling skills (with the exception of 1 pair of identical scores), regardless of high and low functioning placement. Monthly comparisons of the high and low functioning experimental groups indicated significant improvements in English speaking skills as well.

  15. Music Performance As an Experimental Approach to Hyperscanning Studies

    PubMed Central

    Acquadro, Michaël A. S.; Congedo, Marco; De Riddeer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally social and tend to create emergent organizations when interacting with each other; from dyads to families, small groups, large groups, societies, and civilizations. The study of the neuronal substrate of human social behavior is currently gaining momentum in the young field of social neuroscience. Hyperscanning is a neuroimaging technique by which we can study two or more brains simultaneously while participants interact with each other. The aim of this article is to discuss several factors that we deem important in designing hyperscanning experiments. We first review hyperscanning studies performed by means of electroencephalography (EEG) that have been relying on a continuous interaction paradigm. Then, we provide arguments for favoring ecological paradigms, for studying the emotional component of social interactions and for performing longitudinal studies, the last two aspects being largely neglected so far in the hyperscanning literature despite their paramount importance in social sciences. Based on these premises, we argue that music performance is a suitable experimental setting for hyperscanning and that for such studies EEG is an appropriate choice as neuroimaging modality. PMID:27252641

  16. Music Performance As an Experimental Approach to Hyperscanning Studies.

    PubMed

    Acquadro, Michaël A S; Congedo, Marco; De Riddeer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally social and tend to create emergent organizations when interacting with each other; from dyads to families, small groups, large groups, societies, and civilizations. The study of the neuronal substrate of human social behavior is currently gaining momentum in the young field of social neuroscience. Hyperscanning is a neuroimaging technique by which we can study two or more brains simultaneously while participants interact with each other. The aim of this article is to discuss several factors that we deem important in designing hyperscanning experiments. We first review hyperscanning studies performed by means of electroencephalography (EEG) that have been relying on a continuous interaction paradigm. Then, we provide arguments for favoring ecological paradigms, for studying the emotional component of social interactions and for performing longitudinal studies, the last two aspects being largely neglected so far in the hyperscanning literature despite their paramount importance in social sciences. Based on these premises, we argue that music performance is a suitable experimental setting for hyperscanning and that for such studies EEG is an appropriate choice as neuroimaging modality.

  17. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings.

  18. Effects of harmonics on aesthetic judgments of music: an ERP study involving laypersons and experts.

    PubMed

    Jaśkiewicz, Marta; Francuz, Piotr; Zabielska-Mendyk, Emilia; Zapała, Dariusz; Augustynowicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test whether aesthetic judgments of music are affected by expertise or harmonic violation of musical sequences. The participants were 14 musical experts and 13 laypersons; they were asked to judge the beauty and correctness of extracts from J. S. Bach's chorales. Experts and laypersons showed different late positive potential (LPP) responses to the appraisal of correctness. LPP also proved to be sensitive to the extent to which the extracts violated harmonic expectations. The relationship between the early right anterior negativity potential (ERAN) and the harmonic correctness of chords was similar in laypersons and experts. PMID:27373951

  19. Discrimination of stress in speech and music: a mismatch negativity (MMN) study.

    PubMed

    Peter, Varghese; McArthur, Genevieve; Thompson, William Forde

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if duration-related stress in speech and music is processed in a similar way in the brain. To this end, we tested 20 adults for their abstract mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials to two duration-related stress patterns: stress on the first syllable or note (long-short), and stress on the second syllable or note (short-long). A significant MMN was elicited for both speech and music except for the short-long speech stimulus. The long-short stimuli elicited larger MMN amplitudes for speech and music compared to short-long stimuli. An extra negativity-the late discriminative negativity (LDN)-was observed only for music. The larger MMN amplitude for long-short stimuli might be due to the familiarity of the stress pattern in speech and music. The presence of LDN for music may reflect greater long-term memory transfer for music stimuli. PMID:23066846

  20. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners’ reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  1. Experiencing affective music in eyes-closed and eyes-open states: an electroencephalography study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Lee, You-Yun; Liang, Keng-Chen; Chen, I-Ping; Tsai, Chen-Gia; Hsieh, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    In real life, listening to music may be associated with an eyes-closed or eyes-open state. The effect of eye state on listeners' reaction to music has attracted some attention, but its influence on brain activity has not been fully investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the electroencephalographic (EEG) markers for the emotional valence of music in different eye states. Thirty participants listened to musical excerpts with different emotional content in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states. The results showed that participants rated the music as more pleasant or with more positive valence under an eyes-open state. In addition, we found that the alpha asymmetry indices calculated on the parietal and temporal sites reflected emotion valence in the eyes-closed and eyes-open states, respectively. The theta power in the frontal area significantly increased while listening to emotional-positive music compared to emotional-negative music under the eyes-closed condition. These effects of eye states on EEG markers are discussed in terms of brain mechanisms underlying attention and emotion. PMID:26300835

  2. From the Functions of Music to Music Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To date, not much is known about how the functions of music relate to music preference. This article examines the basic hypothesis that the strength of preference for a given kind of music depends on the degree to which that kind of music serves the needs of the listener; that is, how well the respective functions of music are fulfilled. Study 1,…

  3. The Prevalence and Nature of Imagined Music in the Everyday Lives of Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailes, Freya

    2007-01-01

    "Musical imagery" is the experience of imagining music in the "mind's ear". A study was conducted to explore the prevalence and nature of musical imagery for music students in everyday life, using experience-sampling methods (ESM). As a group, music students reported that imagining music was a very frequent form of musical experience. Participants…

  4. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  5. Study Identifies the Likeliest to Leave Music Teaching: Data from General Ed Survey Leads to Important Conclusions about Teacher Attrition and Migration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    Music teachers who are young, female, and of minority ethnicity are more likely to leave their school or leave the music education profession altogether, according to recent research conducted by Carl Hancock, assistant professor of music education at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. Hancock's study, "Music Teachers at Risk for Attrition and…

  6. Introduction to Music Theory and Aural Skills: A Study in Developing an Interactive Music Learning Environment for the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffa, John A.

    In the Fall of 1998, a World Wide Web course called "Introduction to Music Theory and Aural Skills" was published at Murray State University (Kentucky) as an interactive and self-contained learning environment to provide a partial solution to the problem of incoming music students' inadequate preparation in fundamental music theory concepts. This…

  7. Spirituality as a Universal Experience of Music: A Case Study of North Americans' Approaches to Japanese Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsunobu, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Ethnomusicologists and music educators are in broad agreement that what makes each cultural expression of music unique are differences, not commonalities, and that these should be understood in culturally sensitive ways. Relevant to the debate was the emphasis on the socio-cultural context of music making over the traditional "sound-only"…

  8. Mental health implications of music: insight from neuroscientific and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuai-Ting; Yang, Pinchen; Lai, Chien-Yu; Su, Yu-Yun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscientific and clinical studies of music over the past two decades have substantially increased our understanding of its use as a means of therapy. The authors briefly review current literature related to music's effect on people with different mental illnesses, and examine several neurobiological theories that may explain its effectiveness or lack thereof in treating psychiatric disorders. Neuroscientific studies have shown music to be an agent capable of influencing complex neurobiological processes in the brain and suggest that it can potentially play an important role in treatment. Clinical studies provide some evidence that music therapy can be used as an alternative therapy in treating depression, autism, schizophrenia, and dementia, as well as problems of agitation, anxiety, sleeplessness, and substance misuse, though whether it can actually replace other modes of treatment remains undetermined. Future research should include translational studies involving both neuroscience and clinical medicine that investigate the long-term effects of music intervention and that lead to the development of new strategies for music therapy.

  9. Music and language: musical alexia and agraphia.

    PubMed

    Brust, J C

    1980-06-01

    Two aphasic right-handed professional musicians with left hemispheric lesions had disturbed musical function, especially musical alexia and agraphia. In Case 1 aphasia was of transcortical sensory type, with severe agraphia and decreased comprehension of written words, although she could match them with pictures. Except for reading and writing, musical ability was normal; she could sing in five languages. Musical alexia and agraphia affected pitch symbols more than rhythm. Case 2 had conduction aphasia and severe expressive amusia, especially for rhythm. Although his language alexia and agraphia were milder than Case 1's, his musical alexia and agraphia were more severe, affecting rhythm as much as pitch. In neither patient were those aspects of musical notation either closest to verbal language or most dependent upon temporal (sequential) processing maximally impaired. These cases are consistent with the literature in suggesting that the presence or absence of aphasia or of right or left hemispheric damage fails to predict the presence, type, or severity of amusia, including musical alexia and agraphia. The popular notion that receptive amusia follows lesions of the language-dominant temporal lobe, whereas expressive amusia follows non-dominant frontal lobe damage, is an over-simplification, as is the view that increasing musical sophistication causes a shift of musical processing from the right hemisphere to the left. PMID:7397483

  10. An fMRI study of music sight-reading.

    PubMed

    Schön, Daniele; Anton, Jean Luc; Roth, Muriel; Besson, Mireille

    2002-12-01

    The brain areas involved in music reading were investigated using fMRI. In order to evaluate the specificity of these areas we compared reading music notation to reading verbal and number notations in a task that required professional pianists to play the notes (in musical and verbal notations) and the numbers displayed on a 5-key keyboard. Overall, the three tasks revealed a similar pattern of activated brain areas. However, direct contrasts between the music notation and the verbal or the numerical notation tasks also revealed specific major foci of activation in the right occipito-temporal junction, superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus. We interpret the right occipito-temporal difference as due to differences at the encoding level between notes, words and numbers. This area might be analogous to one described for words, called the visual word form area. The parietal activations are discussed in terms of visuo-motor transcoding pathways that differ for the three types of notations used. Finally, we present a model of music reading that can possibly explain our findings. PMID:12488812

  11. An fMRI study of music sight-reading.

    PubMed

    Schön, Daniele; Anton, Jean Luc; Roth, Muriel; Besson, Mireille

    2002-12-01

    The brain areas involved in music reading were investigated using fMRI. In order to evaluate the specificity of these areas we compared reading music notation to reading verbal and number notations in a task that required professional pianists to play the notes (in musical and verbal notations) and the numbers displayed on a 5-key keyboard. Overall, the three tasks revealed a similar pattern of activated brain areas. However, direct contrasts between the music notation and the verbal or the numerical notation tasks also revealed specific major foci of activation in the right occipito-temporal junction, superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus. We interpret the right occipito-temporal difference as due to differences at the encoding level between notes, words and numbers. This area might be analogous to one described for words, called the visual word form area. The parietal activations are discussed in terms of visuo-motor transcoding pathways that differ for the three types of notations used. Finally, we present a model of music reading that can possibly explain our findings.

  12. Music Making, Transcendence, Flow, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between flow, transcendent music making experiences, transcendent religious experiences, and music education. As a teacher-researcher, I studied my graduate students' autobiographical accounts of their experiences making music. Across these narrative writings produced over the past four years, a pattern…

  13. Congenital amusia: a group study of adults afflicted with a music-specific disorder.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Julie; Peretz, Isabelle; Hyde, Krista

    2002-02-01

    The condition of congenital amusia, commonly known as tone-deafness, has been described for more than a century, but has received little empirical attention. In the present study, a research effort has been made to document in detail the behavioural manifestations of congenital amusia. A group of 11 adults, fitting stringent criteria of musical disabilities, were examined in a series of tests originally designed to assess the presence and specificity of musical disorders in brain-damaged patients. The results show that congenital amusia is related to severe deficiencies in processing pitch variations. The deficit extends to impairments in music memory and recognition as well as in singing and the ability to tap in time to music. Interestingly, the disorder appears specific to the musical domain. Congenital amusical individuals process and recognize speech, including speech prosody, common environmental sounds and human voices, as well as control subjects. Thus, the present study convincingly demonstrates the existence of congenital amusia as a new class of learning disabilities that affect musical abilities. PMID:11844725

  14. Visually induced auditory expectancy in music reading: a behavioral and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Schön, Daniele; Besson, Mireille

    2005-04-01

    The general aim of this experiment was to investigate the processes involved in reading musical notation and to study the relationship between written music and its auditory representation. It was of main interest to determine whether musicians are able to develop expectancies for specific tonal or atonal auditory events based on visual score alone. Can musicians expect an "atonal" event or will it always sound odd? Moreover, it was of interest to determine whether the modulations in amplitude of a late positive component (P600) described in previous studies are linked to a general mismatch detection process or to specific musical expectancies. Results showed clearly that musicians are able to expect tonal auditory endings based on visual information and are also able to do so for atonal endings, although to a smaller extent. Strong interactions seem to exist between visual and auditory musical codes and visual information seems to influence auditory processing as early as 100 msec. These results are directly relevant for the question of whether music reading is actually music perception.

  15. Making Waves: Pirate Radio and Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Steve

    The history of pirate radio--radio broadcasts offered by unlicensed broadcasters as alternatives to licensed, commercial radio programming--is difficult to trace, both in America and the United Kingdom (UK) since mention of pirate broadcasts of a less-then-thrilling nature are rarely found. Also, until 1927, the U.S. government did not formally…

  16. Is There Musical Meaning in the Musical?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindall-Smith, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The study of music contributes to transmitting cultural heritage, learning self-discipline and teamwork, developing creativity and self-expression, developing multiple intelligences, engaging in problem solving and abstract thinking, and influencing academic achievement. Whether a performance has "musical meaning" at the core of music education…

  17. [Effects of swing on music appreciation: a study on perceived impressions of various swing ratios].

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Shimpei; Shigeno, Sumi

    2013-06-01

    Swing is a musical performance technique, whose magnitude is indicated by the swing ratio. This study examines the effects of swing on music-listening appreciation. In Experiment 1, 21 participants were presented with synthesized performances with three swing ratios, and were asked to rate their impressions using the semantic differential method. The results show that there exists a certain relationship between swing and the affective evaluation of music and tempo. Experiment 2 explored the relationship between swing and melody, another dimension of music, in perceived dynamism and preference for swing. Two musical instruments were used: piano and drums. Twenty-two participants were presented with synthesized performances and were asked to rate the degree of dynamism and their preference using Scheffé's paired comparison method. The evaluations for five swing conditions were similar for those performed by the piano and by the drums. The discussion looks at the swing ratio and its psychological attributes as well as the relationships of perceived impressions of swing to tempo and musical instruments.

  18. Clinical practice of dual-certified music therapists/child life specialists: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Claire M

    2011-01-01

    The discipline of child life enjoys a strong presence in many medical settings within the current pediatric healthcare environment. Due to the widespread establishment of child life programs, music therapists often find themselves negotiating their role and contributions to pediatric healthcare in relation to the field of child life. There is increasing interest among music therapy interns and clinicians in pursuing certification in child life to increase clinical knowledge and enhance marketability. A small, but strong, cohort of dual-certified music therapists/child life specialists is currently practicing in the field, but the nuances of their clinical practice have not been systematically examined. The current study used an interpretative phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of eight dual-certified clinicians, and to interpret how clinicians make sense of those lived experiences. Two overarching themes of identity and flexibility arose from the analysis: issues relating to establishing, challenging, and modifying professional identity; and flexibility manifested within areas of theoretical orientation, professional role, and clinical approach. Dual-certified clinicians vary in the degree to which they integrate the fields of music therapy and child life in practice, from complete and seamless integration of the two, to exclusive practice of only one field, depending upon the bounds of their positions. Participants reported that child life training is beneficial, but not necessary for achieving advanced practice in pediatric medical music therapy. Implications for the continuing advancement of music therapy in pediatric healthcare are discussed.

  19. Interaction between syntax processing in language and in music: an ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Gunter, Thomas C; Wittfoth, Matthias; Sammler, Daniela

    2005-10-01

    The present study investigated simultaneous processing of language and music using visually presented sentences and auditorily presented chord sequences. Music-syntactically regular and irregular chord functions were presented synchronously with syntactically correct or incorrect words, or with words that had either a high or a low semantic cloze probability. Music-syntactically irregular chords elicited an early right anterior negativity (ERAN). Syntactically incorrect words elicited a left anterior negativity (LAN). The LAN was clearly reduced when words were presented simultaneously with music-syntactically irregular chord functions. Processing of high and low cloze-probability words as indexed by the N400 was not affected by the presentation of irregular chord functions. In a control experiment, the LAN was not affected by physically deviant tones that elicited a mismatch negativity (MMN). Results demonstrate that processing of musical syntax (as reflected in the ERAN) interacts with the processing of linguistic syntax (as reflected in the LAN), and that this interaction is not due to a general effect of deviance-related negativities that precede an LAN. Findings thus indicate a strong overlap of neural resources involved in the processing of syntax in language and music.

  20. The relationship between the neural computations for speech and music perception is context-dependent: an activation likelihood estimate study.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Arianna N; Diaz, Alvaro F; Rogalsky, Corianne

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the neurobiology of speech and music has been investigated for more than a century. There remains no widespread agreement regarding how (or to what extent) music perception utilizes the neural circuitry that is engaged in speech processing, particularly at the cortical level. Prominent models such as Patel's Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH) and Koelsch's neurocognitive model of music perception suggest a high degree of overlap, particularly in the frontal lobe, but also perhaps more distinct representations in the temporal lobe with hemispheric asymmetries. The present meta-analysis study used activation likelihood estimate analyses to identify the brain regions consistently activated for music as compared to speech across the functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) literature. Eighty music and 91 speech neuroimaging studies of healthy adult control subjects were analyzed. Peak activations reported in the music and speech studies were divided into four paradigm categories: passive listening, discrimination tasks, error/anomaly detection tasks and memory-related tasks. We then compared activation likelihood estimates within each category for music vs. speech, and each music condition with passive listening. We found that listening to music and to speech preferentially activate distinct temporo-parietal bilateral cortical networks. We also found music and speech to have shared resources in the left pars opercularis but speech-specific resources in the left pars triangularis. The extent to which music recruited speech-activated frontal resources was modulated by task. While there are certainly limitations to meta-analysis techniques particularly regarding sensitivity, this work suggests that the extent of shared resources between speech and music may be task-dependent and highlights the need to consider how task effects may be affecting conclusions regarding the neurobiology of speech and music. PMID:26321976

  1. The relationship between the neural computations for speech and music perception is context-dependent: an activation likelihood estimate study

    PubMed Central

    LaCroix, Arianna N.; Diaz, Alvaro F.; Rogalsky, Corianne

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the neurobiology of speech and music has been investigated for more than a century. There remains no widespread agreement regarding how (or to what extent) music perception utilizes the neural circuitry that is engaged in speech processing, particularly at the cortical level. Prominent models such as Patel's Shared Syntactic Integration Resource Hypothesis (SSIRH) and Koelsch's neurocognitive model of music perception suggest a high degree of overlap, particularly in the frontal lobe, but also perhaps more distinct representations in the temporal lobe with hemispheric asymmetries. The present meta-analysis study used activation likelihood estimate analyses to identify the brain regions consistently activated for music as compared to speech across the functional neuroimaging (fMRI and PET) literature. Eighty music and 91 speech neuroimaging studies of healthy adult control subjects were analyzed. Peak activations reported in the music and speech studies were divided into four paradigm categories: passive listening, discrimination tasks, error/anomaly detection tasks and memory-related tasks. We then compared activation likelihood estimates within each category for music vs. speech, and each music condition with passive listening. We found that listening to music and to speech preferentially activate distinct temporo-parietal bilateral cortical networks. We also found music and speech to have shared resources in the left pars opercularis but speech-specific resources in the left pars triangularis. The extent to which music recruited speech-activated frontal resources was modulated by task. While there are certainly limitations to meta-analysis techniques particularly regarding sensitivity, this work suggests that the extent of shared resources between speech and music may be task-dependent and highlights the need to consider how task effects may be affecting conclusions regarding the neurobiology of speech and music. PMID:26321976

  2. A multidimensional study of preference judgements for excerpts of music.

    PubMed

    Tekman, H G

    1998-06-01

    Subjects evaluated how well they liked each one of 38 short excerpts of Western music and also judged how well each excerpt was described by 23 adjectives. How well an excerpt was liked was negatively correlated with the use of the adjectives 'unpleasant', 'complex', 'tense', and 'dissonant'. The use of the adjectives 'melodic', 'pleasant', 'sentimental', and 'familiar', was positively related to how well an excerpt was liked. The correlations between the preference judgments of different excerpts were taken as a measure of similarity between the excerpts. This measure of similarity was used in a multidimensional scaling analysis with the purpose of identifying dimension that may determine preferences for music. In the six-dimensional space generated (stress value was .255) coordinates on three of the dimensions could be predicted, in part, by the use of the adjectives 'sentimental', 'fast', and a combination of 'high pitched', 'calm', and 'sad', respectively. Thus, some clues to the factors underlying musical preferences were obtained. Although a large number of dimensions were necessary and all of them could not be interpreted meaningfully here, this method may be developed as a way of conceptualizing musical preferences with a more careful selection of excerpts and more detailed assessment of their qualities. PMID:9676495

  3. Program of Studies, Aesthetic Education: Music, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    Educational objectives and brief course descriptions are presented for music education, grades 9-12, Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, Maryland. The program, divided into general, choral, and instrumental categories, stresses refining cognitive perception, developing creative potential, and heightening aesthetic sensitivity.…

  4. Musical Looping of Lexical Chunks: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockell, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the experimental use of a recently developed musical looping app with a class of Japanese university students of English during 2014. Working in groups using shared hand-held devices, students created compositions based on lexical chunks or formulaic sequences selected freely from a fixed text. A scored example of one such…

  5. The Transformation of Music Education: A South African Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Alethea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I reflect on transformation in South African education policy, post-1994. The new curriculum for schools was underpinned by the democratic values of the constitution and was a time of renewal for music education. However, over time as the original curriculum documents were revised, the focus of promoting indigenous traditions was…

  6. Playing piano in the mind--an fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists.

    PubMed

    Meister, I G; Krings, T; Foltys, H; Boroojerdi, B; Müller, M; Töpper, R; Thron, A

    2004-05-01

    Reading of musical notes and playing piano is a very complex motor task which requires years of practice. In addition to motor skills, rapid and effective visuomotor transformation as well as processing of the different components of music like pitch, rhythm and musical texture are involved. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the cortical network which mediates music performance compared to music imagery in 12 music academy students playing the right hand part of a Bartok piece using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In both conditions, fMRI activations of a bilateral frontoparietal network comprising the premotor areas, the precuneus and the medial part of Brodmann Area 40 were found. During music performance but not during imagery the contralateral primary motor cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) bilaterally was active. This reflects the role of primary motor cortex for motor execution but not imagery and the higher visuomotor integration requirements during music performance compared to simulation. The notion that the same areas are involved in visuomotor transformation/motor planning and music processing emphasizes the multimodal properties of cortical areas involved in music and motor imagery in musicians.

  7. Can music with prosocial lyrics heal the working world? A field intervention in a call center

    PubMed Central

    Niven, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Music with lyrics about helping is shown to reduce aggression in the laboratory. This paper tests whether the prosocial lyric effect generalizes to reducing customer aggression in the workplace. A field experiment involved changing the hold music played to customers of a call center. The results of a 3 week study suggested that music significantly affected customers, but not in the way suggested by previous laboratory experiments; compared with days when instrumental background music was played, caller anger and employee exhaustion were lower on days when callers were played popular music with neutral, but not prosocial, lyrics. The findings suggest that music influences customer aggression, but that the prosocial lyric effect may not generalize from the laboratory to the call center. PMID:26052159

  8. Is memory for music special?

    PubMed

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  9. [Music and heart rate variability. Study of the effect of music on heart rate variability in healthy adolescents].

    PubMed

    Escher, J; Evéquoz, D

    1999-05-20

    The effect of trophotropic (relaxing) music on heart rate and heart rate variability has been investigated in 23 healthy young individuals by means of 24-hour Holter-ECG. Relaxing music (Bach, Vivaldi, Mozart) resulted in significant reduction of heart rate and also significant reduction of heart rate variability. The significance of these results for the use of music in coronary heart disease is discussed.

  10. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2007-11-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains. PMID:17855126

  11. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: An event-related potential study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains. PMID:17855126

  12. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2007-11-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.

  13. Shifting Authenticities in Scandinavian Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyndahl, Petter; Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2014-01-01

    There has been an ongoing tendency, taking place in the Scandinavian countries from the late 1970s onwards, to expand the repertoires and resources of music as an educational matter, an academic field, as well as an area for support and funding from cultural authorities, organisations and institutions. Here, popular music, jazz, folk music and…

  14. "Beatlemania" in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2012-01-01

    In Geoff Edgers's biography of the Beatles, "Who Were the Beatles?", young readers learn of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and George Harrison's youth and growth as musicians, the band's formation, and their contributions to music in popular culture. "General Music Today" columnist, Cardany provides music teachers with related music…

  15. Musical Markov Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  16. Dyslexia and Musical Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granschow, Lenore; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Case studies are presented of musicians with dyslexia who experienced difficulties in the study of musical notation. The studies focus on their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. Suggestions are offered on using multisensory approaches to teach musical notation. (Author/JDD)

  17. General Music Teachers' Attitudes and Practices Regarding Multicultural Music Education in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kwan Yie; Pan, Kok Chang; Shah, Shahanum Mohd

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the utilisation of multicultural music education by Malaysian music teachers, with an emphasis on the relationship between music teachers' attitudes and their subsequent degree of effort in developing and implementing multicultural music education in their music classes. Respondents for the study were 456 music teachers;…

  18. Music Proficiency and Quantification of Absolute Pitch: A Large-Scale Study among Brazilian Musicians

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Raphael B. C.; Mota-Rolim, Sergio A.; Queiroz, Claudio M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological, and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe, or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200). As previously shown, we found that the population performance was rather a continuum than an “all-or-none” ability. By comparing the observed distribution of correct responses to a theoretical binomial distribution, we estimated the prevalence of AP as being 18% amongst regular music students. High accuracy thresholds (e.g., 85% of correct responses) yielded a prevalence of 4%, suggesting that AP might have been underestimated in previous reports. Irrespective of the threshold used, AP prevalence was higher in musicians who started their musical practice and formal musical education early in life. Finally, we compared the performance of those music students (average proficiency group) with another group of students selected to take part in the conservatory orchestra (high proficiency group, N = 30). Interestingly, the prevalence of AP was higher in the latter in comparison to the former group. In addition, even when the response was incorrect, the mean absolute deviation from the correct response was smaller in the high proficiency group compared to the average proficiency group (Glass's Δ: 0.5). Taken together, our results show that the prevalence of AP in Brazilian students is similar to other non-tonal language populations, although this measure is highly dependent on the scoring threshold used. Despite corroborating that early involvement with musical practice and formal education can foster AP ability, the present data

  19. A study on Improvisation in a Musical performance using Multifractal Detrended Cross Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak

    2016-11-01

    MFDFA (the most rigorous technique to assess multifractality) was performed on four Hindustani music samples played on same 'raga' sung by the same performer. Each music sample was divided into six parts and 'multifractal spectral width' was determined for each part corresponding to the four samples. The results obtained reveal that different parts of all the four sound signals possess spectral width of widely varying values. This gives a cue of the so called 'musical improvisation' in all music samples, keeping in mind they belong to the bandish part of the same raga. Formal compositions in Hindustani raga are juxtaposed with the improvised portions, where an artist manoeuvers his/her own creativity to bring out a mood that is specific for that particular performance, which is known as 'improvisation'. Further, this observation hints at the association of different emotions even in the same bandish of the same raga performed by the same artist, this interesting observation cannot be revealed unless rigorous non-linear technique explores the nature of musical structure. In the second part, we applied MFDXA technique to explore more in-depth about 'improvisation' and association with emotion. This technique is applied to find the degree of cross-correlation (γx) between the different parts of the samples. Pronounced correlation has been observed in the middle parts of the all the four samples evident from higher values of γx ​whereas the other parts show weak correlation. This gets further support from the values of spectral width from different parts of the sample - width of those parts is significantly different from other parts. This observation is extremely new both in respect of musical structure of so called improvisation and associated emotion. The importance of this study in application area of cognitive music therapy is immense.

  20. Flipping the Script in Study Abroad Participation: The Influence of Popular Culture and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Shelbee; Coryell, Joellen E.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores primary perceptions of and motivations to study abroad for adult and higher education learners. A large Hispanic-serving Southwestern university serves as the context of this study where undergraduate students and one graduate student were enrolled in an Italian urbanism study abroad program. The age of the participants ranged…

  1. Music training and working memory: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    George, Elyse M; Coch, Donna

    2011-04-01

    While previous research has suggested that music training is associated with improvements in various cognitive and linguistic skills, the mechanisms mediating or underlying these associations are mostly unknown. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that previous music training is related to improved working memory. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and a standardized test of working memory, we investigated both neural and behavioral aspects of working memory in college-aged, non-professional musicians and non-musicians. Behaviorally, musicians outperformed non-musicians on standardized subtests of visual, phonological, and executive memory. ERPs were recorded in standard auditory and visual oddball paradigms (participants responded to infrequent deviant stimuli embedded in lists of standard stimuli). Electrophysiologically, musicians demonstrated faster updating of working memory (shorter latency P300s) in both the auditory and visual domains and musicians allocated more neural resources to auditory stimuli (larger amplitude P300), showing increased sensitivity to the auditory standard/deviant difference and less effortful updating of auditory working memory. These findings demonstrate that long-term music training is related to improvements in working memory, in both the auditory and visual domains and in terms of both behavioral and ERP measures.

  2. Non-verbal Full Body Emotional and Social Interaction: A Case Study on Multimedia Systems for Active Music Listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camurri, Antonio

    Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).

  3. Loud music listening.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  4. Toward Hip-Hop Pedagogies for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Music education scholarship in the areas of popular, vernacular, and participatory musicianship has grown in the past decades; however, music education research concerned specifically with hip-hop has been relatively scarce. Because hip-hop music can differ tremendously from the traditional western genres with which many music educators are most…

  5. Designing a Case Study from the Popular Culture Text "Boston Public"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trier, James

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author begins with a selective review of the case study literature that reveals that most case studies are based on "real," "actual," and "true" experiences. Next, he describes a case study that he designed from a fictional source--i.e., from an episode of the television series "Boston Public." Then, he explains what happened…

  6. Youth and Music in Sweden. Results from a Longitudinal Study of Teenagers' Media Use. Media Panel Report No. 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Keith

    This empirical review of the relationship between Swedish youth and music begins with a brief overview of the place of music as a communications medium in Swedish society in general, and among Swedish youth in particular. An analysis of the findings of a large-scale, longitudinal study of media use by Swedish adolescents, the Media Panel study, is…

  7. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviors in Autistic Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinah; Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviors in pre-school children with autism. It was a randomized controlled study employing a single subject comparison design in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and play sessions with toys, and using standardized…

  8. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Improvisation on the Development of Children's Creative Thinking in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoupidou, Theano; Hargreaves, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a quasi-experimental study of the effects of improvisation on the development of children's creative thinking in music. The study was conducted in a primary school classroom with two matched groups of 6-year-old children over a period of six months. The music lessons for the experimental group were enriched with a variety of…

  9. A Qualitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faubel, Jose Maria Esteve; Valero, Miguel Angel Molina; Stephens, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the Espacio Europeo de Educacion Superior (European Higher Education Area) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with a minimal musical knowledge. The data for this study arise from a…

  10. A Family Music Project in the North of England: A Study of the Pedagogical Methodologies Employed and the Outcomes Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines learning outcomes in relation to the pedagogical methodologies employed in a community music project involving families. The research was designed with three stages. In the first stage case studies of existing family music projects were undertaken. In the second stage findings from the case studies were applied in the design…

  11. Gifts on a High Note: A Case Study of Major Donors to Music Programs in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barascout, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This study is an examination of the giving decision-making process, as well as the factors, characteristics, and motivators of major donors to music programs in higher education. The college and the conservatory of music selected for this study are part of large, public, doctoral, research universities in metropolitan areas with at least three…

  12. Exploring Cultural Differences within a Pattern of Teaching "Musics": An International Comparative Study of Two Music Lessons on Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a praxiological perspective on classroom practice with the subject matter music, in order to understand two music lessons that were recorded on video, one in Sweden and one in Germany. It introduces a procedure and its methodological implications, in order to reconstruct and compare the characteristics of and the cultural…

  13. A Study of the Pedagogy of Selected Non-Western Musical Traditions in Collegiate World Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, James B.

    2007-01-01

    Music teachers are often influenced by pedagogical practices in the collegiate ensembles in which they performed. Opportunities to participate in collegiate world music ensembles have increased in recent decades; West African ensembles and steel bands represent the second and third most common of these in the United States. The absence of…

  14. Dyslexia and musical notation.

    PubMed

    Ganschow, L; Lloyd-Jones, J; Miles, T R

    1994-01-01

    The authors examine the difficulties experienced by dyslexic musicians in the formalized study of music, in particular, musical notation. They describe case studies from the literature and from personal interviews they conducted with musicians about their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. The authors make instructional suggestions for educators and musicians with dyslexia on how to use multisensory approaches to teach musical notation. PMID:24234052

  15. Music therapy as grief therapy for adults with mental illness and complicated grief: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Yasmine A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, mixed-methods pilot study examined the effectiveness and experiences of grief-specific music therapy, in addition to standard care, with adults (N=10) who have complicated grief (CG) and mental illness, as compared to standard care alone. The study tested Worden's (2009) theories of grief therapy as well as a new grief-specific music therapy intervention, based on Shear, Frank, Houck, and Reynolds' (2005) imaginal dialogue intervention and Austin's (2008) method of vocal psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that participants in the experimental group had a greater decrease of grief symptoms, as measured by the ICG-R, as compared with the control group. PMID:25730407

  16. Music therapy as grief therapy for adults with mental illness and complicated grief: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Yasmine A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, mixed-methods pilot study examined the effectiveness and experiences of grief-specific music therapy, in addition to standard care, with adults (N=10) who have complicated grief (CG) and mental illness, as compared to standard care alone. The study tested Worden's (2009) theories of grief therapy as well as a new grief-specific music therapy intervention, based on Shear, Frank, Houck, and Reynolds' (2005) imaginal dialogue intervention and Austin's (2008) method of vocal psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that participants in the experimental group had a greater decrease of grief symptoms, as measured by the ICG-R, as compared with the control group.

  17. Activation of cortical areas in music execution and imagining: a high-resolution EEG study.

    PubMed

    Kristeva, Rumyana; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Spreer, Joachim

    2003-11-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that execution of a musical sequence on an instrument activates bilateral frontal opercular regions, in addition to bilateral sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas. During imagining activation of the same areas without primary sensorimotor areas was shown. We recorded EEG from 58 scalp positions to investigate the temporal sequence and the time course of activation of these areas while violin players prepared to execute, executed, prepared to imagine, or imagined a musical sequence on a violin. During the preparation for the sequence in three of seven musicians investigated the bilateral frontal opercular regions became active earlier than the motor areas and in one of them simultaneously with the motor areas. In two of the musicians a rather variable pattern of activation was observed. The frontal opercular regions were also strongly involved throughout the period of music execution or imagining. The supplementary motor area was involved in both preparation for the sequence and during execution and imagining of the sequence. The left primary sensorimotor area was involved in the preparation and termination of the musical sequence for both execution and imagining. The right sensorimotor area was strongly involved in the preparation for and during the execution of the sequence. We conclude that the bilateral frontal opercular regions are crucial in both preparation for and during music execution and imagining. They may have "mirror neurone" properties that underlie observation or imagining of one's own performance. The motor areas are differentially activated during the preparation and execution or imagining the sequence.

  18. How Popular Culture Texts Inform and Shape Students' Discussions of Social Studies Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leigh A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine how 6th-grade students used pop culture texts to inform their understandings about social studies texts and shape their discussions of it. Discussions showed that students used pop culture texts in three ways when talking about social studies texts. First, students applied comprehension strategies to pop culture texts to…

  19. Higher Education Music Students' Perceptions of the Benefits of Participative Music Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokotsaki, Dimitra; Hallam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the perceived impact of music students' active engagement in music making. Seventy-eight music students were asked to report on the impact that their participation in music making had on their lives. The data were analysed using Atlas.ti software. The findings fell within three categories: music making as a musical act,…

  20. Popular Culture and Democratic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    A literature review explores how scholars have approached the study of popular culture--as text or lived experience. Examines the concepts of youth culture, individual agency, and cultural citizenship. Argues that the importance of popular culture lies in its role as a site for democratic practice. (Contains 88 reference notes.) (SK)

  1. New Dimensions in Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Russel B., Ed.

    This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…

  2. Does Music Make You Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demorest, Steven M.; Morrison, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Asks whether music makes people smarter stating that music education makes people smarter in music. Reviews well-known studies on the "Mozart Effect," keyboard training, and music and academic achievement. Addresses where the studies are misinterpreted/overstated and identifies alternative points that teachers can emphasize. (CMK)

  3. Selective attention in the presence of music: an event-related potentials (ERP) study.

    PubMed

    Dalbokova, D; Kolev, P; Kristeva, R

    1988-06-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating selective attention in the presence of music as expressed by ERPs. The experiments were performed with 7 subjects. A two-channel auditory frequency discrimination task (target - 1000 Hz, standard - 1550 Hz tones) in a dichotic listening environment was employed. The EEG was recorded from Fz, Cz, Pz, C3 and C4. The EOG and performance data were also collected. A smaller and delayed N1 amplitude as well as changes in the two components of the processing negativity in the presence of music were found. N2 and P3 components only delay with music was observed. The changes in the level of performance were not significant.

  4. Musicianship facilitates the processing of Western music chords--an ERP and behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Virtala, P; Huotilainen, M; Partanen, E; Tervaniemi, M

    2014-08-01

    The present study addressed the effects of musicianship on neural and behavioral discrimination of Western music chords. In abstract oddball paradigms, minor chords and inverted major chords were presented in the context of major chords to musician and non-musician participants in a passive listening task (with EEG recordings) and in an active discrimination task. Both sinusoidal sounds and harmonically rich piano sounds were used. Musicians outperformed non-musicians in the discrimination task. Change-related mismatch negativity (MMN) was evoked to minor and inverted major chords in musicians only, and N1 amplitude was larger in musicians than non-musicians. While MMN was absent in non-musicians, both groups showed decreased N1 in response to minor compared to major chords. The results indicate that processing of complex musical stimuli is enhanced in musicians both behaviorally and neurally, but that major-minor chord categorization is present to some extent also in the absence of music training.

  5. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  6. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  7. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  8. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  9. Role of Voluntary Organizations in Astronomy Popularization: A case study of "Khagol Mandal", Mumbai, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sule, A.; Joshi, S.; Deshpande, A.; Joglekar, H.; Soman, Y.

    2006-08-01

    In India, Astronomy research institutions are few and far spaced as compared to the population density. Further, the public outreach activities of research institutes cannot cover most of the academic institutes in their area as they way out-number public outreach resource potential of any institute. The organisations of amateur astronomy enthusiasts do come handy in this scenario. We here present a case study of "Khagol Mandal", an a voluntary organisation primarily based in Mumbai, India's economic capital. In 20 years since its inception in 1985-86, Khagol Mandal has given more than 1000 public outreach programmes in various schools, undergraduate colleges, famous city hangouts, apart from their regular overnight programmes in Vangani, a sleepy village on the outskirts of the city. Study tours on special occasions like TSE'95 and TSE'99 as well as regular study tours to meteor crater at Lonar, Maharashtra facilitate their volunteers with glimpses of real research work in astronomy. These have inspired a number of students to take professional astronomy careers. With a volunteer force, probably largest in India or even South Asia, Khagol Mandal is well poised to take advantage of the newest tools like the Virtual Observatory and make the use of existing goodwill to take these tools to the layman. With little guidance from senior researchers, organisations like these can provide a solution to ever increasing need of man power for secondary data analysis.

  10. The Effect of Music Therapy Services on Classroom Behaviours of Newly Arrived Refugee Students in Australia--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Felicity; Jones, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effects of a short-term music therapy program on the classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students who were attending an intensive "English as a Second Language" secondary school. A cross-over design with two five-week intervention periods was employed with group music therapy sessions conducted one or two…

  11. Musical Learning in a Cross-Cultural Setting: A Case Study of Gambian and Swedish Adolescents in Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Annette; Saether, Eva; Folkestad, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a study investigating how adolescents from Sweden and the Gambia learned music while interacting with each other in a concert project conducted in the Gambia. The main aim is to explore in what ways adolescents acquire music and to analyse it in a context of cultural identity. A sociocultural and ethnomusicological approach…

  12. Sexualised Music Media and Children's Gender Role and Self-Identity Development: A Four-Phase Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ey, Lesley-Anne

    2016-01-01

    There has been much concern about the perceived increase in sexualised media and its potential impact on children's well-being and development. This phenomenon was examined in a four-phase study focusing, specifically on music media. Phase 1 investigated the prevalence of sexualised music media broadcast on Australian free-to-air television in…

  13. Music Education for the Improvement of Coexistence in and beyond the Classroom: A Study Based on the Consultation of Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabedo-Mas, Alberto; Díaz-Gómez, Maravillas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines theoretical principles and models of music education to promote interpersonal and social relations. It focuses on the primary and secondary stages of education in Spain. To this end, relevant national and international figures in education, music or critical thinking were consulted. Their responses to the consultation were…

  14. A Quantitative Assessment of Students' Experiences of Studying Music: A Spanish Perspective on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteve-Faubel, Jose-Maria; Stephens, Jonathan; Molina Valero, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate whether or not the allocation of time proposed in the Music Study Guide, adapted from the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) guidelines, is consistent and adequate for students with minimal musical knowledge. The report takes into account the importance of students' previous knowledge and the…

  15. Professional Development and Teacher Leadership in the Era of NCLB: A Study Exploring Elementary Music Teacher Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Anthony D., Sr.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies have been conducted on teacher professional development (PD) but few have focused exclusively on elementary music teacher PD. Prominent music education researchers encourage additional research to provide generalizability across the field. In answer to this call for broadening the base of research in elementary music…

  16. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  17. A Musical Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a multimillion-dollar project that aims to save traditional expressions of music from around the world and reflects a shift in ethnomusicology. The $5-million project led by Huib Schippers on "sustainable cultures for music futures" is using nine case studies, including Western opera, Balinese gamelan music,…

  18. Why 3D Cameras are Not Popular: A Qualitative User Study on Stereoscopic Photography Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakala, Jussi; Westman, Stina; Salmimaa, Marja; Pölönen, Monika; Järvenpää, Toni; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    Digital stereoscopic 3D cameras have entered the consumer market in recent years, but the acceptance of this novel technology has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to identify the benefits and problems that novice users encounter in 3D photography by equipping five users with 3D cameras for a 4-week trial. We gathered data using a weekly questionnaire, an exit interview, and a stereoscopic disparity analysis of the 699 photographs taken during the trial. The results indicate that the participants took photographs at too-close distances, which caused excessive disparities. They learned to avoid the problem to some extent; the number of failed photographs due to excessive stereoscopic disparity decreased 70 % in 4 weeks. The participants also developed a preference for subjects that included clear depth differences and started to avoid photographing people because they looked unnatural in 3D photographs. They also regarded flash-induced shadows and edge violations problematic because of the unnatural effects in the photographs. We propose in-camera assistance tools for 3D cameras to make 3D photography easier.

  19. Music and the heart.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings. PMID:26354957

  20. Constructions of Mathematicians in Popular Culture and Learners' Narratives: A Study of Mathematical and Non-Mathematical Subjectivities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Mendick, Heather; Epstein, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, based on a project funded by the UK Economic and Social Research Council considering how people position themselves in relation to popular representations of mathematics and mathematicians, we explore constructions of mathematicians in popular culture and the ways learners make meanings from these. Drawing on an analysis of popular…

  1. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60–84 years) and eighteen younger (19–24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity. PMID:24137141

  2. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  3. The Music of the Spheres in Education: Using Astronomically Inspired Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    We list and briefly describe over a hundred pieces of classical and popular music inspired by reasonable astronomical ideas, and we discuss ways that instructors (and those working in informal settings) can use music to enhance an astronomy class or program. Written and Web-based resources for exploring astronomical influences in music are also provided.

  4. Math and Music: Harmonious Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Trudi Hammel; Kahn, Charity Vaughan

    Mathematics can be used to analyze musical rhythms, to study the sound waves that produce musical notes, to explain why instruments are tuned, and to compose music. This book explores the relationship between mathematics and music through proportions, patterns, Fibonacci numbers or the Golden Ratio, geometric transformations, trigonometric…

  5. Perceived Concerns of Preservice Music Education Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mark Robin; Thompson, Linda K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceived concerns of preservice music education teachers across four different points in professional development. A 45-item Teacher Concerns Checklist (Borich, 2000), based upon Fuller and Bown's (1975) three-stage model of teacher development, identified respondents' levels of self-concerns, task…

  6. Provoking the Muse: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning in Music Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Margaret S.; Gromko, Joyce Eastlund

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research project that investigated the nature of the teaching and learning process in music composition. Over the period of one semester, the formal interactions in one-on-one study sessions between an eminent composer-teacher and an experienced graduate student-composer were videotaped. Following the…

  7. How Trainee Music Teachers Learn about Teaching by Talking to Each Other: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an action research study into how trainee music teachers in England use a structured discussion process called "Collegial Consultation" to learn about teaching. The research shows that, in Collegial Consultation, trainees learn from each other by offering several solutions to a problem, offering reasons for their ideas,…

  8. Music: Grades Five through Eight. Black Swamp Arts Scene Course of Study: Talented and Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defiance County Office of Education, OH.

    This course of study was developed for intermediate and junior high students in the Defiance (Ohio) public schools who are talented and gifted in music, providing for an indepth and sequential development of the skills and concepts involved. The program's philosophy stresses that, while the products of the arts are important, a need exists to…

  9. Music: Grades Nine through Twelve. Black Swamp Arts Scene Course of Study: Talented and Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defiance County Office of Education, OH.

    This course of study was developed for high school students in the Defiance (Ohio) public schools who are talented and gifted in music, providing for an indepth and sequential development of skills and concepts. The program's philosophy stresses that, while the products of the arts are important, a need exists to emphasize the learning process as…

  10. Historic and Ethnic Music Found to Increase Geographic Understanding: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ronald; Brouillette, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes a quasi-experimental study, which demonstrated that integration of historic and ethnic music into the American history curriculum may lead to increased knowledge of the cultural and physical geography of the United States as well as enhanced student engagement. An experiment (n = 215) conducted with eighth grade students…

  11. Music Educators' Self-Perceptions of Interpersonal Skills: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Sandra A.; Seaver, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to measure music educators' ("N" = 9) self-perceptions of their use of interpersonal skills. Participants rated themselves on 32 statements included on the "My Use of Interpersonal Skills Inventory" in pre- and posttest formats. Participants participated in a 4-week period of…

  12. A Musical Approach to Reading Fluency: An Experimental Study in First-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leguizamon, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the relationship between Kodaly-based music instruction and reading fluency in first-grade classrooms. Reading fluency and overall reading achievement were measured for 109 participants at mid-point in the academic year pre- and post treatment. Tests were carried out to…

  13. Music Education and the Role of Comparative Studies in a Globalized World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Geir

    2013-01-01

    In this article the role of comparative studies of music education within the globalized world is discussed by looking at a particular initiative in the general education field called "Didaktik and/or curriculum." By drawing on the characteristics and issues of this particular initiative, as well as on some critical perspectives that…

  14. The Orff-Schulwerk Movement: A Case Study in Music Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Francine

    This study explores a significant educational reform effort dedicated to the establishment of music programs based on the pedagogical theories of Carl Orff in Canadian schools. Archival and interview data pertinent to the inquiry were collected, analyzed, and presented using a historical organizational scheme. Findings show how every facet of…

  15. The Role of Light and Music in Gambling Behaviour: An Empirical Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spenwyn, Jenny; Barrett, Doug J. K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research examining the situational characteristics of gambling and their effect on gambling behaviour is limited but growing. This experimental pilot investigation reports the first ever empirical study into the combined effects of both music and light on gambling behaviour. While playing an online version of roulette, 56 participants…

  16. Music of Other Cultures in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel D.; Brand, Manny

    1983-01-01

    Studying ethnic music promotes a deeper understanding and acceptance of other peoples and provides an opportunity to study musical concepts. How to choose music materials to enhance social studies is discussed. A brief annotated bibliography is included. (RM)

  17. New York City: Musically Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    New York City as a subject has fascinated generations of artists, writers, and musicians. However, the glamorous image of the city has changed over the years, and in the 1960s, popular music, in particular, began to reflect a utopia/dystopia dichotomy in relation to New York. During the past twenty years, six popular singer-songwriters who have…

  18. The neurochemistry of music.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Mona Lisa; Levitin, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    Music is used to regulate mood and arousal in everyday life and to promote physical and psychological health and well-being in clinical settings. However, scientific inquiry into the neurochemical effects of music is still in its infancy. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that music improves health and well-being through the engagement of neurochemical systems for (i) reward, motivation, and pleasure; (ii) stress and arousal; (iii) immunity; and (iv) social affiliation. We discuss the limitations of these studies and outline novel approaches for integration of conceptual and technological advances from the fields of music cognition and social neuroscience into studies of the neurochemistry of music.

  19. Tension-related activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala: an fMRI study with music

    PubMed Central

    Lehne, Moritz; Rohrmeier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tonal music is characterized by a continuous flow of tension and resolution. This flow of tension and resolution is closely related to processes of expectancy and prediction and is a key mediator of music-evoked emotions. However, the neural correlates of subjectively experienced tension and resolution have not yet been investigated. We acquired continuous ratings of musical tension for four piano pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we identified blood oxygen level-dependent signal increases related to musical tension in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus). In addition, a region of interest analysis in bilateral amygdala showed activation in the right superficial amygdala during periods of increasing tension (compared with decreasing tension). This is the first neuroimaging study investigating the time-varying changes of the emotional experience of musical tension, revealing brain activity in key areas of affective processing. PMID:23974947

  20. Tension-related activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala: an fMRI study with music.

    PubMed

    Lehne, Moritz; Rohrmeier, Martin; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Tonal music is characterized by a continuous flow of tension and resolution. This flow of tension and resolution is closely related to processes of expectancy and prediction and is a key mediator of music-evoked emotions. However, the neural correlates of subjectively experienced tension and resolution have not yet been investigated. We acquired continuous ratings of musical tension for four piano pieces. In a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we identified blood oxygen level-dependent signal increases related to musical tension in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus). In addition, a region of interest analysis in bilateral amygdala showed activation in the right superficial amygdala during periods of increasing tension (compared with decreasing tension). This is the first neuroimaging study investigating the time-varying changes of the emotional experience of musical tension, revealing brain activity in key areas of affective processing.

  1. How They Decide: A Case Study Examining the Decision-Making Process for Keeping or Cutting Music in a K-12 Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Marci L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the decision-making process for keeping or cutting the music program in one selected public school district. Lekbery School District, in the Detroit suburb of Lekbery, Michigan, had not made extreme cuts to the music program in over 10 years, nor had it specifically targeted the music program when budgets cuts…

  2. Becoming Music-Making Music Teachers: Connecting Music Making, Identity, Wellbeing, and Teaching for Four Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive case study was to examine the developing music teacher identity of four student music teachers by exploring the meanings of music making and the intersections of music making and teaching. Participants all had dual student teaching placements: elementary general music and secondary band. Data were generated through…

  3. The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study.

    PubMed

    Evers, S; Dannert, J; Rödding, D; Rötter, G; Ringelstein, E B

    1999-01-01

    The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony

  4. Cross-cultural music phrase processing: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Knösche, Thomas R; Zysset, Stefan; Friederici, Angela D

    2008-03-01

    The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of musical phrase boundary processing during the perception of music from native and non-native cultures. German musicians performed a cultural categorization task while listening to phrased Western (native) and Chinese (non-native) musical excerpts as well as modified versions of these, where the impression of phrasing has been reduced by removing the phrase boundary marking pause (henceforth called "unphrased"). Bilateral planum temporale was found to be associated with an increased difficulty of identifying phrase boundaries in unphrased Western melodies. A network involving frontal and parietal regions showed increased activation for the phrased condition with the orbital part of left inferior frontal gyrus presumably reflecting working memory aspects of the temporal integration between phrases, and the middle frontal gyrus and intraparietal sulcus probably reflecting attention processes. Areas more active in the culturally familiar, native (Western) condition included, in addition to the left planum temporale and right ventro-medial prefrontal cortex, mainly the bilateral motor regions. These latter results are interpreted in light of sensorimotor integration. Regions with increased signal for the unfamiliar, non-native music style (Chinese) included a right lateralized network of angular gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly reflecting higher demands on attention systems, and the right posterior insula suggesting higher loads on basic auditory processing. PMID:17497646

  5. Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) as well as multimodal integration regions. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. Furthermore, the plasticity of this system as a result of long term and intense interventions suggest the potential for music making activities (e.g., forms of singing) as an intervention for neurological and developmental disorders to learn and relearn associations between auditory and motor functions such as vocal motor functions. PMID:25725909

  6. Artful terms: A study on aesthetic word usage for visual art versus film and music.

    PubMed

    Augustin, M Dorothee; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this problem by studying people's word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms: visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica139 187-201). Focusing on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example, experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for different art forms. PMID:23145287

  7. Relational invariance of expressive microstructure across global tempo changes in music performance: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Repp, B H

    1994-01-01

    This study addressed the question of whether the expressive microstructure of a music performance remains relationally invariant across moderate (musically acceptable) changes in tempo. Two pianists played Schumann's "Träumerei" three times at each of three tempi on a digital piano, and the performance data were recorded in MIDI format. In a perceptual test, musically trained listeners attempted to distinguish the original performances from performances that had been artificially speeded up or slowed down to the same overall duration. Accuracy in this task was barely above chance, suggesting that relational invariance was largely preserved. Subsequent analysis of the MIDI data confirmed that each pianist's characteristic timing patterns were highly similar across the three tempi, although there were statistically significant deviations from perfect relational invariance. The timing of (relatively slow) grace notes seemed relationally invariant, but selective examination of other detailed temporal features (chord asynchrony, tone overlap, pedal timing) revealed no systematic scaling with tempo. Finally, although the intensity profile seemed unaffected by tempo, a slight overall increase in intensity with tempo was observed. Effects of musical structure on expressive microstructure were large and pervasive at all levels, as were individual differences between the two pianists. For the specific composition and range of tempi considered here, these results suggest that major (cognitively controlled) temporal and dynamic features of a performance change roughly in proportion with tempo, whereas minor features tend to be governed by tempo-independent motoric constraints.

  8. Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) as well as multimodal integration regions. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. Furthermore, the plasticity of this system as a result of long term and intense interventions suggest the potential for music making activities (e.g., forms of singing) as an intervention for neurological and developmental disorders to learn and relearn associations between auditory and motor functions such as vocal motor functions.

  9. Processing expectancy violations during music performance and perception: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Maidhof, Clemens; Vavatzanidis, Niki; Prinz, Wolfgang; Rieger, Martina; Koelsch, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Musicians are highly trained motor experts with pronounced associations between musical actions and the corresponding auditory effects. However, the importance of auditory feedback for music performance is controversial, and it is unknown how feedback during music performance is processed. The present study investigated the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of auditory feedback manipulations in pianists. To disentangle effects of action-based and perception-based expectations, we compared feedback manipulations during performance to the mere perception of the same stimulus material. In two experiments, pianists performed bimanually sequences on a piano, while at random positions, the auditory feedback of single notes was manipulated, thereby creating a mismatch between an expected and actually perceived action effect (action condition). In addition, pianists listened to tone sequences containing the same manipulations (perception condition). The manipulations in the perception condition were either task-relevant (Experiment 1) or task-irrelevant (Experiment 2). In action and perception conditions, event-related potentials elicited by manipulated tones showed an early fronto-central negativity around 200 msec, presumably reflecting a feedback ERN/N200, followed by a positive deflection (P3a). The early negativity was more pronounced during the action compared to the perception condition. This shows that during performance, the intention to produce specific auditory effects leads to stronger expectancies than the expectancies built up during music perception.

  10. Artful terms: A study on aesthetic word usage for visual art versus film and music

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, M Dorothee; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this problem by studying people's word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms: visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica 139 187–201). Focusing on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example, experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for different art forms. PMID:23145287

  11. Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician’s lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) as well as multimodal integration regions. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. Furthermore, the plasticity of this system as a result of long term and intense interventions suggest the potential for music making activities (e.g., forms of singing) as an intervention for neurological and developmental disorders to learn and relearn associations between auditory and motor functions such as vocal motor functions. PMID:25725909

  12. Decolonizing Music Education: Moving beyond Tokenism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    Current music education curricula across Canada designate Western classical music as the music most worthy of study through emphasis on elements of music that are decidedly Western. Despite the way the curriculum is constructed, many music teachers strive to create diverse programs for their students. In her examination of women's studies…

  13. Advances in Music-Reading Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct a comprehensive review of the research literature in the reading of western staff notation. Studies in music perception, music cognition, music education and music neurology are cited. The aim is to establish current knowledge in music-reading acquisition and what is needed for further progress in this…

  14. “The Opposite of Treatment”: A qualitative study of how patients diagnosed with psychosis experience music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Solli, Hans Petter; Rolvsjord, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Previous research studies regarding music therapy and severe mental illness have mainly adopted quantitative methodologies in order to study the effectiveness of music therapy interventions. Studies that have explored service users’ experiences of participation in music therapy are small in number, and almost nonexistent in the field of psychosis. This study aimed to explore how mental health patients with a diagnosis of psychosis experienced participation in music therapy, in general, and more specifically how they experienced music therapy in relation to their current mental state and life situation. Nine inpatients with psychosis were interviewed using a semi-structured interview focusing on the participants’ experiences of music therapy in individual sessions, groups, and performances. Through the use of interpretative phenomenological analysis, four super-ordinate themes central to the participants’ experiences were found: freedom, contact, well-being, and symptom reduction. Based on the findings, mental health recovery, positive mental health, and agency are proposed as constituting a better framework for music therapy in mental healthcare than a primary focus on symptom remission and functional improvement. PMID:26157200

  15. The performative pleasure of imprecision: a diachronic study of entrainment in music performance.

    PubMed

    Geeves, Andrew; McIlwain, Doris J; Sutton, John

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses in on a moment of live performance in which the entrainment amongst a musical quartet is threatened. Entrainment is asymmetric in so far as there is an ensemble leader who improvises and expands the structure of a last chorus of a piece of music beyond the limits tacitly negotiated during prior rehearsals and performances. Despite the risk of entrainment being disturbed and performance interrupted, the other three musicians in the quartet follow the leading performer and smoothly transition into unprecedented performance territory. We use this moment of live performance to work back through the fieldwork data, building a diachronic study of the development and bases of entrainment in live music performance. We introduce the concept of entrainment and profile previous theory and research relevant to entrainment in music performance. After outlining our methodology, we trace the evolution of the structure of the piece of music from first rehearsal to final performance. Using video clip analysis, interviews and field notes we consider how entrainment shaped and was shaped by the moment of performance in focus. The sense of trust between quartet musicians is established through entrainment processes, is consolidated via smooth adaptation to the threats of disruption. Non-verbal communicative exchanges, via eye contact, gesture, and spatial proximity, sustain entrainment through phase shifts occurring swiftly and on the fly in performance contexts. These exchanges permit smooth adaptation promoting trust. This frees the quartet members to play with the potential disturbance of equilibrium inherent in entrained relationships and to play with this tension in an improvisatory way that enhances audience engagement and the live quality of performance.

  16. The performative pleasure of imprecision: a diachronic study of entrainment in music performance

    PubMed Central

    Geeves, Andrew; McIlwain, Doris J.; Sutton, John

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses in on a moment of live performance in which the entrainment amongst a musical quartet is threatened. Entrainment is asymmetric in so far as there is an ensemble leader who improvises and expands the structure of a last chorus of a piece of music beyond the limits tacitly negotiated during prior rehearsals and performances. Despite the risk of entrainment being disturbed and performance interrupted, the other three musicians in the quartet follow the leading performer and smoothly transition into unprecedented performance territory. We use this moment of live performance to work back through the fieldwork data, building a diachronic study of the development and bases of entrainment in live music performance. We introduce the concept of entrainment and profile previous theory and research relevant to entrainment in music performance. After outlining our methodology, we trace the evolution of the structure of the piece of music from first rehearsal to final performance. Using video clip analysis, interviews and field notes we consider how entrainment shaped and was shaped by the moment of performance in focus. The sense of trust between quartet musicians is established through entrainment processes, is consolidated via smooth adaptation to the threats of disruption. Non-verbal communicative exchanges, via eye contact, gesture, and spatial proximity, sustain entrainment through phase shifts occurring swiftly and on the fly in performance contexts. These exchanges permit smooth adaptation promoting trust. This frees the quartet members to play with the potential disturbance of equilibrium inherent in entrained relationships and to play with this tension in an improvisatory way that enhances audience engagement and the live quality of performance. PMID:25400567

  17. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Beatriz S; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills - pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment - over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children's musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined.

  18. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program.

    PubMed

    Ilari, Beatriz S; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills - pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment - over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children's musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined. PMID:26869964

  19. The Development of Musical Skills of Underprivileged Children Over the Course of 1 Year: A Study in the Context of an El Sistema-Inspired Program

    PubMed Central

    Ilari, Beatriz S.; Keller, Patrick; Damasio, Hanna; Habibi, Assal

    2016-01-01

    Developmental research in music has typically centered on the study of single musical skills (e.g., singing, listening) and has been conducted with middle class children who learn music in schools and conservatories. Information on the musical development of children from different social strata, who are enrolled in community-based music programs, remains elusive. This study examined the development of musical skills in underprivileged children who were attending an El Sistema-inspired program in Los Angeles. We investigated how children, predominantly of Latino ethnicity, developed musically with respect to the following musical skills – pitch and rhythmic discrimination, pitch matching, singing a song from memory, and rhythmic entrainment – over the course of 1 year. Results suggested that participation in an El Sistema-inspired program affects children’s musical development in distinct ways; with pitch perception and production skills developing faster than rhythmic skills. Furthermore, children from the same ethnic and social background, who did not participate in the El Sistema-inspired music program, showed a decline in singing and pitch discrimination skills over the course of 1 year. Taken together, these results are consistent with the idea of musical development as a complex, spiraling and recursive process that is influenced by several factors including type of musical training. Implications for future research are outlined. PMID:26869964

  20. Popular Culture in the Junior College Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…